Sample records for mass number 23-26

  1. 16 CFR 23.26 - Misuse of the words “flawless,” “perfect,” etc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES FOR THE JEWELRY, PRECIOUS METALS, AND PEWTER INDUSTRIES § 23.26 Misuse of the words “flawless,” “perfect,” etc. (a) It is unfair or deceptive...

  2. 16 CFR 23.26 - Misuse of the words “flawless,” “perfect,” etc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES FOR THE JEWELRY, PRECIOUS METALS, AND PEWTER INDUSTRIES § 23.26 Misuse of the words “flawless,” “perfect,” etc. (a) It is unfair or deceptive...

  3. 16 CFR 23.26 - Misuse of the words “flawless,” “perfect,” etc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES FOR THE JEWELRY, PRECIOUS METALS, AND PEWTER INDUSTRIES § 23.26 Misuse of the words “flawless,” “perfect,” etc. (a) It is unfair or deceptive...

  4. 16 CFR 23.26 - Misuse of the words “flawless,” “perfect,” etc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES FOR THE JEWELRY, PRECIOUS METALS, AND PEWTER INDUSTRIES § 23.26 Misuse of the words “flawless,” “perfect,” etc. (a) It is unfair or deceptive...

  5. 16 CFR 23.26 - Misuse of the words “flawless,” “perfect,” etc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES FOR THE JEWELRY, PRECIOUS METALS, AND PEWTER INDUSTRIES § 23.26 Misuse of the words “flawless,” “perfect,” etc. (a) It is unfair or deceptive...

  6. SME Annual Meeting Feb. 23 -26, 2014, Salt Lake City, UT

    E-print Network

    SME Annual Meeting Feb. 23 - 26, 2014, Salt Lake City, UT 1 Copyright © 2014 by SME Preprint 14, Reliability Information Analysis Center, Utica, NY S. Schafrik, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA ABSTRACT Every ­ This is the time interval over which the system is expected to function and meet the reliability requirement

  7. 2000 JAPAN-USA Symposium on Flexible Automation July 23-26, 2000, Ann Arbor, MI

    E-print Network

    Saitou, Kazuhiro "Kazu"

    2000 JAPAN-USA Symposium on Flexible Automation July 23-26, 2000, Ann Arbor, MI 2000JUSFA-US1 OFF-LINE ERROR RECOVERY LOGIC SYNTHESIS IN AUTOMATED ASSEMBLY LINES BY USING GENETIC PROGRAMMING Cem M. Baydar by the experts or automated error recovery logic controllers embedded in the system. The previous work

  8. Electric potential patterns deduced for the SUNDIAL period of September 23-26, 1986

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. A. Emery; A. D. Richmond; H. W. Kroehl; C. D. Wells; J. M. Ruohoniemi

    1990-01-01

    High-latitude electric potential and ionospheric conductance patterns are presented and discussed for the Northern Hemisphere during the SUNDIAL period of September 23-26, 1986 using the Assimilative Mapping of Ionospheric Electrodynamics (AMIE) technique of Richmond and Kamide (1988). Data sources used for the model are satellite and ground magnetometers, electron precipitation instruments, incoherent scatter radars, and ionospheric coherent radars. The period

  9. Ternary logic and mass quantum numbers

    SciTech Connect

    Sheppeard, M. D. [Ka Tiritiri O Te Moana (New Zealand)

    2010-06-15

    Koide's prediction of the tau mass may be formulated as a condition on the three eigenvalues of a quantum Fourier series, using simple parameters, and similar triplets have been found for neutrino and hadron masses [2]. Assuming these parameters arise from quantum gravity, one would like to understand them from the more abstract context of category theory. In particular, whereas the logic of lepton spin is a linear analogue of the ordinary Boolean logic of the category of sets, mass triplets suggest an analogous ternary logic, requiring higher dimensional categorical structures.

  10. Occupation number-based energy functional for nuclear masses

    E-print Network

    M. Bertolli; T. Papenbrock; S. Wild

    2011-10-19

    We develop an energy functional with shell-model occupations as the relevant degrees of freedom and compute nuclear masses across the nuclear chart. The functional is based on Hohenberg-Kohn theory with phenomenologically motivated terms. A global fit of the 17-parameter functional to nuclear masses yields a root-mean-square deviation of \\chi = 1.31 MeV. Nuclear radii are computed within a model that employs the resulting occupation numbers.

  11. Electric potential patterns deduced for the SUNDIAL period of September 23-26, 1986

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emery, B. A.; Richmond, A. D.; Kroehl, H. W.; Wells, C. D.; Ruohoniemi, J. M.

    1990-01-01

    High-latitude electric potential and ionospheric conductance patterns are presented and discussed for the Northern Hemisphere during the SUNDIAL period of September 23-26, 1986 using the Assimilative Mapping of Ionospheric Electrodynamics (AMIE) technique of Richmond and Kamide (1988). Data sources used for the model are satellite and ground magnetometers, electron precipitation instruments, incoherent scatter radars, and ionospheric coherent radars. The period was characterized by many substorms, and a wide variety of instantaneous patterns of electrodynamic parameters on a hemispheric scale are derived throughout this period, of which only a few examples are displayed. The entire set of electric potentials and conductances are being made available through the NCAR CEDAR Data Base for further analysis and utilization in simulation models.

  12. Studies of Mendelevium Isotopes with Mass Numbers 248 Through 252

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pirkko Eskola

    1973-01-01

    Five isotopes of mendelevium, with mass numbers 248 through 252, were studied by means of alpha-particle spectroscopy. The isotopes were produced by bombarding 241Am and 243Am targets with 12C and 13C ions accelerated by the Berkeley heavy-ion linear accelerator. The half-lives of the nuclides and the energies of the main alpha-particle groups, respectively, were observed to be: 248Md: 7 +\\/-

  13. STUDINGER ET AL, POWER SPECTRA ANALYSIS, TERRA ANTARTICA, Vol. 4(1), 23-26 1997 1 INTRODUCTION

    E-print Network

    Studinger, Michael

    STUDINGER ET AL, POWER SPECTRA ANALYSIS, TERRA ANTARTICA, Vol. 4(1), 23-26 1997 1 INTRODUCTION glacial times do not exist and seismic velocities are only known for a nar- row area along the edge in this region by analysing the gravity data using the power spectra method. DATA PROCESSING Meyer (1995

  14. EUROTHERM Seminar 74 Proceedings Heat transfer in unsteady and transitional flows March 23-26, 2003 Eindhoven (The Netherlands)

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    EUROTHERM Seminar 74 Proceedings Heat transfer in unsteady and transitional flows March 23-26, 2003 to be governed by heat transfer and time microscales of turbulence through the inner sublayer. Physical interpreta- tions are given to relate the observed heat transfer correlation and these turbulence transition

  15. San Juan, Puerto Rico -Jueves 07 Diciembre 2006. Actualizado a las 5:23:26 PM ANTERIOR | SIGUIENTE

    E-print Network

    endi.com San Juan, Puerto Rico - Jueves 07 Diciembre 2006. Actualizado a las 5:23:26 PM « ANTERIOR Puerto Rico", manifestó. El radiotelescopio es parte del Centro Nacional de Astronomía e Ionosfera (NAIC / Puerto Rico Hoy Por The Associated Press (10:05 a.m.) Pidió a la NSF que no adopte las recomendaciones de

  16. SIMULTANEOUS CONSTRAINTS ON THE NUMBER AND MASS OF RELATIVISTIC SPECIES

    SciTech Connect

    Riemer-Sorensen, Signe; Parkinson, David; Davis, Tamara M. [School of Mathematics and Physics, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072 (Australia)] [School of Mathematics and Physics, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072 (Australia); Blake, Chris, E-mail: signe@physics.uq.edu.au [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University of Technology, P.O. Box 218, Hawthorn, VIC 3122 (Australia)] [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University of Technology, P.O. Box 218, Hawthorn, VIC 3122 (Australia)

    2013-02-15

    Recent indications from both particle physics and cosmology suggest the possible existence of more than three neutrino species. In cosmological analyses the effects of neutrino mass and number of species can in principle be disentangled for fixed cosmological parameters. However, since we do not have perfect measurements of the standard {Lambda} cold dark matter model parameters, some correlation remains between the neutrino mass and number of species, and both parameters should be included in the analysis. Combining the newest observations of several cosmological probes (cosmic microwave background, large-scale structure, expansion rate), we obtain N {sub eff} = 3.58{sup +0.15} {sub -0.16}(68% CL){sup +0.55} {sub -0.53}(95% CL) and {Sigma}m {sub {nu}} < 0.60 eV(95% CL), which are currently the strongest constraints on N {sub eff} and {Sigma}m {sub {nu}} from an analysis including both parameters. The preference for N {sub eff} >3 is at the 2{sigma} level.

  17. Dipolar modulation in number counts of WISE-2MASS sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Mijin; Huterer, Dragan; Gibelyou, Cameron; Kovács, András; Szapudi, István

    2014-11-01

    We test the statistical isotropy of the Universe by analysing the distribution of WISE extragalactic sources that were also observed by 2MASS. We pay particular attention to colour cuts and foreground marginalization in order to cull a uniform sample of extragalactic objects and avoid stars. We detect a dipole gradient in the number counts with an amplitude of ˜0.05, somewhat larger than expectations based on local structures corresponding to the depth and (independently measured) bias of our WISE-2MASS sources. The direction of the dipole, (l, b) ? (310°, -15°), is in reasonably good agreement with that found previously in the (shallower) 2MASS Extended Source Catalog alone. Interestingly, the dipole direction is not far from the direction of the dipolar modulation in the cosmic microwave background found by Planck, and also fairly closely matches large-scale structure bulk-flow directions found by various groups using galaxies and Type Ia supernovae. It is difficult, however, to draw specific conclusions from the near-agreement of these directions.

  18. What determines motor neuron number? Slow scaling of facial motor neuron numbers with body mass in marsupials and primates.

    PubMed

    Watson, Charles; Provis, Jan; Herculano-Houzel, Suzana

    2012-10-01

    How does the number of motor neurons in the brain correlate with the muscle mass to be controlled in the body? Numbers of motor neurons are known to be adjusted during development by cell death, but the change in the percentage of surviving motor neurons in response to experimental changes in target muscle mass is relatively small. Here we address the quantitative matching between final numbers of motor neurons in the facial nucleus and body mass (which we use as a proxy for the muscle mass). In 22 marsupial species, we found that the number of facial motor neurons is strongly correlated with body mass, and scales across species as a power function of body mass with a very small exponent of 0.184, which is close to the exponent found in primates from previously published data. With such an exponent, doubling the body mass is accompanied by a modest increase of only 14% in numbers of facial motor neurons, while halving body mass results in a decrease of only 12%. These numbers are remarkably similar to the 15-20% increase or 8% decrease in the number of spinal cord motor neurons that results from experimental or natural doubling or reducing by half the target muscle field of birds and amphibians. The scaling rule presented here might thus account for the quantitative matching of motor neurons to their target muscle mass in evolution. With this small scaling exponent, our data also raise the possibility that larger animals will have larger motor units. PMID:22847866

  19. Altered solar wind -magnetosphere interaction at low Mach numbers: coronal mass ejections

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 Altered solar wind - magnetosphere interaction at low Mach numbers: coronal mass ejections Benoit fundamental alterations of the solar wind ­ magnetosphere interaction that occur during low Mach number solar wind. We first show that low Mach number solar wind conditions are often characteristic of coronal mass

  20. Neutrino mass, lepton number, and the origin of matter

    E-print Network

    -squared differences !distance, & the sizes of the Uei #12;!13 Measured! 8 Daya Bay RENO Double Chooz #12;Mass Background slope HV variation Potential variation in source B-field variation in source Elastic scattering in T2 gas &(mv 2) 0 0.01 eV2 &(mv 2)total= 0.025 eV2 26 mv

  1. Low Peclet number mass and momentum transport in microcavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yew, A. G.; Pinero, D.; Hsieh, A. H.; Atencia, J.

    2013-02-01

    For the informed design of microfluidic devices, it is important to understand transport phenomena at the microscale. This letter outlines an analytically driven approach to the design of rectangular microcavities extending perpendicular to a perfusion microchannel for applications that may include microfluidic cell culture devices. We present equations to estimate the transition from advection- to diffusion-dominant transport inside cavities as a function of the geometry and flow conditions. We also estimate the time required for molecules, such as nutrients or drugs, to travel from the microchannel to a given length into the cavity. These analytical predictions can facilitate the rational design of microfluidic devices to optimize and maintain long-term, low Peclet number environments with minimal fluid shear stress.

  2. Phytoremediation of hazardous wastes. Technical report, 23--26 July 1995

    SciTech Connect

    McCutcheon, S.C.; Wolfe, N.L.; Carreria, L.H.; Ou, T.

    1995-07-26

    A new and innovative approach to phytoremediation (the use of plants to degrade hazardous contaminants) was developed. The new approach to phytoremediation involves rigorous pathway analyses, mass balance determinations, and identification of specific enzymes that break down trinitrotoluene (TNT), other explosives (RDX and HMX), nitrobenzene, and chlorinated solvents (e.g., TCE and PCE) (EPA 1994). As a good example, TNT is completely and rapidly degraded by nitroreductase and laccase enzymes. The aromatic ring is broken and the carbon in the ring fragments is incorporated into new plant fiber, as part of the natural lignification process. Half lives for TNT degradation approach 1 hr or less under ideal laboratory conditions. Continuous-flow pilot studies indicate that scale up residence times in created wetlands may be two to three times longer than in laboratory batch studies. The use of created wetlands and land farming techniques guided by rigorous field biochemistry and ecology promises to be a vital part of a newly evolving field, ecological engineering.

  3. PROCEEDINGS: 1987 JOINT SYMPOSIUM ON STATIONARY SOURCE COMBUSTION NOX CONTROL. HELD IN NEW ORLEANS, LOUISIANA ON MARCH 23-26, 1987

    EPA Science Inventory

    The two-volume proceedings document the 1987 Joint (EPA and EPRI) Symposium on Stationary Combustion NOx Control, held March 23-26, 1987 in New Orleans, LA. The 49 presentations covered: low NOx combustion developments (e.g., reburning and burner design modifications); coal-, oil...

  4. Constraints on the dark matter particle mass from the number of Milky Way satellites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emil Polisensky; Massimo Ricotti

    2011-01-01

    We have conducted N-body simulations of the growth of Milky Way-sized halos in cold and warm dark matter cosmologies. The number of dark matter satellites in our simulated Milky Ways decreases with decreasing mass of the dark matter particle. Assuming that the number of dark matter satellites exceeds or equals the number of observed satellites of the Milky Way, we

  5. A Darwinian approach to the actuator number and placement problem with non-negligible actuator mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmerman, David C.

    1993-07-01

    The problem of optimal actuator number and placement for the vibration control of large flexible space structures is addressed in this work. The inherent mass of the actuators is integrated in the number and placement algorithm. The algorithm utilises concepts from genetic programming, which is loosely based on Darwin's "survival of the fittest" theories. The paper develops the genetic algorithm in the context of the actuator number and placement problem. Examples are presented which demonstrate the genetic algorithm and the effect of actuator mass on the placement and number problem.

  6. Study of effective atomic numbers and mass attenuation coefficients in some compounds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Singh; Rajinderjit Kaur; Vandana Kumar; Vijay Kumar

    1996-01-01

    The effective atomic numbers and mass attenuation coefficients of some different compounds for total and partial photon interactions have been calculated in the energy range 10?2–105 MeV. The effective atomic numbers and mass attenuation coefficients have also been determined experimentally in the energy range 123–1132 keV by a transmission method. Experimental and theoretical values are in good agreement. The values

  7. Scaling of offspring number and mass to plant and animal size: model and meta-analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Jan Hendriks; Christian Mulder

    2008-01-01

    The scaling of reproductive parameters to body size is important for understanding ecological and evolutionary patterns. Here,\\u000a we derived allometric relationships for the number and mass of seeds, eggs and neonates from an existing model on population\\u000a production. In a separate meta-analysis, we collected 79 empirical regressions on offspring mass and number covering different\\u000a taxa and various habitats. The literature

  8. Mass transfer at high Peclet numbers for creeping flow in a packed-bed reactor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Fedkiw; John Newman

    1977-01-01

    An isotropic, homogeneous packed-bed reactor is modeled as an array of sinusoidal periodically constricted tubes (PCT). The effective asymptotic bed-Sherwood number has been calculated for mass transfer at large Peclet number with a constant wall concentration and creeping flow hydrodynamics. The bed friction factor has also been calculated. The results for these macroscopic bed quantities depend upon two ratios of

  9. Proximate Constraints on the Evolution of Egg Size, Number, and Total Clutch Mass in Lizards

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barry Sinervo; Paul Licht

    1991-01-01

    Proximate constraints on egg size, number, and total clutch mass in side-blotched lizards were examined by experimentally reducing average clutch size from 4.6 eggs to one, two, and three eggs. Eggs from experimentally altered clutches were larger than those from controls, reflecting the trade-off between egg size and number. Moreover, the increased frequency of females with oviducally bound eggs or

  10. International Conference on Computational Heat and Mass Transfer Paper Number 135

    E-print Network

    Khandekar, Sameer

    for heat transfer that is encountered in many industrial applications, its long term sustainability of heat transfer enhancement in sodium heat exchangers used in the fast breeder nuclear reactor [67th International Conference on Computational Heat and Mass Transfer Paper Number 135 DROPWISE

  11. Atmospheric particle number size distribution in central Europe: Statistical relations to air masses and meteorology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wolfram Birmili; Alfred Wiedensohler; Jost Heintzenberg; Katrin Lehmann

    2001-01-01

    Atmospheric particle number size distributions determined over 1.5 years at a central European site were statistically analyzed in terms of their relation to time of day, season, meteorology, and synoptic-scale air masses. All size distributions were decomposed into lognormal particle modes corresponding to the accumulation, Aitken, aged nucleation, and nucleation modes. The concentration of nucleation mode particles (30 nm) lacked

  12. US ISSN 0006-9698 CAMBRIDGE, MASS. 6 JULY 2011 NUMBER 525

    E-print Network

    Flammang, Brooke

    US ISSN 0006-9698 CAMBRIDGE, MASS. 6 JULY 2011 NUMBER 525 INTRASPECIFIC AND INTERSPECIFIC SPATIAL are known to segregate by size, sex, or species to reduce intra- and interspecific predation and competition- and interspecific segregation patterns. KEY WORDS: separation; nursery grounds; maturity; Apristurus brunneus

  13. Inducing Conservation of Number, Weight, Volume, Area, and Mass in Pre-School Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Beverly S.

    The major question this study attempted to answer was, "Can conservation of number, area, weight, mass, and volume to be induced and retained by 3- and 4-year-old children by structured instruction with a multivariate approach? Three nursery schools in Iowa City supplied subjects for this study. The Institute of Child Behavior and Development…

  14. Significant potential aerosol number and mass concentration in urban areas at elevated ozone and light conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonn, Boris; Sun, Shang; Haunold, Werner; Sitals, Robert

    2013-04-01

    Aerosol number and mass concentration are key question marks to assess effects of urban environments for human health and for regional climate conditions. In order to quantify the potential of atmospheric gases in urban air the novel movable twin chamber COMPASS was constructed and applied in Frankfurt/Main. One chamber serves as a reference chamber to measure ambient conditions, while the second is used to study the effect of modified conditions. Here we present the first results from Frankfurt with elevated ozone and with light modification. Increasing ozone to several hundred ppb caused both, i.e. particle number concentration and mass to increase by about 30-80% depending on the time of the day and on NOx-levels. The opposite was observed for darkening one of the chambers. In the darkened chamber particle number concentrations reduced by 40-60% during daytime with no effect apparent during the night. A similar but more intense behavior was found for the aerosol mass. Several organic masses have been figured out as relevant for explaining the observations made. From our first stage campaign it becomes obvious that the urban air contains notable resources for intensifying the pollution effects. This will have consequences for urban air quality control and local climate in a warming world.

  15. Studies on the size distribution, number and mass emission factors of candle particles characterized by modes of burning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sun Zai; Huang Zhen; Wang Jia-song

    2006-01-01

    This study presents a model-based method to determinate the size-specific number and mass emission factors of candle smoke particles characterized by three modes of burning. A series of candle burning experiments are carried out in a test chamber. Two different emission models are employed to translate the concentration data into particle number and mass emission factors. The number concentration is

  16. Measurement of atomic number and mass attenuation coefficient in magnesium ferrite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. H. Kadam; S. T. Alone; G. K. Bichile; K. M. Jadhav

    2007-01-01

    Pure magnesium ferrite sample was prepared by standard ceramic technique and characterized by X-ray diffraction method. XRD pattern revealed that the sample possess single-phase cubic spinel structure. The linear attenuation coefficient (mu), mass attenuation coefficient (mu\\/rho), total atomic cross-section (sigma_{tot}), total electronic cross-section (sigma_{ele}) and the effective atomic number (Z_{eff}) were calculated for pure magnesium ferrite (MgFe_{2}O_{4}). The values of

  17. Constraints on the dark matter particle mass from the number of Milky Way satellites

    SciTech Connect

    Polisensky, Emil [Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C. 20375 (United States); Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20745 (United States); Ricotti, Massimo [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20745 (United States)

    2011-02-15

    We have conducted N-body simulations of the growth of Milky Way-sized halos in cold and warm dark matter cosmologies. The number of dark matter satellites in our simulated Milky Ways decreases with decreasing mass of the dark matter particle. Assuming that the number of dark matter satellites exceeds or equals the number of observed satellites of the Milky Way, we derive lower limits on the dark matter particle mass. We find with 95% confidence m{sub s}>13.3 keV for a sterile neutrino produced by the Dodelson and Widrow mechanism, m{sub s}>8.9 keV for the Shi and Fuller mechanism, m{sub s}>3.0 keV for the Higgs decay mechanism, and m{sub WDM}>2.3 keV for a thermal dark matter particle. The recent discovery of many new dark matter dominated satellites of the Milky Way in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey allows us to set lower limits comparable to constraints from the complementary methods of Lyman-{alpha} forest modeling and x-ray observations of the unresolved cosmic x-ray background and of dark matter halos from dwarf galaxy to cluster scales. Future surveys like LSST, DES, PanSTARRS, and SkyMapper have the potential to discover many more satellites and further improve constraints on the dark matter particle mass.

  18. Constraints on the Dark Matter Particle Mass from the Number of Milky Way Satellites

    E-print Network

    Emil Polisensky; Massimo Ricotti

    2011-03-29

    We have conducted N-body simulations of the growth of Milky Way-sized halos in cold and warm dark matter cosmologies. The number of dark matter satellites in our simulated Milky Ways decreases with decreasing mass of the dark matter particle. Assuming that the number of dark matter satellites exceeds or equals the number of observed satellites of the Milky Way we derive lower limits on the dark matter particle mass. We find with 95% confidence m_s > 13.3 keV for a sterile neutrino produced by the Dodelson and Widrow mechanism, m_s > 8.9 keV for the Shi and Fuller mechanism, m_s > 3.0 keV for the Higgs decay mechanism, and m_{WDM} > 2.3 keV for a thermal dark matter particle. The recent discovery of many new dark matter dominated satellites of the Milky Way in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey allows us to set lower limits comparable to constraints from the complementary methods of Lyman-alpha forest modeling and X-ray observations of the unresolved cosmic X-ray background and of dark matter halos from dwarf galaxy to cluster scales. Future surveys like LSST, DES, PanSTARRS, and SkyMapper have the potential to discover many more satellites and further improve constraints on the dark matter particle mass.

  19. Early Life Nutrition Modulates Muscle Stem Cell Number: Implications for Muscle Mass and Repair

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Melissa; Isganaitis, Elvira; Cerletti, Massimiliano; Fitzpatrick, Connor; Wagers, Amy J.; Jimenez-Chillaron, Jose

    2011-01-01

    Suboptimal nutrition during prenatal and early postnatal development is associated with increased risk for type 2 diabetes during adult life. A hallmark of such diabetes risk is altered body composition, including reduced lean mass and increased adiposity. Since stem cell number and activity are important determinants of muscle mass, modulation of perinatal nutrition could alter stem cell number/function, potentially mediating developmentally programmed reductions in muscle mass. Skeletal muscle precursors (SMP) were purified from muscle of mice subjected to prenatal undernutrition and/or early postnatal high-fat diet (HFD)—experimental models that are both associated with obesity and diabetes risk. SMP number was determined by flow cytometry, proliferative capacity measured in vitro, and regenerative capacity of these cells determined in vivo after muscle freeze injury. Prenatally undernutrition (UN) mice showed significantly reduced SMP frequencies [Control (C) 4.8%±0.3% (% live cells) vs. UN 3.2%±0.4%, P=0.015] at 6 weeks; proliferative capacity was unaltered. Reduced SMP in UN was associated with 32% decrease in regeneration after injury (C 16%±3% of injured area vs. UN 11%±2%; P<0.0001). SMP frequency was also reduced in HFD-fed mice (chow 6.4%±0.6% vs. HFD 4.7%±0.4%, P=0.03), and associated with 44% decreased regeneration (chow 16%±2.7% vs. HFD 9%±2.2%; P<0.0001). Prenatal undernutrition was additive with postnatal HFD. Thus, both prenatal undernutrition and postnatal overnutrition reduce myogenic stem cell frequency and function, indicating that developmentally established differences in muscle-resident stem cell populations may provoke reductions in muscle mass and repair and contribute to diabetes risk. PMID:21247245

  20. Aerosol formation from high-velocity uranium drops: Comparison of number and mass distributions. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Rader, D.J.; Benson, D.A.

    1995-05-01

    This report presents the results of an experimental study of the aerosol produced by the combustion of high-velocity molten-uranium droplets produced by the simultaneous heating and electromagnetic launch of uranium wires. These tests are intended to simulate the reduction of high-velocity fragments into aerosol in high-explosive detonations or reactor accidents involving nuclear materials. As reported earlier, the resulting aerosol consists mainly of web-like chain agglomerates. A condensation nucleus counter was used to investigate the decay of the total particle concentration due to coagulation and losses. Number size distributions based on mobility equivalent diameter obtained soon after launch with a Differential Mobility Particle Sizer showed lognormal distributions with an initial count median diameter (CMD) of 0.3 {mu}m and a geometric standard deviation, {sigma}{sub g} of about 2; the CMD was found to increase and {sigma}{sub g} decrease with time due to coagulation. Mass size distributions based on aerodynamic diameter were obtained for the first time with a Microorifice Uniform Deposit Impactor, which showed lognormal distributions with mass median aerodynamic diameters of about 0.5 {mu}m and an aerodynamic geometric standard deviation of about 2. Approximate methods for converting between number and mass distributions and between mobility and aerodynamic equivalent diameters are presented.

  1. Numbers

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2013-06-14

    The purpose of this video tutorial is to review a couple ways in which we think about numbers. Thinking in terms of street numbers, money in bank accounts, and quantum particles (e.g. Bose-Einstein condensate) is contrasted with focusing on associating numbers with distinguishable manipulatives, as is more familiar in K-8 courses. This video concludes with a reminder that the symbol "infinity" is not, itself, a number.

  2. Numbers

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Jo Edkins

    2006-01-01

    This engaging web site contains information and interactive applets related to various number systems: Egyptian, Babylonian, Chinese, Greek, Roman, Mayan, and Arabic. Users learn the history and structure of each system as well as how to count and write numbers. The site also allows users to explore finger systems, calculating machines, other number bases, and "interesting numbers." A series of pages on data and graphs includes information and activities on gathering, analyzing, graphing and sorting data. (Because the section on the Arabic number system is so extensive, it is cataloged separately as a related resource.)

  3. High-Schmidt-number mass transport mechanisms from a turbulent flow to absorbing sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scalo, Carlo; Piomelli, Ugo; Boegman, Leon

    2012-08-01

    We have investigated the mechanisms involved in dissolved oxygen (DO) transfer from a turbulent flow to an underlying organic sediment bed populated with DO-absorbing bacteria. Our numerical study relies on a previously developed and tested computational tool that couples a bio-geochemical model for the sediment layer and large-eddy simulation for transport on the water side. Simulations have been carried out in an open channel configuration for different Reynolds numbers (Re? = 180-1000), Schmidt numbers (Sc = 400-1000), and bacterial populations (?* = 100-700 mg l-1). We show that the average oxygen flux across the sediment-water interface (SWI) changes with Re? and Sc, in good agreement with classic heat-and-mass-transfer parametrizations. Time correlations at the SWI show that intermittent peaks in the wall-shear stress initiate the mass transfer and modulate its distribution in space and time. The diffusive sublayer acts as a de-noising filter with respect to the overlying turbulence; the instantaneous mass flux is not affected by low-amplitude background fluctuations in the wall-shear stress but, on the other hand, it is receptive to energetic and coherent near-wall transport events, in agreement with the surface renewal theory. The three transport processes involved in DO depletion (turbulent transport, molecular transport across the diffusive sublayer, and absorption in the organic sediment layer) exhibit distinct temporal and spatial scales. The rapidly evolving near-wall high-speed streaks transport patches of fluid to the edge of the diffusive sublayer, leaving slowly regenerating elongated patches of positive DO concentration fluctuations and mass flux at the SWI. The sediment surface retains the signature of the overlying turbulent transport over long time scales, allowed by the slow bacterial absorption.

  4. Measurement of atomic number and mass attenuation coefficient in magnesium ferrite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R H Kadam; S T Alone; G K Bichile; K M Jadhav

    2007-01-01

    Pure magnesium ferrite sample was prepared by standard ceramic technique and characterized by X-ray diffraction method. XRD\\u000a pattern revealed that the sample possess single-phase cubic spinel structure. The linear attenuation coefficient (µ), mass attenuation coefficient (µ\\/?), total atomic cross-section (?\\u000a tot), total electronic cross-section (?\\u000a ele) and the effective atomic number (Z\\u000a eff) were calculated for pure magnesium ferrite (MgFe2O4).

  5. Low Mass-Damping Vortex-Induced Vibrations of a Single Cylinder at Moderate Reynolds Number.

    PubMed

    Jus, Y; Longatte, E; Chassaing, J-C; Sagaut, P

    2014-10-01

    The feasibility and accuracy of large eddy simulation is investigated for the case of three-dimensional unsteady flows past an elastically mounted cylinder at moderate Reynolds number. Although these flow problems are unconfined, complex wake flow patterns may be observed depending on the elastic properties of the structure. An iterative procedure is used to solve the structural dynamic equation to be coupled with the Navier-Stokes system formulated in a pseudo-Eulerian way. A moving mesh method is involved to deform the computational domain according to the motion of the fluid structure interface. Numerical simulations of vortex-induced vibrations are performed for a freely vibrating cylinder at Reynolds number 3900 in the subcritical regime under two low mass-damping conditions. A detailed physical analysis is provided for a wide range of reduced velocities, and the typical three-branch response of the amplitude behavior usually reported in the experiments is exhibited and reproduced by numerical simulation. PMID:25278637

  6. Evidence for a long-lived superheavy nucleus with atomic mass number A=292 and atomic number Z=~122 in natural Th

    E-print Network

    A. Marinov; I. Rodushkin; D. Kolb; A. Pape; Y. Kashiv; R. Brandt; R. V. Gentry; H. W. Miller

    2008-04-24

    Evidence for the existence of a superheavy nucleus with atomic mass number A=292 and abundance (1-10)x10^(-12) relative to 232Th has been found in a study of natural Th using inductively coupled plasma-sector field mass spectrometry. The measured mass matches the predictions [1,2] for the mass of an isotope with atomic number Z=122 or a nearby element. Its estimated half-life of t1/2 >= 10^8 y suggests that a long-lived isomeric state exists in this isotope. The possibility that it might belong to a new class of long-lived high spin super- and hyperdeformed isomeric states is discussed.[3-6

  7. Number of solution states of bradykinin from ion mobility and mass spectrometry measurements.

    PubMed

    Pierson, Nicholas A; Chen, Liuxi; Valentine, Stephen J; Russell, David H; Clemmer, David E

    2011-09-01

    Ion mobility and mass spectrometry measurements have been used to examine the populations of different solution structures of the nonapeptide bradykinin. Over the range of solution compositions studied, from 0:100 to 100:0 methanol:water and 0:100 to 90:10 dioxane:water, evidence for 10 independent populations of bradykinin structures in solution is found. In some solutions as many as eight structures may coexist. The solution populations are substantially different than the gas-phase equilibrium distribution of ions, which exhibits only three distinct states. Such a large number of coexisting structures explains the inability of traditional methods of characterization such as nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and crystallography to determine detailed structural features for some regions of this peptide. PMID:21830821

  8. Number of Solution States of Bradykinin from Ion Mobility and Mass Spectrometry Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Pierson, Nicholas A.; Chen, Liuxi; Valentine, Stephen J.; Russell, David H.; Clemmer, David E.

    2011-01-01

    Ion mobility and mass spectrometry measurements have been used to examine the populations of different solution structures of the nonapeptide bradykinin. Over the range of solution compositions studied, from 0:100 to 100:0 methanol:water and 0:100 to 90:10 dioxane:water, evidence for ten independent populations of bradykinin structures in solution is found. In some solutions as many as eight structures may coexist. The solution populations are substantially different than the gas-phase equilibrium distribution of ions, which exhibits only three distinct states. Such a large number of coexisting structures explains the inability of traditional methods of characterization such as nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and crystallography to determine detailed structural features for some regions of this peptide. PMID:21830821

  9. Extended Glauber Model of Antiproton-Nucleus Annihilation for All Energies and Mass Numbers

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Teck-Ghee [Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama] [Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama; Wong, Cheuk-Yin [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Previous analytical formulas in the Glauber model for high-energy nucleus-nucleus collisions developed by Wong are utilized and extended to study Antiproton-nucleus annihilations for both high and low energies, after taking into account the effects of Coulomb and nuclear interactions, and the change of the antiproton momentum inside a nucleus. The extended analytical formulas capture the main features of the experimental antiproton-nucleus annihilation cross sections for all energies and mass numbers. At high antiproton energies, they exhibit the granular property for the lightest nuclei and the black-disk limit for the heavy nuclei. At low antiproton energies, they display the effect of the antiproton momentum increase due to the nuclear interaction for the light nuclei, and the effect of the magnification due to the attractive Coulomb interaction for the heavy nuclei.

  10. Characteristics of Magnetic Reconnection in High-Lundquist Number MHD Simulations of Coronal Mass Ejections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, Ben; Edmondson, Justin K.; Kazachenko, Maria D.; Guidoni, Silvina E.

    2015-04-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the properties of magnetic reconnection at large-scale current sheets in a very high cadence 2.5D MHD simulation of sympathetic magnetic breakout coronal mass ejections (CMEs) from a pseudostreamer source region. We examine the resistive tearing and breakup of the three main current sheets into chains of X- and O-type null points and follow the dynamics of magnetic island growth, their merging, transit, and ejection with the reconnection exhaust. For each current sheet, we quantify the evolution of the length-to-width aspect ratio (up to ~100:1), Lundquist number (~10^4), and reconnection rate (inflow-to-outflow ratios reaching ~0.15). We examine the statistical and spectral properties of the fluctuations in the current sheets resulting from the plasmoid instability, including the distribution of magnetic island width, mass, and flux content. We show that the temporal evolution of the spectral index of the reconnection-generated magnetic energy density fluctuations appear to reflect global properties of the current sheet evolution. Our results are in excellent agreement with recent, high resolution reconnection-in-a-box simulations even though our current sheets' formation, growth, and dynamics are intrinsically coupled to the global evolution of sequential sympathetic CME eruptions.

  11. Laser-Based Mass Spectrometric Determination of Aggregation Numbers for Petroleum-and Coal-Derived Asphaltenes

    E-print Network

    Zare, Richard N.

    Laser-Based Mass Spectrometric Determination of Aggregation Numbers for Petroleum- and Coal: Petroleum- and coal-derived asphaltenes have been studied with three laser-based mass spectrometric of the most probable. In contrast, the nanoaggregates of coal asphaltenes are found to be smaller and more

  12. ModelE2-TOMAS development and evaluation using aerosol optical depths, mass and number concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Y. H.; Adams, P. J.; Shindell, D. T.

    2014-09-01

    The TwO-Moment Aerosol Sectional microphysics model (TOMAS) has been integrated into the state-of-the-art general circulation model, GISS ModelE2. TOMAS has the flexibility to select a size resolution as well as the lower size cutoff. A computationally efficient version of TOMAS is used here, which has 15 size bins covering 3 nm to 10 ?m aerosol dry diameter. For each bin, it simulates the total aerosol number concentration and mass concentrations of sulphate, pure elementary carbon (hydrophobic), mixed elemental carbon (hydrophilic), hydrophobic organic matter, hydrophilic organic matter, sea salt, mineral dust, ammonium, and aerosol-associated water. This paper provides a detailed description of the ModelE2-TOMAS model and evaluates the model against various observations including aerosol precursor gas concentrations, aerosol mass and number concentrations, and aerosol optical depths. Additionally, global budgets in ModelE2-TOMAS are compared with those of other global aerosol models, and the TOMAS model is compared to the default aerosol model in ModelE2, which is a bulk aerosol model. Overall, the ModelE2-TOMAS predictions are within the range of other global aerosol model predictions, and the model has a reasonable agreement with observations of sulphur species and other aerosol components as well as aerosol optical depth. However, ModelE2-TOMAS (as well as the bulk aerosol model) cannot capture the observed vertical distribution of sulphur dioxide over the Pacific Ocean possibly due to overly strong convective transport. The TOMAS model successfully captures observed aerosol number concentrations and cloud condensation nuclei concentrations. Anthropogenic aerosol burdens in the bulk aerosol model running in the same host model as TOMAS (ModelE2) differ by a few percent to a factor of 2 regionally, mainly due to differences in aerosol processes including deposition, cloud processing, and emission parameterizations. Larger differences are found for naturally emitted aerosols such as sea salt and mineral dust. With TOMAS, ModelE2 has three different aerosol models (the bulk aerosol model and modal-based aerosol microphysics model, MATRIX) and allows exploration of the uncertainties associated with aerosol modelling within the same host model, NASA GISS ModelE2.

  13. Southern Ocean Aerosols: Particle Composition and the Mass and Number Budget (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, L. M.; Frossard, A. A.; Bates, T. S.; Quinn, P.

    2013-12-01

    Marine aerosol particles play an important role in Earth's radiative balance, and the aerosol at latitudes over 60 degrees south constitute one of the atmosphere's cleanest marine aerosol regions. As such, the Southern Ocean provides both a critical baseline in contrast to industrialized regions and a reasonable modern analog for studying pre-industrial conditions. For both of these reasons, the particle composition and budget are important for understanding aerosol-cloud interactions in the marine atmosphere. To date, there are only very limited measurements of the aerosol populations in the Southern Ocean region. The Cape Grim station provides an important long-term record showing that the two main components of these aerosol particles are sea salts and non-sea salt sulfate. Intensive field campaigns have provided snapshots that also demonstrate the presence of organic components from both sea spray and secondary atmospheric processes. Much of the evidence to date suggests that the wind and sea state are major drivers of both supermicron and submicron particle mass, but seasonal influence from biological sulfate sources can control the particle number. In this talk, we consider the aerosol particle budget in the Southern Ocean region in comparison to other regions in order to identify the most important uncertainties for aerosol-cloud interactions in this region.

  14. Final report: SIAM [Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics] Conference on Linear Algebra and its Applications, October 23-26, 2000

    SciTech Connect

    None

    2001-04-06

    The Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics (SIAM) and the SIAM Activity Group in Linear Algebra in conjunction with the International Linear Algebra Society (ILAS) held the SIAM Conference on Linear Algebra and its applications on October 23-26, 2000 at the McKimmon Conference Center on the campus of North Carolina State University in Raleigh, North Carolina. The goals of this conference were to highlight the central role of linear algebra in many problems of mathematics and the applied sciences, including engineering problems in systems and control, signal processing and coding, economic and business problems, and problems from biology and geophysics. Particular consideration in this conference was given to applications in image processing, information retrieval and management (such as the performance of search engines on the Internet), aircraft manufacturing and design, industrial optimization problems, and assessing the economic cost of linear algebra in industry. With the development of high performance computers and new parallel architectures, computational linear algebra is in a state of rapid development. There are grand challenges requiring the development of efficient methods that solve truly large-scale problems by exploiting the ever-increasing computational power. One of the primary goals of this conference was to bring researchers and practitioners in these various areas together for exchange of information and ideas. In particular, the collaboration with ILAS was an important factor in bringing about fruitful interaction among researchers in theory, computation, and applications. There were 250 total attendees with 17% coming from industry and government. In addition, there were 27 students who attended.

  15. Annual Enrollment Report Number of Students Studying Journalism and Mass Communication at All-time High.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Lee B.; Vlad, Tudor; Huh, Jisu; Prine, Joelle

    2001-01-01

    Finds that journalism and mass communication programs appear to be entering another period of rapid enrollment growth, swept up by overall increases in enrollments at United States universities. Finds that only about four in ten of the journalism and mass communication programs report enrollments by race, suggesting many administrators are not…

  16. Regular expansion solutions for small Peclet number heat or mass transfer in concentrated two-phase particulate systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yaron, I.

    1974-01-01

    Steady state heat or mass transfer in concentrated ensembles of drops, bubbles or solid spheres in uniform, slow viscous motion, is investigated. Convective effects at small Peclet numbers are taken into account by expanding the nondimensional temperature or concentration in powers of the Peclet number. Uniformly valid solutions are obtained, which reflect the effects of dispersed phase content and rate of internal circulation within the fluid particles. The dependence of the range of Peclet and Reynolds numbers, for which regular expansions are valid, on particle concentration is discussed.

  17. Annual Enrollment Report: Growth in Number of Students Studying Journalism and Mass Communication Slows.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Lee B.; Vlad, Tudor; Huh, Jisu; Daniels, George L.

    2002-01-01

    Provides the key findings of the 2001 Annual Survey of Journalism and Mass Communication Enrollments. Shows that undergraduate enrollments continued to grow while graduate enrollments declined. Discusses degrees granted and race, ethnicity, and gender factors. (PM)

  18. The Number of Information Bits Related to the Minimum Quantum and Gravitational Masses in a Vacuum Dominated Universe

    E-print Network

    Ioannis Haranas; Ioannis Gkigkitzis

    2014-06-09

    Wesson obtained a limit on quantum and gravitational mass in the universe by combining the cosmological constant Lambda, Planck constant, the speed of light c, and also the gravitational constant G. The corresponding masses are 2.0x10E-62 kg and 2.3E+54 kg respectively, and in general can be obtained with the help of a generic dimensional analysis, or from an analysis where the cosmological constant appears in a four dimensional space-time and as a result of a higher dimensional reduction. In this paper our goal is to establish a relation for both quantum and gravitational mass as function of the information number bit N. For this reason, we first derive an expression for the cosmological constant as a function of information bit, since both masses depend on it, and then various resulting relations are explored, in relation to information number of bits N. Fractional information bits imply no information extraction is possible. We see, that the order of magnitude of the various parameters as well as their ratios involve the large number 10E+122, that is produced naturally from the fundamental parameters of modern cosmology. Finally, we propose that in a complete quantum gravity theory the idea of information the might have to be included, with the quantum bits of information (q-bits) as one of its fundamental parameters, resulting thus to a more complete understanding of the universe, its laws, and its evolution.

  19. Minor versus major mergers: the stellar mass growth of massive galaxies from z = 3 using number density selection techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ownsworth, Jamie R.; Conselice, Christopher J.; Mortlock, Alice; Hartley, William G.; Almaini, Omar; Duncan, Ken; Mundy, Carl J.

    2014-12-01

    We present a study on the stellar mass growth of the progenitors of local massive galaxies with a variety of number density selections with n ? 1 × 10-4 Mpc-3 (corresponding to M* = 1011.24 M? at z = 0.3) in the redshift range 0.3 < z < 3.0. We select the progenitors of massive galaxies using a constant number density selection, and one which is adjusted to account for major mergers. We find that the progenitors of massive galaxies grow by a factor of 4 in total stellar mass over this redshift range. On average the stellar mass added via the processes of star formation, major and minor mergers account for 24 ± 8, 17 ± 15 and 34 ± 14 per cent, respectively, of the total galaxy stellar mass at z = 0.3. Therefore 51 ± 20 per cent of the total stellar mass in massive galaxies at z = 0.3 is created externally to their z = 3 progenitors. We explore the implication of these results on the cold gas accretion rate and size evolution of the progenitors of most massive galaxies over the same redshift range. We find an average gas accretion rate of ˜66 ± 32 M? yr-1 over the redshift range of 1.5 < z < 3.0. We find that the size evolution of a galaxy sample selected this way is on average lower than the findings of other investigations.

  20. Mass number dependence of the Skyrme-force-induced nuclear symmetry energy

    E-print Network

    M. Rafalski; W. Satula; R. Wyss

    2005-11-04

    The global mass dependence of the nuclear symmetry energy and its two basic ingredients due to the mean-level spacing and effective strength of the isovector mean-potential is studied within the Skyrme-Hartree-Fock model. In particular, our study determines the ratio of the surface-to-volume contributions to the nuclear symmetry energy to be ~1.6 and reveals that contributions due to mean-level spacing and effective strength of the isovector mean-potential are almost equal after removing momentum-dependent effects by rescaling them with isoscalar and isovector effective masses, respectively.

  1. A comparative study of the number and mass of fine particles emitted with diesel fuel and marine gas oil (MGO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nabi, Md. Nurun; Brown, Richard J.; Ristovski, Zoran; Hustad, Johan Einar

    2012-09-01

    The current investigation reports on diesel particulate matter emissions, with special interest in fine particles from the combustion of two base fuels. The base fuels selected were diesel fuel and marine gas oil (MGO). The experiments were conducted with a four-stroke, six-cylinder, direct injection diesel engine. The results showed that the fine particle number emissions measured by both SMPS and ELPI were higher with MGO compared to diesel fuel. It was observed that the fine particle number emissions with the two base fuels were quantitatively different but qualitatively similar. The gravimetric (mass basis) measurement also showed higher total particulate matter (TPM) emissions with the MGO. The smoke emissions, which were part of TPM, were also higher for the MGO. No significant changes in the mass flow rate of fuel and the brake-specific fuel consumption (BSFC) were observed between the two base fuels.

  2. Particulate Matter Mass and Number Concentrations Inside a Naturally Ventilated School Building Located Adjacent to an Urban Roadway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chithra, V. S.; Shiva Nagendra, S. M.

    2014-09-01

    This work presents the temporal characteristics of Particulate Matter (PM) mass and number concentrations measured inside a naturally ventilated school building, located close to a busy roadway in Chennai city. Two environmental dust monitor instruments (GRIMM Model 107 and Model 108) were used for measuring PM mass and number concentrations. The 1-h mean values of PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 mass concentrations were found to be 262 ± 161, 68 ± 24, 40 ± 15 µg/m3 and 81 ± 26, 56 ± 2, 45 ± 19 µg/m3 during working hours (8am-4pm) and non-working hours (4pm-8am)/holidays, respectively. The PM number concentrations inside the room during working hours were found to be 2.4 × 105, 2.2 × 103 and 8.1 × 102 particles/l in the size range of 0.3-1, 1-3 and 3-10 µm, respectively. The present study reveals that during working hours, indoor PM concentrations of the classroom were influenced by the activities of occupants and during non working hours it was affected by outdoor vehicular emissions.

  3. Relationships between size segregated mass concentration data and ultrafine particle number concentrations in urban areas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. D. Keywood; G. P. Ayers; J. L. Gras; R. W. Gillett; D. D. Cohen

    1999-01-01

    Mass concentration data derived from samples collected with a micro-orifice uniform deposit impactor (MOUDI) in six Australian urban centers during periods of significant particle loading have been used to investigate the relationships between TSP, PM10, PM2.5, PM1 and ultrafine particles. While PM10 and PM2.5 display a clear relationship, the lack of correlation between PM10 and the coarse fraction of PM10

  4. Mass

    SciTech Connect

    Quigg, Chris (Fermilab) [Fermilab

    2007-12-05

    In the classical physics we inherited from Isaac Newton, mass does not arise, it simply is. The mass of a classical object is the sum of the masses of its parts. Albert Einstein showed that the mass of a body is a measure of its energy content, inviting us to consider the origins of mass. The protons we accelerate at Fermilab are prime examples of Einsteinian matter: nearly all of their mass arises from stored energy. Missing mass led to the discovery of the noble gases, and a new form of missing mass leads us to the notion of dark matter. Starting with a brief guided tour of the meanings of mass, the colloquium will explore the multiple origins of mass. We will see how far we have come toward understanding mass, and survey the issues that guide our research today.

  5. Quantitative Reasoning and Contemporary Problem Solving: Mass Bay Community College Numbers Count Workshop

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Claudia Neuhauser (University of Minnesota-Rochester; Health Sciences)

    2010-05-06

    This workshop is for Massachusetts Bay Community College faculty interested in quantitative reasoning and its application in contemporary problem solving. Funded by Howard Hughes Medical Institute, the Numbers Count Project provides data, tools, and curricular materials for use with undergraduates. We will focus on global health issues surrounding cancer and emphasize the use of medical data, visualization, modeling, and error control. In the age of Big Data, students must grapple with mathematical models, tools, and quantitative reasoning as they prepare for the workplace. As science and technology advance, the rapid acquisition of data frames an evolving intersection between mathematics and science. The use of data in our courses must be accompanied by opportunities to develop quantitative reasoning and familiarity with mathematical models.

  6. Dependence of home outdoor particulate mass and number concentrations on residential and traffic features in urban areas.

    PubMed

    Lianou, Maria; Chalbot, Marie-Cecile; Kotronarou, Anastasia; Kavouras, Ilias G; Karakatsani, Anna; Katsouyanni, Klea; Puustinnen, Arto; Hameri, Kaarle; Vallius, Marko; Pekkanen, Juha; Meddings, Claire; Harrison, Roy M; Thomas, Steve; Ayres, Jon G; Brink, Harry ten; Kos, Gerard; Meliefste, Kees; de Hartog, Jeroen J; Hoek, Gerard

    2007-12-01

    The associations between residential outdoor and ambient particle mass, fine particle absorbance, particle number (PN) concentrations, and residential and traffic determinants were investigated in four European urban areas (Helsinki, Athens, Amsterdam, and Birmingham). A total of 152 nonsmoking participants with respiratory diseases, not exposed to occupational pollution, were included in the study, which comprised a 7-day intensive exposure monitoring period of both indoor and home outdoor particle mass and number concentrations. The same pollutants were also continuously measured at ambient fixed sites centrally located to the studied areas (fixed ambient sites). Relationships between concentrations measured directly outside the homes (residential outdoor) and at the fixed ambient sites were pollutant-specific, with substantial variations among the urban areas. Differences were more pronounced for coarse particles due to resuspension of road dust and PN, which is strongly related to traffic emissions. Less significant outdoor-to-fixed variation for particle mass was observed for Amsterdam and Birmingham, predominantly due to regional secondary aerosol. On the contrary, a strong spatial variation was observed for Athens and to a lesser extent for Helsinki. This was attributed to the overwhelming and time-varied inputs from traffic and other local sources. The location of the residence and traffic volume and distance to street and traffic light were important determinants of residential outdoor particle concentrations. On average, particle mass levels in suburban areas were less than 30% of those measured for residences located in the city center. Residences located less than 10 m from a street experienced 133% higher PN concentrations than residences located further away. Overall, the findings of this multi-city study, indicated that (1) spatial variation was larger for PN than for fine particulate matter (PM) mass and varied between the cities, (2) vehicular emissions in the residential street and location in the center of the city were significant predictors of spatial variation, and (3) the impact of traffic and location in the city was much larger for PN than for fine particle mass. PMID:18200936

  7. Changes in the number of eggs loaded in Pantala flavescens females with age from mass flights (Odonata: Libellulidae).

    PubMed

    Ichikawa, Yuta; Watanabe, Mamoru

    2014-11-01

    The wandering glider dragonfly Pantala flavescens migrates to Japan every spring, where the population increases until autumn, in which mass flights often occur, followed by death in the winter. There have been no reports to date on the maturation process of this species throughout its lifespan in Japan. We collected females from mass flights when the flight height was low, and classified them into seven age stages by examining their wing condition. Very few females of the older stage were collected from the mass flights. The wing condition corresponded with the change in body color and with the egg production process in the ovaries. While pre-reproductive-stage females did not release eggs when treated with our artificial oviposition technique, each reproductive-stage female released about 640 eggs. Nearly all eggs released were fertilized. The ovaries developed with the stage, and reproductive-stage females had about 1100 ovarioles. The estimated maximum fecundity was about 29,000 eggs. The lifetime number of eggs laid of P. flavescens should be revealed by dissection. PMID:25366154

  8. Influence of trans-boundary biomass burning impacted air masses on submicron particle number concentrations and size distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betha, Raghu; Zhang, Zhe; Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar

    2014-08-01

    Submicron particle number concentration (PNC) and particle size distribution (PSD) in the size range of 5.6-560 nm were investigated in Singapore from 27 June 2009 through 6 September 2009. Slightly hazy conditions lasted in Singapore from 6 to 10 August. Backward air trajectories indicated that the haze was due to the transport of biomass burning impacted air masses originating from wild forest and peat fires in Sumatra, Indonesia. Three distinct peaks in the morning (08:00-10:00), afternoon (13:00-15:00) and evening (16:00-20:00) were observed on a typical normal day. However, during the haze period no distinct morning and afternoon peaks were observed and the PNC (39,775 ± 3741 cm-3) increased by 1.5 times when compared to that during non-haze periods (26,462 ± 6017). The morning and afternoon peaks on the normal day were associated with the local rush hour traffic while the afternoon peak was induced by new particle formation (NPF). Diurnal profiles of PNCs and PSDs showed that primary particle peak diameters were large during the haze (60 nm) period when compared to that during the non-haze period (45.3 nm). NPF events observed in the afternoon period on normal days were suppressed during the haze periods due to heavy particle loading in atmosphere caused by biomass burning impacted air masses.

  9. Age, Body Mass Index, and Number of Previous Trials: Are They Prognosticators of Intra-Uterine-Insemination for Infertility Treatment?

    PubMed Central

    Isa, Ahmed M.; Abu-Rafea, Basim; Alasiri, Saleh A.; Binsaleh, Saleh; Ismail, Kareema H.; Vilos, George A.

    2014-01-01

    Background To examine whether pregnancy rate (PR) of intrauterine insemination (IUI) is related to certain demographic factors, such as age and body mass index (BMI), along with number of IUI cycles performed, a set of infertile Saudi women. Materials and Methods During this prospective study (a 24-month period), 301 Saudi women with infertility underwent IUI in our infertility clinic. We investigated whether PR is correlated with patient age and BMI, and the number of IUI trials, in order to determine if they could be used as prognosticators of pregnancy success. Results The highest PR was 14.89% for ages 19-25 and the lowest PR was 4.16% for ages 41-45, indicating no statistically significant difference among PR in all age groups (p value of 0.225). Also, in terms of BMI, the highest PR was 13.04% for BMI ?35 and the lowest was 7.84% for BMI of <25 to 18.5, indicating no significant difference among different BMI groups (p value of 0.788). One-cycle treatment, as expected, was more successful (PR=12.84%) than 2-cycle treatment (PR=5.75%), however, 3-5-cycles treatment still showed encouraging results (PR=17.24%); but the difference did not reach statistical significance (p value=0.167). Conclusion PR after IUI treatment remained approximately 10% from 19 to 40 years of age and declined after 40. Although no significant difference was observed among different age groups, earlier treatment is still recommended. There was a positive but not statistically significant correlation between PR and patient’s BMI indicating that BMI is not a determining factor. There was also no correlation between PR and number of IUI trials. Patients can thus try as many times as they want before moving on to in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment. PMID:25379153

  10. Mass and number size distributions of particulate matter components: comparison of an industrial site and an urban background site.

    PubMed

    Taiwo, Adewale M; Beddows, David C S; Shi, Zongbo; Harrison, Roy M

    2014-03-15

    Size-resolved composition of particulate matter (PM) sampled in the industrial town of Port Talbot (PT), UK was determined in comparison to a typical urban background site in Birmingham (EROS). A Micro-Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor (MOUDI) sampler was deployed for two separate sampling campaigns with the addition of a Grimm optical spectrometer at the PT site. MOUDI samples were analysed for water-soluble anions (Cl(-), NO?(-) and SO?(2-)) and cations (Na(+), NH4(+), K(+), Mg(2+) and Ca(2+)) and trace metals (Al, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Sb, Ba and Pb). The PM mass distribution showed a predominance of fine particle (PM?.?) mass at EROS whereas the PT samples were dominated by the coarse fraction (PM?.????). SO?(2-), Cl(-), NH4(+), Na(+), NO?(-), and Ca(2+) were the predominant ionic species at both sites while Al and Fe were the metals with highest concentrations at both sites. Mean concentrations of Cl(-), Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Cr, Mn, Fe and Zn were higher at PT than EROS due to industrial and marine influences. The contribution of regional pollution by sulphate, ammonium and nitrate was greater at EROS relative to PT. The traffic signatures of Cu, Sb, Ba and Pb were particularly prominent at EROS. Overall, PM at EROS was dominated by secondary aerosol and traffic-related particles while PT was heavily influenced by industrial activities and marine aerosol. Profound influences of wind direction are seen in the 72-hour data, especially in relation to the PT local sources. Measurements of particle number in 14 separate size bins plotted as a function of wind direction and speed are highly indicative of contributing sources, with local traffic dominant below 0.5 ?m, steelworks emissions from 0.5 to 15 ?m, and marine aerosol above 15 ?m. PMID:24419284

  11. Numbers, Numbers, Numbers!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    M. Fisher

    2007-12-04

    Let\\'s have some fun working on our math facts and putting numbers together to get new ones! Try out these games and see how you do-- First try to defeat this spaceship with your math fact skills: Spacey Math: A drill game where students are given a set of math facts to answer (can select addition, subtraction, multiplication, division). If you defeat the spaceship you can move on to helping save the poodles. They have to weigh in and they need to find out what numbers need to go on the other side of the scale to balance ...

  12. Lithium formate ion clusters formation during electrospray ionization: Evidence of magic number clusters by mass spectrometry and ab initio calculations.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Anil; Bogdanov, Bogdan

    2015-02-14

    Small cationic and anionic clusters of lithium formate were generated by electrospray ionization and their fragmentations were studied by tandem mass spectrometry (collision-induced dissociation with N2). Singly as well as multiply charged clusters were formed in both positive and negative ion modes with the general formulae, (HCOOLi)nLi(+), (HCOOLi)nLim (m+), (HCOOLi)nHCOO(-), and (HCOOLi)n(HCOO)m (m-). Several magic number cluster (MNC) ions were observed in both the positive and negative ion modes although more predominant in the positive ion mode with (HCOOLi)3Li(+) being the most abundant and stable cluster ion. Fragmentations of singly charged positive clusters proceed first by the loss of a dimer unit ((HCOOLi)2) followed by the loss of monomer units (HCOOLi) although the former remains the dominant dissociation process. In the case of positive cluster ions, all fragmentations lead to the magic cluster (HCOOLi)3Li(+) as the most abundant fragment ion at higher collision energies which then fragments further to dimer and monomer ions at lower abundances. In the negative ion mode, however, singly charged clusters dissociated via sequential loss of monomer units. Multiply charged clusters in both positive and negative ion modes dissociated mainly via Coulomb repulsion. Quantum chemical calculations performed for smaller cluster ions showed that the trimer ion has a closed ring structure similar to the phenalenylium structure with three closed rings connected to the central lithium ion. Further additions of monomer units result in similar symmetric structures for hexamer and nonamer cluster ions. Thermochemical calculations show that trimer cluster ion is relatively more stable than neighboring cluster ions, supporting the experimental observation of a magic number cluster with enhanced stability. PMID:25681903

  13. Seasonal body mass changes in Eurasian Golden Plovers Pluvialis apricaria staging in the Netherlands: decline in late autumn mass peak correlates with increase in raptor numbers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anita Koolhaas; Theunis Piersma; Joop Jukema

    2003-01-01

    Eurasian Golden Plovers Pluvialis apricaria staging in the Netherlands during the non- breeding season show strikingly constant seasonal changes in body mass with a first mass peak in late November and December and a second peak in late April and May. Despite huge sample sizes, variations in this pattern over successive years in the 1990s and among age classes were

  14. Extracting the Mass Dependence and Quantum Numbers of Short-Range Correlated Pairs from A(e,e'p) and A(e,e'pp) Scattering

    E-print Network

    C. Colle; O. Hen; W. Cosyn; I. Korover; E. Piasetzky; J. Ryckebusch; L. B. Weinstein

    2015-03-20

    The nuclear mass dependence of the number of short-range correlated (SRC) proton-proton (pp) and proton-neutron (pn) pairs in nuclei is a sensitive probe of the dynamics of short-range pairs in the ground state of atomic nuclei. This work presents an analysis of electroinduced single-proton and two-proton knockout measurements off 12C, 27Al, 56Fe, and 208Pb in kinematics dominated by scattering off SRC pairs. The nuclear mass dependence of the observed A(e,e'pp)/12C(e,e'pp) cross-section ratios and the extracted number of pp- and pn-SRC pairs are much softer than the mass dependence of the total number of possible pairs. This is in agreement with a physical picture of SRC affecting predominantly nucleon-nucleon pairs in a nodeless relative-S state of the mean-field basis.

  15. Characterization and parameterization of atmospheric particle number-, mass-, and chemical-size distributions in central Europe during LACE 98 and MINT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Neusüß; H. Wex; W. Birmili; A. Wiedensohler; C. Koziar; B. Busch; E. Brüggemann; T. Gnauk; M. Ebert

    2002-01-01

    Intensive measurements of chemical and physical properties of the atmospheric aerosol have been performed at two sites in central Europe during the Melpitz-Intensive (MINT) in November 1997 and the Lindenberg Aerosol Characterization Experiment 1998 (LACE 98) in July and August 1998. Number-size distributions, hygroscopic particle growth, size-segregated gravimetric mass, and size-segregated chemical masses of water-soluble ions and organic and elemental

  16. Tests of a mixed compression axisymmetric inlet with large transonic mass flow at Mach numbers 0.6 to 2.65

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smeltzer, D. B.; Sorensen, N. E.

    1972-01-01

    A 38.8-cm (15.28-in.) capture diameter model of a mixed-compression axisymmetric inlet system with a translating cowl was designed and tested. The internal contours, designed for Mach number 2.65, provided a throat area of 59 percent of the capture area when the cowl was retracted for transonic operation. Other model features included a boundary-layer removal system, vortex generators, an engine airflow bypass system, cowl support struts, and rotating rakes at the engine face. All tunnel testing was conducted at a tunnel total pressure of about 1 atm (a unit Reynolds number of about 8.53 million/m at Mach number 2.65) at angles of attack from 0 deg to 4 deg. Results for the following were obtained: total-pressure recovery and distortion at the engine face as a function of bleed mass-flow ratio, the effect of bleed and vortex generator configurations on pressure recovery and distortion, inlet tolerance to unstart due to changes in angle of attack or Mach number, surface pressure distributions, boundary-layer profiles, and transonic additive drag. At Mach number 2.65 and with the best bleed configurations, maximum total pressure recovery at the engine face ranged from 91 to 94.5 percent with bleed mass-flow ratios from 4 to 9 percent, respectively, and total-pressure distortion was less than 10 percent. At off-design supersonic Mach numbers above 1.70, maximum total-pressure recoveries and corresponding bleed mass flows were about the same as at Mach number 2.65, with about 10 to 15 percent distortion. In the transonic Mach number range, total pressure recovery was high (above 96 percent) and distortion was low (less than 15 percent) only when the inlet mass-flow ration was reduced 0.02 to 0.06 from the maximum theoretical value (0.590 at Mach number 1.0).

  17. Effects of Root Decay on the Relationship between Meloidogyne spp. Gall Index and Egg Mass Number in Cucumber and Horned Cucumber

    PubMed Central

    Walters, S. Alan; Wehner, Todd C.; Barker, Kenneth R.

    1992-01-01

    A greenhouse study was conducted to determine if root necrosis had an effect on the relationship between root-knot nematode gall index and egg mass number. Thirty-four cultigens of Cucumis (14 accessions, 12 cultivars, and six breeding lines of C. sativus, and two accessions of C. metuliferus) were evaluated against four root-knot species (Meloidogyne arenaria race 2, M. incognita race 1, M. incognita race 3, and M. javanica) measuring gall index, root necrosis, and egg mass number. Root necrosis affected the gall index-egg mass relationship. At lower root necrosis values, a stronger relationship existed between gall index and egg mass number than at higher root necrosis values. Root tissue was destroyed by root necrosis, and normal root-knot nematode reproduction would not occur, even though root galling was still observed. The races of M. incognita tested had a greater effect in predisposing C. sativus and C. metuliferus to root necrosis than did M. arenaria race 2 or M. javanica. This study showed that root necrosis had an adverse affect on the relationship between gall index and egg mass number in cucumber. PMID:19283049

  18. Emissions of NOx, particle mass and particle numbers from aircraft main engines, APU's and handling equipment at Copenhagen Airport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winther, Morten; Kousgaard, Uffe; Ellermann, Thomas; Massling, Andreas; Nøjgaard, Jacob Klenø; Ketzel, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed emission inventory for NOx, particle mass (PM) and particle numbers (PN) for aircraft main engines, APU's and handling equipment at Copenhagen Airport (CPH) based on time specific activity data and representative emission factors for the airport. The inventory has a high spatial resolution of 5 m × 5 m in order to be suited for further air quality dispersion calculations. Results are shown for the entire airport and for a section of the airport apron area ('inner apron') in focus. The methodology presented in this paper can be used to quantify the emissions from aircraft main engines, APU and handling equipment in other airports. For the entire airport, aircraft main engines is the largest source of fuel consumption (93%), NOx, (87%), PM (61%) and PN (95%). The calculated fuel consumption [NOx, PM, PN] shares for APU's and handling equipment are 5% [4%, 8%, 5%] and 2% [9%, 31%, 0%], respectively. At the inner apron area for handling equipment the share of fuel consumption [NOx, PM, PN] are 24% [63%, 75%, 2%], whereas APU and main engines shares are 43% [25%, 19%, 54%], and 33% [11%, 6%, 43%], respectively. The inner apron NOx and PM emission levels are high for handling equipment due to high emission factors for the diesel fuelled handling equipment and small for aircraft main engines due to small idle-power emission factors. Handling equipment is however a small PN source due to the low number based emission factors. Jet fuel sulphur-PM sensitivity calculations made in this study with the ICAO FOA3.0 method suggest that more than half of the PM emissions from aircraft main engines at CPH originate from the sulphur content of the fuel used at the airport. Aircraft main engine PN emissions are very sensitive to the underlying assumptions. Replacing this study's literature based average emission factors with 'high' and 'low' emission factors from the literature, the aircraft main engine PN emissions were estimated to change with a factor of 14.

  19. Measurement of mass attenuation coefficients and effective atomic numbers for MgB 2 superconductor using X-ray energies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Balta?; ?. Çelik; U. Çevik; E. Yanmaz

    2007-01-01

    The powder and bulk MgB2 superconductors sintered in different Ar gas pressures were investigated using X-ray diffraction patterns, mass density and mass attenuation coefficient measurements. During the sintering process, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10bar argon pressures were used to minimize the evaporation of Mg from the compound. Mass attenuation coefficients (?\\/?) of powder and bulk samples were determined by

  20. ANALYSIS OF RESPIRATORY DEPOSITION OF INHALED PARTICLES FOR DIFFERENT DOSE METRICS: COMPARISON OF NUMBER, SURFACE AREA AND MASS DOSE OF TYPICAL AMBIENT BI-MODAL AEROSOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    ANALYSIS OF RESPIRATORY DEPOSITION OF INHALED PARTICLES FOR DIFFERENT DOSE METRICS: COMPARISON OF NUMBER, SURFACE AREA AND MASS DOSE OF TYPICAL AMBIENT BI-MODAL AEROSOLS. Chong S. Kim, SC. Hu*, PA Jaques*, US EPA, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, ...

  1. Applications of semiempirical shell model masses based on a proton magic number Z=126 to heavy and superheavy nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liran, S.; Marinov, A.; Zeldes, N.

    2002-08-01

    The predictive power for masses of a recently published highly extrapolatable semiempirical shell model mass equation is compared to that of several current mass models and some differences are noted and addressed. The equation is shown to describe rather well the energies of several seemingly well-identified ?-decay chains with known end product nuclei observed in superheavy elements research. The equation is also applied to the interpretation problem of some recent hot fusion-evaporation experiments with unknown end products and several conceivable reaction channels. Some plausible interpretations are indicated.

  2. THE NUMBER DENSITY AND MASS DENSITY OF STAR-FORMING AND QUIESCENT GALAXIES AT 0.4 {<=} z {<=} 2.2

    SciTech Connect

    Brammer, Gabriel B. [European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Casilla 19001, Vitacura, Santiago (Chile); Whitaker, K. E.; Van Dokkum, P. G.; Lee, K.-S.; Muzzin, A. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Marchesini, D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tufts University, Medford, MA 02155 (United States); Franx, M. [Leiden Observatory, P.O. Box 9513, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Kriek, M. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Labbe, I.; Quadri, R. F.; Williams, R. [Carnegie Observatories, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Rudnick, G., E-mail: gbrammer@eso.org [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kansas, Malott Hall, Room 1082, 1251 Wescoe Hall Drive, Lawrence, KS 66045 (United States)

    2011-09-20

    We study the buildup of the bimodal galaxy population using the NEWFIRM Medium-Band Survey, which provides excellent redshifts and well-sampled spectral energy distributions of {approx}27, 000 galaxies with K < 22.8 at 0.4 < z < 2.2. We first show that star-forming galaxies and quiescent galaxies can be robustly separated with a two-color criterion over this entire redshift range. We then study the evolution of the number density and mass density of quiescent and star-forming galaxies, extending the results of the COMBO-17, DEEP2, and other surveys to z = 2.2. The mass density of quiescent galaxies with M {approx}> 3 x 10{sup 10} M{sub sun} increases by a factor of {approx}10 from z {approx} 2 to the present day, whereas the mass density in star-forming galaxies is flat or decreases over the same time period. Modest mass growth by a factor of {approx}2 of individual quiescent galaxies can explain roughly half of the strong density evolution at masses >10{sup 11} M{sub sun}, due to the steepness of the exponential tail of the mass function. The rest of the density evolution of massive, quiescent galaxies is likely due to transformation (e.g., quenching) of the massive star-forming population, a conclusion which is consistent with the density evolution we observe for the star-forming galaxies themselves, which is flat or decreasing with cosmic time. Modest mass growth does not explain the evolution of less massive quiescent galaxies ({approx}10{sup 10.5} M{sub sun}), which show a similarly steep increase in their number densities. The less massive quiescent galaxies are therefore continuously formed by transforming galaxies from the star-forming population.

  3. The Evangelical Origins of Mass Media in America, 1815-1835. Journalism Monographs Number Eighty-Eight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nord, David Paul

    1984-01-01

    It was the evangelical Christian publicists in the tract and Bible societies who first dreamed of genuinely mass media--that is, they proposed to deliver the same printed message to everyone in America. To this end, organizations such as the American Bible Society and the American Tract Society helped to develop, in the very earliest stages, the…

  4. Measuring supersymmetric particle masses at the LHC in scenarios with baryon number R-parity violating couplings.

    E-print Network

    Allanach, B C; Barr, Alan; Drage, L; Morgan, D; Parker, Michael A; Webber, Bryan R; Richardson, P

    of the problems faced when at- tempting to reconcile constraints from fundamental models at high scales with the phenomenology seen at the electroweak scale. In general, supersymmetric models which attempt to solve the naturalness problem, and fix the Higgs mass... in non-universal string inspired models at the LHC, J. High Energy Phys. 0009 (2000) 004, hep-ph/0007009. 16 ...

  5. Size-Resolved Aerosol Mass and Aerosol Number Distributions Encountered During The NCAS Trans-Atlantic Saharan Dust AERosol and Ocean Science Expedition (AEROSE) 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roldan, L.; Morris, V.

    2004-05-01

    In-situ measurements of size-fractionated aerosol mass and aerosol number density distributions were performed during the NCAS Trans-Atlantic Saharan Dust AERosol and Ocean Science Expedition (AEROSE) 2004. This was a 27 day mission aboard the NOAA Ship Ronald H. Brown (RHB). The cruise tracks for AEROSE 2004 coincided with the climatological Saharan Dust storm belt (5o N to 14o N and 60o W to 19o W) between the Caribbean Lesser Antilles and the west coast of Africa. A Quartz Crystal Microbalance Cascade Impactor (QCM) and a Laser Particle Counter (LPC) were used to retrieve the mass and number distributions. Each instrument is designed to make size-resolved measurements in six size fractions. The range for the QCM is from 5.0 microns to 0.15 microns. The range for the LPC is from 25 microns to 0.3 microns. I will present the evolution of size-resolved aerosol mass distribution and aerosol number distributions during a case study dust storm event.

  6. VOLUME 60, NUMBER 20 PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS 16 MAY 1988 Mass Transport in Propagating Patterns of Convection

    E-print Network

    Moses, Elisha

    of Convection Elisha Moses Department of Physics, Weizmann Institute, Rehovot, Israel and Victor Steinberg observation of convective transport in oscillatory convection of a binary mixture. The results show. PACS numbers: 47.25.Jn Extensive studies of oscillatory convection in binary mixtures have recently

  7. Tensor mass and particle number peak at the same location in the scalar-tensor gravity boson star models - an analytical proof

    E-print Network

    S. Yazadjiev

    1999-10-31

    Recently in boson star models in framework of Brans-Dicke theory, three possible definitions of mass have been identified, all identical in general relativity, but different in scalar-tensor theories of gravity.It has been conjectured that it's the tensor mass which peaks, as a function of the central density, at the same location where the particle number takes its maximum.This is a very important property which is crucial for stability analysis via catastrophe theory. This conjecture has received some numerical support. Here we give an analytical proof of the conjecture in framework of the generalized scalar-tensor theory of gravity, confirming in this way the numerical calculations.

  8. An Experimental Modeling and Investigation of Change in Cold Mass Fraction and Nozzle Numbers on Performance of Counter Flow Vortex Tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohanty, S. S.; Ray, D. K.

    2012-06-01

    An experimental investigation has been performed to realize thorough behavior of a vortex tube system. The vortex tube is a simple device operating as a refrigerating unit without any moving parts. It consists of a principal tube, to which a high pressure gas stream enters tangentially where it splits into two streams: one hot and one cold temperature streams. This paper discusses the experimental investigation of vortex tube performance as it relates to cold mass fraction, and nozzle number. Four different orifices, each with three, four, five and six nozzles respectively, were manufactured and used during the test. The experiments have been conducted with each one of those orifices stated above, and the performance of the vortex tube has been tested with air at inlet pressure of 5 bar and the cold mass fractions of 0.5-0.72.

  9. Statistical estimation of physical quantities in thermal- and fast-neutron-induced fission. [Fission product mass yields, fragment kinetic energies, numbers of prompt neutrons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Yamamoto; K. Sugiyama

    1975-01-01

    Making use of a model based on the statistical theory in which the scission-point distance is treated as an adjustable parameter, calculations were performed to obtain the mass yields of fission products, the kinetic energies of fission fragments and the numbers of prompt neutrons from neutron-induced fission of ²³²Th, ²³¹Pa, ²³³U, ²³⁵U, ²³⁸U, ²³⁷Np, ²³⁹Pu and ²⁴¹Pu for incident-neutron energies

  10. Simulation of the Influence of Aerosol Microphysical Processes on Properties of Sulfate Aerosols in the Eastern United States 1: Mass and number concentrations and size distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, S.; Kasibhatla, P. S.; Wright, D. L.; McGraw, R.; Schwartz, S. E.

    2001-05-01

    We investigate the influences of aerosol microphysical processes on geographical and vertical distributions of mass and number concentrations and size distributions of sulfate aerosols in the eastern US during the summer 1995. The host 3-D regional model is the Multiscale Air Quality Simulation Platform (MAQSIP) for transport, driven by MM5 meteorological model. Aerosol dynamics and microphysics are simulated by the Quadrature Method of Moments (QMOM, Wright et al., GRL, 2000; Wright et al., JGR, 2001). The QMOM simultaneously tracks the six lowest-order radial moments of a particle size distribution directly in space and time without the need for explicitly representing the distribution itself. We compare modeled aerosol number and mass concentrations and effective radius with those obtained from the field measurements in the eastern US during summer 1995 including IMPROVE (Sisler and Malm, 2000, J. Air & Waste Manage. Assoc.), CASTNeT (Holland et al., 1999, Atmos. Environ.), SEAVE (Andrews et al., 2000, J. Air & Waste Manage. Assoc) and measurements on Mt. Mitchell, NC (Yu et al., JGR, 2000). The relative contributions of various processes to the properties of sulfate aerosols are discussed.

  11. Experimental validation of an effective carbon number-based approach for the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry quantification of 'compounds lacking authentic standards or surrogates'.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong-Hyun; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Szulejko, Jan E; Bae, Min-Suk; Brown, Richard J C

    2014-06-01

    For the quantitative analysis of 'compounds lacking authentic standards or surrogates' (CLASS) in environmental media, we previously introduced an effective carbon number (ECN) approach to develop an empirical equation for the prediction of their response factor (RF). In this research, a series of laboratory experiments were carried out to benchmark the reliability of an ECN approach for sorbent tube/thermal desorption/gas chromatography (GC)/mass spectrometry (MS) applications. First, the ECN values were determined using external calibration data from 25 reference volatile organic compounds (VOCs) using two MS dectectors (quadrupole (Q) and time-of-flight (TOF)). Then, a certified standard mixture of 54 VOCs was analyzed by each system as a simulated unknown sample. The analytical bias, assessed in terms of percentage difference (PD) between the certified and ECN-predicted mass values, averaged 19.2±16.1% (TOF-MS) and 28.2±27.6% (Q-MS). The bias using a more simplified carbon number (CN)-based prediction increased considerably, yielding 53.4±53.3% (TOF-MS) and 61.7±81.3% (Q-MS). However, the bias obtained using the ECN-based prediction decreased significantly to yield average PD values of 9.84±7.28% (TOF-MS) and 16.8±8.35% (Q-MS), if the comparison was limited to 26 (out of 54) VOCs with CN?4 (i.e., 25 aromatics and hexachlorobutadiene). PMID:24856509

  12. Petroleomics by electrospray ionization FT-ICR mass spectrometry coupled to partial least squares with variable selection methods: prediction of the total acid number of crude oils.

    PubMed

    Terra, Luciana A; Filgueiras, Paulo R; Tose, Lílian V; Romão, Wanderson; de Souza, Douglas D; de Castro, Eustáquio V R; de Oliveira, Mirela S L; Dias, Júlio C M; Poppi, Ronei J

    2014-10-01

    Negative-ion mode electrospray ionization, ESI(-), with Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) was coupled to a Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression and variable selection methods to estimate the total acid number (TAN) of Brazilian crude oil samples. Generally, ESI(-)-FT-ICR mass spectra present a power of resolution of ca. 500,000 and a mass accuracy less than 1 ppm, producing a data matrix containing over 5700 variables per sample. These variables correspond to heteroatom-containing species detected as deprotonated molecules, [M - H](-) ions, which are identified primarily as naphthenic acids, phenols and carbazole analog species. The TAN values for all samples ranged from 0.06 to 3.61 mg of KOH g(-1). To facilitate the spectral interpretation, three methods of variable selection were studied: variable importance in the projection (VIP), interval partial least squares (iPLS) and elimination of uninformative variables (UVE). The UVE method seems to be more appropriate for selecting important variables, reducing the dimension of the variables to 183 and producing a root mean square error of prediction of 0.32 mg of KOH g(-1). By reducing the size of the data, it was possible to relate the selected variables with their corresponding molecular formulas, thus identifying the main chemical species responsible for the TAN values. PMID:25068148

  13. Hydrodynamic chromatography - inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, with post-column injection capability for simultaneous determination of nanoparticle size, mass concentration and particle number concentration (HDC-PCi-ICP-MS).

    PubMed

    Lewis, D J

    2015-03-01

    Hydrodynamic chromatography - inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HDC-ICP-MS) is a technique that is widely used in the size-characterisation of nanoparticles. In this work, a system was modified to facilitate the injection of NIST-traceable standards into the post-column effluent, which then allowed the response from an eluting nanoparticle to be quantified against the response from the post-column standards. Combining the simultaneously acquired particle sizing data and mass concentration data allowed accurate quantification of the particle number concentration to be made in a single analytical run. This unique single-method approach was successfully validated against a nanoparticle system which had previously been characterised in a number of recent peer-reviewed publications. In addition to this, its robustness was assessed using extracts from a study investigating the fate of nanoparticles in sewage sludge, and found to provide much improved data compared to what might have been achieved using an external calibration approach. With in-vial limits of detection of 2 and 10 ng ml(-1) for titanium and silver respectively, it is insufficient for use with environmental waters, but is foreseen as being useful in screening nanoparticle production processes, or in the characterisation of higher concentration materials. As this instrumental configuration is likely to be of use to researchers involved in the general area of quantitative trace element speciation, detailed description of construction of the interface is given as ESI. PMID:25627965

  14. Experimental scaling laws for mass-ablation rate, ablation pressure in planar laser-produced plasmas with laser intensity, laser wavelength, and target atomic number

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Faiz Dahmani; Boulevard Frantz Fanon

    1993-01-01

    Layered-target experiments at 1.06 ?m for carbon and silicon materials have been carried out to measure mass-ablation rate m˙ and ablation pressure Pa as a function of absorbed laser intensity Ia, laser wavelength ?L, and target atomic number Z at irradiances of 1013–1015 W\\/cm2. The results can be put in the forms m˙(kg\\/s cm2)&bartil;55 [Ia(W\\/cm2)\\/1014]1\\/3?L?4\\/3(?m) Z3\\/8 and Pa(Mbar)&bartil;7.4 [Ia(W\\/cm2)\\/1014]2\\/3?L?2\\/3(?m) Z3\\/16.

  15. Emissions of organic aerosol mass, black carbon, particle number, and regulated and unregulated gases from scooters and light and heavy duty vehicles with different fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chirico, R.; Clairotte, M.; Adam, T. W.; Giechaskiel, B.; Heringa, M. F.; Elsasser, M.; Martini, G.; Manfredi, U.; Streibel, T.; Sklorz, M.; Zimmermann, R.; DeCarlo, P. F.; Astorga, C.; Baltensperger, U.; Prevot, A. S. H.

    2014-06-01

    A sampling campaign with seven different types of vehicles was conducted in 2009 at the vehicle test facilities of the Joint Research Centre (JRC) in Ispra (Italy). The vehicles chosen were representative of some categories circulating in Europe and were fueled either with standard gasoline or diesel and some with blends of rapeseed methyl ester biodiesel. The aim of this work was to improve the knowledge about the emission factors of gas phase and particle-associated regulated and unregulated species from vehicle exhaust. Unregulated species such as black carbon (BC), primary organic aerosol (OA) content, particle number (PN), monocyclic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and a~selection of unregulated gaseous compounds, including nitrous acid (N2O), ammonia (NH3), hydrogen cyanide (HCN), formaldehyde (HCHO), acetaldehyde (CH3CHO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and methane (CH4), were measured in real time with a suite of instruments including a high-resolution aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer, a resonance enhanced multi-photon ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer, and a high resolution Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. Diesel vehicles, without particle filters, featured the highest values for particle number, followed by gasoline vehicles and scooters. The particles from diesel and gasoline vehicles were mostly made of BC with a low fraction of OA, while the particles from the scooters were mainly composed of OA. Scooters were characterized by super high emissions factors for OA, which were orders of magnitude higher than for the other vehicles. The heavy duty diesel vehicle (HDDV) featured the highest nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions, while the scooters had the highest emissions for total hydrocarbons and aromatic compounds due to the unburned and partially burned gasoline and lubricant oil mixture. Generally, vehicles fuelled with biodiesel blends showed lower emission factors of OA and total aromatics than those from the standard fuels. The scooters were the main emitters of aromatic compounds, followed by the gasoline vehicle, the diesel vehicles and the HDDV.

  16. An investigation of the heat and mass transfer by free convection from humid air to a horizontal metal plate under frosting conditions

    E-print Network

    Bell, Bobby

    1967-01-01

    fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE January, 1967 Fh)or Sub)ect: Mechanical Engineering AN INVESTIGATION OF THE HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER BY FREE CONVECTION FROM HUMID AIR TO A HORIZONTAL METAL PIATE UNDER FROSTING... Sketch ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 16 Photographs of Frost Formation e ~ ~ ~ i ~ i i ~ 23 - 26 LIST OF CURVES 13 - 14 Temperature and Concentration Boundary Layer Profile ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 58 59 15 ? 16 Accumulation of Frost Grosth vs. Time...

  17. Centrality dependence of two-particle number and transverse momentum correlations in center of mass energy = 200 GeV gold+gold collisions at RHIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarini, Laurence

    We present plots of the pattern of particle formation in sNN = 200 GeV Au+Au heavy ion collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) using three different two-particle correlation measurements of number and transverse momentum as a function of relative azimuth, pseudorapidity and centrality. All three observables show the onset with increasing centrality of a near-side "ridge" of enhanced correlations in pseudorapidity. The plots of real data are compared to plots of simulations using RQMD data and data from a simple "cluster" model. RQMD (relativistic quantum molecular dynamics) program uses a transport theoretical model of hadron collisions. The "cluster" dataset is a simplistic cartoon of a decay event involving an invariant mass that receives a longitudinal and then transverse Lorentz boost. The effect of radial flow on clusters is shown with a radial boost applied both collectively and to individual clusters. We find that the kinematic effect of radial flow in simulated cluster data produces a near-side "ridge" similar to that seen in the data.

  18. AIAA Fluid Dynamics Conference and Exhibit, Orlando, FL. 23-26 June 2003 AIAA Paper No. 2003-3441 CFD VALIDATION ISSUES FOR BOUNDARY-LAYER STABILITY AND TRANSITION

    E-print Network

    data, the levels of noise in flight and in wind tunnels, and how noise levels can affect parametric requirements for gas-turbine-engine blades and vanes, low-Reynolds-number vehicles, submarines and torpedoes of view. Also included is a review of wind-tunnel and flight data, including high-Re flight transition

  19. Mass Media and Public Opinion: Report of the Soviet-Finnish Seminar (5th, Moscow, USSR, May 18-22, 1987). Publications Series B, Number 24.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jyrkiainen, Jyrki, Comp.

    A compilation of papers from a joint Finnish-Russian seminar on problems of communication research, this collection presents diverse opinions and results from researchers and observers in both countries. The titles of the papers and their authors are as follows: (1) "Role of Research and Training in Mass Communication and Public Opinion" (Pertti…

  20. A dynamic probability density function treatment of cloud mass and number concentrations for low level clouds in GFDL SCM/GCM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, H.; Golaz, J.-C.; Donner, L. J.; Larson, V. E.; Schanen, D. P.; Griffin, B. M.

    2010-05-01

    Successful simulation of cloud-aerosol interactions (indirect aerosol effects) in climate models requires relating grid-scale aerosol, dynamic, and thermodynamic fields to small-scale processes like aerosol activation. A turbulence and cloud parameterization, based on multivariate probability density functions (PDFs) of sub-grid vertical velocity, temperature, and moisture, has been extended to treat aerosol activation. This dynamics-PDF approach offers a solution to the problem of the scale gap between the resolution of climate models and the scales relevant for aerosol activation and a means to overcome the limitations of diagnostic estimates of cloud droplet number concentration based only on aerosol concentration. Incorporated into a single-column model for GFDL AM3, the dynamics-PDF parameterization successfully simulates cloud fraction and water content for shallow cumulus, stratocumulus, and cumulus-under-stratocumulus regimes. The extension to treat aerosol activation predicts droplet number concentrations in good agreement with large eddy simulation (LES). The dynamics-PDF droplet number concentrations match LES results more closely than state-of-the-science diagnostic relationships between aerosol concentration and droplet number concentration.

  1. An investigation of several NACA 1 series axisymmetric inlets at Mach numbers from 0.4 to 1.29. [wind tunnel tests over range of mass-flow ratios and at angle of attack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Re, R. J.

    1974-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in the Langley 16-foot transonic tunnel to determine the performance of seven inlets having NACA 1-series contours and one inlet having an elliptical contour over a range of mass-flow ratios and at angle of attack. The inlet diameter ratio varied from 0.81 to 0.89; inlet length ratio varied from 0.75 to 1.25; and internal contraction ratio varied from 1.009 to 1.093. Reynolds number based on inlet maximum diameter varied from 3.4 million at a Mach number of 0.4 to 5.6 million at a Mach number of 1.29.

  2. Extensional flow convecting a reactant undergoing a first order homogeneous reaction and diffusional mass transfer from a sphere at low to intermediate Peclet and Damkohler numbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shah, N. Y.; Reed, X. B., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Forced convective diffusion-reaction is considered for viscous axisymmetric extensional convecting velocity in the neighborhood of a sphere. For Peclet numbers in the range 0.1 less than or equal to Pe less than or equal to 500 and for Damkohler numbers increasing with increasing Pe but in the overall range 0.02 less than or equal to Da less than or equal to 10, average and local Sherwood numbers have been computed. By introducing the eigenfunction expansion c(r, Theta) = Sum of c(n)(r)P(n)(cos Theta) into the forced convective diffusion equation for the concentration of a chemical species undergoing a first order homogeneous reaction and by using properties of the Legendre functions Pn(cos Theta), the variable coefficient PDE can be reduced to a system of N + 1 second order ODEs for the radial functions c(sub n)(r), n = 0, 1, 2,..., N. The adaptive grid algorithm of Pereyra and Lentini can be used to solve the corresponding 2(N + 1) first order differential equations as a two-point boundary value problem on 1 less than or equal to r less than or equal to r(sub infinity). Convergence of the expansion for a specific value of N can thus be established and provides 'spectral' behavior as well as the full concentration field c(r, Theta).

  3. Sixth Goddard Conference on Mass Storage Systems and Technologies Held in Cooperation with the Fifteenth IEEE Symposium on Mass Storage Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobler, Benjamin (Editor); Hariharan, P. C. (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    This document contains copies of those technical papers received in time for publication prior to the Sixth Goddard Conference on Mass Storage Systems and Technologies which is being held in cooperation with the Fifteenth IEEE Symposium on Mass Storage Systems at the University of Maryland-University College Inn and Conference Center March 23-26, 1998. As one of an ongoing series, this Conference continues to provide a forum for discussion of issues relevant to the management of large volumes of data. The Conference encourages all interested organizations to discuss long term mass storage requirements and experiences in fielding solutions. Emphasis is on current and future practical solutions addressing issues in data management, storage systems and media, data acquisition, long term retention of data, and data distribution. This year's discussion topics include architecture, tape optimization, new technology, performance, standards, site reports, vendor solutions. Tutorials will be available on shared file systems, file system backups, data mining, and the dynamics of obsolescence.

  4. Mass, quark-number, and sNN dependence of the second and fourth flow harmonics in ultrarelativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abelev, B. I.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Ahammed, Z.; Anderson, B. D.; Arkhipkin, D.; Averichev, G. S.; Bai, Y.; Balewski, J.; Barannikova, O.; Barnby, L. S.; Baudot, J.; Baumgart, S.; Bekele, S.; Belaga, V. V.; Bellingeri-Laurikainen, A.; Bellwied, R.; Benedosso, F.; Betts, R. R.; Bhardwaj, S.; Bhasin, A.; Bhati, A. K.; Bichsel, H.; Bielcik, J.; Bielcikova, J.; Bland, L. C.; Blyth, S.-L.; Bombara, M.; Bonner, B. E.; Botje, M.; Bouchet, J.; Brandin, A. V.; Bravar, A.; Burton, T. P.; Bystersky, M.; Cadman, R. V.; Cai, X. Z.; Caines, H.; Sánchez, M. Calderón De La Barca; Callner, J.; Castillo, J.; Catu, O.; Cebra, D.; Chajecki, Z.; Chaloupka, P.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chen, H. F.; Chen, J. H.; Cheng, J.; Cherney, M.; Chikanian, A.; Christie, W.; Chung, S. U.; Coffin, J. P.; Cormier, T. M.; Cosentino, M. R.; Cramer, J. G.; Crawford, H. J.; Das, D.; Das, S.; Dash, S.; Daugherity, M.; Moura, M. M. De; Dedovich, T. G.; Dephillips, M.; Derevschikov, A. A.; Didenko, L.; Dietel, T.; Djawotho, P.; Dogra, S. M.; Dong, X.; Drachenberg, J. L.; Draper, J. E.; Du, F.; Dunin, V. B.; Dunlop, J. C.; Mazumdar, M. R. Dutta; Eckardt, V.; Edwards, W. R.; Efimov, L. G.; Emelianov, V.; Engelage, J.; Eppley, G.; Erazmus, B.; Estienne, M.; Fachini, P.; Fatemi, R.; Fedorisin, J.; Filimonov, K.; Filip, P.; Finch, E.; Fine, V.; Fisyak, Y.; Fu, J.; Gagliardi, C. A.; Gaillard, L.; Ganti, M. S.; Garcia-Solis, E.; Ghazikhanian, V.; Ghosh, P.; Gorbunov, Y. G.; Gos, H.; Grebenyuk, O.; Grosnick, D.; Guertin, S. M.; Guimaraes, K. S. F. F.; Gupta, N.; Haag, B.; Hallman, T. J.; Hamed, A.; Harris, J. W.; He, W.; Heinz, M.; Henry, T. W.; Hepplemann, S.; Hippolyte, B.; Hirsch, A.; Hjort, E.; Hoffman, A. M.; Hoffmann, G. W.; Hofman, D.; Hollis, R.; Horner, M. J.; Huang, H. Z.; Huang, S. L.; Hughes, E. W.; Humanic, T. J.; Igo, G.; Iordanova, A.; Jacobs, P.; Jacobs, W. W.; Jakl, P.; Jia, F.; Jones, P. G.; Judd, E. G.; Kabana, S.; Kang, K.; Kapitan, J.; Kaplan, M.; Keane, D.; Kechechyan, A.; Kettler, D.; Khodyrev, V. Yu.; Kim, B. C.; Kiryluk, J.; Kisiel, A.; Kislov, E. M.; Klein, S. R.; Knospe, A. G.; Kocoloski, A.; Koetke, D. D.; Kollegger, T.; Kopytine, M.; Kotchenda, L.; Kouchpil, V.; Kowalik, K. L.; Kravtsov, P.; Kravtsov, V. I.; Krueger, K.; Kuhn, C.; Kulikov, A. I.; Kumar, A.; Kurnadi, P.; Kuznetsov, A. A.; Lamont, M. A. C.; Landgraf, J. M.; Lange, S.; Lapointe, S.; Laue, F.; Lauret, J.; Lebedev, A.; Lednicky, R.; Lee, C.-H.; Lehocka, S.; Levine, M. J.; Li, C.; Li, Q.; Li, Y.; Lin, G.; Lin, X.; Lindenbaum, S. J.; Lisa, M. A.; Liu, F.; Liu, H.; Liu, J.; Liu, L.; Liu, Z.; Ljubicic, T.; Llope, W. J.; Long, H.; Longacre, R. S.; Love, W. A.; Lu, Y.; Ludlam, T.; Lynn, D.; Ma, G. L.; Ma, J. G.; Ma, Y. G.; Magestro, D.; Mahapatra, D. P.; Majka, R.; Mangotra, L. K.; Manweiler, R.; Margetis, S.; Markert, C.; Martin, L.; Matis, H. S.; Matulenko, Yu. A.; McClain, C. J.; McShane, T. S.; Melnick, Yu.; Meschanin, A.; Millane, J.; Miller, M. L.; Minaev, N. G.; Mioduszewski, S.; Mironov, C.; Mischke, A.; Mishra, D. K.; Mitchell, J.; Mohanty, B.; Molnar, L.; Moore, C. F.; Morozov, D. A.; Munhoz, M. G.; Nandi, B. K.; Nattrass, C.; Nayak, T. K.; Nelson, J. M.; Nepali, C.; Netrakanti, P. K.; Nogach, L. V.; Nurushev, S. B.; Odyniec, G.; Ogawa, A.; Okorokov, V.; Oldenburg, M.; Olson, D.; Pachr, M.; Pal, S. K.; Panebratsev, Y.; Pavlinov, A. I.; Pawlak, T.; Peitzmann, T.; Perevoztchikov, V.; Perkins, C.; Peryt, W.; Phatak, S. C.; Planinic, M.; Pluta, J.; Poljak, N.; Porile, N.; Porter, J.; Poskanzer, A. M.; Potekhin, M.; Potrebenikova, E.; Potukuchi, B. V. K. S.; Prindle, D.; Pruneau, C.; Putschke, J.; Qattan, I. A.; Rakness, G.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Ray, R. L.; Razin, S. V.; Reinnarth, J.; Relyea, D.; Ridiger, A.; Ritter, H. G.; Roberts, J. B.; Rogachevskiy, O. V.; Romero, J. L.; Rose, A.; Roy, C.; Ruan, L.; Russcher, M. J.; Sahoo, R.; Sakuma, T.; Salur, S.; Sandweiss, J.; Sarsour, M.; Sazhin, P. S.; Schambach, J.; Scharenberg, R. P.; Schmitz, N.; Schweda, K.; Seger, J.; Selyuzhenkov, I.; Seyboth, P.; Shabetai, A.; Shahaliev, E.; Shao, M.; Sharma, M.; Shen, W. Q.; Shimanskiy, S. S.; Sichtermann, E. P.; Simon, F.; Singaraju, R. N.; Smirnov, N.; Snellings, R.; Sorensen, P.; Sowinski, J.; Speltz, J.; Spinka, H. M.; Srivastava, B.; Stadnik, A.; Stanislaus, T. D. S.; Staszak, D.; Stock, R.; Stolpovsky, A.; Strikhanov, M.; Stringfellow, B.; Suaide, A. A. P.; Suarez, M. C.; Subba, N. L.; Sugarbaker, E.; Sumbera, M.; Sun, Z.; Surrow, B.; Swanger, M.; Symons, T. J. M.; Toledo, A. Szanto De; Takahashi, J.; Tang, A. H.; Tarnowsky, T.; Thomas, J. H.; Timmins, A. R.; Timoshenko, S.; Tokarev, M.; Trainor, T. A.; Trentalange, S.; Tribble, R. E.; Tsai, O. D.; Ulery, J.; Ullrich, T.; Underwood, D. G.; Buren, G. Van; Kolk, N. Van Der; Leeuwen, M. Van

    2007-05-01

    We present STAR measurements of the azimuthal anisotropy parameter v2 for pions, kaons, protons, ?,?¯,?+?¯, and ?+?¯, along with v4 for pions, kaons, protons, and ?+?¯ at midrapidity for Au+Au collisions at sNN=62.4 and 200 GeV. The v2(pT) values for all hadron species at 62.4 GeV are similar to those observed in 130 and 200 GeV collisions. For observed kinematic ranges, v2 values at 62.4, 130, and 200 GeV are as little as 10 15% larger than those in Pb+Pb collisions at sNN=17.3 GeV. At intermediate transverse momentum (pT from 1.5 5 GeV/c), the 62.4 GeV v2(pT) and v4(pT) values are consistent with the quark-number scaling first observed at 200 GeV. A four-particle cumulant analysis is used to assess the nonflow contributions to pions and protons and some indications are found for a smaller nonflow contribution to protons than pions. Baryon v2 is larger than antibaryon v2 at 62.4 and 200 GeV, perhaps indicating either that the initial spatial net-baryon distribution is anisotropic, that the mechanism leading to transport of baryon number from beam- to midrapidity enhances v2 or that antibaryon and baryon annihilation is larger in the in-plane direction.

  5. Number Sense

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2008-01-01

    Hacker has given you a challenge. He’ll run his number machine to create a number. Then you’ll get three numbers between one and nine. The challenge is to make a number that is larger than the one on Hacker’s machine. Be careful though--Hacker will give you numbers that can’t be bigger than his!

  6. Absolute number densities of helium metastable atoms determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy in helium plasma-based discharges used as ambient desorption/ionization sources for mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reininger, Charlotte; Woodfield, Kellie; Keelor, Joel D.; Kaylor, Adam; Fernández, Facundo M.; Farnsworth, Paul B.

    2014-10-01

    The absolute number densities of helium atoms in the 2s 3S1 metastable state were determined in four plasma-based ambient desorption/ionization sources by atomic absorption spectroscopy. The plasmas included a high-frequency dielectric barrier discharge (HF-DBD), a low temperature plasma (LTP), and two atmospheric-pressure glow discharges, one with AC excitation and the other with DC excitation. Peak densities in the luminous plumes downstream from the discharge capillaries of the HF-DBD and the LTP were 1.39 × 1012 cm- 3 and 0.011 × 1012 cm- 3, respectively. Neither glow discharge produced a visible afterglow, and no metastable atoms were detected downstream from the capillary exits. However, densities of 0.58 × 1012 cm- 3 and 0.97 × 1012 cm- 3 were measured in the interelectrode regions of the AC and DC glow discharges, respectively. Time-resolved measurements of metastable atom densities revealed significant random variations in the timing of pulsed absorption signals with respect to the voltage waveforms applied to the discharges.

  7. Number Line

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Clarity Innovations, Inc.

    2013-11-22

    This iOS app helps students to visualize number sentences and create models for addition, subtractions, multiplication, and division. The number line can be adjusted to represent multiples of numbers from one to one hundred.

  8. Mystery Number

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    TERC

    2010-01-01

    Combine logic and numbers in this game for all ages. Players start with a 10x10 grid of the numbers 1 to 100. One person chooses a secret number and announces the range in which it falls. Other players ask yes or no questions to identify the number. They cross out the numbers on the board that are no longer possibilities. The player who identifies the secret number wins. Available as a downloadable pdf and in Spanish.

  9. Number Games.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, David

    1997-01-01

    Presents three number games for mathematics classrooms designed to improve the learning of number concepts. Game topics include determining products, arranging mathematical signs, and factoring. (ASK)

  10. Improved Jänecke mass formula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Z.; Bao, M.; Zhao, Y. M.; Arima, A.

    2014-11-01

    In this paper we improve an empirical mass formula constructed by Jänecke and collaborators. This formula is enlightened by the Garvey-Kelson mass relations. The new version of the Jänecke formula reproduces 2275 atomic masses with neutron number N ?10 and proton number Z ?6 , at an average accuracy of 128 keV, by employing 576 parameters. The predictive power of our formula is exemplified by comparison with predicted results of other mass models.

  11. Number Explorer

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-01-01

    This interactive application helps students to learn visually about numbers from their possible arrangements and how those arrangements relate to division, multiplication, and factors. The web applet divides numbers and displays calculation to show the remainder as a number, fraction, or decimal value and allows demonstration of types of numbers such as prime, square, and triangular. The number explorer has automated tests for divisibility, factor pairs, or prime factors. Three different shapes can be used, the original fish swim around and obediently arrange themselves to show number properties. However balls or cards cards can be used instead, these animate faster and are better for displaying numbers.

  12. Number Flash

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mitchell Mark

    2013-03-10

    This iOS app helps students make the transition from counting to number recognition by thinking of a number of objects in relation to five and ten. The app displays a set number of items from one to twenty in ten frames then flashes away after the preset number of seconds. The user must identify the number that was shown on the ten frames.

  13. Number Sense

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2013-12-04

    In this online math game from Cyberchase, learners play against Hacker in a place value game. The goal is to make a number bigger than the one created by Hacker's number machine. Learners select the numbers in the order in which they want them to go into their machine. The challenge is to either make a number larger than the one on Hacker's machine or realize that it's impossible to make a number bigger than Hacker's, no matter what the combination.

  14. Nifty Numbers!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Miss.Cochran

    2008-03-26

    You will be working with numbers in all sorts of ways. First, you will play cop by picking numbers based on their divisibility. Then you will be adding and subtracting fractions in two fun and exciting games. First, as a cop, you will catch numbers that are divisible by which ever number you pick, avoinding crashing into non-divisible numbers. Number Cop-Divisibility Now, play Fishy Fractions! and help feed the seagull by practicing adding fractions. Make sure you read the instructions before getting started! Make sure to simplify your answers! After you ...

  15. Tooth Numbering

    MedlinePLUS

    ... numbered as well. Illustrations created by Simple Steps designer Michael Becker Universal Numbering System Adults In this ... indicates that it is a deciduous (primary or "baby") tooth. So, a child's first tooth on the ...

  16. Number Cruncher

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2011-10-13

    This Science NetLinks interactive game helps students increase their logic and decision making skills by challenging a player to consider a series of mathematical processes to find a path from a starting number to a goal number in a math maze. The activity appears as a 5x5 matrix of numbers, each of which has an operation symbol next to it, indicating whether it will be added to, subtracted from, or multiplied by the previous number. Starting in the center with a given number, players choose an adjoining number to complete the next step and they proceed until successfully reaching the goal number or until they have run out of usable numbers on the game board. To add an additional challenge to the game, a player can limit each level to reaching the target in seven or fewer steps.

  17. Complex Numbers

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2010-04-01

    This is a short study guide from the University of Maryland's Physics Education Research Group on introducing, interpreting, and using complex numbers. Mathematical equations are included to help students understand the nature of complex numbers.

  18. NUMBER SENSE

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Simpson

    2007-10-27

    Students will practice counting to 100, making numbers with base ten blocks and practicing ordinal numbers! Math is FUN! Lets have fun practicing counting to 100 ! Click when you are ready!Counting Now that you have practiced counting to 100, lets use the base ten blocks to make the number that is on the screen. Click when you are ready!Working with Base Ten Blocks We have now practiced counting and making numbers, lets ...

  19. Number theory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. R. Schroeder

    1989-01-01

    Number theory, an abstract branch of mathematics that deals with relationships between whole numbers, has provided highly useful answers to numerous real-world problems. The author briefly reviews earlier uses of number theory and then examines recent applications to music, cryptography, and error-correction codes

  20. Number Palindromes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The World of Numbers is "an amalgamation of randomly gathered numbers, curios, puzzles, palindromes, primes, gems, your much valued contributions and more general information." Choosing "number palindromes" from the drop-down menu will take you to a page with a list of links to webpages on palindromes -- numbers that read the same from left to right as from right to left. Also posted are more examples of square palindromes, circular primes, Palindromic Primes, Palindromic Tetrahedra, and much more. Visitors are invited to make their comments and contributions as well. Also provided are links to websites on integers and other special numbers, such as primes and zero.

  1. Number Balance

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dan Bunker

    2005-01-01

    This open-ended interactive Flash applet helps students develop operation and number sense, facility with number facts, and understanding of equations. Users designate single-digit whole numbers or integers and operations on both sides of an equation and test for balance. Users can enter numbers by using the keyboard or arrow buttons or by dragging number tiles. Each element can be hidden and a seesaw may be toggled on/off. Teachers may use this applet to lead instruction, or students may use it independently to perform specific investigations or explore freely. Supplementary documents include Objectives, containing teaching suggestions, and a student recording sheet.

  2. Mass spectrometer mixture calibrations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hicks

    1986-01-01

    Mass spectrometric analyses of hydrogen isotope mixtures can be difficult to make for a number of reasons. The most difficult problem is the possibility of confronting extremely great and extremely small relative mass differences in the same analysis. Commercial mass spectrometers are now available that can overcome these problems. The analytical capabilities and limitations of these instruments will be discussed.

  3. Number Grid

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-01-01

    With this interactive Flash applet, intended for use with a projector or interactive white board, teachers can help students understand place value and the structure of our number system. Shapes can be placed on the 100 chart; students use number patterns to determine which numbers are hidden under the shapes. By choosing Hide or Highlight and then selecting specific rows or columns to hide or highlight, the teacher can adjust the challenge level or bring attention to parts of the chart.

  4. Complex Numbers

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Pierce

    2010-11-16

    The objective of this lesson is to gain a better understanding of complex numbers and their graphs Situation: The Swiss Mathemation, Jean Robert Argand developed a means to graphically represent complex numbers. This led to solving problems related to altenating electrical current, which provides current day luxuries. Could you do the same? Current Knowledge: Use your knowledge of complex number and the coordinate system and with your partner, ...

  5. Recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST) administration to creep-fed beef calves increases muscle mass but does not affect satellite cell number or concentration of myosin light chain-1f mRNA.

    PubMed

    Vann, R C; Althen, T G; Smith, W K; Veenhuizen, J J; Smith, S B

    1998-05-01

    Our objective in this study was to determine the effect of recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST) on indices of muscle development in creep-fed beef calves. Crossbred steer calves were assigned to one of two treatment groups: control (sham-injected; n = 12) or rbST-treated (.09 mg x kg(-1) x d(-1); n = 12). Calves were injected every 14 d starting at d 28 of age and were weaned at 205 d of age. Supplemental creep feed was supplied free access to all calves to compensate for an expected increased protein and energy requirement in calves given rbST. Biopsy (d 100) and slaughter (d 206) samples of semitendinosus muscle were evaluated for satellite cell, myofiber nuclei numbers, and myosin light chain (MLC-1f) mRNA quantification. Myofiber nuclei and satellite cell numbers per 100 myofibers and MLC-1f mRNA:rRNA ratios at 100 and 206 d of age were not different (P > .10) between control and rbST-treated calves. Total gain, ADG, quality grade, femur length, percentage kidney, pelvic, and heart fat, dressing percentage, plasma IGF-I, and plasma urea nitrogen concentrations did not differ (P > .10) between control and rbST-treated calves. However, rbST-treated calves had larger longissimus muscle areas (P < .03), less marbling (P < .001), higher carcass conformation scores (P < .04), greater mass of separated muscle (P < .03), more ground meat (P < .01), and heavier carcass weights (P < .05) than control calves. Thus, rbST treatment increased muscle characteristics while nuclei number and MLC-1f mRNA concentrations remained the same, implying that the additional muscle growth was in a normal fashion. PMID:9621943

  6. Number Cruncher

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    American Association for the Advancement of Science

    2009-01-01

    In this online puzzle game, learners need to choose a path from a starting number to a goal number. Along the path are simple operations (e.g. add 1, subtract 2, multiply by 2) to change the current number to a new number. This is a good challenge for young learners. When learners set up a free account at Kinetic City, they can answer bonus questions at the end of the activity as a quick assessment. As a larger assessment, learners can complete the Bug Blaster game after they've completed several activities.

  7. Number in Classifier Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nomoto, Hiroki

    2013-01-01

    Classifier languages are often described as lacking genuine number morphology and treating all common nouns, including those conceptually count, as an unindividuated mass. This study argues that neither of these popular assumptions is true, and presents new generalizations and analyses gained by abandoning them. I claim that no difference exists…

  8. Number Watch

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    John Brignell, Professor Emeritus from the Department of Electronics & Computer Science at the University of Southampton, is the author of this informal website "devoted to the monitoring of the misleading numbers that rain down on us via the media." Brignell says he aims to "nail" a few of the "Single Issue Fanatics (SIFs), politicians, bureaucrats, quasi-scientists (junk, pseudo- or just bad)," who use misleading numbers to write catchy articles or who try to keep numbers away from public notice. Since April 2000, he has been posting a "number of the month" as well as a "number for the year," which offer his commentary on media usage of misleading numbers and explanations for why the numbers are misleading. He also posts book reviews and an extensive list of online resources on statistics and statistics education. The FAQ section includes answers to some interesting questions, such as "Is there such a thing as average global temperature?" and some more basic questions such as "What is the Normal Distribution and what is so normal about it?" The Bits and Pieces section includes a variety of short articles on statistics and his definitions for some terms he uses on the website. Visitors are also invited to join the discussion forum (complete with a few advertisements) and view comments by others who want to discuss "wrong numbers in science, politics and the media." A few comments sent to Brignell and his responses are also posted online. This site is also reviewed in the February 11, 2005_NSDL MET Report_.

  9. Number Line

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-08-27

    In this brief article the numerous uses of the number line are detailed: counting, measurement, addition, subtraction, decimals, and fractions. The article contains visual representations of the some of the concepts and links to related topics.

  10. Complex Numbers

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Kuphaldt, Tony R.

    Written by Tony R. Kuphaldt and Jason Starck, this chapter of All About Circuit's second volume on Alternating Current describes complex numbers: "In order to successfully analyze AC circuits, we need to work with mathematical objects and techniques capable of representing these multi-dimensional quantities. Here is where we need to abandon scalar numbers for something better suited: complex numbers." In addition to the introduction and credits to contributors, the chapter has seven sections: Vectors and AC waveforms, Simple vector addition, Complex vector addition, Polar and rectangular notation, Complex number arithmetic, More on AC "polarity," and Some examples with AC circuits. Each section has clear illustrations and a concise, bulleted review of what was covered at the end.

  11. VOLUME 80, NUMBER 9 P H Y S I C A L R E V I E W L E T T E R S 2 MARCH 1998 Experimental Limits on the Photon Mass and Cosmic Magnetic Vector Potential

    E-print Network

    Lakes, Roderic

    experimental approach based on a toroid Cavendish balance is used to evaluate the product of photon mass). More stringent limits based on inference from large-scale magnetic features in astro- nomical plasma be linked to photon mass. The Heisen- berg uncertainty principle gives the smallest measurable mass

  12. Number Guessing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sezin, Fatin

    2009-01-01

    It is instructive and interesting to find hidden numbers by using different positional numeration systems. Most of the present guessing techniques use the binary system expressed as less-than, greater-than or present-absent type information. This article describes how, by employing four cards having integers 1-64 written in different colours, one…

  13. Numbers, Please!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thelin, John R.

    2013-01-01

    What topic would you choose if you had the luxury of writing forever? In this article, John Thelin provides his response: He would opt to write about the history of higher education in a way that relies on quantitative data. "Numbers, please!" is his research request in taking on a longitudinal study of colleges and universities over…

  14. Number Sense!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Painter

    2006-10-27

    Perform operations with whole numbers, simple fractions, and decimals. 1. Begin your work at the Comparing Fractions website. Complete 10 problems. 2. When you are finished Comparing Fractions, I\\'m sure you will hunger for more! Click on the website, Who Wants Pizza? These activities are sure to fill your brain with nutritious information. 3. Explore Egyptian ...

  15. Numbers Sense

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kathotia, Vinay

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on work undertaken by schools as part of Qualifications and Curriculum Authority's (QCA's) "Engaging mathematics for all learners" project. The goal was to use in the classroom, materials and approaches from a Royal Institution (Ri) Year 10 master-class, "Number Sense", which was inspired by examples from Michael Blastland and…

  16. Numbers & Operation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Fincher

    2010-03-07

    Let's get speedy with number use. Click on the game Going Bananas with Divsion which is in bold letters below. Using the mouse, click on Instructions and read them carefully. Then, click on Start Game . Then select 3-12 as your level to play. Use the mouse to select ...

  17. Number Patterns

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Judy Scotchmoor

    2010-01-01

    In this lesson, learners are challenged to discover the relationship among six numbers. The objective of this activity is to engage learners in a problem-solving situation in which they practice aspects of the process of science. Learners can use an included Science Flowchart to chart their scientific experience. This lesson serves as a good introduction to the nature of scientific inquiry.

  18. Table Numbers

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2008-01-01

    This interactive applet helps students develop fluency with multiplication facts. Users chose a factor from among the digits 1-9, each of which is associated with a mnemonic graphic. The applet then displays three numbers and the user selects the one which is a multiple of the chosen factor. The player must respond correctly to ten examples to complete a round. A one-point penalty for selecting an incorrect product discourages guessing. The few words that are displayed are in Dutch.

  19. The Mass Extinctions

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This brief overview of the six generally agreed-upon mass extinction events in geologic history examines the gaps in the fossil record and the possibility of a cyclic nature to mass extinctions. Links are provided to information on each of the six known mass extinction events, including their approximate ages, types and numbers or percentages of species that disappeared, and some postulated reasons for the die-offs.

  20. VOLUME 77, NUMBER 18 P H Y S I C A L R E V I E W L E T T E R S 28 OCTOBER 1996 Mass Dependence of Directed Collective Flow

    E-print Network

    Bauer, Wolfgang

    of light charged particles (p, d, t, a) increases with mass [3]. Limited studies for Z . 2 indicate stronger flow effects for intermediate mass fragments than for light charged particles [5 of the Labora- toire National SATURNE at Saclay. The emitted charged particles were detected with 276 low

  1. Number 8

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    29 January 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a spotted, high latitude plain, south of the Argyre basin. When the image was received from Mars by the MOC operations team, they noticed -- with a sense of humor -- the number '8' on this martian surface. The '8' is located at the center-right and is formed by the rims of two old impact craters that have been eroded and partly-filled and partly-buried beneath the surface.

    Location near: 68.6oS, 38.4oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Summer

  2. Generalized Schwinger Mass Formula

    E-print Network

    Leonid Burakovsky; Philip R. Page; Terry Goldman

    1999-10-08

    We generalize Schwinger's original mass formula to the case of an additional isosinglet mixing with the nonet mesons. We then make further generalization to either (i) an arbitrary number of additional isosinglets mixing with nonet mesons, or (ii) an arbitrary number of mesons mixing with an additional isosinglet. In the former case, we present an explicit relation, while in the latter case, we show by numerical example that the new mass formula is only weakly affected by the inclusion of additional mesons, and hence holds with good accuracy for each of the 3x3 mass sub-matrices.

  3. Nuclear Masses in Astrophysics

    E-print Network

    Christine Weber; Klaus Blaum; Hendrik Schatz

    2008-12-09

    Among all nuclear ground-state properties, atomic masses are highly specific for each particular combination of N and Z and the data obtained apply to a variety of physics topics. One of the most crucial questions to be addressed in mass spectrometry of unstable radionuclides is the one of understanding the processes of element formation in the Universe. To this end, accurate atomic mass values of a large number of exotic nuclei participating in nucleosynthesis are among the key input data in large-scale reaction network calculations. In this paper, a review on the latest achievements in mass spectrometry for nuclear astrophysics is given.

  4. Negative mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammond, Richard T.

    2015-03-01

    Some physical aspects of negative mass are examined. Several unusual properties, such as the ability of negative mass to penetrate any armor, are analysed. Other surprising effects include the bizarre system of negative mass chasing positive mass, naked singularities and the violation of cosmic censorship, wormholes, and quantum mechanical results as well. In addition, a brief look into the implications for strings is given.

  5. Some remarks concerning kissing numbers, blocking numbers and covering numbers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chuanming Zong

    1995-01-01

    This article shows an inequality concerning blocking numbers and Hadwiger's covering numbers and presents a strange phenomenon concerning kissing numbers and blocking numbers. As a simple corollary, we can improve the known upper bounds for Hadwiger's covering numbers ford-dimensional centrally symmetric convex bodies to 3d-1.

  6. VOLUME 77, NUMBER 16 P H Y S I C A L R E V I E W L E T T E R S 14 OCTOBER 1996 Measurement of the W Boson Mass

    E-print Network

    Boson Mass S. Abachi,14 B. Abbott,28 M. Abolins,25 B. S. Acharya,43 I. Adam,12 D. L. Adams,37 M. Adams. Johnstad,29 A. Jonckheere,14 M. Jones,16 H. Jöstlein,14 S. Y. Jun,31 C. K. Jung,42 S. Kahn,4 G. Kalbfleisch

  7. Mass loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, Leo

    1987-01-01

    Observational evidence for mass loss from cool stars is reviewed. Spectra line profiles are used for the derivation of mass-loss rates with the aid of the equation of continuity. This equation implies steady mass loss with spherical symmetry. Data from binary stars, Mira variables, and red giants in globular clusters are examined. Silicate emission is discussed as a useful indicator of mass loss in the middle infrared spectra. The use of thermal millimeter-wave radiation, Very Large Array (VLA) measurement of radio emission, and OH/IR masers are discussed as a tool for mass loss measurement. Evidence for nonsteady mass loss is also reviewed.

  8. Abdominal mass

    MedlinePLUS

    Mass in the abdomen ... the doctor make a diagnosis. For example, the abdomen is usually divided into four areas: Right-upper ... pain or masses include: Epigastric -- center of the abdomen just below the rib cage Periumbilical -- area around ...

  9. VOLUME 80, NUMBER 14 P H Y S I C A L R E V I E W L E T T E R S 6 APRIL 1998 A Measurement of the W Boson Mass at the Fermilab pp Collider

    E-print Network

    Boson Mass at the Fermilab pp Collider B. Abbott,30 M. Abolins,27 B. S. Acharya,45 I. Adam,12 D. L. Adams,39 M. Adams,17 S. Ahn,14 H. Aihara,23 G. A. Alves,10 N. Amos,26 E. W. Anderson,19 R. Astur,44 M. M M. Johnson,14 A. Jonckheere,14 M. Jones,16 H. Jöstlein,14 S. Y. Jun,33 C. K. Jung,44 S. Kahn,4 G

  10. VOLUME 79, NUMBER 7 P H Y S I C A L R E V I E W L E T T E R S 18 AUGUST 1997 Direct Measurement of the Top Quark Mass

    E-print Network

    of the Top Quark Mass S. Abachi,14 B. Abbott,28 M. Abolins,25 B. S. Acharya,43 I. Adam,12 D. L. Adams,37 M. Adams,17 S. Ahn,14 H. Aihara,22 G. A. Alves,10 E. Amidi,29 N. Amos,24 E. W. Anderson,19 R. Astur,42 M. M. Jun,31 C. K. Jung,42 S. Kahn,4 G. Kalbfleisch,33 J. S. Kang,20 R. Kehoe,32 M. L. Kelly,32 C. L. Kim,20

  11. VOLUME 80, NUMBER 10 P H Y S I C A L R E V I E W L E T T E R S 9 MARCH 1998 Measurement of the Top Quark Mass Using Dilepton Events

    E-print Network

    Quark Mass Using Dilepton Events B. Abbott,28 M. Abolins,25 B. S. Acharya,43 I. Adam,12 D. L. Adams,37 M. Adams,17 S. Ahn,14 H. Aihara,22 G. A. Alves,10 E. Amidi,29 N. Amos,24 E. W. Anderson,19 R. Astur,42 M. M. Jun,31 C. K. Jung,42 S. Kahn,4 G. Kalbfleisch,33 J. S. Kang,20 R. Kehoe,32 M. L. Kelly,32 C. L. Kim,20

  12. Light Quark Mass Reweighting

    E-print Network

    Qi Liu; Norman H. Christ; Chulwoo Jung

    2012-06-01

    We present a systematic study of the effectiveness of light quark mass reweighting. This method allows a single lattice QCD ensemble, generated with a specific value of the dynamical light quark mass, to be used to determine results for other, nearby light dynamical quark masses. We study two gauge field ensembles generated with 2+1 flavors of dynamical domain wall fermions with light quark masses m_l=0.02 (m_\\pi=620 MeV) and m_l=0.01 (m_\\pi=420 MeV). We reweight each ensemble to determine results which could be computed directly from the other and check the consistency of the reweighted results with the direct results. The large difference between the 0.02 and 0.01 light quark masses suggests that this is an aggressive application of reweighting as can be seen from fluctuations in the magnitude of the reweighting factor by four orders of magnitude. Never-the-less, a comparison of the reweighed topological charge, average plaquette, residual mass, pion mass, pion decay constant, and scalar correlator between these two ensembles shows agreement well described by the statistical errors. The issues of the effective number of configurations and finite sample size bias are discussed. An examination of the topological charge distribution implies that it is more favorable to reweight from heavier mass to lighter quark mass.

  13. Paint by Number

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Only in America, one might say, would artistic self-expression be so successfully mass produced, commodified, and regimented. Nevertheless, in a brave attempt at recuperation, the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of American History offers this new Website on the popular 1950s' hobby of painting by number from the perspective of "the artists and entrepreneurs who created the popular paint kits, the cultural critics who reviled them, and the hobbyists who happily completed them and hung them in their homes." Taking a decidedly cultural studies approach, the Website stresses the pleasures derived from the activity as well as the modifications to the kits made by many participants. It also places the phenomenon in the context of the culture of the 1950s, particularly its expansion of leisure time. There are plenty of images here of the creation of the numbers kits as well as representations of the finished product. A bibliography and a bulletin board for posting reminiscences about painting by number are also provided. The authors claim the hobby, which pretty much died out in the 1960s, had the "peculiarly American virtue" of inviting people "who never held a brush before to enter a world of art and creativity." The editors invite our readers to be the judge of that.

  14. Mass Sensor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this CRADA was to use Honeywell's experience in low temperature cofire ceramics and traditional ceramics to assemble a relatively low-cost, mass-producible miniature mass analyzer. The specific design, given to us by Mass Sensors, LLC, was used to test for helium. The direct benefit for the participant was to have a prototype unit assembled for the purpose of

  15. COMPLEX NUMBERS 1. Definition of complex numbers

    E-print Network

    La Rosa, Andres H.

    COMPLEX NUMBERS 1. Definition of complex numbers Complex conjugate, Magnitude Operations Addition, multiplication, reciprocal number 2. Representation of complex numbers in polar complex variable #12;2.2.A Complex numbers #12;#12;3 #12;4 #12;In short, Anytime we write Ae j we

  16. 3. Complex Numbers 17 3 Complex Numbers

    E-print Network

    Givental, Alexander

    3. Complex Numbers 17 3 Complex Numbers Law and Order Life is unfair: The quadratic equation x2 - 1 solutions to the equation. This is how complex numbers could have been invented. More formally, complex numbers a and b are called respectively the real part and imagi- nary part of the complex number z

  17. Within each morphological type, the mass of LD muscle supported by each of the thoracic or lumbar vertebrae was highly variable along the backbone. When the number of vertebrae in-

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    of the report. The effect of the weaning pen design (nature of the floor, surface per animal, number of piglets to be optimum. - When the conditions of the thermal environmentare met, the nature of the floor (concrete improves the labor productivity and leads to a better utilization of the surface. - The optimum surface per

  18. Mass spectrometry.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burlingame, A. L.; Johanson, G. A.

    1972-01-01

    Review of the current state of mass spectrometry, indicating its unique importance for advanced scientific research. Mass spectrometry applications in computer techniques, gas chromatography, ion cyclotron resonance, molecular fragmentation and ionization, and isotope labeling are covered. Details are given on mass spectrometry applications in bio-organic chemistry and biomedical research. As the subjects of these applications are indicated alkaloids, carbohydrates, lipids, terpenes, quinones, nucleic acid components, peptides, antibiotics, and human and animal metabolisms. Particular attention is given to the mass spectra of organo-inorganic compounds, inorganic mass spectrometry, surface phenomena such as secondary ion and electron emission, and elemental and isotope analysis. Further topics include mass spectrometry in organic geochemistry, applications in geochronology and cosmochemistry, and organic mass spectrometry.

  19. Mass spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. L. Burlingame; Cedric H. L. Shackleton; Ian. Howe; O. S. Chizhov

    1978-01-01

    A review of mass spectrometry in organic chemistry is given, dealing with advances in instrumentation and computer techniques, selected topics in gas-phase ion chemistry, and applications in such fields as biomedicine, natural-product studies, and environmental pollution analysis. Innovative techniques and instrumentation are discussed, along with chromatographic-mass spectrometric on-line computer techniques, mass spectral interpretation and management techniques, and such topics in

  20. Mass Wasting

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Pamela Gore

    1998-11-28

    Mass Wasting is a course handout designed to initiate discussion on the factors involved in mass wasting (eg. creep, solifluction, falls, slides, and flows) and the methods used to prevent mass wasting. Definitions are given for key terms such as angle of repose and lahars. Photographs illustrate the effects of rockslides and slumps. Links are provided to the online Physical Geology resources at Georgia Perimeter College.

  1. Mass customization: Literature review and research directions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giovani Da Silveira; Denis Borenstein; Flavio S. Fogliatto

    2001-01-01

    Mass customization relates to the ability to provide individually designed products and services to every customer through high process flexibility and integration. Mass customization has been identified as a competitive strategy by an increasing number of companies. This paper surveys the literature on mass customization. Enablers to mass customization and their impact on the development of production systems are discussed

  2. Nevan Krogan: Mass Spectrometry

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Krogan, Nevan

    This lecture from the iBioSeminars project, presented by Nevan Krogan of the Department of Cellular and Molecular Pharmacology at UC-San Francisco, covers mass spectrometry and its application to molecular biology. Mass spectrometry is a powerful tool for elucidating the elemental composition of a sample or molecule. More recently, it has been used to characterize biological material, in particular proteins and protein complexes, in a variety of organisms. This lecture will review the underlying principles of how a mass spectrometer works, discuss up to date instrumentation that is presently being used in the biological research setting and provide specific examples of how mass spectrometry is being used to reveal functional insight into different biological systems. The video runs 27:36 and can be downloaded in a number of formats: QuickTime, MP4, M4V, and PPT. The video can also be streamed through YouTube or iTunes U.

  3. Mass extinctions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Simon Conway Morris; Janice Ma; John O'Donohue

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses methane driven oceanic eruptions and other possible causes for mass extinction during the end-Permian era and the Triassic-Jurassic boundary. During the earth's vast history, devastating events have caused colossal destruction to terrestrial and oceanic life. There are numerous scientific explanations for mass extinctions including volcanic eruption, methane eruption, and asteroid impact. Greenhouse models and volcanic eruption cycles,

  4. Mass and radius formulas for low-mass neutron stars

    E-print Network

    Hajime Sotani; Kei Iida; Kazuhiro Oyamatsu; Akira Ohnishi

    2014-03-31

    Neutron stars, produced at the death of massive stars, are often regarded as giant neutron-rich nuclei. This picture is especially relevant for low-mass (below about solar mass) neutron stars, where non-nucleonic components are not expected to occur. Due to the saturation property of nucleonic matter, leading to the celebrated liquid-drop picture of atomic nuclei, empirical nuclear masses and radii can be approximately expressed as function of atomic mass number. It is, however, not straightforward to express masses and radii of neutron stars even in the low-mass range where the structure is determined by a balance between the pressure of neutron-rich nucleonic matter and the gravity. Such expressions would be of great use given possible simultaneous mass and radius measurements. Here we successfully construct theoretical formulas for the masses and radii of low-mass neutron stars from various models that are consistent with empirical masses and radii of stable nuclei. In this process, we discover a new equation-of-state parameter that characterizes the structure of low-mass neutron stars. This parameter, which plays a key role in connecting the mass-radius relation of the laboratory nuclei to that of the celestial objects, could be constrained from future observations of low-mass neutron stars.

  5. Mass and radius formulas for low-mass neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotani, Hajime; Iida, Kei; Oyamatsu, Kazuhiro; Ohnishi, Akira

    2014-05-01

    Neutron stars, produced at the death of massive stars, are often regarded as giant neutron-rich nuclei. This picture is especially relevant for low-mass (below about solar mass, M_?) neutron stars, where non-nucleonic components are not expected to occur. Due to the saturation property of nucleonic matter, leading to the celebrated liquid-drop picture of atomic nuclei, empirical nuclear masses and radii can be approximately expressed as a function of atomic mass number. It is, however, not straightforward to express masses and radii of neutron stars even in the low-mass range where the structure is determined by a balance between the pressure of neutron-rich nucleonic matter and gravity. Such expressions would be of great use given possible simultaneous mass and radius measurements. Here we successfully construct theoretical formulas for the masses and radii of low-mass neutron stars from various models that are consistent with empirical masses and radii of stable nuclei. In this process, we discover a new equation-of-state parameter that characterizes the structure of low-mass neutron stars. This parameter, which plays a key role in connecting the mass-radius relation of the laboratory nuclei to that of the celestial objects, could be constrained from future observations of low-mass neutron stars.

  6. Applications of Fibonacci Numbers

    E-print Network

    Benjamin, Arthur T.

    Applications of Fibonacci Numbers Volume 9 KLUWERACADEMIC PUBLISHERS #12;Applications of Fibonacci Numbers I Volume 9 Proceedingsof The Tenth International Research Conference on Fibonacci Numbers the presence of both Fibonacci numbers and binomial coefficients demands a combinatorial explanation. Beginning

  7. Mass Notification for Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Tod

    2010-01-01

    Mass notification is a high priority in educational institutions. As the number of electronic communication devices has diversified, so has the complexity of designing an effective mass notification system. Picking the right system, with the right features, support services and price, can be daunting. This publication, updated quarterly due to…

  8. Floating Point Numbers Review of Numbers

    E-print Network

    Delgado-Frias, José G.

    Floating Point Numbers #12;2 Review of Numbers Computers are made to deal with numbers What can we notation #12;3 Scientific Notation: Review 6.02 x 1023 radix (base)decimal point mantissa exponent Declare such variable in C as float #12;5 Floating Point (FP) Representation (1/2) Normal format: +1

  9. Number Concepts with "Number Worlds": Thickening Understandings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liljedahl, Peter; Sinclair, Nathalie; Zazkis, Rina

    2006-01-01

    This study focuses on the nature of preservice elementary school teachers' understandings of several concepts in elementary number theory that are evoked by a computer-based microworld called "Number Worlds". In particular, the focus is on the concepts of factor, multiple and prime number. The notion of "thickness" is examined with respect to…

  10. Complex numbers Quaternions

    E-print Network

    Complex numbers Quaternions Imaginary numbers and Quaternions Katrin Leschke University of Leicester June 29, 2010 Katrin Leschke Imaginary numbers and Quaternions #12;Complex numbers Quaternions Imaginary numbers and Quaternions #12;Complex numbers Quaternions Vectors in 2d­space A vector in 2d

  11. Even and Odd Numbers

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    areese

    2008-10-15

    In this lesson we are going to review even and odd numbers. Every number on the number line is either even or odd. If a number can be equally divided into 2 groups it is even. If it cannot be evenly divided it is odd. On the number line every other number is even and the rest are odd. Look at this ...

  12. Promote Number Sense

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurganus, Susan

    2004-01-01

    "Number sense" is "an intuition about numbers that is drawn from all varied meanings of number" (NCTM, 1989, p. 39). Students with number sense understand that numbers are representative of objects, magnitudes, relationships, and other attributes; that numbers can be operated on, compared, and used for communication. It is fundamental knowledge…

  13. Precursor mass dependent filtering of mass spectra for proteomics analysis.

    PubMed

    Reiz, Beata; Myers, Michael P; Pongor, Sandor; Kertesz-Farkas, Attila

    2014-01-01

    Identification and elimination of noise peaks in mass spectra from large proteomics data streams simultaneously improves the accuracy of peptide identification and significantly decreases the size of the data. There are a number of peak filtering strategies that can achieve this goal. Here we present a simple algorithm wherein the number of highest intensity peaks retained for further analysis is proportional to the mass of the precursor ion. We show that this technique provides an improvement over other intensity based strategies, especially for low mass precursors. PMID:23855660

  14. Lepton family number violation

    SciTech Connect

    Herczeg, P.

    1999-03-01

    At present there is evidence from neutrino oscillation searches that the neutrinos are in fact massive particles and that they mix. If confirmed, this would imply that the conservation of LFN is not exact. Lepton family number violation (LFNV) has been searched for with impressive sensitivities in many processes involving charged leptons. The present experimental limits on some of them (those which the author shall consider here) are shown in Table 1. These stringent limits are not inconsistent with the neutrino oscillation results since, given the experimental bounds on the masses of the known neutrinos and the neutrino mass squared differences required by the oscillation results, the effects of LFNV from neutrino mixing would be too small to be seen elsewhere (see Section 2). The purpose of experiments searching for LFNV involving the charged leptons is to probe the existence of other sources of LFNV. Such sources are present in many extensions of the SM. In this lecture the author shall discuss some of the possibilities, focusing on processes that require muon beams. Other LFNV processes, such as the decays of the kaons and of the {tau}, provide complementary information. In the next Section he shall consider some sources of LFNV that do not require an extension of the gauge group of the SM (the added leptons or Higgs bosons may of course originate from models with extended gauge groups). In Section 3 he discusses LFNV in left-right symmetric models. In Section 4 he considers LFNV in supersymmetric models, first in R-parity conserving supersymmetric grand unified models, and then in the minimal supersymmetric standard model with R-parity violation. The last section is a brief summary of the author`s conclusions.

  15. Triangle Area Numbers and Solid Rectangular Numbers

    E-print Network

    Konstantine D. Zelator

    2008-03-31

    In this work, we define a triangle area number to be the area number of a triangle whose sides have integer lengths, and whose area is a rational number. In Result 3, on page 17, we prove that every triangle area number is in fact an integer which is a multiple of 6. Certain divisibility and other conditions and formulas are also derived, which the three integer sidelengths must satisfy. On pages 20 and 21, we list all the triangle area numbers not exceeding 999.

  16. Mass Extinction

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    WGBH Educational Foundation

    2009-11-02

    In this video segment adapted from NOVA scienceNOW, learn about a chain of events, including ancient volcanoes, global warming, and deadly gases, which may have caused Earth's greatest mass extinction 250 million years ago.

  17. Scrotal masses

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the scrotum Hydrocele -- fluid collection in the scrotum Spermatocele -- a cyst-like growth in the scrotum that ... from the scrotal mass. A hematocele, hydrocele, or spermatocele may sometimes need surgery to remove the collection ...

  18. Mass action

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2013-06-21

    In the first part of this video, we derive the law of mass action from one example of a picture of molecular collisions. For this course, we use the "law of mass action" to refer to an idea that chemical reaction kinetic rates can be expressed using products of the abundances of reactants raised to exponents. Studying cooperativity and Hill functions in the second part of the video allows us to investigate a simple example of bistability in the third video segment.

  19. Masses & Springs

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Michael Dubson

    2011-01-01

    In this online activity, learners use a realistic mass and spring laboratory. They hang masses from springs and adjust the spring stiffness and damping. Learners can even slow time and transport the lab to different planets! A chart shows the kinetic, potential, and thermal energy for each spring. Use this activity for a lesson on Hooke's Law and Conservation of Energy. This activity includes an online simulation, sample learning goals, a teacher's guide, and translations in over 30 languages.

  20. Mass Wasting

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    First, Professor Stephen Nelson at Tulane University provides a straightforward description of mass wasting and recent disasters around the world (1). Visitors can find helpful illustrations of slumps and rock slides as well as a chart depicting the different processes that occur with varying velocities and water content. The second website, provided by Pamela Gore at Georgia Perimeter College, presents the factors involved with mass wasting and mass wasting processes (2). Visitors can find excellent real-life images of creep, rock slides, and talus slopes. Next, North Dakota State University illustrates creep, earthflow, slope failure, and slumps (3). The website furnishes images of mass wasting processes and explains the physical characteristics of the landscape. Fourth, the California State University at Long Beach discusses the causes, prevention, and types of mass wasting (4). Visitors can learn about the mass wasting disasters that occurred at La Conchita, Portuguese Bend, Mount Huascaran, Cable Canyon, and Vaiont Dam. Next, Professor Pidwirny at Okanagan University College offers an online text describing hillslope stability and mass movement (5). Students can learn about soil creep through a simple animation. The sixth website, developed by Natural Resources Canada, furnishes an interactive map of landslides in Canada (6). Users can select to view historic landslides, bedrock geology, surficial geology, and more. Next, the USGS offers information on the National Landslides Hazards Program, the National Landslide Information Center, and recent landslide events (7). Users can find a tutorial on landslides, real-time monitoring active of landslides, and related research projects. Lastly, at the Oswego State University of New York visitors can test their knowledge of mass wasting processes through a short quiz (8).

  1. Instrumentation for mass spectrometry: 1997

    SciTech Connect

    McLuckey, S.A.

    1997-08-01

    All mass spectrometry experiments involve the manipulation of material, an interface with the mass spectrometer, ionization, ion manipulation/analysis, detection and data collection/reduction. Each of these elements involve instrumentation. The wide range of species now amenable to mass spectrometry and the diverse areas of physical science in which it plays a role have led to a seemingly unlimited array of instrumental combinations. However, only a limited number of mass analyzers, and their combinations, dominate. The dominant analyzers include time-of-flight, Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance, the Paul trap, the mass filter, and the sector mass spectrometer. Why there are so few (or so many, depending upon one`s point of view) can be understood upon consideration of a set of mass analyzer figures of merit. These include mass resolution, mass accuracy, mass range, dynamic range, abundance sensitivity, precision, efficiency, speed, MS{sup n} capability, compatibility with the ionizer, cost, and size. The most appropriate form of mass spectrometry is determined by the priorities of the particular measurement placed on the various mass analyzer characteristics and the relative strengths of the analyzers in meeting the requirements. Each of the analyzer types has a unique set of figures of merit that makes it optimally suited for particular applications. This paper discusses these figures of merit, provides data illustrating recent developments for each analyzer type, and gives the figures of merit of each type of analyzer as they stand in 1997. 101 refs., 24 figs.

  2. Kindergarten Number Sense

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Estes

    2007-11-02

    Let\\'s learn about numbers! How many Fish? Count the Fish Let\\'s count! How many... Matching is fun! Match the number How well do I really know these numbers? Getting to know the numbers Counting the kids Kids on the bus We love Ants! Count the ants Flying into the univerise of numbers Rocket ...

  3. Representing decimal numbers on the number line

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    National Library of Virtual Manipulatives

    2010-03-02

    The user can choose decimals with explore, practice, assess on the screen. Using explore, the student drags the point to the number line and the decimal value of that point is given. Using practice, the student drags the point to the location of the designated decimal number. Zooming in produces lines representing whole numbers, tenths, hundredths, and thousandths in succession. The zooming allows the student to choose the correct point, rather than the approximate location. The series of lines with successively smaller place values is a visual model for extending the base ten system to decimal numbers.

  4. Mass Extinction

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This set of multimedia resources, produced for the NOVA television broadcast 'Mass Extinction', explains mass extinctions in general, and in particular the extinction event that occurred at the end of the Permian period, in which more than 90 percent of all marine species died out. An interactive feature presents some of the theories about what caused this event, and lets users vote for the one they consider most likely. There is also a video clip from the broadcast, an audio clip of an interview with a researcher who is using high-precision dating techniques to understand the time scale of the Permian extinction, and an ask-the expert feature in which a scientist from the Smithsonian Institution answers questions about the Permian and other mass extinctions. Other links access a teacher's guide, additional reading materials, and a transcript of the broadcast.

  5. The Archimedes Plasma Mass Filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, R. L.; Ohkawa, T.; Agnew, S. F.; Cluggish, B. P.; Freeman, R. L.; Gilleland, J.; Putvinski, S.; Sevier, L.; Umstadter, K. R.

    2001-10-01

    Archimedes Technology Group is developing a plasma technology, called the Archimedes Plasma Mass Filter, which can separate a waste mixture ion by ion into mass groups and as such represents a major advance in waste separations technology. The filter is a plasma device employing a magnetic and electric field configuration that acts as a low-mass-pass filter for ions. Ions with mass above a tunable “cutoff mass” are expelled from the plasma. The Archimedes Plasma Mass Filter satisfies all of the requirements of an economic mass separator system: good single-pass separation, acceptable energy cost per ion, and high material throughput. This technology could significantly reduce the volume of radioactive waste at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington, which is storing sixty percent of the nation’s defense nuclear waste. The potential waste reduction is dramatic because 82 wtpresently scheduled to be vitrified (immobilized and stored in glass) at Hanford are below mass number 60 while 99.9the radioactivity comes from atoms above mass number 89. We will present the plasma physics basis for the filter effect, the fundamental parameter constraints, and modeling results of filter operation.

  6. Mass Extinction

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    NOVA scienceNOW

    This video highlights a team of scientists who work on reconstructing the mass extinction that occurred 250 million years ago, the end of the Permian Period, and wiped out the majority of life on our planet, resetting the evolution of life. Clues suggest that deadly bacteria might have set off a chemical chain reaction that poisoned the Permian seas and atmosphere.

  7. Mass Wasting

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Timothy Heaton

    This site contains 12 questions on the topic of mass wasting, which covers mudslides, lahars, landslides and more. This is part of the Principles of Earth Science course at the University of South Dakota. Users submit their answers and are provided immediate feedback.

  8. Neutrino Mass from SZ Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rephaeli, Yoel; Shimon, Meir

    2015-01-01

    The expected sensitivity of cluster SZ number counts to neutrino mass in the sub-eV range is assessed. We find that from the ongoing Planck/SZ measurements the (total) neutrino mass can be determined at a (1?) precision of 0.06 eV, if the mass is in the range 0.1 - 0.3 eV, and the survey detection limit is set at the 5? significance level. The mass uncertainty is predicted to be lower by a factor ˜ 2/3, if a similar survey is conducted by a cosmic-variance-limited experiment, a level comparable to that projected if CMB lensing extraction is accomplished with the same experiment. At present, the main uncertainty in modeling cluster statistical measures reflects the difficulty in determining the mass function at the high-mass end.

  9. Sum-Difference Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shi, Yixun

    2010-01-01

    Starting with an interesting number game sometimes used by school teachers to demonstrate the factorization of integers, "sum-difference numbers" are defined. A positive integer n is a "sum-difference number" if there exist positive integers "x, y, w, z" such that n = xy = wz and x ? y = w + z. This paper characterizes all sum-difference numbers…

  10. Spooky Sequences- Square Numbers

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mark Cogan

    2002-01-01

    This interactive Flash game helps students recognize and generate the sequence of square numbers, and also to discover the pattern of differences between them. The applet displays a sequence of six consecutive square numbers with one number missing. The player provides the missing number to "send the ghosts back to the haunted house." Each game consists of five sequences to complete.

  11. Are Numbers Gendered?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkie, James E. B.; Bodenhausen, Galen V.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the possibility that nonsocial, highly generic concepts are gendered. Specifically, we investigated the gender connotations of Arabic numerals. Across several experiments, we show that the number 1 and other odd numbers are associated with masculinity, whereas the number 2 and other even numbers are associated with femininity, in ways…

  12. Numbers and Operations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Williams

    2008-04-03

    Numbers, Matching and Addition Let\\'s count How many chicks are there? Great! Now lets try Number Match Let\\'s try Seahorse Counting Now Concentrate on Concentration Number Match Addition Practice Quick Adding and Robot Addition Make the number with Base 10 ...

  13. Case Study: Lotto Numbers

    E-print Network

    Liang, Y. Daniel

    Case Study: Lotto Numbers The problem is to write a program that checks if all the input numbers cover 1 to 99. Each ticket for the Pick-10 lotto has 10 unique numbersCovered[98] is set to true (see Figure 6.2e). Figure 6.2 If number i appears in a Lotto ticket, isCovered[i-1

  14. Building Numbers from Primes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkhart, Jerry

    2009-01-01

    Prime numbers are often described as the "building blocks" of natural numbers. This article shows how the author and his students took this idea literally by using prime factorizations to build numbers with blocks. In this activity, students explore many concepts of number theory, including the relationship between greatest common factors and…

  15. Mass and radius formulas for low-mass neutron stars

    E-print Network

    Sotani, Hajime; Oyamatsu, Kazuhiro; Ohnishi, Akira

    2014-01-01

    Neutron stars, produced at the death of massive stars, are often regarded as giant neutron-rich nuclei. This picture is especially relevant for low-mass (below about solar mass) neutron stars, where non-nucleonic components are not expected to occur. Due to the saturation property of nucleonic matter, leading to the celebrated liquid-drop picture of atomic nuclei, empirical nuclear masses and radii can be approximately expressed as function of atomic mass number. It is, however, not straightforward to express masses and radii of neutron stars even in the low-mass range where the structure is determined by a balance between the pressure of neutron-rich nucleonic matter and the gravity. Such expressions would be of great use given possible simultaneous mass and radius measurements. Here we successfully construct theoretical formulas for the masses and radii of low-mass neutron stars from various models that are consistent with empirical masses and radii of stable nuclei. In this process, we discover a new equat...

  16. Hyper Space Complex Number

    E-print Network

    Shanguang Tan

    2007-04-23

    A new kind of numbers called Hyper Space Complex Numbers and its algebras are defined and proved. It is with good properties as the classic Complex Numbers, such as expressed in coordinates, triangular and exponent forms and following the associative and commutative laws of addition and multiplication. So the classic Complex Number is developed from in complex plane with two dimensions to in complex space with N dimensions and the number system is enlarged also.

  17. Dividing Rational Numbers

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Nielsen

    2008-09-02

    Students will use rational numbers (i.e. multi-digit, decimals, and fractions) in order to complete a variety of division problems. State of Utah Core Curriculum: Standard 1 Objective 6 Demonstrate proficiency with the four operations, with positive rational numbers, and with addition and subtraction of integers. a. Multiply and divide a multi-digit number by a two-digit number, including decimals. b. Add, subtract, multiply, and divide fractions and mixed numbers. c. Add and subtract integers. Attachments Decimal ...

  18. Mass Spectrometry for the Masses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Persinger, Jared D.; Hoops, Geoffrey, C.; Samide, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    A simple, qualitative experiment is developed for implementation, where the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) plays an important role, into the laboratory curriculum of a chemistry course designed for nonscience majors. This laboratory experiment is well suited for the students as it helps them to determine the validity of their…

  19. Mass Audubon

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Founded in 1896 by two women with a passion for the protection of birds, Mass Audubon works to protect the nature of Massachusetts for people and wildlife. Its 100,000 members help care for 35,000 acres of conservation land. On its site, visitors can learn about its advocacy work through reports, policy papers, and educational outreach efforts. In the Our Conservation Network area, visitors can learn about Mass audubon's work in land conservation, ecological management, community reach, and climate change. Moving on, the Learn area features information about the Museum of American Bird Art, resources for young conservationists ("EcoKids"), and resources for school groups hoping to pay a visit to some of their land holdings. It's worth nothing that the News & Events area contains blogs, videos, press releases, and details on fun photo contests.

  20. 50 CFR 23.26 - When is a U.S. or foreign CITES document valid?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN ENDANGERED SPECIES OF WILD FAUNA AND FLORA (CITES...would not allow trade in CITES species. (3) CITES document U...that would not allow trade in the species. (6) Extension of...

  1. 50 CFR 23.26 - When is a U.S. or foreign CITES document valid?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN ENDANGERED SPECIES OF WILD FAUNA AND FLORA (CITES...would not allow trade in CITES species. (3) CITES document U...that would not allow trade in the species. (6) Extension of...

  2. 50 CFR 23.26 - When is a U.S. or foreign CITES document valid?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN ENDANGERED SPECIES OF WILD FAUNA AND FLORA (CITES...would not allow trade in CITES species. (3) CITES document U...that would not allow trade in the species. (6) Extension of...

  3. EAGE Conference & Exhibition incorporating SPE EUROPEC 2011 Vienna, Austria, 23-26 May 2011

    E-print Network

    Brückl, Ewald

    . Freudenthaler (Pöyry Infra GmbH) SUMMARY The refurbishment of the Kaunertal hydroelectric power station, planned the refurbishment and extension of the hydroelectric power plant Kaunertal. Therefore several possible positional

  4. Prcceedingsof the Second Joint EMBSEIMESConference Houston,TX. USA* October 23-26,2002

    E-print Network

    with traditional biometrics and baggage screen aids. 2. The DD system should have sufficient sensitivity and specificity. 3. The DD system should be fast. The objective is to enhance security without hindering air travel or border traffic. 4. The DD system should he non-invasive. The social acceptability of a system

  5. 50 CFR 23.26 - When is a U.S. or foreign CITES document valid?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...enforce the Convention to prevent illegal trafficking in wildlife and plants. (b) Original...preparation for shipment of live wild animals and plants or, in the case of air...International Air Transport Association Live Animals Regulations . (See §...

  6. 50 CFR 23.26 - When is a U.S. or foreign CITES document valid?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...enforce the Convention to prevent illegal trafficking in wildlife and plants. (b) Original...preparation for shipment of live wild animals and plants or, in the case of air...International Air Transport Association Live Animals Regulations . (See §...

  7. Parameterizing by the Number of Numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fellows, Michael R.; Gaspers, Serge; Rosamond, Frances A.

    The usefulness of parameterized algorithmics has often depended on what Niedermeier has called "the art of problem parameterization". In this paper we introduce and explore a novel but general form of parameterization: the number of numbers. Several classic numerical problems, such as Subset Sum, Partition, 3-Partition, Numerical 3-Dimensional Matching, and Numerical Matching with Target Sums, have multisets of integers as input. We initiate the study of parameterizing these problems by the number of distinct integers in the input. We rely on an FPT result for Integer Linear Programming Feasibility to show that all the above-mentioned problems are fixed-parameter tractable when parameterized in this way. In various applied settings, problem inputs often consist in part of multisets of integers or multisets of weighted objects (such as edges in a graph, or jobs to be scheduled). Such number-of-numbers parameterized problems often reduce to subproblems about transition systems of various kinds, parameterized by the size of the system description. We consider several core problems of this kind relevant to number-of-numbers parameterization. Our main hardness result considers the problem: given a non-deterministic Mealy machine M (a finite state automaton outputting a letter on each transition), an input word x, and a census requirement c for the output word specifying how many times each letter of the output alphabet should be written, decide whether there exists a computation of M reading x that outputs a word y that meets the requirement c. We show that this problem is hard for W[1]. If the question is whether there exists an input word x such that a computation of M on x outputs a word that meets c, the problem becomes fixed-parameter tractable.

  8. Parts per Million Mass Accuracy on an Orbitrap Mass Spectrometer via Lock Mass Injection into a C-trap

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jesper V. Olsen; Lyris M. F. de Godoy; Guoqing Li; Boris Macek; Peter Mortensen; Reinhold Pesch; Alexander Makarov; Oliver Lange; Stevan Horning; Matthias Mann

    2005-01-01

    Mass accuracy is a key parameter of mass spectrometric performance. TOF instruments can reach low parts per million, and FT-ICR instruments are capable of even greater accuracy provided ion numbers are well con- trolled. Here we demonstrate sub-ppm mass accuracy on a linear ion trap coupled via a radio frequency-only stor- age trap (C-trap) to the orbitrap mass spectrometer (LTQ

  9. Number of cosmic string loops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco-Pillado, Jose J.; Olum, Ken D.; Shlaer, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Using recent simulation results, we provide the mass and speed spectrum of cosmic string loops. This is the quantity of primary interest for many phenomenological signatures of cosmic strings, and it can be accurately predicted using recently acquired detailed knowledge of the loop production function. We emphasize that gravitational smoothing of long strings plays a negligible role in determining the total number of existing loops. We derive a bound on the string tension imposed by recent constraints on the stochastic gravitational wave background from pulsar timing arrays, finding G? ?2.8×10-9. We also provide a derivation of the Boltzmann equation for cosmic string loops in the language of differential forms.

  10. Mass Sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, B.E.

    2001-01-18

    The purpose of this CRADA was to use Honeywell's experience in low temperature cofire ceramics and traditional ceramics to assemble a relatively low-cost, mass-producible miniature mass analyzer. The specific design, given to us by Mass Sensors, LLC, was used to test for helium. The direct benefit for the participant was to have a prototype unit assembled for the purpose of proof of concept and the ability to secure venture capital investors. From that, the company would begin producing their own product for sale. The consumer/taxpayer benefits come from the wide variety of industries that can utilize this technology to improve quality of life. Medical industry can use this technology to improve diagnostic ability; manufacturing industry can use it for improved air, water, and soil monitoring to minimize pollution; and the law enforcement community can use this technology for identification of substances. These are just a few examples of the benefit of this technology. The benefits to DOE were in the area of process improvement for cofire and ceramic materials. From this project we demonstrated nonlinear thickfilm fine lines and spaces that were 5-mil wide with 5-mil spaces; determined height-to diameter-ratios for punched and filled via holes; demonstrated the ability to punch and fill 5-mil microvias; developed and demonstrated the capability to laser cut difficult geometries in 40-mil ceramic; developed and demonstrated coupling LTCC with standard alumina and achieving hermetic seals; developed and demonstrated three-dimensional electronic packaging concepts; and demonstrated printing variable resistors within 1% of the nominal value and within a tightly defined ratio. The capability of this device makes it invaluable for many industries. The device could be used to monitor air samples around manufacturing plants. It also could be used for monitoring automobile exhaust, for doing blood gas analysis, for sampling gases being emitted by volcanoes, for studying activities of insects, and many other things. The ultimate goal was to build two iterations of the mass sensor. However, due to technical difficulties, only one iteration of the device was manufactured. Initial work to optimize the ion source and build a small ion pump was not successful. Consequently, the ion pump was not incorporated into the analyzer design. Mass Sensors, LLC, is still testing the analyzers that were assembled.

  11. Hypercomplex numbers Johanna Ramo

    E-print Network

    Wright, Francis

    no meaning. What does minus three potatoes mean? The square root of a negative number was even worse ) + (ba + ab )i Irish mathematician William Hamilton noticed that the complex number a+bi can be written

  12. Narrow it Down: Numbers

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    TERC

    2010-01-01

    In this activity, learners will ask yes-no questions to identify a secret number (similar to Twenty Questions). Combine logic and numbers in this game for all ages. One person chooses a secret number and announces the range in which it falls, for instance: “I’m thinking of a number between 1 and 50.” Other players ask yes or no questions to identify the number. The player who identifies the secret number wins. This game is easy to adapt to different ages: young children can ask and reason about “more than” and “less than” (Is it less than 7? Is there a 1 in the 10’s place)? and older ones can ask about multiples, factors, or number relationships (Is it a multiple of 3? Is it a square number?). Available as a web page and downloadable pdf.

  13. HIV Wellness Numbers

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    HIV Wellness Numbers Updated:Mar 22,2012 Featured Video The Basics of HIV Management Length: 2:37 ... Learn more about your important heart-health numbers . HIV and Your Heart • Home • About HIV • HIV and ...

  14. Beyond Complex Numbers

    E-print Network

    Mohd Abubakr

    2011-07-06

    There has been always an ambiguity in division when zero is present in the denominator. So far this ambiguity has been neglected by assuming that division by zero as a non-allowed operation. In this paper, I have derived the new set of numbers by considering that a number divided by zero gives rise to "a beyond complex number". This is very similar to the way imaginary numbers are defined. It was only after considering i = sqrt(-1), we have been able to deduce all the laws for imaginary numbers. Similarly here, I have considered "a number when divided by zero gives rise to a beyond complex number". This is the introduction paper to this "beyond complex numbers" containing the algebra of it.

  15. Elements of number theory

    E-print Network

    Harbour, Daniel, 1975-

    2003-01-01

    The dissertation argues for the necessity of a morphosemantic theory of number, that is, a theory of number serviceable both to semantics and morphology. The basis for this position, and the empirical core of the dissertation, ...

  16. Negative Numbers and Antimatter Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsan, Ung Chan

    Dirac's equation states that an electron implies the existence of an antielectron with the same mass (more generally same arithmetic properties) and opposite charge (more generally opposite algebraic properties). Subsequent observation of antielectron validated this concept. This statement can be extended to all matter particles; observation of antiproton, antineutron, antideuton … is in complete agreement with this view. Recently antihypertriton was observed and 38 atoms of antihydrogen were trapped. This opens the path for use in precise testing of nature's fundamental symmetries. The symmetric properties of a matter particle and its mirror antimatter particle seem to be well established. Interactions operate on matter particles and antimatter particles as well. Conservation of matter parallels addition operating on positive and negative numbers. Without antimatter particles, interactions of the Standard Model (electromagnetism, strong interaction and weak interaction) cannot have the structure of group. Antimatter particles are characterized by negative baryonic number A or/and negative leptonic number L. Materialization and annihilation obey conservation of A and L (associated to all known interactions), explaining why from pure energy (A = 0, L = 0) one can only obtain a pair of matter particle antimatter particle — electron antielectron, proton and antiproton — via materialization where the mass of a pair of particle antiparticle gives back to pure energy with annihilation. These two mechanisms cannot change the difference in the number of matter particles and antimatter particles. Thus from pure energy only a perfectly symmetric (in number) universe could be generated as proposed by Dirac but observation showed that our universe is not symmetric, it is a matter universe which is nevertheless neutral. Fall of reflection symmetries shattered the prejudice that there is no way to define in an absolute way right and left or matter and antimatter. Experimental observation of CP violation aroused a great hope for explaining why our universe is not exactly matter antimatter symmetric. Sakharov stated that without the violation of baryonic number, it is not possible to obtain from pure energy a universe made of only matter. The fact that our universe is asymmetric (in number) but perfectly neutral, points toward the existence of a hypothetic interaction violating A and L but conserving all charges. This Matter Creation (MC) interaction creating either a pair of matter particles or antimatter particles (instead of a pair of particle antiparticle) would have a charge BAL = (A-L) and a neutral messenger Z*. Even if CP is conserved, MC would allow the creation of a number of matter particles not exactly equal to the number of antimatter particles. Our universe would then correspond to the remaining excess when all matter antimatter pairs have disappeared. Observation of matter nonconservation processes would be of great interest to falsify this speculation. In a plan with A and L as axes, pure energy is represented by the origin (A = 0, L = 0). A symmetric universe is also represented by (A = 0, L = 0) meaning that there are exactly the same number of baryons and antibaryons, and the same number of leptons and antileptons. Our present matter universe is instead represented by a point of the diagonal with A = L = present A value. This value is tiny relative to the number of gammas resulting from the annihilation of matter-antimatter particles.

  17. Summing Consecutive Numbers

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This problem offers a simple context to begin an exploration of the properties of numbers and to make conjectures about those properties. Learners explore the sums of consecutive numbers and whether all positive numbers from 1-30 can be written as the sum of two or more consecutive numbers. The Teachers' Notes page offers suggestions for implementation, key discussion questions, ideas for extension and support.

  18. The elephant brain in numbers

    PubMed Central

    Herculano-Houzel, Suzana; Avelino-de-Souza, Kamilla; Neves, Kleber; Porfírio, Jairo; Messeder, Débora; Mattos Feijó, Larissa; Maldonado, José; Manger, Paul R.

    2014-01-01

    What explains the superior cognitive abilities of the human brain compared to other, larger brains? Here we investigate the possibility that the human brain has a larger number of neurons than even larger brains by determining the cellular composition of the brain of the African elephant. We find that the African elephant brain, which is about three times larger than the human brain, contains 257 billion (109) neurons, three times more than the average human brain; however, 97.5% of the neurons in the elephant brain (251 billion) are found in the cerebellum. This makes the elephant an outlier in regard to the number of cerebellar neurons compared to other mammals, which might be related to sensorimotor specializations. In contrast, the elephant cerebral cortex, which has twice the mass of the human cerebral cortex, holds only 5.6 billion neurons, about one third of the number of neurons found in the human cerebral cortex. This finding supports the hypothesis that the larger absolute number of neurons in the human cerebral cortex (but not in the whole brain) is correlated with the superior cognitive abilities of humans compared to elephants and other large-brained mammals. PMID:24971054

  19. The elephant brain in numbers.

    PubMed

    Herculano-Houzel, Suzana; Avelino-de-Souza, Kamilla; Neves, Kleber; Porfírio, Jairo; Messeder, Débora; Mattos Feijó, Larissa; Maldonado, José; Manger, Paul R

    2014-01-01

    What explains the superior cognitive abilities of the human brain compared to other, larger brains? Here we investigate the possibility that the human brain has a larger number of neurons than even larger brains by determining the cellular composition of the brain of the African elephant. We find that the African elephant brain, which is about three times larger than the human brain, contains 257 billion (10(9)) neurons, three times more than the average human brain; however, 97.5% of the neurons in the elephant brain (251 billion) are found in the cerebellum. This makes the elephant an outlier in regard to the number of cerebellar neurons compared to other mammals, which might be related to sensorimotor specializations. In contrast, the elephant cerebral cortex, which has twice the mass of the human cerebral cortex, holds only 5.6 billion neurons, about one third of the number of neurons found in the human cerebral cortex. This finding supports the hypothesis that the larger absolute number of neurons in the human cerebral cortex (but not in the whole brain) is correlated with the superior cognitive abilities of humans compared to elephants and other large-brained mammals. PMID:24971054

  20. Mass spectrometry imaging with high resolution in mass and space.

    PubMed

    Römpp, Andreas; Spengler, Bernhard

    2013-06-01

    Mass spectrometry (MS) imaging links molecular information and the spatial distribution of analytes within a sample. In contrast to most histochemical techniques, mass spectrometry imaging can differentiate molecular modifications and does not require labeling of targeted compounds. We have recently introduced the first mass spectrometry imaging method that provides highly specific molecular information (high resolution and accuracy in mass) at cellular dimensions (high resolution in space). This method is based on a matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) imaging source working at atmospheric pressure which is coupled to an orbital trapping mass spectrometer. Here, we present a number of application examples and demonstrate the benefit of 'mass spectrometry imaging with high resolution in mass and space.' Phospholipids, peptides and drug compounds were imaged in a number of tissue samples at a spatial resolution of 5-10 ?m. Proteins were analyzed after on-tissue tryptic digestion at 50-?m resolution. Additional applications include the analysis of single cells and of human lung carcinoma tissue as well as the first MALDI imaging measurement of tissue at 3 ?m pixel size. MS image analysis for all these experiments showed excellent correlation with histological staining evaluation. The high mass resolution (R = 30,000) and mass accuracy (typically 1 ppm) proved to be essential for specific image generation and reliable identification of analytes in tissue samples. The ability to combine the required high-quality mass analysis with spatial resolution in the range of single cells is a unique feature of our method. With that, it has the potential to supplement classical histochemical protocols and to provide new insights about molecular processes on the cellular level. PMID:23652571

  1. On Number Representation

    E-print Network

    Rafael I. Rofa

    2013-10-30

    Place value numbers, such as the binary or decimal numbers can be represented by the end vertices (leaf or pendant vertices) of rooted symmetrical trees. Numbers that consist of at most a fixed number of digits are represented by vertices that are equidistant from the root vertex and the corresponding number representations do not depend on the distance from the root vertex. In this paper, we introduce place value number systems which are representable by rooted symmetrical trees and in which the representation of a number depends on the distance of the corresponding vertex from the root vertex. Such dependence activates the role of zero in such a way as to render its function equivalent to that of any other single digit number. Thus, in addition to being a place value holder, the digit zero (just as any other single digit numeral) affects the value of a number regardless of its position. For example 012 is different, in the new systems, from 12. As such, these new number systems could be thought of as a natural development for the role of zero. We also illustrate how addition is performed in these newly constructed number systems. In addition to being mathematical structures which could be of mathematical interest, these new number systems could possibly have applications in computing and computing security.

  2. Intuitive numbers guide decisions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ellen Peters; Paul Slovic; Daniel Vastfjall; C. K. Mertz

    2008-01-01

    Measuring reaction times to number comparisons is thought to reveal a processing stage in elementary numerical cognition linked to internal, imprecise representations of number magnitudes. These intuitive representations of the mental number line have been demonstrated across species and human development but have been little explored in decision making. This paper develops and tests hypotheses about the influence of such

  3. The Remarkable Number "1"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, G. Donald

    2014-01-01

    In human history, the origin of the numbers came from definite practical needs. Indeed, there is strong evidence that numbers were created before writing. The number "1", dating back at least 20,000 years, was found as a counting symbol on a bone. The famous statement by the German mathematician Leopold Kronecker (1823-1891), "God…

  4. Reform by the Numbers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanford, Terry; White, Kathleen

    1991-01-01

    Although numbers such as average test scores or dropout rates can capture part of a school system's success or failure, school statistics seldom tell the whole story. School board members should realize that numbers might measure compliance or process, rather than improvement. Also, improvements in numbers might reflect changes in assessment…

  5. Random Number Generation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    David Joiner

    The process of creating numbers that simulate randomness on a computer is known as pseudorandom number generation. The "pseudo" in pseudo random refers to the fact that if you use a rule to generate a number, it is by definition not random, though it may appear so, and be close enough to random for all practical purposes.

  6. Whole Number Cruncher

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Give input to the Whole Number Cruncher and try to guess what it did from the output it generates. This activity only generates multiplication and addition functions to avoid outputting any negative numbers. Whole Number Cruncher is one of the Interactivate assessment explorers.

  7. Decompose That Teen Number!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    ROBIN MARMITT

    2012-09-03

    The students will receive explicit instruction from the teacher on the definition of decomposing a number and how to represent a decomposition with manipulatives, drawings, and equations. The students will use linking cubes to reflect numbers from 11-19, and to show their understanding of how to decompose a number. Students will record decompositions as an equation.

  8. Number Relationships in Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Myoungwhon

    2011-01-01

    When a child understands number relationships, he or she comprehends the meaning of numbers by developing multiple, flexible ways of representing them. The importance of developing number relationships in the early years has been highlighted because it helps children build a good foundation for developing a more sophisticated understanding of…

  9. Building Numbers to Five

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Illuminations NCTM

    2012-01-21

    In this lesson, students make groups of zero to five objects, connect number names to the groups, compose and decompose numbers, and use numerals to record the size of a group. Visual, auditory, and kinesthetic activities are used to help students begin to acquire a sense of number.

  10. Number Sense Made Simple Using Number Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Su, Hui Fang Huang; Marinas, Carol; Furner, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    This article highlights investigating intriguing number patterns utilising an emerging technology called the Square Tool. Mathematics teachers of grades K-12 will find the Square Tool useful in making connections and bridging the gap from the concrete to the abstract. Pattern recognition helps students discover various mathematical concepts. With…

  11. Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pflieger, D.; Forest, E.; Vinh, J.

    For twenty years or so now, mass spectrometry has been used to get exact measurements of the mass of biological molecules such as proteins, nucleic acids,oligosaccharides, and so on. Over the past ten years, this technology has followed the trend toward miniaturisation and the samples required can be much smaller. In particular, the nanoelectrospray source (online or by needle) allow one to work at flow rates of a few tens of nanolitres/min. There are many applications, both in the field of proteomics and in the analysis of protein structure, dynamics, and interactions. Combining this source with nanoHPLC, complex mixtures only available in small quantities can be separated and analysed online. There are also some advantages over conventional HPLC, despite a set of constraints related to the small dimensions and low flow rates. Combining capillary electrophoresis with the electrospray source also gives useful results, with its own set of advantages and constraints. Finally, developments are currently underway to combine this source with chips, providing a means of separation and analysis online.

  12. Convoluted convolved Fibonacci numbers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pieter Moree

    2003-01-01

    The convolved Fibonacci numbers F_j^(r) are defined by\\u000a (1-z-z^2)^{-r}=\\\\sum_{j>=0}F_{j+1}^(r)z^j. In this note some related numbers\\u000athat can be expressed in terms of convolved Fibonacci numbers are considered.\\u000aThese numbers appear in the numerical evaluation of a certain number\\u000atheoretical constant.\\u000a This note is a case study of the transform {1\\/n}\\\\sum_{d|n}mu(d)f(z^d)^{n\\/d},\\u000awith f any formal series and mu the Moebius function),

  13. Decimal Number Line

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2006-01-01

    This interactive Flash applet helps students explore place value and develop number sense within whole numbers, integers and decimals. It allows a child or teacher to select an interval in the given number line and show that interval divided into ten equal parts but on a larger scale, which can then be repeated. Users may choose the size of the interval between markers on the first number line and the starting number of that line, as well as whether to hide or show individual number lines and the numbers on them. This applet lends itself well for use on an interactive white board. A pdf guide to this collection of teaching applets is cataloged separately.

  14. Multiple paternity in wild house mice (Mus musculus musculus): effects on offspring genetic diversity and body mass.

    PubMed

    Thonhauser, Kerstin E; Thoß, Michaela; Musolf, Kerstin; Klaus, Teresa; Penn, Dustin J

    2014-01-01

    Multiple mating is common in many species, but it is unclear whether multiple paternity enhances offspring genetic diversity or fitness. We conducted a survey on wild house mice (Mus musculus musculus), and we found that in 73 pregnant females, 29% of litters had multiple sires, which is remarkably similar to the 23-26% found in feral populations of Mus musculus domesticus in the USA and Australia, respectively. The question is: How has selection maintained multiple mating in these subspecies since the evolutionary divergence, ca. 2800-6000 years ago? We found no evidence that multiple paternity enhanced females' litter size, contrary to the fertility assurance or genetic benefits hypotheses. Multiple paternity was associated with reduced mean and variance in offspring body mass, which suggests that females allocate fewer resources or that there is increased intrauterine conflict in multiple-versus single-sired litters. We found increased allelic diversity (though not heterozygosity) in multiple-sired litters, as predicted by the genetic diversity hypothesis. Finally, we found that the dams' heterozygosity was correlated with the mean heterozygosity of their offspring in single-and multiple-sired litters, suggesting that outbred, heterozygous females were more likely to avoid inbreeding than inbred, homozygous females. Future studies are needed to examine how increased genetic diversity of litters and smaller mean (and variance) offspring body mass associated with multiple paternity affect offspring fitness. PMID:24558575

  15. Multiple paternity in wild house mice (Mus musculus musculus): effects on offspring genetic diversity and body mass

    PubMed Central

    Thonhauser, Kerstin E; Thoß, Michaela; Musolf, Kerstin; Klaus, Teresa; Penn, Dustin J

    2014-01-01

    Multiple mating is common in many species, but it is unclear whether multiple paternity enhances offspring genetic diversity or fitness. We conducted a survey on wild house mice (Mus musculus musculus), and we found that in 73 pregnant females, 29% of litters had multiple sires, which is remarkably similar to the 23–26% found in feral populations of Mus musculus domesticus in the USA and Australia, respectively. The question is: How has selection maintained multiple mating in these subspecies since the evolutionary divergence, ca. 2800–6000 years ago? We found no evidence that multiple paternity enhanced females’ litter size, contrary to the fertility assurance or genetic benefits hypotheses. Multiple paternity was associated with reduced mean and variance in offspring body mass, which suggests that females allocate fewer resources or that there is increased intrauterine conflict in multiple-versus single-sired litters. We found increased allelic diversity (though not heterozygosity) in multiple-sired litters, as predicted by the genetic diversity hypothesis. Finally, we found that the dams’ heterozygosity was correlated with the mean heterozygosity of their offspring in single-and multiple-sired litters, suggesting that outbred, heterozygous females were more likely to avoid inbreeding than inbred, homozygous females. Future studies are needed to examine how increased genetic diversity of litters and smaller mean (and variance) offspring body mass associated with multiple paternity affect offspring fitness. PMID:24558575

  16. Galaxy cosmological mass function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes, Amanda R.; Iribarrem, Alvaro; Ribeiro, Marcelo B.; Stoeger, William R.

    2014-12-01

    Aims: This paper studies the galaxy cosmological mass function (GCMF) in a semi-empirical relativistic approach that uses observational data provided by recent galaxy redshift surveys. Methods: Starting from a previously presented relation between the mass-to-light ratio, the selection function obtained from the luminosity function (LF) data and the luminosity density, the average luminosity L, and the average galactic mass ?g were computed in terms of the redshift. ?g was also alternatively estimated by means of a method that uses the galaxy stellar mass function (GSMF). Comparison of these two forms of deriving the average galactic mass allowed us to infer a possible bias introduced by the selection criteria of the survey. We used the FORS Deep Field galaxy survey sample of 5558 galaxies in the redshift range 0.5 mass-to-light ratio and its GSMF data. Results: Assuming ?g0 ? 1011?? as the local value of the average galactic mass, the LF approach results in LB ? (1 + z)(2.40 ± 0.03) and ?g ? (1 + z)(1.1 ± 0.2). However, using the GSMF results to calculate the average galactic mass produces ?g ? (1 + z)(- 0.58 ± 0.22). We chose the latter result because it is less biased. We then obtained the theoretical quantities of interest, such as the differential number counts, to finally calculate the GCMF, which can be fitted by a Schechter function, but whose fitted parameter values are different from the values found in the literature for the GSMF. Conclusions: This GCMF behavior follows the theoretical predictions from the cold dark matter models in which the less massive objects form first, followed later by more massive ones. In the range 0.5

  17. Relativistic theory of tidal Love numbers

    E-print Network

    Taylor Binnington; Eric Poisson

    2009-09-16

    In Newtonian gravitational theory, a tidal Love number relates the mass multipole moment created by tidal forces on a spherical body to the applied tidal field. The Love number is dimensionless, and it encodes information about the body's internal structure. We present a relativistic theory of Love numbers, which applies to compact bodies with strong internal gravities; the theory extends and completes a recent work by Flanagan and Hinderer, which revealed that the tidal Love number of a neutron star can be measured by Earth-based gravitational-wave detectors. We consider a spherical body deformed by an external tidal field, and provide precise and meaningful definitions for electric-type and magnetic-type Love numbers; and these are computed for polytropic equations of state. The theory applies to black holes as well, and we find that the relativistic Love numbers of a nonrotating black hole are all zero.

  18. Parts per million mass accuracy on an Orbitrap mass spectrometer via lock mass injection into a C-trap.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Jesper V; de Godoy, Lyris M F; Li, Guoqing; Macek, Boris; Mortensen, Peter; Pesch, Reinhold; Makarov, Alexander; Lange, Oliver; Horning, Stevan; Mann, Matthias

    2005-12-01

    Mass accuracy is a key parameter of mass spectrometric performance. TOF instruments can reach low parts per million, and FT-ICR instruments are capable of even greater accuracy provided ion numbers are well controlled. Here we demonstrate sub-ppm mass accuracy on a linear ion trap coupled via a radio frequency-only storage trap (C-trap) to the orbitrap mass spectrometer (LTQ Orbitrap). Prior to acquisition of a spectrum, a background ion originating from ambient air is first transferred to the C-trap. Ions forming the MS or MS(n) spectrum are then added to this species, and all ions are injected into the orbitrap for analysis. Real time recalibration on the "lock mass" by corrections of mass shift removes mass error associated with calibration of the mass scale. The remaining mass error is mainly due to imperfect peaks caused by weak signals and is addressed by averaging the mass measurement over the LC peak, weighted by signal intensity. For peptide database searches in proteomics, we introduce a variable mass tolerance and achieve average absolute mass deviations of 0.48 ppm (standard deviation 0.38 ppm) and maximal deviations of less than 2 ppm. For tandem mass spectra we demonstrate similarly high mass accuracy and discuss its impact on database searching. High and routine mass accuracy in a compact instrument will dramatically improve certainty of peptide and small molecule identification. PMID:16249172

  19. Computing with Real Numbers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abbas Edalat; Reinhold Heckmann

    2000-01-01

    We introduce, in Part I, a number representation suitable for exact real number computation, consisting of an exponent and\\u000a a mantissa, which is an infinite stream of signed digits, based on the interval [?1,1]. Numerical operations are implemented\\u000a in terms of linear fractional transformations (LFT’s). We derive lower and upper bounds for the number of argument digits that are needed

  20. Interactive Fraction Number Lines

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Michael Green

    2012-05-25

    In this lesson students make models of fractions, including a human number line. Using a number line, students develop conceptual understanding of fractions. Students use the number line to represent and compare fractions less than one. The activities are engaging and include full participation/engagement of all students. The fractions are limited to positive fractions less than one with a denominator of 2 or 4 including 0 and 1 whole.

  1. Number and Operations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Parks

    2011-09-14

    Let's learn how to count using these fun games. The first game allows us to count the amount of fish in the sea. Count the fish and choose the correct answer. Counting with fish. In this game, put numbers in order from 1-10. Practice putting numbers in order. Lets Count on a Cloud! Choose an object and then click on a number you want. It will count how ...

  2. Your Number Was

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This problem provides an opportunity to introduce the concept of representing operations on unknown numbers algebraically and leads to work on inverse operations. Students are asked to think of a number, follow a sequence of computational instructions and finally to enter the result into the "machine." Students explore how the "machine" works out the starting number. The Teachers' Notes page offers rationale, suggestions for implementation, discussion questions, ideas for extension and support.

  3. Complex Numbers and Trigonometry

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Alexanderson, Gerald L.

    Complex numbers have applications in many applied sciences. This online text begins with an introduction to trigonometry, which serves as a starting point for additional discussion about complex numbers (also known as imaginary numbers). The drawings and figures are the only notable downside to this excellent resource, because many of them are somewhat crude; however, they are still fairly easy to follow. The book can be read online or downloaded for offline viewing.

  4. Number Line Bars

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2000-01-01

    Teachers and students can use this interactive Java applet to model and carry out arithmetic operations on the number line. Users manipulate the size, position, and direction of color bars to represent addition, subtraction, multiplication and division with whole numbers, integers and fractions. Options include the ability to zoom in and out, change the colors of the bars, and adjust the step size of the bars and number line increments.

  5. High Reynolds Number Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baals, D. D. (editor)

    1977-01-01

    Fundamental aerodynamic questions for which high Reynolds number experimental capability is required are discussed. The operational characteristics and design features of the National Transonic Facility are reviewed.

  6. Galaxy Cosmological Mass Function

    E-print Network

    Amanda R. Lopes; Alvaro Iribarrem; Marcelo B. Ribeiro; William R. Stoeger

    2014-12-03

    We study the galaxy cosmological mass function (GCMF) in a semi-empirical relativistic approach using observational data provided by galaxy redshift surveys. Starting from the theory of Ribeiro & Stoeger (2003, arXiv:astro-ph/0304094) between the mass-to-light ratio, the selection function obtained from the luminosity function (LF) data and the luminosity density, the average luminosity $L$ and the average galactic mass $\\mathcal{M}_g$ are computed in terms of the redshift. $\\mathcal{M}_g$ is also alternatively estimated by a method that uses the galaxy stellar mass function (GSMF). Comparison of these two forms of deriving the average galactic mass allows us to infer a possible bias introduced by the selection criteria of the survey. We used the FORS Deep Field galaxy survey sample of 5558 galaxies in the redshift range $0.5 < z < 5.0$ and its LF Schechter parameters in the B-band, as well as this sample's stellar mass-to-light ratio and its GSMF data. Assuming ${\\mathcal{M}_{g_0}} \\approx 10^{11} \\mathcal{M}_\\odot$ as the local value of the average galactic mass, the LF approach results in $L_{B} \\propto (1+z)^{(2.40 \\pm 0.03)}$ and $\\mathcal{M}_g \\propto (1+z)^{(1.1\\pm0.2)}$. However, using the GSMF results produces $\\mathcal{M}_g \\propto (1+z)^{(-0.58 \\pm 0.22)}$. We chose the latter result as it is less biased. We then obtained the theoretical quantities of interest, such as the differential number counts, to calculate the GCMF, which can be fitted by a Schechter function. The derived GCMF follows theoretical predictions in which the less massive objects form first, being followed later by more massive ones. In the range $0.5 < z < 2.0$ the GCMF has a strong variation that can be interpreted as a higher rate of galaxy mergers or as a strong evolution in the star formation history of these galaxies.

  7. Open Mass Spectrometry Search Algorithm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lewis Y. Geer; Sanford P. Markey; Jeffrey A. Kowalak; Lukas Wagner; Ming Xu; Dawn M. Maynard; Xiaoyu Yang; Wenyao Shi; Stephen H. Bryant

    2004-01-01

    Large numbers of MS\\/MS peptide spectra generated in proteomics experiments require efficient, sensitive and specific algorithms for peptide identification. In the Open Mass Spectrometry Search Algorithm [OMSSA], specificity is calculated by a classic probability score using an explicit model for matching experimental spectra to sequences. At default thresholds, OMSSA matches more spectra from a standard protein cocktail than a comparable

  8. Honors problem 1: Complex numbers. Arithmetic of complex numbers

    E-print Network

    Leininger, Christopher J.

    Honors problem 1: Complex numbers. Arithmetic of complex numbers Recall that the complex numbers identify the complex numbers with the set of linear polynomials with real coefficients). The numbers as a subset of the complex numbers by identifying the real number a with a+0i. The imaginary numbers

  9. Prime Numbers Video

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2010-01-01

    This 4-minute video introduces the definition of a prime number and illustrates it through a discussion of factors and composite numbers. It makes use of the definition to explain why 1 is not a prime and ends with a question for the viewer to ponder.

  10. Elliptic Curves Number Theory

    E-print Network

    Babinkostova, Liljana

    Elliptic Curves Number Theory and Cryptography Second Edition © 2008 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC Washington, Lawrence C. Elliptic curves : number theory and cryptography / Lawrence C. Washington. -- 2nd ed, elliptic curves started being used in cryptography and elliptic curve techniques were developed

  11. Number and Operations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Johnson

    2007-10-25

    Have fun with numbers! Visit Lemonade Larry to buy some fresh squeezed lemonade! Figure out the cost of each order. Spooky sequences!!! Figure out the missing number to send the ghosts back to the haunted house. Place value pirates. Please help match the pirate to the correct place value. Arrgh mates! ...

  12. Numbers as Shapes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this activity students are asked to relate the numbers 1- 20 to rectangular shapes. Learners use unit squares or cubes to sort numbers by their 'shapes,' either squares, rectangles or sticks (rectangles of unit width). Ideas for implementation, extension and support are included.

  13. The Fibonacci Numbers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onstad, Torgeir

    1991-01-01

    After a brief historical account of Leonardo Pisano Fibonacci, some basic results concerning the Fibonacci numbers are developed and proved, and entertaining examples are described. Connections are made between the Fibonacci numbers and the Golden Ratio, biological nature, and other combinatorics examples. (MDH)

  14. Unrecognizable Sets of Numbers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marvin Minsky; Seymour Papert

    1966-01-01

    When is a set A of positive integers, represented as binary numbers, “regular” in the sense that it is a set of sequences that can be recognized by a finite-state machine? Let ? A(n) be the number of members of A less than the integer n. It is shown that the asymptotic behavior of ? A(n) is subject to severe

  15. Unrecognizable Sets of Numbers

    E-print Network

    Minsky, Marvin

    1964-11-01

    When is a set A of positive integers, represented as binary numbers, "regular" in the sense that it is a set of sequences that can be recognized by a finite-state machine? Let pie A(n) be the number of members of A less ...

  16. Multipartite Ramsey Numbers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David P. Day; Wayne Goddard; Michael A. Henning; Henda C. Swart

    2001-01-01

    For a graph G, a partiteness k 2 and a number of colours c, we dene the multipartite Ramsey number rc k(G) as the minimum value m such that, given any colouring using c colours of the edges of the complete balanced k-partite graph with m vertices in each partite set, there must exist a monochromatic copy of G. We

  17. Genetics by the Numbers

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Life Science > Genetics by the Numbers Inside Life Science View All Articles | Inside Life Science Home Page Genetics by the Numbers By Chelsea Toledo ... Genetics NIH's National DNA Day This Inside Life Science article also appears on LiveScience . Learn about related ...

  18. On comparing interval numbers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Atanu Sengupta; Tapan Kumar Pal

    2000-01-01

    This paper first presents a brief survey of the existing works on comparing and ranking any two interval numbers on the real line and then, on the basis of this, gives two approaches to compare any two interval numbers. The first one describes a value judgement index along with a discussion on its strength and weakness over the other approaches.

  19. Law of Large Numbers

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Grinstead, Charles M.

    Created by Charles M. Grinstead and J. Laurie Snell of Dartmouth College, this website is part of an online statistics textbook. Topics include: (1) Law of Large Numbers for Discrete Random Variables, (2) Chebyshev Inequality, (3) Law of Averages, (4) Law of Large Numbers for Continuous Random Variables, (5) Monte Carlo Method. There are several examples and exercises that accompany the material.

  20. Avogadro's Number Ferromagnetically

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houari, Ahmed

    2010-01-01

    Avogadro's number, usually denoted by N[subscript A], plays a fundamental role in both physics and chemistry. It defines the extremely useful concept of the mole, which is the base unit of the amount of matter in the international system of units. The fundamental character of this number can also be illustrated by its appearance in the definitions…

  1. Inventing Negative Numbers

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2008-10-10

    In this quick time video segment from Cyberchase, viewers learn about extending a vertical number line below zero as they watch the CyberSquad rescue the Cyberspace Council, which is being held captive by Hacker in a tall building. This video is also featured in the lesson plan: "Introducing Negative Numbers" (cataloged separately). Teaching Tips and a transcript are included.

  2. Definitions Numbered Space

    E-print Network

    Behmer, Spencer T.

    Definitions · Numbered Space ­ a single space marked with a number and reserved for a single permit 24/7 · Unnumbered Space ­ a space which can be used by any customer allowed to park in that lot. High Low Average Question 4: If I buy a staff permit for an UNNUMBERED* space in a non-gated surface

  3. Templates, Numbers & Watercolors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemesha, David J.

    1990-01-01

    Describes how a second-grade class used large templates to draw and paint five-digit numbers. The lesson integrated artistic knowledge and vocabulary with their mathematics lesson in place value. Students learned how draftspeople use templates, and they studied number paintings by Charles Demuth and Jasper Johns. (KM)

  4. Number Base Clocks

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Visually explore counting and place value with different number bases, from base 2 to base 16, and up to the hundreds place using a clock like interface. The activity also allows you to look at the numbers on the clock in base 10 or in your other chosen base to explore the relationship between those values.

  5. The monochromatic block number

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lorenzo Milazzo

    1997-01-01

    In 1993 Voloshin introduced the concept of mixed hypergraph. A mixed hypergraph is characterised by the fact that it possesses anti-edges as well as edges. In a colouring of a mixed hypergraph, every anti-edge has at least two vertices of the same colour. In this paper a new parameter is introduced: the monochromatic block number mb. It is the number

  6. THE MASS DISTRIBUTION OF SUBGIANT PLANET HOSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Lloyd, James P. [Department of Astronomy, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (United States)

    2013-09-01

    High mass stars are hostile to Doppler measurements due to rotation and activity on the main-sequence, so RV searches for planets around massive stars have relied on evolved stars. A large number of planets have been found around evolved stars with M > 1.5 M{sub Sun }. To test the robustness of mass determinations, Lloyd compared mass distributions of planet hosting subgiants with distributions from integrating isochrones and concluded that it is unlikely the subgiant planet hosts are this massive, but rather that the mass inferences are systematically in error. The conclusions of Lloyd have been called in to question by Johnson et al., who show TRILEGAL-based mass distributions that disagree with the mass distributions in Lloyd, which they attribute to Malmquist bias. Johnson et al. argue that the very small spectroscopic observational uncertainties favor high masses, and there are a large number of high mass sub giants in RV surveys. However, in this Letter, it is shown that Malmquist bias does not impact the mass distributions, but the mass distribution is sensitive to Galaxy model. The relationship needed to reconcile the subgiant planet host masses with any model of the Galactic stellar population is implausible, and the conclusion of Lloyd that spectroscopic mass determinations of subgiants are likely to have been overestimated is robust.

  7. The Mass Distribution of Subgiant Planet Hosts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lloyd, James P.

    2013-09-01

    High mass stars are hostile to Doppler measurements due to rotation and activity on the main-sequence, so RV searches for planets around massive stars have relied on evolved stars. A large number of planets have been found around evolved stars with M > 1.5 M ?. To test the robustness of mass determinations, Lloyd compared mass distributions of planet hosting subgiants with distributions from integrating isochrones and concluded that it is unlikely the subgiant planet hosts are this massive, but rather that the mass inferences are systematically in error. The conclusions of Lloyd have been called in to question by Johnson et al., who show TRILEGAL-based mass distributions that disagree with the mass distributions in Lloyd, which they attribute to Malmquist bias. Johnson et al. argue that the very small spectroscopic observational uncertainties favor high masses, and there are a large number of high mass sub giants in RV surveys. However, in this Letter, it is shown that Malmquist bias does not impact the mass distributions, but the mass distribution is sensitive to Galaxy model. The relationship needed to reconcile the subgiant planet host masses with any model of the Galactic stellar population is implausible, and the conclusion of Lloyd that spectroscopic mass determinations of subgiants are likely to have been overestimated is robust.

  8. Archimedes Plasma Mass Filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeman, Richard; Agnew, Steve; Anderegg, Francois; Cluggish, Brian; Gilleland, John; Isler, Ralph; Litvak, Andrei; Miller, Robert; O'Neill, Ray; Ohkawa, Tihiro; Pronko, Steve; Putvinski, Sergei; Sevier, Leigh; Sibley, Andy; Umstadter, Karl; Wade, Terry; Winslow, David

    2003-12-01

    The Archimedes' Plasma Mass Filter is a novel plasma-based mass separation device. The basic physics of the Filter concept and a description of its primary application for nuclear waste separation at Hanford will be presented along with initial experimental results from a Demo device. The Demo is a 3.89 m long cylindrical device with a plasma radius of 0.4 m and an axial magnetic field up to 1600 Gauss. The plasma is produced by helicon waves launched by two four-strap antennas placed symmetrically either side of a central source region. One strap of each antenna is powered by one of four phase controlled 1 MW transmitters operating in the frequency range from 3.9 - 26 MHz. Each end of the device has ten concentric ring electrodes used to apply an electric field to rotate the plasma. Application of a parabolic voltage profile results in a rigid body rotation. Heavy ions above the cut-off mass number are extracted radially and collected by a heavy ion collector surrounding the source injection region while light ions are collected at the ends of the cylinder. Initial experiments will use noble gas and trace metals to demonstrate separation before attempting to operate with complex waste characteristic of Hanford.

  9. Numbers in the News

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    TERC

    2010-01-01

    All those numbers in the newspaper: what do they mean? Challenge learners to find out as they develop their number sense. Distribute newspaper pages to learners so that each pair gets a section with numbers at the right level of difficulty: easy—weather or sports scores; medium—clothing ads or event listings with times and dates; hard—automobile ads, monetary exchange rates. Learners try to find the smallest and largest numbers on the page (including best deal/best rate) and explain to others what they found. Variation for younger learners: look for the largest or smallest number on a walk around the building or around the block. Available as a web page and downloadable pdf.

  10. Journal of The American Society for Mass Spectrometry

    E-print Network

    Kim, Myung Soo

    1 23 Journal of The American Society for Mass Spectrometry The official journal of The American Society for Mass Spectrometry ISSN 1044-0305 Volume 24 Number 6 J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. (2013) 24 for Mass Spectrometry. This e-offprint is for personal use only and shall not be self- archived

  11. Number counts and dynamical vacuum cosmologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devi, N. Chandrachani; Borges, H. A.; Carneiro, S.; Alcaniz, J. S.

    2015-03-01

    We study non-linear structure formation in an interacting model of the dark sector of the Universe in which the dark energy density decays linearly with the Hubble parameter, ?? ? H, leading to a constant-rate creation of cold dark matter. We derive all relevant expressions to calculate the mass function and the cluster number density using the Sheth-Torman formalism and show that the effect of the interaction process is to increase the number of bound structures of large masses (M ? 1014 M? h-1) when compared to the standard ? cold dark matter model. Since these models are not reducible to each other, this number counts signature can in principle be tested in future surveys.

  12. Application of Rqd-Number and Rqd-Volume Multifractal Modelling to Delineate Rock Mass Characterisation in Kahang Cu-Mo Porphyry Deposit, Central Iran / Zastosowanie Metod Modelowania Numerycznego Oraz Modelowania Fraktalnego do Analizy JAKO?CI SKA? W Celu OKRE?LENIA Charakterystyki GÓROTWORU W Obszarze Z?O?A Cu-Mo W Kahang, ?RODKOWY Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasrebi, Amir Bijan; Wetherelt, Andrew; Foster, Patrick J.; Afzal, Peyman; Coggan, John; Ahangaran, Dariush Kaveh

    2013-12-01

    Identification of rock mass properties in terms of Rock Quality Designation (RQD) plays a significant role in mine planning and design. This study aims to separate the rock mass characterisation based on RQD data analysed from 48 boreholes in Kahang Cu-Mo porphyry deposit situated in the central Iran utilising RQD-Volume (RQD-V) and RQD-Number (RQD-N) fractal models. The log-log plots for RQD-V and RQD-N models show four rock mass populations defined by RQD thresholds of 3.55, 25.12 and 89.12% and 10.47, 41.68 and 83.17% respectively which represent very poor, poor, good and excellent rocks based on Deere and Miller rock classification. The RQD-V and RQD-N models indicate that the excellent rocks are situated in the NW and central parts of this deposit however, the good rocks are located in the most parts of the deposit. The results of validation of the fractal models with the RQD block model show that the RQD-N fractal model of excellent rock quality is better than the RQD-V fractal model of the same rock quality. Correlation between results of the fractal and the geological models illustrates that the excellent rocks are associated with porphyric quartz diorite (PQD) units. The results reveal that there is a multifractal nature in rock characterisation with respect to RQD for the Kahang deposit. The proposed fractal model can be intended for the better understanding of the rock quality for purpose of determination of the final pit slope. Identyfikacja w?a?ciwo?ci górotworu odgrywa zasadnicz? rol? w planowaniu wydobycia i projektowaniu kopalni. Praca niniejsza ma na celu okre?lenie charakterystyki górotworu w oparciu o dane o jako?ci ska? zebrane na podstawie próbek uzyskanych z 48 odwiertów wykonanych w z?o?u porfiru Cu-Mo w Kahang, zalegaj?cym w ?rodkowym Iranie przy u?yciu modeli fraktalnych RQD-V - Rock Quality Determination-Volume [Okre?lenie jako?ci ska?-obj?to??]) i RQD-N (Rock Quality Determination-Number [Okre?lenie jako?ci ska?-liczba]). Wykresy logarytmiczne wykonane dla modeli RQD-V i RQD-N wykazuj? istnienie czterech populacji warstw górotworu, okre?lonych na podstawie parametrów progowych: 3.55; 25.12; 89.12% oraz 10.47; 41.68 i 83.17%, odpowiadaj?cym kolejno stopniom jako?ci: bardzo s?aby, s?aby, dobry i bardzo dobry, zgodnie z klasyfikacj? ska? Deere i Millera. Wyniki uzyskane przy zastosowaniu modeli RQD-V i RQD-N wskazuj?, ?e najlepsze ska?y zalegaj? w pó?nocno- zachodniej i centralnej cz??ci z?o?a, z kolei dobrej jako?ci ska?y znale?? mo?na w obr?bie ca?ego z?o?a. Walidacja modeli fraktalnych w oparciu o model blokowy (RQD block model) wskazuje, ?e model RQD-N dla bardzo dobrej jako?ci ska? jest skuteczniejszy ni? model RQD-V dla tej samej jako?ci ska?. Wysoki stopie? korelacji pomi?dzy wynikami uzyskanymi w oparciu o modele fraktalne i geologiczne pokazuje, ?e najwy?szej jako?ci ska?y zwi?zane s? z obecno?ci? porfirowego diorytu kwarcowego. Badanie wykazuje fraktaln? natur? charakterystyki jako?ci ska? w z?o?u Kahang. Zaproponowany model fraktalny wykorzysta? mo?na do lepszego poznania zagadnienia jako?ci ska? w celu obliczenia nachylenia wyrobiska.

  13. Baryon masses with dynamical twisted mass fermions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ETM CollaborationConstantia Alexandrou; Tomasz Korzec; Giannis Koutsou; Remi Baron; Pierre Guichon; Mariane Brinet; Jaume Carbonell; Vincent Drach; Zhaofeng Liu; Olivier Pène; Carsten Urbach

    2007-01-01

    We present results on the mass of the nucleon and the $\\\\Delta$ using two dynamical degenerate twisted mass quarks. The evaluation is performed at four quark masses corresponding to a pion mass in the range of 690-300 MeV on lattices of size 2.1 fm and 2.7 fm. We check for cutoff effects by evaluating these baryon masses on lattices of

  14. Number Facts Bingo

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    James Barrett

    2009-01-01

    This Flash applet generates number fact questions for the game of Bingo. Each of the six levels focuses on a different range of number facts (addition, subtraction, and multiplication), which are displayed one at a time in a variety of question formats. The applet is intended for use in a class/group setting with a projector or interactive whiteboard. Downloadable cards for each level are available from the menu page. At any time in a game the "number facts so far" feature will reveal all the questions presented in the current round to facilitate review or verification of a winning board.

  15. Number Conveyor Belt

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-01-01

    This activity for the interactive white board (free access with registration) allows a teacher to create an arithmetic sequence for students to watch being built as the sequence of numbers moves along a conveyor. Learners must determine the pattern being used so when the belt randomly stops, the missing number in the sequence can be dragged/ dropped into its place. The teacher sets the start number (0-19), the interval or common difference (1-10) and if the sequence will count up or down. This last option provides an opportunity to display patterns with integers.

  16. Honors problem 1: Complex numbers. Arithmetic of complex numbers

    E-print Network

    Leininger, Christopher J.

    Honors problem 1: Complex numbers. Arithmetic of complex numbers Recall that the complex numbers we can identify the complex numbers with the set of linear polynomials with real coefficients as a subset of the complex numbers by identifying the real number a with a + 0i. The imaginary numbers

  17. Two Symmetric Properties of Mersenne Numbers and Fermat Numbers

    E-print Network

    Shi Yongjin

    2013-05-09

    Mersenne numbers and Fermat numbers are two hot and difficult issues in number theory. This paper constructs a special group for every positive odd number other than 1, and discovers an algorithm for determining the multiplicative order of 2 modulo q for each positive odd number q. It is worth mentioning that this paper discovers two symmetric properties of Mersenne numbers and Fermat numbers.

  18. The magical Fibonacci number

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. R. Mack

    1990-01-01

    Fibonacci numbers are explained, and some of the many manifestations of the Fibonacci series in nature are described. These range from the so-called golden spiral to the Penrose tiling patterns that describe the structure of quasicrystals

  19. Logo and Negative Numbers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strawn, Candace A.

    1998-01-01

    Describes LOGO's turtle graphics capabilities based on a sixth-grade classroom's activities with negative numbers and Logo programming. A sidebar explains LOGO and offers suggestions to teachers for using LOGO effectively. (LRW)

  20. UCGE Reports Number 20259

    E-print Network

    Habib, Ayman

    UCGE Reports Number 20259 Department of Geomatics Engineering Alternative Methodologies for the Quality Control of LiDAR Systems (URL: http://www.geomatics IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE DEPARTMENT OF GEOMATICS

  1. UCGE Reports Number 20114

    E-print Network

    Calgary, University of

    UCGE Reports Number 20114 Geomatics Engineering Department of Geomatics Engineering OF PHILOSOPHY DEPARTMENT OF GEOMATICS ENGINEERING CALGARY, ALBERTA DECEMBER, 1997 © Richard Walter Klukas 1997 of this dissertation, having a supervisor from Geomatics Engineering and a supervisor from Electrical Engineering

  2. UCGE Reports Number 20342

    E-print Network

    UCGE Reports Number 20342 Department of Geomatics Engineering Detecting Fraudulent Activities in Land Record Systems: An Application of Data Mining (URL: http://www.geomatics OF GEOMATICS ENGINEERING CALGARY, ALBERTA SEPTEMBER, 2011 © Thaer Shunnar 2011 #12;ii Abstract Tenure security

  3. UCGE REPORTS Number 20310

    E-print Network

    Calgary, University of

    UCGE REPORTS Number 20310 Department of Geomatics Engineering Detection of High-Latitude Ionospheric Irregularities from GPS Radio Occultation (URL: http://www.geomatics FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE DEPARTMENT OF GEOMATICS ENGINEERING

  4. TRACING GALAXIES THROUGH COSMIC TIME WITH NUMBER DENSITY SELECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Leja, Joel; Van Dokkum, Pieter [Astronomy Department, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States)] [Astronomy Department, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Franx, Marijn [Sterrewacht Leiden, Leiden University, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands)] [Sterrewacht Leiden, Leiden University, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands)

    2013-03-20

    A central challenge in observational studies of galaxy formation is how to associate progenitor galaxies with their descendants at lower redshifts. One promising approach is to link galaxies at fixed number density rather than fixed luminosity or mass. This method is effective if stellar mass rank order is broadly conserved through cosmic time. In this paper, we use the Guo et al. semi-analytical model to analyze under what circumstances this assumption is valid in the context of a cosmological simulation. Specifically, we select progenitor galaxies at a constant number density and compare the stellar mass evolution of their descendants to the evolution at a constant number density. The median stellar mass of the descendants increases by a factor of four (0.6 dex) from z = 3 to z = 0. Constant number density selection reproduces this to within 40% (0.15 dex) over a wide range of number densities. We show that the discrepancy primarily results from scatter in the stellar mass growth rates and merging. After applying simple, observationally based corrections for these processes, the discrepancy is reduced to 12% (0.05 dex). We conclude that number density selection can be used to predict the median descendant mass of high-redshift progenitor galaxies. The main uncertainty in this study is that semi-analytical models do not reproduce the observed mass evolution of galaxies, which makes the quantitative aggregate effects of star formation, merging, and quenching on the rank order of galaxies somewhat uncertain.

  5. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Pd-99 (Palladium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume A `Nuclei with Z = 1 - 54' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms'. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Pd-99 (Palladium, atomic number Z = 46, mass number A = 99).

  6. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Ga-60 (Gallium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume A `Nuclei with Z = 1 - 54' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms'. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Ga-60 (Gallium, atomic number Z = 31, mass number A = 60).

  7. Number Sense Challenges

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    NCTM Illuminations

    2009-06-23

    The resource consists of 3 unrelated problem-solving challenges that can build number sense. Activity 1: Students explore the concept of a million to determine if 1 million dollar bills can fit into a standard suitcase. Activity 2: Students use a paper disk to estimate and name exact fractions between 0 and 1. Activity 3: Students explore the effect of addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division on decimal numbers by playing an engaging game.

  8. SeanNumbers-Ofala

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This web page contains links to a video and several downloadable pdf files documenting the discussions of a third grade class investigating even and odd numbers. Included are a 10-minute Blue Stream video segment in which students discuss a classmate's suggestion that the number 6 could be even or odd, a document providing background information on the investigation that led to the discussion, a transcript of the video, and the teacher's journal entry reflecting on the discussion and its implications.

  9. Fibonacci's Forgotten Number

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Ezra; Brunson, Cornelius

    2008-01-01

    Fibonacci's forgotten number is the sexagesimal number 1;22,7,42,33,4,40, which he described in 1225 as an approximation to the real root of x[superscript 3] + 2x[superscript 2] + 10x - 20. In decimal notation, this is 1.36880810785...and it is correct to nine decimal digits. Fibonacci did not reveal his method. How did he do it? There is also a…

  10. High Lundquist Number Reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardiner, T. A.

    2011-10-01

    In recent years there has been a resurgence of interest in exploring the properties of resistive magnetic reconnection layers. This was spurred on by the observations that at high Lundquist number these systems depart from the traditional Sweet-Parker scaling, opening the possibility of so-called fast resistive magnetic reconnection. This proceedings presents my recent efforts at simulating resistive magnetic reconnection layers in high Lundquist number systems highlighting the numerical algorithms, simulation results and convergence behavior.

  11. Dangerous Doubles (Doubling Numbers)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Stephanie Sharrer

    2012-07-14

    This lesson teaches students to use the strategy doubling numbers and doubles plus or minus one in order to use mental math to add one digit numbers. The students are engaged in learning through the read aloud of Double the Ducks by Stephen Murphy and then get to work with a partner to draw doubles and write equations that relate to their drawings. Students individually work on solving word problems using these strategies and manipulatives as necessary to solve.

  12. Mass spectrometry in plant proteomic analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Colas; O. Koroleva; P. J. Shaw

    2010-01-01

    The current revolution in proteomics has been generated by the combination of very sensitive mass spectrometers coupled to microcapillary liquid chromatography, specific proteolysis of protein mixtures and software that is capable of searching vast numbers of mass measurements against predicted peptides from sequenced genomes. The challenges of post?genomic plant biology include characterization of protein function, post?translational modifications and composition of

  13. Optimal Mass Transport for Registration and Warping

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven Haker; Lei Zhu; Allen Tannenbaum; Sigurd Angenent

    2004-01-01

    Image registration is the process of establishing a common geometric reference frame between two or more image data sets possibly taken at different times. In this paper we present a method for computing elastic registration and warping maps based on the Monge-Kantorovich theory of optimal mass transport. This mass transport method has a number of important characteristics. First, it is

  14. Oscillations of a String with Concentrated Masses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez, B. J.; Repetto, C. E.; Stia, C. R.; Welti, R.

    2007-01-01

    In this work, the oscillations of a homogeneous string fixed at both ends, and loaded with a finite number of masses, are studied. Through a simple device, the cases with one and two concentrated masses are analysed in detail. The normal modes are observed and the corresponding frequencies are recorded. The experimental results and the solutions…

  15. Citation: K. Nakamura et al. (Particle Data Group), JPG 37, 075021 (2010) (URL: http://pdg.lbl.gov) MASS (atomic mass units u) MASS (atomic mass units u) MASS (atomic mass units u) MASS (atomic mass units u)

    E-print Network

    ://pdg.lbl.gov) J = 1 2 MASS (atomic mass units u) MASS (atomic mass units u) MASS (atomic mass units u) MASS (atomic mass units u) The muon's mass is obtained from the muon-electron mass ratio as deter- mined from the measurement of Zeeman transition frequencies in muonium (+ e- atom). Since the electron's mass is most

  16. Halo occupation numbers and galaxy bias

    E-print Network

    J. A. Peacock; R. E. Smith

    2000-06-30

    We propose a heuristic model that displays the main features of realistic theories for galaxy bias. We show that the low-order clustering statistics of the dark-matter distribution depend almost entirely on the locations and density profiles of dark-matter haloes. A hypothetical galaxy catalogue depends on (i) the efficiency of galaxy formation, as manifested by the halo occupation number -- the number of galaxies brighter than some sample limit contained in a halo of a given mass; (ii) the location of these galaxies within their halo. The first factor is constrained by the empirical luminosity function of groups. For the second factor, we assume that one galaxy marks the halo centre, with any remaining galaxies acting as satellites that trace the halo mass. These simple assumptions amount to a recipe for non-local bias, in which the probability of finding a galaxy is not a simple function of its local mass density. We have applied this prescription to some CDM models of current interest, and find that the predictions are close to the observed galaxy correlations for a flat $\\Omega=0.3$ model ($\\Lambda$CDM), but not for an $\\Omega=1$ model with the same power spectrum ($\\tau$CDM). This is an inevitable consequence of cluster normalization for the power spectra: cluster-scale haloes of given mass have smaller core radii for high $\\Omega$, and hence display enhanced small-scale clustering. Finally, the pairwise velocity dispersion of galaxies in the $\\Lambda$CDM model is lower than that of the mass, allowing cluster-normalized models to yield a realistic Mach number for the peculiar velocity field. This is largely due to the strong variation of galaxy-formation efficiency with halo mass that is required in this model.

  17. Energy or Mass and Interaction

    E-print Network

    Gustavo R Gonzalez-Martin

    2010-07-19

    A review. Problems: 1-Many empirical parameters and large dimension number; 2-Gravitation and Electrodynamics are challenged by dark matter and energy. Energy and nonlinear electrodynamics are fundamental in a unified nonlinear interaction. Nuclear energy appears as nonlinear SU(2) magnetic energy. Gravitation and electromagnetism are unified giving Einstein's equation and a geometric energy momentum tensor. A solution energy in the newtonian limit gives the gravitational constant G. Outside of this limit G is variable. May be interpreted as dark matter or energy. In vacuum, known gravitational solutions are obtained. Electromagnetism is an SU(2) subgroup. A U(1) limit gives Maxwell's equations. Geometric fields determine a generalized Dirac equation and are the germ of quantum physics. Planck's h and of Einstein's c are given by the potential and the metric. Excitations have quanta of charge, flux and spin determining the FQHE. There are only three stable 1/2 spin fermions. Mass is a form of energy. The rest energies of the fermions give the proton/electron mass ratio. Potential excitations have energies equal to the weak boson masses allowing a geometric interpretation of Weinberg's angle. SU(2) gives the anomalous magnetic moments of proton, electron, neutron and generates nuclear range attractive potentials strong enough to produce the binding energies of the deuteron and other nuclides. Lepton and meson masses are due to topological excitations. The geometric mass spectrum is satisfactory. The proton has a triple structure. The alpha constant is a geometric number.

  18. Mass definition, mass measurement and recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Braudaway, D.W.

    1990-09-01

    Mass measurements may be greatly enhanced by an understanding of the operation of balances, the effects of buoyancy, practices encountered in weighing and the impacts and meanings of revelant mass standards. Beginning with the basic forces acting on weights, the equations brought to equality in balances are developed. These give explanation of the weighing process and an appreciation for some balance characteristics. The requirements of relevant mass standards are also reviewed. Recommendations are made for operation of practical mass calibration. An appendix is attached which gives computation examples using apparent mass'' and also gives a method for determining the density of mass artifacts or unknown materials. 2 tabs.

  19. Definitions Algebra of complex numbers

    E-print Network

    Lega, Joceline

    Definitions Algebra of complex numbers Polar coordinates form of complex numbers Check your knowledge Review of Complex Numbers Definitions, Algebra of complex numbers, Polar coordinates Review of Complex Numbers #12;Definitions Algebra of complex numbers Polar coordinates form of complex numbers Check

  20. Report number codes

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, R.N. (ed.)

    1985-05-01

    This publication lists all report number codes processed by the Office of Scientific and Technical Information. The report codes are substantially based on the American National Standards Institute, Standard Technical Report Number (STRN)-Format and Creation Z39.23-1983. The Standard Technical Report Number (STRN) provides one of the primary methods of identifying a specific technical report. The STRN consists of two parts: The report code and the sequential number. The report code identifies the issuing organization, a specific program, or a type of document. The sequential number, which is assigned in sequence by each report issuing entity, is not included in this publication. Part I of this compilation is alphabetized by report codes followed by issuing installations. Part II lists the issuing organization followed by the assigned report code(s). In both Parts I and II, the names of issuing organizations appear for the most part in the form used at the time the reports were issued. However, for some of the more prolific installations which have had name changes, all entries have been merged under the current name.

  1. Erdos Number Project

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Have you ever wondered about the mathematics behind the idea of "six degrees of separation?" The Erd's Number Project offers several fairly comprehensive lists of co-author relationships to elaborate (with a bit of humor) studies of the dynamics involved in "the collaboration graph," which the website says is "a 'real-life' fairly large graph for combinatorialists to study." The co-author relationship list begins with the Hungarian mathematician Paul Erd's and branches outward, so that anyone who co-authored with Erd's is assigned Erd's number 1 and anyone who co-authored with an Erd's number 1 is assigned the Erd's number 2, and so on. The website offers some suggestions for how the lists might be used, including finding your own Erd's number, testing algorithms, or just getting a sense of the different areas of mathematics represented by Erd's' co-authors. Visitors can also learn more about Erd's, read articles about collaboration in mathematics, or browse through the websites which are linked from the co-author data lists.

  2. Beyond the number domain.

    PubMed

    Cantlon, Jessica F; Platt, Michael L; Brannon, Elizabeth M

    2009-02-01

    In a world without numbers, we would be unable to build a skyscraper, hold a national election, plan a wedding or pay for a chicken at the market. The numerical symbols used in all these behaviors build on the approximate number system (ANS) which represents the number of discrete objects or events as a continuous mental magnitude. Here, we first discuss evidence that the ANS bears a set of behavioral and brain signatures that are universally displayed across animal species, human cultures and development. We then turn to the question of whether the ANS constitutes a specialized cognitive and neural domain - a question central to understanding how this system works, the nature of its evolutionary and developmental trajectory and its physical instantiation in the brain. PMID:19131268

  3. Third Grade Number Actiivities

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Nicola Godwin

    2012-01-01

    This page provides examples of Third Grade Number (Operations and Algebraic Thinking, Number and Operations in Base Ten, and Number Operations-Fractions) activities aligned with the Common Core State Standards. A CCSS standard is stated and the possible activities are listed below and linked. All activities are suitable for use in Math Centers, small group or whole class settings and are designed to elicit a range of responses and provide opportunities for students to communicate their reasoning and mathematical thinking. Instructions for each task are typed in large print and written in child-friendly language to enable students to work on activities independently after a brief introduction to the task. All files listed are in PDF format.

  4. Cosmological baryon and lepton number in the presence of electroweak fermion-number violation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, Jeffrey A.; Turner, Michael S.

    1990-01-01

    In the presence of rapid fermion-number violation due to nonperturbative electroweak effects certain relations between the baryon number of the Universe and the lepton numbers of the Universe are predicted. In some cases the electron-neutrino asymmetry is exactly specified in terms of the baryon asymmetry. Without introducing new particles, beyond the usual quarks and leptons, it is necessary that the Universe possess a nonzero value of B - L prior to the epoch of fermion-number violation if baryon and lepton asymmetries are to survive. Contrary to intuition, even though electroweak processes violate B + L, a nonzero value of B + L persists after the epoch of rapid fermion-number violation. If the standard model is extended to include lepton-number violation, for example through Majorana neutrino masses, then electroweak processes will reduce the baryon number to zero even in the presence of an initial B - L unless 20 M(sub L) approximately greater than the square root of (T(sub B - L) m(sub P1)) where M(sub L) sets the scale of lepton number violation and T(sub B - L) is the temperature at which a B - L asymmetry is produced. In many models this implies that neutrinos must be so light that they cannot contribute appreciably to the mass density of the Universe.

  5. Expansion of rational numbers in Mobius number systems Petr Kurka

    E-print Network

    Kurka, Petr

    Expansion of rational numbers in M¨obius number systems Petr K°urka Center for Theoretical Study- tions. We say that a M¨obius number system is rational, if it represents rational numbers by periodic. In the present paper we study expansions of rational numbers in the integer M¨obius number systems, whose

  6. Mass Spectrometry Mass spectrometry has emerged as

    E-print Network

    Heermann, Dieter W.

    Mass Spectrometry Mass spectrometry has emerged as the key technology for proteomics experiments 3D protein structures at a proteome scale using mass spectrometry experiments. Data Analysis Data and the development of suitable data analysis routines is a major challenge. Structural Proteomics Proteomics

  7. An Entrance Region Mass Transfer Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youngquist, G. R.

    1979-01-01

    This paper describes an experiment designed to reveal the consequences of the development of a concentration boundary layer. The rate of a mass transfer limited electrochemical reaction is measured and used to obtain the dependence of average Sherwood number on Reynolds number and entrance length. (Author/BB)

  8. Investigation by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry of the extracellular hemoglobin from the polychaete annelid Alvinella pompejana: an unusual hexagonal bilayer hemoglobin.

    PubMed

    Zal, F; Green, B N; Lallier, F H; Toulmond, A

    1997-09-30

    Alvinella pompejana inhabits deep-sea hydrothermal vent sites along the East-Pacific Rise, where it colonizes the walls of actively venting high-temperature chimneys. This worm is the most thermophilic metazoan known to date. In Alvinella, as in other alvinellids, oxygen transport is mainly achieved by an extracellular Hb dissolved in the vascular blood. This Hb has a molecular mass of 3833 +/- 14 kDa as revealed by multiangle laser light scattering (MALLS). Native and derivative Hb (reduced, carbamidomethylated, and deglycosylated) were analyzed by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). The data were processed by the maximum entropy deconvolution system (MaxEnt). We identified three groups of peaks for Alvinella Hb, at ca. 16, 23-26, and 50 kDa corresponding to (i) four monomeric globin chains, a1 (16 633.4), a2(16 532.4), a3 (16 419.6), and a4(16 348.9); (ii) four linker chains, L1-L4 (22 887. 1, 24 230.5, 26 233.6, and 25 974.4); and (iii) one disulfide-bonded trimer T (51 431.9) composed of globin chains b (16 477.5), c (16 916.1), and d (18 048.8). These Hbs were also subjected to SDS-PAGE analysis for comparative purposes. In addition, using the ESI-MS data we propose two alternative models for the quaternary structure of Alvinella's Hb. PMID:9305968

  9. Fibonacci numbers and words

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giuseppe Pirillo

    1997-01-01

    Let ? be the golden ratio (?5 + 1)\\/2, fn the nth Fibonacci finite word and f the Fibonacci infinite word. Let r be a rational number greater than (2 + ?)\\/2 and u a nondashempty word. If ur is a factor of f, then there exists n ? 1 such that u is a conjugate of fn and, moreover,

  10. Poissonian copy numbers

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2013-06-21

    Why do quantitative biologists sometimes claim that mRNA copy numbers are Poisson distributed in simple models of gene transcription? The first video segment addresses this question under the simplifying assumption that mRNA degradation occurs after a well-defined, deterministic lifetime, and the second segment illustrates the same basic concept for the more realistic situation in which degradation is stochastic.

  11. ALARA notes, Number 8

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, T.A.; Baum, J.W.; Beckman, M.C. [eds.] [eds.

    1993-10-01

    This document contains information dealing with the lessons learned from the experience of nuclear plants. In this issue the authors tried to avoid the `tyranny` of numbers and concentrated on the main lessons learned. Topics include: filtration devices for air pollution abatement, crack repair and inspection, and remote handling equipment.

  12. Baryon Number Violation

    E-print Network

    K. S. Babu; E. Kearns; U. Al-Binni; S. Banerjee; D. V. Baxter; Z. Berezhiani; M. Bergevin; S. Bhattacharya; S. Brice; R. Brock; T. W. Burgess; L. Castellanos; S. Chattopadhyay; M-C. Chen; E. Church; C. E. Coppola; D. F. Cowen; R. Cowsik; J. A. Crabtree; H. Davoudiasl; R. Dermisek; A. Dolgov; B. Dutta; G. Dvali; P. Ferguson; P. Fileviez Perez; T. Gabriel; A. Gal; F. Gallmeier; K. S. Ganezer; I. Gogoladze; E. S. Golubeva; V. B. Graves; G. Greene; T. Handler; B. Hartfiel; A. Hawari; L. Heilbronn; J. Hill; D. Jaffe; C. Johnson; C. K. Jung; Y. Kamyshkov; B. Kerbikov; B. Z. Kopeliovich; V. B. Kopeliovich; W. Korsch; T. Lachenmaier; P. Langacker; C-Y. Liu; W. J. Marciano; M. Mocko; R. N. Mohapatra; N. Mokhov; G. Muhrer; P. Mumm; P. Nath; Y. Obayashi; L. Okun; J. C. Pati; R. W. Pattie Jr.; D. G. Phillips II; C. Quigg; J. L. Raaf; S. Raby; E. Ramberg; A. Ray; A. Roy; A. Ruggles; U. Sarkar; A. Saunders; A. Serebrov; Q. Shafi; H. Shimizu; M. Shiozawa; R. Shrock; A. K. Sikdar; W. M. Snow; A. Soha; S. Spanier; G. C. Stavenga; S. Striganov; R. Svoboda; Z. Tang; Z. Tavartkiladze; L. Townsend; S. Tulin; A. Vainshtein; R. Van Kooten; C. E. M. Wagner; Z. Wang; B. Wehring; R. J. Wilson; M. Wise; M. Yokoyama; A. R. Young

    2013-11-21

    This report, prepared for the Community Planning Study - Snowmass 2013 - summarizes the theoretical motivations and the experimental efforts to search for baryon number violation, focussing on nucleon decay and neutron-antineutron oscillations. Present and future nucleon decay search experiments using large underground detectors, as well as planned neutron-antineutron oscillation search experiments with free neutron beams are highlighted.

  13. Number and Operation Games

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Allen

    2010-10-09

    Play the counting games below. First, help Curious George juggle the fruit in the Curious George Juggling game. Next, count the fish in the Fish Counting game. Then, try to catch the correct number of fish in the net. Go Fishing! ...

  14. Developing Early Number Sense

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Laura Domalik

    2010-01-01

    In this 5-minute video Laura Domalik defines number sense and provides instructional strategies for counting and vocabulary, including counting on, counting back, one more than (+1), one less than (-1), basic fact concepts of +1 and -1, and missing addends. She demonstrates a game called Garbage, which can be played alone or with a partner.

  15. Preschoolers' Number Sense

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moomaw, Sally; Carr, Victoria; Boat, Mary; Barnett, David

    2010-01-01

    A child's demonstration of his conceptual understanding of number bodes well for his future success in school mathematics. As youngsters' thinking becomes more logical, they apply one-to-one correspondence relationships to quantification. Yet, reliable assessment of young children's mathematical ability is difficult because of social and emotional…

  16. Introducing Complex Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trudgian, Timothy

    2009-01-01

    One of the difficulties in any teaching of mathematics is to bridge the divide between the abstract and the intuitive. Throughout school one encounters increasingly abstract notions, which are more and more difficult to relate to everyday experiences. This article examines a familiar approach to thinking about negative numbers, that is an…

  17. UCGE Reports Number 20318

    E-print Network

    UCGE Reports Number 20318 Department of Geomatics Engineering Modelling Spatial Dependence in Multivariate Regression Models of Grizzly Bear Health in Alberta, Canada (URL: http://www.geomatics DEPARTMENT OF GEOMATICS ENGINEERING CALGARY, ALBERTA SEPTEMBER, 2010 © Tracy Timmins 2010 #12;ii Abstract

  18. UCGE Reports Number 20271

    E-print Network

    Calgary, University of

    UCGE Reports Number 20271 Department of Geomatics Engineering Use of the Global Environmental Multiscale Model for Atmospheric Retrieval from Radio Occultation for Canadian Events (URL: http://www.geomatics DEPARTMENT OF GEOMATICS ENGINEERING CALGARY, ALBERTA JUNE, 2008 © Lance de Groot 2008 #12;ii Approval Page

  19. UCGE Reports Number 20340

    E-print Network

    UCGE Reports Number 20340 Department of Geomatics Engineering Remote sensing-based framework for forecasting forest fire danger conditions over boreal forest (URL: http://www.geomatics DEPARTMENT OF GEOMATICS ENGINEERING CALGARY, ALBERTA SEPTEMBER, 2011 © Musa. Shammi Akther 2011 #12;iii

  20. UCGE Reports Number 20283

    E-print Network

    UCGE Reports Number 20283 Department of Geomatics Engineering Developing Multimedia Land Record Systems (URL: http://www.geomatics.ucalgary.ca/research/publications) by Abdel Rahman Muhsen January 2009 OF MASTER OF SCIENCE DEPARTMENT OF GEOMATICS ENGINEERING CALGARY, ALBERTA JANUARY, 2009 © Abdel Rahman

  1. UCGE Reports Number 20184

    E-print Network

    Calgary, University of

    UCGE Reports Number 20184 Department of Geomatics Engineering IF GPS Signal Simulator Development and Verification (URL: http://www.geomatics.ucalgary.ca/links/GradTheses.html) by Lei Dong December 2003 #12;THE DEPARTMENT OF GEOMATICS ENGINEERING CALGARY, ALBERTA November, 2003 © Lei Dong 2003 #12;ABSTRACT A software

  2. UCGE Reports Number 20277

    E-print Network

    Calgary, University of

    UCGE Reports Number 20277 Department of Geomatics Engineering Ultra Wideband Augmented GPS (URL: http://www.geomatics.ucalgary.ca/research/publications) by David Sung-Tat Chiu December 2008 #12 OF GEOMATICS ENGINEERING CALGARY, ALBERTA DECEMBER, 2008 © David Sung-Tat Chiu 2008 ii #12;ABSTRACT UWB has

  3. UCGE Reports Number 20234

    E-print Network

    Calgary, University of

    UCGE Reports Number 20234 Department of Geomatics Engineering Interference Effects on GPS Receivers in Weak Signal Environments (URL: http://www.geomatics.ucalgary.ca/links/GradTheses.html) by Nyunook Kim OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE DEPARTMENT OF GEOMATICS ENGINEERING CALGARY, ALBERTA January

  4. UCGE Reports Number 20373

    E-print Network

    UCGE Reports Number 20373 Department of Geomatics Engineering Peri- Urban Land Tenure in Ghana (Accra): Case Study of Bortianor (URL: http://www.geomatics.ucalgary.ca/graduatetheses) by Ephraim Newman FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTERS OF GEOMATICS ENGINEERING GEOMATICS ENGINEERING

  5. UCGE Reports Number 20372

    E-print Network

    UCGE Reports Number 20372 Department of Geomatics Engineering Land Registration Use: Sales in a State-Subsidised Housing Estate in South Africa (URL: http://www.geomatics IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY DEPARTMENT OF GEOMATICS

  6. UCGE Reports Number 20272

    E-print Network

    UCGE Reports Number 20272 Department of Geomatics Engineering Fiscal Cadastral Systems Reform A Case Study of the General Valuation Project 2000 in the City of Cape Town (URL: http://www.geomatics OF PHILOSOPHY DEPARTMENT OF GEOMATICS ENGINEERING CALGARY, ALBERTA JUNE, 2008 © Jennifer Whittal 2008 #12;iii

  7. Paint by Numbers Revived!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hahn, Nic

    2012-01-01

    Remember paint by numbers? This revived trend was a perfect solution to teaching geometric shapes to the author's first-grade students. Geometric shapes are identified and used in early elementary art classrooms, but this lesson gives students a deeper understanding of shape, encourages problem-solving, and makes a strong correlation between math…

  8. Playing the Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, William R.

    2010-01-01

    Some say that the educators now have a gender-stratified system of higher education, with nearly 60 percent of all undergraduates being women and fewer men attending each year. The battle for gender equity for women in higher education has been a long and contentious one. In the decades since, increasing numbers of women have gone to college, to…

  9. Houses with Height Numbers

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Peter Boon

    2004-01-01

    This applet allows students to freely build shapes by stacking cubes and "explore the relation between a building (house) consisting of cubes and the height numbers representing the height of the different parts of the building." This exercise helps students visualize and understand the concepts of volume and three-dimensional, measurable space.

  10. Higgs-Thomson-Fibonacci generation of lepton and quark masses

    SciTech Connect

    Rosen, G. [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    1996-02-01

    Lepton-quark mass may derive from the primary Higgs-mechanism fermion mass by a fundamental law for fermion mass modification, without extension of the minimal standard model. Accurate mass values are obtained for all charged leptons and quarks if the fundamental law for fermion mass modification is given by m = m{sub e}Q{sup 2}(exp {lambda}{sub n}), where m{sub e} is the Higgs-generated electron mass, Q is the charge number of the lepton or quark and {lambda}{sub n}, a linearly additive parameter that depends on the fermion principal quantum number n, is simply related to the small Fibonacci numbers. The three neutrino masses are zero, and the top mass is close to m{sub t} = 163.6 GeV.

  11. Magic Numbers for Sphere Packings: Experimental Verification in Free Xenon Clusters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Echt; K. Sattler; E. Recknagel

    1981-01-01

    The existence of magic numbers for atomic microclusters has been found experimentally for the first time. The magic numbers n* manifest themselves in the mass spectra of free xenon clusters, nucleated in the gas phase. The observed numbers n*=13, 55, and 147 coincide with the numbers of spheres required for complete-shell icosahedra. The appearance of further magic numbers (19, 25,

  12. Beyond complex numbers Johanna Ramo

    E-print Network

    Wright, Francis

    Beyond complex numbers Johanna R¨am¨o July 22, 2010 These notes are written for the Goldsmiths- rational reals, negatives and finally to complex numbers. It has not always been easy to accept new numbers. Negative numbers were rejected for cen- turies, and complex numbers, the square roots of negative numbers

  13. Origins of mass

    E-print Network

    Wilczek, Frank

    Newtonian mechanics posited mass as a primary quality of matter, incapable of further elucidation. We now see Newtonian mass as an emergent property. That mass-concept is tremendously useful in the approximate description ...

  14. Ultra High Mass Range Mass Spectrometer System

    DOEpatents

    Reilly, Peter T. A. [Knoxville, TN

    2005-12-06

    Applicant's present invention comprises mass spectrometer systems that operate in a mass range from 1 to 10.sup.16 DA. The mass spectrometer system comprising an inlet system comprising an aerodynamic lens system, a reverse jet being a gas flux generated in an annulus moving in a reverse direction and a multipole ion guide; a digital ion trap; and a thermal vaporization/ionization detector system. Applicant's present invention further comprises a quadrupole mass spectrometer system comprising an inlet system having a quadrupole mass filter and a thermal vaporization/ionization detector system. Applicant's present invention further comprises an inlet system for use with a mass spectrometer system, a method for slowing energetic particles using an inlet system. Applicant's present invention also comprises a detector device and a method for detecting high mass charged particles.

  15. Mass Distribution and Mass Transport in the Earth System: Recent Scientific Progress Due to Interdisciplinary Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusche, Jürgen; Klemann, Volker; Sneeuw, Nico

    2014-11-01

    This Special Issue on "Mass Distribution and Mass Transport in the Earth System: Recent Scientific Progress due to Interdisciplinary Research" reports a number of findings resulting from a collaborative effort run from 2006 until 2013, in the framework of the DFG Priority Program 1257 "Mass Distribution and Mass Transport in the Earth System". Contributions have been arranged along five lines, i.e. (1) improvements in geodesy: satellite mass monitoring through gravimetry and altimetry, (2) applications in large-scale hydrology, (3) applications in solid Earth research, (4) applications in cryospheric research, (5) applications in ocean sciences.

  16. Metrics for comparing plasma mass filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fetterman, Abraham J.; Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    2011-10-01

    High-throughput mass separation of nuclear waste may be useful for optimal storage, disposal, or environmental remediation. The most dangerous part of nuclear waste is the fission product, which produces most of the heat and medium-term radiation. Plasmas are well-suited to separating nuclear waste because they can separate many different species in a single step. A number of plasma devices have been designed for such mass separation, but there has been no standardized comparison between these devices. We define a standard metric, the separative power per unit volume, and derive it for three different plasma mass filters: the plasma centrifuge, Ohkawa filter, and the magnetic centrifugal mass filter.

  17. Storage and retrieval of mass spectral information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hohn, M. E.; Humberston, M. J.; Eglinton, G.

    1977-01-01

    Computer handling of mass spectra serves two main purposes: the interpretation of the occasional, problematic mass spectrum, and the identification of the large number of spectra generated in the gas-chromatographic-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) analysis of complex natural and synthetic mixtures. Methods available fall into the three categories of library search, artificial intelligence, and learning machine. Optional procedures for coding, abbreviating and filtering a library of spectra minimize time and storage requirements. Newer techniques make increasing use of probability and information theory in accessing files of mass spectral information.

  18. Metrics For Comparing Plasma Mass Filters

    SciTech Connect

    Abraham J. Fetterman and Nathaniel J. Fisch

    2012-08-15

    High-throughput mass separation of nuclear waste may be useful for optimal storage, disposal, or environmental remediation. The most dangerous part of nuclear waste is the fission product, which produces most of the heat and medium-term radiation. Plasmas are well-suited to separating nuclear waste because they can separate many different species in a single step. A number of plasma devices have been designed for such mass separation, but there has been no standardized comparison between these devices. We define a standard metric, the separative power per unit volume, and derive it for three different plasma mass filters: the plasma centrifuge, Ohkawa filter, and the magnetic centrifugal mass filter. __________________________________________________

  19. Metrics for comparing plasma mass filters

    SciTech Connect

    Fetterman, Abraham J.; Fisch, Nathaniel J. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States)

    2011-10-15

    High-throughput mass separation of nuclear waste may be useful for optimal storage, disposal, or environmental remediation. The most dangerous part of nuclear waste is the fission product, which produces most of the heat and medium-term radiation. Plasmas are well-suited to separating nuclear waste because they can separate many different species in a single step. A number of plasma devices have been designed for such mass separation, but there has been no standardized comparison between these devices. We define a standard metric, the separative power per unit volume, and derive it for three different plasma mass filters: the plasma centrifuge, Ohkawa filter, and the magnetic centrifugal mass filter.

  20. THE LOCAL Hi MASS FUNCTION

    E-print Network

    Martin Zwaan

    1998-01-01

    The local Hi mass function (HiMF), like the optical luminosity function, is an important observational input into models of cosmology and galaxy evolution. It is a helpful framework for assessing the number density of gas rich dwarf galaxies, which are easily missed in optically selected galaxy samples, as well as for determining the cosmological density of neutral gas at the present epoch. For Hi masses larger than 10 8 M ? the HiMF is determined with reasonable accuracy and the same function is obtained from both optical and Hi selected samples of galaxies. However, the faint tail below MHI Hi clouds which hypothetically could contribute significantly to the local gas density. Determining the faint tail far below Hi masses of 10 7 M ? will be a great challenge for the future. 1

  1. All About Numbers

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-01-01

    In this 14-min video British teacher Rosalind Caren demonstrates group activities designed to develop number sense, fluency with addition and subtraction fact families, and reasoning skills. Caren exhibits effective questioning techniques and routines. Headteacher/math coordinator Kate Frood describes the guiding principles and expectations of teaching at the school. Following a class observation Frood provides constructive feedback to Caren and her teaching assistants.

  2. Nature by Numbers

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This 4-minute computer animation highlights three forms in nature that have connections with numbers and geometry. The Fibonacci sequence and the golden ratio are shown relating to the chambered nautilus shell and the sunflower seed pattern. The Delaunay triangulation and Voronoi tessellation are shown to simulate the capillary distribution on a dragonfly wing. Included are descriptions of the mathematics and stills from the production.

  3. Maths Doctor: Number

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Maths Doctor website from Macmillan Publishers contains more than 250 lessons that are free for anyone. Each lesson includes a three to five minute video tutorial on the topic and a related worksheet for the student to complete. Each worksheet has a convenient QR code that a student can scan to access the video. The Number section contains numerous lessons ranging from Conversion of Units to Dividing Fractions to Subtracting Negative Integers.

  4. Greek Number Theory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Stillwell

    \\u000a Number theory is the second large field of mathematics that comes to us from the Pythagoreans via Euclid. The Pythagorean\\u000a theorem led mathematicians to the study of squares and sums of squares; Euclid drew attention to the primes by proving that there are infinitely many of them. Euclid’s investigations were based on the so-called Euclidean algorithm, a method for finding

  5. Total Number of Municipalities

    E-print Network

    Sibille, Etienne

    Elected Officials Cities Contact Number Las Vegas, NV 702-229-6405 San Jose, CA 408-277-4000 Phoenix , AZ-427-4581 Tucson, AZ 520-791-4213 High African American Representation High Women Representation #12;Appendix 3 Washington 1 0 0.0% 14.8% 0.0 Dravosburg Boro Allegheny 1 0 0.0% 0.5% 0.0 Duquesne City Allegheny 1 0 0.0% 47

  6. The Remarkable Number "1"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, G. Donald

    2014-09-01

    In human history, the origin of the numbers came from definite practical needs. Indeed, there is strong evidence that numbers were created before writing. The number "1", dating back at least 20,000 years, was found as a counting symbol on a bone. The famous statement by the German mathematician Leopold Kronecker (1823-1891), "God made the integers; all else is the work of man," has spawned a lively modern philosophical discussion, and this discussion begins by trying to get a philosophical handle on "1." This approach remains under heavy discussion, and is more-or-less unresolved (Frege in Die Grundlagen der Arithmetik (English: The foundations of arithmetic). Polhman, 1884). In this note, we consider the many facets of "one" in it many guises and applications. Nonetheless, "one" has multiple meanings, from the very practical to the abstract, from mathematics to science to basically everything. We examine here a mere slice of mathematical history with a focus on the most basic and applicable concept therein. It troubles many, particularly students, even today.

  7. Number Needed To… $ave?

    PubMed

    Rocker, Graeme M; Verma, Jennifer Y; Demmons, Jillian; Mittmann, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    The 'Number Needed to Treat' (NNT) is a useful measure for estimating the number of patients that would need to receive a therapeutic intervention to avoid one of the adverse events that the treatment is designed to prevent. We explored the possibility of an adaption of NNT to estimate the 'Number Needed to $ave' (NN$) as a new, conceptual systems metric to estimate potential cost-savings to the health system from implementation of a treatment, or in this case, a program. We used the outcomes of the INSPIRED COPD Outreach ProgramTM to calculate that 26 patients would need to complete the program to avoid healthcare expenditures of $100,000, based on hospital bed days avoided. The NN$ does not translate into 'cost savings' per se, but redirection of resource expenditures for other purposes. We propose that the NN$ metric, if further developed, could help to inform system-level resource allocation decisions in a manner similar to the way that the NNT metric helps to inform individual-level treatment decisions. PMID:25662619

  8. Parasites in algae mass culture

    PubMed Central

    Carney, Laura T.; Lane, Todd W.

    2014-01-01

    Parasites are now known to be ubiquitous across biological systems and can play an important role in modulating algal populations. However, there is a lack of extensive information on their role in artificial ecosystems such as algal production ponds and photobioreactors. Parasites have been implicated in the demise of algal blooms. Because individual mass culture systems often tend to be unialgal and a select few algal species are in wide scale application, there is an increased potential for parasites to have a devastating effect on commercial scale monoculture. As commercial algal production continues to expand with a widening variety of applications, including biofuel, food and pharmaceuticals, the parasites associated with algae will become of greater interest and potential economic impact. A number of important algal parasites have been identified in algal mass culture systems in the last few years and this number is sure to grow as the number of commercial algae ventures increases. Here, we review the research that has identified and characterized parasites infecting mass cultivated algae, the techniques being proposed and or developed to control them, and the potential impact of parasites on the future of the algal biomass industry. PMID:24936200

  9. Honors question 3: Complex numbers (revisited). Arithmetic of complex numbers

    E-print Network

    Leininger, Christopher J.

    Honors question 3: Complex numbers (revisited). Arithmetic of complex numbers Recall that the complex numbers are formally defined as C = {a + bi} where a and b can be any real numbers and i is treated as a variable (so we can identify the complex numbers with the set of linear polynomials with real

  10. Using System Mass (SM), Equivalent Mass (EM), Equivalent System Mass (ESM) or Life Cycle Mass (LCM) in Advanced Life Support (ALS) Reporting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry

    2003-01-01

    The Advanced Life Support (ALS) has used a single number, Equivalent System Mass (ESM), for both reporting progress and technology selection. ESM is the launch mass required to provide a space system. ESM indicates launch cost. ESM alone is inadequate for technology selection, which should include other metrics such as Technology Readiness Level (TRL) and Life Cycle Cost (LCC) and also consider perfom.arxe 2nd risk. ESM has proven difficult to implement as a reporting metric, partly because it includes non-mass technology selection factors. Since it will not be used exclusively for technology selection, a new reporting metric can be made easier to compute and explain. Systems design trades-off performance, cost, and risk, but a risk weighted cost/benefit metric would be too complex to report. Since life support has fixed requirements, different systems usually have roughly equal performance. Risk is important since failure can harm the crew, but it is difficult to treat simply. Cost is not easy to estimate, but preliminary space system cost estimates are usually based on mass, which is better estimated than cost. Amass-based cost estimate, similar to ESM, would be a good single reporting metric. The paper defines and compares four mass-based cost estimates, Equivalent Mass (EM), Equivalent System Mass (ESM), Life Cycle Mass (LCM), and System Mass (SM). EM is traditional in life support and includes mass, volume, power, cooling and logistics. ESM is the specifically defined ALS metric, which adds crew time and possibly other cost factors to EM. LCM is a new metric, a mass-based estimate of LCC measured in mass units. SM includes only the factors of EM that are originally measured in mass, the hardware and logistics mass. All four mass-based metrics usually give similar comparisons. SM is by far the simplest to compute and easiest to explain.

  11. q Numbers of quantum groups, Fibonacci numbers, and orthogonal polynomials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. I. Kachurik

    1998-01-01

    We obtain algebraic relations (identities) for q-numbers that do not contain q\\u000a ?-factors. We derive a formula that expresses any q-number [x] in terms of the q-number [2]. We establish the relationship between the q-numbers [n] and the Fibonacci numbers, Chebyshev polynomials, and other special functions. The sums of combinations of q-numbers, in particular, the sums of their powers, are

  12. Displaying Number Patterns

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Bill Kreahling, Bob Panoff, and the Shodor Education Foundation

    2011-05-05

    This applet from the E-Examples of NCTM, which could be used as an interactive presentation tool, allows the student to link numerical patterns to a visual display as a number pattern is displayed on a calculator and on a hundred board simultaneously. The learner's task is to compare counting sequences on the calculator with the patterns they generate on the hundred board with the goal of helping students to see patterns and then make predictions. Instructions for using the applet are provided as well as background for the teacher.

  13. By the Numbers

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    American Association for the Advancement of Science

    2009-01-01

    Learners describe objects in a room using only numbers and shapes. They can measure the object (like a desk) and make a list of facts about it (e.g. 21 inches tall, 42 inches wide, 3 different colors). Then other learners try to identify the objects described. When learners set up a free account at Kinetic City, they can answer bonus questions at the end of the activity as a quick assessment. As a larger assessment, learners can complete the Bug Blaster game after they've completed several activities.

  14. Neither Name, Nor Number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holik, Federico

    2014-03-01

    Since its origins, quantum mechanics has presented problems with the concept of individuality. It is argued that quantum particles do not have individuality, and so, one can speak about "entities without identity". On the contrary, we claim that the problem of quantum non individuality goes deeper, and that one of its most important features is the fact that there are quantum systems for which particle number is not well defined. In this work, we continue this discussion in relation to the problem about the one and the many.

  15. Finite Neutrosophic Complex Numbers

    E-print Network

    W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy; Florentin Smarandache

    2011-11-01

    In this book for the first time the authors introduce the notion of real neutrosophic complex numbers. Further the new notion of finite complex modulo integers is defined. For every $C(Z_n)$ the complex modulo integer $i_F$ is such that $2F_i = n - 1$. Several algebraic structures on $C(Z_n)$ are introduced and studied. Further the notion of complex neutrosophic modulo integers is introduced. Vector spaces and linear algebras are constructed using these neutrosophic complex modulo integers.

  16. Relative Sunspot Number (RSN)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2013-02-15

    This is an activity about assessing magnetic activity on the Sun as astronomers do. Learners will select and compare five visible light solar images and identify and label each individual sunspot group. Then, learners will count all possible sunspots from each group and use both counts in a standard equation to calculate the Relative Sunspot Number for each respective solar image. This activity requires access to the internet to obtain images from the SOHO image archive. This is Activity 8 of the Space Weather Forecast curriculum.

  17. Mass spectrometric immunoassay

    DOEpatents

    Nelson, Randall W (Phoenix, AZ); Williams, Peter (Phoenix, AZ); Krone, Jennifer Reeve (Granbury, TX)

    2007-12-04

    Rapid mass spectrometric immunoassay methods for detecting and/or quantifying antibody and antigen analytes utilizing affinity capture to isolate the analytes and internal reference species (for quantification) followed by mass spectrometric analysis of the isolated analyte/internal reference species. Quantification is obtained by normalizing and calibrating obtained mass spectrum against the mass spectrum obtained for an antibody/antigen of known concentration.

  18. Mass spectrometric immunoassay

    DOEpatents

    Nelson, Randall W.; Williams, Peter; Krone, Jennifer Reeve

    2005-12-13

    Rapid mass spectrometric immunoassay methods for detecting and/or quantifying antibody and antigen analytes utilizing affinity capture to isolate the analytes and internal reference species (for quantification) followed by mass spectrometric analysis of the isolated analyte/internal reference species. Quantification is obtained by normalizing and calibrating obtained mass spectrum against the mass spectrum obtained for an antibody/antigen of known concentration.

  19. Mass spectrometric immunoassay

    DOEpatents

    Nelson, Randall W; Williams, Peter; Krone, Jennifer Reeve

    2013-07-16

    Rapid mass spectrometric immunoassay methods for detecting and/or quantifying antibody and antigen analytes utilizing affinity capture to isolate the analytes and internal reference species (for quantification) followed by mass spectrometric analysis of the isolated analyte/internal reference species. Quantification is obtained by normalizing and calibrating obtained mass spectrum against the mass spectrum obtained for an antibody/antigen of known concentration.

  20. Mass of the Earth

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-07-11

    In this activity, learners use basic measurements of the Earth and pieces of rock and iron to estimate the mass of the Earth. Learners will calculate mass, volume, and density, convert units, and employ the water displacement method. To calculate an even more accurate estimate of the mass of the Earth, this resource includes optional instructions on how to measure the iron core mass.

  1. Thermal desorption mass spectrometer for mass metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silvestri, Z.; Azouigui, S.; Bouhtiyya, S.; Macé, S.; Plimmer, M. D.; Pinot, P.; Tayeb-Chandoul, F.; Hannachi, R.

    2014-04-01

    This article presents a device for the study of physisorbed elements on polished surfaces (diameter ?56 mm) of the kind used in mass metrology. The technique is based on mass spectrometry of molecules desorbed after heating under vacuum of the analyzed surface. We describe a first application of the device to study current and future mass standards in order to understand how their surface reactivity depends on storage conditions, cleaning processes, and polishing methods. Surface contamination analysis by thermal desorption mass spectrometry to examine the effect of cleaning on pure iridium is given as an example.

  2. Thermal desorption mass spectrometer for mass metrology.

    PubMed

    Silvestri, Z; Azouigui, S; Bouhtiyya, S; Macé, S; Plimmer, M D; Pinot, P; Tayeb-Chandoul, F; Hannachi, R

    2014-04-01

    This article presents a device for the study of physisorbed elements on polished surfaces (diameter ?56 mm) of the kind used in mass metrology. The technique is based on mass spectrometry of molecules desorbed after heating under vacuum of the analyzed surface. We describe a first application of the device to study current and future mass standards in order to understand how their surface reactivity depends on storage conditions, cleaning processes, and polishing methods. Surface contamination analysis by thermal desorption mass spectrometry to examine the effect of cleaning on pure iridium is given as an example. PMID:24784663

  3. Complex Numbers First: Define i

    E-print Network

    Sands, Jonathan W.

    Complex Numbers First: Define i Solve the quadratic: Ryan Tarring Max Van Over Mike Diamond Mentor therefore, #12;The set of complex numbers is when we add real numbers to real multiples of this imaginary unit Complex numbers are written in the form: a +bi for real numbers a&b if b is not equal to 0 #12

  4. Crossing Numbers and Parameterized Complexity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael J. Pelsmajer; Marcus Schaefer

    2007-01-01

    The odd crossing number of G is the smallest number of pairs of edges that cross an odd number of times in any drawing of G. We show that there always is a drawing realizing the odd crossing number of G that uses at most 9k crossings, where k is the odd crossing number of G. As a consequence of

  5. i-mass.com

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    i-mass.com is an international mass spectrometry Web resource. It features news and feature articles related to mass spectrometry, gleans important updates from scientific journals, and provides conference and career links. This month's features include a piece about organic molecules hitchhiking aboard a comet, an abstract on using mass spectrometry to image tissue, and program highlights from last month's American Society for Mass Spectrometry (ASMS) conference in Chicago. Researchers and professors in physical chemistry, biochemistry, or any discipline using mass spectrometry should have a look at i-mass.com.

  6. Heavy quark masses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Testa, Massimo

    1990-01-01

    In the large quark mass limit, an argument which identifies the mass of the heavy-light pseudoscalar or scalar bound state with the renormalized mass of the heavy quark is given. The following equation is discussed: m(sub Q) = m(sub B), where m(sub Q) and m(sub B) are respectively the mass of the heavy quark and the mass of the pseudoscalar bound state.

  7. Linear mass actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holloway, Sidney E., III (inventor); Crossley, Edward A., Jr. (inventor); Jones, Irby W. (inventor); Miller, James B. (inventor); Davis, C. Calvin (inventor); Behun, Vaughn D. (inventor); Goodrich, Lewis R., Sr. (inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A linear mass actuator includes an upper housing and a lower housing connectable to each other and having a central passageway passing axially through a mass that is linearly movable in the central passageway. Rollers mounted in the upper and lower housings in frictional engagement with the mass translate the mass linearly in the central passageway and drive motors operatively coupled to the roller means, for rotating the rollers and driving the mass axially in the central passageway.

  8. Citation: J. Beringer et al. (Particle Data Group), PR D86, 010001 (2012) (URL: http://pdg.lbl.gov) MASS (atomic mass units u) MASS (atomic mass units u) MASS (atomic mass units u) MASS (atomic mass units u)

    E-print Network

    ://pdg.lbl.gov) µ J = 1 2 µ MASS (atomic mass units u)µ MASS (atomic mass units u)µ MASS (atomic mass units u)µ MASS (atomic mass units u) The muon's mass is obtained from the muon-electron mass ratio as deter- mined from the measurement of Zeeman transition frequencies in muonium (µ+ e- atom). Since the electron's mass is most

  9. Neutrino number of the universe

    SciTech Connect

    Kolb, E.W.

    1981-08-10

    The influence of grand unified theories on the lepton number of the universe is reviewed. A scenario is presented for the generation of a large (>> 1) lepton number and a small (<< 1) baryon number. 15 references.

  10. Series of Reciprocal Triangular Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruckman, Paul; Dence, Joseph B.; Dence, Thomas P.; Young, Justin

    2013-01-01

    Reciprocal triangular numbers have appeared in series since the very first infinite series were summed. Here we attack a number of subseries of the reciprocal triangular numbers by methodically expressing them as integrals.

  11. Imaging mass spectrometer with mass tags

    DOEpatents

    Felton, James S.; Wu, Kuang Jen J.; Knize, Mark G.; Kulp, Kristen S.; Gray, Joe W.

    2013-01-29

    A method of analyzing biological material by exposing the biological material to a recognition element, that is coupled to a mass tag element, directing an ion beam of a mass spectrometer to the biological material, interrogating at least one region of interest area from the biological material and producing data, and distributing the data in plots.

  12. Imaging mass spectrometer with mass tags

    DOEpatents

    Felton, James S.; Wu, Kuang Jen; Knize, Mark G.; Kulp, Kristen S.; Gray, Joe W.

    2010-06-01

    A method of analyzing biological material by exposing the biological material to a recognition element, that is coupled to a mass tag element, directing an ion beam of a mass spectrometer to the biological material, interrogating at least one region of interest area from the biological material and producing data, and distributing the data in plots.

  13. Isotope dilution mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heumann, Klaus G.

    1992-09-01

    In the past isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) has usually been applied using the formation of positive thermal ions of metals. Especially in calibrating other analytical methods and for the certification of standard reference materials this type of IDMS became a routine method. Today, the progress in this field lies in the determination of ultra trace amounts of elements, e.g. of heavy metals in Antarctic ice and in aerosols in remote areas down to the sub-pg g-1 and sub-pg m-3 levels respectively, in the analysis of uranium and thorium at concentrations of a few pg g-1 in sputter targets for the production of micro- electronic devices or in the determination of sub-picogram amounts of230Th in corals for geochemical age determinations and of226Ra in rock samples. During the last few years negative thermal ionization IDMS has become a frequently used method. The determination of very small amounts of selenium and technetium as well as of other transition metals such as vanadium, chromium, molybdenum and tungsten are important examples in this field. Also the measurement of silicon in connection with a re-determination of Avogadro's number and osmium analyses for geological age determinations by the Re/Os method are of special interest. Inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry is increasingly being used for multi-element analyses by the isotope dilution technique. Determinations of heavy metals in samples of marine origin are representative examples for this type of multi-element analysis by IDMS. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry systems have also been successfully applied after chelation of metals (for example Pt determination in clinical samples) or for the determination of volatile element species in the environment, e.g. dimethyl sulfide. However, IDMS--specially at low concentration levels in the environment--seems likely to be one of the most powerful analytical methods for speciation in the future. This has been shown, up to now, for species of iodine, selenium and some heavy metals in aquatic systems.

  14. Modular redundant number systems

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1998-05-31

    With the increased use of public key cryptography, faster modular multiplication has become an important cryptographic issue. Almost all public key cryptography, including most elliptic curve systems, use modular multiplication. Modular multiplication, particularly for the large public key modulii, is very slow. Increasing the speed of modular multiplication is almost synonymous with increasing the speed of public key cryptography. There are two parts to modular multiplication: multiplication and modular reduction. Though there are fast methods for multiplying and fast methods for doing modular reduction, they do not mix well. Most fast techniques require integers to be in a special form. These special forms are not related and converting from one form to another is more costly than using the standard techniques. To this date it has been better to use the fast modular reduction technique coupled with standard multiplication. Standard modular reduction is much more costly than standard multiplication. Fast modular reduction (Montgomery`s method) reduces the reduction cost to approximately that of a standard multiply. Of the fast multiplication techniques, the redundant number system technique (RNS) is one of the most popular. It is simple, converting a large convolution (multiply) into many smaller independent ones. Not only do redundant number systems increase speed, but the independent parts allow for parallelization. RNS form implies working modulo another constant. Depending on the relationship between these two constants; reduction OR division may be possible, but not both. This paper describes a new technique using ideas from both Montgomery`s method and RNS. It avoids the formula problem and allows fast reduction and multiplication. Since RNS form is used throughout, it also allows the entire process to be parallelized.

  15. Abstract. Geometry and Complex Numbers GEOMETRY AND COMPLEX NUMBERS

    E-print Network

    Lee, Carl

    Abstract. Geometry and Complex Numbers GEOMETRY AND COMPLEX NUMBERS JERZY DYDAK Contents 1. Introduction 2 2. Solving equations 10 3. Geometric proofs 20 Key words and phrases. Complex numbers. 1 #12-Euclidean, Projective, and Discrete' by Michael Henle (2nd edition, Prentice Hall). (2) `Complex numbers and geometry

  16. Number Games, Magnitude Representation, and Basic Number Skills in Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whyte, Jemma Catherine; Bull, Rebecca

    2008-01-01

    The effect of 3 intervention board games (linear number, linear color, and nonlinear number) on young children's (mean age = 3.8 years) counting abilities, number naming, magnitude comprehension, accuracy in number-to-position estimation tasks, and best-fit numerical magnitude representations was examined. Pre- and posttest performance was…

  17. Pauli Pascal Pyramids, Pauli Fibonacci Numbers, and Pauli Jacobsthal Numbers

    E-print Network

    Martin Erik Horn

    2007-11-26

    The three anti-commutative two-dimensional Pauli Pascal triangles can be generalized into multi-dimensional Pauli Pascal hyperpyramids. Fibonacci and Jacobsthal numbers are then generalized into Pauli Fibonacci numbers, Pauli Jacobsthal numbers, and Pauli Fibonacci numbers of higher order. And the question is: are Pauli rabbits killer rabbits?

  18. Generalized Lucas Numbers and Relations with Generalized Fibonacci Numbers

    E-print Network

    Kaygisiz, Kenan

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present a new generalization of the Lucas numbers by matrix representation using Genaralized Lucas Polynomials. We give some properties of this new generalization and some relations between the generalized order-k Lucas numbers and generalized order-k Fibonacci numbers. In addition, we obtain Binet formula and combinatorial representation for generalized order-k Lucas numbers by using properties of generalized Fibonacci numbers.

  19. Mass function of dark matter halos

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Jenkins; C. S. Frenk; S. D. M. White; J. M. Colberg; S. Cole; A. E. Evrard; H. M. P. Couchman; N. Yoshida

    2000-01-01

    We combine data from a number of N-body simulations to predict the abundance\\u000aof dark halos in Cold Dark Matter universes over more than 4 orders of\\u000amagnitude in mass. A comparison of different simulations suggests that the\\u000adominant uncertainty in our results is systematic and is smaller than 10--30%\\u000aat all masses, depending on the halo definition used. In

  20. Section 5.6 Complex Numbers1 Section 5.Section 5.Section 5.Section 5.6666 Complex NumbersComplex NumbersComplex NumbersComplex Numbers

    E-print Network

    Farlow, Jerry

    Section 5.6 Complex Numbers1 Section 5.Section 5.Section 5.Section 5.6666 Complex NumbersComplex NumbersComplex NumbersComplex Numbers Purpose of SectionPurpose of SectionPurpose of SectionPurpose of Section To introduce the field ( ), ,+ ×» of complex numbers and their Cartesian

  1. HOPF ALGEBRAS AND TRANSCENDENTAL NUMBERS

    E-print Network

    HOPF ALGEBRAS AND TRANSCENDENTAL NUMBERS Michel Waldschmidt Universit´e P. et M. Curie (Paris VI clear, but we point out that it already plays a role in transcendental number theory: St´ephane Fischler-Lindemann). If is a non-zero algebraic number, then e is a transcendental number. Equivalently, if is a non

  2. Stirling Numbers for Complex Arguments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Bruce Richmond; Donatella Merlini

    1997-01-01

    We define the Stirling numbers for complex values and obtain extensions of certain identities involving these numbers. We also show that the generalization is a natural one for proving unimodality and monotonicity results for these numbers. The definition is based on the Cauchy integral formula and can be used for many other combinatorial numbers. PII. S0895480195284329 1. Introduction. In this

  3. Graviton mass or cosmological constant?

    SciTech Connect

    Gabadadze, Gregory; Gruzinov, Andrei [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Department of Physics, New York University, New York, New York, 10003 (United States)

    2005-12-15

    To describe a massive graviton in 4D Minkowski space-time one introduces a quadratic term in the Lagrangian. This term, however, can lead to a readjustment or instability of the background instead of describing a massive graviton on flat space. We show that for all local 4D Lorentz-invariant mass terms Minkowski space is unstable. The instability can develop in a time scale that is many orders of magnitude shorter than the inverse graviton mass. We start with the Pauli-Fierz (PF) term that is the only local mass term with no ghosts in the linearized approximation. We show that nonlinear completions of the PF Lagrangian give rise to instability of Minkowski space. We continue with the mass terms that are not of a PF type. Although these models are known to have ghosts in the linearized approximations, nonlinear interactions can lead to background change in which the ghosts are eliminated. In the latter case, however, the graviton perturbations on the new background are not massive. We argue that a consistent theory of a massive graviton on flat space can be formulated in theories with extra dimensions. They require an infinite number of fields or nonlocal description from a 4D point of view.

  4. Divisibility - Prime and Composite Numbers

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Harris

    2007-11-05

    Learn how to tell if a number is divisible by 2, 3, 5, 6, 9, or 10. Learn about prime and composite numbers This is a PowerPoint teaching Divisibility rules PowerPoint on Divisibility Have fun practicing divisibility! Divisibility Rules Practice Prime Factorization with this Factor Tree. Factor Tree You can be a Prime Number Cop while you play this game. Catch those prime numbers! Number Cop ...

  5. Love number can be hard to measure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yagi, Kent; Yunes, Nicolás

    2014-01-01

    The waveform phase for a neutron star binary can be split into point-particle terms and finite-size terms (characterized by the Love number) that account for equation-of-state effects. The latter first enter at fifth post-Newtonian (5PN) order (i.e., proportional to the tenth power of the orbital velocity), but the former are only known completely to 3.5PN order, with higher-order terms only known to leading order in the mass ratio. We here find that not including point-particle terms at 4PN order to leading and first order in the mass ratio in the template model can severely deteriorate our ability to measure the equation of state. This problem can be solved if one uses numerical waveforms once their own systematic errors are under control.

  6. Protostellar mass accretion rates from gravoturbulent fragmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmeja, S.; Klessen, R. S.

    2004-05-01

    We analyse protostellar mass accretion rates \\dot{M} from numerical models of star formation based on gravoturbulent fragmentation, considering a large number of different environments. To within one order of magnitude, \\dot{M} ? MJ/?ff with MJ being the mean thermal Jeans mass and ?ff the corresponding free-fall time. However, mass accretion rates are highly time-variant, with a sharp peak shortly after the formation of the protostellar core. We present an empirical exponential fit formula to describe the time evolution of the mass accretion and discuss the resulting fit parameters. There is a positive correlation between the peak accretion rate and the final mass of the protostar. We also investigate the relation of \\dot{M} with the turbulent flow velocity as well as with the driving wavenumbers in different environments. We then compare our results with other theoretical models of star formation and with observational data.

  7. On the graviton mass

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrei Gruzinov

    2005-01-01

    It was suggested that observations of the solar system exclude massive gravity, in the sense that the graviton mass must be rigorously zero. This is because there is a discontinuity in the linearized gravity theory at graviton mass equal to zero. The linearized Schwarzschild metric is not recovered for infinitesimal graviton mass, contradicting observations on light deviation by the Sun

  8. Fourier Transform Mass Spectrometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Michael L.; Rempel, Don L.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the nature of Fourier transform mass spectrometry and its unique combination of high mass resolution, high upper mass limit, and multichannel advantage. Examines its operation, capabilities and limitations, applications (ion storage, ion manipulation, ion chemistry), and future applications and developments. (JN)

  9. What is Mass Spectrometry?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Chiu, Chia M.

    This site from the American Society for Mass Spectrometry includes information about what mass spectometry is and how it is used. It has many useful figures and references to other materials. The material answers questions such as "What is mass spectrometry and what can it do for you?"

  10. The mass of quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Yue

    2013-03-01

    I review the current status of quasar black hole (BH) mass estimations. Spectroscopic methods have been developed to estimate BH mass in broad line quasars to an accuracy of ˜ 0.5 dex. Despite their popularity, significant issues and confusion remain regarding these mass estimators. I provide an in-depth discussion on the merits and caveats of the single-epoch (SE) virial BH mass estimators, and a detailed derivation of the statistical biases of these SE mass estimates resulting from their errors. I show that error-induced sample biases on the order of a factor of several are likely present in the SE mass estimates for flux-limited, statistical quasar samples, and the distribution of SE masses in finite luminosity bins can be narrower than the nominal uncertainty of these mass estimates. I then discuss the latest applications of SE virial masses in quasar studies, including the early growth of supermassive black holes, quasar demography in the mass-luminosity plane, and the evolution of the BH-host scaling relations, with specific emphases on selection effects and sample biases in the SE masses. I conclude that there is a pressing need to understand and deal with the errors in these BH mass estimates, and to improve these BH weighing methods with substantially more and better reverberation mapping data.

  11. On Defining Mass

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hecht, Eugene

    2011-01-01

    Though central to any pedagogical development of physics, the concept of mass is still not well understood. Properly defining mass has proven to be far more daunting than contemporary textbooks would have us believe. And yet today the origin of mass is one of the most aggressively pursued areas of research in all of physics. Much of the excitement…

  12. Peak bone mass

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J.-Ph. Bonjour; G. Theintz; F. Law; D. Slosman; R. Rizzoli

    1994-01-01

    Peak bone mass, which can be defined as the amount of bony tissue present at the end of the skeletal maturation, is an important determinant of osteoporotic fracture risk.Measurement of bone mass development. The bone mass of a given part of the skeleton is directly dependent upon both its volume or size and the density of the mineralized tissue contained

  13. Elbow mass flow meter

    DOEpatents

    McFarland, Andrew R. (College Station, TX); Rodgers, John C. (Santa Fe, NM); Ortiz, Carlos A. (Bryan, TX); Nelson, David C. (Santa Fe, NM)

    1994-01-01

    Elbow mass flow meter. The present invention includes a combination of an elbow pressure drop generator and a shunt-type mass flow sensor for providing an output which gives the mass flow rate of a gas that is nearly independent of the density of the gas. For air, the output is also approximately independent of humidity.

  14. Proliferation of Mass Destruction

    E-print Network

    Deutch, John

    Combating Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction Report of the Commission to Assess the Organization of the Federal Government to Combat the Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction Pursuant of the Federal Government to Combat the Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction. The Commission

  15. Meson Mass Decomposition

    E-print Network

    Yi-Bo Yang; Ying Chen; Terrence Draper; Ming Gong; Keh-Fei Liu; Zhaofeng Liu; Jian-Ping Ma

    2014-11-04

    Hadron masses can be decomposed as a sum of components which are defined through hadronic matrix elements of QCD operators. The components consist of the quark mass term, the quark energy term, the glue energy term and the trace anomaly term. We calculate these components of mesons with lattice QCD for the first time. The calculation is carried out with overlap fermion on $2+1$ flavor domain-wall fermion gauge configurations. We confirm that $\\sim 50\\%$ of the light pion mass comes from the quark mass and $\\sim 10\\%$ comes from the quark energy, whereas, the contributions are found to be the other way around for the $\\rho$ mass. The combined glue components contribute $\\sim 40 - 50\\%$ for both mesons. It is interesting to observe that the quark mass contribution to the mass of the vector meson is almost linear in quark mass over a large quark mass region below the charm quark mass. For heavy mesons, the quark mass term dominates the masses, while the contribution from the glue components is about $400\\sim500$ MeV for the heavy pseudoscalar and vector mesons. The charmonium hyperfine splitting is found to be dominated by the quark energy term which is consistent with the quark potential model.

  16. Topological completions of the field of rational numbers which consist of Liouville numbers and rational numbers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. E. Marcos

    1999-01-01

    Some subfields of the field of real numbers which consist exclusively of rational numbers and Liouville numbers are given. Each of these fields is a completion of the rational number field endowed with a field topology finer than the usual topology.

  17. The concrete theory of numbers: initial numbers and wonderful properties of numbers repunit

    E-print Network

    Boris V. Tarasov

    2007-04-07

    In this work initial numbers and repunit numbers have been studied. All numbers have been considered in a decimal notation. The problem of simplicity of initial numbers has been studied. Interesting properties of numbers repunit are proved: $gcd(R_a, R_b) = R_{gcd(a,b)}$; $R_{ab}/(R_aR_b)$ is an integer only if $gcd(a,b) = 1$, where $a\\geq1$, $b\\geq1$ are integers. Dividers of numbers repunit, are researched by a degree of prime number.

  18. Truly Hypercomplex Numbers: Unification of Numbers and Vectors

    E-print Network

    Redouane Bouhennache

    2014-09-15

    Since the beginning of the quest of hypercomplex numbers in the late eighteenth century, many hypercomplex number systems have been proposed but none of them succeeded in extending the concept of complex numbers to higher dimensions. This paper provides a definitive solution to this problem by defining the truly hypercomplex numbers of dimension N greater than or equal to 3. The secret lies in the definition of the multiplicative law and its properties. This law is based on spherical and hyperspherical coordinates. These numbers which I call spherical and hyperspherical hypercomplex numbers define Abelian groups over addition and multiplication. Nevertheless, the multiplicative law generally does not distribute over addition, thus the set of these numbers equipped with addition and multiplication does not form a mathematical field. However, such numbers are expected to have a tremendous utility in mathematics and in science in general.

  19. 15. Stress Sheet, Truss number 2, span number 6, Superior ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Stress Sheet, Truss number 2, span number 6, Superior Avenue viaduct. Drawing courtesy Engineering Dept., City of Cleveland. - Superior Avenue Viaduct, Cleveland East & West side, Cuyahoga Valley Vicinity, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  20. The Case of Blake: Number-Word and Number Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Alexis P.; Baroody, Arthur J.

    Noting that current research on childrens mathematical development does not adequately detail how toddlers represent small numbers and the role that number words play in the development of number understanding, this study used a combination of methods to examine mathematical development in one toddler. Underlying the study was an Integrated Model…

  1. The bondage numbers of graphs with small crossing numbers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jia Huang; Jun-ming Xu

    2007-01-01

    The bondage number b(G) of a nonempty graph G is the cardinality of a smallest edge set whose removal from G results in a graph with domination number greater than the domination number (G) of G. Kang and Yuan proved b(G) 8 for every connected planar graph G. Fischermann, Rautenbach and Volkmann obtained some further results for connected planar graphs.

  2. Concatenated Fibonacci and Lucas numbers do not form normal numbers

    E-print Network

    Mendonça, J Ricardo G

    2011-01-01

    We show that the infinite decimal numbers $\\mathcal{F} = 0.F_{1}F_{2}F_{3}...$ and $\\mathcal{L} = 0.L_{1}L_{2}L_{3}...$ obtained by concatenating respectively the Fibonacci and the Lucas numbers for their fractional parts are not normal numbers to base 10.

  3. AMR for low Mach number reacting flow

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, John B.

    2004-01-16

    We present a summary of recent progress on the development and application of adaptive mesh refinement algorithms for low Mach number reacting flows. Our approach uses a form of the low Mach number equations based on a general equation of state that discretely conserves both mass and energy. The discretization methodology is based on a robust projection formulation that accommodates large density contrasts. The algorithm supports modeling of multicomponent systems and incorporates an operator-split treatment of stiff reaction terms. The basic computational approach is embedded in an adaptive projection framework that uses structured hierarchical grids with subcycling in time that preserves the discrete conservation properties of the underlying single-grid algorithm. We present numerical examples illustrating the application of the methodology to turbulent premixed combustion and nuclear flames in type Ia supernovae.

  4. On the Graviton Mass

    E-print Network

    Andrei Gruzinov

    2002-01-28

    It was suggested that observations of the solar system exclude massive gravity, in the sense that the graviton mass must be rigorously zero. This is because there is a discontinuity in the linearized gravity theory at graviton mass equal to zero. The linearized Schwarzschild metric is not recovered for infinitesimal graviton mass, contradicting observations on light deviation by the Sun and Mercury perihelion advance. It was then argued that non-perturbative effects make the massive gravity theory continuous in the graviton mass. Both the original suggestion and its refutation were based on a non-covariant and linearized action, and the physical interpretation of these results remained questionable. Here we use a covariant quasi-massive gravity theory that is known to be discontinuous in the graviton mass in the linear approximation. We show that non-perturbative effects do restore the continuity; the weak-field Schwarzschild solution is recovered in the limit of small graviton mass. We also show that weak-field Schwarzschild with matter is recovered for infinitesimal graviton mass. Thus: Observations of the solar system only put an upper limit on the graviton mass (in the context of the gravity theory that we use, inverse graviton mass, as measured at distances of order inverse graviton mass, is $\\gtrsim 100$ Mpc). But graviton can be massive, with a cosmologically interesting mass.

  5. Digital imaging mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Bamberger, Casimir; Renz, Uwe; Bamberger, Andreas

    2011-06-01

    Methods to visualize the two-dimensional (2D) distribution of molecules by mass spectrometric imaging evolve rapidly and yield novel applications in biology, medicine, and material surface sciences. Most mass spectrometric imagers acquire high mass resolution spectra spot-by-spot and thereby scan the object's surface. Thus, imaging is slow and image reconstruction remains cumbersome. Here we describe an imaging mass spectrometer that exploits the true imaging capabilities by ion optical means for the time of flight mass separation. The mass spectrometer is equipped with the ASIC Timepix chip as an array detector to acquire the position, mass, and intensity of ions that are imaged by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) directly from the target sample onto the detector. This imaging mass spectrometer has a spatial resolving power at the specimen of (84?±?35)??m with a mass resolution of 45 and locates atoms or organic compounds on a surface area up to ~2 cm(2). Extended laser spots of ~5 mm(2) on structured specimens allows parallel imaging of selected masses. The digital imaging mass spectrometer proves high hit-multiplicity, straightforward image reconstruction, and potential for high-speed readout at 4 kHz or more. This device demonstrates a simple way of true image acquisition like a digital photographic camera. The technology may enable a fast analysis of biomolecular samples in near future. PMID:21953049

  6. Fourier transform mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Scigelova, Michaela; Hornshaw, Martin; Giannakopulos, Anastassios; Makarov, Alexander

    2011-07-01

    This article provides an introduction to Fourier transform-based mass spectrometry. The key performance characteristics of Fourier transform-based mass spectrometry, mass accuracy and resolution, are presented in the view of how they impact the interpretation of measurements in proteomic applications. The theory and principles of operation of two types of mass analyzer, Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance and Orbitrap, are described. Major benefits as well as limitations of Fourier transform-based mass spectrometry technology are discussed in the context of practical sample analysis, and illustrated with examples included as figures in this text and in the accompanying slide set. Comparisons highlighting the performance differences between the two mass analyzers are made where deemed useful in assisting the user with choosing the most appropriate technology for an application. Recent developments of these high-performing mass spectrometers are mentioned to provide a future outlook. PMID:21742802

  7. Mass drivers. 3: Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, W.; Bowen, S.; Cohen, S.; Fine, K.; Kaplan, D.; Kolm, M.; Kolm, H.; Newman, J.; Oneill, G. K.; Snow, W.

    1979-01-01

    The last of a series of three papers by the Mass-Driver Group of the 1977 Ames Summer Study is presented. It develops the engineering principles required to implement the basic mass-driver. Optimum component mass trade-offs are derived from a set of four input parameters, and the program used to design a lunar launcher. The mass optimization procedures is then incorporated into a more comprehensive mission optimization program called OPT-4, which evaluates an optimized mass-driver reaction engine and its performance in a range of specified missions. Finally, this paper discusses, to the extent that time permitted, certain peripheral problems: heating effects in buckets due to magnetic field ripple; an approximate derivation of guide force profiles; the mechanics of inserting and releasing payloads; the reaction mass orbits; and a proposed research and development plan for implementing mass drivers.

  8. Clumpy shocks and the clump mass function

    E-print Network

    Paul C. Clark; Ian A. Bonnell

    2006-03-21

    In this paper, we examine whether clumpy, colliding, flows could be responsible for the clump mass functions that have been observed in several regions of embedded star formation, which have been shown to be described by a Salpeter type slope. The flows presented here, which comprise a population of initially identical clumps and the calculations are performed with and without the inclusion of self-gravity. When the shock region is at its densest, we find that the clump mass spectrum is always well modelled by a Salpeter type slope. This is true regardless of whether the self-gravity is included in the simulations or not. In the non-self-gravitating simulations, this slope is retained at lower Mach numbers (Mach 5 and 10) as the simulations progress past the densest phase. In the simulations which include self-gravity, we find that low Mach number runs yield a flatter mass function after the densest phase. This is simply a result of increased coagulation due to gravitational collapse of the flows. In the high Mach number runs (Mach 20) the Salpeter slope is always lost. The self gravitating calculations also show that the sub-group of gravitationally bound clumps in which star formation occurs, always contain the most massive clumps in the population. The mass function of these bound star forming clumps is not at all similar to the Salpeter type mass function observed for stars in the field. We conclude that the clump mass function may not only have nothing to do with gravity, but also nothing to do with the star formation process and the resulting mass distribution of stars. This raises doubt over the claims that the clump mass function is the origin of the stellar IMF, for regions such as rho Oph, Serpens and the Orion B cloud.

  9. Mass sensitivity studies for an inductively driven railgun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scanlon, J. J., III; Young, A. F.

    1991-01-01

    Those areas which result in substantial system mass reductions for an HPG (homopolar generator) driven EML (electromagnetic launcher) are identified. Sensitivity studies are performed by varying launch mass, peak acceleration, launcher efficiency, inductance gradient, injection velocity, barrel mass per unit length, fuel tankage and pump estimates, and component energy and power densities. Two major contributors to the system mass are the allowed number of shots per barrel versus the number required for the mission, and the barrel length. The effects of component performance parameters, such as friction coefficient, injection velocity, ablation coefficient, rail resistivity, armature voltage, peak acceleration, and inductance gradient on these two areas, are addressed.

  10. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Fr-281 (Francium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Fr-281 (Francium, atomic number Z = 87, mass number A = 281).

  11. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Fr-283 (Francium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Fr-283 (Francium, atomic number Z = 87, mass number A = 283).

  12. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Fr-261 (Francium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Fr-261 (Francium, atomic number Z = 87, mass number A = 261).

  13. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Fr-275 (Francium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Fr-275 (Francium, atomic number Z = 87, mass number A = 275).

  14. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Fr-282 (Francium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Fr-282 (Francium, atomic number Z = 87, mass number A = 282).

  15. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Fr-280 (Francium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Fr-280 (Francium, atomic number Z = 87, mass number A = 280).

  16. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Fr-279 (Francium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Fr-279 (Francium, atomic number Z = 87, mass number A = 279).

  17. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Fr-274 (Francium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Fr-274 (Francium, atomic number Z = 87, mass number A = 274).

  18. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Fr-268 (Francium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Fr-268 (Francium, atomic number Z = 87, mass number A = 268).

  19. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Fr-269 (Francium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Fr-269 (Francium, atomic number Z = 87, mass number A = 269).

  20. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Fr-288 (Francium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Fr-288 (Francium, atomic number Z = 87, mass number A = 288).

  1. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Fr-259 (Francium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Fr-259 (Francium, atomic number Z = 87, mass number A = 259).

  2. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Fr-258 (Francium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Fr-258 (Francium, atomic number Z = 87, mass number A = 258).

  3. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Fr-287 (Francium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Fr-287 (Francium, atomic number Z = 87, mass number A = 287).

  4. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Fr-271 (Francium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Fr-271 (Francium, atomic number Z = 87, mass number A = 271).

  5. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Fr-263 (Francium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Fr-263 (Francium, atomic number Z = 87, mass number A = 263).

  6. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Fr-267 (Francium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Fr-267 (Francium, atomic number Z = 87, mass number A = 267).

  7. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Fr-265 (Francium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Fr-265 (Francium, atomic number Z = 87, mass number A = 265).

  8. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Fr-260 (Francium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Fr-260 (Francium, atomic number Z = 87, mass number A = 260).

  9. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Fr-272 (Francium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Fr-272 (Francium, atomic number Z = 87, mass number A = 272).

  10. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Fr-276 (Francium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Fr-276 (Francium, atomic number Z = 87, mass number A = 276).

  11. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Fr-286 (Francium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Fr-286 (Francium, atomic number Z = 87, mass number A = 286).

  12. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Fr-277 (Francium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Fr-277 (Francium, atomic number Z = 87, mass number A = 277).

  13. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Fr-284 (Francium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Fr-284 (Francium, atomic number Z = 87, mass number A = 284).

  14. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Fr-264 (Francium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Fr-264 (Francium, atomic number Z = 87, mass number A = 264).

  15. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Fr-289 (Francium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Fr-289 (Francium, atomic number Z = 87, mass number A = 289).

  16. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Fr-266 (Francium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Fr-266 (Francium, atomic number Z = 87, mass number A = 266).

  17. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Fr-285 (Francium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Fr-285 (Francium, atomic number Z = 87, mass number A = 285).

  18. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Fr-273 (Francium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Fr-273 (Francium, atomic number Z = 87, mass number A = 273).

  19. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Fr-262 (Francium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Fr-262 (Francium, atomic number Z = 87, mass number A = 262).

  20. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Fr-270 (Francium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Fr-270 (Francium, atomic number Z = 87, mass number A = 270).

  1. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Fr-278 (Francium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Fr-278 (Francium, atomic number Z = 87, mass number A = 278).

  2. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Cf-252 (Californium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Cf-252 (Californium, atomic number Z = 98, mass number A = 252).

  3. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Pa-306 (Protactinium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Pa-306 (Protactinium, atomic number Z = 91, mass number A = 306).

  4. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Pa-249 (Protactinium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Pa-249 (Protactinium, atomic number Z = 91, mass number A = 249).

  5. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Pa-315 (Protactinium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Pa-315 (Protactinium, atomic number Z = 91, mass number A = 315).

  6. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Pa-291 (Protactinium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Pa-291 (Protactinium, atomic number Z = 91, mass number A = 291).

  7. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Pa-253 (Protactinium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Pa-253 (Protactinium, atomic number Z = 91, mass number A = 253).

  8. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Pa-260 (Protactinium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Pa-260 (Protactinium, atomic number Z = 91, mass number A = 260).

  9. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Pa-245 (Protactinium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Pa-245 (Protactinium, atomic number Z = 91, mass number A = 245).

  10. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Pa-274 (Protactinium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Pa-274 (Protactinium, atomic number Z = 91, mass number A = 274).

  11. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Pa-269 (Protactinium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Pa-269 (Protactinium, atomic number Z = 91, mass number A = 269).

  12. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Pa-265 (Protactinium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Pa-265 (Protactinium, atomic number Z = 91, mass number A = 265).

  13. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Pa-242 (Protactinium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Pa-242 (Protactinium, atomic number Z = 91, mass number A = 242).

  14. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Pa-248 (Protactinium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Pa-248 (Protactinium, atomic number Z = 91, mass number A = 248).

  15. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Pa-301 (Protactinium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Pa-301 (Protactinium, atomic number Z = 91, mass number A = 301).

  16. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Pa-285 (Protactinium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Pa-285 (Protactinium, atomic number Z = 91, mass number A = 285).

  17. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Pa-282 (Protactinium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Pa-282 (Protactinium, atomic number Z = 91, mass number A = 282).

  18. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Pa-299 (Protactinium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Pa-299 (Protactinium, atomic number Z = 91, mass number A = 299).

  19. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Pa-251 (Protactinium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Pa-251 (Protactinium, atomic number Z = 91, mass number A = 251).

  20. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Pa-250 (Protactinium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Pa-250 (Protactinium, atomic number Z = 91, mass number A = 250).

  1. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Pa-288 (Protactinium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Pa-288 (Protactinium, atomic number Z = 91, mass number A = 288).

  2. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Pa-264 (Protactinium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Pa-264 (Protactinium, atomic number Z = 91, mass number A = 264).

  3. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Pa-295 (Protactinium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Pa-295 (Protactinium, atomic number Z = 91, mass number A = 295).

  4. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Pa-303 (Protactinium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Pa-303 (Protactinium, atomic number Z = 91, mass number A = 303).

  5. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Pa-259 (Protactinium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Pa-259 (Protactinium, atomic number Z = 91, mass number A = 259).

  6. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Pa-243 (Protactinium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Pa-243 (Protactinium, atomic number Z = 91, mass number A = 243).

  7. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Pa-246 (Protactinium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Pa-246 (Protactinium, atomic number Z = 91, mass number A = 246).

  8. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Pa-256 (Protactinium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Pa-256 (Protactinium, atomic number Z = 91, mass number A = 256).

  9. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Pa-270 (Protactinium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Pa-270 (Protactinium, atomic number Z = 91, mass number A = 270).

  10. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Pa-262 (Protactinium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Pa-262 (Protactinium, atomic number Z = 91, mass number A = 262).

  11. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Pa-273 (Protactinium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Pa-273 (Protactinium, atomic number Z = 91, mass number A = 273).

  12. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Pa-302 (Protactinium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Pa-302 (Protactinium, atomic number Z = 91, mass number A = 302).

  13. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Pa-267 (Protactinium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Pa-267 (Protactinium, atomic number Z = 91, mass number A = 267).

  14. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Pa-266 (Protactinium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Pa-266 (Protactinium, atomic number Z = 91, mass number A = 266).

  15. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Pa-284 (Protactinium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Pa-284 (Protactinium, atomic number Z = 91, mass number A = 284).

  16. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Pa-292 (Protactinium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Pa-292 (Protactinium, atomic number Z = 91, mass number A = 292).

  17. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Pa-297 (Protactinium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Pa-297 (Protactinium, atomic number Z = 91, mass number A = 297).

  18. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Pa-294 (Protactinium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Pa-294 (Protactinium, atomic number Z = 91, mass number A = 294).

  19. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Pa-308 (Protactinium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Pa-308 (Protactinium, atomic number Z = 91, mass number A = 308).

  20. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Pa-277 (Protactinium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Pa-277 (Protactinium, atomic number Z = 91, mass number A = 277).

  1. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Pa-279 (Protactinium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Pa-279 (Protactinium, atomic number Z = 91, mass number A = 279).

  2. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Pa-305 (Protactinium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Pa-305 (Protactinium, atomic number Z = 91, mass number A = 305).

  3. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Pa-281 (Protactinium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Pa-281 (Protactinium, atomic number Z = 91, mass number A = 281).

  4. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Pa-261 (Protactinium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Pa-261 (Protactinium, atomic number Z = 91, mass number A = 261).

  5. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Pa-316 (Protactinium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Pa-316 (Protactinium, atomic number Z = 91, mass number A = 316).

  6. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Pa-293 (Protactinium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Pa-293 (Protactinium, atomic number Z = 91, mass number A = 293).

  7. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Pa-275 (Protactinium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Pa-275 (Protactinium, atomic number Z = 91, mass number A = 275).

  8. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Pa-300 (Protactinium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Pa-300 (Protactinium, atomic number Z = 91, mass number A = 300).

  9. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Pa-290 (Protactinium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Pa-290 (Protactinium, atomic number Z = 91, mass number A = 290).

  10. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Pa-283 (Protactinium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Pa-283 (Protactinium, atomic number Z = 91, mass number A = 283).

  11. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Pa-263 (Protactinium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Pa-263 (Protactinium, atomic number Z = 91, mass number A = 263).

  12. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Pa-255 (Protactinium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Pa-255 (Protactinium, atomic number Z = 91, mass number A = 255).

  13. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Pa-314 (Protactinium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Pa-314 (Protactinium, atomic number Z = 91, mass number A = 314).

  14. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Pa-244 (Protactinium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Pa-244 (Protactinium, atomic number Z = 91, mass number A = 244).

  15. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Pa-307 (Protactinium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Pa-307 (Protactinium, atomic number Z = 91, mass number A = 307).

  16. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Pa-280 (Protactinium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Pa-280 (Protactinium, atomic number Z = 91, mass number A = 280).

  17. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Pa-304 (Protactinium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Pa-304 (Protactinium, atomic number Z = 91, mass number A = 304).

  18. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Pa-240 (Protactinium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Pa-240 (Protactinium, atomic number Z = 91, mass number A = 240).

  19. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Pa-276 (Protactinium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Pa-276 (Protactinium, atomic number Z = 91, mass number A = 276).

  20. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Pa-271 (Protactinium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Pa-271 (Protactinium, atomic number Z = 91, mass number A = 271).