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1

Quantum numbers of Majorana neutrino masses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assuming that the neutrinos have Majorana masses, we study the possibility of conserving various lepton numbers and the form of the resulting neutrino mass matrix. A model of lepton-number violation proposed some years ago is found to have interesting properties in this connection. Various phenomenological implications are noted.

A. Zee

1986-01-01

2

Neutrino mass, lepton number, and the origin of matter  

E-print Network

Neutrino mass, lepton number, and the origin of matter Hamish Robertson, NSAC WG Meeting radiation for neutrino mass measurement #12;5 Neutrinos oscillate, have mass Super-Kamiokande KamLAND SNO want to know? 10 What is the mass? What is the level ordering (hierarchy)? Are neutrinos their own

3

Maximum stellar mass versus cluster membership number revisited  

E-print Network

We have made a new compilation of observations of maximum stellar mass versus cluster membership number from the literature, which we analyse for consistency with the predictions of a simple random drawing hypothesis for stellar mass selection in clusters. Previously, Weidner and Kroupa have suggested that the maximum stellar mass is lower, in low mass clusters, than would be expected on the basis of random drawing, and have pointed out that this could have important implications for steepening the integrated initial mass function of the Galaxy (the IGIMF) at high masses. Our compilation demonstrates how the observed distribution in the plane of maximum stellar mass versus membership number is affected by the method of target selection; in particular, rather low n clusters with large maximum stellar masses are abundant in observational datasets that specifically seek clusters in the environs of high mass stars. Although we do not consider our compilation to be either complete or unbiased, we discuss the method by which such data should be statistically analysed. Our very provisional conclusion is that the data is not indicating any striking deviation from the expectations of random drawing.

Th. Maschberger; C. J. Clarke

2008-08-29

4

Occupation number-based energy functional for nuclear masses  

E-print Network

We develop an energy functional with shell-model occupations as the relevant degrees of freedom and compute nuclear masses across the nuclear chart. The functional is based on Hohenberg-Kohn theory with phenomenologically motivated terms. A global fit of the 17-parameter functional to nuclear masses yields a root-mean-square deviation of \\chi = 1.31 MeV. Nuclear radii are computed within a model that employs the resulting occupation numbers.

M. Bertolli; T. Papenbrock; S. Wild

2011-10-19

5

Occupation number-based energy functional for nuclear masses.  

SciTech Connect

We develop an energy functional with shell-model occupations as the relevant degrees of freedom and compute nuclear masses across the nuclear chart. The functional is based on Hohenberg-Kohn theory with phenomenologically motivated terms. A global fit of the 17-parameter functional to 2049 nuclear masses yields a root-mean-square deviation of {chi} = 1.31 MeV. Nuclear radii are computed within a model that employs the resulting occupation numbers.

Bertolli, M.; Papenbrock, T.; Wild, S. M. (Mathematics and Computer Science); (Department ofo Physics and Astronomy, Univ. of Tennessee); (Physics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory)

2012-01-01

6

Occupation-number-based energy functional for nuclear masses  

SciTech Connect

We develop an energy functional with shell-model occupations as the relevant degrees of freedom and compute nuclear masses across the nuclear chart. The functional is based on Hohenberg-Kohn theory with phenomenologically motivated terms. A global fit of the 17-parameter functional to 2049 nuclear masses yields a root-mean-square deviation of =1.31 MeV. Nuclear radii are computed within a model that employs the resulting occupation numbers.

Bertolli, Michael G. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Papenbrock, Thomas F [ORNL; Wild, S. M. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL)

2012-01-01

7

Neutrino masses, grand unification, and baryon number violation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

If grand unification is real, searches for baryon-number violation should be included on the list of observables that may reveal information regarding the origin of neutrino masses. Making use of an effective-operator approach and assuming that nature is SU(5) invariant at very short distances, we estimate the consequences of different scenarios that lead to light Majorana neutrinos for low-energy phenomena that violate baryon number minus lepton number (B -L) by two (or more) units, including neutron-antineutron oscillations and B -L violating nucleon decays. We find that, among all possible effective theories of lepton-number violation that lead to nonzero neutrino masses, only a subset is, broadly speaking, consistent with grand unification.

de Gouvêa, André; Herrero-García, Juan; Kobach, Andrew

2014-07-01

8

SME Annual Meeting Feb. 23 -26, 2014, Salt Lake City, UT  

E-print Network

SME Annual Meeting Feb. 23 - 26, 2014, Salt Lake City, UT 1 Copyright © 2014 by SME Preprint 14, Reliability Information Analysis Center, Utica, NY S. Schafrik, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA ABSTRACT Every ­ This is the time interval over which the system is expected to function and meet the reliability requirement

9

Light nuclei of even mass number in the Skyrme model  

SciTech Connect

We consider the semiclassical rigid-body quantization of Skyrmion solutions of mass numbers B=4,6,8,10, and 12. We determine the allowed quantum states for each Skyrmion and find that they often match the observed states of nuclei. The spin and isospin inertia tensors of these Skyrmions are accurately calculated for the first time and are used to determine the excitation energies of the quantum states. We calculate the energy level splittings, using a suitably chosen parameter set for each mass number. We find good qualitative and encouraging quantitative agreement with experiment. In particular, the rotational bands of beryllium-8 and carbon-12, along with isospin 1 triplets and isospin 2 quintets, are especially well reproduced. We also predict the existence of states that have not yet been observed and make predictions for the unknown quantum numbers of some observed states.

Battye, R. A. [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Manton, N. S.; Wood, S. W. [Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, University of Cambridge, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom); Sutcliffe, P. M. [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)

2009-09-15

10

Dipolar modulation in number counts of WISE-2MASS sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We test the statistical isotropy of the Universe by analysing the distribution of WISE extragalactic sources that were also observed by 2MASS. We pay particular attention to colour cuts and foreground marginalization in order to cull a uniform sample of extragalactic objects and avoid stars. We detect a dipole gradient in the number counts with an amplitude of ˜0.05, somewhat larger than expectations based on local structures corresponding to the depth and (independently measured) bias of our WISE-2MASS sources. The direction of the dipole, (l, b) ? (310°, -15°), is in reasonably good agreement with that found previously in the (shallower) 2MASS Extended Source Catalog alone. Interestingly, the dipole direction is not far from the direction of the dipolar modulation in the cosmic microwave background found by Planck, and also fairly closely matches large-scale structure bulk-flow directions found by various groups using galaxies and Type Ia supernovae. It is difficult, however, to draw specific conclusions from the near-agreement of these directions.

Yoon, Mijin; Huterer, Dragan; Gibelyou, Cameron; Kovács, András; Szapudi, István

2014-11-01

11

Acute respiratory effects of particles: mass or number?  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES—To determine whether associations might be found, in patients with chronic airflow obstruction, between symptoms, peak flow rate (PEF), and particle mass and numbers, and to assess which measure was most closely associated with changes in health. Epidemiological studies have shown associations between particulate air pollution and cardiovascular and respiratory disease, and it has been proposed that these may be mediated by particles of nm size (ultrafine).?METHODS—Relations were investigated between symptom scores, PEF, and bronchodilator use in 44 patients aged ?50 years with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and daily measurements of both mass of ambient particles of aerodynamic diameter less than 10 µm (PM10) and numbers of ultrafine particles (<100 nm), allowing for meteorological variables. Symptom scores, bronchodilator use, and PEF were recorded daily for 3 months. Counts of ultrafine particles were made by the TSI model 3934 scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and PM10 measurements by the tapered element oscillating microbalance (TEOM).?RESULTS—Ultrafine particle counts indoors and outdoors were significantly correlated, those indoors being about half of those outdoors. No associations were found between actual PEF and PM10 or ultrafine particles. However, there was a 19% increase in the rate of 10% decrements in daytime PEF with increases in PM10 from 10 to 20 µg/m3 which was of borderline significance (p=0.05). A change in PM10 from 10 to 20 µg/m3 was significantly associated with a 14% increase in the rate of high scores of shortness of breath (p=0.003). A similar change in PM10 as a moving average of the same day and 2 previous days was associated with a 31% increase in the rate of high scores for cough (p=0.02). Cough symptoms were also associated with lower temperatures (p=0.02). Higher use of medicines was also associated with higher PM10, but the increases were very small in clinical terms.?CONCLUSIONS—Evidence was not found to support the hypothesis that the component of particulate pollution responsible for effects on respiratory symptoms or function resides in the fraction below 100 nm diameter. The consistent associations between symptoms and PM10 suggest that a contribution of the coarser fraction should not be dismissed. Further studies will be needed before the conclusions of this specific project may be generalised.???Keywords: air pollution; ultrafine particles; chronic obstructive lung disease PMID:11171927

Osunsanya, T; Prescott, G; Seaton, A

2001-01-01

12

Progress In Electromagnetics Research Symposium 2005, Hangzhou August 23-26 1 Study of Snow Water Equivalence Inversion Technique with  

E-print Network

Progress In Electromagnetics Research Symposium 2005, Hangzhou August 23-26 1 Study of Snow Water Equivalence Inversion Technique with Experimental Data Lingmei Jiang1,2 , Jiancheng Shi1 1 University of water supply. And estimating techniques of snow water equivalence (SWE) are common inputs to water

California at Santa Barbara, University of

13

International Conference on Dependable Systems & Networks: Washington, DC, 23-26 June 2002. Masquerade Detection Using Truncated Command Lines  

E-print Network

session, cumulative CPU time, partic- ular programs executed, names of files accessed, user com- mandsInternational Conference on Dependable Systems & Networks: Washington, DC, 23-26 June 2002 advantage of the le- gitimate user's privileges and access to programs and data. The interloper's commands

Maxion, Roy

14

Appeared: Virtual Reality Software and Technology (VRST) '94, pp. 287-298, August 23-26, 1994.  

E-print Network

1 Appeared: Virtual Reality Software and Technology (VRST) '94, pp. 287-298, August 23-26, 1994 lenses or video camera technology it is also possible to present the user with images of the virtual environment with the real environment is a helicopter pilot's helmet where the pilot can see information about

Aliaga, Daniel G.

15

Low Peclet number mass and momentum transport in microcavities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the informed design of microfluidic devices, it is important to understand transport phenomena at the microscale. This letter outlines an analytically driven approach to the design of rectangular microcavities extending perpendicular to a perfusion microchannel for applications that may include microfluidic cell culture devices. We present equations to estimate the transition from advection- to diffusion-dominant transport inside cavities as a function of the geometry and flow conditions. We also estimate the time required for molecules, such as nutrients or drugs, to travel from the microchannel to a given length into the cavity. These analytical predictions can facilitate the rational design of microfluidic devices to optimize and maintain long-term, low Peclet number environments with minimal fluid shear stress.

Yew, A. G.; Pinero, D.; Hsieh, A. H.; Atencia, J.

2013-02-01

16

A Guide to Mass Communication Sources. Journalism Monographs Number Seventy-Four.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to assist social scientists interested in conducting mass communication research, this report describes a number of sources of mass communication data and information. The sources are grouped in two categories: print media (primarily newspapers and magazines) and electronic media (radio, television, and motion pictures). These categories…

Dunn, M. Gilbert; Cooper, Douglas W.

17

Mass transfer at high Peclet numbers for creeping flow in a packed-bed reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

An isotropic, homogeneous packed-bed reactor is modeled as an array of sinusoidal periodically constricted tubes (PCT). The effective asymptotic bed-Sherwood number has been calculated for mass transfer at large Peclet number with a constant wall concentration and creeping flow hydrodynamics. The bed friction factor has also been calculated. The results for these macroscopic bed quantities depend upon two ratios of

Peter Fedkiw; John Newman

1977-01-01

18

Phytoremediation of hazardous wastes. Technical report, 23--26 July 1995  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new and innovative approach to phytoremediation (the use of plants to degrade hazardous contaminants) was developed. The new approach to phytoremediation involves rigorous pathway analyses, mass balance determinations, and identification of specific enzymes that break down trinitrotoluene (TNT), other explosives (RDX and HMX), nitrobenzene, and chlorinated solvents (e.g., TCE and PCE) (EPA 1994). As a good example, TNT is

S. C. McCutcheon; N. L. Wolfe; L. H. Carreria; T. Ou

1995-01-01

19

Source and Health Implication of Diurnal Atmospheric PM Mass and Number Concentrations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Exposure to atmospheric PM has been known to be associated with adverse health effects, decreased heart-rate variability, and respiratory and cardiopulmonary related morbidity and mortality. New evidence suggests that physical characteristics (mass, size, number, surface area, and morphology) of particles are strongly associated with mortality and morbidity through acute exposure. In particular, as reported in the literature, fine or ultrafine particles are more toxic than coarse particles on an equivalent mass basis while particles of less than 30 nm or greater than 2.5 um in diameter deposit more effectively (approximately 80 percent) in lung versus approximately 18 percent for particles in the range of 100 nm and 1 um. In addition, positive association has been observed between day to day variation in PM2.5 and hospital admissions, mortality and particle surface area, or particle number concentration and oxidative stress-induced DNA damage. This presentation shows the results of a study characterizing the physical properties of PM in El Paso, Texas. Diurnal PM mass concentration peaks previously observed at several other cities along the U.S.-Mexico border and elsewhere in the world were observed in El Paso. The hourly PM particle count varied from less than 10,000 particles/cm3 to greater than 80,000 particles/cm3 during the diurnal PM mass peaks. The total number of PM particles peaked in the morning and in the evening while the mode of the particle size changed from 20 nm to 50 nm, indicating different PM sources may be responsible for the mass and number concentrations and agglomeration of particles in the atmosphere during the day may possibly plays a role. A multivariate regression analysis was performed to correlate the PM mass and number concentrations to environmental variables. Real- time wind statistics were used in conjunction with traffic data at a nearby highway for identifying sources of the PM mass and number concentration peaks. Evaluation of the diurnal variation of PM physical properties and a recent study on PM mass and mortality implies that particle number may be a better environmental indicator for mortality than PM2.5 mass. This publication was made possible by grant number 1 S11 ES013339-01A1 from the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), NIH. Its contents are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official views of the NIEHS, NIH.

Li, W.; Olvera, H. A.; Garcia, J. H.; Pingitore, N. E.

2007-12-01

20

Effective atomic numbers and mass attenuation coefficients of some thermoluminescent dosimetric compounds for total photon interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effective atomic numbers for total gamma-ray interaction with some selected thermoluminescent dosimetric compounds such as barium acetate, barium sulfate, calcium carbonate, calcium sulfate, calcium sulfate dihydrate, cadmium sulfate (anhydrous), cadmium sulfate, strontium sulfate, and lithium fluoride have been calculated in the 1-keV to 20-MeV energy region. Experimental mass attenuation coefficients and effective atomic numbers for these compounds at selected photon

Shivaramu; R. Amutha; V. Ramprasath

1999-01-01

21

The number, luminosity, and mass density of spiral galaxies as a function of surface brightness  

E-print Network

I give analytic expressions for the relative number, luminosity, and mass density of disc galaxies as a function of surface brightness. These surface brightness distributions are asymmetric, with long tails to lower surface brightnesses. This asymmetry induces systematic errors in most determinations of the galaxy luminosity function. Galaxies of low surface brightness exist in large numbers, but the additional contribution to the integrated luminosity density is modest, probably 10 -- 30%.

Stacy McGaugh

1995-11-02

22

Numbers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This engaging web site contains information and interactive applets related to various number systems: Egyptian, Babylonian, Chinese, Greek, Roman, Mayan, and Arabic. Users learn the history and structure of each system as well as how to count and write numbers. The site also allows users to explore finger systems, calculating machines, other number bases, and "interesting numbers." A series of pages on data and graphs includes information and activities on gathering, analyzing, graphing and sorting data. (Because the section on the Arabic number system is so extensive, it is cataloged separately as a related resource.)

Edkins, Jo

2006-01-01

23

Phytoremediation of hazardous wastes. Technical report, 23--26 July 1995  

SciTech Connect

A new and innovative approach to phytoremediation (the use of plants to degrade hazardous contaminants) was developed. The new approach to phytoremediation involves rigorous pathway analyses, mass balance determinations, and identification of specific enzymes that break down trinitrotoluene (TNT), other explosives (RDX and HMX), nitrobenzene, and chlorinated solvents (e.g., TCE and PCE) (EPA 1994). As a good example, TNT is completely and rapidly degraded by nitroreductase and laccase enzymes. The aromatic ring is broken and the carbon in the ring fragments is incorporated into new plant fiber, as part of the natural lignification process. Half lives for TNT degradation approach 1 hr or less under ideal laboratory conditions. Continuous-flow pilot studies indicate that scale up residence times in created wetlands may be two to three times longer than in laboratory batch studies. The use of created wetlands and land farming techniques guided by rigorous field biochemistry and ecology promises to be a vital part of a newly evolving field, ecological engineering.

McCutcheon, S.C.; Wolfe, N.L.; Carreria, L.H.; Ou, T.

1995-07-26

24

Constraints on the dark matter particle mass from the number of Milky Way satellites  

SciTech Connect

We have conducted N-body simulations of the growth of Milky Way-sized halos in cold and warm dark matter cosmologies. The number of dark matter satellites in our simulated Milky Ways decreases with decreasing mass of the dark matter particle. Assuming that the number of dark matter satellites exceeds or equals the number of observed satellites of the Milky Way, we derive lower limits on the dark matter particle mass. We find with 95% confidence m{sub s}>13.3 keV for a sterile neutrino produced by the Dodelson and Widrow mechanism, m{sub s}>8.9 keV for the Shi and Fuller mechanism, m{sub s}>3.0 keV for the Higgs decay mechanism, and m{sub WDM}>2.3 keV for a thermal dark matter particle. The recent discovery of many new dark matter dominated satellites of the Milky Way in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey allows us to set lower limits comparable to constraints from the complementary methods of Lyman-{alpha} forest modeling and x-ray observations of the unresolved cosmic x-ray background and of dark matter halos from dwarf galaxy to cluster scales. Future surveys like LSST, DES, PanSTARRS, and SkyMapper have the potential to discover many more satellites and further improve constraints on the dark matter particle mass.

Polisensky, Emil [Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C. 20375 (United States); Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20745 (United States); Ricotti, Massimo [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20745 (United States)

2011-02-15

25

Biomass burning aerosol emissions from vegetation fires: particle number and mass emission factors and size distributions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aerosol emissions from vegetation fires have a large impact on air quality and climate. In this study, we use published experimental data and different fitting procedures to derive dynamic particle number and mass emission factors (EFPN, EFPM) related to the fuel type, burning conditions and the mass of dry fuel burned, as well as characteristic CO-referenced emission ratios (PN/CO, PM/CO). Moreover, we explore and characterize the variability of the particle size distribution of fresh smoke, which is typically dominated by a lognormal accumulation mode with count median diameter around 120 nm (depending on age, fuel and combustion efficiency), and its effect on the relationship between particle number and mass emission factors. For the particle number emission factor of vegetation fires, we found no dependence on fuel type and obtained the following parameterization as a function of modified combustion efficiency (MCE): EFPN=34×1015×(1-MCE) kg-1±1015 kg-1 with regard to dry fuel mass (d.m.). For the fine particle mass emission factors (EFPM) we obtained (86-85×MCE) g kg-1±3 g kg-1 as an average for all investigated fires; (93-90×MCE) g kg-1±4 g kg-1 for forest; (67-65×MCE) g kg-1±2 g kg-1 for savanna; (63-62×MCE) g kg-1±1 g kg-1 for grass. For the PN/CO emission ratio we obtained an average of (34±16) cm-3 ppb-1 exhibiting no systematic dependence on fuel type or combustion efficiency. The average PM/CO emission ratios were (0.09±0.04) g g-1 for all investigated fires; (0.13±0.05) g g-1 for forest; (0.08±0.03) g g-1 for savanna; and (0.07±0.03) g g-1 for grass. The results are consistent with each other, given that particles from forest fires are on average larger than those from savanna and grass fires. This assumption and the above parameterizations represent the current state of knowledge, but they are based on a rather limited amount of experimental data which should be complemented by further measurements. Nevertheless, the presented parameterizations appear sufficiently robust for exploring the influence of vegetation fires on aerosol particle number and mass concentrations in regional and global model studies.

Janhäll, S.; Andreae, M. O.; Pöschl, U.

2010-02-01

26

Biomass burning aerosol emissions from vegetation fires: particle number and mass emission factors and size distributions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aerosol emissions from vegetation fires have a large impact on air quality and climate. In this study, we use published experimental data and different fitting procedures to derive dynamic particle number and mass emission factors (EFPN, EFPM) related to the fuel type, burning conditions and the mass of dry fuel burned, as well as characteristic CO-referenced emission ratios (PN/CO, PM/CO). Moreover, we explore and characterize the variability of the particle size distribution of fresh smoke, which is typically dominated by a lognormal accumulation mode with count median diameter around 120 nm (depending on age, fuel and combustion efficiency), and its effect on the relationship between particle number and mass emission factors. For the particle number emission factor of vegetation fires, we found no dependence on fuel type and obtained the following parameterization as a function of modified combustion efficiency (MCE): EFPN=34·1015×(1-MCE) kg-1±1015 kg-1 with regard to dry fuel mass (d.m.). For the fine particle mass emission factors (EFPM) we obtained (86-85×MCE) g kg-1±3 g kg-1 as an average for all investigated fires; (93-90×MCE) g kgnumber and mass concentrations in regional and global model studies.

Janhäll, S.; Andreae, M. O.; Pöschl, U.

2009-08-01

27

PROCEEDINGS: 1987 JOINT SYMPOSIUM ON STATIONARY SOURCE COMBUSTION NOX CONTROL. HELD IN NEW ORLEANS, LOUISIANA ON MARCH 23-26, 1987  

EPA Science Inventory

The two-volume proceedings document the 1987 Joint (EPA and EPRI) Symposium on Stationary Combustion NOx Control, held March 23-26, 1987 in New Orleans, LA. The 49 presentations covered: low NOx combustion developments (e.g., reburning and burner design modifications); coal-, oil...

28

Effective atomic numbers and mass attenuation coefficients of some thermoluminescent dosimetric compounds for total photon interaction  

SciTech Connect

Effective atomic numbers for total gamma-ray interaction with some selected thermoluminescent dosimetric compounds such as barium acetate, barium sulfate, calcium carbonate, calcium sulfate, calcium sulfate dihydrate, cadmium sulfate (anhydrous), cadmium sulfate, strontium sulfate, and lithium fluoride have been calculated in the 1-keV to 20-MeV energy region. Experimental mass attenuation coefficients and effective atomic numbers for these compounds at selected photon energies of 26.3, 33.2, 59.54, and 661.6 keV have been obtained from good geometry transmission measurements and compared with theoretical values. The effect of absorption edge on effective atomic numbers and its variation with energy, and nonvalidity of the Bragg`s mixture rule at incident photon energies closer to the absorption edges of constituent elements of compounds are discussed.

Shivaramu; Amutha, R.; Ramprasath, V. [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India). Safety Research and Health Physics Group

1999-05-01

29

A mass threshold in the number density of passive galaxies at z ~ 2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The process that quenched star formation in galaxies at intermediate and high redshifts is still the subject of considerable debate. One way to investigate this puzzling issue is to study the number density of quiescent galaxies at z ? 2 and its dependence on mass. Here we present the results of a new study based on very deep Ks-band imaging (with the HAWK-I instrument on the VLT) of two HST CANDELS fields (the UKIDSS Ultra-deep survey (UDS) field and GOODS-South). The new HAWK-I data (taken as part of the HUGS VLT Large Program) reach detection limits of Ks> 26 (AB mag). We have combined this imaging with the other ground-based and HST data in the CANDELS fields to select a sample of passively-evolving galaxies in the redshift range 1.4 number of quiescent galaxies at K ? 22 is not due to incompleteness, but is real. This has enabled us to establish unambiguously that the number counts of quiescent galaxies at z ? 2 flatten and slightly decline at magnitudes fainter than Ks ~ 22 (AB mag.), in contrast to the number density of star-forming galaxies, which continues to rise to fainter magnitudes. We show that this trend corresponds to a stellar mass threshold M? ? 1010.8M? below which the mechanism that halts the star formation in high-redshift galaxies seems to be inefficient. We also show that, while pBzK galaxies at K< 23 are in the redshift range 1.4 23 a higher redshift population of z ? 3pBzK galaxies is detected and dominates the counts at the faintest magnitudes. Finally, we compare the observed pBzK number counts with those of quiescent galaxies extracted from four different semi-analytic models. We find that only two of these models reproduce the observed trend in the number counts, even qualitatively, and that none of the models provides a statistically acceptable description of the number density of quiescent galaxies at these redshifts. We conclude that the mass function of quiescent galaxies as a function of redshift continues to present a key and demanding challenge for proposed models of galaxy formation and evolution.

Sommariva, V.; Fontana, A.; Lamastra, A.; Santini, P.; Dunlop, J. S.; Nonino, M.; Castellano, M.; Ferguson, H.; McLure, R. J.; Galametz, A.; Giavalisco, M.; Grazian, A.; Lu, Y.; Menci, N.; Merson, A.; Paris, D.; Pentericci, L.; Somerville, R.; Targett, T.; Koekemoer, A. M.

2014-11-01

30

Investigation of fractal distribution law for the trace number of random and grouped fractures in a geological mass  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fractal study method of the number of geological mass fractures is introduced in detail in this paper. Three main aspects of the problem were studied: (1) The random distribution of fractures in a geological mass was in good agreement with the fractal law. The size scale of the studied geological mass ranged from 2400m to 1mm for the length

Yangsheng Zhao; Zengchao Feng; Weiguo Liang; Dong Yang; Yaoqin Hu; Tianhe Kang

2009-01-01

31

Simulation of mass transfer at high Schmidt number in unsteady mixed convection flow  

SciTech Connect

Numerical simulations of two-dimensional mass transfer in a mixed convection channel flow are carried out using a spectral technique. A streamwise varying heat flux is imposed at the lower surface while uniform temperature is imposed at the upper wall. The flow is treated as periodic in the streamwise direction. The spectral technique employed uses a Chebyshev expansion in the vertical (y) direction and Fourier expansions in the x direction. The flows being considered involve high Schmidt number and moderate Prandtl number, so that the concentration boundary layer is much thinner than the velocity or thermal boundary layers. The scheme introduced here uses a finer mesh for the concentration field than for temperature or velocity. The advection terms in the concentration equation require the velocity field on this finer mesh, so the velocity is interpolated on to the concentration mesh using Chebyshev/Fourier coefficients as interpolants. The scheme is demonstrated and tested for grid independence on mass transfer in unsteady two-dimensional mixed convection flow.

Hoey, D.; Tangborn, A. [Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1995-12-31

32

The mass and number size distributions of black carbon aerosol over Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Black carbon-containing aerosol particles play an important role in the direct and indirect radiative forcing of climate. However, the magnitude and sign of the net radiative effect is strongly dependent on the physical properties of the black carbon (BC) component of the particles, such as mass concentration, number size distribution and mixing state. Here we use a global aerosol model combined with aircraft measurements of BC particle number and size from the Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP2) to assess the realism with which these physical properties are predicted by global models. The comparison reveals a substantial mismatch between the measured and modelled BC size distribution over the size range of the SP2 instrument (90-400 nm BC diameter). The model predicts BC particle number concentrations a factor ~3.5-5.7 higher than measured and a mode diameter that is ~40-65 nm smaller than observed. More than ~90% of the model particles with dry diameters ?260 nm contain BC, while the observations suggest only 14% on average. These model-observation biases in the BC properties are considerably greater than for the overall particle distribution, suggesting that the discrepancy is associated with model assumptions about the size and mixing state of the emitted carbonaceous particles. We expect the discrepancy in BC size distribution to be common among most global aerosol models, with implications for model estimates of absorption optical depth and direct radiative forcing.

Reddington, C. L.; McMeeking, G.; Mann, G. W.; Coe, H.; Frontoso, M. G.; Liu, D.; Flynn, M.; Spracklen, D. V.; Carslaw, K. S.

2013-05-01

33

Genome-Wide Association Study Identified Copy Number Variants Important for Appendicular Lean Mass  

PubMed Central

Skeletal muscle is a major component of the human body. Age-related loss of muscle mass and function contributes to some public health problems such as sarcopenia and osteoporosis. Skeletal muscle, mainly composed of appendicular lean mass (ALM), is a heritable trait. Copy number variation (CNV) is a common type of human genome variant which may play an important role in the etiology of many human diseases. In this study, we performed genome-wide association analyses of CNV for ALM in 2,286 Caucasian subjects. We then replicated the major findings in 1,627 Chinese subjects. Two CNVs, CNV1191 and CNV2580, were detected to be associated with ALM (p?=?2.26×10?2 and 3.34×10?3, respectively). In the Chinese replication sample, the two CNVs achieved p-values of 3.26×10?2 and 0.107, respectively. CNV1191 covers a gene, GTPase of the immunity-associated protein family (GIMAP1), which is important for skeletal muscle cell survival/death in humans. CNV2580 is located in the Serine hydrolase-like protein (SERHL) gene, which plays an important role in normal peroxisome function and skeletal muscle growth in response to mechanical stimuli. In summary, our study suggested two novel CNVs and the related genes that may contribute to variation in ALM. PMID:24626161

Ran, Shu; Liu, Yong-Jun; Zhang, Lei; Pei, Yufang; Yang, Tie-Lin; Hai, Rong; Han, Ying-Ying; Lin, Yong; Tian, Qing; Deng, Hong-Wen

2014-01-01

34

Measurements of mass attenuation coefficient, effective atomic number and electron density of some amino acids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mass attenuation coefficients of some amino acids, such as DL-aspartic acid-LR(C4H7NO4), L-glutamine (C4H10N2O3), creatine monohydrate LR(C4H9N3O2H2O), creatinine hydrochloride (C4H7N3O·HCl) L-asparagine monohydrate(C4H9N3O2H2O), L-methionine LR(C5H11NO2S), were measured at 122, 356, 511, 662, 1170, 1275 and 1330 keV photon energies using a well-collimated narrow beam good geometry set-up. The gamma-rays were detected using NaI (Tl) scintillation detection system with a resolution of 0.101785 at 662 keV. The attenuation coefficient data were then used to obtain the effective atomic numbers (Zeff), and effective electron densities (Neff) of amino acids. It was observed that the effective atomic number (Zeff) and effective electron densities (Neff) initially decrease and tend to be almost constant as a function of gamma-ray energy. Zeff and Neff experimental values showed good agreement with the theoretical values with less than 1% error for amino acids.

Kore, Prashant S.; Pawar, Pravina P.

2014-05-01

35

ModelE2-TOMAS development and evaluation using aerosol optical depths, mass and number concentrations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The TwO-Moment Aerosol Sectional microphysics model (TOMAS) has been integrated into the state-of-the-art general circulation model, GISS ModelE2. TOMAS has the flexibility to select a size resolution as well as the lower size cutoff. A computationally efficient version of TOMAS is used here, which has 15 size bins covering 3 nm to 10 ?m aerosol dry diameter. For each bin, it simulates the total aerosol number concentration and mass concentrations of sulphate, pure elementary carbon (hydrophobic), mixed elemental carbon (hydrophilic), hydrophobic organic matter, hydrophilic organic matter, sea salt, mineral dust, ammonium, and aerosol-associated water. This paper provides a detailed description of the ModelE2-TOMAS model and evaluates the model against various observations including aerosol precursor gas concentrations, aerosol mass and number concentrations, and aerosol optical depths. Additionally, global budgets in ModelE2-TOMAS are compared with those of other global aerosol models, and the TOMAS model is compared to the default aerosol model in ModelE2, which is a bulk aerosol model. Overall, the ModelE2-TOMAS predictions are within the range of other global aerosol model predictions, and the model has a reasonable agreement with observations of sulphur species and other aerosol components as well as aerosol optical depth. However, ModelE2-TOMAS (as well as the bulk aerosol model) cannot capture the observed vertical distribution of sulphur dioxide over the Pacific Ocean possibly due to overly strong convective transport. The TOMAS model successfully captures observed aerosol number concentrations and cloud condensation nuclei concentrations. Anthropogenic aerosol burdens in the bulk aerosol model running in the same host model as TOMAS (ModelE2) differ by a few percent to a factor of 2 regionally, mainly due to differences in aerosol processes including deposition, cloud processing, and emission parameterizations. Larger differences are found for naturally emitted aerosols such as sea salt and mineral dust. With TOMAS, ModelE2 has three different aerosol models (the bulk aerosol model and modal-based aerosol microphysics model, MATRIX) and allows exploration of the uncertainties associated with aerosol modelling within the same host model, NASA GISS ModelE2.

Lee, Y. H.; Adams, P. J.; Shindell, D. T.

2014-09-01

36

Laser-Based Mass Spectrometric Determination of Aggregation Numbers for Petroleum-and Coal-Derived Asphaltenes  

E-print Network

Laser-Based Mass Spectrometric Determination of Aggregation Numbers for Petroleum- and Coal: Petroleum- and coal-derived asphaltenes have been studied with three laser-based mass spectrometric of the most probable. In contrast, the nanoaggregates of coal asphaltenes are found to be smaller and more

Zare, Richard N.

37

VOLUME 60, NUMBER 20 PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS 16 MAY 1988 Mass Transport in Propagating Patterns of Convection  

E-print Network

the existence of mass transfer in the direction of propagation of nonlinear traveling waves (TW) as well that the two previously observed oscillatory states differ in mass transfer. In linear counterpropagating waves. The relevant control parameters are then the Rayleigh number, which is the nondimensional temperature dif

Moses, Elisha

38

Relation between number of component views and accuracy of left ventricular mass determined by three-dimensional echocardiography.  

PubMed

Three-dimensional echocardiography (3DE) allows the accurate determination of left ventricular (LV) mass, but the optimal number of component or extracted 2-dimensional (2D) image planes that should be used to calculate LV mass is not known. This study was performed to determine the relation between the number of 2D image planes used for 3DE and the accuracy of LV mass, using cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging as the reference standard. Three-dimensional echocardiography data sets were analyzed using 4, 6, 8, 10 and 20 component 2D planes as well as biplane 2D echocardiography and CMR in 25 subjects with a variety of LV pathologies. Repeated-measures analysis of variance and the Bland-Altman method were used to compare measures of LV mass. To further assess the potential clinical impact of reducing the number of component image planes used for 3DE, the number of discrepancies between CMR and each of the 3DE estimates of LV mass at prespecified levels (i.e., > or =5%, > or =10%, and > or =20% difference from CMR LV mass) was tabulated. The mean LV mass by magnetic resonance imaging was 177 +/- 56 g (range 91 to 316). Biplane 2-dimensional echocardiography significantly underestimated CMR LV mass (p <0.05), but LV mass by 3DE was not statistically different from that by CMR regardless of the number of planes used. However, error variability and Bland-Altman 95% confidence intervals decreased with the use of additional image planes. In conclusion, transthoracic 3DE measures LV mass more accurately than biplane 2-dimensional echocardiography when > or =6 component 2D image planes are used. The use of >6 planes further increases the accuracy of 3DE, but at the cost of greater analysis time and potentially increased scanning times. PMID:17478166

Chuang, Michael L; Salton, Carol J; Hibberd, Mark G; Manning, Warren J; Douglas, Pamela S

2007-05-01

39

Mass, number and size of lung fibres in the pathogenesis of asbestosis in sheep.  

PubMed Central

After long-term asbestos inhalation, the lung tissue burden is much less for chrysotile (CHRY) than for crocidolite (CRO) exposure. Nonetheless CHRY does not appear to be less fibrogenic. To study mechanisms responsible for the low retention of CHRY and the relationships with fibrogenesis, 15 sheep received a single intratracheal injection of either CHRY or CRO. Exposures in 100 ml saline consisted of 100 mg of 1-micron latex beads for the five control sheep, 100 mg UICC CRO fibres for the five CRO sheep and 100 mg UICC B CHRY fibres for the five CHRY sheep. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was carried out at months 2, 4, 6 and 8 after exposure and necropsy at month 8. BAL and tissue samples were analysed for fibres by transmission electron microscopy. At month 2, mass concentration in BAL was 108 +/- 30 ng/ml for CRO and 0.6 +/- 0.1 ng/ml for CHRY. BAL CRO decreased afterward but BAL CHRY did not. The mass concentration in the lung at month 8 was 40.6 +/- 8.7 ng/mg dry tissue for CRO and 11.5 +/- 7.0 ng/mg for CHRY. BAL fibrogenic activity at month 8 assessed by macrophage fibronectin production was less than 0.2 ng/10(6) cells/24 h in control sheep, 5 +/- 2 in CRO sheep and 11 +/- 2 in CHRY sheep (P less than 0.05 CRO vs CHRY). Histologic score of tissue injury fibrosis was 0 in control sheep, 1.9 +/- 0.3 in CRO sheep and 2.8 +/- 0.1 in CHRY sheep (P less than 0.05). At necropsy, the number size distribution of fibres per microgram of tissue from the (CRO)/(CHRY) sheep was respectively: (127 +/- 54)/(15 +/- 14) for fibres less than 5 microns, (18 +/- 17)/(32 +/- 14) for fibres greater than 5 microns, (1.6 +/- 8)/(7 +/- 13) for fibres greater than 20 microns. This study documented that the low pulmonary retention of CHRY was largely related to the faster alveolar clearance rate of CHRY mass. Fibrogenicity of CHRY remained higher and appeared to be related at least in part to the preferential retention of long and very long CHRY fibres. Images Fig. 2 PMID:2155635

Sebastien, P.; Begin, R.; Masse, S.

1990-01-01

40

Cuban Mass Media: Organization, Control and Functions. Journalism Monographs Number Seventy-Eight.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The mass media as interdependent parts of a larger social system both control and are controlled by other subsystems. The various combinations of control, in turn, determine the functions the media system will serve. In the 1960's, the Cuban mass media underwent frequent change that reflected the volatility of the revolutionary process. Today,…

Nichols, John Spicer

41

Mass number dependence of the Skyrme-force-induced nuclear symmetry energy  

E-print Network

The global mass dependence of the nuclear symmetry energy and its two basic ingredients due to the mean-level spacing and effective strength of the isovector mean-potential is studied within the Skyrme-Hartree-Fock model. In particular, our study determines the ratio of the surface-to-volume contributions to the nuclear symmetry energy to be ~1.6 and reveals that contributions due to mean-level spacing and effective strength of the isovector mean-potential are almost equal after removing momentum-dependent effects by rescaling them with isoscalar and isovector effective masses, respectively.

M. Rafalski; W. Satula; R. Wyss

2005-11-04

42

The Number of Information Bits Related to the Minimum Quantum and Gravitational Masses in a Vacuum Dominated Universe  

E-print Network

Wesson obtained a limit on quantum and gravitational mass in the universe by combining the cosmological constant Lambda, Planck constant, the speed of light c, and also the gravitational constant G. The corresponding masses are 2.0x10E-62 kg and 2.3E+54 kg respectively, and in general can be obtained with the help of a generic dimensional analysis, or from an analysis where the cosmological constant appears in a four dimensional space-time and as a result of a higher dimensional reduction. In this paper our goal is to establish a relation for both quantum and gravitational mass as function of the information number bit N. For this reason, we first derive an expression for the cosmological constant as a function of information bit, since both masses depend on it, and then various resulting relations are explored, in relation to information number of bits N. Fractional information bits imply no information extraction is possible. We see, that the order of magnitude of the various parameters as well as their ratios involve the large number 10E+122, that is produced naturally from the fundamental parameters of modern cosmology. Finally, we propose that in a complete quantum gravity theory the idea of information the might have to be included, with the quantum bits of information (q-bits) as one of its fundamental parameters, resulting thus to a more complete understanding of the universe, its laws, and its evolution.

Ioannis Haranas; Ioannis Gkigkitzis

2014-06-09

43

Minor versus major mergers: the stellar mass growth of massive galaxies from z = 3 using number density selection techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a study on the stellar mass growth of the progenitors of local massive galaxies with a variety of number density selections with n ? 1 × 10-4 Mpc-3 (corresponding to M* = 1011.24 M? at z = 0.3) in the redshift range 0.3 < z < 3.0. We select the progenitors of massive galaxies using a constant number density selection, and one which is adjusted to account for major mergers. We find that the progenitors of massive galaxies grow by a factor of 4 in total stellar mass over this redshift range. On average the stellar mass added via the processes of star formation, major and minor mergers account for 24 ± 8, 17 ± 15 and 34 ± 14 per cent, respectively, of the total galaxy stellar mass at z = 0.3. Therefore 51 ± 20 per cent of the total stellar mass in massive galaxies at z = 0.3 is created externally to their z = 3 progenitors. We explore the implication of these results on the cold gas accretion rate and size evolution of the progenitors of most massive galaxies over the same redshift range. We find an average gas accretion rate of ˜66 ± 32 M? yr-1 over the redshift range of 1.5 < z < 3.0. We find that the size evolution of a galaxy sample selected this way is on average lower than the findings of other investigations.

Ownsworth, Jamie R.; Conselice, Christopher J.; Mortlock, Alice; Hartley, William G.; Almaini, Omar; Duncan, Ken; Mundy, Carl J.

2014-12-01

44

Proceedings of the 2nd Joint EMBS-BMES Conference, Houston, TX, 23-26 October 2002 1 of 2  

E-print Network

or glomeruli (GLs) that synapse with mitral cell (MC) dendrites. MCs engage in a number of excitatory/inhibitory exposed to ligand L at concentration [L] can be modeled as [ ]( )[ ]1 1 -- += mL i L i LKR , where L i of the components. The probabilistic distribution of affinities { }L N LL KKK ...,, 21 for ligand L across

Gutierrez-Osuna, Ricardo

45

A comparative study of the number and mass of fine particles emitted with diesel fuel and marine gas oil (MGO)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current investigation reports on diesel particulate matter emissions, with special interest in fine particles from the combustion of two base fuels. The base fuels selected were diesel fuel and marine gas oil (MGO). The experiments were conducted with a four-stroke, six-cylinder, direct injection diesel engine. The results showed that the fine particle number emissions measured by both SMPS and ELPI were higher with MGO compared to diesel fuel. It was observed that the fine particle number emissions with the two base fuels were quantitatively different but qualitatively similar. The gravimetric (mass basis) measurement also showed higher total particulate matter (TPM) emissions with the MGO. The smoke emissions, which were part of TPM, were also higher for the MGO. No significant changes in the mass flow rate of fuel and the brake-specific fuel consumption (BSFC) were observed between the two base fuels.

Nabi, Md. Nurun; Brown, Richard J.; Ristovski, Zoran; Hustad, Johan Einar

2012-09-01

46

Diallel crosses reveal patterns of variation in fruit-set, seed mass, and seed number in Asclepias incarnata  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plants from each of two populations of Asclepias incarnata ssp. incarnata were hand-pollinated in diallel crosses and seed number per fruit, mean individual seed mass per fruit and fruit-set were determined for the parental plants. Two diallels were performed on the glasshouse-grown plants, one involving six plants from one population and the other involving five plants from the second population.

Sara R Lipow; Robert Wyatt

1999-01-01

47

Particulate Matter Mass and Number Concentrations Inside a Naturally Ventilated School Building Located Adjacent to an Urban Roadway  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work presents the temporal characteristics of Particulate Matter (PM) mass and number concentrations measured inside a naturally ventilated school building, located close to a busy roadway in Chennai city. Two environmental dust monitor instruments (GRIMM Model 107 and Model 108) were used for measuring PM mass and number concentrations. The 1-h mean values of PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 mass concentrations were found to be 262 ± 161, 68 ± 24, 40 ± 15 µg/m3 and 81 ± 26, 56 ± 2, 45 ± 19 µg/m3 during working hours (8am-4pm) and non-working hours (4pm-8am)/holidays, respectively. The PM number concentrations inside the room during working hours were found to be 2.4 × 105, 2.2 × 103 and 8.1 × 102 particles/l in the size range of 0.3-1, 1-3 and 3-10 µm, respectively. The present study reveals that during working hours, indoor PM concentrations of the classroom were influenced by the activities of occupants and during non working hours it was affected by outdoor vehicular emissions.

Chithra, V. S.; Shiva Nagendra, S. M.

2014-09-01

48

Particulate Matter Mass and Number Concentrations Inside a Naturally Ventilated School Building Located Adjacent to an Urban Roadway  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work presents the temporal characteristics of Particulate Matter (PM) mass and number concentrations measured inside a naturally ventilated school building, located close to a busy roadway in Chennai city. Two environmental dust monitor instruments (GRIMM Model 107 and Model 108) were used for measuring PM mass and number concentrations. The 1-h mean values of PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 mass concentrations were found to be 262 ± 161, 68 ± 24, 40 ± 15 µg/m3 and 81 ± 26, 56 ± 2, 45 ± 19 µg/m3 during working hours (8am-4pm) and non-working hours (4pm-8am)/holidays, respectively. The PM number concentrations inside the room during working hours were found to be 2.4 × 105, 2.2 × 103 and 8.1 × 102 particles/l in the size range of 0.3-1, 1-3 and 3-10 µm, respectively. The present study reveals that during working hours, indoor PM concentrations of the classroom were influenced by the activities of occupants and during non working hours it was affected by outdoor vehicular emissions.

Chithra, V. S.; Shiva Nagendra, S. M.

2014-08-01

49

Extending the Capabilities of Single Particle Mass Spectrometry: I. Measurements of Aerosol Number Concentration, Size Distribution, and Asphericity  

SciTech Connect

Single particle mass spectrometers have traditionally been deployed to measure the size and composition of individual particles at relatively slow sampling rates that are determined by the rate at which the ionization lasers can fire and/or mass spectra can be recorded. To take advantage of the fact that under most conditions SPLAT can detect and size particles at much higher rates we developed a dual data acquisition mode, in which particle number concentrations, size distributions, and asphericity parameters are measured at a particle concentration determined rate, all the while the instrument generates and records mass-spectra at an operator set rate. We show that with this approach particle number concentration and asphericity parameters are measured with 1 sec resolution and particle vacuum aerodynamic size distributions are measured with 10 sec to 60 sec resolution. SPLAT measured particle number concentrations are in perfect agreement with the PCASP. Particle asphericity parameters are based on measured particle beam divergence. We illustrate the effect that high particle concentrations can have on the measured size distributions and develop a method to remove these effects and correct the size distributions.

Vaden, Timothy D.; Imre, D.; Beranek, Josef; Zelenyuk, Alla

2011-01-04

50

Diallel crosses reveal patterns of variation in fruit-set, seed mass, and seed number in Asclepias incarnata.  

PubMed

Plants from each of two populations of Asclepias incarnata ssp. incarnata were hand-pollinated in diallel crosses and seed number per fruit, mean individual seed mass per fruit and fruit-set were determined for the parental plants. Two diallels were performed on the glasshouse-grown plants, one involving six plants from one population and the other involving five plants from the second population. The contributions to total phenotypic variation from joint, maternal, paternal, and two types of interaction sources of variation were then estimated. Variance attributable to maternal effects, reflecting differences between maternal plants resulting from environmental or genetic factors or both, comprised 31.3-68.4% of total variance in seed mass, 20.5-37.1% of variance in seed number, and 0.7-7.5% of variance in fruit-set. Interaction effects that depended on the direction of the cross accounted for 7.3-46.5% of variance in seed mass and 31.4-39.1% of variance in seed number. These interaction effects are consistent with the hypothesis that maternal plants provision resources differently to seeds depending on the specific genotypes of the embryos they contain. In the analysis of fruit-set, interaction effects independent of the direction of the cross (combined variance) explained 22.9-78.0% of phenotypic variance. These effects could have several causes, including inbreeding depression, shared incompatibility alleles, or 'control' of fruit-set by zygotes via hormonal signals or patterns of resource acquisition. PMID:10504429

Lipow, S R; Wyatt, R

1999-09-01

51

Isospin symmetry and giant resonance in nuclei of mass number A = 14  

SciTech Connect

An analysis of the cross sections for photon absorption by isobar nuclei {sup 14}C and {sup 14}N in the giant-dipole-resonance region demonstrates a high degree of isospin symmetry for this type of collective excitations in the above nuclei. Giant resonances in A = 14 isobar nuclei are related by a simple rescaling procedure that is based on the fact that, for these nuclei, the isospin remains a good quantum number in the process of dipole excitations of energy up to about 40 MeV. The features of the isospin splitting of the giant resonance in the {sup 14}C nucleus are refined. The shape of the cross section for photoabsorption in the {sup 14}C nucleus-in particular, a large width of the giant resonance in this nucleus-is exhaustively explained.

Ishkhanov, B. S.; Kapitonov, I. M.; Makarenko, I. V. [Moscow State University, Institute of Nuclear Physics (Russian Federation)], E-mail: makarenko-irina@yandex.ru

2007-06-15

52

Evaluation of filter media for particle number, surface area and mass penetrations.  

PubMed

The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) developed a standard for respirator certification under 42 CFR Part 84, using a TSI 8130 automated filter tester with photometers. A recent study showed that photometric detection methods may not be sensitive for measuring engineered nanoparticles. Present NIOSH standards for penetration measurement are mass-based; however, the threshold limit value/permissible exposure limit for an engineered nanoparticle worker exposure is not yet clear. There is lack of standardized filter test development for engineered nanoparticles, and development of a simple nanoparticle filter test is indicated. To better understand the filter performance against engineered nanoparticles and correlations among different tests, initial penetration levels of one fiberglass and two electret filter media were measured using a series of polydisperse and monodisperse aerosol test methods at two different laboratories (University of Minnesota Particle Technology Laboratory and 3M Company). Monodisperse aerosol penetrations were measured by a TSI 8160 using NaCl particles from 20 to 300 nm. Particle penetration curves and overall penetrations were measured by scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS), condensation particle counter (CPC), nanoparticle surface area monitor (NSAM), and TSI 8130 at two face velocities and three layer thicknesses. Results showed that reproducible, comparable filtration data were achieved between two laboratories, with proper control of test conditions and calibration procedures. For particle penetration curves, the experimental results of monodisperse testing agreed well with polydisperse SMPS measurements. The most penetrating particle sizes (MPPSs) of electret and fiberglass filter media were ~50 and 160 nm, respectively. For overall penetrations, the CPC and NSAM results of polydisperse aerosols were close to the penetration at the corresponding median particle sizes. For each filter type, power-law correlations between the penetrations measured by different instruments show that the NIOSH TSI 8130 test may be used to predict penetrations at the MPPS as well as the CPC and NSAM results with polydisperse aerosols. It is recommended to use dry air (<20% RH) as makeup air in the test system to prevent sodium chloride particle deliquescing and minimizing the challenge particle dielectric constant and to use an adequate neutralizer to fully neutralize the polydisperse challenge aerosol. For a simple nanoparticle penetration test, it is recommended to use a polydisperse aerosol challenge with a geometric mean of ~50 nm with the CPC or the NSAM as detectors. PMID:22752097

Li, Lin; Zuo, Zhili; Japuntich, Daniel A; Pui, David Y H

2012-07-01

53

Number size distribution of aerosols at Mt. Huang and Nanjing in the Yangtze River Delta, China: Effects of air masses and characteristics of new particle formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aerosol number spectra in the range of 10 nm-10 ?m were observed at Mt. Huang (Aug. 15-Sep. 15) and Nanjing (Oct. 13-Nov. 15) by a wide-range particle spectrometer (WPS) in 2011. Based on the backward trajectories obtained using the HYSPLIT model, the transport pathways of observed air masses during the study periods were classified into the following four groups: maritime air mass, continental air mass, marine-continental mixed air mass and local air mass. The variations in the aerosol number spectrum and the new particle formation (NPF) events for various types of air masses were discussed, along with meteorological data. The results showed that the average number concentration was 12,540 cm- 3 at Nanjing and only 2791 cm- 3 at Mt. Huang. The aerosol number concentration in Nanjing was 3-7 times higher than that in Mt. Huang; the large discrepancy was in the range of 10-100 nm. Different types of air masses had different effects on number concentration distribution. The number concentration of aerosols was higher in marine air masses, continental air masses and continental-marine mixed air masses at 10-50 nm, 100-500 nm and 50-200 nm, respectively. Under the four types of air masses, the aerosol size spectra had bimodal distributions in Nanjing and unimodal distributions in Mt. Huang (except under continental air masses: HT1). The effects of the diverse air masses on aerosol size segments of the concentration peak in Mt. Huang were stronger than those in Nanjing. The local air masses were dominant at these two sites and accounted for 44% of the total air masses. However, the aerosol number concentration was the lowest in Mt. Huang and the highest in Nanjing when local air masses were present. The number concentrations for foreign air masses increased at Mt. Huang and decreased at Nanjing. Different types of air masses had greater effects on the aerosol spectrum distribution at Mt. Huang than at Nanjing. During the NPF events, the particle growth rates at Mt. Huang (6.5-9.0 nm h- 1) were faster than those at Nanjing (4.8-5.6 nm h- 1). The relative humidity at Mt. Huang (36-65%) was higher than that at Nanjing (30-47%), but the wind speed trend was the opposite. The air masses during the NPF events were clean, i.e., they were mainly from over the ocean or districts with low ultrafine particle concentrations.

Wang, Honglei; Zhu, Bin; Shen, Lijuan; An, Junlin; Yin, Yan; Kang, Hanqing

2014-12-01

54

Changes in the Number of Eggs Loaded in Pantala flavescens Females with Age from Mass Flights (Odonata: Libellulidae).  

PubMed

The wandering glider dragonfly Pantala flavescens migrates to Japan every spring, where the population increases until autumn, in which mass flights often occur, followed by death in the winter. There have been no reports to date on the maturation process of this species throughout its lifespan in Japan. We collected females from mass flights when the flight height was low, and classified them into seven age stages by examining their wing condition. Very few females of the older stage were collected from the mass flights. The wing condition corresponded with the change in body color and with the egg production process in the ovaries. While pre-reproductive-stage females did not release eggs when treated with our artificial oviposition technique, each reproductive-stage female released about 640 eggs. Nearly all eggs released were fertilized. The ovaries developed with the stage, and reproductive-stage females had about 1100 ovarioles. The estimated maximum fecundity was about 29,000 eggs. The lifetime number of eggs laid of P. flavescens should be revealed by dissection. PMID:25366154

Ichikawa, Yuta; Watanabe, Mamoru

2014-11-01

55

Mass  

SciTech Connect

In the classical physics we inherited from Isaac Newton, mass does not arise, it simply is. The mass of a classical object is the sum of the masses of its parts. Albert Einstein showed that the mass of a body is a measure of its energy content, inviting us to consider the origins of mass. The protons we accelerate at Fermilab are prime examples of Einsteinian matter: nearly all of their mass arises from stored energy. Missing mass led to the discovery of the noble gases, and a new form of missing mass leads us to the notion of dark matter. Starting with a brief guided tour of the meanings of mass, the colloquium will explore the multiple origins of mass. We will see how far we have come toward understanding mass, and survey the issues that guide our research today.

Quigg, Chris (Fermilab) [Fermilab

2007-12-05

56

Final report: SIAM [Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics] Conference on Linear Algebra and its Applications, October 23-26, 2000  

SciTech Connect

The Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics (SIAM) and the SIAM Activity Group in Linear Algebra in conjunction with the International Linear Algebra Society (ILAS) held the SIAM Conference on Linear Algebra and its applications on October 23-26, 2000 at the McKimmon Conference Center on the campus of North Carolina State University in Raleigh, North Carolina. The goals of this conference were to highlight the central role of linear algebra in many problems of mathematics and the applied sciences, including engineering problems in systems and control, signal processing and coding, economic and business problems, and problems from biology and geophysics. Particular consideration in this conference was given to applications in image processing, information retrieval and management (such as the performance of search engines on the Internet), aircraft manufacturing and design, industrial optimization problems, and assessing the economic cost of linear algebra in industry. With the development of high performance computers and new parallel architectures, computational linear algebra is in a state of rapid development. There are grand challenges requiring the development of efficient methods that solve truly large-scale problems by exploiting the ever-increasing computational power. One of the primary goals of this conference was to bring researchers and practitioners in these various areas together for exchange of information and ideas. In particular, the collaboration with ILAS was an important factor in bringing about fruitful interaction among researchers in theory, computation, and applications. There were 250 total attendees with 17% coming from industry and government. In addition, there were 27 students who attended.

None

2001-04-06

57

Influence of trans-boundary biomass burning impacted air masses on submicron particle number concentrations and size distributions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Submicron particle number concentration (PNC) and particle size distribution (PSD) in the size range of 5.6-560 nm were investigated in Singapore from 27 June 2009 through 6 September 2009. Slightly hazy conditions lasted in Singapore from 6 to 10 August. Backward air trajectories indicated that the haze was due to the transport of biomass burning impacted air masses originating from wild forest and peat fires in Sumatra, Indonesia. Three distinct peaks in the morning (08:00-10:00), afternoon (13:00-15:00) and evening (16:00-20:00) were observed on a typical normal day. However, during the haze period no distinct morning and afternoon peaks were observed and the PNC (39,775 ± 3741 cm-3) increased by 1.5 times when compared to that during non-haze periods (26,462 ± 6017). The morning and afternoon peaks on the normal day were associated with the local rush hour traffic while the afternoon peak was induced by new particle formation (NPF). Diurnal profiles of PNCs and PSDs showed that primary particle peak diameters were large during the haze (60 nm) period when compared to that during the non-haze period (45.3 nm). NPF events observed in the afternoon period on normal days were suppressed during the haze periods due to heavy particle loading in atmosphere caused by biomass burning impacted air masses.

Betha, Raghu; Zhang, Zhe; Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar

2014-08-01

58

A constant-volume rapid exhaust dilution system for motor vehicle particulate matter number and mass measurements.  

PubMed

An improved version of the constant volume sampling (CVS) methodology that overcomes a number of obstacles that exist with the current CVS dilution tunnel system used in most diesel and gasoline vehicle emissions test facilities is presented. The key feature of the new sampling system is the introduction of dilution air immediately at the vehicle tailpipe. In the present implementation, this is done concentrically through a cylindrical air filter. Elimination of the transfer hose conventionally used to connect the tailpipe to the dilution tunnel significantly reduces the hydrocarbon and particulate matter (PM) storage release artifacts that can lead to wildly incorrect particle number counts and to erroneous filter-collected PM mass. It provides accurate representations of particle size distributions for diesel vehicles by avoiding the particle coagulation that occurs in the transfer hose. Furthermore, it removes the variable delay time that otherwise exists between the time that emissions exit the tailpipe and when they are detected in the dilution tunnel. The performance of the improved CVS system is examined with respect to diesel, gasoline, and compressed natural gas vehicles. PMID:14604329

Maricq, M Matti; Chase, Richard E; Xu, Ning; Podsiadlik, Diane H

2003-10-01

59

Age, Body Mass Index, and Number of Previous Trials: Are They Prognosticators of Intra-Uterine-Insemination for Infertility Treatment?  

PubMed Central

Background To examine whether pregnancy rate (PR) of intrauterine insemination (IUI) is related to certain demographic factors, such as age and body mass index (BMI), along with number of IUI cycles performed, a set of infertile Saudi women. Materials and Methods During this prospective study (a 24-month period), 301 Saudi women with infertility underwent IUI in our infertility clinic. We investigated whether PR is correlated with patient age and BMI, and the number of IUI trials, in order to determine if they could be used as prognosticators of pregnancy success. Results The highest PR was 14.89% for ages 19-25 and the lowest PR was 4.16% for ages 41-45, indicating no statistically significant difference among PR in all age groups (p value of 0.225). Also, in terms of BMI, the highest PR was 13.04% for BMI ?35 and the lowest was 7.84% for BMI of <25 to 18.5, indicating no significant difference among different BMI groups (p value of 0.788). One-cycle treatment, as expected, was more successful (PR=12.84%) than 2-cycle treatment (PR=5.75%), however, 3-5-cycles treatment still showed encouraging results (PR=17.24%); but the difference did not reach statistical significance (p value=0.167). Conclusion PR after IUI treatment remained approximately 10% from 19 to 40 years of age and declined after 40. Although no significant difference was observed among different age groups, earlier treatment is still recommended. There was a positive but not statistically significant correlation between PR and patient’s BMI indicating that BMI is not a determining factor. There was also no correlation between PR and number of IUI trials. Patients can thus try as many times as they want before moving on to in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment. PMID:25379153

Isa, Ahmed M.; Abu-Rafea, Basim; Alasiri, Saleh A.; Binsaleh, Saleh; Ismail, Kareema H.; Vilos, George A.

2014-01-01

60

Mass and number size distributions of particulate matter components: comparison of an industrial site and an urban background site.  

PubMed

Size-resolved composition of particulate matter (PM) sampled in the industrial town of Port Talbot (PT), UK was determined in comparison to a typical urban background site in Birmingham (EROS). A Micro-Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor (MOUDI) sampler was deployed for two separate sampling campaigns with the addition of a Grimm optical spectrometer at the PT site. MOUDI samples were analysed for water-soluble anions (Cl(-), NO?(-) and SO?(2-)) and cations (Na(+), NH4(+), K(+), Mg(2+) and Ca(2+)) and trace metals (Al, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Sb, Ba and Pb). The PM mass distribution showed a predominance of fine particle (PM?.?) mass at EROS whereas the PT samples were dominated by the coarse fraction (PM?.????). SO?(2-), Cl(-), NH4(+), Na(+), NO?(-), and Ca(2+) were the predominant ionic species at both sites while Al and Fe were the metals with highest concentrations at both sites. Mean concentrations of Cl(-), Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Cr, Mn, Fe and Zn were higher at PT than EROS due to industrial and marine influences. The contribution of regional pollution by sulphate, ammonium and nitrate was greater at EROS relative to PT. The traffic signatures of Cu, Sb, Ba and Pb were particularly prominent at EROS. Overall, PM at EROS was dominated by secondary aerosol and traffic-related particles while PT was heavily influenced by industrial activities and marine aerosol. Profound influences of wind direction are seen in the 72-hour data, especially in relation to the PT local sources. Measurements of particle number in 14 separate size bins plotted as a function of wind direction and speed are highly indicative of contributing sources, with local traffic dominant below 0.5 ?m, steelworks emissions from 0.5 to 15 ?m, and marine aerosol above 15 ?m. PMID:24419284

Taiwo, Adewale M; Beddows, David C S; Shi, Zongbo; Harrison, Roy M

2014-03-15

61

NGC 7419: A young open cluster with a number of very young intermediate mass pre-MS stars  

E-print Network

We present a photometric and spectroscopic study of the young open cluster NGC 7419, which is know to host a large number of classical Be stars for reasons not well understood. Based on CCD photometric observations of 327 stars in UBV passbands, we estimated the cluster parameters as, reddening E(B-V) = 1.65 +/- 0.15 mag and distance = 2900 +/- 400 pc. The turn off age of the cluster was estimated as 25 +/- 5 Myr using isochrone fits. UBV data of the stars were combined with JHK data from 2MASS and were used to create the near infrared (NIR) (J-H) vs (H-K) colour-colour diagram. A large fraction of stars (42%) was found to have NIR excess and their location in the diagram was used to identify them as intermediate mass pre-MS stars. The isochrone fits to pre-MS stars in the optical colour-magnitude diagram showed that the turn-on age of the cluster is 0.3 - 3 Myr. This indicates that there has been a recent episode of star formation in the vicinity of the cluster. Slit-less spectra were used to identify 27 stars which showed H-alpha in emission in the field of the cluster, of which 6 are new identifications. All these stars were found to show NIR excess and located closer to the region populated by Herbig Ae/Be stars in the (J-H) vs (H-K) diagram. Slit spectra of 25 stars were obtained in the region 3700A - 9000A. The spectral features were found to be very similar to those of Herbig Be stars. Those stars were found to be more reddened than the main sequence stars by 0.4 mag on an average. Thus the emission line stars found in this cluster are more similar to the Herbig Be type stars where the circumstellar material is the remnant of the accretion disk.

Annapurni Subramaniam; Blesson Mathew; Bhuwan Chandra Bhatt; S. Ramya

2006-04-30

62

Seasonal body mass changes in Eurasian Golden Plovers Pluvialis apricaria staging in the Netherlands: decline in late autumn mass peak correlates with increase in raptor numbers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eurasian Golden Plovers Pluvialis apricaria staging in the Netherlands during the non- breeding season show strikingly constant seasonal changes in body mass with a first mass peak in late November and December and a second peak in late April and May. Despite huge sample sizes, variations in this pattern over successive years in the 1990s and among age classes were

Anita Koolhaas; Theunis Piersma; Joop Jukema

2003-01-01

63

Determination of particle concentration rankings by spatial mapping of particle surface area, number, and mass concentrations in a restaurant and a die casting plant.  

PubMed

Measurements using several exposure metrics were carried out in a restaurant and a die casting plant to compare the spatial distributions of particle surface area (SA), number, and mass concentrations and rank exposures in different areas by those metrics. The different exposure metrics for incidental nanoparticle and fine particle exposures were compared using the concentration rankings, statistical differences between areas, and concentration ratios between different areas. In the die casting plant, area concentration rankings and spatial distributions differed by the exposure metrics chosen. Surface area and fine particle number concentrations were greatest near incidental nanoparticle sources and were significantly different between three areas. However, mass and coarse particle number concentrations were similar throughout the facility, and rankings of the work areas based on these metrics were different from those of SA and fine number concentrations. In the restaurant, concentrations in the kitchen for all metrics except respirable mass concentration were significantly greater than in the serving area, although SA and fine particle number concentrations showed larger differences between the two areas than either the mass or coarse particle number concentrations. Thus, the choice of appropriate exposure metric has significant implications for exposure groupings in epidemiologic and occupational exposure studies. PMID:20526949

Park, Ji Young; Ramachandran, Gurumurthy; Raynor, Peter C; Olson, Gregory M

2010-08-01

64

Sperm competition games: Sperm size (mass) and number under raffle and displacement, and the evolution of P2  

E-print Network

and Evolutionary Biology, School of Biological Sciences, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZB, UK b 2010 Keywords: Ejaculate expenditure Giant sperm Size­number trade off Sperm precedence a b s t r a c for a sperm size­number trade off. Although size and number trade-off independently against effort spent

Pitnick, Scott

65

ANALYSIS OF RESPIRATORY DEPOSITION OF INHALED PARTICLES FOR DIFFERENT DOSE METRICS: COMPARISON OF NUMBER, SURFACE AREA AND MASS DOSE OF TYPICAL AMBIENT BI-MODAL AEROSOLS  

EPA Science Inventory

ANALYSIS OF RESPIRATORY DEPOSITION OF INHALED PARTICLES FOR DIFFERENT DOSE METRICS: COMPARISON OF NUMBER, SURFACE AREA AND MASS DOSE OF TYPICAL AMBIENT BI-MODAL AEROSOLS. Chong S. Kim, SC. Hu*, PA Jaques*, US EPA, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, ...

66

Dispersed Multiphase Flow: From Micro-to Macro-Scale Numerical Modelling Direct numerical simulation of high Schmidt number mass transfer from air bubbles  

E-print Network

simulation of high Schmidt number mass transfer from air bubbles rising in liquids using the Volume, and a local mesh refinement around the bubble. Furthermore, we show a first result employing so in bubble column reactors, especially for performing chemical reactions like hydrogenations, oxidations

Bothe, Dieter

67

Increased x-ray power generated from low-mass large-number aluminum-wire-array Z-pinch implosions  

SciTech Connect

A Saturn accelerator study of annular, aluminum-wire-array, Z-pinch implosions in the calculated high-wire-number plasma-shell regime [Phys. Rev. Lett. {bold 77}, 5063 (1996)] shows that a factor of 2 decrease in pulse width and an associated doubling of the total radiated x-ray power occurs when the mass of 12 mm radius, 2 cm long array is reduced from above 1.9 mg to below 1.3 mg. The study utilized extensive time- and space-resolved measurements to characterize the implosion over the mass range 0.42{endash}3.4 mg. Eulerian radiation-magnetohydrodynamic-code simulations in the r-z plane agree qualitatively with the measurements. They suggest that the pulse-width decrease with mass is due to the faster implosion velocity of the plasma shell relative to the growth of the shell thickness that arises from a two-stage development of the magnetic Rayleigh{endash}Taylor instability. Over the bulk of the mass-range explored, the variation in {ital K}-shell (lines plus free-bound continuum) yield is in qualitative agreement with simple {ital K}-shell radiation-scaling models. These models indicate that the doubling of the measured {ital K}-shell yield, which also occurs for masses below 1.3 mg relative to masses above 1.9 mg, arises from increased plasma temperature. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

Sanford, T.W.; Mock, R.C.; Spielman, R.B. [Sandia National Laboratories, P.O. Box 5800, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States)] [Sandia National Laboratories, P.O. Box 5800, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States); Peterson, D.L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)] [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Mosher, D. [Naval Research Laboratory, Pulsed Power Physics Branch, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)] [Naval Research Laboratory, Pulsed Power Physics Branch, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Roderick, N.F. [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131 (United States)] [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131 (United States)

1998-10-01

68

Mass number and prompt neutron emission of individual fission fragments as functions of nuclear charge, both involving parameters determinable from radiochemical data  

SciTech Connect

We lack an equation relating fission fragment mass before prompt neutron emission to the mass of the resulting fission product. It is shown that by using conveniently defined auxiliary functions and partly neglecting fine structure effects, expressions may be derived for mass number, charge density, and prompt neutron yields of individual fission fragments. All expressions involve parameters which can be evaluated from radiochemical fission product yield data, without recourse to any physical measurement whatsoever. The expressions for neutron yields from individual fragments reproduce the well-known saw-tooth curve. The fragment mass number as a function of charge is composed of two parallel straight lines with a simple discontinuity at symmetric charge division. Similarly, the fragment charge density versus charge has two branches extending in the heavy and light fragment regions, respectively. The corresponding relationship is a homographic function of charge, and is discontinuous at symmetric charge division, where Dirichlet's theorem applies. In the fission of /sup 238/U, the two branches come closer together at symmetric charge division as excitation energy of the fissioning nucleus increases. The expressions mentioned above have been applied to nine different low excitation energy (< or =14 MeV) fission processes for which selected recommended data are available. CompThe expression predicted by the liquid drop model for mass asymmetry of fission is shown to be identically valid for charge and neutron asymmetry also. Two new identities are also reported. In addition, two quantities are defined, namely, the proton dilution number with respect to nucleons and that with respect to neutrons. It is shown that the arithmetic mean of either of these quantities for the average light and heavy fragments equals the corresponding quantity for the fissioning nucleus, and that this equality holds true with notable accuracy in all low-energy fission processes considered.

Talat-Erben, M.; Tokay, R.K.

1981-09-01

69

Number Size Distribution, Mass Concentration, and Particle Composition of PM1, PM2.5, and PM10 in Bag Filling Areas of Carbon Black Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Number size characteristics and PM10 mass concentrations of particles emitted during the packaging of various kinds of carbon blacks were measured continuously in the bag filling areas of three carbon black plants and concurrently at ambient comparison sites. PM10, PM2.5, and PM1 dust fractions were also determined in the bag filling areas. The filter samples were then analyzed for elemental

T. A. J. Kuhlbusch; S. Neumann; H. Fissan

2004-01-01

70

Tensor mass and particle number peak at the same location in the scalar-tensor gravity boson star models - an analytical proof  

E-print Network

Recently in boson star models in framework of Brans-Dicke theory, three possible definitions of mass have been identified, all identical in general relativity, but different in scalar-tensor theories of gravity.It has been conjectured that it's the tensor mass which peaks, as a function of the central density, at the same location where the particle number takes its maximum.This is a very important property which is crucial for stability analysis via catastrophe theory. This conjecture has received some numerical support. Here we give an analytical proof of the conjecture in framework of the generalized scalar-tensor theory of gravity, confirming in this way the numerical calculations.

S. Yazadjiev

1999-06-11

71

An Experimental Modeling and Investigation of Change in Cold Mass Fraction and Nozzle Numbers on Performance of Counter Flow Vortex Tube  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experimental investigation has been performed to realize thorough behavior of a vortex tube system. The vortex tube is a simple device operating as a refrigerating unit without any moving parts. It consists of a principal tube, to which a high pressure gas stream enters tangentially where it splits into two streams: one hot and one cold temperature streams. This paper discusses the experimental investigation of vortex tube performance as it relates to cold mass fraction, and nozzle number. Four different orifices, each with three, four, five and six nozzles respectively, were manufactured and used during the test. The experiments have been conducted with each one of those orifices stated above, and the performance of the vortex tube has been tested with air at inlet pressure of 5 bar and the cold mass fractions of 0.5-0.72.

Mohanty, S. S.; Ray, D. K.

2012-06-01

72

Near-Infrared Properties of Moderate-Redshift Galaxy Clusters: Halo Occupation Number, Mass-to-Light Ratios and Omega(M)  

SciTech Connect

Using K-band imaging for 15 of the Canadian Network for Observational Cosmology (CNOC1) clusters we examine the near-infrared properties of moderate-redshift (0.19 < z < 0.55) galaxy clusters. We find that the number of K-band selected cluster galaxies within R{sub 500} (the Halo Occupation Number, HON) is well-correlated with the cluster dynamical mass (M{sub 500}) and X-ray Temperature (T{sub x}); however, the intrinsic scatter in these scaling relations is 37% and 46% respectively. Comparison with clusters in the local universe shows that the HON-M{sub 500} relation does not evolve significantly between z = 0 and z {approx} 0.3. This suggests that if dark matter halos are disrupted or undergo significant tidal-stripping in high-density regions as seen in numerical simulations, the stellar mass within the halos is tightly bound, and not removed during the process. The total K-band cluster light (L{sub 200},K) and K-band selected richness (parameterized by B{sub gc,K}) are also correlated with both the cluster T{sub x} and M{sub 200}. The total (intrinsic) scatter in the L{sub 200,K}-M{sub 200} and B{sub gc,K}-M{sub 200} relations are 43%(31%) and 35%(18%) respectively and indicates that for massive clusters both L{sub 200,K} and B{sub gc,K} can predict M{sub 200} with similar accuracy as T{sub x}, L{sub x} or optical richness (B{sub gc}). Examination of the mass-to-light ratios of the clusters shows that similar to local clusters, the K-band mass-to-light ratio is an increasing function of halo mass. Using the K-band mass-to-light ratios of the clusters, we apply the Oort technique and find {Omega}{sub m,0} = 0.22 {+-} 0.02, which agrees well with recent combined concordance cosmology parameters, but, similar to previous cluster studies, is on the low-density end of preferred values.

Muzzin, Adam; Yee, H.K.C.; /Toronto U., Astron. Dept.; Hall, Patrick B.; /York U., Canada; Lin, Huan; /Fermilab

2007-03-01

73

Highly sensitive and specific detection of histamine via the formation of a self-assembled magic number cluster with thymine by mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A novel method for the detection of histamine (HIM) via the formation of a self-assembled magic number cluster with thymine (T) by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) is described. The formation of the magic number cluster [T17 + HIM + 2H](2+) shifts the MS signal of histamine to the interference-free higher mass range and the signal intensity is increased by four orders of magnitude. In addition, the formation of [T17 + HIM + 2H](2+) is highly specific to histamine compared with its metabolite and other similar biogenic amines, which may be attributed to both of its amino and imidazole groups. The linear dynamic range of the method is in the range of 1 nM-20 ?M, and the limit of detection can be as low as 0.1 nM. The feasibility of this method is further demonstrated by the quantitative analysis of histamine in a red wine sample. Since little sample preparation or separation is required before the analysis, this method provides a rapid new way for the sensitive and specific detection of histamine by MS. PMID:24804297

Sun, Jiamu; Qin, Zhen; Liu, Jia; Zhang, Chengsen; Luo, Hai

2014-06-21

74

Characterization and parameterization of atmospheric particle number-, mass-, and chemical-size distributions in central Europe during LACE 98 and MINT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Intensive measurements of chemical and physical properties of the atmospheric aerosol have been performed at two sites in central Europe during the Melpitz-Intensive (MINT) in November 1997 and the Lindenberg Aerosol Characterization Experiment 1998 (LACE 98) in July and August 1998. Number-size distributions, hygroscopic particle growth, size-segregated gravimetric mass, and size-segregated chemical masses of water-soluble ions and organic and elemental carbon of aerosol particles have been measured. To obtain information on the quality of the different methods, the number-derived, gravimetric, and chemically derived mass distributions are compared. Gravimetric mass of fine particles is attributed completely to chemical composition by carbonaceous material and ions, including an estimate of the water content due to hygroscopic compounds. For the characterization of coarse particles, which contribute less to the total mass concentration, insoluble material has to be included in the mass balance. Mass concentrations calculated from the number-size distributions are well correlated with the gravimetric mass concentration; however, the calculated mass is larger, especially for the Aitken and accumulation modes. The number-derived mass concentration is most sensitive to the sizing uncertainty of the measured number-size distribution. Moreover, the impactor cutoffs and the limited knowledge about the density of the particles (especially with high carbon content) account for a major part of the uncertainties. The overall uncertainty of the calculated mass, determined as the standard deviation of the average value in a Monte Carlo approach, is found to be about 10%. Lognormal parameters for the number-size and volume-size distributions as well as gravimetric mass-size distribution and corresponding chemical composition are presented for different air mass types. Most of the modal parameters do not differ significantly between the air mass types. Higher mass concentrations are mostly due to an increase in size (of Aitken and accumulation mode) rather than an increase in the number of particles in a given mode. Generally, the mass percent carbon content increases with decreasing particle size. The most pronounced difference with season is an increase of carbon content from summer to winter as well as an increase in nitrate content, resulting in a decrease of sulfate. For nitrate a strong dependence on air mass direction is observed. Sulfate and nitrate are predominantly neutralized by ammonium. With the results of the two experiments, quality-controlled mode parameters and corresponding chemical composition of atmospheric aerosol particles in central Europe are now available for application in models.

Neusüß, C.; Wex, H.; Birmili, W.; Wiedensohler, A.; Koziar, C.; Busch, B.; Brüggemann, E.; Gnauk, T.; Ebert, M.; Covert, D. S.

2002-11-01

75

NACRE II: an update of the NACRE compilation of charged-particle-induced thermonuclear reaction rates for nuclei with mass number A<16  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An update of the NACRE compilation [3] is presented. This new compilation, referred to as NACRE II, reports thermonuclear reaction rates for 34 charged-particle induced, two-body exoergic reactions on nuclides with mass number A<16, of which fifteen are particle-transfer reactions and the rest radiative capture reactions. When compared with NACRE, NACRE II features in particular (1) the addition to the experimental data collected in NACRE of those reported later, preferentially in the major journals of the field by early 2013, and (2) the adoption of potential models as the primary tool for extrapolation to very low energies of astrophysical S-factors, with a systematic evaluation of uncertainties.

Xu, Y.; Takahashi, K.; Goriely, S.; Arnould, M.; Ohta, M.; Utsunomiya, H.

2013-11-01

76

Variation of high-power aluminum-wire array z-pinch dynamics with wire number, load mass, and array radius  

SciTech Connect

A systematic study of annular aluminum-wire z-pinches on the Saturn accelerator shows that the quality of the implosion, (as measured by the radial convergence, the radiated energy, pulse width, and power), increases with wire number. Radiation magnetohydrodynamic (RMHC) xy simulations suggest that the implosion transitions from that of individual wire plasmas to that of a continuous plasma shell when the interwire spacing is reduced below {approximately} 1.4 mm. In this plasma-shell regime, many of the global radiation and plasma characteristics are in agreement with those simulated by 2D-RMHC rz simulations. In this regime, measured changes in the radiation pulse width with variations in load mass and array radius are consistent with the simulations and are explained by the development of 2D fluid motion in the rz plane. Associated variations in the K-shell yield are qualitatively explained by simple radiation-scaling models.

Sanford, T.W.L.; Mock, R.C.; Marder, B.M. [and others

1997-12-01

77

Divergent selection for heat loss in mice: II. Correlated responses in feed intake, body mass, body composition, and number born through fifteen generations.  

PubMed

Divergent selection for heat loss (kcal.kg-.75.d-1), measured in 9- to 11-wk-old male mice, was conducted for 15 generations. Selection for high (MH) and low (ML) heat loss and unselected control (MC) occurred in each of three replicates for a total of nine unique lines. Feed intake in males was measured during Generations 9 through 15. Body mass at commencement of mating in females and at time of measurement of heat loss in males was recorded. Body fat percentage at 12 wk for animals of Generations 6, 10, and 14 was predicted as a function of electrical conductivity and body mass. Litter size was recorded for all generations, and components of litter size were evaluated at Generation 11 in one replicate and Generation 12 in the other two replicates. Feed intake changed in the same direction as heat loss for the MH and ML selections; at Generation 15, the difference between MH and ML (P < .002) was 20.6% of the MC mean. Body mass did not change with selection for heat loss. Differences in body fat percentage were not significant in earlier generations, but at Generation 14, MH and ML were significantly (P < .01) different with MH mice having the lowest fat percentage; MC was intermediate. Selection had a significant (MH vs ML; P < .01) effect on litter size, causing an increase in MH and a decrease in ML. This difference was explained by a difference (P < .01) in ovulation rate. There was no asymmetry of response in feed intake, fatness, litter size, or number of ovulations. PMID:9250506

Nielsen, M K; Freking, B A; Jones, L D; Nelson, S M; Vorderstrasse, T L; Hussey, B A

1997-06-01

78

Emissions of organic aerosol mass, black carbon, particle number, and regulated and unregulated gases from scooters and light and heavy duty vehicles with different fuels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A sampling campaign with seven different types of vehicles was conducted in 2009 at the vehicle test facilities of the Joint Research Centre (JRC) in Ispra (Italy). The vehicles chosen were representative of some categories circulating in Europe and were fueled either with standard gasoline or diesel and some with blends of rapeseed methyl ester biodiesel. The aim of this work was to improve the knowledge about the emission factors of gas phase and particle-associated regulated and unregulated species from vehicle exhaust. Unregulated species such as black carbon (BC), primary organic aerosol (OA) content, particle number (PN), monocyclic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and a~selection of unregulated gaseous compounds, including nitrous acid (N2O), ammonia (NH3), hydrogen cyanide (HCN), formaldehyde (HCHO), acetaldehyde (CH3CHO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and methane (CH4), were measured in real time with a suite of instruments including a high-resolution aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer, a resonance enhanced multi-photon ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer, and a high resolution Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. Diesel vehicles, without particle filters, featured the highest values for particle number, followed by gasoline vehicles and scooters. The particles from diesel and gasoline vehicles were mostly made of BC with a low fraction of OA, while the particles from the scooters were mainly composed of OA. Scooters were characterized by super high emissions factors for OA, which were orders of magnitude higher than for the other vehicles. The heavy duty diesel vehicle (HDDV) featured the highest nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions, while the scooters had the highest emissions for total hydrocarbons and aromatic compounds due to the unburned and partially burned gasoline and lubricant oil mixture. Generally, vehicles fuelled with biodiesel blends showed lower emission factors of OA and total aromatics than those from the standard fuels. The scooters were the main emitters of aromatic compounds, followed by the gasoline vehicle, the diesel vehicles and the HDDV.

Chirico, R.; Clairotte, M.; Adam, T. W.; Giechaskiel, B.; Heringa, M. F.; Elsasser, M.; Martini, G.; Manfredi, U.; Streibel, T.; Sklorz, M.; Zimmermann, R.; DeCarlo, P. F.; Astorga, C.; Baltensperger, U.; Prevot, A. S. H.

2014-06-01

79

Plantaris muscle weakness in old mice: relative contributions of changes in specific force, muscle mass, myofiber cross-sectional area, and number.  

PubMed

The age-related decline in muscle function contributes to the movement limitations in daily life in old age. The age-related loss in muscle force is attributable to loss of myofibers, myofiber atrophy, and a reduction in specific force. The contribution of each of these determinants to muscle weakness in old age is, however, largely unknown. The objective of this study is to determine whether a loss in myofiber number, myofiber atrophy, and a reduction in specific muscle force contribute to the age-related loss of muscle force in 25-month-old mouse. Maximal isometric force of in situ m. plantaris of C57BL/6J male adult (9 months) and old (25 months) mice was determined and related to myofiber number, myofiber size, intramuscular connective tissue content, and proportion of denervated myofibers. Isometric maximal plantaris muscle force was 13 % lower in old than adult mice (0.97?±?0.05 N vs. 0.84?±?0.03 N; P?mass of old mice was not significantly smaller than that of adult mice. There was also no significant myofiber atrophy or myofiber loss. Specific muscle force of old mice was 25 % lower than that of adult mice (0.55?±?0.05 vs. 0.41?±?0.03 N·mm(-2), P?

Ballak, Sam B; Degens, Hans; Busé-Pot, Tinelies; de Haan, Arnold; Jaspers, Richard T

2014-12-01

80

Systematic trends in x-ray emission characteristics of variable-wire-number, fixed-mass, aluminum-array, Z-pinch implosions  

SciTech Connect

Increasing the number of wires an order of magnitude from 10 to almost 200 while simultaneously fixing the total wire mass in annular aluminum-wire-array Z-pinch implosions on the 20 TW Saturn generator [{ital Proceedings of the 6th International IEEE Pulsed Power Conference} (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, NJ, 1987), p. 310] demonstrates two separate power-law trends in the measured x-ray characteristics as a function of the initial interwire gap ({ital g}). These trends are approximately independent of the array radius. When {ital g} decreases from {approximately}6 to 0.4 mm, the peak total radiated power increases by a factor of 20 and the total energy by a factor of 2. There is a more rapid increase in peak power and energy radiated as {ital g} decreases for gaps greater than {approximately}2 mm. This increase is related to a measured decrease in precursor plasma and to a calculated decreased sensitivity of the implosion to azimuthal asymmetries that occurs when individual wire plasmas begin to merge following their vaporization. The substantial increase in power arises from an inferred increase in plasma compression and can be correlated with an almost linear reduction in the calculated effective thickness of the plasma annulus near stagnation as {ital g} decreases. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

Sanford, T.W.; Mock, R.C.; Nash, T.J. [Sandia National Laboratories, P. O. Box 5800, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States)] [Sandia National Laboratories, P. O. Box 5800, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States); Whitney, K.G.; Pulsifer, P.E.; Apruzese, J.P. [Naval Research Laboratory, Radiation Hydrodynamics Branch, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)] [Naval Research Laboratory, Radiation Hydrodynamics Branch, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Mosher, D. [Naval Research Laboratory, Pulsed Power Physics Branch, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)] [Naval Research Laboratory, Pulsed Power Physics Branch, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Peterson, D.L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)] [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Haines, M.G. [Imperial College, The Blackett Laboratory, London SW7 2BZ (United Kingdom)] [Imperial College, The Blackett Laboratory, London SW7 2BZ (United Kingdom)

1999-04-01

81

Effect of an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry sampler interface on electron temperature, electron number density, gas-kinetic temperature and analyte emission intensity upstream in the plasma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thomson scattering, Rayleigh scattering and line-of-sight emission intensities of Ca ion and Sr ion from the inductively coupled plasma were measured in the presence and in the absence of an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry sampler interface. When present, the sampler interface was located 13 mm above the load coil (ALC); optical measurements were made 6, 7 and 8 mm ALC. The experimental results suggest that both the electron temperature ( Te) and gas-kinetic temperature ( Tg) dropped in the presence of the sampler interface, with the change in Tg seemingly greater than that in Te, suggesting a faster cooling process for the heavy particles. In contrast, electron number density ( ne) seemed to be generally increased in the outer regions of the discharge but went down in the central channel, a reflection that ne is possibly dominated by ambipolar diffusion which becomes less efficient as Te drops. Assuming these results, the plasma decays more gradually ALC and deviates from local thermodynamic equilibrium even more significantly in the presence of the sampler interface. Analyte line emission intensity was either depressed or enhanced in the presence of the interface, depending on the element being observed and the operating conditions. In addition, the change in emission intensity caused by the sampler interface became much more dramatic when a matrix element, such as Li or Zn, was introduced.

Lehn, Scott A.; Warner, Kelly A.; Huang, Mao; Hieftje, Gary M.

2002-11-01

82

Estimation of size-resolved ambient particle density based on the measurement of aerosol number, mass, and chemical size distributions in the winter in Beijing.  

PubMed

Simultaneous measurements of aerosol size, distribution of number, mass, and chemical compositions were conducted in the winter of 2007 in Beijing using a Twin Differential Mobility Particle Sizer and a Micro Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor. Both material density and effective density of ambient particles were estimated to be 1.61 ± 0.13 g cm(-3) and 1.62 ± 0.38 g cm(-3) for PM(1.8) and 1.73 ± 0.14 g cm(-3) and 1.67 ± 0.37 g cm(-3) for PM(10). Effective density decreased in the nighttime, indicating the primary particles emission from coal burning influenced the density of ambient particles. Size-resolved material density and effective density showed that both values increased with diameter from about 1.5 g cm(-3) at the size of 0.1 ?m to above 2.0 g cm(-3) in the coarse mode. Material density was significantly higher for particles between 0.56 and 1.8 ?m during clean episodes. Dynamic Shape Factors varied within the range of 0.95-1.13 and decreased with particle size, indicating that coagulation and atmospheric aging processes may change the shape of particles. PMID:22458861

Hu, Min; Peng, Jianfei; Sun, Kang; Yue, Dingli; Guo, Song; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Wu, Zhijun

2012-09-18

83

Variation of high-power aluminum-wire array Z-pinch dynamics with wire number, array radius, and load mass  

SciTech Connect

A systematic study of annular aluminum-wire z-pinches on the Saturn accelerator shows that the quality of the implosion, including the radiated power, increases with wire number. Radiation magnetohydrodynamic (RMEC) xy simulations suggest that the implosion transitions from that of individual wire plasmas to that of a continuous plasma shell when the interwire spacing is reduced below {approximately} 1.4 mm. In the plasma-shell regime, the experimental implosions exhibit 1D- and 2D-code characteristics as evidenced by the presence of a strong first and a weak second radiation pulse that correlates with a strong and weak radial convergence. In this regime, many of the radiation and plasma characteristics are in agreement with those simulated by 2D-RMHC rz simulations. Moreover, measured changes in the radiation pulse width with variations in array mass and radius are consistent with the simulations and are explained by the development of 2D fluid motion in the rz plane. Associated variations in the K-shell yield are qualitatively explained by simple K-shell radiation scaling models.

Sanford, T.W.L.; Mock, R.C.; Marder, B.M. [and others

1997-06-01

84

Three years of aerosol mass, black carbon and particle number concentrations at Montsec (southern Pyrenees, 1570 m a.s.l.)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Time variation of mass particulate matter (PM1 and PM1&minus10), black carbon (BC) and number of particles (N3: number of particles with an aerodynamic diameter higher than 3 nm, and N10: higher than 10 nm) concentrations at the high-altitude site of Montsec (MSC) in the southern Pyrenees was interpreted for the period 2010-2012. At MSC, PM10 (12 ?g m-3) and N7 (2140 # cm-3) three-year arithmetic average concentrations were higher than those measured at other high-altitude sites in central Europe during the same period (PM10: 3-9 ?g m-3 and N: 634-2070 # cm-3). By contrast, BC concentrations at MSC (0.2 ?g m-3) were equal to or even lower than those measured at these European sites (0.2-0.4 ?g m-3). These differences were attributed to the higher relevance of Saharan dust transport and to the higher importance of the biogenic precursor emissions and new particle formation (NPF) processes, and to the lower influence of anthropogenic emissions at MSC. The different time variation of PM and BC concentrations compared with that of N suggests that these aerosol parameters were governed by diverse factors at MSC. Both PM and BC concentrations showed marked differences for different meteorological scenarios, with enhanced concentrations under North African air outbreaks (PM1&minus10: 13 ?g m-3, PM1: 8 ?g m-3 and BC: 0.3 ?g m-3) and low concentrations when Atlantic advections occurred (PM1-10: 5 ?g m-3, PM1: 4 ?g m-3 and BC: 0.1 ?g m-3). PM and BC concentrations increased in summer, with a secondary maximum in early spring, and were at their lowest in winter, due to the contrasting origin of the air masses in the warmer seasons (spring and summer) and in the colder seasons (autumn and winter). The maximum in the warmer seasons was attributed to long-range transport processes that mask the breezes and regional transport breaking the daily cycles of these pollutants. By contrast, PM and BC concentrations showed clear diurnal cycles, with maxima at midday in the colder seasons. A statistically significant weekly variation was also obtained for the BC concentrations, displaying a progressive increase from Tuesday to Saturday, followed by a significant decrease on Sunday and Monday. N concentrations depended more on local meteorological variables such as temperature and solar radiation intensity than on the origin of the air mass. Therefore, arithmetic averages as a function of meteorological episodes showed the highest concentrations of N during summer regional episodes (N3: 4461 # cm-3 and N7: 3021 # cm-3) and the lowest concentrations during winter regional scenarios (N3: 2496 # cm-3 and N7: 1073 # cm-3). This dependence on temperature and solar radiation also accounted for the marked diurnal cycle of N concentrations throughout the year, with a peak at midday and for the absence of a weekly pattern. Measurements carried out at MSC enabled us to characterize the tropospheric background aerosols in the western Mediterranean basin (WMB). Our results highlight the importance of the NPF processes in southern Europe, underline the high contribution of long-range dust transport with respect to central Europe and its prevalence in elevated layers, and reveal that MSC is much less affected by anthropogenic emissions than other high-altitude sites in central Europe.

Ripoll, A.; Pey, J.; Minguillón, M. C.; Pérez, N.; Pandolfi, M.; Querol, X.; Alastuey, A.

2014-04-01

85

A Novel Derivatization Reagent in the Determination of the Number of OH End Groups in Poly(ethylene glycol) by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry  

PubMed Central

The potential of a novel derivatization reagent, trifluoroacetic anhydride (TFAA), in determining the number of OH groups in poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) was investigated by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS). The MALDI mass spectra of the products revealed peaks of sodiated derivative cations, whose shift by the respective increments, ?m/z: 96?×?number of OH, allowed for the determination of the number of end functional groups with active hydrogens. In the present study, complete acylation of OH groups by TFAA proceeded rapidly, and only required mixing in acetonitrile solvent without purification. As a result, the number of OH end groups of PEG could be determined rapidly. PMID:24860712

Kagawa, Shuji

2013-01-01

86

Mass Media and Public Opinion: Report of the Soviet-Finnish Seminar (5th, Moscow, USSR, May 18-22, 1987). Publications Series B, Number 24.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A compilation of papers from a joint Finnish-Russian seminar on problems of communication research, this collection presents diverse opinions and results from researchers and observers in both countries. The titles of the papers and their authors are as follows: (1) "Role of Research and Training in Mass Communication and Public Opinion" (Pertti…

Jyrkiainen, Jyrki, Comp.

87

Number Track  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students can use this interactive Flash applet to practice ordering whole numbers within 20. The applet displays a track and number tiles, which the user drags to create the correct sequence of numbers 1 through 20. Users may choose from four levels: place 5 missing numbers, place 10 numbers, arrange all 20 numbers, or create your own challenge.

Bunker, Dan

2010-01-01

88

Some thoughts on the muon-catalyzed fusion process for antimatter propulsion and for the production of high A mass numbers antinuclei  

SciTech Connect

The muon-catalyzed fusion process has a very valuable role for antiproton science and technology. Several schemes of propulsion energy enhancement of the antiproton-fueled propulsion using the muon-catalyzed fusion are discussed. Production of high A mass antinuclei by the muon-catalyzed fusion using the clustered antihydrogen molecule and quark-gluon plasma formation by annihilation of the produced high A antimatter with regular nuclei are discussed. 22 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Takahashi, Hiroshi

1987-01-01

89

Number Sense  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Hacker has given you a challenge. Heâll run his number machine to create a number. Then youâll get three numbers between one and nine. The challenge is to make a number that is larger than the one on Hackerâs machine. Be careful though--Hacker will give you numbers that canât be bigger than his!

2008-01-01

90

Number Line  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This iOS app helps students to visualize number sentences and create models for addition, subtractions, multiplication, and division. The number line can be adjusted to represent multiples of numbers from one to one hundred.

Clarity Innovations, Inc.

2013-11-22

91

MOTION OF AND MASS TRANSFER FROM AN ASSEMBLAGE OF SOLID SPHERES MOVING IN A NON-NEWTONIAN FLUID AT HIGH REYNOLDS NUMBERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

An approximate solution for the motion of an assemblage of solid spheres moving in a power-law fluid in the high Reynolds number region is obtained using a combination of Happel's free-surface cell model and the boundary layer theory. It is theoretically predicted that the drag coefficient will decrease with the increase of the shear-thinning anomaly. The results of the present

YOSHINORI KAWASE; JAROMIR J. ULBRECHT

1981-01-01

92

Number Factory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive game develops fluency and flexibility with whole number operations. In each round the player is given 4 single-digit whole numbers, presented in the context of a factory. The player uses each number exactly once with the interactive calculator to arrive as close as possible to a given target number.

Doorman, Michiel

2003-01-01

93

Number Sense  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this online math game from Cyberchase, learners play against Hacker in a place value game. The goal is to make a number bigger than the one created by Hacker's number machine. Learners select the numbers in the order in which they want them to go into their machine. The challenge is to either make a number larger than the one on Hacker's machine or realize that it's impossible to make a number bigger than Hacker's, no matter what the combination.

Wnet

2011-01-01

94

Mass, quark-number, and sNN dependence of the second and fourth flow harmonics in ultrarelativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present STAR measurements of the azimuthal anisotropy parameter v2 for pions, kaons, protons, ?,?¯,?+?¯, and ?+?¯, along with v4 for pions, kaons, protons, and ?+?¯ at midrapidity for Au+Au collisions at sNN=62.4 and 200 GeV. The v2(pT) values for all hadron species at 62.4 GeV are similar to those observed in 130 and 200 GeV collisions. For observed kinematic ranges, v2 values at 62.4, 130, and 200 GeV are as little as 10 15% larger than those in Pb+Pb collisions at sNN=17.3 GeV. At intermediate transverse momentum (pT from 1.5 5 GeV/c), the 62.4 GeV v2(pT) and v4(pT) values are consistent with the quark-number scaling first observed at 200 GeV. A four-particle cumulant analysis is used to assess the nonflow contributions to pions and protons and some indications are found for a smaller nonflow contribution to protons than pions. Baryon v2 is larger than antibaryon v2 at 62.4 and 200 GeV, perhaps indicating either that the initial spatial net-baryon distribution is anisotropic, that the mechanism leading to transport of baryon number from beam- to midrapidity enhances v2 or that antibaryon and baryon annihilation is larger in the in-plane direction.

Abelev, B. I.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Ahammed, Z.; Anderson, B. D.; Arkhipkin, D.; Averichev, G. S.; Bai, Y.; Balewski, J.; Barannikova, O.; Barnby, L. S.; Baudot, J.; Baumgart, S.; Bekele, S.; Belaga, V. V.; Bellingeri-Laurikainen, A.; Bellwied, R.; Benedosso, F.; Betts, R. R.; Bhardwaj, S.; Bhasin, A.; Bhati, A. K.; Bichsel, H.; Bielcik, J.; Bielcikova, J.; Bland, L. C.; Blyth, S.-L.; Bombara, M.; Bonner, B. E.; Botje, M.; Bouchet, J.; Brandin, A. V.; Bravar, A.; Burton, T. P.; Bystersky, M.; Cadman, R. V.; Cai, X. Z.; Caines, H.; Sánchez, M. Calderón De La Barca; Callner, J.; Castillo, J.; Catu, O.; Cebra, D.; Chajecki, Z.; Chaloupka, P.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chen, H. F.; Chen, J. H.; Cheng, J.; Cherney, M.; Chikanian, A.; Christie, W.; Chung, S. U.; Coffin, J. P.; Cormier, T. M.; Cosentino, M. R.; Cramer, J. G.; Crawford, H. J.; Das, D.; Das, S.; Dash, S.; Daugherity, M.; Moura, M. M. De; Dedovich, T. G.; Dephillips, M.; Derevschikov, A. A.; Didenko, L.; Dietel, T.; Djawotho, P.; Dogra, S. M.; Dong, X.; Drachenberg, J. L.; Draper, J. E.; Du, F.; Dunin, V. B.; Dunlop, J. C.; Mazumdar, M. R. Dutta; Eckardt, V.; Edwards, W. R.; Efimov, L. G.; Emelianov, V.; Engelage, J.; Eppley, G.; Erazmus, B.; Estienne, M.; Fachini, P.; Fatemi, R.; Fedorisin, J.; Filimonov, K.; Filip, P.; Finch, E.; Fine, V.; Fisyak, Y.; Fu, J.; Gagliardi, C. A.; Gaillard, L.; Ganti, M. S.; Garcia-Solis, E.; Ghazikhanian, V.; Ghosh, P.; Gorbunov, Y. G.; Gos, H.; Grebenyuk, O.; Grosnick, D.; Guertin, S. M.; Guimaraes, K. S. F. F.; Gupta, N.; Haag, B.; Hallman, T. J.; Hamed, A.; Harris, J. W.; He, W.; Heinz, M.; Henry, T. W.; Hepplemann, S.; Hippolyte, B.; Hirsch, A.; Hjort, E.; Hoffman, A. M.; Hoffmann, G. W.; Hofman, D.; Hollis, R.; Horner, M. J.; Huang, H. Z.; Huang, S. L.; Hughes, E. W.; Humanic, T. J.; Igo, G.; Iordanova, A.; Jacobs, P.; Jacobs, W. W.; Jakl, P.; Jia, F.; Jones, P. G.; Judd, E. G.; Kabana, S.; Kang, K.; Kapitan, J.; Kaplan, M.; Keane, D.; Kechechyan, A.; Kettler, D.; Khodyrev, V. Yu.; Kim, B. C.; Kiryluk, J.; Kisiel, A.; Kislov, E. M.; Klein, S. R.; Knospe, A. G.; Kocoloski, A.; Koetke, D. D.; Kollegger, T.; Kopytine, M.; Kotchenda, L.; Kouchpil, V.; Kowalik, K. L.; Kravtsov, P.; Kravtsov, V. I.; Krueger, K.; Kuhn, C.; Kulikov, A. I.; Kumar, A.; Kurnadi, P.; Kuznetsov, A. A.; Lamont, M. A. C.; Landgraf, J. M.; Lange, S.; Lapointe, S.; Laue, F.; Lauret, J.; Lebedev, A.; Lednicky, R.; Lee, C.-H.; Lehocka, S.; Levine, M. J.; Li, C.; Li, Q.; Li, Y.; Lin, G.; Lin, X.; Lindenbaum, S. J.; Lisa, M. A.; Liu, F.; Liu, H.; Liu, J.; Liu, L.; Liu, Z.; Ljubicic, T.; Llope, W. J.; Long, H.; Longacre, R. S.; Love, W. A.; Lu, Y.; Ludlam, T.; Lynn, D.; Ma, G. L.; Ma, J. G.; Ma, Y. G.; Magestro, D.; Mahapatra, D. P.; Majka, R.; Mangotra, L. K.; Manweiler, R.; Margetis, S.; Markert, C.; Martin, L.; Matis, H. S.; Matulenko, Yu. A.; McClain, C. J.; McShane, T. S.; Melnick, Yu.; Meschanin, A.; Millane, J.; Miller, M. L.; Minaev, N. G.; Mioduszewski, S.; Mironov, C.; Mischke, A.; Mishra, D. K.; Mitchell, J.; Mohanty, B.; Molnar, L.; Moore, C. F.; Morozov, D. A.; Munhoz, M. G.; Nandi, B. K.; Nattrass, C.; Nayak, T. K.; Nelson, J. M.; Nepali, C.; Netrakanti, P. K.; Nogach, L. V.; Nurushev, S. B.; Odyniec, G.; Ogawa, A.; Okorokov, V.; Oldenburg, M.; Olson, D.; Pachr, M.; Pal, S. K.; Panebratsev, Y.; Pavlinov, A. I.; Pawlak, T.; Peitzmann, T.; Perevoztchikov, V.; Perkins, C.; Peryt, W.; Phatak, S. C.; Planinic, M.; Pluta, J.; Poljak, N.; Porile, N.; Porter, J.; Poskanzer, A. M.; Potekhin, M.; Potrebenikova, E.; Potukuchi, B. V. K. S.; Prindle, D.; Pruneau, C.; Putschke, J.; Qattan, I. A.; Rakness, G.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Ray, R. L.; Razin, S. V.; Reinnarth, J.; Relyea, D.; Ridiger, A.; Ritter, H. G.; Roberts, J. B.; Rogachevskiy, O. V.; Romero, J. L.; Rose, A.; Roy, C.; Ruan, L.; Russcher, M. J.; Sahoo, R.; Sakuma, T.; Salur, S.; Sandweiss, J.; Sarsour, M.; Sazhin, P. S.; Schambach, J.; Scharenberg, R. P.; Schmitz, N.; Schweda, K.; Seger, J.; Selyuzhenkov, I.; Seyboth, P.; Shabetai, A.; Shahaliev, E.; Shao, M.; Sharma, M.; Shen, W. Q.; Shimanskiy, S. S.; Sichtermann, E. P.; Simon, F.; Singaraju, R. N.; Smirnov, N.; Snellings, R.; Sorensen, P.; Sowinski, J.; Speltz, J.; Spinka, H. M.; Srivastava, B.; Stadnik, A.; Stanislaus, T. D. S.; Staszak, D.; Stock, R.; Stolpovsky, A.; Strikhanov, M.; Stringfellow, B.; Suaide, A. A. P.; Suarez, M. C.; Subba, N. L.; Sugarbaker, E.; Sumbera, M.; Sun, Z.; Surrow, B.; Swanger, M.; Symons, T. J. M.; Toledo, A. Szanto De; Takahashi, J.; Tang, A. H.; Tarnowsky, T.; Thomas, J. H.; Timmins, A. R.; Timoshenko, S.; Tokarev, M.; Trainor, T. A.; Trentalange, S.; Tribble, R. E.; Tsai, O. D.; Ulery, J.; Ullrich, T.; Underwood, D. G.; Buren, G. Van; Kolk, N. Van Der; Leeuwen, M. Van

2007-05-01

95

Absolute number densities of helium metastable atoms determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy in helium plasma-based discharges used as ambient desorption/ionization sources for mass spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The absolute number densities of helium atoms in the 2s 3S1 metastable state were determined in four plasma-based ambient desorption/ionization sources by atomic absorption spectroscopy. The plasmas included a high-frequency dielectric barrier discharge (HF-DBD), a low temperature plasma (LTP), and two atmospheric-pressure glow discharges, one with AC excitation and the other with DC excitation. Peak densities in the luminous plumes downstream from the discharge capillaries of the HF-DBD and the LTP were 1.39 × 1012 cm- 3 and 0.011 × 1012 cm- 3, respectively. Neither glow discharge produced a visible afterglow, and no metastable atoms were detected downstream from the capillary exits. However, densities of 0.58 × 1012 cm- 3 and 0.97 × 1012 cm- 3 were measured in the interelectrode regions of the AC and DC glow discharges, respectively. Time-resolved measurements of metastable atom densities revealed significant random variations in the timing of pulsed absorption signals with respect to the voltage waveforms applied to the discharges.

Reininger, Charlotte; Woodfield, Kellie; Keelor, Joel D.; Kaylor, Adam; Fernández, Facundo M.; Farnsworth, Paul B.

2014-10-01

96

Mass, quark-number, and $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ dependence of the second and fourth flow harmonics in ultra-relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions  

E-print Network

We present STAR measurements of the azimuthal anisotropy parameter $v_2$ for pions, kaons, protons, $\\Lambda$, $\\bar{\\Lambda}$, $\\Xi+\\bar{\\Xi}$, and $\\Omega + \\bar{\\Omega}$, along with $v_4$ for pions, kaons, protons, and $\\Lambda + \\bar{\\Lambda}$ at mid-rapidity for Au+Au collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}=62.4$ and 200 GeV. The $v_2(p_T)$ values for all hadron species at 62.4 GeV are similar to those observed in 130 and 200 GeV collisions. For observed kinematic ranges, $v_2$ values at 62.4, 130, and 200 GeV are as little as 10%--15% larger than those in Pb+Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}=17.3$ GeV. At intermediate transverse momentum ($p_T$ from 1.5--5 GeV/c), the 62.4 GeV $v_2(p_T)$ and $v_4(p_T)$ values are consistent with the quark-number scaling first observed at 200 GeV. A four-particle cumulant analysis is used to assess the non-flow contributions to pions and protons and some indications are found for a smaller non-flow contribution to protons than pions. Baryon $v_2$ is larger than anti-baryon $v_2...

Abelev, B I; Ahammed, Z; Anderson, B D; Arkhipkin, D; Averichev, G S; Bai, Y; Balewski, J; Barannikova, O; Barnby, L S; Baudot, J; Baumgart, S; Bekele, S; Belaga, V V; Bellingeri-Laurikainen, A; Bellwied, R; Benedosso, F; Betts, R R; Bhardwaj, S; Bhasin, A; Bhati, A K; Bichsel, H; Bielcik, J; Bielcikova, J; Bland, L C; Blyth, S L; Bombara, M; Bonner, B E; Botje, M; Bouchet, J; Brandin, A V; Bravar, A; Burton, T P; Bystersky, M; Cadman, R V; Cai, X Z; Caines, H; Calderón de la Barca-Sanchez, M; Callner, J; Castillo, J; Catu, O; Cebra, D; Chajecki, Z; Chaloupka, P; Chattopadhyay, S; Chen, H F; Chen, J H; Cheng, J; Cherney, M; Chikanian, A; Christie, W; Chung, S U; Coffin, J P; Cormier, T M; Cosentino, M R; Cramer, J G; Crawford, H J; Das, D; Das, S; Dash, S; Daugherity, M; De Moura, M M; De Phillips, M; Dedovich, T G; Derevshchikov, A A; Didenko, L; Dietel, T; Djawotho, P; Dogra, S M; Dong, X; Drachenberg, J L; Draper, J E; Du, F; Dunin, V B; Dunlop, J C; Dutta-Majumdar, M R; Eckardt, V; Edwards, W R; Efimov, L G; Emelianov, V; Engelage, J; Eppley, G; Erazmus, B; Estienne, M; Fachini, P; Fatemi, R; Fedorisin, J; Filimonov, K; Filip, P; Finch, E; Fine, V; Fisyak, Yu; Fu, J; Gagliardi, C A; Gaillard, L; Ganti, M S; García-Solis, E; Ghazikhanian, V; Ghosh, P; Gorbunov, Y G; Gos, H; Grebenyuk, O; Grosnick, D P; Guertin, S M; Guimaraes, K S F F; Gupta, N; Haag, B; Hallman, T J; Hamed, A; Harris, J W; He, W; Heinz, M; Henry, T W; Hepplemann, S; Hippolyte, B; Hirsch, A; Hjort, E; Hoffman, A M; Hoffmann, G W; Hofman, D; Hollis, R; Horner, M J; Huang, H Z; Huang, S L; Hughes, E W; Humanic, T J; Igo, G; Iordanova, A; Jacobs, P; Jacobs, W W; Jakl, P; Jia, F; Jones, P G; Judd, E G; Kabana, S; Kang, K; Kapitan, J; Kaplan, M; Keane, D; Kechechyan, A; Kettler, D; Khodyrev, V Yu; Kim, B C; Kiryluk, J; Kisiel, A; Kislov, E M; Klein, S R; Knospe, A G; Kocoloski, A; Koetke, D D; Kollegger, T; Kopytine, M; Kotchenda, L; Kouchpil, V; Kowalik, K L; Kravtsov, P; Kravtsov, V I; Krüger, K; Kuhn, C; Kulikov, A I; Kumar, A; Kurnadi, P; Kuznetsov, A A; La Pointe, S; Lamont, M A C; Landgraf, J M; Lange, S; Laue, F; Lauret, J; Le Vine, M J; Lebedev, A; Lednicky, R; Lee, C H; Lehocka, S; Li, C; Li, Q; Li, Y; Lin, G; Lin, X; Lindenbaum, S J; Lisa, M A; Liu, F; Liu, H; Liu, J; Liu, L; Liu, Z; Ljubicic, T; Llope, W J; Long, H; Longacre, R S; Love, W A; Lu, Y; Ludlam, T; Lynn, D; Ma, G L; Ma, J G; Ma, Y G; Magestro, D; Mahapatra, D P; Majka, R; Mangotra, L K; Manweiler, R; Margetis, S; Markert, C; Martin, L; Matis, H S; Matulenko, Yu A; McClain, C J; McShane, T S; Melnik, Yu M; Meschanin, A; Millane, J; Miller, M L; Minaev, N G; Mioduszewski, S; Mironov, C; Mischke, A; Mishra, D K; Mitchell, J; Mohanty, B; Molnár, L; Moore, C F; Morozov, D A; Munhoz, M G; Nandi, B K; Nattrass, C; Nayak, T K; Nelson, J M; Nepali, N S; Netrakanti, P K; Nogach, L V; Nurushev, S B; Odyniec, Grazyna Janina; Ogawa, A; Okorokov, V; Oldenburg, M; Olson, D; Pachr, M; Pal, S K; Panebratsev, Yu A; Pavlinov, A I; Pawlak, T; Peitzmann, T; Perevozchikov, V; Perkins, C; Peryt, W; Phatak, S C; Planinic, M; Pluta, J; Poljak, N; Porile, N; Porter, J; Poskanzer, A M; Potekhin, M V; Potrebenikova, E V; Potukuchi, B V K S; Prindle, D; Pruneau, C; Putschke, J; Qattan, I A; Rakness, G; Raniwala, R; Raniwala, S; Ray, R L; Razin, S V; Reinnarth, J; Relyea, D; Ridiger, A; Ritter, H G; Roberts, J B; Rogachevski, O V; Romero, J L; Rose, A; Roy, C; Ruan, L; Russcher, M J; Sahoo, R; Sakuma, T; Salur, S; Sandweiss, J; Sarsour, M; Sazhin, P S; Schambach, J; Scharenberg, R P; Schmitz, N; Schweda, K; Seger, J; Selyuzhenkov, I; Seyboth, P; Shabetai, A; Shahaliev, E; Shao, M; Sharma, M; Shen, W Q; Shimansky, S S; Sichtermann, E P; Simon, F; Singaraju, R N; Smirnov, N; Snellings, R; Sowinski, J; Speltz, J; Spinka, H M; Srivastava, B; Stadnik, A; Stanislaus, T D S; Staszak, D; Stock, R; Stolpovsky, A; Strikhanov, M N; Stringfellow, B C; Suaide, A A P; Suarez, M C; Subba, N L; Sugarbaker, E R; Sumbera, M; Sun, Z; Surrow, B; Swanger, M; Symons, T J M; Szanto de Toledo, A; Sørensen, P; Takahashi, J; Tang, A H; Tarnowsky, T J; Thomas, J H; Timmins, A R; Timoshenko, S; Tokarev, M; Trainor, T A; Trentalange, S; Tribble, R E; Tsai, O D; Ulery, J; Ullrich, T; Underwood, D G; Van Buren, G; Van Leeuwen, M; Van der Kolk, N; Van der Molen, A M; Varma, R; Vasilev, A N; Vasilevski, I M; Vernet, R; Vigdor, S E; Viyogi, Y P; Vokal, S; Voloshin, S A; Waggoner, W T; Wang, F; Wang, G; Wang, J S; Wang, X L; Wang, Y; Watson, J W; Webb, J C; Westfall, G D; Wetzler, A; Whitten, C; Wieman, H; Wissink, S W; Witt, R; Wu, J; Xu, N; Xu, Q H; Xu, Z; Yepes, P; Yoo, I K; Yurevich, V I; Zhan, W; Zhang, H; Zhang, W M; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Z P; Zhao, Y; Zhong, C; Zhou, J; Zoulkarneev, R; Zoulkarneeva, Y; Zubarev, A N; Zuo, J X

2007-01-01

97

Number Cruncher  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Science NetLinks interactive game helps students increase their logic and decision making skills by challenging a player to consider a series of mathematical processes to find a path from a starting number to a goal number in a math maze. The activity appears as a 5x5 matrix of numbers, each of which has an operation symbol next to it, indicating whether it will be added to, subtracted from, or multiplied by the previous number. Starting in the center with a given number, players choose an adjoining number to complete the next step and they proceed until successfully reaching the goal number or until they have run out of usable numbers on the game board. To add an additional challenge to the game, a player can limit each level to reaching the target in seven or fewer steps.

2011-10-13

98

NUMBER SENSE  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will practice counting to 100, making numbers with base ten blocks and practicing ordinal numbers! Math is FUN! Lets have fun practicing counting to 100 ! Click when you are ready!Counting Now that you have practiced counting to 100, lets use the base ten blocks to make the number that is on the screen. Click when you are ready!Working with Base Ten Blocks We have now practiced counting and making numbers, lets ...

Simpson, Ms.

2007-10-27

99

Number Factory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive Java applet promotes number sense, estimation, and provides practice with order of operations. The player's goal is to make a numerical expression using the four given numbers and the four basic operations with the result being the target number (or as close as they can get to it). The student can also use brackets in their calculation.

Doorman, Michiel

2012-01-07

100

An investigation of the heat and mass transfer by free convection from humid air to a horizontal metal plate under frosting conditions  

E-print Network

fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE January, 1967 Fh)or Sub)ect: Mechanical Engineering AN INVESTIGATION OF THE HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER BY FREE CONVECTION FROM HUMID AIR TO A HORIZONTAL METAL PIATE UNDER FROSTING... Sketch ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 16 Photographs of Frost Formation e ~ ~ ~ i ~ i i ~ 23 - 26 LIST OF CURVES 13 - 14 Temperature and Concentration Boundary Layer Profile ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 58 59 15 ? 16 Accumulation of Frost Grosth vs. Time...

Bell, Bobby

2012-06-07

101

Number Grids and Number Triangles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Practice counting, counting by tens, place value, and fact families by entering your answers into the blank boxes; click the big blue and green buttons to check your work. Each of the five levels of Number Grid activities displays a section of a matrix containing a set of of consecutive whole numbers. A move from one number to the next within a row corresponds to a change of one; a move from one number to the next within a column refers to a change of ten. The three levels of Number Triangle activities provide practice with fact families and inverse relationships through flash cards. An addition/subtraction Number Triangle has two addends and a sum; a multiplication/division Number Triangle has two factors and a product.

Brown, Quincy; Fetter, Annie

2006-08-01

102

Number Watch  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

John Brignell, Professor Emeritus from the Department of Electronics & Computer Science at the University of Southampton, is the author of this informal website "devoted to the monitoring of the misleading numbers that rain down on us via the media." Brignell says he aims to "nail" a few of the "Single Issue Fanatics (SIFs), politicians, bureaucrats, quasi-scientists (junk, pseudo- or just bad)," who use misleading numbers to write catchy articles or who try to keep numbers away from public notice. Since April 2000, he has been posting a "number of the month" as well as a "number for the year," which offer his commentary on media usage of misleading numbers and explanations for why the numbers are misleading. He also posts book reviews and an extensive list of online resources on statistics and statistics education. The FAQ section includes answers to some interesting questions, such as "Is there such a thing as average global temperature?" and some more basic questions such as "What is the Normal Distribution and what is so normal about it?" The Bits and Pieces section includes a variety of short articles on statistics and his definitions for some terms he uses on the website. Visitors are also invited to join the discussion forum (complete with a few advertisements) and view comments by others who want to discuss "wrong numbers in science, politics and the media." A few comments sent to Brignell and his responses are also posted online. This site is also reviewed in the February 11, 2005_NSDL MET Report_.

103

Bone Mass Measurement: What the Numbers Mean  

MedlinePLUS

... PDF (168 KB) Español Chinese (??) Related Resources Bone Health for Life What Is Bone? Partner Resources Surgeon General's Report on Bone Health and Osteoporosis Surgeon General's Report: What It Means ...

104

Number Guessing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is instructive and interesting to find hidden numbers by using different positional numeration systems. Most of the present guessing techniques use the binary system expressed as less-than, greater-than or present-absent type information. This article describes how, by employing four cards having integers 1-64 written in different colours, one…

Sezin, Fatin

2009-01-01

105

Numbers, Please!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What topic would you choose if you had the luxury of writing forever? In this article, John Thelin provides his response: He would opt to write about the history of higher education in a way that relies on quantitative data. "Numbers, please!" is his research request in taking on a longitudinal study of colleges and universities over…

Thelin, John R.

2013-01-01

106

Neutrino mass  

SciTech Connect

Neutrinos play a dominant role in both particle physics, astrophysics, and cosmology. In the our present understanding of the strong, weak, and electromagnetic forces, the group structure of the Standard Model is SU(3)[sub C] [circle times] SU(2)[sub L] [circle times] U(I)[sub EM]. In the Weinberg-Salam-Glashow Standard Electroweak Model, left-handed neutrinos sit in a doublet, while right-handed neutrinos are in a singlet, and therefore do not interact with the other known particles. Also in this model, the neutrinos are intrinsically massless. However, while the W-S-G model provides an amazingly accurate picture of our present cold Universe, It has a number of deficits. The Standard Model does not explain the origin of the group structure, It does not reduce the number of coupling constants required, nor does it offer any prediction for the physical masses of the particles. Thus, it is generally assumed that the Standard Model is but a subset of some larger gauge theory. A wide variety of Grand Unified field Theories (GUTs), Super Symmetric Models (SUSY), and Superstring models have been proposed as the model for this larger structure. In general, these models predict nonzero neutrino masses and contain mechanisms that provide for lepton-number violation. Thus, a variety of new phenomena are predicted, including finite neutrino masses and the possibility that neutrinos can oscillate from one type to another. This report looks at the possibility of detecting neutrino vat mass.

Bowles, T.J.

1993-01-01

107

Neutrino mass  

SciTech Connect

Neutrinos play a dominant role in both particle physics, astrophysics, and cosmology. In the our present understanding of the strong, weak, and electromagnetic forces, the group structure of the Standard Model is SU(3){sub C} {circle_times} SU(2){sub L} {circle_times} U(I){sub EM}. In the Weinberg-Salam-Glashow Standard Electroweak Model, left-handed neutrinos sit in a doublet, while right-handed neutrinos are in a singlet, and therefore do not interact with the other known particles. Also in this model, the neutrinos are intrinsically massless. However, while the W-S-G model provides an amazingly accurate picture of our present cold Universe, It has a number of deficits. The Standard Model does not explain the origin of the group structure, It does not reduce the number of coupling constants required, nor does it offer any prediction for the physical masses of the particles. Thus, it is generally assumed that the Standard Model is but a subset of some larger gauge theory. A wide variety of Grand Unified field Theories (GUTs), Super Symmetric Models (SUSY), and Superstring models have been proposed as the model for this larger structure. In general, these models predict nonzero neutrino masses and contain mechanisms that provide for lepton-number violation. Thus, a variety of new phenomena are predicted, including finite neutrino masses and the possibility that neutrinos can oscillate from one type to another. This report looks at the possibility of detecting neutrino vat mass.

Bowles, T.J.

1993-04-01

108

Sixth Goddard Conference on Mass Storage Systems and Technologies Held in Cooperation with the Fifteenth IEEE Symposium on Mass Storage Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document contains copies of those technical papers received in time for publication prior to the Sixth Goddard Conference on Mass Storage Systems and Technologies which is being held in cooperation with the Fifteenth IEEE Symposium on Mass Storage Systems at the University of Maryland-University College Inn and Conference Center March 23-26, 1998. As one of an ongoing series, this Conference continues to provide a forum for discussion of issues relevant to the management of large volumes of data. The Conference encourages all interested organizations to discuss long term mass storage requirements and experiences in fielding solutions. Emphasis is on current and future practical solutions addressing issues in data management, storage systems and media, data acquisition, long term retention of data, and data distribution. This year's discussion topics include architecture, tape optimization, new technology, performance, standards, site reports, vendor solutions. Tutorials will be available on shared file systems, file system backups, data mining, and the dynamics of obsolescence.

Kobler, Benjamin (Editor); Hariharan, P. C. (Editor)

1998-01-01

109

Centre of Mass, Moments, Torque Centre of Mass  

E-print Network

Centre of Mass, Moments, Torque Centre of Mass If you support a body at its center of mass (in a uniform gravitational field) it balances perfectly. That's the definition of the center of mass of the body. If the body consists of a m1 m2 m3 m4 finite number of masses m1, · · · , mn attached

Feldman, Joel

110

Mass spectrometer mixture calibrations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mass spectrometric analyses of hydrogen isotope mixtures can be difficult to make for a number of reasons. The most difficult problem is the possibility of confronting extremely great and extremely small relative mass differences in the same analysis. Commercial mass spectrometers are now available that can overcome these problems. The analytical capabilities and limitations of these instruments will be discussed.

Hicks

1986-01-01

111

VOLUME 80, NUMBER 9 P H Y S I C A L R E V I E W L E T T E R S 2 MARCH 1998 Experimental Limits on the Photon Mass and Cosmic Magnetic Vector Potential  

E-print Network

- gested by Georgi, Ginsparg, and Glashow [10] to affect cosmic background radiation. Photon mass, a very. Possible anisotropy of the speed of light with respect to the cosmic background radiation [11] may on the Photon Mass and Cosmic Magnetic Vector Potential Roderic Lakes Department of Engineering Physics

Lakes, Roderic

112

Cepheid Mass-loss and the Pulsation -- Evolutionary Mass Discrepancy  

E-print Network

I investigate the discrepancy between the evolution and pulsation masses for Cepheid variables. A number of recent works have proposed that non-canonical mass-loss can account for the mass discrepancy. This mass-loss would be such that a 5Mo star loses approximately 20% of its mass by arriving at the Cepheid instability strip; a 14Mo star, none. Such findings would pose a serious challenge to our understanding of mass-loss. I revisit these results in light of the Padova stellar evolutionary models and find evolutionary masses are ($17\\pm5$)% greater than pulsation masses for Cepheids between 5mass discrepancy.

Stefan C. Keller

2008-01-09

113

Paint by Number  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Only in America, one might say, would artistic self-expression be so successfully mass produced, commodified, and regimented. Nevertheless, in a brave attempt at recuperation, the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of American History offers this new Website on the popular 1950s' hobby of painting by number from the perspective of "the artists and entrepreneurs who created the popular paint kits, the cultural critics who reviled them, and the hobbyists who happily completed them and hung them in their homes." Taking a decidedly cultural studies approach, the Website stresses the pleasures derived from the activity as well as the modifications to the kits made by many participants. It also places the phenomenon in the context of the culture of the 1950s, particularly its expansion of leisure time. There are plenty of images here of the creation of the numbers kits as well as representations of the finished product. A bibliography and a bulletin board for posting reminiscences about painting by number are also provided. The authors claim the hobby, which pretty much died out in the 1960s, had the "peculiarly American virtue" of inviting people "who never held a brush before to enter a world of art and creativity." The editors invite our readers to be the judge of that.

2001-01-01

114

The Mass Extinctions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This brief overview of the six generally agreed-upon mass extinction events in geologic history examines the gaps in the fossil record and the possibility of a cyclic nature to mass extinctions. Links are provided to information on each of the six known mass extinction events, including their approximate ages, types and numbers or percentages of species that disappeared, and some postulated reasons for the die-offs.

115

Salem numbers and Pisot numbers via interlacing  

E-print Network

We present a general construction of Salem numbers via rational functions whose zeros and poles mostly lie on the unit circle and satisfy an interlacing condition. This extends and unifies earlier work. We then consider the "obvious" limit points of the set of Salem numbers produced by our theorems, and show that these are all Pisot numbers, in support of a conjecture of Boyd. We then show that all Pisot numbers arise in this way. Combining this with a theorem of Boyd, we show that our theorems produce all Salem numbers.

McKee, James

2010-01-01

116

Nuclear Masses in Astrophysics  

E-print Network

Among all nuclear ground-state properties, atomic masses are highly specific for each particular combination of N and Z and the data obtained apply to a variety of physics topics. One of the most crucial questions to be addressed in mass spectrometry of unstable radionuclides is the one of understanding the processes of element formation in the Universe. To this end, accurate atomic mass values of a large number of exotic nuclei participating in nucleosynthesis are among the key input data in large-scale reaction network calculations. In this paper, a review on the latest achievements in mass spectrometry for nuclear astrophysics is given.

Christine Weber; Klaus Blaum; Hendrik Schatz

2008-12-09

117

High-resolution mass spectrometric study of pure helium droplets, and droplets doped with krypton  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mass spectra of doped and undoped helium droplets are presented. The high resolution of the time-of-flight spectrometer ( m/ ?m ? 5000) makes it possible to fully resolve small helium cluster ions from impurities and to unambiguously identify abundance anomalies in the size distribution of He n +. The yield of He4 + shows the well-known enhancement relative to other small cluster ions when the expansion changes from sub- to supercritical, provided the electron energy exceeds a value of 40 ± 1 eV, the threshold for formation of electronically excited ions. Upon doping with krypton, pure Kr n + cluster ions containing up to 41 Kr atoms are observed. The spectra exhibit abundance anomalies at 13, 16, 19, 22 & 23, 26 and 29, in agreement with spectra obtained by ionization of bare krypton clusters that are formed in neat supersonic beams. Mixed clusters He m Kr+ indicate closure of a solvation shell at m = 12.

Schöbel, H.; Bartl, P.; Leidlmair, C.; Denifl, S.; Echt, O.; Märk, T. D.; Scheier, P.

2011-07-01

118

Number Square Puzzle: 10 Missing Numbers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity for the interactive white board (free access with registration) allows the learner to explore the patterns in the hundreds chart and notice the relationships between the numbers in the horizontal and vertical puzzles. Users drag and drop the individual numbers back in their correct places in the blank 10 X 10 grid.

2012-07-19

119

Surplus Bid Cell Number  

E-print Network

Surplus Bid Form Name: Cell Number: Email Address: Fax Number: Item Number: Item Description: Bid the internal section below) Phone Number: FOR DALHOUSIE INTERNAL BID USE ONLY Department: Account Number (for costs associated with transportation of items from its current location. · All sales are final

Brownstone, Rob

120

Comparing Numbers-Between  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity for the interactive white board (free access with registration) allows the learner to practice comparing numbers. Two numbers are given and students identify those numbers inbetween the numbers by dragging them from below into the shaded window. A number line is provide as a means for the learner to check their choices.

2012-01-01

121

Kindergarten Number Sense  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Let\\'s learn about numbers! How many Fish? Count the Fish Let\\'s count! How many... Matching is fun! Match the number How well do I really know these numbers? Getting to know the numbers Counting the kids Kids on the bus We love Ants! Count the ants Flying into the univerise of numbers Rocket ...

Estes, Mrs.

2007-11-02

122

Spatial Mass  

E-print Network

In analogy to the transverse mass constructed from two objects, we define the spatial mass constructed from the input objects 3-vector momenta. This observable is insensitive to jet mass scale and resolution uncertainties when constructed from small-radius hadronic jets. Thus it improves the effective resolution on multijet masses for searches and measurements in hadronic final states. To illustrate the efficacy of the spatial mass, we consider a top quark mass measurement at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in the 3-jet final state. The reduction in uncertainty comes with a negligible cost in sensitivity.

Nachman, Benjamin

2014-01-01

123

Spatial Mass  

E-print Network

In analogy to the transverse mass constructed from two objects, we define the spatial mass constructed from the input objects 3-vector momenta. This observable is insensitive to jet mass scale and resolution uncertainties when constructed from small-radius hadronic jets. Thus it improves the effective resolution on multijet masses for searches and measurements in hadronic final states. To illustrate the efficacy of the spatial mass, we consider a top quark mass measurement at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in the 3-jet final state. The reduction in uncertainty comes with a negligible cost in sensitivity.

Benjamin Nachman; Ariel Schwartzman

2014-07-08

124

Mass loss  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Observational evidence for mass loss from cool stars is reviewed. Spectra line profiles are used for the derivation of mass-loss rates with the aid of the equation of continuity. This equation implies steady mass loss with spherical symmetry. Data from binary stars, Mira variables, and red giants in globular clusters are examined. Silicate emission is discussed as a useful indicator of mass loss in the middle infrared spectra. The use of thermal millimeter-wave radiation, Very Large Array (VLA) measurement of radio emission, and OH/IR masers are discussed as a tool for mass loss measurement. Evidence for nonsteady mass loss is also reviewed.

Goldberg, Leo

1987-01-01

125

Bulletin of Tibetology: Volume 19 Silver Jubilee Inaguration Number : Cover, contents, contributors  

E-print Network

JKR: NCS On Record : Silver Jubilee Year List Of Publications 11 16 23 26 27 34 PRIME MINISTER INAUGURATES THE SILVER JUBILEE CELEBRATIONS Smt. Indira Gandhi, Prime Minister of India, plant. ing a sapling in the compound of Sikkim...

Namgyal Institute of Tibetology

1983-12-13

126

Are Numbers Gendered?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examined the possibility that nonsocial, highly generic concepts are gendered. Specifically, we investigated the gender connotations of Arabic numerals. Across several experiments, we show that the number 1 and other odd numbers are associated with masculinity, whereas the number 2 and other even numbers are associated with femininity, in ways…

Wilkie, James E. B.; Bodenhausen, Galen V.

2012-01-01

127

Spooky Sequences- Square Numbers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive Flash game helps students recognize and generate the sequence of square numbers, and also to discover the pattern of differences between them. The applet displays a sequence of six consecutive square numbers with one number missing. The player provides the missing number to "send the ghosts back to the haunted house." Each game consists of five sequences to complete.

Cogan, Mark

2002-01-01

128

Mass spectrometry.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Review of the current state of mass spectrometry, indicating its unique importance for advanced scientific research. Mass spectrometry applications in computer techniques, gas chromatography, ion cyclotron resonance, molecular fragmentation and ionization, and isotope labeling are covered. Details are given on mass spectrometry applications in bio-organic chemistry and biomedical research. As the subjects of these applications are indicated alkaloids, carbohydrates, lipids, terpenes, quinones, nucleic acid components, peptides, antibiotics, and human and animal metabolisms. Particular attention is given to the mass spectra of organo-inorganic compounds, inorganic mass spectrometry, surface phenomena such as secondary ion and electron emission, and elemental and isotope analysis. Further topics include mass spectrometry in organic geochemistry, applications in geochronology and cosmochemistry, and organic mass spectrometry.

Burlingame, A. L.; Johanson, G. A.

1972-01-01

129

Guess The Number  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Flash applet is an interactive version of the classic game that develops number sense and strategic thinking. The computer generates a random secret number. The user makes guesses, taking advantage of the higher or lower clues provided, until the number is discovered. The goal is to find the secret number with as few attempts as possible. Three levels allow the user to adjust the range of possible numbers: up to 100, 500, or 1000.

Bunker, Dan

2010-01-01

130

Hyper Space Complex Number  

E-print Network

A new kind of numbers called Hyper Space Complex Numbers and its algebras are defined and proved. It is with good properties as the classic Complex Numbers, such as expressed in coordinates, triangular and exponent forms and following the associative and commutative laws of addition and multiplication. So the classic Complex Number is developed from in complex plane with two dimensions to in complex space with N dimensions and the number system is enlarged also.

Shanguang Tan

2007-03-23

131

PET: [number sign]1 is number one  

SciTech Connect

Subsidized in the beginning by bottle deposits, now spurred by the ability of curbside recycling to collect more than soda bottles, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) recycling has made great strides in the last 10 years. Its growth rate and increased market demand are the envy of many other materials. Appropriate, if not deliberately, this number-one resin is listed under the Society for the Plastics Industry's resin identification code as [number sign]1. Unlike most recyclables, the market demand for recycled PET is greater than the supply. As a result, demand not supply, is fueling the increase in PET recycling.

Miller, C.

1994-09-01

132

Mass Wasting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Mass Wasting is a course handout designed to initiate discussion on the factors involved in mass wasting (eg. creep, solifluction, falls, slides, and flows) and the methods used to prevent mass wasting. Definitions are given for key terms such as angle of repose and lahars. Photographs illustrate the effects of rockslides and slumps. Links are provided to the online Physical Geology resources at Georgia Perimeter College.

Gore, Pamela

1998-11-28

133

Neutrino mass  

SciTech Connect

The existence of a finite neutrino mass would have important consequences in particle physics, astrophysics, and cosmology. Experimental sensitivities have continued to be pushed down without any confirmed evidence for a finite neutrino mass. Yet there are several observations of discrepancies between theoretical predictions and observations which might be possible indications of a finite neutrino mass. Thus, extensive theoretical and experimental work is underway to resolve these issues.

Bowles, T.J.

1994-04-01

134

Number Line Arithmetic  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This applet demonstrates operations with whole numbers on a number line. The student selects an operation and the applet represents an example. It helps students understand the commutativity of multiplication, remainders in division, inverse operations, and the relationships between operations.

1999-01-01

135

Elements of number theory  

E-print Network

The dissertation argues for the necessity of a morphosemantic theory of number, that is, a theory of number serviceable both to semantics and morphology. The basis for this position, and the empirical core of the dissertation, ...

Harbour, Daniel, 1975-

2003-01-01

136

HIV Wellness Numbers  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

HIV Wellness Numbers Updated:Mar 22,2012 Featured Video The Basics of HIV Management Length: 2:37 ... Learn more about your important heart-health numbers . HIV and Your Heart • Home • About HIV • HIV and ...

137

The Numbered Forest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the activity of numbering trees in which students number trees or find the numbered trees and observe other features according to class time. This activity aims to increase student tracking, mapping, and writing skills and integrate them with math skills. Suggests follow up activities that focus on reading, writing, and language skills.…

Kissner, Emily

2000-01-01

138

Random Number Generation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The process of creating numbers that simulate randomness on a computer is known as pseudorandom number generation. The "pseudo" in pseudo random refers to the fact that if you use a rule to generate a number, it is by definition not random, though it may appear so, and be close enough to random for all practical purposes.

Joiner, David; The Shodor Education Foundation, Inc.

139

Estimating Large Numbers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite their importance in public discourse, numbers in the range of 1 million to 1 trillion are notoriously difficult to understand. We examine magnitude estimation by adult Americans when placing large numbers on a number line and when qualitatively evaluating descriptions of imaginary geopolitical scenarios. Prior theoretical conceptions…

Landy, David; Silbert, Noah; Goldin, Aleah

2013-01-01

140

The Remarkable Number "1"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In human history, the origin of the numbers came from definite practical needs. Indeed, there is strong evidence that numbers were created before writing. The number "1", dating back at least 20,000 years, was found as a counting symbol on a bone. The famous statement by the German mathematician Leopold Kronecker (1823-1891), "God…

Allen, G. Donald

2014-01-01

141

Reform by the Numbers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although numbers such as average test scores or dropout rates can capture part of a school system's success or failure, school statistics seldom tell the whole story. School board members should realize that numbers might measure compliance or process, rather than improvement. Also, improvements in numbers might reflect changes in assessment…

Hanford, Terry; White, Kathleen

1991-01-01

142

Whole Number Cruncher  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Give input to the Whole Number Cruncher and try to guess what it did from the output it generates. This activity only generates multiplication and addition functions to avoid outputting any negative numbers. Whole Number Cruncher is one of the Interactivate assessment explorers.

143

Law of Large Numbers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The controls on this applet let you change the number of trials, the probability of success in each trial, and toggle between viewing either the difference between the number of successes and the expected number of successes, or the difference between the percentage of successes and the probability of success in each trial.

Stark, Philip B.

2009-10-26

144

Numbers in the News  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

All those numbers in the newspaper: what do they mean? Challenge learners to find out as they develop their number sense. Distribute newspaper pages to learners so that each pair gets a section with numbers at the right level of difficulty: easyâweather or sports scores; mediumâclothing ads or event listings with times and dates; hardâautomobile ads, monetary exchange rates. Learners try to find the smallest and largest numbers on the page (including best deal/best rate) and explain to others what they found. Variation for younger learners: look for the largest or smallest number on a walk around the building or around the block. Available as a web page and downloadable pdf.

Terc

2010-01-01

145

Inertial Mass  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The inertial balance is one device that can help students to quantify the quality of inertia--a body's resistance to a change in movement--in more generally understood terms of mass. In this hands-on activity, students use the inertial balance to develop a more quantitative idea of what mass means in an inertial sense. The activity also helps…

King, Kenneth P.

2007-01-01

146

Quark masses  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review the current information about the eigenvalues of the quark mass matrix. The theoretical problems involved in a determination of the running masses mu, md, ms, mc and mb from experiment are discussed with the aim of getting reliable numerical values equipped with error bars that represent a conservative estimate of remaining uncertainties.

J. Gasser; H. Leutwyler

1982-01-01

147

Decimal Number Line  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive Flash applet helps students explore place value and develop number sense within whole numbers, integers and decimals. It allows a child or teacher to select an interval in the given number line and show that interval divided into ten equal parts but on a larger scale, which can then be repeated. Users may choose the size of the interval between markers on the first number line and the starting number of that line, as well as whether to hide or show individual number lines and the numbers on them. This applet lends itself well for use on an interactive white board. A pdf guide to this collection of teaching applets is cataloged separately.

2006-01-01

148

Bacterial Abundance Measure bacterial numbers and mass per unit volume.  

E-print Network

, we are not concerned with identification here. Why do we want to know abundance? · Allows to directly count bacteria. Problem: Bacteria in natural environments are very small and difficult to see largely used for isolation or water testing, such as coliform test. 9 ml 100 #12;Dilution Plate

Vallino, Joseph J.

149

Negative Numbers and Antimatter Particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dirac's equation states that an electron implies the existence of an antielectron with the same mass (more generally same arithmetic properties) and opposite charge (more generally opposite algebraic properties). Subsequent observation of antielectron validated this concept. This statement can be extended to all matter particles; observation of antiproton, antineutron, antideuton … is in complete agreement with this view. Recently antihypertriton was observed and 38 atoms of antihydrogen were trapped. This opens the path for use in precise testing of nature's fundamental symmetries. The symmetric properties of a matter particle and its mirror antimatter particle seem to be well established. Interactions operate on matter particles and antimatter particles as well. Conservation of matter parallels addition operating on positive and negative numbers. Without antimatter particles, interactions of the Standard Model (electromagnetism, strong interaction and weak interaction) cannot have the structure of group. Antimatter particles are characterized by negative baryonic number A or/and negative leptonic number L. Materialization and annihilation obey conservation of A and L (associated to all known interactions), explaining why from pure energy (A = 0, L = 0) one can only obtain a pair of matter particle antimatter particle — electron antielectron, proton and antiproton — via materialization where the mass of a pair of particle antiparticle gives back to pure energy with annihilation. These two mechanisms cannot change the difference in the number of matter particles and antimatter particles. Thus from pure energy only a perfectly symmetric (in number) universe could be generated as proposed by Dirac but observation showed that our universe is not symmetric, it is a matter universe which is nevertheless neutral. Fall of reflection symmetries shattered the prejudice that there is no way to define in an absolute way right and left or matter and antimatter. Experimental observation of CP violation aroused a great hope for explaining why our universe is not exactly matter antimatter symmetric. Sakharov stated that without the violation of baryonic number, it is not possible to obtain from pure energy a universe made of only matter. The fact that our universe is asymmetric (in number) but perfectly neutral, points toward the existence of a hypothetic interaction violating A and L but conserving all charges. This Matter Creation (MC) interaction creating either a pair of matter particles or antimatter particles (instead of a pair of particle antiparticle) would have a charge BAL = (A-L) and a neutral messenger Z*. Even if CP is conserved, MC would allow the creation of a number of matter particles not exactly equal to the number of antimatter particles. Our universe would then correspond to the remaining excess when all matter antimatter pairs have disappeared. Observation of matter nonconservation processes would be of great interest to falsify this speculation. In a plan with A and L as axes, pure energy is represented by the origin (A = 0, L = 0). A symmetric universe is also represented by (A = 0, L = 0) meaning that there are exactly the same number of baryons and antibaryons, and the same number of leptons and antileptons. Our present matter universe is instead represented by a point of the diagonal with A = L = present A value. This value is tiny relative to the number of gammas resulting from the annihilation of matter-antimatter particles.

Tsan, Ung Chan

150

Nevan Krogan: Mass Spectrometry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lecture from the iBioSeminars project, presented by Nevan Krogan of the Department of Cellular and Molecular Pharmacology at UC-San Francisco, covers mass spectrometry and its application to molecular biology. Mass spectrometry is a powerful tool for elucidating the elemental composition of a sample or molecule. More recently, it has been used to characterize biological material, in particular proteins and protein complexes, in a variety of organisms. This lecture will review the underlying principles of how a mass spectrometer works, discuss up to date instrumentation that is presently being used in the biological research setting and provide specific examples of how mass spectrometry is being used to reveal functional insight into different biological systems. The video runs 27:36 and can be downloaded in a number of formats: QuickTime, MP4, M4V, and PPT. The video can also be streamed through YouTube or iTunes U.

Krogan, Nevan

2013-07-12

151

Masses of multiquark droplets  

SciTech Connect

The mass formulas for finite lumps of strange quark matter with [ital u], [ital d], and [ital s] quarks and nonstrange quark matter consisting of [ital u] and [ital d] quarks are derived in a nonrelativistic potential model. The finite-size effects comprising the surface and curvature were consistently obtained, which shows a converging trend. It is found that there is a good possibility for the formation of metastable strangelets of large mass. The model predicts a low charge to mass ratio as the characteristic signature of strange matter in agreement with the relativistic studies. This study also yields an estimate for the bag energy density [ital B] in terms of the constituent quark mass and the baryon number density.

Satpathy, L.; Sahu, P.K.; Uma Maheswari, V.S. (Institute of Physics, Bhubaneswar-751005 (India))

1994-05-01

152

The elephant brain in numbers.  

PubMed

What explains the superior cognitive abilities of the human brain compared to other, larger brains? Here we investigate the possibility that the human brain has a larger number of neurons than even larger brains by determining the cellular composition of the brain of the African elephant. We find that the African elephant brain, which is about three times larger than the human brain, contains 257 billion (10(9)) neurons, three times more than the average human brain; however, 97.5% of the neurons in the elephant brain (251 billion) are found in the cerebellum. This makes the elephant an outlier in regard to the number of cerebellar neurons compared to other mammals, which might be related to sensorimotor specializations. In contrast, the elephant cerebral cortex, which has twice the mass of the human cerebral cortex, holds only 5.6 billion neurons, about one third of the number of neurons found in the human cerebral cortex. This finding supports the hypothesis that the larger absolute number of neurons in the human cerebral cortex (but not in the whole brain) is correlated with the superior cognitive abilities of humans compared to elephants and other large-brained mammals. PMID:24971054

Herculano-Houzel, Suzana; Avelino-de-Souza, Kamilla; Neves, Kleber; Porfírio, Jairo; Messeder, Débora; Mattos Feijó, Larissa; Maldonado, José; Manger, Paul R

2014-01-01

153

The elephant brain in numbers  

PubMed Central

What explains the superior cognitive abilities of the human brain compared to other, larger brains? Here we investigate the possibility that the human brain has a larger number of neurons than even larger brains by determining the cellular composition of the brain of the African elephant. We find that the African elephant brain, which is about three times larger than the human brain, contains 257 billion (109) neurons, three times more than the average human brain; however, 97.5% of the neurons in the elephant brain (251 billion) are found in the cerebellum. This makes the elephant an outlier in regard to the number of cerebellar neurons compared to other mammals, which might be related to sensorimotor specializations. In contrast, the elephant cerebral cortex, which has twice the mass of the human cerebral cortex, holds only 5.6 billion neurons, about one third of the number of neurons found in the human cerebral cortex. This finding supports the hypothesis that the larger absolute number of neurons in the human cerebral cortex (but not in the whole brain) is correlated with the superior cognitive abilities of humans compared to elephants and other large-brained mammals. PMID:24971054

Herculano-Houzel, Suzana; Avelino-de-Souza, Kamilla; Neves, Kleber; Porfirio, Jairo; Messeder, Debora; Mattos Feijo, Larissa; Maldonado, Jose; Manger, Paul R.

2014-01-01

154

Interactive Fraction Number Lines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson students make models of fractions, including a human number line. Using a number line, students develop conceptual understanding of fractions. Students use the number line to represent and compare fractions less than one. The activities are engaging and include full participation/engagement of all students. The fractions are limited to positive fractions less than one with a denominator of 2 or 4 including 0 and 1 whole.

Green, Michael

2012-05-25

155

Curvature and Tachibana numbers  

SciTech Connect

The aim of this paper is to define the rth Tachibana number t{sub r} of an n-dimensional compact oriented Riemannian manifold as the dimension of the space of conformally Killing r-forms, for r=1,2,...,n-1. We also describe properties of these numbers, by analogy with properties of the Betti numbers b{sub r} of a compact oriented Riemannian manifold. Bibliography: 25 titles.

Stepanov, Sergey E [Finance Academy under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2011-07-31

156

Guess the Number  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive game gives students practice in counting and ordering numbers. Users try to determine the magician's secret number in as few tries as possible by adjusting their successive guesses according to feedback (too high or too low). Solvers can choose from three ranges of numbers (1 to 10, 1 to 100, or -1000 to 1000) and choose whether or not to view previous guesses.

2011-01-01

157

High Reynolds Number Research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fundamental aerodynamic questions for which high Reynolds number experimental capability is required are discussed. The operational characteristics and design features of the National Transonic Facility are reviewed.

Baals, D. D. (editor)

1977-01-01

158

Mass Extinction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video segment adapted from NOVA scienceNOW, learn about a chain of events, including ancient volcanoes, global warming, and deadly gases, which may have caused Earth's greatest mass extinction 250 million years ago.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2009-11-02

159

Mass Deacidification.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews methods being developed for mass deacidification of books to prevent deterioration of paper. The use of diethyl zinc, liquified gas, and morpholine, and the advantages, disadvantages, and cost of each are considered. A 26-item bibliography is included. (JD)

Harris, Carolyn

1979-01-01

160

Numbers as Shapes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity students are asked to relate the numbers 1- 20 to rectangular shapes. Learners use unit squares or cubes to sort numbers by their 'shapes,' either squares, rectangles or sticks (rectangles of unit width). Ideas for implementation, extension and support are included.

2011-08-01

161

Prime Numbers Video  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This 4-minute video introduces the definition of a prime number and illustrates it through a discussion of factors and composite numbers. It makes use of the definition to explain why 1 is not a prime and ends with a question for the viewer to ponder.

2010-01-01

162

Numbers and Operations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Counting numbers 1-10 Help Champ the Monkey Count the Bananas! The higher you count the harder it gets when you Count the Fish In Pirate numbers count the barrels and then press the red button to launch the cannon. Make sure you're right or your ship will sink! Help count with Counting with Elmo and Zoe! ...

Gribbin, Miss

2010-11-10

163

Avogadro's Number Ferromagnetically  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Avogadro's number, usually denoted by N[subscript A], plays a fundamental role in both physics and chemistry. It defines the extremely useful concept of the mole, which is the base unit of the amount of matter in the international system of units. The fundamental character of this number can also be illustrated by its appearance in the definitions…

Houari, Ahmed

2010-01-01

164

Numbers in contextual frameworks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This contribution consists of a report on research into the use of the bus context (boarding and leaving the bus) for introducing addition and subtraction in the first grade. Other contexts are taken into account as well, such as skittles, magic number tricks, birthday candles, rides in a ‘cart’, distribution of passengers on a double-decker bus, number-cards, and ages.

F. J. Brink

1984-01-01

165

The Fibonacci Numbers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

After a brief historical account of Leonardo Pisano Fibonacci, some basic results concerning the Fibonacci numbers are developed and proved, and entertaining examples are described. Connections are made between the Fibonacci numbers and the Golden Ratio, biological nature, and other combinatorics examples. (MDH)

Onstad, Torgeir

1991-01-01

166

My First Number Book  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, "students produce a book that includes a page for numbers 0-10. On each page they write the numeral, the word for that numeral and place the correct number of stickers to represent the numeral. The cover includes a title, student's name and an illustration." (from Beacon Learning Center)

Center, Beacon L.

2008-12-15

167

Number and Operations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Have fun with numbers! Visit Lemonade Larry to buy some fresh squeezed lemonade! Figure out the cost of each order. Spooky sequences!!! Figure out the missing number to send the ghosts back to the haunted house. Place value pirates. Please help match the pirate to the correct place value. Arrgh mates! ...

Johnson, Ms.

2007-10-25

168

Definitions Numbered Space  

E-print Network

Definitions · Numbered Space ­ a single space marked with a number and reserved for a single permit 24/7 · Unnumbered Space ­ a space which can be used by any customer allowed to park in that lot. High Low Average Question 4: If I buy a staff permit for an UNNUMBERED* space in a non-gated surface

Behmer, Spencer T.

169

Number Base Clocks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Visually explore counting and place value with different number bases, from base 2 to base 16, and up to the hundreds place using a clock like interface. The activity also allows you to look at the numbers on the clock in base 10 or in your other chosen base to explore the relationship between those values.

170

PIA update: Correlation analyses of mass spectra  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The PIA instrument aboard the Giotto spacecraft (a time of flight spectrometer) has been presented elsewhere. The mass spectra used in this analysis were decoded and mass numbers assigned according to the presence of carbon and silver, using the global values for these elements in their spectral absence. The results presented here were obtained using a frequency of occurrence based on analysis which correlated how often mass numbers appear in the mass spectra and which mass numbers tend to occur together in the same spectra; no amplitude information is utilized. The data are presented as plots of mass vs coincident mass for different subsets of the PIA data set, with both axes having units of atomic mass. Frequency contours are plotted at approximately five percent contour intervals, relative to the maximum AMU occurrence in that plot. The plots presented are symmetrical about the matrix diagonal, i.e., every mass is coincident with itself in a given spectra.

Mason, L. W.; Clark, B. C.

1988-01-01

171

Number Conveyor Belt  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity for the interactive white board (free access with registration) allows a teacher to create an arithmetic sequence for students to watch being built as the sequence of numbers moves along a conveyor. Learners must determine the pattern being used so when the belt randomly stops, the missing number in the sequence can be dragged/ dropped into its place. The teacher sets the start number (0-19), the interval or common difference (1-10) and if the sequence will count up or down. This last option provides an opportunity to display patterns with integers.

2012-01-01

172

Number Systems Introduction & Objectives  

E-print Network

to the more familiar decimal system · In this lesson, you will learn: What is meant by a weighted number has the lowest weight Least Significant Digit (LSD) See the next example First Position Index First

Bouhraoua, Abdelhafid

173

Numbers at Work  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource guide from the Middle School Portal 2 project, written specifically for teachers, provides links to exemplary resources including background information, lessons, career information, and related national science education standards. In the section Real Numbers in Real Life, we offer scenarios that connect mathematics to questions that touch the world of the middle school student. Besides their real-world context, these activities challenge students to deepen their understanding of numbers â especially fractions, decimals, and percents. Another section, Number Skills, concentrates almost entirely on equivalent representations of these numbers as well as practice in computation and estimation. These activities appear in game formats, as most likely to engage students in the practice they need.

Herrera, Terese

2007-10-01

174

Complex Number Arithmetic Models  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The four complex number arithmetic models in this item show the addition, subtraction, multiplication and division of a complex number z2 to all numbers z1 of a point grid. The z1 and z2 are changed and the grid is moved by dragging the tip of the z1 and z2 arrows in the z-plane. The parallelogram for the vector construction representing the arithmetic operation are drawn on the simulation's right-hand side. Complex Number Arithmetic models are part of âLearning and Teaching Mathematics using Simulations â Plus 2000 Examples from Physicsâ ISBN 978-3-11-025005-3, Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co. KG

Roess, Dieter

2011-08-11

175

Zero: A "None" Number?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses the challenges students face in making sense of zero as a number. A range of different student responses to a computation problem involving zero reveal students' different understandings of zero.

Anthony, Glenda J.; Walshaw, Margaret A.

2004-01-01

176

The Numbers Game.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a simple activity that explores and reveals the principles of significant figures and scientific notation using a 500 gram bag of unpopped popcorn. Students must devise a method for determining the number of kernels in the bag. (DDR)

Lustick, David

1997-01-01

177

In numbers we trust?  

PubMed Central

Scientists go to great lengths to ensure that data are collected and analysed properly, so why, asks Eve Marder, do they apply different standards to data about the number of times research papers have been cited and viewed? PMID:24692454

2014-01-01

178

Dangerous Doubles (Doubling Numbers)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson teaches students to use the strategy doubling numbers and doubles plus or minus one in order to use mental math to add one digit numbers. The students are engaged in learning through the read aloud of Double the Ducks by Stephen Murphy and then get to work with a partner to draw doubles and write equations that relate to their drawings. Students individually work on solving word problems using these strategies and manipulatives as necessary to solve.

Sharrer, Stephanie

2012-07-14

179

HIGH-PRECISION DYNAMICAL MASSES OF VERY LOW MASS BINARIES  

SciTech Connect

We present the results of a three year monitoring program of a sample of very low mass (VLM) field binaries using both astrometric and spectroscopic data obtained in conjunction with the laser guide star adaptive optics system on the W. M. Keck II 10 m telescope. Among the 24 systems studied, 15 have undergone sufficient orbital motion, allowing us to derive their relative orbital parameters and hence their total system mass. These measurements more than double the number of mass measurements for VLM objects, and include the most precise mass measurement to date (<2%). Among the 11 systems with both astrometric and spectroscopic measurements, six have sufficient radial velocity variations to allow us to obtain individual component masses. This is the first derivation of the component masses for five of these systems. Altogether, the orbital solutions of these low mass systems show a correlation between eccentricity and orbital period, consistent with their higher mass counterparts. In our primary analysis, we find that there are systematic discrepancies between our dynamical mass measurements and the predictions of theoretical evolutionary models (TUCSON and LYON) with both models either underpredicting or overpredicting the most precisely determined dynamical masses. These discrepancies are a function of spectral type, with late-M through mid-L systems tending to have their masses underpredicted, while one T-type system has its mass overpredicted. These discrepancies imply that either the temperatures predicted by evolutionary and atmosphere models are inconsistent for an object of a given mass, or the mass-radius relationship or cooling timescales predicted by the evolutionary models are incorrect. If these spectral-type trends are correct and hold into the planetary mass regime, the implication is that the masses of directly imaged extrasolar planets are overpredicted by the evolutionary models.

Konopacky, Q. M.; Ghez, A. M.; McLean, I. S. [University of California, Los Angeles, Division of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1562 (United States); Barman, T. S. [Lowell Observatory, 1400 W. Mars Hill Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Rice, E. L. [American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West at 79th Street, New York, NY 10024-5192 (United States); Bailey, J. I. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48105 (United States); White, R. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303 (United States); Duchene, G., E-mail: konopacky1@llnl.go, E-mail: ghez@astro.ucla.ed, E-mail: mclean@astro.ucla.ed, E-mail: barman@lowell.ed, E-mail: baileyji@umich.ed, E-mail: white@chara.gsu.ed, E-mail: gduchene@berkeley.ed [Astronomy Department, University of California, Berkeley, 601 Campbell Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States)

2010-03-10

180

THE MASS DISTRIBUTION OF STELLAR-MASS BLACK HOLES  

SciTech Connect

We perform a Bayesian analysis of the mass distribution of stellar-mass black holes using the observed masses of 15 low-mass X-ray binary systems undergoing Roche lobe overflow and 5 high-mass, wind-fed X-ray binary systems. Using Markov Chain Monte Carlo calculations, we model the mass distribution both parametrically-as a power law, exponential, Gaussian, combination of two Gaussians, or log-normal distribution-and non-parametrically-as histograms with varying numbers of bins. We provide confidence bounds on the shape of the mass distribution in the context of each model and compare the models with each other by calculating their relative Bayesian evidence as supported by the measurements, taking into account the number of degrees of freedom of each model. The mass distribution of the low-mass systems is best fit by a power law, while the distribution of the combined sample is best fit by the exponential model. This difference indicates that the low-mass subsample is not consistent with being drawn from the distribution of the combined population. We examine the existence of a 'gap' between the most massive neutron stars and the least massive black holes by considering the value, M{sub 1%}, of the 1% quantile from each black hole mass distribution as the lower bound of black hole masses. Our analysis generates posterior distributions for M{sub 1%}; the best model (the power law) fitted to the low-mass systems has a distribution of lower bounds with M{sub 1%}>4.3 M{sub sun} with 90% confidence, while the best model (the exponential) fitted to all 20 systems has M{sub 1%}>4.5 M{sub sun} with 90% confidence. We conclude that our sample of black hole masses provides strong evidence of a gap between the maximum neutron star mass and the lower bound on black hole masses. Our results on the low-mass sample are in qualitative agreement with those of Ozel et al., although our broad model selection analysis more reliably reveals the best-fit quantitative description of the underlying mass distribution. The results on the combined sample of low- and high-mass systems are in qualitative agreement with Fryer and Kalogera, although the presence of a mass gap remains theoretically unexplained.

Farr, Will M.; Sravan, Niharika; Kalogera, Vicky [Northwestern University Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics, 2145 Sheridan Rd., Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Cantrell, Andrew; Kreidberg, Laura; Bailyn, Charles D. [Department of Astrophysics, Yale University, P. O. Box 208101, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Mandel, Ilya, E-mail: w-farr@northwestern.edu, E-mail: niharika.sravan@gmail.com, E-mail: vicky@northwestern.edu, E-mail: andrew.cantrell@yale.edu, E-mail: laura.kreidberg@yale.edu, E-mail: charles.bailyn@yale.edu, E-mail: ilyamandel@chgk.info [Kavli Institute, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

2011-11-10

181

Mass Extinction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This set of multimedia resources, produced for the NOVA television broadcast 'Mass Extinction', explains mass extinctions in general, and in particular the extinction event that occurred at the end of the Permian period, in which more than 90 percent of all marine species died out. An interactive feature presents some of the theories about what caused this event, and lets users vote for the one they consider most likely. There is also a video clip from the broadcast, an audio clip of an interview with a researcher who is using high-precision dating techniques to understand the time scale of the Permian extinction, and an ask-the expert feature in which a scientist from the Smithsonian Institution answers questions about the Permian and other mass extinctions. Other links access a teacher's guide, additional reading materials, and a transcript of the broadcast.

182

Instrumentation for mass spectrometry: 1997  

SciTech Connect

All mass spectrometry experiments involve the manipulation of material, an interface with the mass spectrometer, ionization, ion manipulation/analysis, detection and data collection/reduction. Each of these elements involve instrumentation. The wide range of species now amenable to mass spectrometry and the diverse areas of physical science in which it plays a role have led to a seemingly unlimited array of instrumental combinations. However, only a limited number of mass analyzers, and their combinations, dominate. The dominant analyzers include time-of-flight, Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance, the Paul trap, the mass filter, and the sector mass spectrometer. Why there are so few (or so many, depending upon one`s point of view) can be understood upon consideration of a set of mass analyzer figures of merit. These include mass resolution, mass accuracy, mass range, dynamic range, abundance sensitivity, precision, efficiency, speed, MS{sup n} capability, compatibility with the ionizer, cost, and size. The most appropriate form of mass spectrometry is determined by the priorities of the particular measurement placed on the various mass analyzer characteristics and the relative strengths of the analyzers in meeting the requirements. Each of the analyzer types has a unique set of figures of merit that makes it optimally suited for particular applications. This paper discusses these figures of merit, provides data illustrating recent developments for each analyzer type, and gives the figures of merit of each type of analyzer as they stand in 1997. 101 refs., 24 figs.

McLuckey, S.A.

1997-08-01

183

Mass transfer andMass transfer and Mass transfer andMass transfer and  

E-print Network

eknik Mass transfer andMass transfer and arationste Mass transfer andMass transfer and separation / mass transfer analogy7. Heat / mass transfer analogy Massöve Ron Zevenhoven �bo Akademi Universityy.1 Heat / mass transfer analogy7.1 Heat / mass transfer analogy 4 erföringo gygy Massöve RoNzfebruari 2012

Zevenhoven, Ron

184

Report number codes  

SciTech Connect

This publication lists all report number codes processed by the Office of Scientific and Technical Information. The report codes are substantially based on the American National Standards Institute, Standard Technical Report Number (STRN)-Format and Creation Z39.23-1983. The Standard Technical Report Number (STRN) provides one of the primary methods of identifying a specific technical report. The STRN consists of two parts: The report code and the sequential number. The report code identifies the issuing organization, a specific program, or a type of document. The sequential number, which is assigned in sequence by each report issuing entity, is not included in this publication. Part I of this compilation is alphabetized by report codes followed by issuing installations. Part II lists the issuing organization followed by the assigned report code(s). In both Parts I and II, the names of issuing organizations appear for the most part in the form used at the time the reports were issued. However, for some of the more prolific installations which have had name changes, all entries have been merged under the current name.

Nelson, R.N. (ed.)

1985-05-01

185

Third Grade Number Actiivities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page provides examples of Third Grade Number (Operations and Algebraic Thinking, Number and Operations in Base Ten, and Number Operations-Fractions) activities aligned with the Common Core State Standards. A CCSS standard is stated and the possible activities are listed below and linked. All activities are suitable for use in Math Centers, small group or whole class settings and are designed to elicit a range of responses and provide opportunities for students to communicate their reasoning and mathematical thinking. Instructions for each task are typed in large print and written in child-friendly language to enable students to work on activities independently after a brief introduction to the task. All files listed are in PDF format.

Godwin, Nicola

2012-01-01

186

Species number with confidence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Benthic sampling by J. Frederick Grassle and Nancy J. Maciolek during the 1980s contributed to a recognition of the enormous diversity of biota in the deep sea. The problem of predicting on the basis of such sampling, the number of species in a community is a classical one in statistical ecology. Here, we show how to construct a lower prediction bound on species number using the sequential broken-stick model of relative abundances. We illustrate the method using some data from Grassle and Maciolek's original sampling effort.

Smith, Woollcott K.; Solow, Andrew R.; Maciolek, Nancy J.

2009-09-01

187

Number Systems for Computers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Understanding number systems, especially Binary and Hexadecimal, is important to comprehending how computers function. It all begins with the magic circle we call ZERO. Work through the exercises in the order listed to gain some background in number systems and what makes it possible for computers to work. The magic of ZeroPlace Value Place Value Fun!Place Value Fun! One if by land, Two if by sea.The Binary System And then there were sixteen....hexadecimal Hexadecimal Headquarters Mr Booth s Computer Systems Class Student Learning Domain ...

Mrbooth

2007-09-19

188

Multiplying Whole Numbers & Fractions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this 9-minute video, Amy Spies shows her 4th grade class working through a problem multiplying a fraction by a whole number. During the lesson Amy realized that the students were not pulling out the knowledge that she had intended. She then revised the lesson and gave them examples and non-examples and through discussion had them make the connection between repeated addition and multiplying a fraction by a whole number. Students also gained a deeper understanding of the meaning of the numerator and denominator in these repeated addition problems.

2013-01-01

189

Positive About Negative Numbers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article is devoted to the mathematical topic of negative numbers and provides a series of primary resources designed to familiarize children with the notion of counting on either side of a central point. The article presents that the activities listed should be played sequentially to build precursory ideas in understanding negative numbers. All the games discussed in the article are linked on the page and have been cataloged separately: Incy Wincy Spider, Tug of War, Swimming Pool, Tug Harder, First Connect Three and lastly Sea Level.

Woodham, Liz

2011-01-01

190

Playing the Numbers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some say that the educators now have a gender-stratified system of higher education, with nearly 60 percent of all undergraduates being women and fewer men attending each year. The battle for gender equity for women in higher education has been a long and contentious one. In the decades since, increasing numbers of women have gone to college, to…

Doyle, William R.

2010-01-01

191

IN NUMBERS: Biostatistics Faculty  

E-print Network

STRENGTH IN NUMBERS: Biostatistics Faculty Are in Great Demand in the SPH and Beyond of the school's Department of Biostatistics faculty (clockwise starting from lower left): Drs. Catherine Sugar specialize in other aspects of clinical trials design. With this expertise, the Department of Biostatistics

Grether, Gregory

192

Why Delannoy numbers?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is not a research paper, but a little note on the history of combinatorics: We present here a tentative short biography of Henri De- lannoy, and a survey of his most notable works. This answers to the question raised in the title, as these works are related to lattice paths enumeration, to the so-called Delannoy numbers, and were

Cyril Banderier; Sylviane R. Schwer

2004-01-01

193

Why Delannoy numbers?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is not a research paper, but a little note on the history of combinatorics: we present here a tentative short biography of Henri Delannoy, and a survey of his most notable works. This answers the question raised in the title, as these works are related to lattice paths enumeration, to the so-called Delannoy numbers, and were the first

Cyril Banderier; Sylviane Schwer

2005-01-01

194

UCGE Reports Number 20251  

E-print Network

, 2007 © Jianning Qiu 2007 #12;iii Abstract As a part of the Global Navigation System (GPS) modernizationUCGE Reports Number 20251 Department of Geomatics Engineering RF Interference Impact on GPS L5://www.geomatics.ucalgary.ca/research/publications/GradTheses.html) by Jianning Qiu January 2007 #12;UNIVERSITY OF CALGARY RF Interference Impact on GPS L5 Reception Performance

Calgary, University of

195

UCGE Reports Number 20277  

E-print Network

to augment, enhance and/or replace GPS in the benign and hostile signal environments. iii #12;TABLEUCGE Reports Number 20277 Department of Geomatics Engineering Ultra Wideband Augmented GPS (URL;UNIVERSITY OF CALGARY Ultra Wideband Augmented GPS by David Sung-Tat Chiu A THESIS SUBMITTED TO THE FACULTY

Calgary, University of

196

UCGE Reports Number 20285  

E-print Network

accuracies. Recommendations for future work on GPS/Galileo kinematic positioning are also addressed. iii #12UCGE Reports Number 20285 Department of Geomatics Engineering Multi-frequency GPS and Galileo://www.geomatics.ucalgary.ca/research/publications) by Wei Cao February 2009 #12;UNIVERSITY OF CALGARY Multi-frequency GPS and Galileo Kinematic Positioning

Calgary, University of

197

UCGE Reports Number 20305  

E-print Network

adaptive loop filter (ALF) for TLA GPS/RIMU, and (iii) two innovative algorithms ­ namely a cascaded PLLUCGE Reports Number 20305 Department of Geomatics Engineering Ultra-Tight GPS/Reduced IMU for Land;UNIVERSITY OF CALGARY Ultra-Tight GPS/Reduced IMU for Land Vehicle Navigation by Debo Sun A THESIS SUBMITTED

Calgary, University of

198

Baryon Number Violation  

E-print Network

This report, prepared for the Community Planning Study - Snowmass 2013 - summarizes the theoretical motivations and the experimental efforts to search for baryon number violation, focussing on nucleon decay and neutron-antineutron oscillations. Present and future nucleon decay search experiments using large underground detectors, as well as planned neutron-antineutron oscillation search experiments with free neutron beams are highlighted.

K. S. Babu; E. Kearns; U. Al-Binni; S. Banerjee; D. V. Baxter; Z. Berezhiani; M. Bergevin; S. Bhattacharya; S. Brice; R. Brock; T. W. Burgess; L. Castellanos; S. Chattopadhyay; M-C. Chen; E. Church; C. E. Coppola; D. F. Cowen; R. Cowsik; J. A. Crabtree; H. Davoudiasl; R. Dermisek; A. Dolgov; B. Dutta; G. Dvali; P. Ferguson; P. Fileviez Perez; T. Gabriel; A. Gal; F. Gallmeier; K. S. Ganezer; I. Gogoladze; E. S. Golubeva; V. B. Graves; G. Greene; T. Handler; B. Hartfiel; A. Hawari; L. Heilbronn; J. Hill; D. Jaffe; C. Johnson; C. K. Jung; Y. Kamyshkov; B. Kerbikov; B. Z. Kopeliovich; V. B. Kopeliovich; W. Korsch; T. Lachenmaier; P. Langacker; C-Y. Liu; W. J. Marciano; M. Mocko; R. N. Mohapatra; N. Mokhov; G. Muhrer; P. Mumm; P. Nath; Y. Obayashi; L. Okun; J. C. Pati; R. W. Pattie Jr.; D. G. Phillips II; C. Quigg; J. L. Raaf; S. Raby; E. Ramberg; A. Ray; A. Roy; A. Ruggles; U. Sarkar; A. Saunders; A. Serebrov; Q. Shafi; H. Shimizu; M. Shiozawa; R. Shrock; A. K. Sikdar; W. M. Snow; A. Soha; S. Spanier; G. C. Stavenga; S. Striganov; R. Svoboda; Z. Tang; Z. Tavartkiladze; L. Townsend; S. Tulin; A. Vainshtein; R. Van Kooten; C. E. M. Wagner; Z. Wang; B. Wehring; R. J. Wilson; M. Wise; M. Yokoyama; A. R. Young

2013-11-21

199

Number and Operation Games  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Play the counting games below. First, help Curious George juggle the fruit in the Curious George Juggling game. Next, count the fish in the Fish Counting game. Then, try to catch the correct number of fish in the net. Go Fishing! ...

Allen, Ms.

2010-10-09

200

Rotationally consistent Love numbers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Love number k2 at a 14-month period is used to characterize the deformation of the solid earth during the Chandler wobble. Traditionally, the value of k2(CW), ~0.31, is inferred from observations of the Chandler wobble period, after the effects of the oceans have been subtracted. However, during wobble the core is almost completely decoupled from the mantle; consistency requires that we view that inference as a mantle-only value of the Love number. This in turn implies that k2= 0.35, almost 13 per cent higher than the traditionally accepted value. The use of rotationally consistent Love numbers leads to equations for predicting the effects of a given rotational excitation that are distinctly different from previous versions. Furthermore, formulations of the excitation itself-such as the `effective angular momentum functions' of Barnes et al.-are seriously modified, with the excitation functions up to ~14 per cent larger. Rotationally consistent Love numbers imply that the solid earth is much more anelastic at a 14-month period than previously considered. Popular `constant Q' and `power-law Q' models of anelasticity are unable to simultaneously fit observations of k2 at seismic, nine-day, and Chandler frequencies. Alternative anelastic relaxation models such as those proposed by Ivins hold much more promise.

Dickman, S. R.

2005-04-01

201

"Better than Their Numbers"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses College Summit, a nonprofit effort centered around the premise that there is a sizable number of students who are more capable of college academics than their test scores and grade point averages suggest. Its four-day summer sessions are focused not on ramping up students' academic performance but in mining students'…

Cech, Scott J.

2008-01-01

202

Houses with Height Numbers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This applet allows students to freely build shapes by stacking cubes and "explore the relation between a building (house) consisting of cubes and the height numbers representing the height of the different parts of the building." This exercise helps students visualize and understand the concepts of volume and three-dimensional, measurable space.

Boon, Peter; Van Den Brink, Jan

2004-01-01

203

A Highly Random Number  

Microsoft Academic Search

In his celebrated 1936 paper Turing defined a machine to becircular iff it performs an infinite computation outputting only finitelymany symbols. We define ( as the probability that an arbitrary machinebe circular and we prove that is a random number that goes beyond$2, the probability that a universal self alelimiting machine halts. Thealgorithmic complexity of c is strictly greater than

Facultad De Ciencias Exactas; Gregory Chaitin; Sergio Daicz I; Vernica Becher

2001-01-01

204

Haida Numbers and Calculation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Experienced traders in furs, blankets, and other goods, the Haidas of the 1700's had a well-developed decimal system for counting and calculating. Their units of linear measure included the foot, yard, and fathom, or six feet. This booklet lists the numbers from 1 to 20 in English and Haida; explains the Haida use of ten, hundred, and thousand…

Cogo, Robert

205

Preschoolers' Number Sense  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A child's demonstration of his conceptual understanding of number bodes well for his future success in school mathematics. As youngsters' thinking becomes more logical, they apply one-to-one correspondence relationships to quantification. Yet, reliable assessment of young children's mathematical ability is difficult because of social and emotional…

Moomaw, Sally; Carr, Victoria; Boat, Mary; Barnett, David

2010-01-01

206

ALARA notes, Number 8  

SciTech Connect

This document contains information dealing with the lessons learned from the experience of nuclear plants. In this issue the authors tried to avoid the `tyranny` of numbers and concentrated on the main lessons learned. Topics include: filtration devices for air pollution abatement, crack repair and inspection, and remote handling equipment.

Khan, T.A.; Baum, J.W.; Beckman, M.C. [eds.] [eds.

1993-10-01

207

Number Counts and Dynamical Vacuum Cosmologies  

E-print Network

We study non-linear structure formation in an interacting model of the dark sector of the Universe in which the dark energy density decays linearly with the Hubble parameter, $\\rho_{\\Lambda} \\propto H$, leading to a constant-rate creation of cold dark matter. We derive all relevant expressions to calculate the mass function and the cluster number density using the Sheth-Torman formalism and show that the effect of the interaction process is to increase the number of bound structures of large masses ($M \\gtrsim 10^{14} M_{\\odot}h^{-1}$) when compared to the standard $\\Lambda$CDM model. Since these models are not reducible to each other, this number counts signature can in principle be tested in future surveys.

Devi, N Chandrachani; Carneiro, S; Alcaniz, J S

2014-01-01

208

Mass Spectrometry for the Masses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A simple, qualitative experiment is developed for implementation, where the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) plays an important role, into the laboratory curriculum of a chemistry course designed for nonscience majors. This laboratory experiment is well suited for the students as it helps them to determine the validity of their…

Persinger, Jared D.; Hoops, Geoffrey, C.; Samide, Michael J.

2004-01-01

209

Mass Audubon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Founded in 1896 by two women with a passion for the protection of birds, Mass Audubon works to protect the nature of Massachusetts for people and wildlife. Its 100,000 members help care for 35,000 acres of conservation land. On its site, visitors can learn about its advocacy work through reports, policy papers, and educational outreach efforts. In the Our Conservation Network area, visitors can learn about Mass audubon's work in land conservation, ecological management, community reach, and climate change. Moving on, the Learn area features information about the Museum of American Bird Art, resources for young conservationists ("EcoKids"), and resources for school groups hoping to pay a visit to some of their land holdings. It's worth nothing that the News & Events area contains blogs, videos, press releases, and details on fun photo contests.

210

Mass Sensor  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this CRADA was to use Honeywell's experience in low temperature cofire ceramics and traditional ceramics to assemble a relatively low-cost, mass-producible miniature mass analyzer. The specific design, given to us by Mass Sensors, LLC, was used to test for helium. The direct benefit for the participant was to have a prototype unit assembled for the purpose of proof of concept and the ability to secure venture capital investors. From that, the company would begin producing their own product for sale. The consumer/taxpayer benefits come from the wide variety of industries that can utilize this technology to improve quality of life. Medical industry can use this technology to improve diagnostic ability; manufacturing industry can use it for improved air, water, and soil monitoring to minimize pollution; and the law enforcement community can use this technology for identification of substances. These are just a few examples of the benefit of this technology. The benefits to DOE were in the area of process improvement for cofire and ceramic materials. From this project we demonstrated nonlinear thickfilm fine lines and spaces that were 5-mil wide with 5-mil spaces; determined height-to diameter-ratios for punched and filled via holes; demonstrated the ability to punch and fill 5-mil microvias; developed and demonstrated the capability to laser cut difficult geometries in 40-mil ceramic; developed and demonstrated coupling LTCC with standard alumina and achieving hermetic seals; developed and demonstrated three-dimensional electronic packaging concepts; and demonstrated printing variable resistors within 1% of the nominal value and within a tightly defined ratio. The capability of this device makes it invaluable for many industries. The device could be used to monitor air samples around manufacturing plants. It also could be used for monitoring automobile exhaust, for doing blood gas analysis, for sampling gases being emitted by volcanoes, for studying activities of insects, and many other things. The ultimate goal was to build two iterations of the mass sensor. However, due to technical difficulties, only one iteration of the device was manufactured. Initial work to optimize the ion source and build a small ion pump was not successful. Consequently, the ion pump was not incorporated into the analyzer design. Mass Sensors, LLC, is still testing the analyzers that were assembled.

Adams, B.E.

2001-01-18

211

Second grade Number Activities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page provides examples of Second Grade Number (Operations and Algebraic Thinking, and Number and Operations in Base Ten) activities aligned with the Common Core State Standards. A CCSS standard is stated and the possible activities are listed below and linked. All activities are suitable for use in Math Centers, small group or whole class settings and are designed to elicit a range of responses and provide opportunities for students to communicate their reasoning and mathematical thinking. Instructions for each task are typed in large print and written in child-friendly language to enable students to work on activities independently after a brief introduction to the task. All files listed are in PDF format.

Godwin, Nicola

2012-01-01

212

First Grade Number Actiivities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page provides examples of First Grade Number (Operations and Algebraic Thinking, and Number and Operations in Base Ten) activities aligned with the Common Core State Standards. A CCSS standard is stated and the possible activities are listed below and linked. All activities are suitable for use in Math Centers, small group or whole class settings and are designed to elicit a range of responses and provide opportunities for students to communicate their reasoning and mathematical thinking. Instructions for each task are typed in large print and written in child-friendly language to enable students to work on activities independently after a brief introduction to the task. All files listed are in PDF format.

Godwin, Nicola

2012-01-01

213

Nature by Numbers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This 4-minute computer animation highlights three forms in nature that have connections with numbers and geometry. The Fibonacci sequence and the golden ratio are shown relating to the chambered nautilus shell and the sunflower seed pattern. The Delaunay triangulation and Voronoi tessellation are shown to simulate the capillary distribution on a dragonfly wing. Included are descriptions of the mathematics and stills from the production.

2013-02-01

214

Maths Doctor: Number  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Maths Doctor website from Macmillan Publishers contains more than 250 lessons that are free for anyone. Each lesson includes a three to five minute video tutorial on the topic and a related worksheet for the student to complete. Each worksheet has a convenient QR code that a student can scan to access the video. The Number section contains numerous lessons ranging from Conversion of Units to Dividing Fractions to Subtracting Negative Integers.

2014-06-20

215

A Pentagonal Number Sieve  

Microsoft Academic Search

We prove a general "pentagonal sieve" theorem that has corollaries such as the following. First, thenumber of pairs of partitions of n that have no parts in common isp(n)2\\\\Gamma p(n \\\\Gamma 1)2\\\\Gamma p(n \\\\Gamma 2)2+ p(n \\\\Gamma 5)2+ p(n \\\\Gamma 7)2\\\\Gamma : : : :Second, if two unlabeled rooted forests of the same number of vertices are chosen i.u.a.r., then

Sylvie Corteel; Carla D. Savage; Herbert S. Wilf; Doron Zeilberger

1998-01-01

216

Safety in numbers?  

PubMed

We are constantly reminded of the high numbers of incidents or occasions of patient safety incidents, never events, deaths, hospital acquired infections and complaints that fill our journals, newspapers and media, in relation to the care we strive to deliver to our patients. I know that this is becoming a real source of anxiety as I speak to colleagues and members. The distress and frustration is almost tangible as they work under the enormous pressures of today's healthcare environments. PMID:22165487

Coates, Tracy

2011-11-01

217

All About Numbers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this 14-min video British teacher Rosalind Caren demonstrates group activities designed to develop number sense, fluency with addition and subtraction fact families, and reasoning skills. Caren exhibits effective questioning techniques and routines. Headteacher/math coordinator Kate Frood describes the guiding principles and expectations of teaching at the school. Following a class observation Frood provides constructive feedback to Caren and her teaching assistants.

2012-01-01

218

The Remarkable Number "1"  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In human history, the origin of the numbers came from definite practical needs. Indeed, there is strong evidence that numbers were created before writing. The number "1", dating back at least 20,000 years, was found as a counting symbol on a bone. The famous statement by the German mathematician Leopold Kronecker (1823-1891), "God made the integers; all else is the work of man," has spawned a lively modern philosophical discussion, and this discussion begins by trying to get a philosophical handle on "1." This approach remains under heavy discussion, and is more-or-less unresolved (Frege in Die Grundlagen der Arithmetik (English: The foundations of arithmetic). Polhman, 1884). In this note, we consider the many facets of "one" in it many guises and applications. Nonetheless, "one" has multiple meanings, from the very practical to the abstract, from mathematics to science to basically everything. We examine here a mere slice of mathematical history with a focus on the most basic and applicable concept therein. It troubles many, particularly students, even today.

Allen, G. Donald

2014-09-01

219

Halo occupation numbers and galaxy bias  

E-print Network

We propose a heuristic model that displays the main features of realistic theories for galaxy bias. We show that the low-order clustering statistics of the dark-matter distribution depend almost entirely on the locations and density profiles of dark-matter haloes. A hypothetical galaxy catalogue depends on (i) the efficiency of galaxy formation, as manifested by the halo occupation number -- the number of galaxies brighter than some sample limit contained in a halo of a given mass; (ii) the location of these galaxies within their halo. The first factor is constrained by the empirical luminosity function of groups. For the second factor, we assume that one galaxy marks the halo centre, with any remaining galaxies acting as satellites that trace the halo mass. These simple assumptions amount to a recipe for non-local bias, in which the probability of finding a galaxy is not a simple function of its local mass density. We have applied this prescription to some CDM models of current interest, and find that the predictions are close to the observed galaxy correlations for a flat $\\Omega=0.3$ model ($\\Lambda$CDM), but not for an $\\Omega=1$ model with the same power spectrum ($\\tau$CDM). This is an inevitable consequence of cluster normalization for the power spectra: cluster-scale haloes of given mass have smaller core radii for high $\\Omega$, and hence display enhanced small-scale clustering. Finally, the pairwise velocity dispersion of galaxies in the $\\Lambda$CDM model is lower than that of the mass, allowing cluster-normalized models to yield a realistic Mach number for the peculiar velocity field. This is largely due to the strong variation of galaxy-formation efficiency with halo mass that is required in this model.

J. A. Peacock; R. E. Smith

2000-04-29

220

Displaying Number Patterns  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This applet from the E-Examples of NCTM, which could be used as an interactive presentation tool, allows the student to link numerical patterns to a visual display as a number pattern is displayed on a calculator and on a hundred board simultaneously. The learner's task is to compare counting sequences on the calculator with the patterns they generate on the hundred board with the goal of helping students to see patterns and then make predictions. Instructions for using the applet are provided as well as background for the teacher.

Bill Kreahling, Bob Panoff, and the Shodor Education Foundation

2011-05-05

221

History of Prime Numbers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The School of Mathematics and Statistics at the University of St Andrews, Scotland has developed an extensive collection of articles on the history of mathematics (See also NSDL Scout Report for Math, Engineering, and Technology, June 4, 2004). This article, written by J J O'Connor and E F Robertson, reviews the history of Prime Numbers. The article includes hyperlinks to topics addressed further in other sections of the website. For example, from this website visitors can also find articles on Pythagoras and Euclid.

222

TRACING GALAXIES THROUGH COSMIC TIME WITH NUMBER DENSITY SELECTION  

SciTech Connect

A central challenge in observational studies of galaxy formation is how to associate progenitor galaxies with their descendants at lower redshifts. One promising approach is to link galaxies at fixed number density rather than fixed luminosity or mass. This method is effective if stellar mass rank order is broadly conserved through cosmic time. In this paper, we use the Guo et al. semi-analytical model to analyze under what circumstances this assumption is valid in the context of a cosmological simulation. Specifically, we select progenitor galaxies at a constant number density and compare the stellar mass evolution of their descendants to the evolution at a constant number density. The median stellar mass of the descendants increases by a factor of four (0.6 dex) from z = 3 to z = 0. Constant number density selection reproduces this to within 40% (0.15 dex) over a wide range of number densities. We show that the discrepancy primarily results from scatter in the stellar mass growth rates and merging. After applying simple, observationally based corrections for these processes, the discrepancy is reduced to 12% (0.05 dex). We conclude that number density selection can be used to predict the median descendant mass of high-redshift progenitor galaxies. The main uncertainty in this study is that semi-analytical models do not reproduce the observed mass evolution of galaxies, which makes the quantitative aggregate effects of star formation, merging, and quenching on the rank order of galaxies somewhat uncertain.

Leja, Joel; Van Dokkum, Pieter [Astronomy Department, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States)] [Astronomy Department, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Franx, Marijn [Sterrewacht Leiden, Leiden University, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands)] [Sterrewacht Leiden, Leiden University, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands)

2013-03-20

223

Cosmological baryon and lepton number in the presence of electroweak fermion-number violation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the presence of rapid fermion-number violation due to nonperturbative electroweak effects certain relations between the baryon number of the Universe and the lepton numbers of the Universe are predicted. In some cases the electron-neutrino asymmetry is exactly specified in terms of the baryon asymmetry. Without introducing new particles, beyond the usual quarks and leptons, it is necessary that the Universe possess a nonzero value of B - L prior to the epoch of fermion-number violation if baryon and lepton asymmetries are to survive. Contrary to intuition, even though electroweak processes violate B + L, a nonzero value of B + L persists after the epoch of rapid fermion-number violation. If the standard model is extended to include lepton-number violation, for example through Majorana neutrino masses, then electroweak processes will reduce the baryon number to zero even in the presence of an initial B - L unless 20 M(sub L) approximately greater than the square root of (T(sub B - L) m(sub P1)) where M(sub L) sets the scale of lepton number violation and T(sub B - L) is the temperature at which a B - L asymmetry is produced. In many models this implies that neutrinos must be so light that they cannot contribute appreciably to the mass density of the Universe.

Harvey, Jeffrey A.; Turner, Michael S.

1990-01-01

224

Galaxy cosmological mass function  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aims: This paper studies the galaxy cosmological mass function (GCMF) in a semi-empirical relativistic approach that uses observational data provided by recent galaxy redshift surveys. Methods: Starting from a previously presented relation between the mass-to-light ratio, the selection function obtained from the luminosity function (LF) data and the luminosity density, the average luminosity L, and the average galactic mass ?g were computed in terms of the redshift. ?g was also alternatively estimated by means of a method that uses the galaxy stellar mass function (GSMF). Comparison of these two forms of deriving the average galactic mass allowed us to infer a possible bias introduced by the selection criteria of the survey. We used the FORS Deep Field galaxy survey sample of 5558 galaxies in the redshift range 0.5 mass-to-light ratio and its GSMF data. Results: Assuming ?g0 ? 1011?? as the local value of the average galactic mass, the LF approach results in LB ? (1 + z)(2.40 ± 0.03) and ?g ? (1 + z)(1.1 ± 0.2). However, using the GSMF results to calculate the average galactic mass produces ?g ? (1 + z)(- 0.58 ± 0.22). We chose the latter result because it is less biased. We then obtained the theoretical quantities of interest, such as the differential number counts, to finally calculate the GCMF, which can be fitted by a Schechter function, but whose fitted parameter values are different from the values found in the literature for the GSMF. Conclusions: This GCMF behavior follows the theoretical predictions from the cold dark matter models in which the less massive objects form first, followed later by more massive ones. In the range 0.5

Lopes, Amanda R.; Iribarrem, Alvaro; Ribeiro, Marcelo B.; Stoeger, William R.

2014-12-01

225

q Numbers of quantum groups, Fibonacci numbers, and orthogonal polynomials  

Microsoft Academic Search

We obtain algebraic relations (identities) for q-numbers that do not contain q\\u000a ?-factors. We derive a formula that expresses any q-number [x] in terms of the q-number [2]. We establish the relationship between the q-numbers [n] and the Fibonacci numbers, Chebyshev polynomials, and other special functions. The sums of combinations of q-numbers, in particular, the sums of their powers, are

I. I. Kachurik

1998-01-01

226

The Neutron Star Mass Distribution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, the number of pulsars with secure mass measurements has increased to a level that allows us to probe the underlying neutron star (NS) mass distribution in detail. We critically review the radio pulsar mass measurements. For the first time, we are able to analyze a sizable population of NSs with a flexible modeling approach that can effectively accommodate a skewed underlying distribution and asymmetric measurement errors. We find that NSs that have evolved through different evolutionary paths reflect distinctive signatures through dissimilar distribution peak and mass cutoff values. NSs in double NS and NS-white dwarf (WD) systems show consistent respective peaks at 1.33 M ? and 1.55 M ?, suggesting significant mass accretion (?m ? 0.22 M ?) has occurred during the spin-up phase. The width of the mass distribution implied by double NS systems is indicative of a tight initial mass function while the inferred mass range is significantly wider for NSs that have gone through recycling. We find a mass cutoff at ~2.1 M ? for NSs with WD companions, which establishes a firm lower bound for the maximum NS mass. This rules out the majority of strange quark and soft equation of state models as viable configurations for NS matter. The lack of truncation close to the maximum mass cutoff along with the skewed nature of the inferred mass distribution both enforce the suggestion that the 2.1 M ? limit is set by evolutionary constraints rather than nuclear physics or general relativity, and the existence of rare supermassive NSs is possible.

Kiziltan, Bülent; Kottas, Athanasios; De Yoreo, Maria; Thorsett, Stephen E.

2013-11-01

227

Higher-order mass defect analysis for mass spectra of complex organic mixtures.  

PubMed

Higher-order mass defect analysis is introduced as a unique formula assignment and visualization method for the analysis of complex mass spectra. This approach is an extension of the concepts of Kendrick mass transformation widely used for identification of homologous compounds differing only by a number of base units (e.g., CH(2), H(2), O, CH(2)O, etc.) in complex mixtures. We present an iterative renormalization routine for defining higher-order homologous series and multidimensional clustering of mass spectral features. This approach greatly simplifies visualization of complex mass spectra and increases the number of chemical formulas that can be confidently assigned for given mass accuracy. The potential for using higher-order mass defects for data reduction and visualization is shown. Higher-order mass defect analysis is described and demonstrated through third-order analysis of a deisotoped high-resolution mass spectrum of crude oil containing nearly 13,000 peaks. PMID:21526851

Roach, Patrick J; Laskin, Julia; Laskin, Alexander

2011-06-15

228

Higher-Order Mass Defect Analysis for Mass Spectra of Complex Organic Mixtures  

SciTech Connect

Higher-order mass defect analysis is introduced as a unique formula assignment and visualization method for the analysis of complex mass spectra. This approach is an extension of the concepts of Kendrick mass transformation widely used for identification of homologous compounds differing only by a number of base units (e.g., CH2, H2, O, CH2O, etc.) in complex mixtures. We present an iterative renormalization routine for defining higher order homologous series and multidimensional clustering of mass spectral features. This approach greatly simplifies visualization of complex mass spectra and increases the number of chemical formulae that can be confidently assigned for given mass accuracy. The potential for using higher-order mass defects for data reduction and visualization is shown. Higher-order mass defect analysis is described and demonstrated through third-order analysis of a de-isotoped high-resolution mass spectrum of crude oil containing nearly 13,000 peaks.

Roach, Patrick J.; Laskin, Julia; Laskin, Alexander

2011-06-15

229

Mass transfer andMass transfer and Mass transfer andMass transfer and  

E-print Network

eknik Mass transfer andMass transfer and arationste Mass transfer andMass transfer and separationSepa Massöverföring och separationsteknikMassöverföring och separationsteknik ("M�F("M�F--ST")ST") 4 erföringo 6. Mass transfer and convection6. Mass transfer and convection Massöve Ron Zevenhoven �bo Akademi Universityy

Zevenhoven, Ron

230

Navier number and transition to turbulence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The motivation behind this article is to explain a role of the Navier number (Na - dimensionless slip-length) in prediction of closures for laminar to turbulent transition undergoing via eddies detachment from the slip layer in nano-cannals. Additionally the role of the Navier number Na in universal modeling of phenomenon of enhanced mass flow rate reported in micro- and nano-channels has been explained. The Na number should be treated as a ratio of internal viscous to external viscous momentum transport and therefore this notion cannot be extended onto whole friction resistance phenomena. Our proposal for unique expressing of a critical point in turbulence transition is that on a plane of fD - Re one needs two coordinates. The second critical coordinate has been discovered by Stanton and Pannell and is known to be the Stanton-Pannell number StPa. Finally dependence of the Stanton- Pannell number StPa on Navier number Na and Reynolds number Re is presented.

Zió?kowski, P.; Badur, J.

2014-08-01

231

20121130,1206,08--12,16--17,20,20130121, 20130121--23,26--0206,10()  

E-print Network

--Tucker 1 3. (a) 3 (b) (c) C1 C1 Fritz--John (d) (balanced) (e) 0 2 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 1 #12;7.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 7.3 Fritz--John\\2 1 -1 -1 1 { , } 1 -1 1 2 Nash 1 2 1 Nash Ã? q 1 - q 1\\2 p 1 -1 1 - p -1 1 1

Hattori, Tetsuya

232

European Symp. on Computer Application in the Chemical Industry, Erlangen, 23-26 April, 1989  

E-print Network

. Distillation control is an inherently di cult problem, or at least it is di cult to nd an appropriate control. There has been a lot of simulation studies from which it is very di cult to deduce general results. Some

Skogestad, Sigurd

233

REGISTRATION INFORMATION HTTP://SERPINS2011.ORG OCTOBER 23-26 (SUNDAY-WEDNESDAY), 2011  

E-print Network

TO THE FUTURE", 1996-2011) THE UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA AT CHAPEL HILL, CHAPEL HILLAsburgh, PA), and Jim HunEngton (U. Cambridge, UK) LocaLon of MeeLng- Carolina Inn/website info) RegistraLon and Hotel (Carolina Inn) InformaLon below: h

Crews, Stephen

234

50 CFR 23.26 - When is a U.S. or foreign CITES document valid?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Humane transport Live wildlife or plants were transported in compliance with CITES...shipment of live wild animals and plants or, in the case of air transport of wildlife, the International...Transport Association Live Animals Regulations ....

2010-10-01

235

50 CFR 23.26 - When is a U.S. or foreign CITES document valid?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Humane transport Live wildlife or plants were transported in compliance with CITES...shipment of live wild animals and plants or, in the case of air transport of wildlife, the International...Transport Association Live Animals Regulations ....

2011-10-01

236

Beam Control Conference 11-BC-050 23-26 May 2011, Orlando, FL  

E-print Network

-averaged OPDrms or time-averaged Strehl Ratio (SR) on a target. However, for airborne free-space laser = dynamic pressure r2 = ratio between the bulk and free-stream temperatures SR = Strehl Ratio s = temporal standard deviation of the natural log of OPDrms(t) t = time TH = threshold value THSR = Strehl Ratio

Gordeyev, Stanislav

237

Pauli Pascal Pyramids, Pauli Fibonacci Numbers, and Pauli Jacobsthal Numbers  

E-print Network

The three anti-commutative two-dimensional Pauli Pascal triangles can be generalized into multi-dimensional Pauli Pascal hyperpyramids. Fibonacci and Jacobsthal numbers are then generalized into Pauli Fibonacci numbers, Pauli Jacobsthal numbers, and Pauli Fibonacci numbers of higher order. And the question is: are Pauli rabbits killer rabbits?

Martin Erik Horn

2007-11-26

238

Number Games, Magnitude Representation, and Basic Number Skills in Preschoolers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effect of 3 intervention board games (linear number, linear color, and nonlinear number) on young children's (mean age = 3.8 years) counting abilities, number naming, magnitude comprehension, accuracy in number-to-position estimation tasks, and best-fit numerical magnitude representations was examined. Pre- and posttest performance was…

Whyte, Jemma Catherine; Bull, Rebecca

2008-01-01

239

Number Games, Magnitude Representation, and Basic Number Skills in Preschoolers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of 3 intervention board games (linear number, linear color, and nonlinear number) on young children's (mean age = 3.8 years) counting abilities, number naming, magnitude comprehension, accuracy in number-to-position estimation tasks, and best-fit numerical magnitude representations was examined. Pre- and posttest performance was compared following four 25-min intervention sessions. The linear number board game significantly improved children's performance

Jemma Catherine Whyte; Rebecca Bull

2008-01-01

240

Generalized Lucas Numbers and Relations with Generalized Fibonacci Numbers  

E-print Network

In this paper, we present a new generalization of the Lucas numbers by matrix representation using Genaralized Lucas Polynomials. We give some properties of this new generalization and some relations between the generalized order-k Lucas numbers and generalized order-k Fibonacci numbers. In addition, we obtain Binet formula and combinatorial representation for generalized order-k Lucas numbers by using properties of generalized Fibonacci numbers.

Kaygisiz, Kenan

2011-01-01

241

Open Mass Spectrometry Search Algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large numbers of MS\\/MS peptide spectra generated in proteomics experiments require efficient, sensitive and specific algorithms for peptide identification. In the Open Mass Spectrometry Search Algorithm [OMSSA], specificity is calculated by a classic probability score using an explicit model for matching experimental spectra to sequences. At default thresholds, OMSSA matches more spectra from a standard protein cocktail than a comparable

Lewis Y. Geer; Sanford P. Markey; Jeffrey A. Kowalak; Lukas Wagner; Ming Xu; Dawn M. Maynard; Xiaoyu Yang; Wenyao Shi; Stephen H. Bryant

2004-01-01

242

ccsd00003233, WHY DELANNOY NUMBERS?  

E-print Network

ccsd­00003233, version 1 ­ 6 Nov 2004 WHY DELANNOY NUMBERS? CYRIL BANDERIER AND SYLVIANE SCHWER, to the so-called Delannoy numbers, and were the #12;rst general way to solve Ballot-like problems of Delannoy numbers and Delannoy lattice paths, note that the classical number sequences or lattice paths have

243

Bondage number of grid graphs  

E-print Network

The bondage number $b(G)$ of a nonempty graph $G$ is the cardinality of a smallest set of edges whose removal from $G$ results in a graph with domination number greater than the domination number of $G$. Here we study the bondage number of some grid-like graphs. In this sense, we obtain some bounds or exact values of the bondage number of some Cartesian product, strong product or direct product of two paths.

Dettlaff, Magda; Yero, Ismael G

2012-01-01

244

Mass terms in the Skyrme Model  

E-print Network

We consider various forms of the mass term that can be used in the Skyrme model and their implications on the properties of baryonic states. We show that, with an appropriate choice for the mass term, without changing the asymptotic behaviour of the profile functions at large $r$, we can considerably reduce or increase the mass term's contribution to the classical mass of the solitons. We find that multibaryon configurations can be classically bound at large baryon numbers for some choices of this mass term.

V. B. Kopeliovich; B. Piette; W. J. Zakrzewski

2005-03-16

245

15. Stress Sheet, Truss number 2, span number 6, Superior ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

15. Stress Sheet, Truss number 2, span number 6, Superior Avenue viaduct. Drawing courtesy Engineering Dept., City of Cleveland. - Superior Avenue Viaduct, Cleveland East & West side, Cuyahoga Valley Vicinity, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

246

Truly Hypercomplex Numbers: Unification of Numbers and Vectors  

E-print Network

Since the beginning of the quest of hypercomplex numbers in the late eighteenth century, many hypercomplex number systems have been proposed but none of them succeeded in extending the concept of complex numbers to higher dimensions. This paper provides a definitive solution to this problem by defining the truly hypercomplex numbers of dimension N greater than or equal to 3. The secret lies in the definition of the multiplicative law and its properties. This law is based on spherical and hyperspherical coordinates. These numbers which I call spherical and hyperspherical hypercomplex numbers define Abelian groups over addition and multiplication. Nevertheless, the multiplicative law generally does not distribute over addition, thus the set of these numbers equipped with addition and multiplication does not form a mathematical field. However, such numbers are expected to have a tremendous utility in mathematics and in science in general.

Redouane Bouhennache

2014-09-07

247

Mass definition, mass measurement and recommendations  

SciTech Connect

Mass measurements may be greatly enhanced by an understanding of the operation of balances, the effects of buoyancy, practices encountered in weighing and the impacts and meanings of revelant mass standards. Beginning with the basic forces acting on weights, the equations brought to equality in balances are developed. These give explanation of the weighing process and an appreciation for some balance characteristics. The requirements of relevant mass standards are also reviewed. Recommendations are made for operation of practical mass calibration. An appendix is attached which gives computation examples using apparent mass'' and also gives a method for determining the density of mass artifacts or unknown materials. 2 tabs.

Braudaway, D.W.

1990-09-01

248

The concrete theory of numbers: initial numbers and wonderful properties of numbers repunit  

E-print Network

In this work initial numbers and repunit numbers have been studied. All numbers have been considered in a decimal notation. The problem of simplicity of initial numbers has been studied. Interesting properties of numbers repunit are proved: $gcd(R_a, R_b) = R_{gcd(a,b)}$; $R_{ab}/(R_aR_b)$ is an integer only if $gcd(a,b) = 1$, where $a\\geq1$, $b\\geq1$ are integers. Dividers of numbers repunit, are researched by a degree of prime number.

Boris V. Tarasov

2007-04-06

249

The bondage numbers of graphs with small crossing numbers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bondage number b(G) of a nonempty graph G is the cardinality of a smallest edge set whose removal from G results in a graph with domination number greater than the domination number (G) of G. Kang and Yuan proved b(G) 8 for every connected planar graph G. Fischermann, Rautenbach and Volkmann obtained some further results for connected planar graphs.

Jia Huang; Jun-ming Xu

2007-01-01

250

Love number can be hard to measure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The waveform phase for a neutron star binary can be split into point-particle terms and finite-size terms (characterized by the Love number) that account for equation-of-state effects. The latter first enter at fifth post-Newtonian (5PN) order (i.e., proportional to the tenth power of the orbital velocity), but the former are only known completely to 3.5PN order, with higher-order terms only known to leading order in the mass ratio. We here find that not including point-particle terms at 4PN order to leading and first order in the mass ratio in the template model can severely deteriorate our ability to measure the equation of state. This problem can be solved if one uses numerical waveforms once their own systematic errors are under control.

Yagi, Kent; Yunes, Nicolás

2014-01-01

251

Energy or Mass and Interaction  

E-print Network

A review. Problems: 1-Many empirical parameters and large dimension number; 2-Gravitation and Electrodynamics are challenged by dark matter and energy. Energy and nonlinear electrodynamics are fundamental in a unified nonlinear interaction. Nuclear energy appears as nonlinear SU(2) magnetic energy. Gravitation and electromagnetism are unified giving Einstein's equation and a geometric energy momentum tensor. A solution energy in the newtonian limit gives the gravitational constant G. Outside of this limit G is variable. May be interpreted as dark matter or energy. In vacuum, known gravitational solutions are obtained. Electromagnetism is an SU(2) subgroup. A U(1) limit gives Maxwell's equations. Geometric fields determine a generalized Dirac equation and are the germ of quantum physics. Planck's h and of Einstein's c are given by the potential and the metric. Excitations have quanta of charge, flux and spin determining the FQHE. There are only three stable 1/2 spin fermions. Mass is a form of energy. The rest energies of the fermions give the proton/electron mass ratio. Potential excitations have energies equal to the weak boson masses allowing a geometric interpretation of Weinberg's angle. SU(2) gives the anomalous magnetic moments of proton, electron, neutron and generates nuclear range attractive potentials strong enough to produce the binding energies of the deuteron and other nuclides. Lepton and meson masses are due to topological excitations. The geometric mass spectrum is satisfactory. The proton has a triple structure. The alpha constant is a geometric number.

Gustavo R Gonzalez-Martin

2010-07-19

252

Graphs, partitions and Fibonacci numbers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract The Fibonacci number of a graph is the number of independent vertex subsets. In this paper, we investigate trees with large Fibonacci number. In particular, we show that all trees with n edges and Fibonacci number,> 2,\\/4 for constants A,B as n ! 1. This is proved by using a natural correspondence between partitions of integers and star-like trees.

Arnold Knopfmacher; Robert F. Tichy; Stephan Wagner; Volker Ziegler

2007-01-01

253

Oscillations of a String with Concentrated Masses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this work, the oscillations of a homogeneous string fixed at both ends, and loaded with a finite number of masses, are studied. Through a simple device, the cases with one and two concentrated masses are analysed in detail. The normal modes are observed and the corresponding frequencies are recorded. The experimental results and the solutions…

Gomez, B. J.; Repetto, C. E.; Stia, C. R.; Welti, R.

2007-01-01

254

Methods of nonradiating meteor mass calculation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The observed integral meteor intensity cannot determine the real character of meteor radiation. The data on absolute spectrophotometry of meteor spectrograms permit the number of radiating particles to be estimated for different brightnesses of meteors. Two methods of nonradiative meteor mass estimation are given. As an attempt to calculate nonradiative meteor mass, the first method utilizes a special multiplier in

V. A. Smirnov

1997-01-01

255

The Meanings of Mass Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book analyzes the transformation of British higher education from a closed, elite university system into an open, mass post-secondary education system. It sees the changes in British higher education as stemming from: (1) the rapid expansion in the number of students that created pressures for a shift to a mass, open post-secondary education…

Scott, Peter

256

PIA update: Correlation analyses of mass spectra  

Microsoft Academic Search

The PIA instrument aboard the Giotto spacecraft (a time of flight spectrometer) has been presented elsewhere. The mass spectra used in this analysis were decoded and mass numbers assigned according to the presence of carbon and silver, using the global values for these elements in their spectral absence. The results presented here were obtained using a frequency of occurrence based

L. W. Mason; B. C. Clark

1988-01-01

257

Multiple paternity in wild house mice (Mus musculus musculus): effects on offspring genetic diversity and body mass  

PubMed Central

Multiple mating is common in many species, but it is unclear whether multiple paternity enhances offspring genetic diversity or fitness. We conducted a survey on wild house mice (Mus musculus musculus), and we found that in 73 pregnant females, 29% of litters had multiple sires, which is remarkably similar to the 23–26% found in feral populations of Mus musculus domesticus in the USA and Australia, respectively. The question is: How has selection maintained multiple mating in these subspecies since the evolutionary divergence, ca. 2800–6000 years ago? We found no evidence that multiple paternity enhanced females’ litter size, contrary to the fertility assurance or genetic benefits hypotheses. Multiple paternity was associated with reduced mean and variance in offspring body mass, which suggests that females allocate fewer resources or that there is increased intrauterine conflict in multiple-versus single-sired litters. We found increased allelic diversity (though not heterozygosity) in multiple-sired litters, as predicted by the genetic diversity hypothesis. Finally, we found that the dams’ heterozygosity was correlated with the mean heterozygosity of their offspring in single-and multiple-sired litters, suggesting that outbred, heterozygous females were more likely to avoid inbreeding than inbred, homozygous females. Future studies are needed to examine how increased genetic diversity of litters and smaller mean (and variance) offspring body mass associated with multiple paternity affect offspring fitness. PMID:24558575

Thonhauser, Kerstin E; Thoss, Michaela; Musolf, Kerstin; Klaus, Teresa; Penn, Dustin J

2014-01-01

258

Linear or Exponential Number Lines  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Having decided to spend some time looking at one's understanding of numbers, the author was inspired by "Alex's Adventures in Numberland," by Alex Bellos to look at one's innate appreciation of number. Bellos quotes research studies suggesting that an individual's natural appreciation of numbers is more likely to be exponential rather than linear,…

Stafford, Pat

2011-01-01

259

The Algebra of Complex Numbers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This programed text is an introduction to the algebra of complex numbers for engineering students, particularly because of its relevance to important problems of applications in electrical engineering. It is designed for a person who is well experienced with the algebra of real numbers and calculus, but who has no experience with complex number

LePage, Wilbur R.

260

Data Compression with Prime Numbers  

E-print Network

A compression algorithm is presented that uses the set of prime numbers. Sequences of numbers are correlated with the prime numbers, and labeled with the integers. The algorithm can be iterated on data sets, generating factors of doubles on the compression.

Gordon Chalmers

2005-11-16

261

Numbers and Math. Beginnings Workshop.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents five articles addressing numbers and math instruction for young children: "Math Talk with Young Children: One Parent's Experience" (Fred E. Gross); "How Children Build Their Understanding of Numbers" (David Elkind); "Early Math: It's More than Numbers" (Ann S. Epstein); "Assessing Mathematical Learning: Observing and Listening to…

Gross, Fred E.; Elkind, CavidEpstein, Ann S.; Copley, Juanita V.; Haugen, Ginny; Haugen, Kirsten

2003-01-01

262

Sounding Number Dr. Rachel Hall  

E-print Network

is of a tuning fork. Here's a picture of the sound wave: This looks like a sine wave! Let's highlight a portionSounding Number Dr. Rachel Hall Spectrum and Timbre The equation u(x, t) = ( sin nx L ) ( A sin is a positive whole number, is a solution to the wave equation (for a clarinet, n is an odd number). It predicts

Hall, Rachel W.

263

Some Ideas About Number Theory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The material in this booklet is designed for non-professional mathematicians who have an interest in the theory of numbers. The author presents some elementary results of number theory without involving detailed proofs. Much of the material has direct application for secondary school mathematics teachers. A brief account of the nature of number

Barnett, I. A.

264

The Number Space and Neglect  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent cognitive models of numerical abilities have postulated that number processing may in part rely on a representation of quantities where magnitude is organized by spatial proximity, along a “mental number line” extending from left to right. We describe four experiments that examined whether such a spatial representation of number would be affected by the presence of unilateral neglect after

Patrik Vuilleumier; Stéphanie Ortigue; Peter Brugger

2004-01-01

265

Bayesian DNA copy number analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Some diseases, like tumors, can be related to chromosomal aberrations, leading to changes of DNA copy number. The copy number of an aberrant genome can be represented as a piecewise constant function, since it can exhibit regions of deletions or gains. Instead, in a healthy cell the copy number is two because we inherit one copy of each chromosome

Paola M. V. Rancoita; Marcus Hutter; Francesco Bertoni; Ivo Kwee

2009-01-01

266

A Lesson in Number Pattern  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a guided investigation into the spacial relationships between the centres of the squares in a Fibonacci tiling. It is essentially a lesson in number pattern, but includes work with surds, coordinate geometry, and some elementary use of complex numbers. The investigation could be presented to students in a number of ways…

Fletcher, Rodney

2008-01-01

267

Dynamic Virtual Credit Card Numbers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theft of stored credit card information is an increasing threat to e-commerce. We propose a dynamic virtual credit card number scheme that reduces the damage caused by stolen credit card numbers. A user can use an existing credit card account to generate multiple virtual credit card numbers that are either usable for a single transaction or are tied with a

Ian Molloy; Jiangtao Li; Ninghui Li

2007-01-01

268

PLURIDICTA, Numbers 28-35.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The eight titles in this document include the following: "Comprehension and Input Processing as Useful Terms in the Field of SLA" (number 28) (Teresa Cadierno); "On the Role of Instruction in SLA: Research Results and Theoretical Explanations" (number 29) (Teresa Cadierno); "Can Writing Be Taught" (number 30) (Stuart Greene); "Academic Listening"…

Wagner, Johannes, Ed.

1998-01-01

269

Three Cubes in One Number  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Separate a three-digit number into its component digits. After raising each digit to the third power and computing the sum of the cubes, determine how often the original number reappears. Modular arithmetic is used to reduce the number of potential solutions to a more manageable quantity. (Contains 4 tables.)

Jue, Brian

2010-01-01

270

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Xe-171 (Xenon)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume A `Nuclei with Z = 1 - 54' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms'. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Xe-171 (Xenon, atomic number Z = 54, mass number A = 171).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

271

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Rh-171 (Rhodium)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume A `Nuclei with Z = 1 - 54' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms'. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Rh-171 (Rhodium, atomic number Z = 45, mass number A = 171).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

272

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Pd-171 (Palladium)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume A `Nuclei with Z = 1 - 54' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms'. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Pd-171 (Palladium, atomic number Z = 46, mass number A = 171).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

273

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for In-171 (Indium)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume A `Nuclei with Z = 1 - 54' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms'. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope In-171 (Indium, atomic number Z = 49, mass number A = 171).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

274

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Te-171 (Tellurium)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume A `Nuclei with Z = 1 - 54' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms'. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Te-171 (Tellurium, atomic number Z = 52, mass number A = 171).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

275

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Sn-171 (Tin)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume A `Nuclei with Z = 1 - 54' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms'. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Sn-171 (Tin, atomic number Z = 50, mass number A = 171).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

276

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Cd-171 (Cadmium)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume A `Nuclei with Z = 1 - 54' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms'. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Cd-171 (Cadmium, atomic number Z = 48, mass number A = 171).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

277

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Sb-171 (Antimony)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume A `Nuclei with Z = 1 - 54' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms'. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Sb-171 (Antimony, atomic number Z = 51, mass number A = 171).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

278

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Ag-171 (Silver)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume A `Nuclei with Z = 1 - 54' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms'. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Ag-171 (Silver, atomic number Z = 47, mass number A = 171).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

279

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for I-171 (Iodine)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume A `Nuclei with Z = 1 - 54' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms'. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope I-171 (Iodine, atomic number Z = 53, mass number A = 171).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

280

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Sb-91 (Antimony)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume A `Nuclei with Z = 1 - 54' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms'. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Sb-91 (Antimony, atomic number Z = 51, mass number A = 91).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

281

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Sn-91 (Tin)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume A `Nuclei with Z = 1 - 54' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms'. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Sn-91 (Tin, atomic number Z = 50, mass number A = 91).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

282

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Ni-69 (Nickel)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume A `Nuclei with Z = 1 - 54' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms'. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Ni-69 (Nickel, atomic number Z = 28, mass number A = 69).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

283

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Sr-71 (Strontium)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume A `Nuclei with Z = 1 - 54' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms'. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Sr-71 (Strontium, atomic number Z = 38, mass number A = 71).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

284

Mass of the H dibaryon.  

PubMed

Recent lattice QCD calculations have reported evidence for the existence of a bound state with strangeness -2 and baryon number 2 at quark masses somewhat higher than the physical values. By developing a description of the dependence of this binding energy on the up, down and strange quark masses that allows a controlled chiral extrapolation, we explore the hypothesis that this state is to be identified with the H dibaryon. Taking as input the recent results of the HAL and NPLQCD Collaborations, we show that the H dibaryon is likely to be unbound by 13±14??MeV at the physical point. PMID:21929231

Shanahan, P E; Thomas, A W; Young, R D

2011-08-26

285

Generating mass without Higgs fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the Weinberg-Salam model, as in the various grand unification, models, Higgs fields were introduced to endow particles with mass in a gauge-invariant way. These Higgs fields seem to be undesirable features of the theory, for they bring with them a large number of arbitrary parameters. Most likely, they are phenomenological order parameters not unlike the Ginsberg-Landau order parameter in superconductivity. I shall describe some work done, in collaboration with my graduate student Roberto Mendel that attempts to generate masses spontaneously, without Higgs fields. (AIP)

Huang, Kerson

1981-05-01

286

Mass of the H Dibaryon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent lattice QCD calculations have reported evidence for the existence of a bound state with strangeness -2 and baryon number 2 at quark masses somewhat higher than the physical values. By developing a description of the dependence of this binding energy on the up, down and strange quark masses that allows a controlled chiral extrapolation, we explore the hypothesis that this state is to be identified with the H dibaryon. Taking as input the recent results of the HAL and NPLQCD Collaborations, we show that the H dibaryon is likely to be unbound by 13±14MeV at the physical point.

Shanahan, P. E.; Thomas, A. W.; Young, R. D.

2011-08-01

287

Mass Segregation in Globular Clusters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the results of a new study of mass segregation in two-component star clusters, based on a large number of numerical N-body simulations using our recently developed dynamical Monte Carlo code. Specifically, we follow the dynamical evolution of clusters containing stars with individual masses m1 as well as a tracer population of objects with individual masses m2. We consider both light tracers (??m2/m1<1) and heavy tracers (?>1) and a variety of King model initial conditions. In all of our simulations we use a realistically large number of stars for globular clusters, N=105, but we ignore the effects of binaries and stellar evolution. For heavy tracers, which could represent stellar remnants such as neutron stars or black holes in a globular cluster, we characterize in a variety of ways the tendency for these objects to concentrate in or near the cluster core. In agreement with simple theoretical arguments, we find that the characteristic time for this mass segregation process varies as 1/?. For models with very light tracers (?<~10-2), which could represent free-floating planets or brown dwarfs, we find the expected depletion of light objects in the cluster core but also sometimes a significant enhancement in the halo. That is, for some initial conditions, the number density of light objects in the cluster halo increases over time, in spite of the higher overall evaporation rate of lighter objects through the tidal boundary. Using these results along with a simplified initial mass function, we estimate the optical depth to gravitational microlensing by planetary mass objects or brown dwarfs in typical globular clusters. For some initial conditions, the optical depth in the halo owing to very low mass objects could be much greater than that of luminous stars. If we apply our results to M22, using the recent null detection of Sahu, Anderson, & King, we find an upper limit of ~25% at the 63% confidence level for the current mass fraction of M22 in the form of very low mass objects.

Fregeau, J. M.; Joshi, K. J.; Portegies Zwart, S. F.; Rasio, F. A.

2002-05-01

288

Generalized Bernoulli-Hurwitz numbers and the universal Bernoulli numbers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The three fundamental properties of the Bernoulli numbers, namely, the von Staudt-Clausen theorem, von Staudt's second theorem, and Kummer's original congruence, are generalized to new numbers that we call generalized Bernoulli-Hurwitz numbers. These are coefficients in the power series expansion of a higher-genus algebraic function with respect to a suitable variable. Our generalization differs strongly from previous works. Indeed, the order of the power of the modulus prime in our Kummer-type congruences is exactly the same as in the trigonometric function case (namely, Kummer's own congruence for the original Bernoulli numbers), and as in the elliptic function case (namely, H. Lang's extension for the Hurwitz numbers). However, in other past results on higher-genus algebraic functions, the modulus was at most half of its value in these classical cases. This contrast is clarified by investigating the analogue of the three properties above for the universal Bernoulli numbers. Bibliography: 34 titles.

Ônishi, Yoshihiro

2011-10-01

289

Perfect, Amicable and Sociable Numbers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These friendly sounding numbers are defined by their divisibility and sums. A perfect number is a number whose positive divisors (except for itself) sum to itself; an amicable number is a pair of numbers each of which equals the sum of the other's aliquot parts; and the members of aliquot cycles of length greater than two are often called sociable numbers. This page, housed at (but not officially affiliated with) the Institute for Materials Science at the University of Connecticut, defines and describes perfect, amicable, and sociable numbers and introduces aliquot sequences. The text has links to a bibliography and to numeric tables. This site might be interesting to college-level mathematics students or anyone into mathematical puzzles.

290

Residential Thermal Mass Construction  

E-print Network

completely shied away from high mass construction practices. In an attempt to revitalize the use of high mass in residential construction, we have designed a special "Thermal Mass Block." This new block incorporates the use of modern construction techniques...

Thieken, J. S.

1988-01-01

291

Origins of mass  

E-print Network

Newtonian mechanics posited mass as a primary quality of matter, incapable of further elucidation. We now see Newtonian mass as an emergent property. That mass-concept is tremendously useful in the approximate description ...

Wilczek, Frank

292

Effective Mass and Energy-Mass Relationship  

E-print Network

The particle effective mass is often a challenging concept in solid state physics due to the many different definitions of the effective mass that are routinely used. Also, the most commonly used theoretical definition of the effective mass was derived from the assumption of a parabolic energy-momentum relationship, E(p), and therefore should not be applied to non-parabolic materials. In this paper, we use wave-particle duality to derive a definition of the effective mass and the energy-mass approximation suitable for non-parabolic materials. The new energy-mass relationship can be considered a generalization of Einstein's E=mc^2 suitable for arbitrary E(p) and therefore applicable to solid state materials and devices. We show that the resulting definition of the effective mass seems suitable for non-paraboic solid state materials such as HgCdTe, GaAs, and graphene.

Viktor Ariel

2012-05-14

293

Perceiving numbers influences actions in number-space synesthesia.  

PubMed

Number and space are spontaneously linked in human cognition and have been metaphorically described as a 'mental number line'. In number-space synesthetes (NSS), numbers are visualized in specific spatial arrays, in an idiosyncratic and explicit manner. Here we tested whether the numerical-spatial association that characterizes NSS has the potential to affect individual's actions when the number is not a task-relevant feature. We used a Simon task that implies stimulus-response matching. Task-irrelevant Arabic numerals (1, 4, 6, 9) appeared simultaneously at the same location as a colored target. A group of 15 age-matched controls and 4 NSS completed a 2×2 within-subjects design consisting of Simon (compatible and incompatible) and number-space (congruent and incongruent) trials. Mean reaction time (RT) and RT cumulative distribution functions across Simon and number-space conditions for both NSS and controls were analyzed. Relative to controls, synesthetes' RTs were overall affected by the number-space mapping. Moreover, synesthetes' Simon effects occurred at later response times. These results provide strong evidence that numbers are cognitively represented as action codes and that the strength of the association shapes the impact of the numerical representation on individuals' actions. PMID:22800399

Arend, Isabel; Gertner, Limor; Henik, Avishai

2013-01-01

294

Nonliteral understanding of number words.  

PubMed

One of the most puzzling and important facts about communication is that people do not always mean what they say; speakers often use imprecise, exaggerated, or otherwise literally false descriptions to communicate experiences and attitudes. Here, we focus on the nonliteral interpretation of number words, in particular hyperbole (interpreting unlikely numbers as exaggerated and conveying affect) and pragmatic halo (interpreting round numbers imprecisely). We provide a computational model of number interpretation as social inference regarding the communicative goal, meaning, and affective subtext of an utterance. We show that our model predicts humans' interpretation of number words with high accuracy. Our model is the first to our knowledge to incorporate principles of communication and empirically measured background knowledge to quantitatively predict hyperbolic and pragmatic halo effects in number interpretation. This modeling framework provides a unified approach to nonliteral language understanding more generally. PMID:25092304

Kao, Justine T; Wu, Jean Y; Bergen, Leon; Goodman, Noah D

2014-08-19

295

Dynamic Virtual Credit Card Numbers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Theft of stored credit card information is an increasing threat to e-commerce. We propose a dynamic virtual credit card number scheme that reduces the damage caused by stolen credit card numbers. A user can use an existing credit card account to generate multiple virtual credit card numbers that are either usable for a single transaction or are tied with a particular merchant. We call the scheme dynamic because the virtual credit card numbers can be generated without online contact with the credit card issuers. These numbers can be processed without changing any of the infrastructure currently in place; the only changes will be at the end points, namely, the card users and the card issuers. We analyze the security requirements for dynamic virtual credit card numbers, discuss the design space, propose a scheme using HMAC, and prove its security under the assumption the underlying function is a PRF.

Molloy, Ian; Li, Jiangtao; Li, Ninghui

296

What exactly do numbers mean?  

PubMed Central

Number words are generally used to refer to the exact cardinal value of a set, but cognitive scientists disagree about their meanings. Although most psychological analyses presuppose that numbers have exact semantics (two means EXACTLY TWO), many linguistic accounts propose that numbers have lower-bounded semantics (AT LEAST TWO), and that speakers restrict their reference through a pragmatic inference (scalar implicature). We address this debate through studies of children who are in the process of acquiring the meanings of numbers. Adults and 2- and 3-year-olds were tested in a novel paradigm that teases apart semantic and pragmatic aspects of interpretation (the covered box task). Our findings establish that when scalar implicatures are cancelled in the critical trials of this task, both adults and children consistently give exact interpretations for number words. These results, in concert with recent work on real-time processing, provide the first unambiguous evidence that number words have exact semantics. PMID:25285053

Huang, Yi Ting; Spelke, Elizabeth; Snedeker, Jesse

2014-01-01

297

Number Line Bars--Fractions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students use these virtual fraction bars to model fractional addition, subtraction, multiplication (of fractions by whole numbers), and division on a number line. Students can create bars in positive or negative fractional lengths; align, stack, or remove bars; and change the number line marks in increments between 1/2 and 1/15. Applet instructions and teaching ideas are included in the links at the top of the page.

2005-01-01

298

Bondage number of planar graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bondage number b(G) of a nonempty graph G is the cardinality of a smallest set of edges whose removal from G results in a graph with a domination number greater than the domination number of G. In this paper, we prove that b(G)?min{8,?(G)+2} for a planar graph G and b(G)?3 for a graph G with forbidden minor K4.

Liying Kang; Jinjiang Yuan

2000-01-01

299

Familial Sinistrals Avoid Exact Numbers  

PubMed Central

We report data from an internet questionnaire of sixty number trivia. Participants were asked for the number of cups in their house, the number of cities they know and 58 other quantities. We compare the answers of familial sinistrals – individuals who are left-handed themselves or have a left-handed close blood-relative – with those of pure familial dextrals – right-handed individuals who reported only having right-handed close blood-relatives. We show that familial sinistrals use rounder numbers than pure familial dextrals in the survey responses. Round numbers in the decimal system are those that are multiples of powers of 10 or of half or a quarter of a power of 10. Roundness is a gradient concept, e.g. 100 is rounder than 50 or 200. We show that very round number like 100 and 1000 are used with 25% greater likelihood by familial sinistrals than by pure familial dextrals, while pure familial dextrals are more likely to use less round numbers such as 25, 60, and 200. We then use Sigurd’s (1988, Language in Society) index of the roundness of a number and report that familial sinistrals’ responses are significantly rounder on average than those of pure familial dextrals. To explain the difference, we propose that the cognitive effort of using exact numbers is greater for the familial sinistral group because their language and number systems tend to be more distributed over both hemispheres of the brain. Our data support the view that exact and approximate quantities are processed by two separate cognitive systems. Specifically, our behavioral data corroborates the view that the evolutionarily older, approximate number system is present in both hemispheres of the brain, while the exact number system tends to be localized in only one hemisphere. PMID:23544052

Sauerland, Uli; Gotzner, Nicole

2013-01-01

300

Metrics For Comparing Plasma Mass Filters  

SciTech Connect

High-throughput mass separation of nuclear waste may be useful for optimal storage, disposal, or environmental remediation. The most dangerous part of nuclear waste is the fission product, which produces most of the heat and medium-term radiation. Plasmas are well-suited to separating nuclear waste because they can separate many different species in a single step. A number of plasma devices have been designed for such mass separation, but there has been no standardized comparison between these devices. We define a standard metric, the separative power per unit volume, and derive it for three different plasma mass filters: the plasma centrifuge, Ohkawa filter, and the magnetic centrifugal mass filter. __________________________________________________

Abraham J. Fetterman and Nathaniel J. Fisch

2012-08-15

301

Storage and retrieval of mass spectral information  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Computer handling of mass spectra serves two main purposes: the interpretation of the occasional, problematic mass spectrum, and the identification of the large number of spectra generated in the gas-chromatographic-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) analysis of complex natural and synthetic mixtures. Methods available fall into the three categories of library search, artificial intelligence, and learning machine. Optional procedures for coding, abbreviating and filtering a library of spectra minimize time and storage requirements. Newer techniques make increasing use of probability and information theory in accessing files of mass spectral information.

Hohn, M. E.; Humberston, M. J.; Eglinton, G.

1977-01-01

302

Mass Distribution and Mass Transport in the Earth System: Recent Scientific Progress Due to Interdisciplinary Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This Special Issue on "Mass Distribution and Mass Transport in the Earth System: Recent Scientific Progress due to Interdisciplinary Research" reports a number of findings resulting from a collaborative effort run from 2006 until 2013, in the framework of the DFG Priority Program 1257 "Mass Distribution and Mass Transport in the Earth System". Contributions have been arranged along five lines, i.e. (1) improvements in geodesy: satellite mass monitoring through gravimetry and altimetry, (2) applications in large-scale hydrology, (3) applications in solid Earth research, (4) applications in cryospheric research, (5) applications in ocean sciences.

Kusche, Jürgen; Klemann, Volker; Sneeuw, Nico

2014-11-01

303

Liquid-fuel burning with nonunitary Lewis number  

SciTech Connect

An analysis is presented for liquid-fuel vaporization and burning with nonunitary Lewis number (i.e., nonsimilar heat and mass diffusion) in a general geometrical situation, e.g., a dense spray. Variable transport properties are considered and only Stefan flow is allowed. The analysis builds on the approach of Imaoka and Sirignano for unitary Lewis number. Fickian diffusion with differing diffusivities for each species is considered. It is shown that the problem can conveniently be separated, using a mass-flux potential function, into a one-dimensional problem for the quasi-steady, gas-phase scalar properties and a three-dimensional problem for the mass-flux potential, which satisfies Laplace's equation. This allows some previous calculations of the potential function for unitary Lewis number to be used for the potential-function solution. The scalar properties are shown to be functions of the mass-flux potential only. It is demonstrated that a mass-flux-weighted sensible specific enthalpy is more natural and convenient than the traditional mass-weighted value. This modification results in a new definition of the Lewis number. A generalization of the classical Spalding heat transfer number is presented. The theory predicts scalar gas-phase profiles, flame position, and vaporization rates. Quantitative results are presented for special cases where the Lewis number is piecewise constant. The thin-flame temperature and the effective latent heat of vaporization can be determined as functions of the liquid-surface temperature via solution of nonlinear algebraic equations; these values do not depend on the specific configuration and therefore have some universality. (author)

Sirignano, William A. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697-3975 (United States)

2007-02-15

304

Lepton number violation in theories with a large number of standard model copies  

SciTech Connect

We examine lepton number violation (LNV) in theories with a saturated black hole bound on a large number of species. Such theories have been advocated recently as a possible solution to the hierarchy problem and an explanation of the smallness of neutrino masses. On the other hand, the violation of the lepton number can be a potential phenomenological problem of this N-copy extension of the standard model as due to the low quantum gravity scale black holes may induce TeV scale LNV operators generating unacceptably large rates of LNV processes. We show, however, that this issue can be avoided by introducing a spontaneously broken U{sub 1(B-L)}. Then, due to the existence of a specific compensation mechanism between contributions of different Majorana neutrino states, LNV processes in the standard model copy become extremely suppressed with rates far beyond experimental reach.

Kovalenko, Sergey; Schmidt, Ivan [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria and Centro Cientifico-Tecnologico de Valparaiso, Casilla 110-V, Valparaiso, Valparaiso (Chile); Paes, Heinrich [Fakultaet fuer Physik, Technische Universitaet Dortmund, D-44221, Dortmund (Germany)

2011-03-01

305

Higgs-Thomson-Fibonacci generation of lepton and quark masses  

SciTech Connect

Lepton-quark mass may derive from the primary Higgs-mechanism fermion mass by a fundamental law for fermion mass modification, without extension of the minimal standard model. Accurate mass values are obtained for all charged leptons and quarks if the fundamental law for fermion mass modification is given by m = m{sub e}Q{sup 2}(exp {lambda}{sub n}), where m{sub e} is the Higgs-generated electron mass, Q is the charge number of the lepton or quark and {lambda}{sub n}, a linearly additive parameter that depends on the fermion principal quantum number n, is simply related to the small Fibonacci numbers. The three neutrino masses are zero, and the top mass is close to m{sub t} = 163.6 GeV.

Rosen, G. [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States)

1996-02-01

306

Thermal desorption mass spectrometer for mass metrology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article presents a device for the study of physisorbed elements on polished surfaces (diameter ?56 mm) of the kind used in mass metrology. The technique is based on mass spectrometry of molecules desorbed after heating under vacuum of the analyzed surface. We describe a first application of the device to study current and future mass standards in order to understand how their surface reactivity depends on storage conditions, cleaning processes, and polishing methods. Surface contamination analysis by thermal desorption mass spectrometry to examine the effect of cleaning on pure iridium is given as an example.

Silvestri, Z.; Azouigui, S.; Bouhtiyya, S.; Macé, S.; Plimmer, M. D.; Pinot, P.; Tayeb-Chandoul, F.; Hannachi, R.

2014-04-01

307

Number Talks Build Numerical Reasoning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Classroom number talks," five- to fifteen-minute conversations around purposefully crafted computation problems, are a productive tool that can be incorporated into classroom instruction to combine the essential processes and habits of mind of doing math. During number talks, students are asked to communicate their thinking when presenting and…

Parrish, Sherry D.

2011-01-01

308

Building Buildings with Triangular Numbers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Triangular numbers are used to unravel a new sequence of natural numbers here-to-fore not appearing on the Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences website. Insight is provided on the construction of the sequence using "buildings" as a viewable model of the sequence entries. A step-by-step analysis of the sequence pattern reveals a method for generating…

Pagni, David L.

2006-01-01

309

Investigating the Randomness of Numbers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of random numbers is pervasive in today's world. Random numbers have practical applications in such far-flung arenas as computer simulations, cryptography, gambling, the legal system, statistical sampling, and even the war on terrorism. Evaluating the randomness of extremely large samples is a complex, intricate process. However, the…

Pendleton, Kenn L.

2009-01-01

310

Understanding Rational Numbers and Proportions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The three activities in this investigation center on situations involving rational numbers and proportions that students encounter at a bakery. These activities involve several important concepts of rational numbers and proportions, including partitioning a unit into equal parts, the quotient interpretation of fractions, the area model of fractions, determining fractional parts of a unit not cut into equal-sized pieces, and equivalence.

Illuminations, Nctm

2000-01-01

311

Generalities Low Mach number limit  

E-print Network

in Mathematical Fluid Mechanics. The Alexander V. KAZHIKHOV Memorial Volume. Series: Advances in Mathematical Fluid Mechanics. Fursikov, Andrei V.; Galdi, Giovanni P.; Pukhnachev, Vladislav V. (Eds.) (2010). D = acoustic waves. Small parameter = Mach number, Froude number For instance = Mach = fluid velocity / sound

Gentil, Ivan

312

Spontaneous Number Representation in Mosquitofish  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While there is convincing evidence that preverbal human infants and non-human primates can spontaneously represent number, considerable debate surrounds the possibility that such capacity is also present in other animals. Fish show a remarkable ability to discriminate between different numbers of social companions. Previous work has demonstrated…

Dadda, Marco; Piffer, Laura; Agrillo, Christian; Bisazza, Angelo

2009-01-01

313

Fractional Quantum Numbers on Solitons  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is proposed to calculate quantum numbers on solitons in quantum field theory. The method is checked on previously known examples and, in a special model, by other methods. It is found, for example, that the fermion number on kinks in one dimension or on magnetic monopoles in three dimensions is, in general, a transcendental function of the coupling

Jeffrey Goldstone; Frank Wilczek

1981-01-01

314

On Counting the Rational Numbers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, we show how to construct a function from the set N of natural numbers that explicitly counts the set Q[superscript +] of all positive rational numbers using a very intuitive approach. The function has the appeal of Cantor's function and it has the advantage that any high school student can understand the main idea at a glance…

Almada, Carlos

2010-01-01

315

Quantum Computing and Number Theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The prime factorization can be efficiently solved on a quantum computer. This result was given by Shor in 1994. In the first half of this article, a review of Shor's algorithm with mathematical setups is given. In the second half of this article, the prime number theorem which is an essential tool to understand the distribution of prime numbers is given.

Sasaki, Yoshitaka

2013-09-01

316

Whole Numbers - When in Rome  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The students perform the Sieve of Eratosthenes in class to find the prime number between 1 and 100. They also look for patterns such as where the multiples of 2 or 5 appear in the sieve. At home or in a computer lab they then research the Fibonacci Sequence and other number systems.

2010-01-01

317

Rational Numbers and Proportional Reasoning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this workshop session, elementary and middle school teachers look at ways to interpret, model and work with rational numbers and to explore the basics of proportional reasoning. These ideas are investigated through interactive applets, problem sets, and a video of teachers solving one of the problems. This is session 8 of Learning Math: Number and Operations, a free online course.

Findell, Carol R.

2007-12-12

318

Quick Images: Visualizing Number Combinations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this 6-minute video kindergarten teacher Stephanie Latimer describes and models techniques for developing children's number sense and visual recognition of number combinations. After quickly displaying groups of objects on a ten frame, she asks her students to describe the ways that they see the objects grouped. The resource includes reflection questions for viewers and a transcript of the video (doc).

2012-01-01

319

OFFICE USE ONLY Reference number  

E-print Network

of $ Credit or Check Card Please debit my card to the sum of $ Card number Expiration date M M / Y Y Y Y I) Card number Expiration date M M / Y Y Y Y Your credit or check card will be automatically charged of stocks or shares B. Regular Giving By Credit or Check Card Please debit my card to the sum of $ Monthly

Dixon, Peter

320

Parasites in algae mass culture  

PubMed Central

Parasites are now known to be ubiquitous across biological systems and can play an important role in modulating algal populations. However, there is a lack of extensive information on their role in artificial ecosystems such as algal production ponds and photobioreactors. Parasites have been implicated in the demise of algal blooms. Because individual mass culture systems often tend to be unialgal and a select few algal species are in wide scale application, there is an increased potential for parasites to have a devastating effect on commercial scale monoculture. As commercial algal production continues to expand with a widening variety of applications, including biofuel, food and pharmaceuticals, the parasites associated with algae will become of greater interest and potential economic impact. A number of important algal parasites have been identified in algal mass culture systems in the last few years and this number is sure to grow as the number of commercial algae ventures increases. Here, we review the research that has identified and characterized parasites infecting mass cultivated algae, the techniques being proposed and or developed to control them, and the potential impact of parasites on the future of the algal biomass industry. PMID:24936200

Carney, Laura T.; Lane, Todd W.

2014-01-01

321

Parasites in algae mass culture.  

PubMed

Parasites are now known to be ubiquitous across biological systems and can play an important role in modulating algal populations. However, there is a lack of extensive information on their role in artificial ecosystems such as algal production ponds and photobioreactors. Parasites have been implicated in the demise of algal blooms. Because individual mass culture systems often tend to be unialgal and a select few algal species are in wide scale application, there is an increased potential for parasites to have a devastating effect on commercial scale monoculture. As commercial algal production continues to expand with a widening variety of applications, including biofuel, food and pharmaceuticals, the parasites associated with algae will become of greater interest and potential economic impact. A number of important algal parasites have been identified in algal mass culture systems in the last few years and this number is sure to grow as the number of commercial algae ventures increases. Here, we review the research that has identified and characterized parasites infecting mass cultivated algae, the techniques being proposed and or developed to control them, and the potential impact of parasites on the future of the algal biomass industry. PMID:24936200

Carney, Laura T; Lane, Todd W

2014-01-01

322

Learning Math: Number and Operations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video- and web-based course K-8 teachers examine the three main categories in the Number and Operations strand of Principles and Standards of School Mathematics (NCTM): understanding numbers, representations, relationships, and number systems; the meanings of operations and relationships among those operations; and reasonable estimation and fluent computation. The course covers the real number system, place value, the behavior of zero and infinity, meanings and models of basic operations, percentages, modeling operations with fractions, and basic number theory topics (factors, multiples, divisibility tests). The course consists of 10 approximately 2.5 hour sessions, each with video programming, problem-solving activities, and interactive activities and demonstrations on the web. Participants can work through the sessions on their own, in a study group, or as part of a facilitated, face-to-face, graduate-level course for credit.

2012-01-01

323

Chapter I-Frequently Called Numbers Emergency Numbers  

E-print Network

Library 432-2798 Student Telephone Number Information 432-4471 University Security 737-1937 Lost ID. The Yale Divinity School Directory and Facebook is a good resource for connecting names with faces, as well

324

8 Generalized Carmichael Numbers ON GENERALIZED CARMICHAEL NUMBERS  

E-print Network

\\Gamma k ? 1 is square­free. We also discuss generalized Carmichael numbers which have one or two prime that if p is a prime number, then p divides a p\\Gamma1 \\Gamma 1 for all integers a not divisible by p divides a p \\Gamma p for all integers a, whenever p is prime. Fermat's remark to Frenicle proved one half

Halbeisen, Lorenz

325

USING CUMULATIVE NUMBER DENSITIES TO COMPARE GALAXIES ACROSS COSMIC TIME  

SciTech Connect

Comparing galaxies across redshifts at fixed cumulative number density is a popular way to estimate the evolution of specific galaxy populations. This method ignores scatter in mass accretion histories and galaxy-galaxy mergers, which can lead to errors when comparing galaxies over large redshift ranges (?z > 1). We use abundance matching in the ?CDM paradigm to estimate the median change in cumulative number density with redshift and provide a simple fit (+0.16 dex per unit ?z) for progenitors of z = 0 galaxies. We find that galaxy descendants do not evolve in the same way as galaxy progenitors, largely due to scatter in mass accretion histories. We also provide estimates for the 1? range of cumulative number densities corresponding to galaxy progenitors and descendants. Finally, we discuss some limits on cumulative number density comparisons, which arise due to difficulties measuring physical quantities (e.g., stellar mass) consistently across redshifts. A public tool to calculate cumulative number density evolution for galaxies, as well as approximate halo masses, is available online.

Behroozi, Peter S.; Wechsler, Risa H. [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)] [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Marchesini, Danilo [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tufts University, Medford, MA 02155 (United States)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tufts University, Medford, MA 02155 (United States); Muzzin, Adam [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands)] [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Papovich, Casey [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Stefanon, Mauro [Physics and Astronomy Department, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States)] [Physics and Astronomy Department, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States)

2013-11-01

326

Linear mass actuator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A linear mass actuator includes an upper housing and a lower housing connectable to each other and having a central passageway passing axially through a mass that is linearly movable in the central passageway. Rollers mounted in the upper and lower housings in frictional engagement with the mass translate the mass linearly in the central passageway and drive motors operatively coupled to the roller means, for rotating the rollers and driving the mass axially in the central passageway.

Holloway, Sidney E., III (inventor); Crossley, Edward A., Jr. (inventor); Jones, Irby W. (inventor); Miller, James B. (inventor); Davis, C. Calvin (inventor); Behun, Vaughn D. (inventor); Goodrich, Lewis R., Sr. (inventor)

1992-01-01

327

Heavy quark masses  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the large quark mass limit, an argument which identifies the mass of the heavy-light pseudoscalar or scalar bound state with the renormalized mass of the heavy quark is given. The following equation is discussed: m(sub Q) = m(sub B), where m(sub Q) and m(sub B) are respectively the mass of the heavy quark and the mass of the pseudoscalar bound state.

Testa, Massimo

1990-01-01

328

Mass definition, mass measurement and recommendations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mass measurements may be greatly enhanced by an understanding of the operation of balances, the effects of buoyancy, practices encountered in weighing and the impacts and meanings of revelant mass standards. Beginning with the basic forces acting on weights, the equations brought to equality in balances are developed. These give explanation of the weighing process and an appreciation for some

Braudaway

1990-01-01

329

Reynolds number influences in aeronautics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Reynolds number, a measure of the ratio of inertia to viscous forces, is a fundamental similarity parameter for fluid flows and therefore, would be expected to have a major influence in aerodynamics and aeronautics. Reynolds number influences are generally large, but monatomic, for attached laminar (continuum) flow; however, laminar flows are easily separated, inducing even stronger, non-monatomic, Reynolds number sensitivities. Probably the strongest Reynolds number influences occur in connection with transitional flow behavior. Transition can take place over a tremendous Reynolds number range, from the order of 20 x 10(exp 3) for 2-D free shear layers up to the order of 100 x 10(exp 6) for hypersonic boundary layers. This variability in transition behavior is especially important for complex configurations where various vehicle and flow field elements can undergo transition at various Reynolds numbers, causing often surprising changes in aerodynamics characteristics over wide ranges in Reynolds number. This is further compounded by the vast parameterization associated with transition, in that any parameter which influences mean viscous flow development (e.g., pressure gradient, flow curvature, wall temperature, Mach number, sweep, roughness, flow chemistry, shock interactions, etc.), and incident disturbance fields (acoustics, vorticity, particulates, temperature spottiness, even electro static discharges) can alter transition locations to first order. The usual method of dealing with the transition problem is to trip the flow in the generally lower Reynolds number wind tunnel to simulate the flight turbulent behavior. However, this is not wholly satisfactory as it results in incorrectly scaled viscous region thicknesses and cannot be utilized at all for applications such as turbine blades and helicopter rotors, nacelles, leading edge and nose regions, and High Altitude Long Endurance and hypersonic airbreathers where the transitional flow is an innately critical portion of the problem.

Bushnell, Dennis M.; Yip, Long P.; Yao, Chung-Sheng; Lin, John C.; Lawing, Pierce L.; Batina, John T.; Hardin, Jay C.; Horvath, Thomas J.; Fenbert, James W.; Domack, Christopher S.

1993-01-01

330

On rings of structural numbers  

E-print Network

ON RINGS OF STRUCTURAL NUMBERS A Thesis by WAYNE BRUCE POWELL Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfil1ment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1973 Major Subject: h1athematics... ON RINGS OF STRUCTURAL NUMBERS A Thesis by WAYNE BRUCE POWELL Approved as to style and content by: C airman Committee Head of Oepar t l. , k / Me er )I Member Oecember 1973 ABSTRACT On Rings of Structural Numbers. (December 1973) Wayne Bruce...

Powell, Wayne Bruce

2012-06-07

331

Occupation numbers from functional integral  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Occupation numbers for non-relativistic interacting particles are discussed within a functional integral formulation. For bosons at zero temperature the Bogoliubov theory breaks down for strong couplings as well as for low-dimensional models. We find that the leading behavior of the occupation numbers for small momentum is governed by a quadratic time derivative in the inverse propagator that is not contained in the Bogoliubov theory. We propose to use a functional renormalization group equation for the occupation numbers in order to implement systematic non-perturbative extensions beyond the Bogoliubov theory. We also discuss interacting fermions, in particular the issue of pseudogaps.

Wetterich, C.

2008-10-01

332

Clump Lifetimes and the Initial Mass Function  

E-print Network

Recent studies of dense clumps/cores in a number of regions of low-mass star formation have shown that the mass distribution of these clumps closely resembles the initial mass function (IMF) of field stars. One possible interpretation of these observations is that we are witnessing the fragmentation of the clouds into the IMF, and the observed clumps are bound pre-stellar cores. In this paper, we highlight a potential difficulty in this interpretation, namely that clumps of varying mass are likely to have systematically varying lifetimes. This timescale problem can effectively destroy the similarity bewteen the clump and stellar mass functions, such that a stellar-like clump mass function (CMF) results in a much steeper stellar IMF. We also discuss some ways in which this problem may be avoided.

Paul C. Clark; Ralf S. Klessen; Ian A. Bonnell

2007-04-21

333

Low-Reynolds-number swimming at pycnoclines.  

PubMed

Microorganisms play pivotal functions in the trophic dynamics and biogeochemistry of aquatic ecosystems. Their concentrations and activities often peak at localized hotspots, an important example of which are pycnoclines, where water density increases sharply with depth due to gradients in temperature or salinity. At pycnoclines organisms are exposed to different environmental conditions compared to the bulk water column, including reduced turbulence, slow mass transfer, and high particle and predator concentrations. Here we show that, at an even more fundamental level, the density stratification itself can affect microbial ecology at pycnoclines, by quenching the flow signature, increasing the energetic expenditure, and stifling the nutrient uptake of motile organisms. We demonstrate this through numerical simulations of an archetypal low-Reynolds-number swimmer, the "squirmer." We identify the Richardson number--the ratio of buoyancy forces to viscous forces--as the fundamental parameter that quantifies the effects of stratification. These results demonstrate an unexpected effect of buoyancy on low-Reynolds-number swimming, potentially affecting a broad range of abundant organisms living at pycnoclines in oceans and lakes. PMID:22355147

Doostmohammadi, Amin; Stocker, Roman; Ardekani, Arezoo M

2012-03-01

334

Higher-Order Mass Defect Analysis for Mass Spectra of Complex Organic Mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Higher-order mass defect analysis is introduced as a unique formula assignment and visualization method for the analysis of complex mass spectra. This approach is an extension of the concepts of Kendrick mass transformation widely used for identification of homologous compounds differing only by a number of base units (e.g., CH2, H2, O, CH2O, etc.) in complex mixtures. We present an

Patrick J. Roach; Julia Laskin; Alexander Laskin

2011-01-01

335

Large scale simulation of mass spectra recorded with a quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports initial results from a study based on a large scale computer simulation of the ion trap mass spectrometer (ITMS). A large number of ions (104) are given initial positions and velocities with selected random distributions within the ion trap and a trajectory is calculated for each ion using a new supercomputer ion trap mass spectrometer simulation called

Randall K. Julian; Hans-Peter Reiser; R. Graham Cooks

1993-01-01

336

The Jacobi-Stirling Numbers  

E-print Network

The Jacobi-Stirling numbers were discovered as a result of a problem involving the spectral theory of powers of the classical second-order Jacobi differential expression. Specifically, these numbers are the coefficients of integral composite powers of the Jacobi expression in Lagrangian symmetric form. Quite remarkably, they share many properties with the classical Stirling numbers of the second kind which, as shown in LW, are the coefficients of integral powers of the Laguerre differential expression. In this paper, we establish several properties of the Jacobi-Stirling numbers and its companions including combinatorial interpretations thereby extending and supplementing known contributions to the literature of Andrews-Littlejohn, Andrews-Gawronski-Littlejohn, Egge, Gelineau-Zeng, and Mongelli.

Andrews, George E; Gawronski, Wolfgang; Littlejohn, Lance L

2011-01-01

337

Poison control center - emergency number  

MedlinePLUS

For a POISON EMERGENCY call: 1-800-222-1222 ANYWHERE IN THE UNITED STATES This national hotline number will let you ... is a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers in the United States use this ...

338

Atomic Structure - A Numbers Game  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Emphasizes the simplicity and elegance of early discoveries related to the hydrogen spectrum and provides an elementary experimental basis of quantum theory based on a "numbers game" which can be played by students. (Author/GS)

George, W. O.; Vincent, A.

1975-01-01

339

4th Grade Number Activities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page provides examples of 4th Grade Number (Operations and Algebraic Thinking, Number and Operations in Base Ten, and Number Operations-Fractions) activities aligned with the Common Core State Standards. A CCSS standard is stated and the possible activities are listed below and linked. All activities are suitable for use in Math Centers, small group or whole class settings and are designed to elicit a range of responses and provide opportunities for students to communicate their reasoning and mathematical thinking. Instructions for each task are typed in large print and written in child-friendly language to enable students to work on activities independently after a brief introduction to the task. All files for the 4th Grade Number Activities listed are in PDF format.

Godwin, Nicola

2012-01-01

340

5th Grade Number Activities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page provides examples of 5th Grade Number (Operations and Algebraic Thinking, Number and Operations in Base Ten, and Number Operations-Fractions) activities aligned with the Common Core State Standards. A CCSS standard is stated and the possible activities are listed below and linked. All activities are suitable for use in Math Centers, small group or whole class settings and are designed to elicit a range of responses and provide opportunities for students to communicate their reasoning and mathematical thinking. Instructions for each task are typed in large print and written in child-friendly language to enable students to work on activities independently after a brief introduction to the task. All files for the 5th Grade Number Activities listed are in PDF format.

Godwin, Nicola

2012-01-01

341

Fibonacci Numbers and the Spreadsheet.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described is a classroom activity incorporating a computer spreadsheet to study number patterns generated by the Fibonacci sequence. Included are examples and suggestions for the use of the spreadsheet in other recursive relationships. (JJK)

Verderber, Nadine L.

1991-01-01

342

Comparing Two 3-Digit Numbers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This whole-class lesson will reinforce the concept of comparing two 3-digit numbers as well as provide practice for students to become comparing experts. Students will use playing cards to practice their skills.

2013-01-31

343

Motion at low Reynolds number  

E-print Network

The work described in this thesis centers on inertialess motion at low Reynolds numbers at the crossroad between biofluids and microfluids. Here we address questions regarding locomotion of micro-swimmers, transport of ...

Tam, Daniel See Wai, 1980-

2008-01-01

344

Isotope dilution mass spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the past isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) has usually been applied using the formation of positive thermal ions of metals. Especially in calibrating other analytical methods and for the certification of standard reference materials this type of IDMS became a routine method. Today, the progress in this field lies in the determination of ultra trace amounts of elements, e.g. of heavy metals in Antarctic ice and in aerosols in remote areas down to the sub-pg g-1 and sub-pg m-3 levels respectively, in the analysis of uranium and thorium at concentrations of a few pg g-1 in sputter targets for the production of micro- electronic devices or in the determination of sub-picogram amounts of230Th in corals for geochemical age determinations and of226Ra in rock samples. During the last few years negative thermal ionization IDMS has become a frequently used method. The determination of very small amounts of selenium and technetium as well as of other transition metals such as vanadium, chromium, molybdenum and tungsten are important examples in this field. Also the measurement of silicon in connection with a re-determination of Avogadro's number and osmium analyses for geological age determinations by the Re/Os method are of special interest. Inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry is increasingly being used for multi-element analyses by the isotope dilution technique. Determinations of heavy metals in samples of marine origin are representative examples for this type of multi-element analysis by IDMS. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry systems have also been successfully applied after chelation of metals (for example Pt determination in clinical samples) or for the determination of volatile element species in the environment, e.g. dimethyl sulfide. However, IDMS--specially at low concentration levels in the environment--seems likely to be one of the most powerful analytical methods for speciation in the future. This has been shown, up to now, for species of iodine, selenium and some heavy metals in aquatic systems.

Heumann, Klaus G.

1992-09-01

345

Transition to Modern Number Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter establishes Gauss’s Law of Quadratic Reciprocity, the theory of binary quadratic forms, and Dirichlet’s Theorem\\u000a on primes in arithmetic progressions.\\u000a \\u000a Section 1 outlines how the three topics of the chapter occurred in natural sequence and marked a transition as the subject\\u000a of number theory developed a coherence and moved toward the kind of algebraic number theory that is

Anthony Knapp

346

Hypergraph Ramsey numbers David Conlon  

E-print Network

Hypergraph Ramsey numbers David Conlon Jacob Fox Benny Sudakov Abstract The Ramsey number rk(s, n) is the minimum N such that every red-blue coloring of the k-tuples of an N-element set contains a red set of size s or a blue set of size n, where a set is called red (blue) if all k-tuples from this set are red (blue

Fox, Jacob

347

Entropy estimation and Fibonacci numbers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce a new metric on a space of right-sided infinite sequences drawn from a finite alphabet. Emerging from a problem of entropy estimation of a discrete stationary ergodic process, the metric is important on its own part and exhibits some interesting properties. Notably, the number of distinct metric values for a set of sequences of length m is equal to Fm+3 - 1, where Fm is a Fibonacci number.

Timofeev, Evgeniy A.; Kaltchenko, Alexei

2013-05-01

348

Number Sense Games and Activities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will select online games related to number sense and play them individually or with a partner Odd or Even Can you tell the difference between odd or even? Choose one of these games for some practice! Don\\'t be afraid. The ghosts in this game only haunt those who don\\'t know odd or even numbers. Surely that\\'s not YOU! Even Ghostblasters Odd Ghostblasters Odd/Even Building Game Counting Patterns I know you can count ...

Barker, Mrs.

2005-10-18

349

The incidental renal mass.  

PubMed

Incidental renal masses are extremely common. Although most represent benign renal cysts, not all incidental renal masses are benign. Most renal cell carcinomas are discovered incidentally when an imaging examination is performed to evaluate a nonrenal complaint. Therefore, differentiating incidental benign renal masses from those that are potentially malignant is important. There are well-established, time-tested, image-based criteria that can be used to diagnose most renal masses definitively. However, some renal masses remain indeterminate even after a thorough evaluation with imaging. This article discusses the evaluation, diagnosis, and treatment options of the incidental renal mass. PMID:21333783

Israel, Gary M; Silverman, Stuart G

2011-03-01

350

Comparative performance of double-focus and quadrupole mass spectrometers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Light-weight flight type double focus and quadruple mass spectrometer models were compared. Data cover size, weight, and power sensitivity required to achieve same resolution sensitivity at given mass number. Comparison was made using mathematical relationships. Analysis was confined to equal ion source area sensitivity variations not more than 40% over mass range.

Wilson, S. K.

1972-01-01

351

Fall Speeds and Masses of Solid Precipitation Particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements have been made of the fall speeds and masses of a large number of different types of solid precipitation particles. Particular attention is paid to the effects of riming and aggregation on the fall speeds and masses. Empirical expressions are given for the relationships between fall speeds and maximum dimensions and between masses and maximum dimensions for the particles

John D. Locatelli; Peter V. Hobbs

1974-01-01

352

A MASS FOR ASYMPTOTICALLY COMPLEX HYPERBOLIC DANIEL MAERTEN, VINCENT MINERBE  

E-print Network

A MASS FOR ASYMPTOTICALLY COMPLEX HYPERBOLIC MANIFOLDS. DANIEL MAERTEN, VINCENT MINERBE Abstract. We prove a positive mass theorem for complete K¨ahler manifolds that are asymptotic to the complex hyperbolic space. Keywords: positive mass theorem, complex hyperbolic space. MS classification numbers: 53C24

Minerbe, Vincent

353

Magnetic Moment Formulas of Baryons Determined by Quantum Numbers  

E-print Network

We propose that the magnetic moment formulas of baryons may be determined by quantum numbers, and obtain three formulas. This is a new type of magnetic moment formula, and agrees better with the experimental values. It is also similar to corresponding mass formulas of hadrons.

Yi-Fang Chang

2008-11-30

354

On Gravity and Mass  

E-print Network

Motivated mainly by the fact that no charged elementary particles having zero mass have been observed up to now, we investigate the question whether the mass of the elementary particles is connected with their electric charge and whether gravity can be derived from QED. The graviton is considered as a two-photon bound state. A relation between mass and charge of elementary particles is derived. Masses of the light quarks $d$ and $u$ are calculated from the electron mass, assuming that $d$, $u$ and $e$ are all fundamental and not composite. In this picture, the heavier quarks and leptons are considered as not fundamental, the massive neutral gauge bosons (and then their charged partners) are composite. The here calculated $u$ and $d$ quark masses, result in quark-mass ratios which display interesting regularities. The lightest quark mass turns out to be quite small. This may be interesting in connection to the strong CP problem.

Athanasios Markou

2009-03-03

355

Mass modeling for bars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Methods of modeling mass for bars are surveyed. A method for extending John Archer's concept of consistent mass beyond just translational inertia effects is included. Recommendations are given for various types of modeling situations.

Butler, Thomas G.

1987-01-01

356

Experimental Determination of Ramsey Numbers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ramsey theory is a highly active research area in mathematics that studies the emergence of order in large disordered structures. Ramsey numbers mark the threshold at which order first appears and are extremely difficult to calculate due to their explosive rate of growth. Recently, an algorithm that can be implemented using adiabatic quantum evolution has been proposed that calculates the two-color Ramsey numbers R(m,n). Here we present results of an experimental implementation of this algorithm and show that it correctly determines the Ramsey numbers R(3,3) and R(m,2) for 4?m?8. The R(8,2) computation used 84 qubits of which 28 were computational qubits. This computation is the largest experimental implementation of a scientifically meaningful adiabatic evolution algorithm that has been done to date.

Bian, Zhengbing; Chudak, Fabian; Macready, William G.; Clark, Lane; Gaitan, Frank

2013-09-01

357

Erosion of mass culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the last few decades, advertisers, academics, political operatives, and the producers of mass entertainment have had increasing difficulty conveying media messages to broad audiences. While the purveyors of mass culture were never able to reach everyone, fewer of them are even trying, and they often content themselves with communicating their message to only one part of the mass audience.

Paul Jerome Croce

1993-01-01

358

On the graviton mass  

Microsoft Academic Search

It was suggested that observations of the solar system exclude massive gravity, in the sense that the graviton mass must be rigorously zero. This is because there is a discontinuity in the linearized gravity theory at graviton mass equal to zero. The linearized Schwarzschild metric is not recovered for infinitesimal graviton mass, contradicting observations on light deviation by the Sun

Andrei Gruzinov

2005-01-01

359

Center of Mass 3  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lab is an inquiry activity if it is done before the discussion of how center of mass and balance are related. However, students should have an idea of what center of mass is before they start the lab. Students should see that when the center of mass

Horton, Michael

2009-05-30

360

Meson Mass Decomposition  

E-print Network

Hadron masses can be decomposed as a sum of components which are defined through hadronic matrix elements of QCD operators. The components consist of the quark mass term, the quark energy term, the glue energy term and the trace anomaly term. We calculate these components of mesons with lattice QCD for the first time. The calculation is carried out with overlap fermion on $2+1$ flavor domain-wall fermion gauge configurations. We confirm that $\\sim 50\\%$ of the light pion mass comes from the quark mass and $\\sim 10\\%$ comes from the quark energy, whereas, the contributions are found to be the other way around for the $\\rho$ mass. The combined glue components contribute $\\sim 40 - 50\\%$ for both mesons. It is interesting to observe that the quark mass contribution to the mass of the vector meson is almost linear in quark mass over a large quark mass region below the charm quark mass. For heavy mesons, the quark mass term dominates the masses, while the contribution from the glue components is about $400\\sim500$...

Yang, Yi-Bo; Draper, Terrence; Gong, Ming; Liu, Keh-Fei; Liu, Zhaofeng; Ma, Jian-Ping

2014-01-01

361

Calculating centres of mass  

E-print Network

Calculating centres of mass 15.2 Introduction In this section we show how the idea of integration as the limit of a sum can be used to find the centre of mass of an object such as a thin plate completing this Section you should be able to . . . calculate the position of the centre of mass

Vickers, James

362

Fourier Transform Mass Spectrometry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the nature of Fourier transform mass spectrometry and its unique combination of high mass resolution, high upper mass limit, and multichannel advantage. Examines its operation, capabilities and limitations, applications (ion storage, ion manipulation, ion chemistry), and future applications and developments. (JN)

Gross, Michael L.; Rempel, Don L.

1984-01-01

363

Fractional Conservation of Mass  

Microsoft Academic Search

The traditional conservation of mass equation is derived using a first-order Taylor Series to represent flux change in a control volume, which is valid strictly for cases of linear changes in flux through the control volume. We show that using higher-order Taylor Series approximations for the mass flux results in mass conservation equations that are intractable. We then show that

S. W. Wheatcraft; M. M. Meerachaert

2008-01-01

364

Fractional conservation of mass  

Microsoft Academic Search

The traditional conservation of mass equation is derived using a first-order Taylor series to represent flux change in a control volume, which is valid strictly for cases of linear changes in flux through the control volume. We show that using higher-order Taylor series approximations for the mass flux results in mass conservation equations that are intractable. We then show that

Stephen W. Wheatcraft; Mark M. Meerschaert

2008-01-01

365

Nation Weekly November 28, 2004, Volume 1, Number 32  

E-print Network

;#25;#30;#17;#18;#7;$#17;#30;#15;#16;#29;#7;#25;#21; #25;#7; #7;#14;#22; #22;#25; #17;#22;#29;#25;#7; $$#17;#30; #20;#21; #25;#30;#7; #17;#16;#29;#30; #15;#22;#23;#24;#7; #7; #17;#16;#31;#16; #22;#30;#23;#7; #22;#29;#7; /#17; #19... ;##16;#7;9#19; #23;#24;:#21;#30;#19;#7;#22;#23;#7;;#21;#22;#23; ) #26;#21;#16;#17;#16;#7; #29;#20;#30;#17;#16;#29;#7; #30;/#7; #6;#16;$ #22;#29;#7; / #18;#7; #25;#30;#7; #16;#15;#16;#17;#18; #26;#16;#16;##7; #15;#22; #7; #30;#23;#24;#7;<#30;#23;#24;#7; #23...

Upadhyay, Akhilesh

366

Nation Weekly November 14, 2004, Volume 1, Number 30  

E-print Network

;#2;#3;#4; #5;#6;#4; #7;#8; #1;#11;#12; #14;#4; #15; #16;#1; #17; #4; #1; #4; #18; #5; #19; #20;#21;#14;#22;#4; #12; #23;#4; #16;#12;#2; #4; #2;#5;#4; #2;#22; #4; #24; #25;#21;#15;#16;#1;#11;#12; #12;#19; #23;#12;#26;#4;#27;#2... ; #12;#19; #23;#12;#4;#5; #4;#12; #4;#21; #1;#17;#5;#11;#12;#16;#4;#16; #12;#23; #26;#4;#27;#4;#11;#12; '#2; #2; #16;#16;#4; #28;#22;#12;#2;#4; #2;#22; #4; #25;#12; #2;#3;#4; #12;#16;#16;#3;#4;#28;#12; #2;#14;#26;#4; #27;#4; #11;#12; #2; #16...

Upadhyay, Akhilesh

367

Lorentz invariant photon number density  

E-print Network

A Lorentz invariant positive definite expression for photon number density is derived as the absolute square of the invariant scalar product of a polarization sensitive position eigenvector and the photon wave function. It is found that this scalar product is independent of the form chosen for the wave function and that the normalized positive frequency vector potential-electric field pair is a convenient choice of wave function in the presence of matter. The number amplitude describing a localized state is a delta-function at the instant at which localization and detection are seen as simultaneous.

Margaret Hawton

2008-04-23

368

Count the Dots: Binary Numbers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Data in computers is stored and transmitted as a series of zeros and ones. Learners explore how to represent numbers using just these two symbols, through a binary system of cards. When the card's dots are showing, its value is 1 and the dots are counted. When the card's dots are not showing, its value is 0 and the dots are not counted. Learners model binary counting to discover patterns and represent numbers. This activity includes three worksheet activities (1 introductory and 2 extensions) for learners to complete and background information for the instructor.

Technology, National C.

2012-12-13

369

Learning math: Number and operations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online workshop for elementary and middle school teachers covers the real number system, place value, the behavior of zero and infinity, the meanings and models of basic operations, percentages, and modeling operations with fractions, often with the aid of concrete, physical models that enhance understanding. It also examines basic number theory topics, such as factors and multiples, as well as divisibility tests. Each of its ten sessions contains video programming, problem-solving activities provided online and in a print guide, and interactive activities and demonstrations on the Web.

Findell, Carol R.

2007-12-12

370

Biotechnology at low Reynolds numbers.  

PubMed Central

The shrinking of liquid handling systems to the micron and submicron size range entails moving into the area of small Reynolds numbers. The fluid dynamics in this regime are very different from the macroscale. We present an intuitive explanation of how the different physics of small Reynolds numbers flow, along with microscopic sizes, can influence device design, and give examples from our own work using fluid flow in microfabricated devices designed for biological processing. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 PMID:8968612

Brody, J P; Yager, P; Goldstein, R E; Austin, R H

1996-01-01

371

Graviton mass or cosmological constant?  

SciTech Connect

To describe a massive graviton in 4D Minkowski space-time one introduces a quadratic term in the Lagrangian. This term, however, can lead to a readjustment or instability of the background instead of describing a massive graviton on flat space. We show that for all local 4D Lorentz-invariant mass terms Minkowski space is unstable. The instability can develop in a time scale that is many orders of magnitude shorter than the inverse graviton mass. We start with the Pauli-Fierz (PF) term that is the only local mass term with no ghosts in the linearized approximation. We show that nonlinear completions of the PF Lagrangian give rise to instability of Minkowski space. We continue with the mass terms that are not of a PF type. Although these models are known to have ghosts in the linearized approximations, nonlinear interactions can lead to background change in which the ghosts are eliminated. In the latter case, however, the graviton perturbations on the new background are not massive. We argue that a consistent theory of a massive graviton on flat space can be formulated in theories with extra dimensions. They require an infinite number of fields or nonlocal description from a 4D point of view.

Gabadadze, Gregory; Gruzinov, Andrei [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Department of Physics, New York University, New York, New York, 10003 (United States)

2005-12-15

372

Mass function of dark matter halos  

Microsoft Academic Search

We combine data from a number of N-body simulations to predict the abundance\\u000aof dark halos in Cold Dark Matter universes over more than 4 orders of\\u000amagnitude in mass. A comparison of different simulations suggests that the\\u000adominant uncertainty in our results is systematic and is smaller than 10--30%\\u000aat all masses, depending on the halo definition used. In

A. Jenkins; C. S. Frenk; S. D. M. White; J. M. Colberg; S. Cole; A. E. Evrard; H. M. P. Couchman; N. Yoshida

2000-01-01

373

Algorithmic Number Theory MSRI Publications  

E-print Network

implemented and fine tuned. Using either of them it is now possible to routinely prove the primality efficient, but is only capable of proving that a given number is either composite or `very probably' prime a composite integer n > 1, this algorithm proves with high probability very quickly that n is not prime

Schoof, René

374

these numbers located on the  

E-print Network

at Giant Eagle. Clear Green Brown Blue Steel Tin Aluminum Please rinse before recycling. Batteries - UCLook for these numbers located on the bottom or sides of the container Plastic bags can be recycled info desk, Mellon 3rd floor, or sent by campus mail to FMS recycling CDs - UC recycling center or sent

McGaughey, Alan

375

Down to Earth: Binary Numbers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students use the binary number system to transmit messages. Two flashlights are used to demonstrate how astronomy spacecraft to transmit images and other scientific data to Earth. This activity is part of Unit 4 in the Space Based Astronomy guide that contains background information, worksheets, assessments, extensions, and standards.

376

Materiales. Numbers 17-20.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four booklets present articles on Spanish language and culture aimed at teachers of Spanish in the United States for student use in their classes. Number 17, "Los Jovenes Espanoles" (Spanish Youth), includes articles on Spanish youth sports, music, gangs, thoughts, and t-shirt slogans: (1) "Young Spanish Athletes"; (2) "Youth Music"; (3) "Urban…

Materiales, 1995

1995-01-01

377

Residual number processing in dyscalculia?  

PubMed Central

Developmental dyscalculia – a congenital learning disability in understanding numerical concepts – is typically associated with parietal lobe abnormality. However, people with dyscalculia often retain some residual numerical abilities, reported in studies that otherwise focused on abnormalities in the dyscalculic brain. Here we took a different perspective by focusing on brain regions that support residual number processing in dyscalculia. All participants accurately performed semantic and categorical colour-decision tasks with numerical and non-numerical stimuli, with adults with dyscalculia performing slower than controls in the number semantic tasks only. Structural imaging showed less grey-matter volume in the right parietal cortex in people with dyscalculia relative to controls. Functional MRI showed that accurate number semantic judgements were maintained by parietal and inferior frontal activations that were common to adults with dyscalculia and controls, with higher activation for participants with dyscalculia than controls in the right superior frontal cortex and the left inferior frontal sulcus. Enhanced activation in these frontal areas was driven by people with dyscalculia who made faster rather than slower numerical decisions; however, activation could not be accounted for by response times per se, because it was greater for fast relative to slow dyscalculics but not greater for fast controls relative to slow dyscalculics. In conclusion, our results reveal two frontal brain regions that support efficient number processing in dyscalculia. PMID:24266008

Cappelletti, Marinella; Price, Cathy J.

2013-01-01

378

Ten Is the Magic Number!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How this teacher develops composition of ten with second graders was dramatically reshaped by the 2006 release of NCTM's "Curriculum Focal Points." The release of "Curriculum Focal Points"--particularly the suggestion that number sense and computation be focal areas in the second-grade mathematics curriculum--resulted in positive changes in this…

Barker, Lindsay

2009-01-01

379

Student Medical Certificate STUDENT NUMBER: ______________________  

E-print Network

Student Medical Certificate STUDENT NUMBER: ______________________ I. TO BE COMPLETED BY STUDENT: I Date II. TO BE COMPLETED BY PHYSICIAN/NURSE PRACTITIONER When completing this form, please keep in mind that the student "was seen for medical reasons" or "was ill."] : [Note to Physician/Nurse Practitioner: I hereby

Lennard, William N.

380

Questioning Zero and Negative Numbers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

After experiencing a Developing Mathematical Ideas (DMI) class on the construction of algebraic concepts surrounding zero and negative numbers, the author conducted an interview with a first grader to determine the youngster's existing level of understanding about these topics. Uncovering young students' existing understanding can provide focus…

Wilcox, Virginia B.

2008-01-01

381

Mitosis and Meiosis Chromosome number  

E-print Network

Lecture 5 Mitosis and Meiosis #12;Chromosome number Early improvements in our ability to look look at normal chromosomes as they go through mitosis and meiosis #12; Mitosis The biologic function is to produce 2 identical cells Mitotic cell cycle #12;#12;Mitosis #12;Difference between a cell entering

Dellaire, Graham

382

Not Just a Number Anymore  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the Essex, Cincinnati retirement center where they both worked as nurses, Holly Doherty and Michele Schavoir often heard aides complain about one longtime resident in particular. The patient kicks and screams and nurses can not stand to be around her. After a year of playing detective, Doherty found a number of the patient's relatives in…

Henderson, Nancy

2008-01-01

383

Registered charity number: 207890 Creditonlyifrequired  

E-print Network

required to bring a drug to market is spent on pre-clinical screening and testing.4 The high rate of late-stageRegistered charity number: 207890 Creditonlyifrequired Featuring work from the Disease Biophysics as a clinically and physiologically relevant means of modeling health and disease. Bringing the patient from

Parker, Kevin Kit

384

Gummy vs. Gum (Number Pattern)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"In this lesson, students use gummy bears and sticks of gum to discover a number pattern and write an equation that describes it. This lesson should be conducted after students have worked with patterns and one- and two-step equations." from the Beacon Learning Center.

Center, Beacon L.

2009-10-13

385

Time to Make the Numbers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to inspire her students to work in mixed media, the author chose to highlight the art of Jasper Johns and Robert Indiana, both of whom used numbers and letters as a main focus in their art. In this article, the author describes a mixed-media printmaking project. (Contains 2 online resources.)

Surrena, Michelle

2011-01-01

386

Know Your Blood Sugar Numbers  

MedlinePLUS

... numbers I need to know? Yes, you need tests of your blood pressure and cholesterol (a blood fat). You and your ... team: ? Look at his A1C, blood sugar self-test record, cholesterol, and blood pressure results. ? Check to see if he is reaching ...

387

EMERGENCY PHONE NUMBERS Medical Emergency  

E-print Network

EMERGENCY PHONE NUMBERS Medical Emergency 911 Harvard University Police Department (617) 495. Describe the type of emergency (fire, medical, utility disruption, public safety, etc). Give the phone can be utilized in all situations. Report emergencies to: Medical Emergency 911 · Injury · Illness

Chou, James

388

Solar System Number-Crunching.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Defines terrestrial and Jovian planets and provides directions to obtain planetary data from the National Space Science Data Center Web sites. Provides "number-crunching" activities for the terrestrial planets using Texas Instruments TI-83 graphing calculators: computing volumetric mean radius and volume, density, ellipticity, speed, surface…

Albrecht, Bob; Firedrake, George

1997-01-01

389

Computational Methods for Ramsey Numbers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Ramsey number R(k,l) is the least integer in such that all graphs on n or more vertices contain a clique of k vertices or an independent set of 1 vertices as an induced subgraph. In this work we investigate computational methods for finding lower boun...

H. Haanpaeae

2000-01-01

390

Statistical Treatment of Nominal Numbers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An attempt is made to find an answer to Lord's parable of the football numbers by demonstrating that he ignored the well known principle that a measurement operation should be consistent over allowable transformations of scale. An example is given to demo...

D. R. Harris

1971-01-01

391

On the Graviton Mass  

E-print Network

It was suggested that observations of the solar system exclude massive gravity, in the sense that the graviton mass must be rigorously zero. This is because there is a discontinuity in the linearized gravity theory at graviton mass equal to zero. The linearized Schwarzschild metric is not recovered for infinitesimal graviton mass, contradicting observations on light deviation by the Sun and Mercury perihelion advance. It was then argued that non-perturbative effects make the massive gravity theory continuous in the graviton mass. Both the original suggestion and its refutation were based on a non-covariant and linearized action, and the physical interpretation of these results remained questionable. Here we use a covariant quasi-massive gravity theory that is known to be discontinuous in the graviton mass in the linear approximation. We show that non-perturbative effects do restore the continuity; the weak-field Schwarzschild solution is recovered in the limit of small graviton mass. We also show that weak-field Schwarzschild with matter is recovered for infinitesimal graviton mass. Thus: Observations of the solar system only put an upper limit on the graviton mass (in the context of the gravity theory that we use, inverse graviton mass, as measured at distances of order inverse graviton mass, is $\\gtrsim 100$ Mpc). But graviton can be massive, with a cosmologically interesting mass.

Andrei Gruzinov

2001-12-11

392

Fourier Transform Mass Spectrometry  

PubMed Central

This article provides an introduction to Fourier transform-based mass spectrometry. The key performance characteristics of Fourier transform-based mass spectrometry, mass accuracy and resolution, are presented in the view of how they impact the interpretation of measurements in proteomic applications. The theory and principles of operation of two types of mass analyzer, Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance and Orbitrap, are described. Major benefits as well as limitations of Fourier transform-based mass spectrometry technology are discussed in the context of practical sample analysis, and illustrated with examples included as figures in this text and in the accompanying slide set. Comparisons highlighting the performance differences between the two mass analyzers are made where deemed useful in assisting the user with choosing the most appropriate technology for an application. Recent developments of these high-performing mass spectrometers are mentioned to provide a future outlook. PMID:21742802

Scigelova, Michaela; Hornshaw, Martin; Giannakopulos, Anastassios; Makarov, Alexander

2011-01-01

393

On Negative Mass  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Schwarzschild solution to the matter free, spherically symmetric Einstein equations has one free parameter, the mass. But the mass can be of any sign. What is the meaning of the negative mass solutions? The answer to this question for the case of a pure Schwarzschild negative mass black solution is still elusive, however, in this essay, we will consider negative mass solutions within a Schwarzschild-de Sitter geometry. We show that there exist reasonable configurations of matter, bubbles of distributions of matter, that satisfy the dominant energy condition everywhere, that are nonsingular and well behaved everywhere, but correspond to the negative mass Schwarzschild-de Sitter geometry outside the matter distribution. These negative mass bubbles could occur as the end state of a quantum tunneling transition.

Belletête, Jonathan; Paranjape, M. B.

2013-06-01

394

Human copy number polymorphic genes  

PubMed Central

Recent large-scale genomic studies within human populations have identified numerous genomic regions as copy number variant (CNV). As these CNV regions often overlap coding regions of the genome, large lists of potentially copy number polymorphic genes have been produced that are candidates for disease association. Most of the current data regarding normal genic variation, however, has been generated using BAC or SNP microarrays, which lack precision especially with respect to exons. To address this, we assessed 2,790 candidate CNV genes defined from available studies in nine well-characterized HapMap individuals by designing a customized oligonucleotide microarray targeted specifically to exons. Using exon array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH), we detected 255 (9%) of the candidates as true CNVs including 134 with evidence of variation over the entire gene. Individuals differed in copy number from the control by an average of 100 gene loci. Both partial- and whole-gene CNVs were strongly associated with segmental duplications (55 and 71%, respectively) as well as regions of positive selection. We confirmed 37% of the whole-gene CNVs using the fosmid end sequence pair (ESP) structural variation map for these same individuals. If we modify the end sequence pair mapping strategy to include low-sequence identity ESPs (98–99.5%) and ESPs with an everted orientation, we can capture 82% of the missed genes leading to more complete ascertainment of structural variation within duplicated genes. Our results indicate that segmental duplications are the source of the majority of full-length copy number polymorphic genes, most of the variant genes are organized as tandem duplications, and a significant fraction of these genes will represent paralogs with levels of sequence diversity beyond thresholds of allelic variation. In addition, these data provide a targeted set of CNV genes enriched for regions likely to be associated with human phenotypic differences due to copy number changes and present a source of copy number responsive oligonucleotide probes for future association studies. PMID:19287160

Bailey, J.A.; Kidd, J.M.; Eichler, E.E.

2009-01-01

395

Women in Politics: Beyond Numbers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Developed by the International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance (IDEA), Women in Politics: Beyond Numbers is an initiative devoted to researching, evaluating, and promoting the role and impact of women in the advancement of sustainable democracy and electoral processes worldwide. This Website functions as an international resource providing information about IDEA's research projects and publications related to women's political involvement. The site features an extensive report, "Women in Parliament: Beyond Numbers," that examines such issues as obstacles to women's political participation and the impact of women in international politics, as well as compares the involvement of women within various electoral systems. The site also includes links to relevant resources and maintains several interactive forums for discussing IDEA's projects to enhance women's political participation.

396

Cosmic Rays and Sunspot Numbers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity students analyze and compare two or more graphs to determine if there is a correlation between sunspot number and the variation of cosmic ray flux. They discover that cosmic rays are very energetic particles, mostly protons and electrons, that enter the solar system from the depths of interstellar space and that although the Earth's magnetic field partially shields us from these particles, so too does the much more extended solar wind with its own magnetic field. This is a three-part lesson in which students will construct line graphs displaying the cosmic ray flux and sunspot numbers for a period of time, and then determine if there is a correlation. In order to compare these two sets of data, students will need to scale the data in order to visualize the results. Teacher and student notes for the graphing calculator are included.

Higley, Susan

397

Large Number Discrimination by Mosquitofish  

PubMed Central

Background Recent studies have demonstrated that fish display rudimentary numerical abilities similar to those observed in mammals and birds. The mechanisms underlying the discrimination of small quantities (<4) were recently investigated while, to date, no study has examined the discrimination of large numerosities in fish. Methodology/Principal Findings Subjects were trained to discriminate between two sets of small geometric figures using social reinforcement. In the first experiment mosquitofish were required to discriminate 4 from 8 objects with or without experimental control of the continuous variables that co-vary with number (area, space, density, total luminance). Results showed that fish can use the sole numerical information to compare quantities but that they preferentially use cumulative surface area as a proxy of the number when this information is available. A second experiment investigated the influence of the total number of elements to discriminate large quantities. Fish proved to be able to discriminate up to 100 vs. 200 objects, without showing any significant decrease in accuracy compared with the 4 vs. 8 discrimination. The third experiment investigated the influence of the ratio between the numerosities. Performance was found to decrease when decreasing the numerical distance. Fish were able to discriminate numbers when ratios were 1?2 or 2?3 but not when the ratio was 3?4. The performance of a sample of undergraduate students, tested non-verbally using the same sets of stimuli, largely overlapped that of fish. Conclusions/Significance Fish are able to use pure numerical information when discriminating between quantities larger than 4 units. As observed in human and non-human primates, the numerical system of fish appears to have virtually no upper limit while the numerical ratio has a clear effect on performance. These similarities further reinforce the view of a common origin of non-verbal numerical systems in all vertebrates. PMID:21203508

Agrillo, Christian; Piffer, Laura; Bisazza, Angelo

2010-01-01

398

RANDOM MATRICES AND NUMBER THEORY  

Microsoft Academic Search

My purpose in these lecture notes is to review and explain some recent results concerning connections between random matrix\\u000a theory and number theory. Specifically, I will focus on how random matrix theory has been used to shed new light on some classical\\u000a problems relating to the value distributions of the Riemann zeta-function and other L-functions, and on applications to modular

J. P. Keating

399

Optical Quantum Random Number Generator  

Microsoft Academic Search

A physical random number generator based on the intrinsic randomness of\\u000aquantum mechanics is described. The random events are realized by the choice of\\u000asingle photons between the two outputs of a beamsplitter. We present a simple\\u000adevice, which minimizes the impact of the photon counters' noise, dead-time and\\u000aafter pulses.

Nicolas Gisin; Olivier Guinnard; Laurent Guinnard; Hugo Zbinden

1999-01-01

400

Diophantine approximations with Fibonacci numbers  

E-print Network

Let $F_{n}$ be the $n$-th Fibonacci number. Put $\\varphi=\\frac{1+\\sqrt5}{2}$. We prove that the following inequalities hold for any real $\\alpha$: 1) $\\inf_{n \\in \\mathbb N} ||F_n\\alpha||\\le\\frac{\\varphi-1}{\\varphi+2}$, 2) $\\liminf_{n\\to \\infty}||F_n\\alpha||\\le 1/5$, 3) $\\liminf_{n \\to \\infty}||\\varphi^n \\alpha||\\le 1/5$. These results are the best possible.

Zhuravleva, Victoria

2011-01-01

401

"JUST THE MATHS" UNIT NUMBER  

E-print Network

"JUST THE MATHS" UNIT NUMBER 13.2 INTEGRATION APPLICATIONS 2 (Mean values) & (Root mean square values) by A.J.Hobson 13.2.1 Mean values 13.2.2 Root mean square values 13.2.3 Exercises 13.2.4 Answers to exercises #12;UNIT 13.2 - INTEGRATION APPLICATIONS 2 MEAN AND ROOT MEAN SQUARE VALUES 13.2.1 MEAN VALUES - 6

Davies, Christopher

402

Effective atomic numbers and electron density of dosimetric material  

PubMed Central

A novel method for determination of mass attenuation coefficient of x-rays employing NaI (Tl) detector system and radioactive sources is described.in this paper. A rigid geometry arrangement and gating of the spectrometer at FWHM position and selection of absorber foils are all done following detailed investigation, to minimize the effect of small angle scattering and multiple scattering on the mass attenuation coefficient, ?/?, value. Firstly, for standardization purposes the mass attenuation coefficients of elemental foils such as Aluminum, Copper, Molybdenum, Tantalum and Lead are measured and then, this method is utilized for dosimetric interested material (sulfates). The experimental mass attenuation coefficient values are compared with the theoretical values to find good agreement between the theory and experiment within one to two per cent. The effective atomic numbers of the biological substitute material are calculated by sum rule and from the graph. The electron density of dosimetric material is calculated using the effective atomic number. The study has discussed in detail the attenuation coefficient, effective atomic number and electron density of dosimetric material/biological substitutes. PMID:20098566

Kaginelli, S. B.; Rajeshwari, T.; Sharanabasappa; Kerur, B. R.; Kumar, Anil S.

2009-01-01

403

Surface characteristics of sweet cherry fruit: stomata-number, distribution, functionality and surface wetting  

Microsoft Academic Search

The number, distribution, size, and function of stomata and wettability of the sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) fruit surface were investigated. The number of stomata per fruit differed significantly among sweet cherry cultivars, ranging from 143±26 per fruit in ‘Adriana’ to 2124±142 per fruit in ‘Hedelfinger’. The number of stomata per fruit was not affected by fruit mass (‘Burlat’). For

Stefanie Peschel; Marco Beyer; Moritz Knoche

2003-01-01

404

Top quark mass measurements  

SciTech Connect

The top quark, with its extraordinarily large mass (nearly that of a gold atom), plays a significant role in the phenomenology of EWSB in the Standard Model. In particular, the top quark mass when combined with the W mass constrains the mass of the as yet unobserved Higgs boson. Thus, a precise determination of the mass of the top quark is a principal goal of the CDF and D0 experiments. With the data collected thus far in Runs 1 and 2 of the Tevatron, CDF and D0 have measured the top quark mass in both the lepton+jets and dilepton decay channels using a variety of complementary experimental techniques. The author presents an overview of the most recent of the measurements.

Hill, Christopher S.; /UC, Santa Barbara

2004-12-01

405

Clumpy shocks and the clump mass function  

E-print Network

In this paper, we examine whether clumpy, colliding, flows could be responsible for the clump mass functions that have been observed in several regions of embedded star formation, which have been shown to be described by a Salpeter type slope. The flows presented here, which comprise a population of initially identical clumps and the calculations are performed with and without the inclusion of self-gravity. When the shock region is at its densest, we find that the clump mass spectrum is always well modelled by a Salpeter type slope. This is true regardless of whether the self-gravity is included in the simulations or not. In the non-self-gravitating simulations, this slope is retained at lower Mach numbers (Mach 5 and 10) as the simulations progress past the densest phase. In the simulations which include self-gravity, we find that low Mach number runs yield a flatter mass function after the densest phase. This is simply a result of increased coagulation due to gravitational collapse of the flows. In the high Mach number runs (Mach 20) the Salpeter slope is always lost. The self gravitating calculations also show that the sub-group of gravitationally bound clumps in which star formation occurs, always contain the most massive clumps in the population. The mass function of these bound star forming clumps is not at all similar to the Salpeter type mass function observed for stars in the field. We conclude that the clump mass function may not only have nothing to do with gravity, but also nothing to do with the star formation process and the resulting mass distribution of stars. This raises doubt over the claims that the clump mass function is the origin of the stellar IMF, for regions such as rho Oph, Serpens and the Orion B cloud.

Paul C. Clark; Ian A. Bonnell

2006-03-21

406

Energy-mass conversion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How do physicists make new particles? In this page of a particle physics tutorial, students are introduced to the concept of converting kinetic energy to mass. Students read that low-mass particles placed into an accelerator can be smashed together to produce more massive particles through the conversion of energy to mass. They see an example in which two pieces of fruit are accelerated and smashed, and additional types of fruit are produced. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Group, Lawrence B.

2002-01-01

407

Phantom mass gravitational effects  

E-print Network

I derive the basic relativistic corrections to the equations of motion of test particles and light rays in the field of a source with active mass $m$, including the phantom mass density that any such source generates when a modification of Newton's action at a distance includes a long range term. The technical framework of this paper is that of Einstein's theory of gravitation at the linear approximation with respect to the mass parameter $m$.

Ll. Bel

2013-11-27

408

Mass vs. Weight  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This laboratory activity worksheet engages students in an exploration of mass and weight. Students use a balance to measure the mass and a spring scale to measure the weight of a series of objects. They then analyze the data to determine the relationship between these two quantities and conceptualize the distinction between the mass and weight through questions regarding measurements on the moon and other planets.

Nelson, Jane; Nelson, Jim

2011-06-14

409

Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry  

SciTech Connect

This chapter describes research conducted in a few research groups in the 1990s in which RF quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometers were coupled to a powerful atomic ion source, the inductively coupled plasma used in conventional ICP-MS instruments. Major section titles for this chapter are: RF Quadrupole Ion Traps Features of RF Quadrupole Ion Trap Mass Spectrometers Selective Ion Trapping methods Inductively Coupled Plasma Source Ion Trap Mass Spectrometers

Eiden, Greg C.

2005-09-01

410

The neck mass.  

PubMed

Many head and neck disease processes are manifest as neck masses. These conditions are treated by surgical excision except for some inflammatory masses, and often those too must be excised before a diagnosis can be made. The real question is when to excise the lesion to expedite treatment in the most cost-effective manner. In general, when signs of inflammation are associated with the mass, antibiotic treatment with short-term observation is acceptable. Persistence of the mass or an increase in mass size during observation mandates for their evaluation. Biopsy of a mass is considered for progressive growth, isolated nature or asymmetry of the mass, location (supraclavicular), development of symptoms associated with lymphoma (fever and hypertrophy of the spleen, liver, or Waldeyer's ring), or static size (if > 3 cm). In the adult patient, a complete head and neck physical examination is mandatory before biopsy. Needle biopsy of the neck mass is the current standard of care if no cause of the mass is found on examination. Identified benign cystic lesions or lymphomas indicate a need for excision, either as definitive treatment or for diagnostic reasons. If results of the needle biopsy are positive, equivocal, or even negative in the presence of a high index of suspicion for metastatic squamous cell carcinoma, an endoscopic examination is mandatory before open excision. If no discrete lesion is seen, guided biopsy of the upper aerodigestive tract is performed. Open biopsy of the mass should be accompanied by a frozen-section examination of the mass. A concomitant definitive neck dissection should be performed if the mass proves to be metastatic carcinoma. PMID:9927971

McGuirt, W F

1999-01-01

411

Dynamical Young Star Masses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mass is a star's most important property, once composition has been established, and determines the entire life trajectory of an object. Only a couple dozen young stars have absolute dynamical mass measurements, and many of those are imprecise. We propose to observe ~17 young close visual binaries in the Taurus star forming region to advance our knowledge of young star masses. We will use NIRSPEC in high-resolution mode behind the adaptive optics system on the Keck II telescope.

Prato, Lisa; Schaefer, Gail; Simon, Michal

2013-08-01

412

MASS CALC: Z CALCULATE THE Z MASS  

E-print Network

for Grades 9-12: · Content Standard A o Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry · Content Standard B o that they can use this real data to calculate the Z mass. The students are teams doing a "double- blind

Quigg, Chris

413

Mass-Loaded Flows  

E-print Network

A key process within astronomy is the exchange of mass, momentum, and energy between diffuse plasmas in many types of astronomical sources (including planetary nebulae, wind-blown bubbles, supernova remnants, starburst superwinds, and the intracluster medium) and dense, embedded clouds or clumps. This transfer affects the large scale flows of the diffuse plasmas as well as the evolution of the clumps. I review our current understanding of mass-injection processes, and examine intermediate-scale structure and the global effect of mass-loading on a flow. I then discuss mass-loading in a variety of diffuse sources.

J. M. Pittard

2006-07-13

414

The Mass Function of Cosmic Structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate some modifications to the Press and Schechter (1974) (PS) prescription resulting from shear and tidal effects. These modifications rely on more realistic treatments of the collapse process than the standard approach based on the spherical model. First, we show that the mass function resulting from a new approximate Lagrangian dynamic (Audit and Alimi, A&A 1996), contains more objects at high mass, than the classical PS mass function and is well fitted by a PS-like function with a threshold density of deltac ? 1.4. However, such a Lagrangian description can underestimate the epoch of structure formation since it defines it as the collapse of the first principal axis. We therefore suggest some analytical prescriptions, for computing the collapse time along the second and third principal axes, and we deduce the corresponding mass functions. The collapse along the third axis is delayed by the shear and the number of objects of high mass then decreases. Finally, we show that the shear also strongly affects the formation of low-mass halos. This dynamical effect implies a modification of the low-mass slope of the mass function and allows the reproduction of the observed luminosity function of field galaxies.

Audit, E.; Teyssier, R.; Alimi, J.-M.

415

A Mass Formula from Light to Hypernuclei  

E-print Network

Simultaneous description of ordinary and hypernuclei masses by a single mass formula has been a great challenge in nuclear physics. Hyperon-separation energies of about forty Lambda($\\Lambda$), three Lambda-Lambda($\\Lambda\\Lambda$), one Sigma($\\Sigma$) and seven Cascade($\\Xi$) hypernuclei have been experimentally found. Many of these nuclei are of light masses. We prescribe a new mass formula, called BWMH, which describes the normal and hypernuclei on the same footing. It is based on the modified-Bethe-Weizs\\"acker mass formula (BWM). BWM is basically an extension of the Bethe-Weizs\\"acker mass formula (BW) for light nuclei. The parameters of BWM were optimized by fitting about 3000 normal nuclei available recently. The original Bethe-Weizs\\"acker mass formula (BW) was designed for medium and heavy mass nuclei and it fails for light nuclei. Two earlier works on hypernuclei based on this BW show some limitations. The BWMH gives improved agreement with the experimental data for the line of stability, one-neutron separation energy versus neutron number spectra of normal nuclei, and the hyperon-separation energies from hypernuclei. The drip lines are modified for addition of a $\\Lambda$ hyperon in a normal nucleus.

C. Samanta; P. Roy Chowdhury; D. N. Basu

2006-02-22

416

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Pt-171 (Platinum)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Pt-171 (Platinum, atomic number Z = 78, mass number A = 171).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

417

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hf-171 (Hafnium)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hf-171 (Hafnium, atomic number Z = 72, mass number A = 171).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

418

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Sm-171 (Samarium)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Sm-171 (Samarium, atomic number Z = 62, mass number A = 171).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

419

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for La-171 (Lanthanum)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope La-171 (Lanthanum, atomic number Z = 57, mass number A = 171).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

420

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Ho-171 (Holmium)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Ho-171 (Holmium, atomic number Z = 67, mass number A = 171).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

421

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Yb-171 (Ytterbium)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Yb-171 (Ytterbium, atomic number Z = 70, mass number A = 171).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

422

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Tl-171 (Thallium)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Tl-171 (Thallium, atomic number Z = 81, mass number A = 171).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

423

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Bi-171 (Bismuth)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Bi-171 (Bismuth, atomic number Z = 83, mass number A = 171).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

424

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Tm-171 (Thulium)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Tm-171 (Thulium, atomic number Z = 69, mass number A = 171).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

425

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Lu-171 (Lutetium)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Lu-171 (Lutetium, atomic number Z = 71, mass number A = 171).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

426

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Er-171 (Erbium)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Er-171 (Erbium, atomic number Z = 68, mass number A = 171).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

427

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Ta-171 (Tantalum)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Ta-171 (Tantalum, atomic number Z = 73, mass number A = 171).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

428

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Ir-171 (Iridium)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Ir-171 (Iridium, atomic number Z = 77, mass number A = 171).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

429

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Pb-171 (Lead)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Pb-171 (Lead, atomic number Z = 82, mass number A = 171).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

430

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Au-171 (Gold)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Au-171 (Gold, atomic number Z = 79, mass number A = 171).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

431

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Pr-171 (Praseodymium)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Pr-171 (Praseodymium, atomic number Z = 59, mass number A = 171).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

432

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Pm-171 (Promethium)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Pm-171 (Promethium, atomic number Z = 61, mass number A = 171).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

433

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Dy-171 (Dysprosium)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Dy-171 (Dysprosium, atomic number Z = 66, mass number A = 171).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

434

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Os-171 (Osmium)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Os-171 (Osmium, atomic number Z = 76, mass number A = 171).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

435

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for W-171 (Tungsten)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope W-171 (Tungsten, atomic number Z = 74, mass number A = 171).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

436

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Nd-171 (Neodymium)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Nd-171 (Neodymium, atomic number Z = 60, mass number A = 171).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

437

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Hg-171 (Mercury)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Hg-171 (Mercury, atomic number Z = 80, mass number A = 171).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

438

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Tb-171 (Terbium)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Tb-171 (Terbium, atomic number Z = 65, mass number A = 171).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

439

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Gd-171 (Gadolinium)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Gd-171 (Gadolinium, atomic number Z = 64, mass number A = 171).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

440

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Cs-171 (Caesium)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Cs-171 (Caesium, atomic number Z = 55, mass number A = 171).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

441

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Eu-171 (Europium)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Eu-171 (Europium, atomic number Z = 63, mass number A = 171).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

442

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Ba-171 (Barium)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Ba-171 (Barium, atomic number Z = 56, mass number A = 171).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

443

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Re-171 (Rhenium)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Re-171 (Rhenium, atomic number Z = 75, mass number A = 171).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

444

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Ce-171 (Cerium)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Ce-171 (Cerium, atomic number Z = 58, mass number A = 171).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

445

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Np-223 (Neptunium)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Np-223 (Neptunium, atomic number Z = 93, mass number A = 223).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

446

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Cf-223 (Californium)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Cf-223 (Californium, atomic number Z = 98, mass number A = 223).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

447

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Fr-223 (Francium)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Fr-223 (Francium, atomic number Z = 87, mass number A = 223).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

448

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Rn-223 (Radon)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Rn-223 (Radon, atomic number Z = 86, mass number A = 223).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

449

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Pb-223 (Lead)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Pb-223 (Lead, atomic number Z = 82, mass number A = 223).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

450

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for No-223 (Nobelium)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope No-223 (Nobelium, atomic number Z = 102, mass number A = 223).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

451

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Ra-223 (Radium)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Ra-223 (Radium, atomic number Z = 88, mass number A = 223).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

452

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Pa-223 (Protactinium)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Pa-223 (Protactinium, atomic number Z = 91, mass number A = 223).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

453

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Bi-223 (Bismuth)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Bi-223 (Bismuth, atomic number Z = 83, mass number A = 223).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

454

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for U-223 (Uranium)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope U-223 (Uranium, atomic number Z = 92, mass number A = 223).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

455

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Am-223 (Americium)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Am-223 (Americium, atomic number Z = 95, mass number A = 223).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

456

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Es-223 (Einsteinium)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Es-223 (Einsteinium, atomic number Z = 99, mass number A = 223).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

457

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Lr-223 (Lawrencium)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Lr-223 (Lawrencium, atomic number Z = 103, mass number A = 223).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

458

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Th-223 (Thorium)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Th-223 (Thorium, atomic number Z = 90, mass number A = 223).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

459

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Fm-223 (Fermium)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Fm-223 (Fermium, atomic number Z = 100, mass number A = 223).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

460

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Ac-223 (Actinium)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Ac-223 (Actinium, atomic number Z = 89, mass number A = 223).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

461

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Cm-223 (Curium)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Cm-223 (Curium, atomic number Z = 96, mass number A = 223).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

462

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Po-223 (Polonium)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Po-223 (Polonium, atomic number Z = 84, mass number A = 223).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

463

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Bk-223 (Berkelium)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Bk-223 (Berkelium, atomic number Z = 97, mass number A = 223).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

464

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for At-223 (Astatine)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope At-223 (Astatine, atomic number Z = 85, mass number A = 223).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

465

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Pu-223 (Plutonium)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Pu-223 (Plutonium, atomic number Z = 94, mass number A = 223).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

466

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for U-227 (Uranium)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope U-227 (Uranium, atomic number Z = 92, mass number A = 227).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

467

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Ac-227 (Actinium)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Ac-227 (Actinium, atomic number Z = 89, mass number A = 227).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

468

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Th-227 (Thorium)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Th-227 (Thorium, atomic number Z = 90, mass number A = 227).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

469

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Tb-227 (Terbium)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Tb-227 (Terbium, atomic number Z = 65, mass number A = 227).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

470

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Am-227 (Americium)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Am-227 (Americium, atomic number Z = 95, mass number A = 227).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

471

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Pu-227 (Plutonium)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Pu-227 (Plutonium, atomic number Z = 94, mass number A = 227).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

472

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Yb-227 (Ytterbium)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Yb-227 (Ytterbium, atomic number Z = 70, mass number A = 227).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

473

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Np-227 (Neptunium)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Np-227 (Neptunium, atomic number Z = 93, mass number A = 227).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

474

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Fm-227 (Fermium)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Fm-227 (Fermium, atomic number Z = 100, mass number A = 227).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

475

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Dy-227 (Dysprosium)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Dy-227 (Dysprosium, atomic number Z = 66, mass number A = 227).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

476

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for No-227 (Nobelium)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope No-227 (Nobelium, atomic number Z = 102, mass number A = 227).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

477

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Bk-227 (Berkelium)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Bk-227 (Berkelium, atomic number Z = 97, mass number A = 227).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

478

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Tm-227 (Thulium)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Tm-227 (Thulium, atomic number Z = 69, mass number A = 227).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

479

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Es-227 (Einsteinium)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Es-227 (Einsteinium, atomic number Z = 99, mass number A = 227).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

480

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Ho-227 (Holmium)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Ho-227 (Holmium, atomic number Z = 67, mass number A = 227).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

481

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Re-227 (Rhenium)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Re-227 (Rhenium, atomic number Z = 75, mass number A = 227).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

482

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Cf-227 (Californium)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Cf-227 (Californium, atomic number Z = 98, mass number A = 227).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

483

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Er-227 (Erbium)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Er-227 (Erbium, atomic number Z = 68, mass number A = 227).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

484

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Pt-227 (Platinum)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Pt-227 (Platinum, atomic number Z = 78, mass number A = 227).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.