Science.gov

Sample records for mass number 23-26

  1. 42 CFR 23.26 - How is the loan repaid?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How is the loan repaid? 23.26 Section 23.26 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES PERSONNEL NATIONAL HEALTH SERVICE CORPS Private Practice Special Loans for Former Corps Members § 23.26 How is the loan repaid?...

  2. 42 CFR 23.26 - How is the loan repaid?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How is the loan repaid? 23.26 Section 23.26 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES PERSONNEL NATIONAL HEALTH SERVICE CORPS Private Practice Special Loans for Former Corps Members § 23.26 How is the loan repaid?...

  3. Measurement Corner Mass, Moles and Avogadro's Number

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todd, Robert M.

    1977-01-01

    Discusses and clarifies the confusion arising from the use of the terms "mass,""volume,""matter,""mole," and "Avogadro's number." Suggests three laboratory activities concerning mass, volume, and number of particles in a given volume. (CS)

  4. Bone Mass Measurement: What the Numbers Mean

    MedlinePLUS

    ... not supported by your browser. Home Bone Basics Bone Mass Measurement: What the Numbers Mean Publication available ... Print-Friendly Page June 2015 What Is a Bone Density Test? A bone mineral density (BMD) test ...

  5. Mass-induced transition in fermion number

    SciTech Connect

    Aragao de Carvalho, C.; Pureza, J. M.

    1989-05-15

    We show that if we increase the mass of fermions in interaction with a topological (kink) scalar background in 1+1 dimensions, the fractional fermion number of the system will eventually vanish. The transition is sharp and corresponds to the disappearance of localized states from the spectrum of a Dirac operator which is exactly solvable. Possible applications to different physical systems are discussed.

  6. 50 CFR 23.26 - When is a U.S. or foreign CITES document valid?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false When is a U.S. or foreign CITES document valid? 23.26 Section 23.26 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) TAKING, POSSESSION, TRANSPORTATION, SALE, PURCHASE, BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS...

  7. 50 CFR 23.26 - When is a U.S. or foreign CITES document valid?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false When is a U.S. or foreign CITES document valid? 23.26 Section 23.26 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) TAKING, POSSESSION, TRANSPORTATION, SALE, PURCHASE, BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS...

  8. 16 CFR 23.26 - Misuse of the words “flawless,” “perfect,” etc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Misuse of the words âflawless,â âperfect,â etc. 23.26 Section 23.26 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES FOR THE JEWELRY, PRECIOUS METALS, AND PEWTER INDUSTRIES § 23.26 Misuse of the words...

  9. 16 CFR 23.26 - Misuse of the words “flawless,” “perfect,” etc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Misuse of the words âflawless,â âperfect,â etc. 23.26 Section 23.26 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES FOR THE JEWELRY, PRECIOUS METALS, AND PEWTER INDUSTRIES § 23.26 Misuse of the words...

  10. 16 CFR 23.26 - Misuse of the words “flawless,” “perfect,” etc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Misuse of the words âflawless,â âperfect,â etc. 23.26 Section 23.26 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES FOR THE JEWELRY, PRECIOUS METALS, AND PEWTER INDUSTRIES § 23.26 Misuse of the words...

  11. 16 CFR 23.26 - Misuse of the words “flawless,” “perfect,” etc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Misuse of the words âflawless,â âperfect,â etc. 23.26 Section 23.26 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES FOR THE JEWELRY, PRECIOUS METALS, AND PEWTER INDUSTRIES § 23.26 Misuse of the words...

  12. 16 CFR 23.26 - Misuse of the words “flawless,” “perfect,” etc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Misuse of the words âflawless,â âperfect,â etc. 23.26 Section 23.26 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES FOR THE JEWELRY, PRECIOUS METALS, AND PEWTER INDUSTRIES § 23.26 Misuse of the words...

  13. Occupation number-based energy functional for nuclear masses.

    SciTech Connect

    Bertolli, M.; Papenbrock, T.; Wild, S. M.

    2012-01-01

    We develop an energy functional with shell-model occupations as the relevant degrees of freedom and compute nuclear masses across the nuclear chart. The functional is based on Hohenberg-Kohn theory with phenomenologically motivated terms. A global fit of the 17-parameter functional to 2049 nuclear masses yields a root-mean-square deviation of {chi} = 1.31 MeV. Nuclear radii are computed within a model that employs the resulting occupation numbers.

  14. [Body mass, population density, and offspring number in mammals].

    PubMed

    Polishchuk, L V; Tse?tlin, V B

    2001-01-01

    The negative relationship between population density and body mass with the body mass exponent of -0.75 implies that the energy flow through populations of small- and large-bodied species is the same, for individual metabolism scales to body mass raised to the power of +0.75. This relationship called the energetic equivalence rule, has often been observed for mammal species assemblages studied at regional scales. Here we suggest a demography-based mechanism that may generate it. Having analyzed about 130 literature sources, mostly in Russian, we collected demography and body-mass data for 88 mammalian species from the territory and coastal waters of the former Soviet Union. The data were used to construct a number of interspecific relationships. It is shown that (1) the number of offspring per lifetime is approximately inversely proportional to the relative mass at birth (the exponent is not significantly different from -1), (2) the average lifespan is proportional to body mass to the 0.25 power, (3) body mass at birth is proportional to the adult body mass. We develop a simple theory to demonstrate that relations (1) to (3) entail the energetic equivalence rule. The theory also allows us to explain violation of this rule (in non-flying birds, for example), namely, to predict the exponent of relation (1) for any given exponent of the relation between population density and body mass. This is possible because relations (2) and (3) are likely to more universally hold than relation (1). Finally, since natural selection acts on individual traits rather than on population-level ones such as population density, the theory opens up the way to an evolutionary explanation for the energetic equivalence rule. PMID:11236588

  15. Light nuclei of even mass number in the Skyrme model

    SciTech Connect

    Battye, R. A.; Manton, N. S.; Wood, S. W.; Sutcliffe, P. M.

    2009-09-15

    We consider the semiclassical rigid-body quantization of Skyrmion solutions of mass numbers B=4,6,8,10, and 12. We determine the allowed quantum states for each Skyrmion and find that they often match the observed states of nuclei. The spin and isospin inertia tensors of these Skyrmions are accurately calculated for the first time and are used to determine the excitation energies of the quantum states. We calculate the energy level splittings, using a suitably chosen parameter set for each mass number. We find good qualitative and encouraging quantitative agreement with experiment. In particular, the rotational bands of beryllium-8 and carbon-12, along with isospin 1 triplets and isospin 2 quintets, are especially well reproduced. We also predict the existence of states that have not yet been observed and make predictions for the unknown quantum numbers of some observed states.

  16. Comment on "Improved ray tracing air mass numbers model"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Werf, Siebren Y.

    2008-01-01

    Air mass numbers have traditionally been obtained by techniques that use height as the integration variable. This introduces an inherent singularity at the horizon, and ad hoc solutions have been invented to cope with it. A survey of the possible options including integration by height, zenith angle, and horizontal distance or path length is presented. Ray tracing by path length is shown to avoid singularities both at the horizon and in the zenith. A fourth-order Runge-Kutta numerical integration scheme is presented, which treats refraction and air mass as path integrals. The latter may optionally be split out into separate contributions of the atmosphere's constituents.

  17. SIMULTANEOUS CONSTRAINTS ON THE NUMBER AND MASS OF RELATIVISTIC SPECIES

    SciTech Connect

    Riemer-Sorensen, Signe; Parkinson, David; Davis, Tamara M.; Blake, Chris

    2013-02-15

    Recent indications from both particle physics and cosmology suggest the possible existence of more than three neutrino species. In cosmological analyses the effects of neutrino mass and number of species can in principle be disentangled for fixed cosmological parameters. However, since we do not have perfect measurements of the standard {Lambda} cold dark matter model parameters, some correlation remains between the neutrino mass and number of species, and both parameters should be included in the analysis. Combining the newest observations of several cosmological probes (cosmic microwave background, large-scale structure, expansion rate), we obtain N {sub eff} = 3.58{sup +0.15} {sub -0.16}(68% CL){sup +0.55} {sub -0.53}(95% CL) and {Sigma}m {sub {nu}} < 0.60 eV(95% CL), which are currently the strongest constraints on N {sub eff} and {Sigma}m {sub {nu}} from an analysis including both parameters. The preference for N {sub eff} >3 is at the 2{sigma} level.

  18. 78 FR 15341 - Auto Supply Chain Trade Mission to Mexico City and Monterrey, Mexico; September 23-26, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-11

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Auto Supply Chain Trade Mission to Mexico City and Monterrey, Mexico; September 23-26, 2013 AGENCY: International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice. Mission Description The United States Department of Commerce, International...

  19. Low Peclet number mass and momentum transport in microcavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yew, A. G.; Pinero, D.; Hsieh, A. H.; Atencia, J.

    2013-02-01

    For the informed design of microfluidic devices, it is important to understand transport phenomena at the microscale. This letter outlines an analytically driven approach to the design of rectangular microcavities extending perpendicular to a perfusion microchannel for applications that may include microfluidic cell culture devices. We present equations to estimate the transition from advection- to diffusion-dominant transport inside cavities as a function of the geometry and flow conditions. We also estimate the time required for molecules, such as nutrients or drugs, to travel from the microchannel to a given length into the cavity. These analytical predictions can facilitate the rational design of microfluidic devices to optimize and maintain long-term, low Peclet number environments with minimal fluid shear stress.

  20. A Darwinian approach to the actuator number and placement problem with non-negligible actuator mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmerman, David C.

    1993-07-01

    The problem of optimal actuator number and placement for the vibration control of large flexible space structures is addressed in this work. The inherent mass of the actuators is integrated in the number and placement algorithm. The algorithm utilises concepts from genetic programming, which is loosely based on Darwin's "survival of the fittest" theories. The paper develops the genetic algorithm in the context of the actuator number and placement problem. Examples are presented which demonstrate the genetic algorithm and the effect of actuator mass on the placement and number problem.

  1. Estimating the Number of Eggs in Blow Fly (Diptera: Calliphoridae) Egg Masses Using Photographic Analysis.

    PubMed

    Rosati, J Y; Pacheco, V A; Vankosky, M A; Vanlaerhoven, S L

    2015-07-01

    Little work has been done to quantify the number of eggs oviposited by blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in studies examining colonization behavior. Egg counting methods currently available are time-consuming and destructive. This study used ImageJ software and analysis of covariance to relate the volume of egg masses to the number of eggs laid by three different blow fly species: Lucilia sericata (Meigen), Phormia regina (Meigen), and Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart). Egg mass volume, species, and the interaction of species and egg mass volume all affected the number of blow fly eggs deposited in egg masses. Both species identity and egg mass volume are important when predicting egg number, as such a single regression equation cannot be used to estimate egg number for these three species. Therefore, simple linear regression equations were determined for each species. The volume of individual eggs was incorporated into the model, yet differences between species were observed, suggesting that the orientation of the eggs oviposited by multiple conspecific females within egg masses influences egg estimates. Based on our results, we expect that imaging software can be used for other blow fly species, as well as other insect species; however, equations specific to each species must be developed. This study describes an important tool for quantifying egg deposition in a nondestructive manner, which is important in studying the colonization behavior and life history of insects of ecological and forensic importance. PMID:26335472

  2. Phytoremediation of hazardous wastes. Technical report, 23--26 July 1995

    SciTech Connect

    McCutcheon, S.C.; Wolfe, N.L.; Carreria, L.H.; Ou, T.

    1995-07-26

    A new and innovative approach to phytoremediation (the use of plants to degrade hazardous contaminants) was developed. The new approach to phytoremediation involves rigorous pathway analyses, mass balance determinations, and identification of specific enzymes that break down trinitrotoluene (TNT), other explosives (RDX and HMX), nitrobenzene, and chlorinated solvents (e.g., TCE and PCE) (EPA 1994). As a good example, TNT is completely and rapidly degraded by nitroreductase and laccase enzymes. The aromatic ring is broken and the carbon in the ring fragments is incorporated into new plant fiber, as part of the natural lignification process. Half lives for TNT degradation approach 1 hr or less under ideal laboratory conditions. Continuous-flow pilot studies indicate that scale up residence times in created wetlands may be two to three times longer than in laboratory batch studies. The use of created wetlands and land farming techniques guided by rigorous field biochemistry and ecology promises to be a vital part of a newly evolving field, ecological engineering.

  3. Inducing Conservation of Number, Weight, Volume, Area, and Mass in Pre-School Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Beverly S.

    The major question this study attempted to answer was, "Can conservation of number, area, weight, mass, and volume to be induced and retained by 3- and 4-year-old children by structured instruction with a multivariate approach? Three nursery schools in Iowa City supplied subjects for this study. The Institute of Child Behavior and Development…

  4. Relationships among particle number, surface area, and respirable mass concentrations in automotive engine manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Heitbrink, William A; Evans, Douglas E; Ku, Bon Ki; Maynard, Andrew D; Slavin, Thomas J; Peters, Thomas M

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships between particle number, surface area, and respirable mass concentration measured simultaneously in a foundry and an automotive engine machining and assembly center. Aerosol concentrations were measured throughout each plant with a condensation particle counter for number concentration, a diffusion charger for active surface area concentration, and an optical particle counter for respirable mass concentration. At selected locations, particle size distributions were characterized with the optical particle counter and an electrical low pressure impactor. Statistical analyses showed that active surface area concentration was correlated with ultrafine particle number concentration and weakly correlated with respirable mass concentration. Correlation between number and active surface area concentration was stronger during winter (R2 = 0.6 for both plants) than in the summer (R2 = 0.38 and 0.36 for the foundry and engine plant respectively). The stronger correlation in winter was attributed to use of direct-fire gas fired heaters that produced substantial numbers of ultrafine particles with a modal diameter between 0.007 and 0.023 mu m. These correlations support findings obtained through theoretical analysis. Such analysis predicts that active surface area increasingly underestimates geometric surface area with increasing particle size, particularly for particles larger than 100 nm. Thus, a stronger correlation between particle number concentration and active surface area concentration is expected in the presence of high concentrations of ultrafine particles. In general, active surface area concentration may be a concentration metric that is distinct from particle number concentration and respirable mass concentration. For future health effects or toxicological studies involving nano-materials or ultrafine aerosols, this finding needs to be considered, as exposure metrics may influence data interpretation. PMID:18982535

  5. Estimation of particle number size distributions from mass based model simulations and comparison to observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engler, Christa; Heinold, Bernd; Tegen, Ina

    2014-05-01

    The atmospheric Chemistry Transport Model system COSMO-MUSCAT was used to determine the particle mass concentrations of dust and anthropogenically emitted aerosol particles over Europe. The model system consists of the online coupled code of the operational forecast model COSMO (Schättler et al., 2009) and the chemistry-transport model MUSCAT (Wolke et al., 2012). For a four-months-period in 2008 (May to August), the dust and anthropogenic aerosol mass concentrations for six different species (sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, organic and elemental carbon and sea salt) were simulated. For the dust, five different size bins were used and a representative particle size and density were assumed for each size bin. Afterwards, the number concentration was calculated. For the anthropogenic aerosol, lognormal modes were assumed with a representative mode diameter, sigma and density for each component. These parameters were then used to convert the simulated mass concentrations to number concentrations and number size distributions for each component. Those individual size distributions can then be summed up to a total particle number size distribution. A first comparison with measurement data from the Cape Verde Islands showed a good agreement between observed and simulated dust particle size distributions. Both, the shape of the number size distributions and the order of magnitude of the particle number concentrations compared well. Only for the smallest size bin, observed numbers were occasionally higher, which can be explained by anthropogenic or biomass burning aerosol, which is included in the measurements of the total particle size distributions but was not included in the model runs. Comparisons of measured and simulated size distributions of the anthropogenic aerosol will be available soon. In case the data are available, we will also present an estimation of the particle number concentrations with the aerosol microphysical aerosol module ext-M7 for the duration of a measurement campaign in spring 2013 (HOPE).

  6. Atmospheric particle number size distribution in central Europe: Statistical relations to air masses and meteorology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birmili, Wolfram; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Heintzenberg, Jost; Lehmann, Katrin

    2001-12-01

    Atmospheric particle number size distributions determined over 1.5 years at a central European site were statistically analyzed in terms of their relation to time of day, season, meteorology, and synoptic-scale air masses. All size distributions were decomposed into lognormal particle modes corresponding to the accumulation, Aitken, aged nucleation, and nucleation modes. The concentration of nucleation mode particles (<30 nm) behaved in a strongly diurnal fashion as a result of both anthropogenic source influence and secondary new particle formation events. The concentrations of Aitken and accumulation mode particles (>30 nm) lacked such diurnal behavior, and proved to be indicative of different synoptic-scale air mass types. Over 70% of the time, air masses of Atlantic origin and maritime character prevailed, showing obvious signs of anthropogenic influence most of the time (accumulation mode: 500 cm-3; Aitken mode: 2300 cm-3). During a limited period of time (10%), however, continentally aged air with significantly enhanced concentrations of aerosol was observed (accumulation mode: 1200 cm-3; Aitken mode: 3300 cm-3). These air masses were advected from source regions in Russia, and eastern, southeastern, and central Europe, mainly under anticyclonic and high-pressure influence. The analysis provides a refined picture of the behavior of the particle number size distribution and provides parameterizations that are representative for a variety of air masses in Europe and thus suitable for future climate modeling applications.

  7. Seasonal variation in ambient PM mass and number concentrations (case study: Tehran, Iran).

    PubMed

    Halek, Farah; Kianpour-Rad, Mansour; Kavousirahim, Ali

    2010-10-01

    Tehran, the capital city of Iran, is an important industrial and commercial center. This city is one of the worst cities in the world in terms of air pollution, which is mostly due to mobile sources rather than stationary sources. Particulate matter (PM), which is a complex mixture of extremely small particles and liquid droplets, is considered as an important source of air pollution in Tehran. In this study, our objective was to study PM(10), PM(2.5), and PM(1.0) mass and number concentrations and find the correlations of these two parameters in the west-central parts of Tehran during two consecutive warm and cold seasons. The particles collected from five stations were analyzed for their mass and number simultaneously by a laser-based Grimm dust monitor. In general, it was found that the accumulation of the PM in this region is more in the cold season. PM(10) mass concentration increases almost twofold and PM(2.5) and PM(1.0) almost three times in this season. The mean number concentration of the particles (0.3-20 microm) was found to be almost 4.8 times in the cold season. It was also noticed that the average dimensions of the particles decrease in that season. PMID:19876752

  8. Constraints on the dark matter particle mass from the number of Milky Way satellites

    SciTech Connect

    Polisensky, Emil; Ricotti, Massimo

    2011-02-15

    We have conducted N-body simulations of the growth of Milky Way-sized halos in cold and warm dark matter cosmologies. The number of dark matter satellites in our simulated Milky Ways decreases with decreasing mass of the dark matter particle. Assuming that the number of dark matter satellites exceeds or equals the number of observed satellites of the Milky Way, we derive lower limits on the dark matter particle mass. We find with 95% confidence m{sub s}>13.3 keV for a sterile neutrino produced by the Dodelson and Widrow mechanism, m{sub s}>8.9 keV for the Shi and Fuller mechanism, m{sub s}>3.0 keV for the Higgs decay mechanism, and m{sub WDM}>2.3 keV for a thermal dark matter particle. The recent discovery of many new dark matter dominated satellites of the Milky Way in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey allows us to set lower limits comparable to constraints from the complementary methods of Lyman-{alpha} forest modeling and x-ray observations of the unresolved cosmic x-ray background and of dark matter halos from dwarf galaxy to cluster scales. Future surveys like LSST, DES, PanSTARRS, and SkyMapper have the potential to discover many more satellites and further improve constraints on the dark matter particle mass.

  9. Mass and number of fibres in the pathogenesis of asbestos-related lung disease in rats.

    PubMed Central

    Davis, J. M.; Beckett, S. T.; Bolton, R. E.; Collings, P.; Middleton, A. P.

    1978-01-01

    Five groups of rats were treated by inhalation for 12 months, with the U.I.C.C. preparations of the 3 main commercially used asbestos types, chrysotile, crocidolite and amosite. The experiment was designed so that the effects of both fibre mass and fibre number could be examined. The results indicated that chrysotile dust caused far more lung fibrosis than either amphibole type even when the fibre numbers in the dust clouds were similar. All malignant pulmonary neoplasms found during this study occurred in animals treated with chrysotile. The fibre-number calculations used for the generation of dust clouds were evaluated using the parameters recommended by the Health and Safety Executive in 1976, by which all fibres over 5 microgram long are counted using a phase-contrast light microscopy. When fibre-length distributions were calculated using a scanning electron microscope, however, it was found that the chrysotile clouds used in this study contained many more fibres over 20 microgram long than either of the amphibole clouds. The results, therefore, support previous suggestions that long asbestos fibres are more dangerous than short. They also indicate that neither a single mass standard, nor the present fibre-number standards are satisfactory. Images Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Figs. 9 and 10 PMID:656299

  10. Early life nutrition modulates muscle stem cell number: implications for muscle mass and repair.

    PubMed

    Woo, Melissa; Isganaitis, Elvira; Cerletti, Massimiliano; Fitzpatrick, Connor; Wagers, Amy J; Jimenez-Chillaron, Jose; Patti, Mary Elizabeth

    2011-10-01

    Suboptimal nutrition during prenatal and early postnatal development is associated with increased risk for type 2 diabetes during adult life. A hallmark of such diabetes risk is altered body composition, including reduced lean mass and increased adiposity. Since stem cell number and activity are important determinants of muscle mass, modulation of perinatal nutrition could alter stem cell number/function, potentially mediating developmentally programmed reductions in muscle mass. Skeletal muscle precursors (SMP) were purified from muscle of mice subjected to prenatal undernutrition and/or early postnatal high-fat diet (HFD)--experimental models that are both associated with obesity and diabetes risk. SMP number was determined by flow cytometry, proliferative capacity measured in vitro, and regenerative capacity of these cells determined in vivo after muscle freeze injury. Prenatally undernutrition (UN) mice showed significantly reduced SMP frequencies [Control (C) 4.8% ± 0.3% (% live cells) vs. UN 3.2% ± 0.4%, P=0.015] at 6 weeks; proliferative capacity was unaltered. Reduced SMP in UN was associated with 32% decrease in regeneration after injury (C 16% ± 3% of injured area vs. UN 11% ± 2%; P<0.0001). SMP frequency was also reduced in HFD-fed mice (chow 6.4% ± 0.6% vs. HFD 4.7% ± 0.4%, P=0.03), and associated with 44% decreased regeneration (chow 16% ± 2.7% vs. HFD 9% ± 2.2%; P<0.0001). Prenatal undernutrition was additive with postnatal HFD. Thus, both prenatal undernutrition and postnatal overnutrition reduce myogenic stem cell frequency and function, indicating that developmentally established differences in muscle-resident stem cell populations may provoke reductions in muscle mass and repair and contribute to diabetes risk. PMID:21247245

  11. Early Life Nutrition Modulates Muscle Stem Cell Number: Implications for Muscle Mass and Repair

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Melissa; Isganaitis, Elvira; Cerletti, Massimiliano; Fitzpatrick, Connor; Wagers, Amy J.; Jimenez-Chillaron, Jose

    2011-01-01

    Suboptimal nutrition during prenatal and early postnatal development is associated with increased risk for type 2 diabetes during adult life. A hallmark of such diabetes risk is altered body composition, including reduced lean mass and increased adiposity. Since stem cell number and activity are important determinants of muscle mass, modulation of perinatal nutrition could alter stem cell number/function, potentially mediating developmentally programmed reductions in muscle mass. Skeletal muscle precursors (SMP) were purified from muscle of mice subjected to prenatal undernutrition and/or early postnatal high-fat diet (HFD)—experimental models that are both associated with obesity and diabetes risk. SMP number was determined by flow cytometry, proliferative capacity measured in vitro, and regenerative capacity of these cells determined in vivo after muscle freeze injury. Prenatally undernutrition (UN) mice showed significantly reduced SMP frequencies [Control (C) 4.8%±0.3% (% live cells) vs. UN 3.2%±0.4%, P=0.015] at 6 weeks; proliferative capacity was unaltered. Reduced SMP in UN was associated with 32% decrease in regeneration after injury (C 16%±3% of injured area vs. UN 11%±2%; P<0.0001). SMP frequency was also reduced in HFD-fed mice (chow 6.4%±0.6% vs. HFD 4.7%±0.4%, P=0.03), and associated with 44% decreased regeneration (chow 16%±2.7% vs. HFD 9%±2.2%; P<0.0001). Prenatal undernutrition was additive with postnatal HFD. Thus, both prenatal undernutrition and postnatal overnutrition reduce myogenic stem cell frequency and function, indicating that developmentally established differences in muscle-resident stem cell populations may provoke reductions in muscle mass and repair and contribute to diabetes risk. PMID:21247245

  12. Proceedings of the International Association for Development of the Information Society (IADIS) International Conference on e-Learning (Prague, Czech Republic, July 23-26, 2013)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunes, Miguel Baptista, Ed.; McPherson, Maggie, Ed.

    2013-01-01

    These proceedings contain the papers of the International Conference e-Learning 2013, which was organised by the International Association for Development of the Information Society and is part of the Multi Conference on Computer Science and Information Systems (Prague, Czech Republic, July 23-26, 2013). The e-Learning 2013 conference aims to…

  13. Effective atomic numbers and mass attenuation coefficients of some thermoluminescent dosimetric compounds for total photon interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Shivaramu; Amutha, R.; Ramprasath, V.

    1999-05-01

    Effective atomic numbers for total gamma-ray interaction with some selected thermoluminescent dosimetric compounds such as barium acetate, barium sulfate, calcium carbonate, calcium sulfate, calcium sulfate dihydrate, cadmium sulfate (anhydrous), cadmium sulfate, strontium sulfate, and lithium fluoride have been calculated in the 1-keV to 20-MeV energy region. Experimental mass attenuation coefficients and effective atomic numbers for these compounds at selected photon energies of 26.3, 33.2, 59.54, and 661.6 keV have been obtained from good geometry transmission measurements and compared with theoretical values. The effect of absorption edge on effective atomic numbers and its variation with energy, and nonvalidity of the Bragg`s mixture rule at incident photon energies closer to the absorption edges of constituent elements of compounds are discussed.

  14. Aerosol formation from high-velocity uranium drops: Comparison of number and mass distributions. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Rader, D.J.; Benson, D.A.

    1995-05-01

    This report presents the results of an experimental study of the aerosol produced by the combustion of high-velocity molten-uranium droplets produced by the simultaneous heating and electromagnetic launch of uranium wires. These tests are intended to simulate the reduction of high-velocity fragments into aerosol in high-explosive detonations or reactor accidents involving nuclear materials. As reported earlier, the resulting aerosol consists mainly of web-like chain agglomerates. A condensation nucleus counter was used to investigate the decay of the total particle concentration due to coagulation and losses. Number size distributions based on mobility equivalent diameter obtained soon after launch with a Differential Mobility Particle Sizer showed lognormal distributions with an initial count median diameter (CMD) of 0.3 {mu}m and a geometric standard deviation, {sigma}{sub g} of about 2; the CMD was found to increase and {sigma}{sub g} decrease with time due to coagulation. Mass size distributions based on aerodynamic diameter were obtained for the first time with a Microorifice Uniform Deposit Impactor, which showed lognormal distributions with mass median aerodynamic diameters of about 0.5 {mu}m and an aerodynamic geometric standard deviation of about 2. Approximate methods for converting between number and mass distributions and between mobility and aerodynamic equivalent diameters are presented.

  15. Measurement of atomic number and mass attenuation coefficient in magnesium ferrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadam, R. H.; Alone, S. T.; Bichile, G. K.; Jadhav, K. M.

    2007-05-01

    Pure magnesium ferrite sample was prepared by standard ceramic technique and characterized by X-ray diffraction method. XRD pattern revealed that the sample possess single-phase cubic spinel structure. The linear attenuation coefficient (?), mass attenuation coefficient (?/?), total atomic cross-section (?_{tot}), total electronic cross-section (?_{ele}) and the effective atomic number (Z_{eff}) were calculated for pure magnesium ferrite (MgFe_{2}O_{4}). The values of ?-ray mass attenuation coefficient were obtained using a NaI energy selective scintillation counter with radioactive ?-ray sources having energy 0.36, 0.511, 0.662, 1.17 and 1.28 MeV. The experimentally obtained values of ?/? and Z_{eff} agreed fairly well with those obtained theoretically.

  16. High-Schmidt-number mass transport mechanisms from a turbulent flow to absorbing sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scalo, Carlo; Piomelli, Ugo; Boegman, Leon

    2012-08-01

    We have investigated the mechanisms involved in dissolved oxygen (DO) transfer from a turbulent flow to an underlying organic sediment bed populated with DO-absorbing bacteria. Our numerical study relies on a previously developed and tested computational tool that couples a bio-geochemical model for the sediment layer and large-eddy simulation for transport on the water side. Simulations have been carried out in an open channel configuration for different Reynolds numbers (Re? = 180-1000), Schmidt numbers (Sc = 400-1000), and bacterial populations (?* = 100-700 mg l-1). We show that the average oxygen flux across the sediment-water interface (SWI) changes with Re? and Sc, in good agreement with classic heat-and-mass-transfer parametrizations. Time correlations at the SWI show that intermittent peaks in the wall-shear stress initiate the mass transfer and modulate its distribution in space and time. The diffusive sublayer acts as a de-noising filter with respect to the overlying turbulence; the instantaneous mass flux is not affected by low-amplitude background fluctuations in the wall-shear stress but, on the other hand, it is receptive to energetic and coherent near-wall transport events, in agreement with the surface renewal theory. The three transport processes involved in DO depletion (turbulent transport, molecular transport across the diffusive sublayer, and absorption in the organic sediment layer) exhibit distinct temporal and spatial scales. The rapidly evolving near-wall high-speed streaks transport patches of fluid to the edge of the diffusive sublayer, leaving slowly regenerating elongated patches of positive DO concentration fluctuations and mass flux at the SWI. The sediment surface retains the signature of the overlying turbulent transport over long time scales, allowed by the slow bacterial absorption.

  17. Effects of Lewis number on coupled heat and mass transfer in a circular tube subjected to external convective heating

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Anjun; Zhang, Yuwen; Ma, Hongbin; Critser, John

    2010-01-01

    Heat and mass transfer in a circular tube subject to the boundary condition of the third kind is investigated. The closed form of temperature and concentration distributions, the local Nusselt number based on the total external heat transfer and convective heat transfer inside the tube, as well as the Sherwood number were obtained. The effects of Lewis number and Biot number on heat and mass transfer were investigated. PMID:20862211

  18. Relationships between number, surface area, and mass concentrations of different nanoparticles in workplaces.

    PubMed

    Zou, Hua; Zhang, Qunwei; Xing, Mingluan; Gao, Xiangjing; Zhou, Lifang; Tollerud, David J; Tang, Shichuang; Zhang, Meibian

    2015-08-01

    No consistent metric for measuring exposure to nanoparticles has yet been agreed upon internationally. This study seeks to examine the relationship between the number concentration (NC), surface area concentration (SAC), and mass concentration (MC) of nanoparticles in workplaces. Real-time NC20-1000 nm, SAC10-1000 nm, and respirable MC100-1000 nm were determined for different nanoparticles. Concentration ratio (CR, activity: background), exposure ranking (ER), and between-metric correlation coefficients (R) were used to analyze the relationships between the three metrics. The ratio of cumulative percentage by number (APN) and cumulative percentage by mass (APM) was used to analyze whether the nanoparticle number is predominant, as compared with the nanoparticle mass. The CRs of NC20-1000 nm and SAC10-1000 nm for different nanoparticles at the corresponding work sites were higher than those of respirable MC100-1000 nm. The ERs of NC20-1000 nm for nano-Fe2O3 and nano-Al2O3 were the same as those of SAC10-1000 nm, but were inconsistent with those of respirable MC100-1000 nm. The order of correlation coefficients between NC20-1000 nm, SAC10-1000 nm, and respirable MC100-1000 nm was: RSAC and NC > RSAC and MC > RNC and MC. The ratios of APN and APM for nano-Al2O3 and grinding-wheel particles (less than 100 nm) at the same work site were 2.03 and 1.65, respectively. NC and SAC metrics are significantly distinct from the MC in characterizing exposure to airborne nanoparticles. Simultaneous measurements of the NC, SAC, and MC should be conducted as part of nanoparticle exposure assessment strategies and epidemiological studies. PMID:26166442

  19. Investigation of Aerosol Surface Area Estimation from Number and Mass Concentration Measurements: Particle Density Effect

    PubMed Central

    Ku, Bon Ki; Evans, Douglas E.

    2015-01-01

    For nanoparticles with nonspherical morphologies, e.g., open agglomerates or fibrous particles, it is expected that the actual density of agglomerates may be significantly different from the bulk material density. It is further expected that using the material density may upset the relationship between surface area and mass when a method for estimating aerosol surface area from number and mass concentrations (referred to as “Maynard’s estimation method”) is used. Therefore, it is necessary to quantitatively investigate how much the Maynard’s estimation method depends on particle morphology and density. In this study, aerosol surface area estimated from number and mass concentration measurements was evaluated and compared with values from two reference methods: a method proposed by Lall and Friedlander for agglomerates and a mobility based method for compact nonspherical particles using well-defined polydisperse aerosols with known particle densities. Polydisperse silver aerosol particles were generated by an aerosol generation facility. Generated aerosols had a range of morphologies, count median diameters (CMD) between 25 and 50 nm, and geometric standard deviations (GSD) between 1.5 and 1.8. The surface area estimates from number and mass concentration measurements correlated well with the two reference values when gravimetric mass was used. The aerosol surface area estimates from the Maynard’s estimation method were comparable to the reference method for all particle morphologies within the surface area ratios of 3.31 and 0.19 for assumed GSDs 1.5 and 1.8, respectively, when the bulk material density of silver was used. The difference between the Maynard’s estimation method and surface area measured by the reference method for fractal-like agglomerates decreased from 79% to 23% when the measured effective particle density was used, while the difference for nearly spherical particles decreased from 30% to 24%. The results indicate that the use of particle density of agglomerates improves the accuracy of the Maynard’s estimation method and that an effective density should be taken into account, when known, when estimating aerosol surface area of nonspherical aerosol such as open agglomerates and fibrous particles. PMID:26526560

  20. Low Mass-Damping Vortex-Induced Vibrations of a Single Cylinder at Moderate Reynolds Number.

    PubMed

    Jus, Y; Longatte, E; Chassaing, J-C; Sagaut, P

    2014-10-01

    The feasibility and accuracy of large eddy simulation is investigated for the case of three-dimensional unsteady flows past an elastically mounted cylinder at moderate Reynolds number. Although these flow problems are unconfined, complex wake flow patterns may be observed depending on the elastic properties of the structure. An iterative procedure is used to solve the structural dynamic equation to be coupled with the Navier-Stokes system formulated in a pseudo-Eulerian way. A moving mesh method is involved to deform the computational domain according to the motion of the fluid structure interface. Numerical simulations of vortex-induced vibrations are performed for a freely vibrating cylinder at Reynolds number 3900 in the subcritical regime under two low mass-damping conditions. A detailed physical analysis is provided for a wide range of reduced velocities, and the typical three-branch response of the amplitude behavior usually reported in the experiments is exhibited and reproduced by numerical simulation. PMID:25278637

  1. The Expected Number of Background Disease Events during Mass Immunization in China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, YouXin; Wu, LiJuan; Yu, XinWei; Zhao, FeiFei; Russell, Alyce; Song, ManShu; Wang, Wei

    2013-01-01

    It is critical to distinguish events that are temporarily associated with, but not caused by, vaccination from those caused by vaccination during mass immunization. We performed a literature search in China National Knowledge Infrastructure and Pubmed databases. The number of coincident events was calculated based on its incidence rate and periods after receipt of a dose of hypothesized vaccine. We included background incidences of Guillain-Barré syndrome, anaphylaxis, seizure, sudden adult death syndrome, sudden cardiac death, spontaneous abortion, and preterm labour or delivery. In a cohort of 10 million individuals, 7.71 cases of Guillain-Barré syndrome would be expected to occur within six weeks of vaccination as coincident background cases. Even for rare events, a large number of events can be expected in a short period because of the large population targeted for immunization. These findings may encourage health authorities to screen the safety of vaccines against unpredictable pathogens. PMID:23977153

  2. Multiplicity fluctuations in nucleus-nucleus collisions: Dependence on energy and atomic mass number

    SciTech Connect

    Konchakovski, V. P.; Lungwitz, B.; Gorenstein, M. I.; Bratkovskaya, E. L.

    2008-08-15

    Event-by-event multiplicity fluctuations in central C+C, S+S, In+In, and Pb+Pb as well as p+p collisions at bombarding energies from 10 to 160 AGeV are studied within the hadron string dynamics and ultrarelativistic quantum molecular dynamics microscopic transport approaches. Our investigation is directly related to the future experimental program of the NA61 Collaboration at the SPS for a search of the quantum chromodynamics (QCD) critical point. The dependence on energy and atomic mass number of the scaled variances for negative, positive, and all charged hadrons is presented and compared to the results of the model of independent sources. Furthermore, the nucleus-nucleus results from the transport calculations are compared to inelastic proton-proton collisions for reference. We find a dominant role of the participant number fluctuations in nucleus-nucleus reactions at finite impact parameter b. To reduce the influence of the participant numbers fluctuations on the charged particle multiplicity fluctuations only the most central events have to be selected. Accordingly, the samples of the 1% most central nucleus-nucleus collisions with the largest numbers of the projectile participants are studied. The results are compared with those for collisions at zero impact parameter. A strong influence of the centrality selection criteria on the multiplicity fluctuations is pointed out. Our findings are essential for an optimal choice of colliding nuclei and bombarding energies for the experimental search of the QCD critical point.

  3. Does mass play a role in partition functions even in low Reynolds number systems?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, Rebecca W.; Franklin, Nica; Manoharan, Vinothan N.

    2014-03-01

    Classical statistical mechanics predicts that heavy components of a reconfigurable object will preferentially occupy positions at the edges of the object while lighter components will most often reside near the object's center of mass. This predicted influence of mass comes in through the rotational component of the partition function, which favors configurations with larger moments of inertia. It is tempting to apply these findings of statistical mechanics directly to colloidal systems, but is this appropriate when colloidal systems are immersed in liquid rather than surrounded by vaccuum? Does mass have a place in the partition function of colloidal clusters at low Reynolds numbers where we are accustomed to ignoring inertia? Here, we measure how silica microspheres distribute themselves when mixed with identically-sized polystyrene microspheres to form weakly-bound clusters of up to ten spheres. Using an array of microwells, we observe thousands of two-dimensional clusters to answer these fundamental questions. This work is funded by the NSF through grant no. 1306410.

  4. Externally driven global Alfvén eigenmodes applied for effective mass number measurement on TCABR

    SciTech Connect

    Puglia, P. G. P. P.; Elfimov, A. G.; Ruchko, L. F.; Galvão, R. M. O.; Guimarães-Filho, Z.; Ronchi, G.

    2014-12-15

    The excitation and detection of Global Alfvén Eigenmodes on TCABR for diagnostic purposes are presented. The modes can be excited with one or two in-vessel antennae, with up to 15 A of current in each, in the frequency range from 2 to 4 MHz. This scheme allows the estimation of the effective mass number at the plasma center, which value is affected by impurity concentration in the core. An amplifier based on MOSFETs is used to excite the waves driven by low power, in order to not change the basic plasma parameters. The variation of the GAE with density is verified and the location of the mode resonance at the plasma center is confirmed by the sawtooth beating, so that the correspondingly beating phase inversion improves the precision on the resonant condition determination. The toroidal parity of the modes N = 1,2 is determined by use of two opposite located antennae with different phase of the RF current. Knowledge of toroidal mode number is important as it identifies GAE location and defines the estimated effective mass value. The estimated value for A{sub eff} is ∼1.4–1.5, corresponding to 5–7% of carbon impurity concentration. The measured value of A{sub eff} is used to estimate Z{sub eff}, which is compared to older TCA experiments and the value obtained by the Spitzer conductivity.

  5. Relic neutrinos: Physically consistent treatment of effective number of neutrinos and neutrino mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birrell, Jeremiah; Rafelski, Johann

    2014-03-01

    It is well known that the effective number of cosmic neutrinos, N?, is larger than the standard model number of neutrino flavors N?f = 3 due a small flow of entropy into neutrinos from e +/- annihilation. Observational bounds from both BBN and the CMB suggest a value of N? that is larger than the current theoretical prediction of N? = 3 . 046 . We show in a model independent way how N? relates to the neutrino kinetic freeze-out temperature, Tk, which we treat as parameter. We derive the relations that must hold between N?, the photon to neutrino temperature ratio, the neutrino fugacity, and Tk. Our results imply that measurement of neutrino reheating, as characterized by N?, amounts to the determination of Tk. We follow the free streaming neutrinos down to a temperature on the order of the neutrino mass and determine how the cosmic neutrino properties i.e. energy density, pressure, particle density, depend in a physically consistent way on both neutrino mass and N?. We continue down to the present day temperature and characterize the neutrino distribution in this regime as well. See arXiv:1212.6943, PRD in press. This work has been supported by a grant from the U.S. Department of Energy, No. DE-FG02-04ER41318 and by the Department of Defense (DoD) through the National Defense Science & Engineering Graduate Fellowship (NDSEG) Program.

  6. Mass-number and isotope dependence of local microscopic optical potentials for polarized proton scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toyokawa, Masakazu; Minomo, Kosho; Yahiro, Masanobu

    2013-11-01

    We derive local microscopic optical potentials U systematically for polarized proton scattering at 65 MeV using the local-potential version of the Melbourne g-matrix folding model. As target nuclei, we take 6He and neutron-rich Ne isotopes in addition to stable nuclei of mass number A=4-208 in order to clarify mass-number and isotope dependence of U. The local potentials reproduce the experimental data systematically and have geometries similar to the phenomenological optical potentials for stable targets. The target density is broadened by the weak-binding nature and/or deformation of unstable nuclei. For the real spin-orbit part of U the density broadening weakens the strength and enlarges the radius, whereas for the central part it enlarges both of the strength and the radius. The density-broadening effect is conspicuous for halo nuclei such as 6He and 31Ne. Similar discussions are made briefly for proton scattering at 200 MeV. We briefly investigate how the isovector and the nonspherical components of U affect proton scattering.

  7. Particle-number conservation in odd mass proton-rich nuclei in the isovector pairing case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fellah, M.; Allal, N. H.; Oudih, M. R.

    2015-06-01

    An expression of a wave function which describes odd-even systems in the isovector pairing case is proposed within the BCS approach. It is shown that it correctly generalizes the one used in the pairing between like-particles case. It is then projected on the good proton and neutron numbers using the Sharp-BCS (SBCS) method. The expressions of the expectation values of the particle-number operator and its square, as well as the energy, are deduced in both approaches. The formalism is applied to study the isovector pairing effect and the number projection one on the ground state energy of odd mass N ? Z nuclei using the single-particle energies of a deformed Woods-Saxon mean-field. It is shown that both effects on energy do not exceed 2%, however, the absolute deviations may reach several MeV. Moreover, the np pairing effect rapidly diminishes as a function of (N - Z). The deformation effect is also studied. It is shown that the np pairing effect, either before or after the projection, as well as the projection effect, when including or not the isovector pairing, depends upon the deformation. However, it seems that the predicted ground state deformation will remain the same in the four approaches.

  8. Floods of July 23-26, 2010, in the Little Maquoketa River and Maquoketa River Basins, Northeast Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eash, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Minor flooding occurred July 23, 2010, in the Little Maquoketa River Basin and major flooding occurred July 23–26, 2010, in the Maquoketa River Basin in northeast Iowa following severe thunderstorm activity over the region during July 22–24. A breach of the Lake Delhi Dam on July 24 aggravated flooding on the Maquoketa River. Rain gages at Manchester and Strawberry Point, Iowa, recorded 72-hour-rainfall amounts of 7.33 and 12.23 inches, respectively, on July 24. The majority of the rainfall occurred during a 48-hour period. Within the Little Maquoketa River Basin, a peak-discharge estimate of 19,000 cubic feet per second (annual flood-probability estimate of 4 to 10 percent) at the discontinued 05414500 Little Maquoketa River near Durango, Iowa streamgage on July 23 is the sixth largest flood on record. Within the Maquoketa River Basin, peak discharges of 26,600 cubic feet per second (annual flood-probability estimate of 0.2 to 1 percent) at the 05416900 Maquoketa River at Manchester, Iowa streamgage on July 24, and of 25,000 cubic feet per second (annual flood-probability estimate of 1 to 2 percent) at the 05418400 North Fork Maquoketa River near Fulton, Iowa streamgage on July 24 are the largest floods on record for these sites. A peak discharge affected by the Lake Delhi Dam breach on July 24 at the 05418500 Maquoketa River near Maquoketa, Iowa streamgage, located downstream of Lake Delhi, of 46,000 cubic feet per second on July 26 is the third highest on record. High-water marks were measured at five locations along the Little Maquoketa and North Fork Little Maquoketa Rivers between U.S. Highway 52 near Dubuque and County Road Y21 near Rickardsville, a distance of 19 river miles. Highwater marks were measured at 28 locations along the Maquoketa River between U.S. Highway 52 near Green Island and State Highway 187 near Arlington, a distance of 142 river miles. High-water marks were measured at 13 locations along the North Fork Maquoketa River between Rockdale Road near Maquoketa and U.S. Highway 52 near Luxemburg, a distance of 90 river miles. The high-water marks were used to develop flood profiles for the Little Maquoketa, North Fork Little Maquoketa, Maquoketa, and North Fork Maquoketa Rivers.

  9. Extended Glauber Model of Antiproton-Nucleus Annihilation for All Energies and Mass Numbers

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Teck-Ghee; Wong, Cheuk-Yin

    2014-01-01

    Previous analytical formulas in the Glauber model for high-energy nucleus-nucleus collisions developed by Wong are utilized and extended to study Antiproton-nucleus annihilations for both high and low energies, after taking into account the effects of Coulomb and nuclear interactions, and the change of the antiproton momentum inside a nucleus. The extended analytical formulas capture the main features of the experimental antiproton-nucleus annihilation cross sections for all energies and mass numbers. At high antiproton energies, they exhibit the granular property for the lightest nuclei and the black-disk limit for the heavy nuclei. At low antiproton energies, they display the effect of the antiproton momentum increase due to the nuclear interaction for the light nuclei, and the effect of the magnification due to the attractive Coulomb interaction for the heavy nuclei.

  10. Measurements of mass attenuation coefficient, effective atomic number and electron density of some amino acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kore, Prashant S.; Pawar, Pravina P.

    2014-05-01

    The mass attenuation coefficients of some amino acids, such as DL-aspartic acid-LR(C4H7NO4), L-glutamine (C4H10N2O3), creatine monohydrate LR(C4H9N3O2H2O), creatinine hydrochloride (C4H7N3O·HCl) L-asparagine monohydrate(C4H9N3O2H2O), L-methionine LR(C5H11NO2S), were measured at 122, 356, 511, 662, 1170, 1275 and 1330 keV photon energies using a well-collimated narrow beam good geometry set-up. The gamma-rays were detected using NaI (Tl) scintillation detection system with a resolution of 0.101785 at 662 keV. The attenuation coefficient data were then used to obtain the effective atomic numbers (Zeff), and effective electron densities (Neff) of amino acids. It was observed that the effective atomic number (Zeff) and effective electron densities (Neff) initially decrease and tend to be almost constant as a function of gamma-ray energy. Zeff and Neff experimental values showed good agreement with the theoretical values with less than 1% error for amino acids.

  11. ModelE2-TOMAS development and evaluation using aerosol optical depths, mass and number concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Y. H.; Adams, P. J.; Shindell, D. T.

    2014-09-01

    The TwO-Moment Aerosol Sectional microphysics model (TOMAS) has been integrated into the state-of-the-art general circulation model, GISS ModelE2. TOMAS has the flexibility to select a size resolution as well as the lower size cutoff. A computationally efficient version of TOMAS is used here, which has 15 size bins covering 3 nm to 10 ?m aerosol dry diameter. For each bin, it simulates the total aerosol number concentration and mass concentrations of sulphate, pure elementary carbon (hydrophobic), mixed elemental carbon (hydrophilic), hydrophobic organic matter, hydrophilic organic matter, sea salt, mineral dust, ammonium, and aerosol-associated water. This paper provides a detailed description of the ModelE2-TOMAS model and evaluates the model against various observations including aerosol precursor gas concentrations, aerosol mass and number concentrations, and aerosol optical depths. Additionally, global budgets in ModelE2-TOMAS are compared with those of other global aerosol models, and the TOMAS model is compared to the default aerosol model in ModelE2, which is a bulk aerosol model. Overall, the ModelE2-TOMAS predictions are within the range of other global aerosol model predictions, and the model has a reasonable agreement with observations of sulphur species and other aerosol components as well as aerosol optical depth. However, ModelE2-TOMAS (as well as the bulk aerosol model) cannot capture the observed vertical distribution of sulphur dioxide over the Pacific Ocean possibly due to overly strong convective transport. The TOMAS model successfully captures observed aerosol number concentrations and cloud condensation nuclei concentrations. Anthropogenic aerosol burdens in the bulk aerosol model running in the same host model as TOMAS (ModelE2) differ by a few percent to a factor of 2 regionally, mainly due to differences in aerosol processes including deposition, cloud processing, and emission parameterizations. Larger differences are found for naturally emitted aerosols such as sea salt and mineral dust. With TOMAS, ModelE2 has three different aerosol models (the bulk aerosol model and modal-based aerosol microphysics model, MATRIX) and allows exploration of the uncertainties associated with aerosol modelling within the same host model, NASA GISS ModelE2.

  12. Heterogeneous heat-mass transfer and effective thermal conductivity of pores in ceramic materials at arbitrary knudsen numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litovskii, E. Ya.; Kaplan, F. S.; Klimovich, A. V.

    1981-08-01

    Approximate expressions are obtained for mass flux and thermal conductivity component in a temperature gradient field in a plane slit. A number of examples are used to demonstrate the significant contribution of heat-mass transfer in the transitional regime to thermal conductivity of refractory materials.

  13. Provisioning Mass by Females of the Maritime Earwig, Anisolabis maritima, is not Adjusted Based on the Number of Young

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Seizi

    2011-01-01

    The amount of parental provisioning is thought to reflect the need of offspring. This hypothesis was tested in the case of provisioning food mass to young with controlled clutch size using the maritime earwig, Anisolabis maritima Bonelli (Dermaptera: Anisolabididae). The female provisioned a constant mass of food to the young irrespective of the number of nymphs and the distance of food carrying. In addition, the survival rate of young did not change with adjusted clutch size. This study showed that A. maritima females appear to provide food mass to their nymphs independent of their number. PMID:22239204

  14. Intermittent stretch training of rabbit plantarflexor muscles increases soleus mass and serial sarcomere number.

    PubMed

    De Jaeger, Dominique; Joumaa, Venus; Herzog, Walter

    2015-06-15

    In humans, enhanced joint range of motion is observed after static stretch training and results either from an increased stretch tolerance or from a change in the biomechanical properties of the muscle-tendon unit. We investigated the effects of an intermittent stretch training on muscle biomechanical and structural variables. The left plantarflexors muscles of seven anesthetized New Zealand (NZ) White rabbits were passively and statically stretched three times a week for 4 wk, while the corresponding right muscles were used as nonstretched contralateral controls. Before and after the stretching protocol, passive torque produced by the left plantarflexor muscles as a function of the ankle angle was measured. The left and right plantarflexor muscles were harvested from dead rabbits and used to quantify possible changes in muscle structure. Significant mass and serial sarcomere number increases were observed in the stretched soleus but not in the plantaris or medial gastrocnemius. This difference in adaptation between the plantarflexors is thought to be the result of their different fiber type composition and pennation angles. Neither titin isoform nor collagen amount was modified in the stretched compared with the control soleus muscle. Passive torque developed during ankle dorsiflexion was not modified after the stretch training on average, but was decreased in five of the seven experimental rabbits. Thus, an intermittent stretching program similar to those used in humans can produce a change in the muscle structure of NZ White rabbits, which was associated in some rabbits with a change in the biomechanical properties of the muscle-tendon unit. PMID:26078433

  15. Annual Enrollment Report Number of Students Studying Journalism and Mass Communication at All-time High.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Lee B.; Vlad, Tudor; Huh, Jisu; Prine, Joelle

    2001-01-01

    Finds that journalism and mass communication programs appear to be entering another period of rapid enrollment growth, swept up by overall increases in enrollments at United States universities. Finds that only about four in ten of the journalism and mass communication programs report enrollments by race, suggesting many administrators are not…

  16. Annual Enrollment Report Number of Students Studying Journalism and Mass Communication at All-time High.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Lee B.; Vlad, Tudor; Huh, Jisu; Prine, Joelle

    2001-01-01

    Finds that journalism and mass communication programs appear to be entering another period of rapid enrollment growth, swept up by overall increases in enrollments at United States universities. Finds that only about four in ten of the journalism and mass communication programs report enrollments by race, suggesting many administrators are not…

  17. Annual Enrollment Report: Growth in Number of Students Studying Journalism and Mass Communication Slows.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Lee B.; Vlad, Tudor; Huh, Jisu; Daniels, George L.

    2002-01-01

    Provides the key findings of the 2001 Annual Survey of Journalism and Mass Communication Enrollments. Shows that undergraduate enrollments continued to grow while graduate enrollments declined. Discusses degrees granted and race, ethnicity, and gender factors. (PM)

  18. Analysis of turbulent heat transfer, mass transfer, and friction in smooth tubes at high Prandtl and Schmidt numbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deissler, Robert G

    1955-01-01

    The expression for eddy diffusivity from a previous analysis was modified in order to account for the effect of kinematic viscosity on the turbulence in the region close to a wall. By using the modified expression, good agreement was obtained between predicted and experimental results for heat and mass transfer at Prandtl and Schmidt numbers between 0.5 and 3000. The effects of length-to-diameter ratio and of variable viscosity were also investigated for a wide range of Prandtl numbers.

  19. Rapid scanning mass spectrometer. Final CRADA report for CRADA Number Y-1295-0394

    SciTech Connect

    Leckey, J.H.; Boeckmann, M.D.

    1997-02-24

    This Cooperative Research and Development Agreement was used to modify Vacuum Technology`s AERO VAC computer/mass spectrometer interface and electronics to allow the mass spectrometer to acquire rapid scans. The computer interface sends signals from the PC to the mass spectrometer, controlling its filament, giving scan instructions, and selecting the proper electrometer range, and detector. It then receives the detector output in the form of amplified digital signals from the electrometer. This project performed the following three upgrades on the computer interface and electronics. (1) A new electrometer was designed and built to process the signal from the detector. This new electrometer is more sensitive, over 10 times faster, and over 100 times more stable than the electrometer it will have replaced. (2) The controller EPROM was reprogrammed with new firmware. This firmware acts as an operating system for the interface and is used to shuttle communications between the PC and the AERO VAC mass spectrometer. The new firmware allows digital signals to be transmitted considerably faster to and from the mass spectrometer than the old firmware. The voltage regulator which causes the ion selector voltage to ramp to allow ions of selected mass to be sequentially detected was redesigned and prototyped. The redesign allowed obsolete electronics in the regulator circuitry to be replaced with more efficient circuitry. The redesigned voltage regulator can be ramped up or down more than 100 times faster than the existing regulator. Figure 4 shows a picture of the prototype voltage regulator circuit. These changes were incorporated into a prototype unit and preliminary performance testing conducted. Results indicated that scanning speed was significantly increased over the unmodified version.

  20. Regular expansion solutions for small Peclet number heat or mass transfer in concentrated two-phase particulate systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yaron, I.

    1974-01-01

    Steady state heat or mass transfer in concentrated ensembles of drops, bubbles or solid spheres in uniform, slow viscous motion, is investigated. Convective effects at small Peclet numbers are taken into account by expanding the nondimensional temperature or concentration in powers of the Peclet number. Uniformly valid solutions are obtained, which reflect the effects of dispersed phase content and rate of internal circulation within the fluid particles. The dependence of the range of Peclet and Reynolds numbers, for which regular expansions are valid, on particle concentration is discussed.

  1. Influence of mileage accumulation on the particle mass and number emissions of two gasoline direct injection vehicles.

    PubMed

    Maricq, M Matti; Szente, Joseph J; Adams, Jack; Tennison, Paul; Rumpsa, Todd

    2013-10-15

    Gasoline direct injection (GDI) is a new engine technology intended to improve fuel economy and greenhouse gas emissions as required by recently enacted legislative and environmental regulations. The development of this technology must also ensure that these vehicles meet new LEV III and Tier 3 emissions standards as they phase in between 2017 and 2021. The aim of the present paper is to examine, at least for a small set, how the PM emissions from GDI vehicles change over their lifetime. The paper reports particle mass and number emissions of two GDI vehicles as a function of mileage up to 150K miles. These vehicles exhibit PM emissions that are near or below the upcoming 3 mg/mi FTP and 10 mg/mi US06 mass standards with little, if any, deterioration over 150K miles. Particle number emissions roughly follow the previously observed 2 × 10(12) particles/mg correlation between solid particle number and PM mass. They remained between the interim and final EU stage 6 solid particle count standard for gasoline vehicles throughout the mileage accumulation study. These examples demonstrate feasibility to meet near-term 3 mg/mi and interim EU solid particle number standards, but continued development is needed to ensure that this continues as further fuel economy improvements are made. PMID:24040936

  2. Fluid flow and mass transfer characteristics in a sinusoidal wavy-walled tube at moderate Reynolds numbers for steady flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimura, T.; Bian, Y. N.; Matsumoto, Y.; Kunitsugu, K.

    2002-06-01

    Flow and mass transfer characteristics in an axisymmetric sinusoidal wavy-walled tube are investigated experimentally in the Reynolds number range from 50 to 1000. The flow patterns are visualized by the aluminum dust method. The measurements of the wall shear stress and the mass transfer rate for high Schmidt number are performed by the electrochemical method. The attention is focused on their characteristics, including the transitional flow. It was observed that steady flow changes into unsteady flow when the Reynolds number exceeds about 160. The wall shear stress in the minimum circular cross section of the tube and the mass transfer rate for one wavelength are shown to depend upon the Reynolds number. In the laminar flow regime they increase with the slope of 1 and 1/3, respectively, whereas in the turbulent flow regime they increase with the slope of 3/2 and 3/5, respectively. In the transitional flow regime both of them increase significantly with further larger slope. It is found that the laminar-like motion and turbulent-like motion occur alternatively, with different time intervals, indicating intermittent flow behavior. This is quite different from the flow instability of the wavy-walled channel in which Tollmien-Schlichting waves keeping a time-periodic flow appear.

  3. A comparative study of the number and mass of fine particles emitted with diesel fuel and marine gas oil (MGO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nabi, Md. Nurun; Brown, Richard J.; Ristovski, Zoran; Hustad, Johan Einar

    2012-09-01

    The current investigation reports on diesel particulate matter emissions, with special interest in fine particles from the combustion of two base fuels. The base fuels selected were diesel fuel and marine gas oil (MGO). The experiments were conducted with a four-stroke, six-cylinder, direct injection diesel engine. The results showed that the fine particle number emissions measured by both SMPS and ELPI were higher with MGO compared to diesel fuel. It was observed that the fine particle number emissions with the two base fuels were quantitatively different but qualitatively similar. The gravimetric (mass basis) measurement also showed higher total particulate matter (TPM) emissions with the MGO. The smoke emissions, which were part of TPM, were also higher for the MGO. No significant changes in the mass flow rate of fuel and the brake-specific fuel consumption (BSFC) were observed between the two base fuels.

  4. Mass and number size distributions of emitted particulates at five important operation units in a hazardous industrial waste incineration plant.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chi-Chi; Huang, Hsiao-Lin; Hsiao, Wen-Yuan

    2016-05-01

    Past studies indicated particulates generated by waste incineration contain various hazardous compounds. The aerosol characteristics are very important for particulate hazard control and workers' protection. This study explores the detailed characteristics of emitted particulates from each important operation unit in a rotary kiln-based hazardous industrial waste incineration plant. A dust size analyzer (Grimm 1.109) and a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) were used to measure the aerosol mass concentration, mass size distribution, and number size distribution at five operation units (S1-S5) during periods of normal operation, furnace shutdown, and annual maintenance. The place with the highest measured PM10 concentration was located at the area of fly ash discharge from air pollution control equipment (S5) during the period of normal operation. Fine particles (PM2.5) constituted the majority of the emitted particles from the incineration plant. The mass size distributions (elucidated) made it clear that the size of aerosols caused by the increased particulate mass, resulting from work activities, were mostly greater than 1.5 μm. Whereas the number size distributions showed that the major diameters of particulates that caused the increase of particulate number concentrations, from work activities, were distributed in the sub micrometer range. The process of discharging fly ash from air pollution control equipment can significantly increase the emission of nanoparticles. The mass concentrations and size distributions of emitted particulates were different at each operation unit. This information is valuable for managers to take appropriate strategy to reduce the particulate emission and associated worker exposure. PMID:26771771

  5. Particulate Matter Mass and Number Concentrations Inside a Naturally Ventilated School Building Located Adjacent to an Urban Roadway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chithra, V. S.; Shiva Nagendra, S. M.

    2014-08-01

    This work presents the temporal characteristics of Particulate Matter (PM) mass and number concentrations measured inside a naturally ventilated school building, located close to a busy roadway in Chennai city. Two environmental dust monitor instruments (GRIMM Model 107 and Model 108) were used for measuring PM mass and number concentrations. The 1-h mean values of PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 mass concentrations were found to be 262 ± 161, 68 ± 24, 40 ± 15 µg/m3 and 81 ± 26, 56 ± 2, 45 ± 19 µg/m3 during working hours (8am-4pm) and non-working hours (4pm-8am)/holidays, respectively. The PM number concentrations inside the room during working hours were found to be 2.4 × 105, 2.2 × 103 and 8.1 × 102 particles/l in the size range of 0.3-1, 1-3 and 3-10 µm, respectively. The present study reveals that during working hours, indoor PM concentrations of the classroom were influenced by the activities of occupants and during non working hours it was affected by outdoor vehicular emissions.

  6. Particulate Matter Mass and Number Concentrations Inside a Naturally Ventilated School Building Located Adjacent to an Urban Roadway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chithra, V. S.; Shiva Nagendra, S. M.

    2014-09-01

    This work presents the temporal characteristics of Particulate Matter (PM) mass and number concentrations measured inside a naturally ventilated school building, located close to a busy roadway in Chennai city. Two environmental dust monitor instruments (GRIMM Model 107 and Model 108) were used for measuring PM mass and number concentrations. The 1-h mean values of PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 mass concentrations were found to be 262 ± 161, 68 ± 24, 40 ± 15 µg/m3 and 81 ± 26, 56 ± 2, 45 ± 19 µg/m3 during working hours (8am-4pm) and non-working hours (4pm-8am)/holidays, respectively. The PM number concentrations inside the room during working hours were found to be 2.4 × 105, 2.2 × 103 and 8.1 × 102 particles/l in the size range of 0.3-1, 1-3 and 3-10 µm, respectively. The present study reveals that during working hours, indoor PM concentrations of the classroom were influenced by the activities of occupants and during non working hours it was affected by outdoor vehicular emissions.

  7. Contribution from indoor sources to particle number and mass concentrations in residential houses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Congrong; Morawska, Lidia; Hitchins, Jane; Gilbert, Dale

    As part of a large study investigating indoor air in residential houses in Brisbane, Australia, the purpose of this work was to quantify emission characteristics of indoor particle sources in 15 houses. Submicrometer particle number and approximation of PM 2.5 concentrations were measured simultaneously for more than 48 h in the kitchen of all the houses by using a condensation particle counter (CPC) and a photometer (DustTrak), respectively. In addition, characterizations of particles resulting from cooking conducted in an identical way in all the houses were measured by using a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS), an aerodynamic particle sizer (APS) and a DustTrak. All the events of elevated particle concentrations were linked to indoor activities using house occupants diary entries, and catalogued into 21 different types of indoor activities. This enabled quantification of the effect of indoor sources on indoor particle concentrations as well as quantification of emission rates from the sources. For example, the study found that frying, grilling, stove use, toasting, cooking pizza, cooking, candle vaporizing eucalyptus oil and fan heater use, could elevate the indoor submicrometer particle number concentration levels by more than five times, while PM 2.5 concentrations could be up to 3, 30 and 90 times higher than the background levels during smoking, frying and grilling, respectively.

  8. Optimization of the total radiation with array mass and radius, wire size and number, and length on the "Z" accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deeney, C.; Spielman, R. B.; Chandler, G. A.; Nash, T. J.; Douglas, M. R.; Fehl, D.; Sanford, T. W. L.; Peterson, D. L.

    1997-11-01

    By optimizing the mass and wire size (and number) at 40 mm array lengths, we achieved 210 TW and 1.8 MJ of x-ray emission. Subsequent radius scaling experiements, showed that the energies and powers decreased as the array diameter was reduced. In this paper, we will review this data and present new results from a length scan which resulted in 1 cm long pinches producing 200 TW/ cm. Reduced pinch lengths has allowed us to couple efficiently to small diameter loads for vacuum hohlraum configurations.

  9. Studies on effective atomic numbers, electron densities from mass attenuation coefficients near the K edge in some samarium compounds.

    PubMed

    Akman, F; Durak, R; Turhan, M F; Kaçal, M R

    2015-07-01

    The effective atomic numbers and electron densities of some samarium compounds were determined using the experimental total mass attenuation coefficient values near the K edge in the X-ray energy range from 36.847 up to 57.142 keV. The measurements, in the region from 36.847 to 57.142 keV, were done in a transmission geometry utilizing the Kα2, Kα1, Kβ1 and Kβ2 X-rays from different secondary source targets excited by the 59.54 keV gamma-photons from an Am-241 annular source. This paper presents the first measurement of the effective atomic numbers and electron densities for some samarium compounds near the K edge. The results of the study showed that the measured values were in good agreement with the theoretically calculated ones. PMID:25880612

  10. Genome-wide association study of copy number variation identified gremlin1 as a candidate gene for lean body mass

    PubMed Central

    Hai, Rong; Pei, Yu-Fang; Shen, Hui; Zhang, Lei; Liu, Xiao-Gang; Lin, Yong; Ran, Shu; Pan, Feng; Tan, Li-Jun; Lei, Shu-Feng; Yang, Tie-Lin; Zhang, Yan; Zhu, Xue-Zhen; Zhao, Lan-Juan; Deng, Hong-Wen

    2012-01-01

    Lean body mass (LBM) is a heritable trait predicting a series of health problems, such as osteoporotic fracture and sarcopenia. We aim to identify sequence variants associated with LBM by a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of copy number variants (CNVs). We genotyped genome-wide CNVs of 1627 individuals of the Chinese population with Affymetrix SNP6.0 genotyping platform, which comprised of 9 40 000 copy number probes. We then performed a GWAS of CNVs with lean mass at seven sites: left and right arms, left and right legs, total of limb, trunk and whole body. We identified a CNV that is associated with LBM variation at the genome-wide significance level (CNV2073, Bonferroni corrected P-value 0.002 at right arm). CNV2073 locates at chromosome 15q13.3, which has been implicated as a candidate region for LBM by our previous linkage studies. The nearest gene, gremlin1, has a key role in the regulation of skeletal muscle formation and repair. Our results suggest that the gremlin1 gene is a potentially important gene for LBM variation. Our findings also show the utility and efficacy of CNV as genetic markers in association studies. PMID:22048656

  11. Number size distribution of aerosols at Mt. Huang and Nanjing in the Yangtze River Delta, China: Effects of air masses and characteristics of new particle formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Honglei; Zhu, Bin; Shen, Lijuan; An, Junlin; Yin, Yan; Kang, Hanqing

    2014-12-01

    Aerosol number spectra in the range of 10 nm-10 ?m were observed at Mt. Huang (Aug. 15-Sep. 15) and Nanjing (Oct. 13-Nov. 15) by a wide-range particle spectrometer (WPS) in 2011. Based on the backward trajectories obtained using the HYSPLIT model, the transport pathways of observed air masses during the study periods were classified into the following four groups: maritime air mass, continental air mass, marine-continental mixed air mass and local air mass. The variations in the aerosol number spectrum and the new particle formation (NPF) events for various types of air masses were discussed, along with meteorological data. The results showed that the average number concentration was 12,540 cm- 3 at Nanjing and only 2791 cm- 3 at Mt. Huang. The aerosol number concentration in Nanjing was 3-7 times higher than that in Mt. Huang; the large discrepancy was in the range of 10-100 nm. Different types of air masses had different effects on number concentration distribution. The number concentration of aerosols was higher in marine air masses, continental air masses and continental-marine mixed air masses at 10-50 nm, 100-500 nm and 50-200 nm, respectively. Under the four types of air masses, the aerosol size spectra had bimodal distributions in Nanjing and unimodal distributions in Mt. Huang (except under continental air masses: HT1). The effects of the diverse air masses on aerosol size segments of the concentration peak in Mt. Huang were stronger than those in Nanjing. The local air masses were dominant at these two sites and accounted for 44% of the total air masses. However, the aerosol number concentration was the lowest in Mt. Huang and the highest in Nanjing when local air masses were present. The number concentrations for foreign air masses increased at Mt. Huang and decreased at Nanjing. Different types of air masses had greater effects on the aerosol spectrum distribution at Mt. Huang than at Nanjing. During the NPF events, the particle growth rates at Mt. Huang (6.5-9.0 nm h- 1) were faster than those at Nanjing (4.8-5.6 nm h- 1). The relative humidity at Mt. Huang (36-65%) was higher than that at Nanjing (30-47%), but the wind speed trend was the opposite. The air masses during the NPF events were clean, i.e., they were mainly from over the ocean or districts with low ultrafine particle concentrations.

  12. Characterisation of particle mass and number concentration on the east coast of the Malaysian Peninsula during the northeast monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dominick, Doreena; Latif, Mohd Talib; Juneng, Liew; Khan, Md Firoz; Amil, Norhaniza; Mead, Mohammed Iqbal; Nadzir, Mohd Shahrul Mohd; Moi, Phang Siew; Samah, Azizan Abu; Ashfold, Matthew J.; Sturges, William T.; Harris, Neil R. P.; Robinson, Andrew D.; Pyle, John A.

    2015-09-01

    Particle mass concentrations (PM10, PM2.5 and PM1) and particle number concentration ((PNC); 0.27 μm ≤ Dp ≤ 34.00 μm) were measured in the tropical coastal environment of Bachok, Kelantan on the Malaysian Peninsula bordering the southern edge of the South China Sea. Statistical methods were applied on a three-month hourly data set (9th January to 24th March 2014) to study the influence of north-easterly winds on the patterns of particle mass and PNC size distributions. The 24-h concentrations of particle mass obtained in this study were below the standard values detailed by the Recommended Malaysian Air Quality Guideline (RMAQG), United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) and European Union (EU) except for PM2.5, which recorded a 24-h average of 30 ± 18 μg m-3 and exceeded the World Health Organisation (WHO) threshold value (25 μg m-3). Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that PNC with smaller diameter sizes (0.27-4.50 μm) showed a stronger influence, accounting for 57.6% of the variability in PNC data set. Concentrations of both particle mass and PNC increased steadily in the morning with a distinct peak observed at around 8.00 h, related to a combination of dispersion of accumulated particles overnight and local traffic. In addition to local anthropogenic, agricultural burning and forest fire activities, long-range transport also affects the study area. Hotspot and backward wind trajectory observations illustrated that the biomass burning episode (around February-March) significantly influenced PNC. Meteorological parameters influenced smaller size particles (i.e. PM1 and Dp (0.27-0.43 μm)) the most.

  13. Relationship and variations of aerosol number and PM 10 mass concentrations in a highly polluted urban environment—New Delhi, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mönkkönen, P.; Uma, R.; Srinivasan, D.; Koponen, I. K.; Lehtinen, K. E. J.; Hämeri, K.; Suresh, R.; Sharma, V. P.; Kulmala, M.

    Measurements of the aerosol number concentration and the PM 10 mass concentrations of urban background aerosols in different seasons were performed in New Delhi 2002, including the simultaneous measurements of NO 2, SO 2 and CO concentrations. The results indicate an interesting relationship between the aerosol number and the PM 10 mass concentrations. The number concentration increases with the mass concentration up to 300 ?g m -3. However, after this point, the number concentration decreases even if the mass concentration increases. An explanation for this nonlinear behavior is proposed through a dynamic model involving the coagulation sink concept. The linear relationship between the mass and the number concentration in ambient air is valid if the mass concentration is relatively low. A high sink, however, means that the number concentration cannot be high—resulting in a decline in the number vs. mass plot. Clear diurnal, weekly and seasonal variations in concentrations were observed. High number concentrations of aerosols were observed in the mornings (7-8 a.m.) and in the evenings (7-10 p.m.). The number concentration was highest in March and lowest in June and the mass concentration was highest in November and lowest in June. The number concentration was higher during weekdays, but the mass concentration was higher during weekends. The number concentration correlates with the NO 2 concentration, which indicates that one major source of aerosol particles for the monitored site in New Delhi may be vehicular emission, but also domestic use of fossil fuels and biofuels cannot be neglected.

  14. Determination of carbon number distributions of complex phthalates by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with ammonia chemical ionization.

    PubMed

    Di Sanzo, Frank P; Lim, Peniel J; Han, Wenning W

    2015-01-01

    An assay method for phthalate esters with a complex mixture of isomer of varying carbon numbers, such as di-isononyl phthalate (DINP) and di-isodecyl phthalate (DIDP), using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) positive chemical ionization (PCI) with 5% ammonia in methane is described. GC-MS-PCI-NH3, unlike GC-MS electron ionization (EI) (GC-MS-EI) that produces generally m/z 149 ion as the main base peak and low intensity M(+) peaks, produces higher intensity (M + 1) ions that allow the determination of total (R + R') carbon number distributions based on the various R and R' alkyl groups of the di-esters moiety. The technique allows distinguishing among the various commercial DINP and DIDP plasticizers. The carbon number distributions are determined in the acceptable range of <0.1 mole percent to >85 mole percent (m/m). Several examples of analysis made on commercial DINP and DIDP are presented. The use of only 5% instead of 100% ammonia simplifies use of GC-MS-PCI-NH3 but still produces sufficient M + 1 ion intensities that are appropriate for the assay. In addition, use of low concentrations of ammonia mitigates potential safety aspects related to use of ammonia and provides less corrosion for the instrument hardware. PMID:26240191

  15. Final report: SIAM [Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics] Conference on Linear Algebra and its Applications, October 23-26, 2000

    SciTech Connect

    2001-04-06

    The Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics (SIAM) and the SIAM Activity Group in Linear Algebra in conjunction with the International Linear Algebra Society (ILAS) held the SIAM Conference on Linear Algebra and its applications on October 23-26, 2000 at the McKimmon Conference Center on the campus of North Carolina State University in Raleigh, North Carolina. The goals of this conference were to highlight the central role of linear algebra in many problems of mathematics and the applied sciences, including engineering problems in systems and control, signal processing and coding, economic and business problems, and problems from biology and geophysics. Particular consideration in this conference was given to applications in image processing, information retrieval and management (such as the performance of search engines on the Internet), aircraft manufacturing and design, industrial optimization problems, and assessing the economic cost of linear algebra in industry. With the development of high performance computers and new parallel architectures, computational linear algebra is in a state of rapid development. There are grand challenges requiring the development of efficient methods that solve truly large-scale problems by exploiting the ever-increasing computational power. One of the primary goals of this conference was to bring researchers and practitioners in these various areas together for exchange of information and ideas. In particular, the collaboration with ILAS was an important factor in bringing about fruitful interaction among researchers in theory, computation, and applications. There were 250 total attendees with 17% coming from industry and government. In addition, there were 27 students who attended.

  16. Mass number identification by Alfvén wave diagnostics in hydrogen and helium plasmas in TCABR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puglia, P. G. P.; Elfimov, A. G.; Andriati, A. V.; Galvão, R. M. O.; Guimarães-Filho, Z. O.; Ronchi, G.; Ruchko, L. F.

    2016-03-01

    The mass number is obtained through the identification of the Global Alfvén (GA) wave resonances in ohmic plasma discharges in the TCABR tokamak. By comparing hydrogen and helium discharges, the composition of carbon, oxygen, and iron impurities is determined. The non-perturbative Alfvén diagnostic is used that is based on the excitation of GA waves by an external antenna fed by a low power generator, in the frequency band swept just below the minimum of the Alfvén wave continuum. Odd or even toroidal modes are excited by selecting the current phase in the two antenna modules separated by 180 degrees in the toroidal direction. The density profile, determined from cross analysis of reflectometer and interferometer data, shows impurity accumulation in the plasma core.

  17. The remote ischemic preconditioning algorithm: effect of number of cycles, cycle duration and effector organ mass on efficacy of protection.

    PubMed

    Johnsen, Jacob; Pryds, Kasper; Salman, Rasha; Løfgren, Bo; Kristiansen, Steen Buus; Bøtker, Hans Erik

    2016-03-01

    Remote ischemic preconditioning (rIPC), induced by cycles of transient limb ischemia and reperfusion (IR), is cardioprotective. The optimal rIPC-algorithm is not established. We investigated the effect of cycle numbers and ischemia duration within each rIPC-cycle and the influence of effector organ mass on the efficacy of cardioprotection. Furthermore, the duration of the early phase of protection by rIPC was investigated. Using a tourniquet tightened at the inguinal level, we subjected C57Bl/6NTac mice to intermittent hind-limb ischemia and reperfusion. The rIPC-protocols consisted of (I) two, four, six or eight cycles, (II) 2, 5 or 10 min of ischemia in each cycle, (III) single or two hind-limb occlusions and (IV) 0.5, 1.5, 2.0 or 2.5 h intervals from rIPC to index cardiac ischemia. All rIPC algorithms were followed by 5 min of reperfusion. The hearts were subsequently exposed to 25 min of global ischemia and 60 min of reperfusion in an ex vivo Langendorff model. Cardioprotection was evaluated by infarct size and post-ischemic hemodynamic recovery. Four to six rIPC cycles yielded significant cardioprotection with no further protection by eight cycles. Ischemic cycles lasting 2 min offered the same protection as cycles of 5 min ischemia, whereas prolonged cycles lasting 10 min abrogated protection. One and two hind-limb preconditioning were equally protective. In our mouse model, the duration of protection by rIPC was 1.5 h. These findings indicate that the number and duration of cycles rather than the tissue mass exposed to rIPC determines the efficacy of rIPC. PMID:26768477

  18. Influence of trans-boundary biomass burning impacted air masses on submicron particle number concentrations and size distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betha, Raghu; Zhang, Zhe; Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar

    2014-08-01

    Submicron particle number concentration (PNC) and particle size distribution (PSD) in the size range of 5.6-560 nm were investigated in Singapore from 27 June 2009 through 6 September 2009. Slightly hazy conditions lasted in Singapore from 6 to 10 August. Backward air trajectories indicated that the haze was due to the transport of biomass burning impacted air masses originating from wild forest and peat fires in Sumatra, Indonesia. Three distinct peaks in the morning (08:00-10:00), afternoon (13:00-15:00) and evening (16:00-20:00) were observed on a typical normal day. However, during the haze period no distinct morning and afternoon peaks were observed and the PNC (39,775 ± 3741 cm-3) increased by 1.5 times when compared to that during non-haze periods (26,462 ± 6017). The morning and afternoon peaks on the normal day were associated with the local rush hour traffic while the afternoon peak was induced by new particle formation (NPF). Diurnal profiles of PNCs and PSDs showed that primary particle peak diameters were large during the haze (60 nm) period when compared to that during the non-haze period (45.3 nm). NPF events observed in the afternoon period on normal days were suppressed during the haze periods due to heavy particle loading in atmosphere caused by biomass burning impacted air masses.

  19. Age, Body Mass Index, and Number of Previous Trials: Are They Prognosticators of Intra-Uterine-Insemination for Infertility Treatment?

    PubMed Central

    Isa, Ahmed M.; Abu-Rafea, Basim; Alasiri, Saleh A.; Binsaleh, Saleh; Ismail, Kareema H.; Vilos, George A.

    2014-01-01

    Background To examine whether pregnancy rate (PR) of intrauterine insemination (IUI) is related to certain demographic factors, such as age and body mass index (BMI), along with number of IUI cycles performed, a set of infertile Saudi women. Materials and Methods During this prospective study (a 24-month period), 301 Saudi women with infertility underwent IUI in our infertility clinic. We investigated whether PR is correlated with patient age and BMI, and the number of IUI trials, in order to determine if they could be used as prognosticators of pregnancy success. Results The highest PR was 14.89% for ages 19-25 and the lowest PR was 4.16% for ages 41-45, indicating no statistically significant difference among PR in all age groups (p value of 0.225). Also, in terms of BMI, the highest PR was 13.04% for BMI ?35 and the lowest was 7.84% for BMI of <25 to 18.5, indicating no significant difference among different BMI groups (p value of 0.788). One-cycle treatment, as expected, was more successful (PR=12.84%) than 2-cycle treatment (PR=5.75%), however, 3-5-cycles treatment still showed encouraging results (PR=17.24%); but the difference did not reach statistical significance (p value=0.167). Conclusion PR after IUI treatment remained approximately 10% from 19 to 40 years of age and declined after 40. Although no significant difference was observed among different age groups, earlier treatment is still recommended. There was a positive but not statistically significant correlation between PR and patient’s BMI indicating that BMI is not a determining factor. There was also no correlation between PR and number of IUI trials. Patients can thus try as many times as they want before moving on to in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment. PMID:25379153

  20. Mass

    SciTech Connect

    Quigg, Chris

    2007-12-05

    In the classical physics we inherited from Isaac Newton, mass does not arise, it simply is. The mass of a classical object is the sum of the masses of its parts. Albert Einstein showed that the mass of a body is a measure of its energy content, inviting us to consider the origins of mass. The protons we accelerate at Fermilab are prime examples of Einsteinian matter: nearly all of their mass arises from stored energy. Missing mass led to the discovery of the noble gases, and a new form of missing mass leads us to the notion of dark matter. Starting with a brief guided tour of the meanings of mass, the colloquium will explore the multiple origins of mass. We will see how far we have come toward understanding mass, and survey the issues that guide our research today.

  1. Mass and number size distributions of particulate matter components: comparison of an industrial site and an urban background site.

    PubMed

    Taiwo, Adewale M; Beddows, David C S; Shi, Zongbo; Harrison, Roy M

    2014-03-15

    Size-resolved composition of particulate matter (PM) sampled in the industrial town of Port Talbot (PT), UK was determined in comparison to a typical urban background site in Birmingham (EROS). A Micro-Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor (MOUDI) sampler was deployed for two separate sampling campaigns with the addition of a Grimm optical spectrometer at the PT site. MOUDI samples were analysed for water-soluble anions (Cl(-), NO₃(-) and SO₄(2-)) and cations (Na(+), NH4(+), K(+), Mg(2+) and Ca(2+)) and trace metals (Al, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Sb, Ba and Pb). The PM mass distribution showed a predominance of fine particle (PM₂.₅) mass at EROS whereas the PT samples were dominated by the coarse fraction (PM₂.₅₋₁₀). SO₄(2-), Cl(-), NH4(+), Na(+), NO₃(-), and Ca(2+) were the predominant ionic species at both sites while Al and Fe were the metals with highest concentrations at both sites. Mean concentrations of Cl(-), Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Cr, Mn, Fe and Zn were higher at PT than EROS due to industrial and marine influences. The contribution of regional pollution by sulphate, ammonium and nitrate was greater at EROS relative to PT. The traffic signatures of Cu, Sb, Ba and Pb were particularly prominent at EROS. Overall, PM at EROS was dominated by secondary aerosol and traffic-related particles while PT was heavily influenced by industrial activities and marine aerosol. Profound influences of wind direction are seen in the 72-hour data, especially in relation to the PT local sources. Measurements of particle number in 14 separate size bins plotted as a function of wind direction and speed are highly indicative of contributing sources, with local traffic dominant below 0.5 μm, steelworks emissions from 0.5 to 15 μm, and marine aerosol above 15 μm. PMID:24419284

  2. Lithium formate ion clusters formation during electrospray ionization: Evidence of magic number clusters by mass spectrometry and ab initio calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Shukla, Anil; Bogdanov, Bogdan

    2015-02-14

    Small cationic and anionic clusters of lithium formate were generated by electrospray ionization and their fragmentations were studied by tandem mass spectrometry (collision-induced dissociation with N{sub 2}). Singly as well as multiply charged clusters were formed in both positive and negative ion modes with the general formulae, (HCOOLi){sub n}Li{sup +}, (HCOOLi){sub n}Li{sub m}{sup m+}, (HCOOLi){sub n}HCOO{sup −}, and (HCOOLi){sub n}(HCOO){sub m}{sup m−}. Several magic number cluster (MNC) ions were observed in both the positive and negative ion modes although more predominant in the positive ion mode with (HCOOLi){sub 3}Li{sup +} being the most abundant and stable cluster ion. Fragmentations of singly charged positive clusters proceed first by the loss of a dimer unit ((HCOOLi){sub 2}) followed by the loss of monomer units (HCOOLi) although the former remains the dominant dissociation process. In the case of positive cluster ions, all fragmentations lead to the magic cluster (HCOOLi){sub 3}Li{sup +} as the most abundant fragment ion at higher collision energies which then fragments further to dimer and monomer ions at lower abundances. In the negative ion mode, however, singly charged clusters dissociated via sequential loss of monomer units. Multiply charged clusters in both positive and negative ion modes dissociated mainly via Coulomb repulsion. Quantum chemical calculations performed for smaller cluster ions showed that the trimer ion has a closed ring structure similar to the phenalenylium structure with three closed rings connected to the central lithium ion. Further additions of monomer units result in similar symmetric structures for hexamer and nonamer cluster ions. Thermochemical calculations show that trimer cluster ion is relatively more stable than neighboring cluster ions, supporting the experimental observation of a magic number cluster with enhanced stability.

  3. Physical and Chemical Characterization of Real-World Particle Number and Mass Emissions from City Buses in Finland.

    PubMed

    Pirjola, Liisa; Dittrich, Aleš; Niemi, Jarkko V; Saarikoski, Sanna; Timonen, Hilkka; Kuuluvainen, Heino; Järvinen, Anssi; Kousa, Anu; Rönkkö, Topi; Hillamo, Risto

    2016-01-01

    Exhaust emissions of 23 individual city buses at Euro III, Euro IV and EEV (Enhanced Environmentally Friendly Vehicle) emission levels were measured by the chasing method under real-world conditions at a depot area and on the normal route of bus line 24 in Helsinki. The buses represented different technologies from the viewpoint of engines, exhaust after-treatment systems (ATS) and fuels. Some of the EEV buses were fueled by diesel, diesel-electric, ethanol (RED95) and compressed natural gas (CNG). At the depot area the emission factors were in the range of 0.3-21 × 10(14) # (kg fuel)(-1), 6-40 g (kg fuel)(-1), 0.004-0.88 g (kg fuel)(-1), 0.004-0.56 g (kg fuel)(-1), 0.01-1.2 g (kg fuel)(-1), for particle number (EFN), nitrogen oxides (EFNOx), black carbon (EFBC), organics (EFOrg), and particle mass (EFPM1), respectively. The highest particulate emissions were observed from the Euro III and Euro IV buses and the lowest from the ethanol and CNG-fueled buses, which emitted BC only during acceleration. The organics emitted from the CNG-fueled buses were clearly less oxidized compared to the other bus types. The bus line experiments showed that lowest emissions were obtained from the ethanol-fueled buses whereas large variation existed between individual buses of the same type indicating that the operating conditions by drivers had large effect on the emissions. PMID:26682775

  4. Daily mortality and fine and ultrafine particles in Erfurt, Germany part I: role of particle number and particle mass.

    PubMed

    Wichmann, H E; Spix, C; Tuch, T; Wölke, G; Peters, A; Heinrich, J; Kreyling, W G; Heyder, J

    2000-11-01

    Increases in morbidity and mortality have been observed consistently and coherently in association with ambient air pollution. A number of studies on short-term effects have identified ambient particles as a major pollutant in urban air. This study, conducted in Erfurt, Germany, investigated the association of mortality not only with ambient particles but also with gaseous pollutants and indicators of sources. Part I of this study concentrates on particles. Data were collected prospectively over a 3.5-year period from September 1995 to December 1998. Death certificates were obtained from the local authorities and aggregated to daily time series of total counts and counts for subgroups. In addition to standard data for particle mass with diameters < or = 2.5 microm (PM2.5)* or < or = 10 microm (PM10) from impactors, a mobile aerosol spectrometer (MAS) was used to obtain size-specific number and mass concentration data in six size classes between 0.01 microm and 2.5 microm. Particles smaller than 0.1 microm were labeled ultrafine particles (three size classes), and particles between 0.1 and 2.5 microm were termed fine particles (three size classes). Concentrations of the gases sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and carbon monoxide (CO) were also measured. The daily average total number concentration was 18,000 particles/cm3 with 88% of particles below 0.1 pm and 58% below 0.03 microm in diameter. The average mass concentration (PM2.5) was 26 microg/m3; of this, 75% of particles were between 0.1 and 0.5 microm in diameter. Other average concentrations were 38 microg/m3 for PM10, 17 microg/m3 for SO2, 36 microg/m3 for NO2, and 600 microg/m3 for CO. Ambient air pollution demonstrated a strong seasonality with maximum concentrations in winter. Across the study period, fine particle mass decreased, whereas ultrafine particle number was unchanged. The proportion of ultrafine particles below 0.03 microm diameter increased compared with the proportion of other particles. During the study, concentrations of SO2 and CO also decreased, whereas the concentration of NO2 remained unchanged. The data were analyzed using Poisson regression techniques with generalized additive modeling (GAM) to allow nonparametric adjustment for the confounders. Both the best single-day lag and the overall association of multiple days fitted by a polynomial distributed lag model were used to assess the lag structure between air pollution and death. Mortality increased in association with level of ambient air pollution after adjustment for season, influenza epidemics, day of week, and weather. In the sensitivity analyses, the results proved stable against changes of the confounder model. We saw comparable associations for ultrafine and fine particles in a distributed lag model where the contribution of the previous 4 to 5 days was considered. Furthermore, the data suggest a somewhat more delayed association of ultrafine particles than of fine particles if single-day lags are considered. The associations tended to be stronger in winter than in summer and at ages below 70 years compared to ages above 70 years. Analysis of the prevalent diseases mentioned on death certificates revealed that the overall association for respiratory diseases was slightly stronger than for cardiovascular diseases. In two-pollutant models, associations of ultrafine and fine particles seemed to be largely independent of each other, and the risk was enhanced if both were considered at the same time. Furthermore, when the associations were summed for the six size classes between 0.01 and 2.5 microm, the overall association was clearly stronger than the associations of the individual size classes alone. Associations were observed for SO2, NO2, and CO with mortality despite low concentrations of these gases. These associations disappeared in two-pollutant models for NO2 and CO, but they remained stable for SO2. The persistence of the SO2 effect was interpreted as artifact, however, because the SO2 concentration was much below levels at which effects are usually expected

  5. Emissions of NOx, particle mass and particle numbers from aircraft main engines, APU's and handling equipment at Copenhagen Airport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winther, Morten; Kousgaard, Uffe; Ellermann, Thomas; Massling, Andreas; Nøjgaard, Jacob Klenø; Ketzel, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed emission inventory for NOx, particle mass (PM) and particle numbers (PN) for aircraft main engines, APU's and handling equipment at Copenhagen Airport (CPH) based on time specific activity data and representative emission factors for the airport. The inventory has a high spatial resolution of 5 m × 5 m in order to be suited for further air quality dispersion calculations. Results are shown for the entire airport and for a section of the airport apron area ("inner apron") in focus. The methodology presented in this paper can be used to quantify the emissions from aircraft main engines, APU and handling equipment in other airports. For the entire airport, aircraft main engines is the largest source of fuel consumption (93%), NOx, (87%), PM (61%) and PN (95%). The calculated fuel consumption [NOx, PM, PN] shares for APU's and handling equipment are 5% [4%, 8%, 5%] and 2% [9%, 31%, 0%], respectively. At the inner apron area for handling equipment the share of fuel consumption [NOx, PM, PN] are 24% [63%, 75%, 2%], whereas APU and main engines shares are 43% [25%, 19%, 54%], and 33% [11%, 6%, 43%], respectively. The inner apron NOx and PM emission levels are high for handling equipment due to high emission factors for the diesel fuelled handling equipment and small for aircraft main engines due to small idle-power emission factors. Handling equipment is however a small PN source due to the low number based emission factors. Jet fuel sulphur-PM sensitivity calculations made in this study with the ICAO FOA3.0 method suggest that more than half of the PM emissions from aircraft main engines at CPH originate from the sulphur content of the fuel used at the airport. Aircraft main engine PN emissions are very sensitive to the underlying assumptions. Replacing this study's literature based average emission factors with "high" and "low" emission factors from the literature, the aircraft main engine PN emissions were estimated to change with a factor of 14.

  6. Mother and offspring fitness in an insect with maternal care: phenotypic trade-offs between egg number, egg mass and egg care

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Oviparous females have three main options to increase their reproductive success: investing into egg number, egg mass and/or egg care. Although allocating resources to either of these three components is known to shape offspring number and size, potential trade-offs among them may have key impacts on maternal and offspring fitness. Here, we tested the occurrence of phenotypic trade-offs between egg number, egg mass and maternal expenditure on egg care in the European earwig, Forficula auricularia, an insect with pre- and post-hatching forms of maternal care. In particular, we used a series of laboratory observations and experiments to investigate whether these three components non-additively influenced offspring weight and number at hatching, and whether they were associated with potential costs to females in terms of future reproduction. Results We found negative associations between egg number and mass as well as between egg number and maternal expenditure on egg care. However, these trade-offs could only be detected after statistically correcting for female weight at egg laying. Hatchling number was not determined by single or additive effects among the three life-history traits, but instead by pairwise interactions among them. In particular, offspring number was positively associated with the number of eggs only in clutches receiving high maternal care or consisting of heavy eggs, and negatively associated with mean egg mass in clutches receiving low care. In contrast, offspring weight was positively associated with egg mass only. Finally, maternal expenditure on egg care reduced their future reproduction, but this effect was only detected when mothers were experimentally isolated from their offspring at egg hatching. Conclusions Overall, our study reveals simultaneous trade-offs between the number, mass and care of eggs. It also demonstrates that these factors interact in their impact on offspring production, and that maternal expenditure on egg care possibly shapes female future reproduction. These findings emphasize that studying reproductive success requires consideration of phenotypic trade-offs between egg-number, egg mass and egg care in oviparous species. PMID:24913927

  7. Comparison of two estimation methods for surface area concentration using number concentration and mass concentration of combustion-related ultrafine particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Ji Young; Raynor, Peter C.; Maynard, Andrew D.; Eberly, Lynn E.; Ramachandran, Gurumurthy

    Recent research has suggested that the adverse health effects caused by nanoparticles are associated with their surface area (SA) concentrations. In this study, SA was estimated in two ways using number and mass concentrations and compared with SA (SA meas) measured using a diffusion charger (DC). Aerosol measurements were made twice: once starting in October 2002 and again starting in December 2002 in Mysore, India in residences that used kerosene or liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) for cooking. Mass, number, and SA concentrations and size distributions by number were measured in each residence. The first estimation method (SA PSD) used the size distribution by number to estimate SA. The second method (SA INV) used a simple inversion scheme that incorporated number and mass concentrations while assuming a lognormal size distribution with a known geometrical standard deviation. SA PSD was, on average, 2.4 times greater (range = 1.6-3.4) than SA meas while SA INV was, on average, 6.0 times greater (range = 4.6-7.7) than SA meas. The logarithms of SA PSD and SA INV were found to be statistically significant predictors of the logarithm of SA meas. The study showed that particle number and mass concentration measurements can be used to estimate SA with a correction factor that ranges between 2 and 6.

  8. Direct mass measurements of neutron-rich 86Kr projectile fragments and the persistence of neutron magic number N=32 in Sc isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xing; Wang, Meng; Zhang, Yu-Hu; Xu, Hu-Shan; Shuai, Peng; Tu, Xiao-Lin; Yuri, A. Litvinov; Zhou, Xiao-Hong; Sun, Bao-Hua; Yuan, You-Jin; Xia, Jia-Wen; Yang, Jian-Cheng; Klaus, Blaum; Chen, Rui-Jiu; Chen, Xiang-Cheng; Fu, Chao-Yi; Ge, Zhuang; Hu, Zheng-Guo; Huang, Wen-Jia; Liu, Da-Wei; Lam, Yi-Hua; Ma, Xin-Wen; Mao, Rui-Shi; Uesaka, T.; Xiao, Guo-Qing; Xing, Yuan-Ming; Yamaguchi, T.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Zeng, Qi; Yan, Xin-Liang; Zhao, Hong-Wei; Zhao, Tie-Cheng; Zhang, Wei; Zhan, Wen-Long

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, we present direct mass measurements of neutron-rich 86Kr projectile fragments conducted at the HIRFL-CSR facility in Lanzhou by employing the Isochronous Mass Spectrometry (IMS) method. The new mass excesses of 52-54Sc nuclides are determined to be -40492(82), -38928(114), -34654(540) keV, which show a significant increase of binding energy compared to the reported ones in the Atomic Mass Evaluation 2012 (AME12). In particular, 53Sc and 54Sc are more bound by 0.8 MeV and 1.0 MeV, respectively. The behavior of the two neutron separation energy with neutron numbers indicates a strong sub-shell closure at neutron number N=32 in Sc isotopes. Supported by 973 Program of China (2013CB834401), the NSFC (U1232208, U1432125, 11205205, 11035007) and the Helmholtz-CAS Joint Research Group (HCJRG-108)

  9. Characteristics of particle number and mass emissions during heavy-duty diesel truck parked active DPF regeneration in an ambient air dilution tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Seungju; Quiros, David C.; Dwyer, Harry A.; Collins, John F.; Burnitzki, Mark; Chernich, Donald; Herner, Jorn D.

    2015-12-01

    Diesel particle number and mass emissions were measured during parked active regeneration of diesel particulate filters (DPF) in two heavy-duty diesel trucks: one equipped with a DPF and one equipped with a DPF + SCR (selective catalytic reduction), and compliant with the 2007 and 2010 emission standards, respectively. The emission measurements were conducted using an ambient air dilution tunnel. During parked active regeneration, particulate matter (PM) mass emissions measured from a 2007 technology truck were significantly higher than the emissions from a 2010 technology truck. Particle number emissions from both trucks were dominated by nucleation mode particles having a diameter less than 50 nm; nucleation mode particles were orders of magnitude higher than accumulation mode particles having a diameter greater than 50 nm. Accumulation mode particles contributed 77.8 %-95.8 % of the 2007 truck PM mass, but only 7.3 %-28.2 % of the 2010 truck PM mass.

  10. Extracting the mass dependence and quantum numbers of short-range correlated pairs from A (e ,e'p ) and A (e ,e'p p ) scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colle, C.; Hen, O.; Cosyn, W.; Korover, I.; Piasetzky, E.; Ryckebusch, J.; Weinstein, L. B.

    2015-08-01

    The nuclear mass dependence of the number of short-range correlated (SRC) proton-proton (p p ) and proton-neutron (p n ) pairs in nuclei is a sensitive probe of the dynamics of short-range pairs in the ground state of atomic nuclei. This work presents an analysis of electroinduced single-proton and two-proton knockout measurements off 12C , 27Al , 56Fe , and 208Pb in kinematics dominated by scattering off SRC pairs. The nuclear mass dependence of the observed A (e ,e'p p ) / 12C(e ,e'p p ) cross-section ratios and the extracted number of pp - and pn -SRC pairs are much softer than the mass dependence of the total number of possible pairs. This is in agreement with a physical picture of SRC affecting predominantly nucleon-nucleon pairs in a nodeless relative-S state of the mean-field basis.

  11. Tests of a mixed compression axisymmetric inlet with large transonic mass flow at Mach numbers 0.6 to 2.65

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smeltzer, D. B.; Sorensen, N. E.

    1972-01-01

    A 38.8-cm (15.28-in.) capture diameter model of a mixed-compression axisymmetric inlet system with a translating cowl was designed and tested. The internal contours, designed for Mach number 2.65, provided a throat area of 59 percent of the capture area when the cowl was retracted for transonic operation. Other model features included a boundary-layer removal system, vortex generators, an engine airflow bypass system, cowl support struts, and rotating rakes at the engine face. All tunnel testing was conducted at a tunnel total pressure of about 1 atm (a unit Reynolds number of about 8.53 million/m at Mach number 2.65) at angles of attack from 0 deg to 4 deg. Results for the following were obtained: total-pressure recovery and distortion at the engine face as a function of bleed mass-flow ratio, the effect of bleed and vortex generator configurations on pressure recovery and distortion, inlet tolerance to unstart due to changes in angle of attack or Mach number, surface pressure distributions, boundary-layer profiles, and transonic additive drag. At Mach number 2.65 and with the best bleed configurations, maximum total pressure recovery at the engine face ranged from 91 to 94.5 percent with bleed mass-flow ratios from 4 to 9 percent, respectively, and total-pressure distortion was less than 10 percent. At off-design supersonic Mach numbers above 1.70, maximum total-pressure recoveries and corresponding bleed mass flows were about the same as at Mach number 2.65, with about 10 to 15 percent distortion. In the transonic Mach number range, total pressure recovery was high (above 96 percent) and distortion was low (less than 15 percent) only when the inlet mass-flow ration was reduced 0.02 to 0.06 from the maximum theoretical value (0.590 at Mach number 1.0).

  12. Determination of mass attenuation coefficients, effective atomic and electron numbers, mean free paths and kermas for PbO, barite and some boron ores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Un, A.; Sahin, Y.

    2011-07-01

    The total mass attenuation coefficients, ? m, for PbO, barite, colemanite, tincal and ulexite were determined at 80.1, 302.9, 356.0, 661.7 and 1250.0 keV photon energies by using NaI (Tl) scintillation detector. Effective atomic number, Z eff, effective electron number, N eff, total atomic cross-section, ? t, total electronic cross-section, ? e, mean free path, mfp, and kerma relative to air were determined experimentally and theoretically. The theoretical mass attenuation coefficients were estimated using mixture rule. The calculated values were compared with the experimental values for all samples.

  13. Identification of the primary mass of inclined cosmic ray showers from depth of maximum and number of muon parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riggi, S.; Parra, A.; Rodriguez, G.; Valiño, I.; Vázquez, R.; Zas, E.

    2013-04-01

    In the present work we carry out a study of the high energy cosmic rays mass identification capabilities of a hybrid detector employing both fluorescence telescopes and particle detectors at ground using simulated data. It involves the analysis of extensive showers with zenith angles above 60° making use of the joint distribution of the depth of maximum and muon size at ground level as mass discriminating parameters. The correlation and sensitivity to the primary mass are investigated. Two different techniques - clustering algorithms and neural networks - are adopted to classify the mass identity on an event-by-event basis. Typical results for the achieved performance of identification are reported and discussed. The analysis can be extended in a very straightforward way to vertical showers or can be complemented with additional discriminating observables coming from different types of detectors.

  14. GENERAL: Normally-Ordered Time Evolution Operator for Mass-Varying Harmonic Oscillator and Wigner Function of Squeezed Number State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Xu-Bing; Xu, Xue-Fen; Fan, Hong-Yi

    2010-07-01

    For investigating dynamic evolution of a mass-varying harmonic oscillator we constitute a ket-bra integration operator in coherent state representation and then perform this integral by virtue of the technique of integration within an ordered product of operators. The normally ordered time evolution operator is thus obtained. We then derive the Wigner function of u(t)|nrangle, where |nrangle is a Fock state, which exhibits a generalized squeezing, the squeezing effect is related to the varying mass with time.

  15. A comparative investigation of ultrafine particle number and mass emissions from a fleet of on-road diesel and CNG buses.

    PubMed

    Jayaratne, E R; He, C; Ristovski, Z D; Morawska, L; Johnson, G R

    2008-09-01

    Particle number, particle mass, and CO2 concentrations were measured on the curb of a busy urban busway used entirely by a mix of diesel and CNG operated buses. With the passage of each bus, the ratio of particle number concentration and particle mass concentration to CO2 concentration in the diluted exhaust plume were used as measures of the particle number and mass emission factors, respectively. With all buses accelerating pastthe monitoring point, the results showed that the median particle mass emission from CNG buses was less than 9% of that from diesel buses. However, the median particle number emission from CNG buses was 6 times higher than the diesel buses, and the particles from the CNG buses were mainly in the nanoparticle size range. Using a thermodenuder to remove the volatile material from the sampled emissions showed that the majority of particles from the CNG buses, but not from the diesel buses, were volatile. Approximately, 82% of the particles from the CNG buses and 38% from the diesel buses were removed by heating the emissions to 300 degrees C. PMID:18800557

  16. ANALYSIS OF RESPIRATORY DEPOSITION OF INHALED PARTICLES FOR DIFFERENT DOSE METRICS: COMPARISON OF NUMBER, SURFACE AREA AND MASS DOSE OF TYPICAL AMBIENT BI-MODAL AEROSOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    ANALYSIS OF RESPIRATORY DEPOSITION OF INHALED PARTICLES FOR DIFFERENT DOSE METRICS: COMPARISON OF NUMBER, SURFACE AREA AND MASS DOSE OF TYPICAL AMBIENT BI-MODAL AEROSOLS.
    Chong S. Kim, SC. Hu*, PA Jaques*, US EPA, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, ...

  17. The Efficacy of a Mathematics Readiness Program for Inducing Conservation of Number, Weight, Area, Mass, and Volume in Disadvantaged Preschool Children in the Southern United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Beverly S.

    The present study was designed to determine whether conservation of number, weight, volume, area, and mass could be learned and retained by disadvantaged preschool children when taught by an inexperienced classroom teacher. An instructional sequence of 10-minute lessons was presented on alternate days over a 3 1/2 week period by preservice…

  18. The Evangelical Origins of Mass Media in America, 1815-1835. Journalism Monographs Number Eighty-Eight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nord, David Paul

    1984-01-01

    It was the evangelical Christian publicists in the tract and Bible societies who first dreamed of genuinely mass media--that is, they proposed to deliver the same printed message to everyone in America. To this end, organizations such as the American Bible Society and the American Tract Society helped to develop, in the very earliest stages, the…

  19. Effects of amino acids on egg number and egg mass of brown (heavy breed) and white (light breed) laying hens.

    PubMed

    Bonekamp, R P R T; Lemme, A; Wijtten, P J A; Sparla, J K W M

    2010-03-01

    Different types (light to heavy) of laying hens are used in practice. There are questions about the optimum level of balanced protein (BP) supply in feed for different types of hens. Therefore, a broad range of amino acids intake levels [550 to 800 mg of true fecal digestible (TFD) Lys/hen per d] was tested on heavy (Lohmann Brown Classic) and light (Lohmann LSL Classic) laying hens from 24 to 60 wk of age. The other indispensable amino acids were fed in fixed ratios to TFD Lys in all treatments. A total of 282 Lohmann Brown Classic and 282 Lohmann LSL Classic hens (24 wk of age) were divided into 12 experimental groups (individually housed) based on daily egg mass production and BW. Replicates of the heavy strain started with a similar average daily egg mass production (51.1 g/hen per d), laying percentage (95.9%), and hen weight (1,860 g). Replicates of the light strain started with a similar average daily egg mass production (52.0 g/hen per d), laying percentage (97.3%), and hen weight (1,478 g). Diets were fed restrictively with an aimed feed intake of 110 g/hen per day [308 kcal/hen per d of AME(n (layers))] and 100 g/hen per day [280 kcal/hen per d of AME(n (layers))] for heavy and light hens, respectively, to achieve the required BP intake levels. For light hens, a BP intake with 600 mg of TFD Lys was sufficient for optimal laying percentage, whereas maximum laying percentage was not achieved with the highest TFD Lys in heavy hens. For egg weight, daily egg mass production as well as feed conversion regression analysis revealed that asymptotes were not achieved with the highest amino acid levels in both layer strains. PMID:20181869

  20. Outdoor and indoor aerosol size, number, mass and compositional dynamics at an urban background site during warm season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talbot, N.; Kubelova, L.; Makes, O.; Cusack, M.; Ondracek, J.; Vodička, P.; Schwarz, J.; Zdimal, V.

    2016-04-01

    This paper describes the use of a unique valve switching system that allowed for high temporal resolution indoor and outdoor data to be collected concurrently from online C-ToF-AMS, SMPS and OC/EC, and offline BLPI measurements. The results reveal near real-time dynamic aerosol behaviour along a migration path from an outdoor to indoor environment. An outdoor reduction in NR-PM1 mass concentration occurred daily from AM (06:00-12:00) to PM (12:00-18:00). SO4 (26%-37%) [AM/PM] increased proportionally during afternoons at the expense of NO3 (18%-7%). The influences of mixing height, temperature and solar radiation were considered against the mean mass concentration loss for each species. Losses were then calculated according to species via a basic input/output model. NO3 lost the most mass during afternoon periods, which we attribute to the accelerated dissociation of NH4NO3 through increasing temperature and decreasing relative humidity. Indoor/outdoor (I/O) ratios varied from 0.46 for <40 nm to 0.65 for >100 nm. These ratios were calculated using average SMPS PNC measurements over the full campaign and corroborated using a novel technique of calculating I/O penetration ratios through the indoor migration of particles during a new particle formation event. This ratio was then used to observe changes in indoor composition relative to those outdoors. Indoor sampling was carried out in an undisturbed room with no known sources. Indoor concentrations were found to be proportional to those outdoors, with organic matter [2.7 μg/m3] and SO4 [1.7 μg/m3] being the most prominent species. These results are indicative of fairly rapid aerosol penetration, a source-free indoor environment and small afternoon I/O temperature gradients. Fine fraction NO3 was observed indoors in both real-time AMS PM1 and off-line BLPI measurements. Greater mass concentration losses were observed from filter measurements, highlighting an important time dependency factor when investigating semi-volatiles. Coarse mode NO3 was observed by impactor measurements, ascribing value to observing the full particle mass size distribution for understanding aerosol origin.

  1. Long-term measurements of particle number size distributions and the relationships with air mass history and source apportionment in the summer of Beijing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z. B.; Hu, M.; Wu, Z. J.; Yue, D. L.; He, L. Y.; Huang, X. F.; Liu, X. G.; Wiedensohler, A.

    2013-02-01

    A series of long-term and temporary measurements were conducted to study the improvement of air quality in Beijing during Olympic Games period (8-24 August 2008). To evaluate actions taken to improve the air quality, comparisons of particle number and volume size distributions of August 2008 and 2004-2007 were performed. The total particle number and volume concentrations were 14 000 cm-3 and 37 ?m3 cm-3 in August of 2008, respectively. These were reductions of 41% and 35% compared with the mean values of August 2004-2007. A cluster analysis on air mass history and source apportionment were performed, exploring reasons of the reduction of particle concentrations. Back trajectories were classified into five major clusters. Air mass from south direction are always associated with pollution events during the summertime of Beijing. In August 2008, the frequency of air mass arriving from south has been twice higher compared to the average of the previous years, these southerly air masses did however not result in elevated particle volume concentrations in Beijing. This result implied that the air mass history was not the key factor, explaining reduced particle number and volume concentrations during the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games. Four factors were found influencing particle concentrations using a Positive matrix factorization (PMF) model. They were identified to local and remote traffic emissions, combustion sources as well as secondary transformation. The reductions of the four sources were calculated to 47%, 44%, 43% and 30%, respectively. The significant reductions of particle number and volume concentrations may attribute to actions taken, focusing on primary emissions, especially related to the traffic and combustion sources.

  2. Magic number silicon dioxide-based clusters: laser ablation-mass spectrometric and density functional theory studies.

    PubMed

    Kong, Qingyu; Zhao, Li; Wang, Wenning; Wang, Chen; Xu, Can; Zhang, Wingham; Liu, Lei; Fan, Kangnian; Li, Yufen; Zhuang, Jun

    2005-04-30

    The magic number silica clusters [(SiO(2))(n)O(2)H(3)](-) with n = 4 and 8 have been observed in the XeCl excimer laser (308 nm) ablation of various porous siliceous materials. The structural origin of the magic number clusters has been studied by the density functional theoretical calculation at the B3LYP/6-31G** level, with a genetic algorithm as a supplementary tool for global structure searching. The DFT results of the first magic number cluster are parallel to the corresponding Hartree-Fock results previously reported with only small differences in the structural parameters. Theoretical calculation predicts that the first magic number cluster (SiO(2))(4)O(2)H(4) and its anion [(SiO(2))(4)O(2)H(3)](-) will most probably take pseudotetrahedral cage-like structures. To study the structural properties of the second magic number cluster, geometries of the bare cluster (SiO(2))(8), the neutral complex cluster (SiO(2))(8)O(2)H(4), and the anionic cluster [(SiO(2))(8)O(2)H(3)](-) are fully optimized at the B3LYP/6-31G** level, and the corresponding vibrational frequencies are calculated. The DFT calculations predict that the ground state of the bare silica octamer (SiO(2))(8) has a linear chain structure, whereas the second magic number complex cluster (SiO(2))(8)O(2)H(4) and its anion [(SiO(2))(8)O(2)H(3)](-) are most probably a mixture of cubic cage-like structural isomers with an O atom inside the cage and several quasi-bicage isomers with high intercage interactions. The stabilization of these structures can also be attributed to the active participation of the group of atoms 2O and 4H (3H for the anion) in chemical bonding during cluster formation. Our theoretical calculation gives preliminary structural interpretation of the presence of the first and second magic number clusters and the absence of higher magic numbers. PMID:15739194

  3. Inclusive photoproduction of bottom quarks for low and medium pT in the general-mass variable-flavour-number scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, G.; Spiesberger, H.

    2016-02-01

    We present predictions for b-quark production in photoproduction and compare with experimental data from HERA. Our theoretical predictions are obtained at next-to-leading-order in the general-mass variable-flavor-number scheme, an approach which takes into account the finite mass of the b quarks. We use realistic evolved nonperturbative fragmentation functions obtained from fits to e+e- data. We find in general good agreement of data with both the GM-VFNS and the FFNS calculations, while the more precise ZEUS data seem to prefer the GM-VFNS predictions.

  4. Probing the N=32 Shell Closure below the Magic Proton Number Z=20: Mass Measurements of the Exotic Isotopes ^{52,53}K.

    PubMed

    Rosenbusch, M; Ascher, P; Atanasov, D; Barbieri, C; Beck, D; Blaum, K; Borgmann, Ch; Breitenfeldt, M; Cakirli, R B; Cipollone, A; George, S; Herfurth, F; Kowalska, M; Kreim, S; Lunney, D; Manea, V; Navrátil, P; Neidherr, D; Schweikhard, L; Somà, V; Stanja, J; Wienholtz, F; Wolf, R N; Zuber, K

    2015-05-22

    The recently confirmed neutron-shell closure at N=32 has been investigated for the first time below the magic proton number Z=20 with mass measurements of the exotic isotopes (52,53)K, the latter being the shortest-lived nuclide investigated at the online mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP. The resulting two-neutron separation energies reveal a 3 MeV shell gap at N=32, slightly lower than for 52Ca, highlighting the doubly magic nature of this nuclide. Skyrme-Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov and ab initio Gorkov-Green function calculations are challenged by the new measurements but reproduce qualitatively the observed shell effect. PMID:26047224

  5. THE NUMBER DENSITY AND MASS DENSITY OF STAR-FORMING AND QUIESCENT GALAXIES AT 0.4 {<=} z {<=} 2.2

    SciTech Connect

    Brammer, Gabriel B.; Whitaker, K. E.; Van Dokkum, P. G.; Lee, K.-S.; Muzzin, A.; Marchesini, D.; Franx, M.; Kriek, M.; Labbe, I.; Quadri, R. F.; Williams, R.; Rudnick, G.

    2011-09-20

    We study the buildup of the bimodal galaxy population using the NEWFIRM Medium-Band Survey, which provides excellent redshifts and well-sampled spectral energy distributions of {approx}27, 000 galaxies with K < 22.8 at 0.4 < z < 2.2. We first show that star-forming galaxies and quiescent galaxies can be robustly separated with a two-color criterion over this entire redshift range. We then study the evolution of the number density and mass density of quiescent and star-forming galaxies, extending the results of the COMBO-17, DEEP2, and other surveys to z = 2.2. The mass density of quiescent galaxies with M {approx}> 3 x 10{sup 10} M{sub sun} increases by a factor of {approx}10 from z {approx} 2 to the present day, whereas the mass density in star-forming galaxies is flat or decreases over the same time period. Modest mass growth by a factor of {approx}2 of individual quiescent galaxies can explain roughly half of the strong density evolution at masses >10{sup 11} M{sub sun}, due to the steepness of the exponential tail of the mass function. The rest of the density evolution of massive, quiescent galaxies is likely due to transformation (e.g., quenching) of the massive star-forming population, a conclusion which is consistent with the density evolution we observe for the star-forming galaxies themselves, which is flat or decreasing with cosmic time. Modest mass growth does not explain the evolution of less massive quiescent galaxies ({approx}10{sup 10.5} M{sub sun}), which show a similarly steep increase in their number densities. The less massive quiescent galaxies are therefore continuously formed by transforming galaxies from the star-forming population.

  6. Effective atomic number and mass attenuation coefficient of PbO-BaO-B2O3 glass system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Issa, Shams A. M.

    2016-03-01

    Gamma-rays attenuation coefficient, half-value layer, mean free path, effective atomic number and electron density have been measured in glass system of xPbO-(50-x) BaO-50B2O3 (where 5≤x≤45 mol%) for gamma ray photon energies of 0.356, 0.662, 1.173 and 1.33 MeV. The emitted gamma ray was detected by 3×3 in. NaI(Tl) scintillation gamma ray spectrometers. The results were found in good agreement with the theoretical values which calculated from WinXcom.

  7. Algebraic solutions for UB F(5 ) -OB F(6 ) quantum phase transition in odd-mass-number nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jafarizadeh, M. A.; Ghapanvari, M.; Fouladi, N.

    2015-11-01

    The spherical to ? -unstable nuclei shape-phase transition in odd-A nuclei is investigated by using the dual algebraic structures and the affine SU (1 ,1 ) ? Lie algebra within the framework of the interacting boson-fermion model. The new algebraic solution for odd-A nuclei is introduced. In this model, single j =1 /2 and 3/2 fermions are coupled with an even-even boson core. Energy spectra, quadrupole electromagnetic transitions, and an expectation value of the d -boson number operator are presented. Experimental evidence for the UB F(5 ) -OB F(6 ) transition in odd-A Ba and Rh isotopes is presented. The low-states energy spectra and B (E 2 ) values for these nuclei are also calculated and compared with the experimental data.

  8. a New Approach for Determining the Natural Frequencies and Mode Shapes of a Uniform Beam Carrying any Number of Sprung Masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, J.-S.; Chou, H.-M.

    1999-02-01

    In theory, one may obtain five equations from each attaching point of a spring-mass system and two boundary-equations from each end of the uniform beam. Hence, for a uniform beam carryingnspring-mass systems, simultaneous equations of the form [B]{C}=0] will be obtained. The solutions of ?B?=0(where ?·? represents a determinant) give the natural frequencies of the “constrained” beam and the substitution of each corresponding values ofCj(j=1?4) into the eigenfunction will define the associated mode shapes. While the foregoing theory is simple, the lengthy explicit mathematical expressions become impractical if the total number of spring-mass systems is larger than “two”. For this reason, it was applied to do the free vibration analysis of a uniform beam carrying “one” spring-mass system only in the existing literature. The purpose of this paper is to present a numerical technique to apply the foregoing theory to obtain the exact solutions for the lowest several natural frequencies and mode shapes of a uniform beam carrying “any number of” spring-mass systems with various boundary conditions. To this end, each integration constantCviand each mode displacementZv(v=1?n,i=1?4) at the attaching point and the two ends of the beam are considered as nodal displacements of a finite beam element and are assigned an appropriate degree of freedom (dof). Hence, each associated coefficient matrix will be equivalent to the stiffness matrix of a beam element, and the conventional numerical assembly technique for the finite element method (FEM) may be used to determine the “overall” coefficient matrix [B]. Therefore, the eigenvalue equation [B]{C}=0is easily obtained.

  9. Determination of thermodynamic potentials and the aggregation number for micelles with the mass-action model by isothermal titration calorimetry: A case study on bile salts.

    PubMed

    Olesen, Niels Erik; Westh, Peter; Holm, René

    2015-09-01

    The aggregation number (n), thermodynamic potentials (?G, ?H, ?S) and critical micelle concentration (CMC) for 6 natural bile salts were determined on the basis of both original and previously published isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) data. Different procedures to estimate parameters of micelles with ITC were compared to a mass-action model (MAM) of reaction type: n?S?Mn. This analysis can provide guidelines for future ITC studies of systems behaving in accordance with this model such as micelles and proteins that undergo self-association to oligomers. Micelles with small aggregation numbers, as those of bile salts, are interesting because such small aggregates cannot be characterized as a separate macroscopic phase and the widely applied pseudo-phase model (PPM) is inaccurate. In the present work it was demonstrated that the aggregation number of micelles was constant at low concentrations enabling determination of the thermodynamic potentials by the MAM. A correlation between the aggregation number and the heat capacity was found, which implies that the dehydrated surface area of bile salts increases with the aggregation number. This is in accordance with Tanford's principles of opposing forces where neighbouring molecules in the aggregate are better able to shield from the surrounding hydrophilic environment when the aggregation number increases. PMID:25978555

  10. Long-term measurements of particle number size distributions and the relationships with air mass history and source apportionment in the summer of Beijing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z. B.; Hu, M.; Wu, Z. J.; Yue, D. L.; He, L. Y.; Huang, X. F.; Liu, X. G.; Wiedensohler, A.

    2013-10-01

    A series of long-term and temporary measurements were conducted to study the improvement of air quality in Beijing during the Olympic Games period (8-24 August 2008). To evaluate actions taken to improve the air quality, comparisons of particle number and volume size distributions of August 2008 and 2004-2007 were performed. The total particle number and volume concentrations were 14 000 cm-3 and 37 ?m-3 cm-3 in August of 2008, respectively. These were reductions of 41% and 35% compared with mean values of August 2004-2007. A cluster analysis on air mass history and source apportionment were performed, exploring reasons for the reduction of particle concentrations. Back trajectories were classified into five major clusters. Air masses from the south direction are always associated with pollution events during the summertime in Beijing. In August 2008, the frequency of air mass arriving from the south was 1.3 times higher compared to the average of the previous years, which however did not result in elevated particle volume concentrations in Beijing. Therefore, the reduced particle number and volume concentrations during the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games cannot be only explained by meteorological conditions. Four factors were found influencing particle concentrations using a positive matrix factorization (PMF) model. They were identified as local and remote traffic emissions, combustion sources as well as secondary transformation. The reductions of the four sources were calculated to 47%, 44%, 43% and 30%, respectively. The significant reductions of particle number and volume concentrations may attribute to actions taken, focusing on primary emissions, especially related to the traffic and combustion sources.

  11. Exposure to carbon monoxide, fine particle mass, and ultrafine particle number in Jakarta, Indonesia: effect of commute mode.

    PubMed

    Both, Adam F; Westerdahl, Dane; Fruin, Scott; Haryanto, Budi; Marshall, Julian D

    2013-01-15

    We measured real-time exposure to PM(2.5), ultrafine PM (particle number) and carbon monoxide (CO) for commuting workers school children, and traffic police, in Jakarta, Indonesia. In total, we measured exposures for 36 individuals covering 93 days. Commuters in private cars experienced mean (st dev) exposures of 22 (9.4) ppm CO, 91 (38) ?g/m(3)PM(2.5), and 290 (150)×10(3) particles cm(-3). Mean concentrations were higher in public transport than in private cars for PM(2.5) (difference in means: 22%) and particle counts (54%), but not CO, likely reflecting in-vehicle particle losses in private cars owing to air-conditioning. However, average commute times were longer for private car commuters than public transport commuters (in our sample, 24% longer: 3.0 vs. 2.3 h per day). Commute and traffic-related exposures experienced by Jakarta residents are among the highest in the world, owing to high on-road concentrations and multi-hour commutes. PMID:23314255

  12. Number size distribution, mass concentration, and particle composition of PM1, PM2.5, and PM10 in bag filling areas of carbon black production.

    PubMed

    Kuhlbusch, T A J; Neumann, S; Fissan, H

    2004-10-01

    Number size characteristics and PM10 mass concentrations of particles emitted during the packaging of various kinds of carbon blacks were measured continuously in the bag filling areas of three carbon black plants and concurrently at ambient comparison sites. PM10, PM2.5, and PM1 dust fractions were also determined in the bag filling areas. The filter samples were then analyzed for elemental and organic carbon. Comparisons of the measured number size distributions and mass concentrations during bag filling activities with those measured parallel at the ambient site and with those determined during nonworking periods in the work area enabled the characterization of emitted particles. PM10 mass concentrations were consistently elevated (up to a factor of 20 compared to ambient concentrations) during working periods in the bag filling area. Detailed analysis revealed that the carbon black particles released by bag filling activities had a size distribution starting at approximately 400 nm aerodynamic diameter (dae) with modes around 1 microm dae and > 8 microm dae. Ultrafine particles (< 100 nm dae), detected in the bag filling areas, were most likely attributed to noncarbon black sources such as forklift and gas heater emissions. PMID:15631057

  13. Near-Infrared Properties of Moderate-Redshift Galaxy Clusters: Halo Occupation Number, Mass-to-Light Ratios and Omega(M)

    SciTech Connect

    Muzzin, Adam; Yee, H.K.C.; Hall, Patrick B.; Lin, Huan; /Fermilab

    2007-03-01

    Using K-band imaging for 15 of the Canadian Network for Observational Cosmology (CNOC1) clusters we examine the near-infrared properties of moderate-redshift (0.19 < z < 0.55) galaxy clusters. We find that the number of K-band selected cluster galaxies within R{sub 500} (the Halo Occupation Number, HON) is well-correlated with the cluster dynamical mass (M{sub 500}) and X-ray Temperature (T{sub x}); however, the intrinsic scatter in these scaling relations is 37% and 46% respectively. Comparison with clusters in the local universe shows that the HON-M{sub 500} relation does not evolve significantly between z = 0 and z {approx} 0.3. This suggests that if dark matter halos are disrupted or undergo significant tidal-stripping in high-density regions as seen in numerical simulations, the stellar mass within the halos is tightly bound, and not removed during the process. The total K-band cluster light (L{sub 200},K) and K-band selected richness (parameterized by B{sub gc,K}) are also correlated with both the cluster T{sub x} and M{sub 200}. The total (intrinsic) scatter in the L{sub 200,K}-M{sub 200} and B{sub gc,K}-M{sub 200} relations are 43%(31%) and 35%(18%) respectively and indicates that for massive clusters both L{sub 200,K} and B{sub gc,K} can predict M{sub 200} with similar accuracy as T{sub x}, L{sub x} or optical richness (B{sub gc}). Examination of the mass-to-light ratios of the clusters shows that similar to local clusters, the K-band mass-to-light ratio is an increasing function of halo mass. Using the K-band mass-to-light ratios of the clusters, we apply the Oort technique and find {Omega}{sub m,0} = 0.22 {+-} 0.02, which agrees well with recent combined concordance cosmology parameters, but, similar to previous cluster studies, is on the low-density end of preferred values.

  14. Velocity of the mass center motion and duration evolution of pulses of a small number of oscillations in dispersive optical media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapoiko, Yu. A.; Kozlov, S. A.

    2015-09-01

    Analytical expressions for velocities of the center of mass and dispersive spreading of optical pulses with a small number of electromagnetic field oscillations in dielectric media have been obtained. For some typical time profiles of input pulses, these expressions are reduced to elementary functions of dispersion characteristics of the medium, central frequency of the pulse, and initial number of oscillations in it. It is shown that the duration of a terahertz pulse of one full-wave oscillation of the field can increase by a factor of when propagating in a dielectric to distances of only three central radiation wavelengths. For pulses of two full-wave oscillations of the field of the near-IR spectral range, the frequency of the zero group dispersion in a dielectric can shift by more than 200 nm.

  15. Hydrodynamic chromatography - inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, with post-column injection capability for simultaneous determination of nanoparticle size, mass concentration and particle number concentration (HDC-PCi-ICP-MS).

    PubMed

    Lewis, D J

    2015-03-01

    Hydrodynamic chromatography - inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HDC-ICP-MS) is a technique that is widely used in the size-characterisation of nanoparticles. In this work, a system was modified to facilitate the injection of NIST-traceable standards into the post-column effluent, which then allowed the response from an eluting nanoparticle to be quantified against the response from the post-column standards. Combining the simultaneously acquired particle sizing data and mass concentration data allowed accurate quantification of the particle number concentration to be made in a single analytical run. This unique single-method approach was successfully validated against a nanoparticle system which had previously been characterised in a number of recent peer-reviewed publications. In addition to this, its robustness was assessed using extracts from a study investigating the fate of nanoparticles in sewage sludge, and found to provide much improved data compared to what might have been achieved using an external calibration approach. With in-vial limits of detection of 2 and 10 ng ml(-1) for titanium and silver respectively, it is insufficient for use with environmental waters, but is foreseen as being useful in screening nanoparticle production processes, or in the characterisation of higher concentration materials. As this instrumental configuration is likely to be of use to researchers involved in the general area of quantitative trace element speciation, detailed description of construction of the interface is given as ESI. PMID:25627965

  16. Variation of high-power aluminum-wire array z-pinch dynamics with wire number, load mass, and array radius

    SciTech Connect

    Sanford, T.W.L.; Mock, R.C.; Marder, B.M.

    1997-12-01

    A systematic study of annular aluminum-wire z-pinches on the Saturn accelerator shows that the quality of the implosion, (as measured by the radial convergence, the radiated energy, pulse width, and power), increases with wire number. Radiation magnetohydrodynamic (RMHC) xy simulations suggest that the implosion transitions from that of individual wire plasmas to that of a continuous plasma shell when the interwire spacing is reduced below {approximately} 1.4 mm. In this plasma-shell regime, many of the global radiation and plasma characteristics are in agreement with those simulated by 2D-RMHC rz simulations. In this regime, measured changes in the radiation pulse width with variations in load mass and array radius are consistent with the simulations and are explained by the development of 2D fluid motion in the rz plane. Associated variations in the K-shell yield are qualitatively explained by simple radiation-scaling models.

  17. Comparison of particle mass and solid particle number (SPN) emissions from a heavy-duty diesel vehicle under on-road driving conditions and a standard testing cycle.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Zhongqing; Durbin, Thomas D; Xue, Jian; Johnson, Kent C; Li, Yang; Hu, Shaohua; Huai, Tao; Ayala, Alberto; Kittelson, David B; Jung, Heejung S

    2014-01-01

    It is important to understand the differences between emissions from standard laboratory testing cycles and those from actual on-road driving conditions, especially for solid particle number (SPN) emissions now being regulated in Europe. This study compared particle mass and SPN emissions from a heavy-duty diesel vehicle operating over the urban dynamometer driving schedule (UDDS) and actual on-road driving conditions. Particle mass emissions were calculated using the integrated particle size distribution (IPSD) method and called MIPSD. The MIPSD emissions for the UDDS and on-road tests were more than 6 times lower than the U.S. 2007 heavy-duty particulate matter (PM) mass standard. The MIPSD emissions for the UDDS fell between those for the on-road uphill and downhill driving. SPN and MIPSD measurements were dominated by nucleation particles for the UDDS and uphill driving and by accumulation mode particles for cruise and downhill driving. The SPN emissions were ? 3 times lower than the Euro 6 heavy-duty SPN limit for the UDDS and downhill driving and ? 4-5 times higher than the Euro 6 SPN limit for the more aggressive uphill driving; however, it is likely that most of the "solid" particles measured under these conditions were associated with a combination release of stored sulfates and enhanced sulfate formation associated with high exhaust temperatures, leading to growth of volatile particles into the solid particle counting range above 23 nm. Except for these conditions, a linear relationship was found between SPN and accumulation mode MIPSD. The coefficient of variation (COV) of SPN emissions of particles >23 nm ranged from 8 to 26% for the UDDS and on-road tests. PMID:24328166

  18. Emissions of organic aerosol mass, black carbon, particle number, and regulated and unregulated gases from scooters and light and heavy duty vehicles with different fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chirico, R.; Clairotte, M.; Adam, T. W.; Giechaskiel, B.; Heringa, M. F.; Elsasser, M.; Martini, G.; Manfredi, U.; Streibel, T.; Sklorz, M.; Zimmermann, R.; DeCarlo, P. F.; Astorga, C.; Baltensperger, U.; Prevot, A. S. H.

    2014-06-01

    A sampling campaign with seven different types of vehicles was conducted in 2009 at the vehicle test facilities of the Joint Research Centre (JRC) in Ispra (Italy). The vehicles chosen were representative of some categories circulating in Europe and were fueled either with standard gasoline or diesel and some with blends of rapeseed methyl ester biodiesel. The aim of this work was to improve the knowledge about the emission factors of gas phase and particle-associated regulated and unregulated species from vehicle exhaust. Unregulated species such as black carbon (BC), primary organic aerosol (OA) content, particle number (PN), monocyclic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and a~selection of unregulated gaseous compounds, including nitrous acid (N2O), ammonia (NH3), hydrogen cyanide (HCN), formaldehyde (HCHO), acetaldehyde (CH3CHO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and methane (CH4), were measured in real time with a suite of instruments including a high-resolution aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer, a resonance enhanced multi-photon ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer, and a high resolution Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. Diesel vehicles, without particle filters, featured the highest values for particle number, followed by gasoline vehicles and scooters. The particles from diesel and gasoline vehicles were mostly made of BC with a low fraction of OA, while the particles from the scooters were mainly composed of OA. Scooters were characterized by super high emissions factors for OA, which were orders of magnitude higher than for the other vehicles. The heavy duty diesel vehicle (HDDV) featured the highest nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions, while the scooters had the highest emissions for total hydrocarbons and aromatic compounds due to the unburned and partially burned gasoline and lubricant oil mixture. Generally, vehicles fuelled with biodiesel blends showed lower emission factors of OA and total aromatics than those from the standard fuels. The scooters were the main emitters of aromatic compounds, followed by the gasoline vehicle, the diesel vehicles and the HDDV.

  19. Characterization and parameterization of atmospheric particle number-, mass-, and chemical-size distributions in central Europe during LACE 98 and MINT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neusüß, C.; Wex, H.; Birmili, W.; Wiedensohler, A.; Koziar, C.; Busch, B.; Brüggemann, E.; Gnauk, T.; Ebert, M.; Covert, D. S.

    2002-11-01

    Intensive measurements of chemical and physical properties of the atmospheric aerosol have been performed at two sites in central Europe during the Melpitz-Intensive (MINT) in November 1997 and the Lindenberg Aerosol Characterization Experiment 1998 (LACE 98) in July and August 1998. Number-size distributions, hygroscopic particle growth, size-segregated gravimetric mass, and size-segregated chemical masses of water-soluble ions and organic and elemental carbon of aerosol particles have been measured. To obtain information on the quality of the different methods, the number-derived, gravimetric, and chemically derived mass distributions are compared. Gravimetric mass of fine particles is attributed completely to chemical composition by carbonaceous material and ions, including an estimate of the water content due to hygroscopic compounds. For the characterization of coarse particles, which contribute less to the total mass concentration, insoluble material has to be included in the mass balance. Mass concentrations calculated from the number-size distributions are well correlated with the gravimetric mass concentration; however, the calculated mass is larger, especially for the Aitken and accumulation modes. The number-derived mass concentration is most sensitive to the sizing uncertainty of the measured number-size distribution. Moreover, the impactor cutoffs and the limited knowledge about the density of the particles (especially with high carbon content) account for a major part of the uncertainties. The overall uncertainty of the calculated mass, determined as the standard deviation of the average value in a Monte Carlo approach, is found to be about 10%. Lognormal parameters for the number-size and volume-size distributions as well as gravimetric mass-size distribution and corresponding chemical composition are presented for different air mass types. Most of the modal parameters do not differ significantly between the air mass types. Higher mass concentrations are mostly due to an increase in size (of Aitken and accumulation mode) rather than an increase in the number of particles in a given mode. Generally, the mass percent carbon content increases with decreasing particle size. The most pronounced difference with season is an increase of carbon content from summer to winter as well as an increase in nitrate content, resulting in a decrease of sulfate. For nitrate a strong dependence on air mass direction is observed. Sulfate and nitrate are predominantly neutralized by ammonium. With the results of the two experiments, quality-controlled mode parameters and corresponding chemical composition of atmospheric aerosol particles in central Europe are now available for application in models.

  20. Suspect screening of large numbers of emerging contaminants in environmental waters using artificial neural networks for chromatographic retention time prediction and high resolution mass spectrometry data analysis.

    PubMed

    Bade, Richard; Bijlsma, Lubertus; Miller, Thomas H; Barron, Leon P; Sancho, Juan Vicente; Hernández, Felix

    2015-12-15

    The recent development of broad-scope high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) screening methods has resulted in a much improved capability for new compound identification in environmental samples. However, positive identifications at the ng/L concentration level rely on analytical reference standards for chromatographic retention time (tR) and mass spectral comparisons. Chromatographic tR prediction can play a role in increasing confidence in suspect screening efforts for new compounds in the environment, especially when standards are not available, but reliable methods are lacking. The current work focuses on the development of artificial neural networks (ANNs) for tR prediction in gradient reversed-phase liquid chromatography and applied along with HRMS data to suspect screening of wastewater and environmental surface water samples. Based on a compound tR dataset of >500 compounds, an optimized 4-layer back-propagation multi-layer perceptron model enabled predictions for 85% of all compounds to within 2min of their measured tR for training (n=344) and verification (n=100) datasets. To evaluate the ANN ability for generalization to new data, the model was further tested using 100 randomly selected compounds and revealed 95% prediction accuracy within the 2-minute elution interval. Given the increasing concern on the presence of drug metabolites and other transformation products (TPs) in the aquatic environment, the model was applied along with HRMS data for preliminary identification of pharmaceutically-related compounds in real samples. Examples of compounds where reference standards were subsequently acquired and later confirmed are also presented. To our knowledge, this work presents for the first time, the successful application of an accurate retention time predictor and HRMS data-mining using the largest number of compounds to preliminarily identify new or emerging contaminants in wastewater and surface waters. PMID:26363605

  1. Long-term observations of tropospheric particle number size distributions and equivalent black carbon mass concentrations in the German Ultrafine Aerosol Network (GUAN)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birmili, W.; Weinhold, K.; Merkel, M.; Rasch, F.; Sonntag, A.; Wiedensohler, A.; Bastian, S.; Schladitz, A.; Löschau, G.; Cyrys, J.; Pitz, M.; Gu, J.; Kusch, T.; Flentje, H.; Quass, U.; Kaminski, H.; Kuhlbusch, T. A. J.; Meinhardt, F.; Schwerin, A.; Bath, O.; Ries, L.; Wirtz, K.; Fiebig, M.

    2015-11-01

    The German Ultrafine Aerosol Network (GUAN) is a cooperative atmospheric observation network, which aims at improving the scientific understanding of aerosol-related effects in the troposphere. The network addresses research questions dedicated to both, climate and health related effects. GUAN's core activity has been the continuous collection of tropospheric particle number size distributions and black carbon mass concentrations at seventeen observation sites in Germany. These sites cover various environmental settings including urban traffic, urban background, rural background, and Alpine mountains. In association with partner projects, GUAN has implemented a high degree of harmonisation of instrumentation, operating procedures, and data evaluation procedures. The quality of the measurement data is assured by laboratory intercomparisons as well as on-site comparisons with reference instruments. This paper describes the measurement sites, instrumentation, quality assurance and data evaluation procedures in the network as well as the EBAS repository, where the data sets can be obtained (doi:10.5072/guan).

  2. Cosmological constraints from galaxy clustering and the mass-to-number ratio of galaxy clusters: marginalizing over the physics of galaxy formation

    SciTech Connect

    Reddick, Rachel M.; Wechsler, Risa H.; Lu, Yu; Tinker, Jeremy L. E-mail: rwechsler@stanford.edu

    2014-03-10

    Many approaches to obtaining cosmological constraints rely on the connection between galaxies and dark matter. However, the distribution of galaxies is dependent on their formation and evolution as well as on the cosmological model, and galaxy formation is still not a well-constrained process. Thus, methods that probe cosmology using galaxies as tracers for dark matter must be able to accurately estimate the cosmological parameters. This can be done without knowing details of galaxy formation a priori as long as the galaxies are well represented by a halo occupation distribution (HOD). We apply this reasoning to the method of obtaining ? {sub m} and ?{sub 8} from galaxy clustering combined with the mass-to-number ratio of galaxy clusters. To test the sensitivity of this method to variations due to galaxy formation, we consider several different models applied to the same cosmological dark matter simulation. The cosmological parameters are then estimated using the observables in each model, marginalizing over the parameters of the HOD. We find that for models where the galaxies can be well represented by a parameterized HOD, this method can successfully extract the desired cosmological parameters for a wide range of galaxy formation prescriptions.

  3. AEJMC: 75 Years in the Making--A History of Organizing for Journalism and Mass Communication Education in the United States. Journalism Monographs Number 104.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emery, Edwin; McKerns, Joseph P.

    1987-01-01

    Commissioned by the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (AEJMC), this monograph presents the highlights of the history of organized efforts to improve education for journalism in the United States and to stimulate studies in the field of mass communication. Following brief biographies of the AEJMC founding fathers,…

  4. Measurement of Black Carbon, Particle Number and Mass, and Lung-Deposited Surface Area Emission Factors from in-Use Locomotive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ban-Weiss, G. A.; Krasowsky, T.; Sioutas, C.; Daher, N.

    2014-12-01

    As pollutant emissions from motor vehicles have vastly decreased over the last decades, the relative contribution from non-road sources has increased. There is a serious lack of real-world emissions measurements for many non-road sources including locomotives. As such, uncertainties in emissions from these sources is high. Locomotives contribute to human exposure of diesel pollutants near ports, railyards, and rail lines. Reducing uncertainty in current estimates of locomotive emissions is needed for enhancing the accuracy of emission inventories with corresponding improvements in health risk, air pollution, and climate assessments. Particulate matter emissions from a large sample (N=88) of in-use freight locomotives were measured in the Alameda Corridor, located near the port of Los Angeles. Emission factors for black carbon (BC), particle number (PN), fine particulate mass (PM2.5), and lung-deposited surface area (LDSA) were computed based on 1 Hz measurements of the rise and fall of particulate emissions and CO2 concentrations as the locomotives passed the sampling location. Mean emission factors ± standard deviations were 0.9 ± 0.5 g kg-1 of fuel consumed for BC, (2.1 ± 1.5)x1016 # kg-1 for PN, 1.6 ± 1.3 g kg-1 for PM2.5, and (2.2 ± 1.7)x1013 μm2 kg-1 for LDSA. Emission factors for individual trains were slightly skewed, with the dirtiest 10% of locomotives responsible for 20%, 24%, 28%, and 27% of total BC, PN, PM2.5, and LDSA emissions, respectively. BC versus LDSA emissions from individual locomotives were found to be anti-correlated, suggesting that the highest emitters of black carbon may in fact result in less particle lung-deposited surface area than lower BC emitters. Using results presented here along with previous measurements, we compare for freight trains versus diesel trucks the amount of BC emissions associated with pulling an intermodal freight container over a given distance. Emission factors for locomotives presented here establish a baseline prior to reductions that are anticipated as a result of Federal regulation and state control efforts in 2015.

  5. Reaching the Critical Mass: The Twenty Year Surge in High School Physics. Findings from the 2005 Nationwide Survey of High School Physics Teachers. AIP Report. Number R-442

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neuschatz, Michael; McFarling, Mark; White, Susan

    2008-01-01

    This report traces the growth of high school physics in American school over the past twenty years. Highlights of the report include: (1) Enrollments in high school physics continue to grow; (2) Increase in number and proportion of physics teachers; (3) Number of students taking honors, advance placement or second-year physics course has nearly…

  6. Mass Media and Public Opinion: Report of the Soviet-Finnish Seminar (5th, Moscow, USSR, May 18-22, 1987). Publications Series B, Number 24.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jyrkiainen, Jyrki, Comp.

    A compilation of papers from a joint Finnish-Russian seminar on problems of communication research, this collection presents diverse opinions and results from researchers and observers in both countries. The titles of the papers and their authors are as follows: (1) "Role of Research and Training in Mass Communication and Public Opinion" (Pertti…

  7. Mass Media and Public Opinion: Report of the Soviet-Finnish Seminar (5th, Moscow, USSR, May 18-22, 1987). Publications Series B, Number 24.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jyrkiainen, Jyrki, Comp.

    A compilation of papers from a joint Finnish-Russian seminar on problems of communication research, this collection presents diverse opinions and results from researchers and observers in both countries. The titles of the papers and their authors are as follows: (1) "Role of Research and Training in Mass Communication and Public Opinion" (Pertti…

  8. Some thoughts on the muon-catalyzed fusion process for antimatter propulsion and for the production of high A mass numbers antinuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Hiroshi

    1987-01-01

    The muon-catalyzed fusion process has a very valuable role for antiproton science and technology. Several schemes of propulsion energy enhancement of the antiproton-fueled propulsion using the muon-catalyzed fusion are discussed. Production of high A mass antinuclei by the muon-catalyzed fusion using the clustered antihydrogen molecule and quark-gluon plasma formation by annihilation of the produced high A antimatter with regular nuclei are discussed. 22 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Number Games.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, David

    1997-01-01

    Presents three number games for mathematics classrooms designed to improve the learning of number concepts. Game topics include determining products, arranging mathematical signs, and factoring. (ASK)

  10. Extensional flow convecting a reactant undergoing a first order homogeneous reaction and diffusional mass transfer from a sphere at low to intermediate Peclet and Damkohler numbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shah, N. Y.; Reed, X. B., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Forced convective diffusion-reaction is considered for viscous axisymmetric extensional convecting velocity in the neighborhood of a sphere. For Peclet numbers in the range 0.1 less than or equal to Pe less than or equal to 500 and for Damkohler numbers increasing with increasing Pe but in the overall range 0.02 less than or equal to Da less than or equal to 10, average and local Sherwood numbers have been computed. By introducing the eigenfunction expansion c(r, Theta) = Sum of c(n)(r)P(n)(cos Theta) into the forced convective diffusion equation for the concentration of a chemical species undergoing a first order homogeneous reaction and by using properties of the Legendre functions Pn(cos Theta), the variable coefficient PDE can be reduced to a system of N + 1 second order ODEs for the radial functions c(sub n)(r), n = 0, 1, 2,..., N. The adaptive grid algorithm of Pereyra and Lentini can be used to solve the corresponding 2(N + 1) first order differential equations as a two-point boundary value problem on 1 less than or equal to r less than or equal to r(sub infinity). Convergence of the expansion for a specific value of N can thus be established and provides 'spectral' behavior as well as the full concentration field c(r, Theta).

  11. Nephron number determines susceptibility to renal mass reduction-induced CKD in Lewis and Fisher 344 rats: implications for development of experimentally induced chronic allograft nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Szabo, Attila J.; Muller, Veronika; Chen, Gin-Fu; Samsell, Lennie J.; Erdely, Aaron; Baylis, Chris

    2008-01-01

    Background. The Fisher 344 (F344) rat kidney transplanted to a Lewis rat recipient is a common model of chronic renal allograft nephropathy (CAN); however, CAN does not develop when the Lewis kidney is grafted into a F344 recipient. In this study we investigated whether a difference in nephron number/glomerular volume exists between the strains that could contribute to a greater susceptibility to development of kidney disease in the F344. Methods. Separate animals, male F344 and Lewis rats, were subjected to either sham surgery or right uni-nephrectomy and infarction of 2/3 of the left kidney, to produce a 5/6 ablation/infarction injury (5/6 A/I). Serial urinary protein excretions were measured, a terminal 24-h creatinine clearance was obtained and rats were killed 11 weeks after surgery and kidneys were harvested for pathology. Glomerular volumes were measured in the sham controls of each strain. Glomerular number was counted in separate, normal rats of each strain. Results. The normal F344 had ?30% fewer glomeruli than Lewis rats that were larger in volume. The sham F344 had similar creatinine clearance and glomerular structure to the Lewis shams, although BP and urine protein excretion were higher. After 5/6 A/I the F344 developed more severe proteinuria and structural kidney damage. When factored for kidney weight, the F344 rats exhibited a greater compensatory hyperfiltration in response to 5/6 A/I, compared to Lewis. Conclusions. The F344 strain is more vulnerable to development of progressive kidney damage due to 5/6 A/I, compared to the Lewis. This is likely due to the lower nephron number/greater glomerular volume of the F344 that may also account for the greater susceptibility to CAN exhibited by this strain. PMID:18332065

  12. Leftist Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rich, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    The leftist number system consists of numbers with decimal digits arranged in strings to the left, instead of to the right. This system fails to be a field only because it contains zerodivisors. The same construction with prime base yields the p-adic numbers.

  13. Mass, quark-number, and sqrt sNN dependence of the second andfourth flow harmonics in ultra-relativistic nucleus-nucleuscollisions

    SciTech Connect

    Abelev, B.I.; Adams, J.; Aggarwal, M.M.; Ahammed, Z.; Amonett,J.; Anderson, B.D.; Anderson, M.; Arkhipkin, D.; Averichev, G.S.; Bai,Y.; Balewski, J.; Barannikova, O.; Barnby, L.S.; Baudot, J.; Bekele, S.; Belaga, V.V.; Bellingeri-Laurikainen, A.; Bellwied, R.; Benedosso, F.; Bhardwaj, S.; Bhasin, A.; Bhati, A.K.; Bichsel, H.; Bielcik, J.; Bielcikova, J.; Bland, L.C.; Blyth, S.-L.; Bonner, B.E.; Botje, M.; Bouchet, J.; Brandin, A.V.; Bravar, A.; Bystersky, M.; Cadman, R.V.; Cai,X.Z.; Caines, H.; Calderon de la Barca Sanchez, M.; Castillo, J.; Catu,O.; Cebra, D.; Chajecki, Z.; Chaloupka, P.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chen,H.F.; Chen, J.H.; Cheng, J.; Cherney, M.; Chikanian, A.; Christie, W.; Coffin, J.P.; Cormier, T.M.; Cosentino, M.R.; Cramer, J.G.; Crawford,H.J.; Das, D.; Das, S.; Daugherity, M.; de Moura, M.M.; Dedovich, T.G.; DePhillips, M.; Derevschikov, A.A.; Didenko, L.; Dietel, T.; Djawotho,P.; Dogra, S.M.; Dong, W.J.; Dong, X.; Draper, J.E.; Du, F.; Dunin, V.B.; Dunlop, J.C.; Dutta Mazumdar, M.R.; Eckardt, V.; Edwards, W.R.; Efimov,L.G.; Emelianov, V.; Engelage, J.; Eppley, G.; Erazmus, B.; Estienne, M.; Fachini, P.; Fatemi, R.; Fedorisin, J.; Filimonov, K.; Filip, P.; Finch,E.; Fine, V.; Fisyak, Y.; Fu, J.; Gagliardi, C.A.; Gaillard, L.; Ganti,M.S.; Ghazikhanian, V.; Ghosh, P.; Gonzalez, J.S.; Gorbunov, Y.G.; Gos,H.; Grebenyuk, O.; Grosnick, D.; Guertin, S.M.; Guimaraes, K.S.F.F.; Guo,Y.; Gupta, N.; Gutierrez, T.D.; Haag, B.; Hallman, T.J.; Hamed, A.; Harris, J.W.; He, W.; Heinz, M.; Henry, T.W.; Hepplemann, S.; Hippolyte,B.; Hirsch, A.; Hjort, E.; Hoffman, A.M.; Hoffmann, G.W.; Horner, M.J.; Huang, H.Z.; Huang, S.L.; Hughes, E.W.; Humanic, T.J.; Igo, G.; Jacobs,P.; Jacobs, W.W.; Jakl, P.; Jia, F.; Jiang, H.; Jones, P.G.; Judd, E.G.; Kabana, S.; Kang, K.; Kapitan, J.; Kaplan, M.; Keane, D.; Kechechyan, A.; Khodyrev, V.Yu.; Kim, B.C.; Kiryluk, J.; Kisiel, A.; Kislov, E.M.; Klein,S.R.; Kocoloski, A.; Koetke, D.D.; et al.

    2007-01-06

    We present STAR measurements of the azimuthal anisotropyparameter v_2 for pions, kaons, protons, Lambda, bar Lambda, Xi+bar Xi,and \\Omega + bar Omega, along with v_4 for pions, kaons, protons, andLambda + bar Lambda at mid-rapidity for Au+Au collisions at sqrt sNN=62.4and 200 GeV. The v_2(p_T) values for all hadron species at 62.4 GeV aresimilar to those observed in 130 and 200 GeV collisions. For observedkinematic ranges, v_2 values at 62.4, 130, and 200 GeV are as little as10 percent-15 percent larger than those in Pb+Pb collisions at sqrt s NN=17.3 GeV. At intermediate transverse momentum (p_T from 1.5-5 GeV/c),the 62.4 GeV v_2(p_T) and v_4(p_T) values are consistent with thequark-number scaling first observed at 200 GeV. A four-particle cumulantanalysis is used to assess the non-flow contributions to pions andprotons and some indications are found for a smaller non-flowcontribution to protons than pions. Baryon v_2 is larger than anti-baryonv_2 at 62.4 and 200 GeV perhaps indicating either that the initialspatial net-baryon distribution is anisotropic, that the mechanismleading to transport of baryon number from beam- to mid-rapidity enhancesv_2, or that anti-baryon and baryon annihilation is larger in thein-plane direction.

  14. An investigation of several NACA 1 series axisymmetric inlets at Mach numbers from 0.4 to 1.29. [wind tunnel tests over range of mass-flow ratios and at angle of attack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Re, R. J.

    1974-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in the Langley 16-foot transonic tunnel to determine the performance of seven inlets having NACA 1-series contours and one inlet having an elliptical contour over a range of mass-flow ratios and at angle of attack. The inlet diameter ratio varied from 0.81 to 0.89; inlet length ratio varied from 0.75 to 1.25; and internal contraction ratio varied from 1.009 to 1.093. Reynolds number based on inlet maximum diameter varied from 3.4 million at a Mach number of 0.4 to 5.6 million at a Mach number of 1.29.

  15. Absolute number densities of helium metastable atoms determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy in helium plasma-based discharges used as ambient desorption/ionization sources for mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reininger, Charlotte; Woodfield, Kellie; Keelor, Joel D.; Kaylor, Adam; Fernández, Facundo M.; Farnsworth, Paul B.

    2014-10-01

    The absolute number densities of helium atoms in the 2s 3S1 metastable state were determined in four plasma-based ambient desorption/ionization sources by atomic absorption spectroscopy. The plasmas included a high-frequency dielectric barrier discharge (HF-DBD), a low temperature plasma (LTP), and two atmospheric-pressure glow discharges, one with AC excitation and the other with DC excitation. Peak densities in the luminous plumes downstream from the discharge capillaries of the HF-DBD and the LTP were 1.39 × 1012 cm- 3 and 0.011 × 1012 cm- 3, respectively. Neither glow discharge produced a visible afterglow, and no metastable atoms were detected downstream from the capillary exits. However, densities of 0.58 × 1012 cm- 3 and 0.97 × 1012 cm- 3 were measured in the interelectrode regions of the AC and DC glow discharges, respectively. Time-resolved measurements of metastable atom densities revealed significant random variations in the timing of pulsed absorption signals with respect to the voltage waveforms applied to the discharges.

  16. Effect of filter media size, mass flow rate and filtration stage number in a moving-bed granular filter on the yield and properties of bio-oil from fast pyrolysis of biomass.

    PubMed

    Paenpong, Chaturong; Inthidech, Sudsakorn; Pattiya, Adisak

    2013-07-01

    Fast pyrolysis of cassava rhizome was performed in a bench-scale fluidised-bed reactor unit incorporated with a cross-flow moving-bed granular filter. The objective of this research was to examine several process parameters including the granular size (425-1160 ?m) and mass flow rate (0-12 g/min) as well as the number of the filtration stages (1-2 stages) on yields and properties of bio-oil. The results showed that the bio-oil yield decreased from 57.7 wt.% to 42.0-49.2 wt.% when increasing the filter media size, the mass flow rate and the filtration stage number. The effect of the process parameters on various properties of bio-oil is thoroughly discussed. In general, the bio-oil quality in terms of the solids content, ash content, initial viscosity, viscosity change and ageing rate could be enhanced by the hot vapour granular filtration. Therefore, bio-oil of high stability could be produced by the pyrolysis reactor configuration designed in this work. PMID:23644068

  17. Figurate Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Cloman

    1974-01-01

    Details of an investigation into polygonal numbers are given. From a study of the tabled series, patterns are discovered both within and between the various polygonal series. From a study of these results and the corresponding figures, formulas are developed. (LS)

  18. Numbers Sense

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kathotia, Vinay

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on work undertaken by schools as part of Qualifications and Curriculum Authority's (QCA's) "Engaging mathematics for all learners" project. The goal was to use in the classroom, materials and approaches from a Royal Institution (Ri) Year 10 master-class, "Number Sense", which was inspired by examples from Michael Blastland and…

  19. Numbers Sense

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kathotia, Vinay

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on work undertaken by schools as part of Qualifications and Curriculum Authority's (QCA's) "Engaging mathematics for all learners" project. The goal was to use in the classroom, materials and approaches from a Royal Institution (Ri) Year 10 master-class, "Number Sense", which was inspired by examples from Michael Blastland and…

  20. Numbers, Please!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thelin, John R.

    2013-01-01

    What topic would you choose if you had the luxury of writing forever? In this article, John Thelin provides his response: He would opt to write about the history of higher education in a way that relies on quantitative data. "Numbers, please!" is his research request in taking on a longitudinal study of colleges and universities over…

  1. Number Guessing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sezin, Fatin

    2009-01-01

    It is instructive and interesting to find hidden numbers by using different positional numeration systems. Most of the present guessing techniques use the binary system expressed as less-than, greater-than or present-absent type information. This article describes how, by employing four cards having integers 1-64 written in different colours, one…

  2. Numbers, Please!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thelin, John R.

    2013-01-01

    What topic would you choose if you had the luxury of writing forever? In this article, John Thelin provides his response: He would opt to write about the history of higher education in a way that relies on quantitative data. "Numbers, please!" is his research request in taking on a longitudinal study of colleges and universities over…

  3. Number in Classifier Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nomoto, Hiroki

    2013-01-01

    Classifier languages are often described as lacking genuine number morphology and treating all common nouns, including those conceptually count, as an unindividuated mass. This study argues that neither of these popular assumptions is true, and presents new generalizations and analyses gained by abandoning them. I claim that no difference exists…

  4. Observation of different core water cluster ions Y-(H2O)n (Y = O2, HCN, HOx, NOx, COx) and magic number in atmospheric pressure negative corona discharge mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekimoto, K.; Takayama, M.

    2010-12-01

    Atmospheric ion water clusters have been of long-standing interest in the field of atmospheric sciences, because of them playing a central role in the formation of tropospheric aerosols which affect the photochemistry, radiation budget of the atmosphere and climate. On the basis of a mechanism of aerosol formation in the troposphere proposed by Yu and Turco, termed “ion-mediated nucleation” (Geophys. Res. Lett. 2000, 27, 883), atmospheric ion water clusters are most likely to be produced via two processes; 1) direct attachment of polar solvent molecules H2O to atmospheric ions due to them having strong binding energy via ion-dipole interactions, and 2) growth of ion-induced hydrates into larger water clusters bound via hydrogen-bonding networks by condensation with H2O molecules. The stability and growth rates of water clusters are strongly dependent on the thermochemical properties of individual atmospheric core ions. A large number of thermochemical information of the positive atmospheric ion H3O+ and its hydrates H3O+(H2O)n have been reported so far, while there has been little information of the water clusters with the negative atmospheric core ions. Therefore, fundamental studies of the thermochemistry of various negative atmospheric ion water clusters will contribute towards furthering an understanding of their unique role in atmospheric sciences and climate change. We have recently established an atmospheric pressure DC corona discharge device containing a specific corona needle electrode that made it possible to reproducibly generate negative core ions Y- originating from ambient air (Int. J. Mass Spectrom. 2007, 261, 38; Eur. Phys. J. D 2008, 50, 297). The change in electric field strength on the needle tip resulted in the formation of negative atmospheric core ions Y- with various different lifetimes in air. The low field strength brought about the dominant formation of core ions with short lifetimes in air such as O2- and HOx-, while the longer-lived core ions HCN-, NOx- and COx- were mainly produced at higher field strength. Furthermore, the use of the discharge system coupled to mass spectrometers led to the stable formation of large water clusters Y-(H2O)n due to adiabatic expansion caused by the pressure difference between the ambient discharge area (760 torr) and vacuum region in the mass spectrometers (≈ 1 torr). Here we show the resulting mass spectra of large water clusters Y-(H2O)n (0 ≤ n ≥ 80) with the dominant negative core ion Y- such as O2-, HO-, HO2-, HCN-, NO2-, NO3-, NO3-(HNO3)2, CO3- and HCO4- which play a central role in tropospheric ion chemistry, as well as the detailed mechanism of formation of those negative ion water clusters by atmospheric pressure DC corona discharge mass spectrometry. Here we also provide new thermochemical information about magic numbers and first hydrated shells for individual negative core ions Y-, which have particular stability in the Y-(H2O)n cluster series, by using the reliable mass spectrometry data obtained and the relationship between the temperature condition in a reaction chamber and the resulting cluster distribution.

  5. Aerosol Mass Loading, Mixing State, Size and Number in Present Day (2000) and Future (2100): Study with the Advanced Particle Microphysics (APM) module in the Community Earth System Model (CESM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, G.; Yu, F.

    2014-12-01

    Aerosols affect the global energy budget by scattering and absorbing sunlight (direct effects) and by changing the microphysical properties, lifetime, and coverage of clouds (indirect effects). One of the key challenges in quantifying the aerosol direct and indirect effects is to deep our understanding about the size distribution, size-resolved composition, and mixing state of aerosols. However, detailed information on size distribution and mixing state is often not available or incomplete in current climate models. Here, we incorporated APM into CESM. APM is a multi-type, multi-component (sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, SOA, BC, OC, dust, and sea salt), size-resolved particle microphysics model. Online chemistry, up-to-date nucleation, oxidation aging of medium-volatile and semi-volatile organic gases, aerosol-cloud interaction with stratiform cloud, shallow convection cloud, and deep convection cloud are considered. The amounts of secondary species coated on primary particles, through condensation, coagulation, equilibrium uptake, and aqueous chemistry, are also tracked. Model results are compared with aerosol mass observed by IMPROVE/EMEP, vertical structure of global particle number from aircraft-based field campaigns, particle and cloud condensation nuclei number at ground-based stations, aerosol optical properties retrieved by several satellites. Model results can capture the major characteristics shown in these observations. With this model system, we find that global burdens of sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, BC, OC from 2000 to 2100, under scenario RCP 4.5 where total radiative forcing is stabilized before 2100, are decreased by 44%, 50%, 43%, 40%, 40%, respectively. Dust and sea salt increase slightly. Global burdens of secondary species coated on BCOC, dust, and sea salt are deceased by 34%, 30% and 60%, respectively. Global averaged aerosol number in the lower troposphere (from surface to 3 km) is significantly decreased, especially for particles smaller than 40 nm. Although secondary particles (SP) are decreased from 2000 to 2100, aerosol number is still dominated by SP. Cloud droplet number in the lower troposphere is decreased 30% from 2000 to 2100. The impacts of the aerosol changes on cloud properties, precipitation, and radiative forcing will be discussed in detail.

  6. Avogadro Number and Mole: A Royal Confusion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emiliani, Cesare

    1991-01-01

    There is a great deal of confusion in physics and chemistry textbooks, dictionaries, manuals, and handbooks about the definition of Avogadro's number and the term "mole." Avogadro's number is defined simply as the number of atomic mass units in one gram. Mole is defined as the mass of one Avogadro number of identical items. (Author/PR)

  7. Counting copy number and calories.

    PubMed

    White, Stefan

    2015-08-01

    Copy number variation (CNV) at several genomic loci has been associated with different human traits and diseases, but in many cases the findings could not be replicated. A new study provides insights into the degree of variation present at the amylase locus and calls into question a previous association between amylase copy number and body mass index. PMID:26220133

  8. Sixth Goddard Conference on Mass Storage Systems and Technologies Held in Cooperation with the Fifteenth IEEE Symposium on Mass Storage Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobler, Benjamin (Editor); Hariharan, P. C. (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    This document contains copies of those technical papers received in time for publication prior to the Sixth Goddard Conference on Mass Storage Systems and Technologies which is being held in cooperation with the Fifteenth IEEE Symposium on Mass Storage Systems at the University of Maryland-University College Inn and Conference Center March 23-26, 1998. As one of an ongoing series, this Conference continues to provide a forum for discussion of issues relevant to the management of large volumes of data. The Conference encourages all interested organizations to discuss long term mass storage requirements and experiences in fielding solutions. Emphasis is on current and future practical solutions addressing issues in data management, storage systems and media, data acquisition, long term retention of data, and data distribution. This year's discussion topics include architecture, tape optimization, new technology, performance, standards, site reports, vendor solutions. Tutorials will be available on shared file systems, file system backups, data mining, and the dynamics of obsolescence.

  9. Primary mass standard based on atomic masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Peter; Gläser, Michael

    2006-04-01

    The paper summarises the activities of several national and international Metrology Institutes in replacing the kilogram artefact, the unit of mass, by the mass of a certain number of atoms, in particular the atomic masses of silicon or bismuth. This task is based on two different experiments: a very accurate determination of the Avogadro constant, NA, measuring the density and lattice parameter of an enriched silicon-28 crystal, and the accumulation of decelerated bismuth-209 ions by using a mass separator. The relative measurement uncertainties reached so far are in the first case 2 parts in 107, and in the latter several part in 104. The bismuth experiment is still in an early state of the work. The ratios between the masses of 28Si or 209Bi, respectively, and the present atomic mass standard, the mass of 12C, can be determined with an accuracy now approaching 10-10 using high precision Penning traps mass spectrometers.

  10. Number Concepts with "Number Worlds": Thickening Understandings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liljedahl, Peter; Sinclair, Nathalie; Zazkis, Rina

    2006-01-01

    This study focuses on the nature of preservice elementary school teachers' understandings of several concepts in elementary number theory that are evoked by a computer-based microworld called "Number Worlds". In particular, the focus is on the concepts of factor, multiple and prime number. The notion of "thickness" is examined with respect to…

  11. Number Concepts with "Number Worlds": Thickening Understandings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liljedahl, Peter; Sinclair, Nathalie; Zazkis, Rina

    2006-01-01

    This study focuses on the nature of preservice elementary school teachers' understandings of several concepts in elementary number theory that are evoked by a computer-based microworld called "Number Worlds". In particular, the focus is on the concepts of factor, multiple and prime number. The notion of "thickness" is examined with respect to…

  12. Lepton family number violation

    SciTech Connect

    Herczeg, P.

    1999-03-01

    At present there is evidence from neutrino oscillation searches that the neutrinos are in fact massive particles and that they mix. If confirmed, this would imply that the conservation of LFN is not exact. Lepton family number violation (LFNV) has been searched for with impressive sensitivities in many processes involving charged leptons. The present experimental limits on some of them (those which the author shall consider here) are shown in Table 1. These stringent limits are not inconsistent with the neutrino oscillation results since, given the experimental bounds on the masses of the known neutrinos and the neutrino mass squared differences required by the oscillation results, the effects of LFNV from neutrino mixing would be too small to be seen elsewhere (see Section 2). The purpose of experiments searching for LFNV involving the charged leptons is to probe the existence of other sources of LFNV. Such sources are present in many extensions of the SM. In this lecture the author shall discuss some of the possibilities, focusing on processes that require muon beams. Other LFNV processes, such as the decays of the kaons and of the {tau}, provide complementary information. In the next Section he shall consider some sources of LFNV that do not require an extension of the gauge group of the SM (the added leptons or Higgs bosons may of course originate from models with extended gauge groups). In Section 3 he discusses LFNV in left-right symmetric models. In Section 4 he considers LFNV in supersymmetric models, first in R-parity conserving supersymmetric grand unified models, and then in the minimal supersymmetric standard model with R-parity violation. The last section is a brief summary of the author`s conclusions.

  13. Numbers Defy the Law of Large Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falk, Ruma; Lann, Avital Lavie

    2015-01-01

    As the number of independent tosses of a fair coin grows, the rates of heads and tails tend to equality. This is misinterpreted by many students as being true also for the absolute numbers of the two outcomes, which, conversely, depart unboundedly from each other in the process. Eradicating that misconception, as by coin-tossing experiments,…

  14. Building Numbers from Primes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkhart, Jerry

    2009-01-01

    Prime numbers are often described as the "building blocks" of natural numbers. This article shows how the author and his students took this idea literally by using prime factorizations to build numbers with blocks. In this activity, students explore many concepts of number theory, including the relationship between greatest common factors and…

  15. Building Numbers from Primes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkhart, Jerry

    2009-01-01

    Prime numbers are often described as the "building blocks" of natural numbers. This article shows how the author and his students took this idea literally by using prime factorizations to build numbers with blocks. In this activity, students explore many concepts of number theory, including the relationship between greatest common factors and…

  16. Sum-Difference Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shi, Yixun

    2010-01-01

    Starting with an interesting number game sometimes used by school teachers to demonstrate the factorization of integers, "sum-difference numbers" are defined. A positive integer n is a "sum-difference number" if there exist positive integers "x, y, w, z" such that n = xy = wz and x ? y = w + z. This paper characterizes all sum-difference numbers…

  17. Are Numbers Gendered?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkie, James E. B.; Bodenhausen, Galen V.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the possibility that nonsocial, highly generic concepts are gendered. Specifically, we investigated the gender connotations of Arabic numerals. Across several experiments, we show that the number 1 and other odd numbers are associated with masculinity, whereas the number 2 and other even numbers are associated with femininity, in ways…

  18. Negative mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammond, Richard T.

    2015-03-01

    Some physical aspects of negative mass are examined. Several unusual properties, such as the ability of negative mass to penetrate any armor, are analysed. Other surprising effects include the bizarre system of negative mass chasing positive mass, naked singularities and the violation of cosmic censorship, wormholes, and quantum mechanical results as well. In addition, a brief look into the implications for strings is given.

  19. Number Sense Made Simple Using Number Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Su, Hui Fang Huang; Marinas, Carol; Furner, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    This article highlights investigating intriguing number patterns utilising an emerging technology called the Square Tool. Mathematics teachers of grades K-12 will find the Square Tool useful in making connections and bridging the gap from the concrete to the abstract. Pattern recognition helps students discover various mathematical concepts. With…

  20. Mass loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, Leo

    1987-01-01

    Observational evidence for mass loss from cool stars is reviewed. Spectra line profiles are used for the derivation of mass-loss rates with the aid of the equation of continuity. This equation implies steady mass loss with spherical symmetry. Data from binary stars, Mira variables, and red giants in globular clusters are examined. Silicate emission is discussed as a useful indicator of mass loss in the middle infrared spectra. The use of thermal millimeter-wave radiation, Very Large Array (VLA) measurement of radio emission, and OH/IR masers are discussed as a tool for mass loss measurement. Evidence for nonsteady mass loss is also reviewed.

  1. Making decisions from numbers

    SciTech Connect

    Somers, E.

    1987-03-01

    Regulatory agencies require numbers to provide health protection. The manner in which these numbers are derived from animal experiments and human epidemiology is considered together with the limitations and inadequacies of these numbers. Some recent examples of risk assessment in Canada are given including asbestos, drinking water, and indoor air quality. The value of these numbers in providing a measure of the hazard in a wider perspective is stressed, although they can never be the sole determinant of public policy.

  2. The Remarkable Number "1"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, G. Donald

    2014-01-01

    In human history, the origin of the numbers came from definite practical needs. Indeed, there is strong evidence that numbers were created before writing. The number "1", dating back at least 20,000 years, was found as a counting symbol on a bone. The famous statement by the German mathematician Leopold Kronecker (1823-1891), "God…

  3. Estimating Large Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landy, David; Silbert, Noah; Goldin, Aleah

    2013-01-01

    Despite their importance in public discourse, numbers in the range of 1 million to 1 trillion are notoriously difficult to understand. We examine magnitude estimation by adult Americans when placing large numbers on a number line and when qualitatively evaluating descriptions of imaginary geopolitical scenarios. Prior theoretical conceptions…

  4. Sum-Difference Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shi, Yixun

    2010-01-01

    Starting with an interesting number game sometimes used by school teachers to demonstrate the factorization of integers, "sum-difference numbers" are defined. A positive integer n is a "sum-difference number" if there exist positive integers "x, y, w, z" such that n = xy = wz and x ? y = w + z. This paper characterizes all sum-difference numbers…

  5. Discovery: Prime Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Mestre, Neville

    2008-01-01

    Prime numbers are important as the building blocks for the set of all natural numbers, because prime factorisation is an important and useful property of all natural numbers. Students can discover them by using the method known as the Sieve of Eratosthenes, named after the Greek geographer and astronomer who lived from c. 276-194 BC. Eratosthenes…

  6. The Remarkable Number "1"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, G. Donald

    2014-01-01

    In human history, the origin of the numbers came from definite practical needs. Indeed, there is strong evidence that numbers were created before writing. The number "1", dating back at least 20,000 years, was found as a counting symbol on a bone. The famous statement by the German mathematician Leopold Kronecker (1823-1891), "God…

  7. Number Relationships in Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Myoungwhon

    2011-01-01

    When a child understands number relationships, he or she comprehends the meaning of numbers by developing multiple, flexible ways of representing them. The importance of developing number relationships in the early years has been highlighted because it helps children build a good foundation for developing a more sophisticated understanding of…

  8. Abdominal mass

    MedlinePLUS

    Several conditions can cause an abdominal mass: Abdominal aortic aneurysm can cause a pulsating mass around the navel. ... This could be a sign of a ruptured aortic aneurysm, which is an emergency condition. Contact your health ...

  9. Estimating large numbers.

    PubMed

    Landy, David; Silbert, Noah; Goldin, Aleah

    2013-07-01

    Despite their importance in public discourse, numbers in the range of 1 million to 1 trillion are notoriously difficult to understand. We examine magnitude estimation by adult Americans when placing large numbers on a number line and when qualitatively evaluating descriptions of imaginary geopolitical scenarios. Prior theoretical conceptions predict a log-to-linear shift: People will either place numbers linearly or will place numbers according to a compressive logarithmic or power-shaped function (Barth & Paladino, ; Siegler & Opfer, ). While about half of people did estimate numbers linearly over this range, nearly all the remaining participants placed 1 million approximately halfway between 1 thousand and 1 billion, but placed numbers linearly across each half, as though they believed that the number words "thousand, million, billion, trillion" constitute a uniformly spaced count list. Participants in this group also tended to be optimistic in evaluations of largely ineffective political strategies, relative to linear number-line placers. The results indicate that the surface structure of number words can heavily influence processes for dealing with numbers in this range, and it can amplify the possibility that analogous surface regularities are partially responsible for parallel phenomena in children. In addition, these results have direct implications for lawmakers and scientists hoping to communicate effectively with the public. PMID:23819823

  10. Mass spectrometry.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burlingame, A. L.; Johanson, G. A.

    1972-01-01

    Review of the current state of mass spectrometry, indicating its unique importance for advanced scientific research. Mass spectrometry applications in computer techniques, gas chromatography, ion cyclotron resonance, molecular fragmentation and ionization, and isotope labeling are covered. Details are given on mass spectrometry applications in bio-organic chemistry and biomedical research. As the subjects of these applications are indicated alkaloids, carbohydrates, lipids, terpenes, quinones, nucleic acid components, peptides, antibiotics, and human and animal metabolisms. Particular attention is given to the mass spectra of organo-inorganic compounds, inorganic mass spectrometry, surface phenomena such as secondary ion and electron emission, and elemental and isotope analysis. Further topics include mass spectrometry in organic geochemistry, applications in geochronology and cosmochemistry, and organic mass spectrometry.

  11. Curvature and Tachibana numbers

    SciTech Connect

    Stepanov, Sergey E

    2011-07-31

    The aim of this paper is to define the rth Tachibana number t{sub r} of an n-dimensional compact oriented Riemannian manifold as the dimension of the space of conformally Killing r-forms, for r=1,2,...,n-1. We also describe properties of these numbers, by analogy with properties of the Betti numbers b{sub r} of a compact oriented Riemannian manifold. Bibliography: 25 titles.

  12. High Reynolds Number Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baals, D. D. (Editor)

    1977-01-01

    Fundamental aerodynamic questions for which high Reynolds number experimental capability is required are discussed. The operational characteristics and design features of the National Transonic Facility are reviewed.

  13. Negative Numbers and Antimatter Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsan, Ung Chan

    Dirac's equation states that an electron implies the existence of an antielectron with the same mass (more generally same arithmetic properties) and opposite charge (more generally opposite algebraic properties). Subsequent observation of antielectron validated this concept. This statement can be extended to all matter particles; observation of antiproton, antineutron, antideuton … is in complete agreement with this view. Recently antihypertriton was observed and 38 atoms of antihydrogen were trapped. This opens the path for use in precise testing of nature's fundamental symmetries. The symmetric properties of a matter particle and its mirror antimatter particle seem to be well established. Interactions operate on matter particles and antimatter particles as well. Conservation of matter parallels addition operating on positive and negative numbers. Without antimatter particles, interactions of the Standard Model (electromagnetism, strong interaction and weak interaction) cannot have the structure of group. Antimatter particles are characterized by negative baryonic number A or/and negative leptonic number L. Materialization and annihilation obey conservation of A and L (associated to all known interactions), explaining why from pure energy (A = 0, L = 0) one can only obtain a pair of matter particle antimatter particle — electron antielectron, proton and antiproton — via materialization where the mass of a pair of particle antiparticle gives back to pure energy with annihilation. These two mechanisms cannot change the difference in the number of matter particles and antimatter particles. Thus from pure energy only a perfectly symmetric (in number) universe could be generated as proposed by Dirac but observation showed that our universe is not symmetric, it is a matter universe which is nevertheless neutral. Fall of reflection symmetries shattered the prejudice that there is no way to define in an absolute way right and left or matter and antimatter. Experimental observation of CP violation aroused a great hope for explaining why our universe is not exactly matter antimatter symmetric. Sakharov stated that without the violation of baryonic number, it is not possible to obtain from pure energy a universe made of only matter. The fact that our universe is asymmetric (in number) but perfectly neutral, points toward the existence of a hypothetic interaction violating A and L but conserving all charges. This Matter Creation (MC) interaction creating either a pair of matter particles or antimatter particles (instead of a pair of particle antiparticle) would have a charge BAL = (A-L) and a neutral messenger Z*. Even if CP is conserved, MC would allow the creation of a number of matter particles not exactly equal to the number of antimatter particles. Our universe would then correspond to the remaining excess when all matter antimatter pairs have disappeared. Observation of matter nonconservation processes would be of great interest to falsify this speculation. In a plan with A and L as axes, pure energy is represented by the origin (A = 0, L = 0). A symmetric universe is also represented by (A = 0, L = 0) meaning that there are exactly the same number of baryons and antibaryons, and the same number of leptons and antileptons. Our present matter universe is instead represented by a point of the diagonal with A = L = present A value. This value is tiny relative to the number of gammas resulting from the annihilation of matter-antimatter particles.

  14. The elephant brain in numbers.

    PubMed

    Herculano-Houzel, Suzana; Avelino-de-Souza, Kamilla; Neves, Kleber; Porfírio, Jairo; Messeder, Débora; Mattos Feijó, Larissa; Maldonado, José; Manger, Paul R

    2014-01-01

    What explains the superior cognitive abilities of the human brain compared to other, larger brains? Here we investigate the possibility that the human brain has a larger number of neurons than even larger brains by determining the cellular composition of the brain of the African elephant. We find that the African elephant brain, which is about three times larger than the human brain, contains 257 billion (10(9)) neurons, three times more than the average human brain; however, 97.5% of the neurons in the elephant brain (251 billion) are found in the cerebellum. This makes the elephant an outlier in regard to the number of cerebellar neurons compared to other mammals, which might be related to sensorimotor specializations. In contrast, the elephant cerebral cortex, which has twice the mass of the human cerebral cortex, holds only 5.6 billion neurons, about one third of the number of neurons found in the human cerebral cortex. This finding supports the hypothesis that the larger absolute number of neurons in the human cerebral cortex (but not in the whole brain) is correlated with the superior cognitive abilities of humans compared to elephants and other large-brained mammals. PMID:24971054

  15. The elephant brain in numbers

    PubMed Central

    Herculano-Houzel, Suzana; Avelino-de-Souza, Kamilla; Neves, Kleber; Porfírio, Jairo; Messeder, Débora; Mattos Feijó, Larissa; Maldonado, José; Manger, Paul R.

    2014-01-01

    What explains the superior cognitive abilities of the human brain compared to other, larger brains? Here we investigate the possibility that the human brain has a larger number of neurons than even larger brains by determining the cellular composition of the brain of the African elephant. We find that the African elephant brain, which is about three times larger than the human brain, contains 257 billion (109) neurons, three times more than the average human brain; however, 97.5% of the neurons in the elephant brain (251 billion) are found in the cerebellum. This makes the elephant an outlier in regard to the number of cerebellar neurons compared to other mammals, which might be related to sensorimotor specializations. In contrast, the elephant cerebral cortex, which has twice the mass of the human cerebral cortex, holds only 5.6 billion neurons, about one third of the number of neurons found in the human cerebral cortex. This finding supports the hypothesis that the larger absolute number of neurons in the human cerebral cortex (but not in the whole brain) is correlated with the superior cognitive abilities of humans compared to elephants and other large-brained mammals. PMID:24971054

  16. Avogadro's Number Ferromagnetically

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houari, Ahmed

    2010-01-01

    Avogadro's number, usually denoted by N[subscript A], plays a fundamental role in both physics and chemistry. It defines the extremely useful concept of the mole, which is the base unit of the amount of matter in the international system of units. The fundamental character of this number can also be illustrated by its appearance in the definitions…

  17. Numbers Are Not Everything

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Milton W.

    2009-01-01

    Numbers--of publications, grant money, PhD students, and invited talks, for example--play too large a role in assessments of faculty. The author's thirty-five years of experience in higher education have convinced him that overreliance on such numbers is a big problem, especially, but not exclusively, in the sciences. Every scientist recognizes…

  18. Avogadro's Number Ferromagnetically

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houari, Ahmed

    2010-01-01

    Avogadro's number, usually denoted by N[subscript A], plays a fundamental role in both physics and chemistry. It defines the extremely useful concept of the mole, which is the base unit of the amount of matter in the international system of units. The fundamental character of this number can also be illustrated by its appearance in the definitions…

  19. The Fibonacci Numbers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onstad, Torgeir

    1991-01-01

    After a brief historical account of Leonardo Pisano Fibonacci, some basic results concerning the Fibonacci numbers are developed and proved, and entertaining examples are described. Connections are made between the Fibonacci numbers and the Golden Ratio, biological nature, and other combinatorics examples. (MDH)

  20. Templates, Numbers & Watercolors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemesha, David J.

    1990-01-01

    Describes how a second-grade class used large templates to draw and paint five-digit numbers. The lesson integrated artistic knowledge and vocabulary with their mathematics lesson in place value. Students learned how draftspeople use templates, and they studied number paintings by Charles Demuth and Jasper Johns. (KM)

  1. First Graders' Number Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Jonathan N.; Tabor, Pamela D.; Wright, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    As young children make sense of mathematics, they begin to see with new eyes. What once was uncertain may now be determined. Objects become countable; fingers become tools; and numbers become more than just names. Educators revel in such developments--which mark significant progress toward more sophisticated understanding of number--and work…

  2. Education by the Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leadership, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Education, it seems, is increasingly driven by the numbers. Whether it is measuring student performance or a school district's ability to balance the books, one will find data out there about it. So much data, in fact, that it is difficult to sort through all the numbers to get the needed information. This article describes California's Ed-Data…

  3. Logo and Negative Numbers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strawn, Candace A.

    1998-01-01

    Describes LOGO's turtle graphics capabilities based on a sixth-grade classroom's activities with negative numbers and Logo programming. A sidebar explains LOGO and offers suggestions to teachers for using LOGO effectively. (LRW)

  4. Core systems of number.

    PubMed

    Feigenson, Lisa; Dehaene, Stanislas; Spelke, Elizabeth

    2004-07-01

    What representations underlie the ability to think and reason about number? Whereas certain numerical concepts, such as the real numbers, are only ever represented by a subset of human adults, other numerical abilities are widespread and can be observed in adults, infants and other animal species. We review recent behavioral and neuropsychological evidence that these ontogenetically and phylogenetically shared abilities rest on two core systems for representing number. Performance signatures common across development and across species implicate one system for representing large, approximate numerical magnitudes, and a second system for the precise representation of small numbers of individual objects. These systems account for our basic numerical intuitions, and serve as the foundation for the more sophisticated numerical concepts that are uniquely human. PMID:15242690

  5. Discovering Avogadro's Number.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rieck, William A.

    1997-01-01

    Illustrates the use of an inductive approach that leads students to the discovery of Avogadro's number while integrating thinking, mathematical, and calculator skills in the process. An understanding of scientific notation and a calculator are required. (DDR)

  6. In numbers we trust?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Scientists go to great lengths to ensure that data are collected and analysed properly, so why, asks Eve Marder, do they apply different standards to data about the number of times research papers have been cited and viewed? PMID:24692454

  7. The Impact of Numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artemieva, N. A.

    2015-07-01

    Smart impact hydrocodes running on modern powerful computers produce billions and billions of numbers in the blink of an eye. To sort them out and to generate new knowledge we have to work in collaboration with geologists, geochemists, seismologists.

  8. Fibonacci's Forgotten Number

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Ezra; Brunson, Cornelius

    2008-01-01

    Fibonacci's forgotten number is the sexagesimal number 1;22,7,42,33,4,40, which he described in 1225 as an approximation to the real root of x[superscript 3] + 2x[superscript 2] + 10x - 20. In decimal notation, this is 1.36880810785...and it is correct to nine decimal digits. Fibonacci did not reveal his method. How did he do it? There is also a…

  9. Inertial Mass

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Kenneth P.

    2007-01-01

    The inertial balance is one device that can help students to quantify the quality of inertia--a body's resistance to a change in movement--in more generally understood terms of mass. In this hands-on activity, students use the inertial balance to develop a more quantitative idea of what mass means in an inertial sense. The activity also helps…

  10. Inertial Mass

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Kenneth P.

    2007-01-01

    The inertial balance is one device that can help students to quantify the quality of inertia--a body's resistance to a change in movement--in more generally understood terms of mass. In this hands-on activity, students use the inertial balance to develop a more quantitative idea of what mass means in an inertial sense. The activity also helps…

  11. [Projection of prisoner numbers].

    PubMed

    Metz, Rainer; Sohn, Werner

    2015-01-01

    The past and future development of occupancy rates in prisons is of crucial importance for the judicial administration of every country. Basic factors for planning the required penal facilities are seasonal fluctuations, minimum, maximum and average occupancy as well as the present situation and potential development of certain imprisonment categories. As the prisoner number of a country is determined by a complex set of interdependent conditions, it has turned out to be difficult to provide any theoretical explanations. The idea accepted in criminology for a long time that prisoner numbers are interdependent with criminal policy must be regarded as having failed. Statistical and time series analyses may help, however, to identify the factors having influenced the development of prisoner numbers in the past. The analyses presented here, first describe such influencing factors from a criminological perspective and then deal with their statistical identification and modelling. Using the development of prisoner numbers in Hesse as an example, it has been found that modelling methods in which the independent variables predict the dependent variable with a time lag are particularly helpful. A potential complication is, however, that for predicting the number of prisoners the different dynamics in German and foreign prisoners require the development of further models. PMID:26419083

  12. Report number codes

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, R.N.

    1985-05-01

    This publication lists all report number codes processed by the Office of Scientific and Technical Information. The report codes are substantially based on the American National Standards Institute, Standard Technical Report Number (STRN)-Format and Creation Z39.23-1983. The Standard Technical Report Number (STRN) provides one of the primary methods of identifying a specific technical report. The STRN consists of two parts: The report code and the sequential number. The report code identifies the issuing organization, a specific program, or a type of document. The sequential number, which is assigned in sequence by each report issuing entity, is not included in this publication. Part I of this compilation is alphabetized by report codes followed by issuing installations. Part II lists the issuing organization followed by the assigned report code(s). In both Parts I and II, the names of issuing organizations appear for the most part in the form used at the time the reports were issued. However, for some of the more prolific installations which have had name changes, all entries have been merged under the current name.

  13. Beyond the number domain.

    PubMed

    Cantlon, Jessica F; Platt, Michael L; Brannon, Elizabeth M

    2009-02-01

    In a world without numbers, we would be unable to build a skyscraper, hold a national election, plan a wedding or pay for a chicken at the market. The numerical symbols used in all these behaviors build on the approximate number system (ANS) which represents the number of discrete objects or events as a continuous mental magnitude. Here, we first discuss evidence that the ANS bears a set of behavioral and brain signatures that are universally displayed across animal species, human cultures and development. We then turn to the question of whether the ANS constitutes a specialized cognitive and neural domain - a question central to understanding how this system works, the nature of its evolutionary and developmental trajectory and its physical instantiation in the brain. PMID:19131268

  14. Number of cosmic string loops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco-Pillado, Jose J.; Olum, Ken D.; Shlaer, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Using recent simulation results, we provide the mass and speed spectrum of cosmic string loops. This is the quantity of primary interest for many phenomenological signatures of cosmic strings, and it can be accurately predicted using recently acquired detailed knowledge of the loop production function. We emphasize that gravitational smoothing of long strings plays a negligible role in determining the total number of existing loops. We derive a bound on the string tension imposed by recent constraints on the stochastic gravitational wave background from pulsar timing arrays, finding Gμ ≤2.8×10-9. We also provide a derivation of the Boltzmann equation for cosmic string loops in the language of differential forms.

  15. Ballistic Mass And Velocity Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chutjian, Ara; Smith, Steven J.; Hecht, Michael

    1996-01-01

    Proposed device for measuring distribution of masses and velocities of ions in plasma or ion beam of general type denoted variously as mass, velocity, and energy analyzers. Yields indications of charge-to-mass ratios and velocities; from these quantities, one computes masses and energies if one also either measures charges of ions by other means or else makes realistic assumption that each ion carries small number (usually 1) of fundamental units of electric charge. In comparison with older devices of this type, device smaller, and operates faster, yielding simultaneous indications of both charge-to-mass ratios and velocities.

  16. Relativistic theory of tidal Love numbers

    SciTech Connect

    Binnington, Taylor; Poisson, Eric

    2009-10-15

    In Newtonian gravitational theory, a tidal Love number relates the mass multipole moment created by tidal forces on a spherical body to the applied tidal field. The Love number is dimensionless, and it encodes information about the body's internal structure. We present a relativistic theory of Love numbers, which applies to compact bodies with strong internal gravities; the theory extends and completes a recent work by Flanagan and Hinderer, which revealed that the tidal Love number of a neutron star can be measured by Earth-based gravitational-wave detectors. We consider a spherical body deformed by an external tidal field, and provide precise and meaningful definitions for electric-type and magnetic-type Love numbers; and these are computed for polytropic equations of state. The theory applies to black holes as well, and we find that the relativistic Love numbers of a nonrotating black hole are all zero.

  17. Uniform random number generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farr, W. R.

    1971-01-01

    Methods are presented for the generation of random numbers with uniform and normal distributions. Subprogram listings of Fortran generators for the Univac 1108, SDS 930, and CDC 3200 digital computers are also included. The generators are of the mixed multiplicative type, and the mathematical method employed is that of Marsaglia and Bray.

  18. Assigning Driver's License Numbers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallian, Joseph A.

    1991-01-01

    Described are some ways in which individual states code driver's license numbers. The encoding of month, date of birth, year of birth, sex, and others involving elementary mathematics and the use of an elaborate system of hashing functions in describing the first, middle, and last names are discussed. (KR)

  19. Analogies for Avogadro's Number.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poskozim, Paul S.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Reviews analogies used to try to capture the concept of the magnitude of Avogadro's number, including analogies related to small/tiny objects, counting, people, water, and money. Also presents several new ones which are based on modern computers and printers. (JN)

  20. The Net by Numbers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMurdo, George

    1996-01-01

    The expansion of the commercial Internet has encouraged the interpretation of the Internet and its uses as a potential marketing medium. Examines statistical and demographic information about the Internet including number of Internet hosts and World Wide Web servers, and estimates of Internet users; and raises questions about definitions and…

  1. Preschoolers' Number Sense

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moomaw, Sally; Carr, Victoria; Boat, Mary; Barnett, David

    2010-01-01

    A child's demonstration of his conceptual understanding of number bodes well for his future success in school mathematics. As youngsters' thinking becomes more logical, they apply one-to-one correspondence relationships to quantification. Yet, reliable assessment of young children's mathematical ability is difficult because of social and emotional…

  2. Paint by Numbers Revived!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hahn, Nic

    2012-01-01

    Remember paint by numbers? This revived trend was a perfect solution to teaching geometric shapes to the author's first-grade students. Geometric shapes are identified and used in early elementary art classrooms, but this lesson gives students a deeper understanding of shape, encourages problem-solving, and makes a strong correlation between math…

  3. The Net by Numbers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMurdo, George

    1996-01-01

    The expansion of the commercial Internet has encouraged the interpretation of the Internet and its uses as a potential marketing medium. Examines statistical and demographic information about the Internet including number of Internet hosts and World Wide Web servers, and estimates of Internet users; and raises questions about definitions and…

  4. "Better than Their Numbers"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cech, Scott J.

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses College Summit, a nonprofit effort centered around the premise that there is a sizable number of students who are more capable of college academics than their test scores and grade point averages suggest. Its four-day summer sessions are focused not on ramping up students' academic performance but in mining students'…

  5. ALARA notes, Number 8

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, T.A.; Baum, J.W.; Beckman, M.C.

    1993-10-01

    This document contains information dealing with the lessons learned from the experience of nuclear plants. In this issue the authors tried to avoid the `tyranny` of numbers and concentrated on the main lessons learned. Topics include: filtration devices for air pollution abatement, crack repair and inspection, and remote handling equipment.

  6. Paint by Numbers Revived!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hahn, Nic

    2012-01-01

    Remember paint by numbers? This revived trend was a perfect solution to teaching geometric shapes to the author's first-grade students. Geometric shapes are identified and used in early elementary art classrooms, but this lesson gives students a deeper understanding of shape, encourages problem-solving, and makes a strong correlation between math…

  7. Mass Deacidification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Carolyn

    1979-01-01

    Reviews methods being developed for mass deacidification of books to prevent deterioration of paper. The use of diethyl zinc, liquified gas, and morpholine, and the advantages, disadvantages, and cost of each are considered. A 26-item bibliography is included. (JD)

  8. Shell corrections, magic numbers, and mean field

    SciTech Connect

    Denisov, V. Yu.

    2007-02-15

    It is shown that the positions of deep local minima of shell corrections associated with magic numbers in the region of superheavy nuclei depend on the parameters of the central and spin-orbit mean-field potentials. The accuracy of nuclear-mass predictions made within various models for superheavy nuclei is analyzed.

  9. The Remarkable Number "1"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, G. Donald

    2014-09-01

    In human history, the origin of the numbers came from definite practical needs. Indeed, there is strong evidence that numbers were created before writing. The number "1", dating back at least 20,000 years, was found as a counting symbol on a bone. The famous statement by the German mathematician Leopold Kronecker (1823-1891), "God made the integers; all else is the work of man," has spawned a lively modern philosophical discussion, and this discussion begins by trying to get a philosophical handle on "1." This approach remains under heavy discussion, and is more-or-less unresolved (Frege in Die Grundlagen der Arithmetik (English: The foundations of arithmetic). Polhman, 1884). In this note, we consider the many facets of "one" in it many guises and applications. Nonetheless, "one" has multiple meanings, from the very practical to the abstract, from mathematics to science to basically everything. We examine here a mere slice of mathematical history with a focus on the most basic and applicable concept therein. It troubles many, particularly students, even today.

  10. Leading by numbers.

    PubMed

    Kerfoot, Karlene

    2005-01-01

    We measure to determine where we stand financially or in our quality outcomes. As people see the connection of measures and the success of the company, everything makes more sense. Izzo (2005) writes that profits/net margins are important to an organization and are like oxygen to a person. If we have oxygen, we can focus on the important things in life; if we don't we are preoccupied with gasping for air. Organizations are the same way. With the oxygen of profits, organizations can focus on those things that matter most to the staff and the customer. But when the search for profits becomes obsessive because of greed for excess profits or impending financial doom, everybody loses. Izzo (2005) reminds us that organizations shouldn't exist for only profit, just as people don't exist for only oxygen. Oxygen is merely an enabler for us to do the work of living. Measurement and numbers are the oxygen needed to achieve excellence. As people in organizations use numbers as their servants rather than being slaves to numbers, everyone will succeed. If the use of measurement is seen as punitive, and not a system of serving people to attain that zest for business and a higher mission, we will not achieve the level of excellence our people, patients, and communities deserve. PMID:16033147

  11. Mass Notification for Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Tod

    2010-01-01

    Mass notification is a high priority in educational institutions. As the number of electronic communication devices has diversified, so has the complexity of designing an effective mass notification system. Picking the right system, with the right features, support services and price, can be daunting. This publication, updated quarterly due to…

  12. PIA update: Correlation analyses of mass spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, L. W.; Clark, B. C.

    1988-01-01

    The PIA instrument aboard the Giotto spacecraft (a time of flight spectrometer) has been presented elsewhere. The mass spectra used in this analysis were decoded and mass numbers assigned according to the presence of carbon and silver, using the global values for these elements in their spectral absence. The results presented here were obtained using a frequency of occurrence based on analysis which correlated how often mass numbers appear in the mass spectra and which mass numbers tend to occur together in the same spectra; no amplitude information is utilized. The data are presented as plots of mass vs coincident mass for different subsets of the PIA data set, with both axes having units of atomic mass. Frequency contours are plotted at approximately five percent contour intervals, relative to the maximum AMU occurrence in that plot. The plots presented are symmetrical about the matrix diagonal, i.e., every mass is coincident with itself in a given spectra.

  13. Number counts and dynamical vacuum cosmologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devi, N. Chandrachani; Borges, H. A.; Carneiro, S.; Alcaniz, J. S.

    2015-03-01

    We study non-linear structure formation in an interacting model of the dark sector of the Universe in which the dark energy density decays linearly with the Hubble parameter, ρΛ ∝ H, leading to a constant-rate creation of cold dark matter. We derive all relevant expressions to calculate the mass function and the cluster number density using the Sheth-Torman formalism and show that the effect of the interaction process is to increase the number of bound structures of large masses (M ≳ 1014 M⊙ h-1) when compared to the standard Λ cold dark matter model. Since these models are not reducible to each other, this number counts signature can in principle be tested in future surveys.

  14. MASS SPECTROMETRY

    DOEpatents

    Nier, A.O.C.

    1959-08-25

    A voltage switching apparatus is described for use with a mass spectrometer in the concentratron analysis of several components of a gas mixture. The system automatically varies the voltage on the accelerating electrode of the mass spectrometer through a program of voltages which corresponds to the particular gas components under analysis. Automatic operation may be discontinued at any time to permit the operator to manually select any desired predetermined accelerating voltage. Further, the system may be manually adjusted to vary the accelerating voltage over a wide range.

  15. HIGH-PRECISION DYNAMICAL MASSES OF VERY LOW MASS BINARIES

    SciTech Connect

    Konopacky, Q. M.; Ghez, A. M.; McLean, I. S.; Barman, T. S.; Rice, E. L.; Bailey, J. I.; White, R. J.; Duchene, G. E-mail: ghez@astro.ucla.ed E-mail: barman@lowell.ed E-mail: white@chara.gsu.ed

    2010-03-10

    We present the results of a three year monitoring program of a sample of very low mass (VLM) field binaries using both astrometric and spectroscopic data obtained in conjunction with the laser guide star adaptive optics system on the W. M. Keck II 10 m telescope. Among the 24 systems studied, 15 have undergone sufficient orbital motion, allowing us to derive their relative orbital parameters and hence their total system mass. These measurements more than double the number of mass measurements for VLM objects, and include the most precise mass measurement to date (<2%). Among the 11 systems with both astrometric and spectroscopic measurements, six have sufficient radial velocity variations to allow us to obtain individual component masses. This is the first derivation of the component masses for five of these systems. Altogether, the orbital solutions of these low mass systems show a correlation between eccentricity and orbital period, consistent with their higher mass counterparts. In our primary analysis, we find that there are systematic discrepancies between our dynamical mass measurements and the predictions of theoretical evolutionary models (TUCSON and LYON) with both models either underpredicting or overpredicting the most precisely determined dynamical masses. These discrepancies are a function of spectral type, with late-M through mid-L systems tending to have their masses underpredicted, while one T-type system has its mass overpredicted. These discrepancies imply that either the temperatures predicted by evolutionary and atmosphere models are inconsistent for an object of a given mass, or the mass-radius relationship or cooling timescales predicted by the evolutionary models are incorrect. If these spectral-type trends are correct and hold into the planetary mass regime, the implication is that the masses of directly imaged extrasolar planets are overpredicted by the evolutionary models.

  16. THE MASS DISTRIBUTION OF STELLAR-MASS BLACK HOLES

    SciTech Connect

    Farr, Will M.; Sravan, Niharika; Kalogera, Vicky; Cantrell, Andrew; Kreidberg, Laura; Bailyn, Charles D.; Mandel, Ilya E-mail: niharika.sravan@gmail.com E-mail: andrew.cantrell@yale.edu E-mail: charles.bailyn@yale.edu

    2011-11-10

    We perform a Bayesian analysis of the mass distribution of stellar-mass black holes using the observed masses of 15 low-mass X-ray binary systems undergoing Roche lobe overflow and 5 high-mass, wind-fed X-ray binary systems. Using Markov Chain Monte Carlo calculations, we model the mass distribution both parametrically-as a power law, exponential, Gaussian, combination of two Gaussians, or log-normal distribution-and non-parametrically-as histograms with varying numbers of bins. We provide confidence bounds on the shape of the mass distribution in the context of each model and compare the models with each other by calculating their relative Bayesian evidence as supported by the measurements, taking into account the number of degrees of freedom of each model. The mass distribution of the low-mass systems is best fit by a power law, while the distribution of the combined sample is best fit by the exponential model. This difference indicates that the low-mass subsample is not consistent with being drawn from the distribution of the combined population. We examine the existence of a 'gap' between the most massive neutron stars and the least massive black holes by considering the value, M{sub 1%}, of the 1% quantile from each black hole mass distribution as the lower bound of black hole masses. Our analysis generates posterior distributions for M{sub 1%}; the best model (the power law) fitted to the low-mass systems has a distribution of lower bounds with M{sub 1%}>4.3 M{sub sun} with 90% confidence, while the best model (the exponential) fitted to all 20 systems has M{sub 1%}>4.5 M{sub sun} with 90% confidence. We conclude that our sample of black hole masses provides strong evidence of a gap between the maximum neutron star mass and the lower bound on black hole masses. Our results on the low-mass sample are in qualitative agreement with those of Ozel et al., although our broad model selection analysis more reliably reveals the best-fit quantitative description of the underlying mass distribution. The results on the combined sample of low- and high-mass systems are in qualitative agreement with Fryer and Kalogera, although the presence of a mass gap remains theoretically unexplained.

  17. Rare Copy Number Variants

    PubMed Central

    Grozeva, Detelina; Kirov, George; Ivanov, Dobril; Jones, Ian R.; Jones, Lisa; Green, Elaine K.; St Clair, David M.; Young, Allan H.; Ferrier, Nicol; Farmer, Anne E.; McGuffin, Peter; Holmans, Peter A.; Owen, Michael J.; O’Donovan, Michael C.; Craddock, Nick

    2015-01-01

    Context Recent studies suggest that copy number variation in the human genome is extensive and may play an important role in susceptibility to disease, including neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and autism. The possible involvement of copy number variants (CNVs) in bipolar disorder has received little attention to date. Objectives To determine whether large (>100 000 base pairs) and rare (found in <1% of the population) CNVs are associated with susceptibility to bipolar disorder and to compare with findings in schizophrenia. Design A genome-wide survey of large, rare CNVs in a case-control sample using a high-density microarray. Setting The Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium. Participants There were 1697 cases of bipolar disorder and 2806 nonpsychiatric controls. All participants were white UK residents. Main Outcome Measures Overall load of CNVs and presence of rare CNVs. Results The burden of CNVs in bipolar disorder was not increased compared with controls and was significantly less than in schizophrenia cases. The CNVs previously implicated in the etiology of schizophrenia were not more common in cases with bipolar disorder. Conclusions Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder differ with respect to CNV burden in general and association with specific CNVs in particular. Our data are consistent with the possibility that possession of large, rare deletions may modify the phenotype in those at risk of psychosis: those possessing such events are more likely to be diagnosed as having schizophrenia, and those without them are more likely to be diagnosed as having bipolar disorder. PMID:20368508

  18. Instrumentation for mass spectrometry: 1997

    SciTech Connect

    McLuckey, S.A.

    1997-08-01

    All mass spectrometry experiments involve the manipulation of material, an interface with the mass spectrometer, ionization, ion manipulation/analysis, detection and data collection/reduction. Each of these elements involve instrumentation. The wide range of species now amenable to mass spectrometry and the diverse areas of physical science in which it plays a role have led to a seemingly unlimited array of instrumental combinations. However, only a limited number of mass analyzers, and their combinations, dominate. The dominant analyzers include time-of-flight, Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance, the Paul trap, the mass filter, and the sector mass spectrometer. Why there are so few (or so many, depending upon one`s point of view) can be understood upon consideration of a set of mass analyzer figures of merit. These include mass resolution, mass accuracy, mass range, dynamic range, abundance sensitivity, precision, efficiency, speed, MS{sup n} capability, compatibility with the ionizer, cost, and size. The most appropriate form of mass spectrometry is determined by the priorities of the particular measurement placed on the various mass analyzer characteristics and the relative strengths of the analyzers in meeting the requirements. Each of the analyzer types has a unique set of figures of merit that makes it optimally suited for particular applications. This paper discusses these figures of merit, provides data illustrating recent developments for each analyzer type, and gives the figures of merit of each type of analyzer as they stand in 1997. 101 refs., 24 figs.

  19. MASS SPECTROMETRY OF RNA

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Zhaojing; Limbach, Patrick A.

    2008-01-01

    Ribonucleic acids (RNAs) are continuing to attract increased attention as they are found to play pivotal roles in biological system. Just as genomics and proteomics have been enabled by the development of effective analytical techniques and instrumentation, the large-scale analysis of non-protein coding (nc)RNAs will benefit as new analytical methodologies are developed which are appropriate to RNA analysis. Mass spectrometry offers a number of advantageous for RNA analysis arising from its ability to provide mass and sequence information starting with limited amounts of sample. This Briefings will highlight recent developments in the field that enable the characterization of RNA modification status, RNA tertiary structures, and ncRNA expression levels. These developments will also be placed in perspective of how mass spectrometry of RNAs can help elucidate the link between the genome and proteome. PMID:16769684

  20. Modular redundant number systems

    SciTech Connect

    1998-05-31

    With the increased use of public key cryptography, faster modular multiplication has become an important cryptographic issue. Almost all public key cryptography, including most elliptic curve systems, use modular multiplication. Modular multiplication, particularly for the large public key modulii, is very slow. Increasing the speed of modular multiplication is almost synonymous with increasing the speed of public key cryptography. There are two parts to modular multiplication: multiplication and modular reduction. Though there are fast methods for multiplying and fast methods for doing modular reduction, they do not mix well. Most fast techniques require integers to be in a special form. These special forms are not related and converting from one form to another is more costly than using the standard techniques. To this date it has been better to use the fast modular reduction technique coupled with standard multiplication. Standard modular reduction is much more costly than standard multiplication. Fast modular reduction (Montgomery`s method) reduces the reduction cost to approximately that of a standard multiply. Of the fast multiplication techniques, the redundant number system technique (RNS) is one of the most popular. It is simple, converting a large convolution (multiply) into many smaller independent ones. Not only do redundant number systems increase speed, but the independent parts allow for parallelization. RNS form implies working modulo another constant. Depending on the relationship between these two constants; reduction OR division may be possible, but not both. This paper describes a new technique using ideas from both Montgomery`s method and RNS. It avoids the formula problem and allows fast reduction and multiplication. Since RNS form is used throughout, it also allows the entire process to be parallelized.

  1. Mass genotyping by sequencing technology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Large scale genotyping of a moderate number of loci is cost prohibitive with current chip-based technologies. We demonstrate the ability to use next generation sequencing technologies to genotype many DNA samples for a moderate number of loci – a mass genotyping by sequencing technology (MGST). Ou...

  2. 7 CFR 29.9205 - Identification number (farm serial number).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Identification number (farm serial number). 29.9205 Section 29.9205 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE... number (farm serial number). The serial number assigned to an individual farm by the appropriate...

  3. 7 CFR 29.9205 - Identification number (farm serial number).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Identification number (farm serial number). 29.9205 Section 29.9205 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE... number (farm serial number). The serial number assigned to an individual farm by the appropriate...

  4. 7 CFR 29.9205 - Identification number (farm serial number).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Identification number (farm serial number). 29.9205 Section 29.9205 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE... number (farm serial number). The serial number assigned to an individual farm by the appropriate...

  5. 7 CFR 29.9205 - Identification number (farm serial number).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Identification number (farm serial number). 29.9205 Section 29.9205 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE... number (farm serial number). The serial number assigned to an individual farm by the appropriate...

  6. 7 CFR 29.9205 - Identification number (farm serial number).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Identification number (farm serial number). 29.9205 Section 29.9205 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE... number (farm serial number). The serial number assigned to an individual farm by the appropriate...

  7. Mass Spectrometry for the Masses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Persinger, Jared D.; Hoops, Geoffrey, C.; Samide, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    A simple, qualitative experiment is developed for implementation, where the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) plays an important role, into the laboratory curriculum of a chemistry course designed for nonscience majors. This laboratory experiment is well suited for the students as it helps them to determine the validity of their…

  8. [The power of numbers].

    PubMed

    van Gijn, J

    2000-01-01

    The round figure for the current year has stirred people's minds in anticipation. Numbers have acquired great significance also in today's medical science. The Paris physician Pierre Charles Alexandre Louis (1787-1872) is considered the founding father of the numerical method in medicine. At first the principle of aggregating data from different individuals aroused much resistance and even disgust: Claude Bernard was a leading figure among those who warned that one will never find a mean in nature, and that grouping findings together obscures the true relationship between biological phenomena. True enough, statistical significance is not a characteristic of nature itself. Significant differences or risk reductions do not necessarily imply clinical relevance, and results obtained in a group of patients are rarely applicable to an individual patient in the consultation room. Likewise, the health of a human being cannot be captured in biochemical, radiological or other technical measures, nor in disease-specific scales that reduce well-being to one or two digits. The editors of this journal will remain keen on publishing numerical studies that contribute to evidence-based medicine, but at the same time they will continue to foster the art of reporting illness from the point of view of the sick person. PMID:10665294

  9. Rapid scanning mass spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Leckey, J.H.; Boeckmann, M.D.

    1996-11-25

    Mass spectrometers and residual gas analyzers (RGA) are used in a variety of applications for analysis of volatile and semi-volatile materials. Analysis is performed by detecting fragments of gas molecules, based on their mass to charge ratio, which are generated in the mass spectrometer. When used as a detector for a gas chromatograph, they function as a means to quantitatively identify isolated volatile species which have been separated from other species via the gas chromatograph. Vacuum Technology, Inc., (VTI) produces a magnetic sector mass spectrometer/RGA which is used in many industrial and laboratory environments. In order to increase the utility of this instrument, it is desirable to increase the mass scanning speed, thereby increasing the number of applications for which it is suited. This project performed the following three upgrades on the computer interface. (1) A new electrometer was designed and built to process the signal from the detector. This new electrometer is more sensitive, over 10 times faster, and over 100 times more stable than the electrometer it will replace. (2) The controller EPROM was reprogrammed with new firmware. This firmware acts as an operating system for the interface and is used to shuttle communications between the PC and the AEROVAC mass spectrometer. (3) The voltage regulator which causes the ion selector voltage to ramp to allow ions of selected mass to be sequentially detected was redesigned and prototyped. The redesigned voltage regulator can be ramped up or down more than 100 times faster than the existing regulator. These changes were incorporated into a prototype unit and preliminary performance testing conducted. Results indicated that scanning speed was significantly increased over the unmodified version.

  10. Mass Sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, B.E.

    2001-01-18

    The purpose of this CRADA was to use Honeywell's experience in low temperature cofire ceramics and traditional ceramics to assemble a relatively low-cost, mass-producible miniature mass analyzer. The specific design, given to us by Mass Sensors, LLC, was used to test for helium. The direct benefit for the participant was to have a prototype unit assembled for the purpose of proof of concept and the ability to secure venture capital investors. From that, the company would begin producing their own product for sale. The consumer/taxpayer benefits come from the wide variety of industries that can utilize this technology to improve quality of life. Medical industry can use this technology to improve diagnostic ability; manufacturing industry can use it for improved air, water, and soil monitoring to minimize pollution; and the law enforcement community can use this technology for identification of substances. These are just a few examples of the benefit of this technology. The benefits to DOE were in the area of process improvement for cofire and ceramic materials. From this project we demonstrated nonlinear thickfilm fine lines and spaces that were 5-mil wide with 5-mil spaces; determined height-to diameter-ratios for punched and filled via holes; demonstrated the ability to punch and fill 5-mil microvias; developed and demonstrated the capability to laser cut difficult geometries in 40-mil ceramic; developed and demonstrated coupling LTCC with standard alumina and achieving hermetic seals; developed and demonstrated three-dimensional electronic packaging concepts; and demonstrated printing variable resistors within 1% of the nominal value and within a tightly defined ratio. The capability of this device makes it invaluable for many industries. The device could be used to monitor air samples around manufacturing plants. It also could be used for monitoring automobile exhaust, for doing blood gas analysis, for sampling gases being emitted by volcanoes, for studying activities of insects, and many other things. The ultimate goal was to build two iterations of the mass sensor. However, due to technical difficulties, only one iteration of the device was manufactured. Initial work to optimize the ion source and build a small ion pump was not successful. Consequently, the ion pump was not incorporated into the analyzer design. Mass Sensors, LLC, is still testing the analyzers that were assembled.

  11. TRACING GALAXIES THROUGH COSMIC TIME WITH NUMBER DENSITY SELECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Leja, Joel; Van Dokkum, Pieter; Franx, Marijn

    2013-03-20

    A central challenge in observational studies of galaxy formation is how to associate progenitor galaxies with their descendants at lower redshifts. One promising approach is to link galaxies at fixed number density rather than fixed luminosity or mass. This method is effective if stellar mass rank order is broadly conserved through cosmic time. In this paper, we use the Guo et al. semi-analytical model to analyze under what circumstances this assumption is valid in the context of a cosmological simulation. Specifically, we select progenitor galaxies at a constant number density and compare the stellar mass evolution of their descendants to the evolution at a constant number density. The median stellar mass of the descendants increases by a factor of four (0.6 dex) from z = 3 to z = 0. Constant number density selection reproduces this to within 40% (0.15 dex) over a wide range of number densities. We show that the discrepancy primarily results from scatter in the stellar mass growth rates and merging. After applying simple, observationally based corrections for these processes, the discrepancy is reduced to 12% (0.05 dex). We conclude that number density selection can be used to predict the median descendant mass of high-redshift progenitor galaxies. The main uncertainty in this study is that semi-analytical models do not reproduce the observed mass evolution of galaxies, which makes the quantitative aggregate effects of star formation, merging, and quenching on the rank order of galaxies somewhat uncertain.

  12. Percents Are Not Natural Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Jennifer A.

    2013-01-01

    Adults are prone to treating percents, one representational format of rational numbers, as novel cases of natural number. This suggests that percent values are not differentiated from natural numbers; a conceptual shift from the natural numbers to the rational numbers has not yet occurred. This is most surprising, considering people are inundated…

  13. Percents Are Not Natural Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Jennifer A.

    2013-01-01

    Adults are prone to treating percents, one representational format of rational numbers, as novel cases of natural number. This suggests that percent values are not differentiated from natural numbers; a conceptual shift from the natural numbers to the rational numbers has not yet occurred. This is most surprising, considering people are inundated…

  14. Cosmological baryon and lepton number in the presence of electroweak fermion-number violation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, Jeffrey A.; Turner, Michael S.

    1990-01-01

    In the presence of rapid fermion-number violation due to nonperturbative electroweak effects certain relations between the baryon number of the Universe and the lepton numbers of the Universe are predicted. In some cases the electron-neutrino asymmetry is exactly specified in terms of the baryon asymmetry. Without introducing new particles, beyond the usual quarks and leptons, it is necessary that the Universe possess a nonzero value of B - L prior to the epoch of fermion-number violation if baryon and lepton asymmetries are to survive. Contrary to intuition, even though electroweak processes violate B + L, a nonzero value of B + L persists after the epoch of rapid fermion-number violation. If the standard model is extended to include lepton-number violation, for example through Majorana neutrino masses, then electroweak processes will reduce the baryon number to zero even in the presence of an initial B - L unless 20 M(sub L) approximately greater than the square root of (T(sub B - L) m(sub P1)) where M(sub L) sets the scale of lepton number violation and T(sub B - L) is the temperature at which a B - L asymmetry is produced. In many models this implies that neutrinos must be so light that they cannot contribute appreciably to the mass density of the Universe.

  15. Measurement of nonvolatile particle number size distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gkatzelis, G. I.; Papanastasiou, D. K.; Florou, K.; Kaltsonoudis, C.; Louvaris, E.; Pandis, S. N.

    2016-01-01

    An experimental methodology was developed to measure the nonvolatile particle number concentration using a thermodenuder (TD). The TD was coupled with a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer, measuring the chemical composition and mass size distribution of the submicrometer aerosol and a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) that provided the number size distribution of the aerosol in the range from 10 to 500 nm. The method was evaluated with a set of smog chamber experiments and achieved almost complete evaporation (> 98 %) of secondary organic as well as freshly nucleated particles, using a TD temperature of 400 °C and a centerline residence time of 15 s. This experimental approach was applied in a winter field campaign in Athens and provided a direct measurement of number concentration and size distribution for particles emitted from major pollution sources. During periods in which the contribution of biomass burning sources was dominant, more than 80 % of particle number concentration remained after passing through the thermodenuder, suggesting that nearly all biomass burning particles had a nonvolatile core. These remaining particles consisted mostly of black carbon (60 % mass contribution) and organic aerosol (OA; 40 %). Organics that had not evaporated through the TD were mostly biomass burning OA (BBOA) and oxygenated OA (OOA) as determined from AMS source apportionment analysis. For periods during which traffic contribution was dominant 50-60 % of the particles had a nonvolatile core while the rest evaporated at 400 °C. The remaining particle mass consisted mostly of black carbon with an 80 % contribution, while OA was responsible for another 15-20 %. Organics were mostly hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA) and OOA. These results suggest that even at 400 °C some fraction of the OA does not evaporate from particles emitted from common combustion processes, such as biomass burning and car engines, indicating that a fraction of this type of OA is of extremely low volatility.

  16. Series of Reciprocal Triangular Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruckman, Paul; Dence, Joseph B.; Dence, Thomas P.; Young, Justin

    2013-01-01

    Reciprocal triangular numbers have appeared in series since the very first infinite series were summed. Here we attack a number of subseries of the reciprocal triangular numbers by methodically expressing them as integrals.

  17. Space Congress, 28th, Cocoa Beach, FL, Apr. 23-26, 1991, Proceedings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1991-11-01

    The present conference on aerospace developments and issues encompasses interstellar and space-exploration initiatives, commercial space development, science payloads, space shuttle derivatives, space education, and Space Station activities. Specific issues addressed include magnetic shielding for interplanetary spacecraft, a launch-site comparison between the earth, moon, and Mars, the Spacehab approach, commercial infrastructure participation in the Space Station Freedom (SSF), the science uses of tethered satellites in low planetary orbits, and enabling life-sciences research on the SSF. Also addressed are simulations of shuttle and derivative-vehicle processing, daily operations that support the Global Positioning System, the utilization of common pressured modules on the SSF, the development of ground- and space-based laser systems, the crisis in human capital, and the automated servicing of scientific payloads aboard orbiting laboratories.

  18. Space Congress, 28th, Cocoa Beach, FL, Apr. 23-26, 1991, Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The present conference on aerospace developments and issues encompasses interstellar and space-exploration initiatives, commercial space development, science payloads, space shuttle derivatives, space education, and Space Station activities. Specific issues addressed include magnetic shielding for interplanetary spacecraft, a launch-site comparison between the earth, moon, and Mars, the Spacehab approach, commercial infrastructure participation in the Space Station Freedom (SSF), the science uses of tethered satellites in low planetary orbits, and enabling life-sciences research on the SSF. Also addressed are simulations of shuttle and derivative-vehicle processing, daily operations that support the Global Positioning System, the utilization of common pressured modules on the SSF, the development of ground- and space-based laser systems, the crisis in human capital, and the automated servicing of scientific payloads aboard orbiting laboratories.

  19. 50 CFR 23.26 - When is a U.S. or foreign CITES document valid?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN ENDANGERED SPECIES OF WILD... subject to any action under Article VIII paragraph 7(a) that would not allow trade in CITES species. (3... XIII paragraph 3 that would not allow trade in the species. (6) Extension of validity The validity of...

  20. 50 CFR 23.26 - When is a U.S. or foreign CITES document valid?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN ENDANGERED SPECIES OF WILD... subject to any action under Article VIII paragraph 7(a) that would not allow trade in CITES species. (3... XIII paragraph 3 that would not allow trade in the species. (6) Extension of validity The validity of...

  1. 50 CFR 23.26 - When is a U.S. or foreign CITES document valid?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN ENDANGERED SPECIES OF WILD... subject to any action under Article VIII paragraph 7(a) that would not allow trade in CITES species. (3... XIII paragraph 3 that would not allow trade in the species. (6) Extension of validity The validity of...

  2. Number Games, Magnitude Representation, and Basic Number Skills in Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whyte, Jemma Catherine; Bull, Rebecca

    2008-01-01

    The effect of 3 intervention board games (linear number, linear color, and nonlinear number) on young children's (mean age = 3.8 years) counting abilities, number naming, magnitude comprehension, accuracy in number-to-position estimation tasks, and best-fit numerical magnitude representations was examined. Pre- and posttest performance was…

  3. Number Games, Magnitude Representation, and Basic Number Skills in Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whyte, Jemma Catherine; Bull, Rebecca

    2008-01-01

    The effect of 3 intervention board games (linear number, linear color, and nonlinear number) on young children's (mean age = 3.8 years) counting abilities, number naming, magnitude comprehension, accuracy in number-to-position estimation tasks, and best-fit numerical magnitude representations was examined. Pre- and posttest performance was…

  4. Mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Burlingame, A.L.; Maltby, D.; Russell, D.H.; Holland, P.T.

    1988-06-15

    This review series has served as a timely means to provide critical discussion of the advances and directions, strengths and weaknesses, and the state of maturity and promise of both new and established strategies and methods in a unifying single source. Widely disparate discoveries, inventions, and purposeful developments are required to enable mass spectrometric based strategies to take hold and make inroads into new types of issues at the molecular level of biological, medical, and chemical sciences. These are interdisciplinary endeavors. Of necessity, they have been selective both in the topics covered and in the contributions included but have endeavored to be sufficiently general so that both the new reader and the expert might readily find further literature and necessary detail. They have attempted to provide a thematic context for each topic. They note that this review series has a cumulative continuity about it, and the previous few Overview sections are still timely.

  5. Representing Numbers: Prime and Irrational

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zazkis, Rina

    2005-01-01

    This article draws an analogy between prime and irrational numbers with respect to how these numbers are defined and how they are perceived by learners. Excerpts are presented from two research studies: a study on understanding prime numbers by pre-service elementary school teachers and a study on understanding irrational numbers by pre-service…

  6. A Study of Hyperperfect Numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCranie, Judson S.

    2000-01-01

    A number n is k-hyperperfect for some integer k if n = 1 + k s(n), where s(n) is the sum of the proper divisors of n. The 1-hyperperfect numbers are the familiar perfect numbers. This paper presents some theorems, conjectures and tables concerning hyperperfect numbers. All hyperperfect numbers less than 1011 have been computed. Evidence is presented suggesting that a published conjecture is false.

  7. Decaying Warm Dark Matter and Neutrino Masses

    SciTech Connect

    Lattanzi, M.; Valle, J. W. F.

    2007-09-21

    Neutrino masses may arise from spontaneous breaking of ungauged lepton number. Because of quantum gravity effects the associated Goldstone boson--the majoron--will pick up a mass. We determine the lifetime and mass required by cosmic microwave background observations so that the massive majoron provides the observed dark matter of the Universe. The majoron decaying dark matter scenario fits nicely in models where neutrino masses arise via the seesaw mechanism, and may lead to other possible cosmological implications.

  8. Turbulent Skin Friction at High Mach Numbers and Reynolds Numbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matting, Fred W.; Chapman, Dean R.

    1958-01-01

    For a number of years now, experimenters have been making measurements of skin friction. Formerly, the main interest was at low Mach numbers; later, measurements were made at supersonic Mach numbers. However, almost all of these measurements were over a limited range of Reynolds numbers. On the other hand, these measurements fairly well determined the effects of Mach number and heat transfer on skin friction. The purpose of this paper is to give the results of skin-friction measurements in turbulent boundary layers at high Mach numbers and high Reynolds numbers where data have not previously existed. The equipment used was expressly designed to provide these conditions. As is well known, it is difficult to obtain high Mach numbers and high Reynolds numbers simultaneously with air in a wind tunnel. In order to avoid condensation, it is necessary to heat the air, with a resulting loss in density and Reynolds number. It is desirable, then, to use a gas that does not condense at high Mach numbers. This suggested helium, which was used as a working fluid in some of the tests. At high Mach numbers in a given wind tunnel, higher Reynolds numbers can be obtained with helium than with air, principally because no heating of the helium is required. The different ratios of specific heats also contribute to the increase. In using helium as a working fluid, it is, of course, necessary to determine the equivalence of air and helium in the turbulent boundary layer.

  9. Mass loss from cool stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dupree, A. K.; Reimers, D.

    1987-01-01

    The properties of cool stellar winds are discussed, summarizing the results of observations obtained with the IUE satellite since its launch in 1978. The advantages of the UV spectral region for studying mass loss in cool stars are outlined; the evidence for mass outflow in objects spanning the cool half of the H-R diagram is reviewed; techniques and results of mass-loss-rate computations based on UV data are examined; detailed studies of single stars and binaries are described; the primary achievements of the IUE are listed; and a number of outstanding problems are briefly considered. Diagrams, graphs, sample spectra, and tables of numerical data are included. The mass-loss rates and wind velocities for Zeta Aur and VV Cep binaries are found to have ranges of about (6-1000) x 10 to the -9th solar mass/yr and 10-160 km/s, respectively.

  10. Preparation for mass casualty incidents.

    PubMed

    VandenBerg, Sheri L; Davidson, Scott B

    2015-06-01

    Mass casualty incidents are events where the number of injured patients exceeds the resources of the health care institution to the degree that care may not be available or may be limited for a portion of the casualties. Mass casualty incidents are increasing in frequency throughout the United States. Managing mass casualty incidents has not traditionally been part of the nursing curriculum; however, our changing world requires us to become educated and prepared to respond to these scenarios. This article focuses on intentional explosive disasters and the nursing and institutional response to these incidents. This information is of value to nursing professionals and other health care providers. PMID:25981720

  11. 15. Stress Sheet, Truss number 2, span number 6, Superior ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Stress Sheet, Truss number 2, span number 6, Superior Avenue viaduct. Drawing courtesy Engineering Dept., City of Cleveland. - Superior Avenue Viaduct, Cleveland East & West side, Cuyahoga Valley Vicinity, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  12. Natural Number Bias in Operations with Missing Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christou, Konstantinos P.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the hypothesis that there is a natural number bias that influences how students understand the effects of arithmetical operations involving both Arabic numerals and numbers that are represented by symbols for missing numbers. It also investigates whether this bias correlates with other aspects of students' understanding of…

  13. Feeling Number: Grounding Number Sense in a Sense of Quantity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, David; Davis, Brent

    2010-01-01

    Drawing on results from psychology and from cultural and linguistic studies, we argue for an increased focus on developing quantity sense in school mathematics. We explore the notion of "feeling number", a phrase that we offer in a twofold sense--resisting tendencies to feel numb-er (more numb) by developing a feeling for numbers and the…

  14. Natural Number Bias in Operations with Missing Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christou, Konstantinos P.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the hypothesis that there is a natural number bias that influences how students understand the effects of arithmetical operations involving both Arabic numerals and numbers that are represented by symbols for missing numbers. It also investigates whether this bias correlates with other aspects of students' understanding of…

  15. The neutron star mass distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Kiziltan, Bülent; Kottas, Athanasios; De Yoreo, Maria; Thorsett, Stephen E.

    2013-11-20

    In recent years, the number of pulsars with secure mass measurements has increased to a level that allows us to probe the underlying neutron star (NS) mass distribution in detail. We critically review the radio pulsar mass measurements. For the first time, we are able to analyze a sizable population of NSs with a flexible modeling approach that can effectively accommodate a skewed underlying distribution and asymmetric measurement errors. We find that NSs that have evolved through different evolutionary paths reflect distinctive signatures through dissimilar distribution peak and mass cutoff values. NSs in double NS and NS-white dwarf (WD) systems show consistent respective peaks at 1.33 M {sub ?} and 1.55 M {sub ?}, suggesting significant mass accretion (?m ? 0.22 M {sub ?}) has occurred during the spin-up phase. The width of the mass distribution implied by double NS systems is indicative of a tight initial mass function while the inferred mass range is significantly wider for NSs that have gone through recycling. We find a mass cutoff at ?2.1 M {sub ?} for NSs with WD companions, which establishes a firm lower bound for the maximum NS mass. This rules out the majority of strange quark and soft equation of state models as viable configurations for NS matter. The lack of truncation close to the maximum mass cutoff along with the skewed nature of the inferred mass distribution both enforce the suggestion that the 2.1 M {sub ?} limit is set by evolutionary constraints rather than nuclear physics or general relativity, and the existence of rare supermassive NSs is possible.

  16. Critical number of flavors in QED

    SciTech Connect

    Bashir, A.; Gutierrez-Guerrero, L. X.; Calcaneo-Roldan, C.; Tejeda-Yeomans, M. E.

    2011-02-01

    We demonstrate that in unquenched quantum electrodynamics (QED), chiral symmetry breaking ceases to exist above a critical number of fermion flavors N{sub f}. This is a necessary and sufficient consequence of the fact that there exists a critical value of electromagnetic coupling {alpha} beyond which dynamical mass generation gets triggered. We employ a multiplicatively renormalizable photon propagator involving leading logarithms to all orders in {alpha} to illustrate this. We study the flavor and coupling dependence of the dynamically generated mass analytically as well as numerically. We also derive the scaling laws for the dynamical mass as a function of {alpha} and N{sub f}. Up to a multiplicative constant, these scaling laws are related through ({alpha},{alpha}{sub c}){r_reversible}(1/N{sub f},1/N{sub f}{sup c}). Calculation of the mass anomalous dimension {gamma}{sub m} shows that it is always greater than its value in the quenched case. We also evaluate the {beta} function. The criticality plane is drawn in the ({alpha},N{sub f}) phase space which clearly depicts how larger N{sub f} is required to restore chiral symmetry for an increasing interaction strength.

  17. Critical number of flavors in QED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bashir, A.; Calcaneo-Roldan, C.; Gutiérrez-Guerrero, L. X.; Tejeda-Yeomans, M. E.

    2011-02-01

    We demonstrate that in unquenched quantum electrodynamics (QED), chiral symmetry breaking ceases to exist above a critical number of fermion flavors Nf. This is a necessary and sufficient consequence of the fact that there exists a critical value of electromagnetic coupling ? beyond which dynamical mass generation gets triggered. We employ a multiplicatively renormalizable photon propagator involving leading logarithms to all orders in ? to illustrate this. We study the flavor and coupling dependence of the dynamically generated mass analytically as well as numerically. We also derive the scaling laws for the dynamical mass as a function of ? and Nf. Up to a multiplicative constant, these scaling laws are related through (?,?c)?(1/Nf,1/Nfc). Calculation of the mass anomalous dimension ?m shows that it is always greater than its value in the quenched case. We also evaluate the ? function. The criticality plane is drawn in the (?,Nf) phase space which clearly depicts how larger Nf is required to restore chiral symmetry for an increasing interaction strength.

  18. WMAPping out neutrino masses

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, Aaron; Murayama, Hitoshi

    2003-10-28

    Recent data from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) place important bounds on the neutrino sector. The precise determination of the baryon number in the universe puts a strong constraint on the number of relativistic species during Big-Bang Nucleosynthesis. WMAP data, when combined with the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey (2dFGRS), also directly constrain the absolute mass scale of neutrinos. These results impinge upon a neutrino oscillation interpretation of the result from the Liquid Scintillator Neutrino Detector (LSND).We also note that the Heidelberg-Moscow evidence for neutrinoless double beta decay is only consistent with the WMAP+2dFGRS data for the largest values of the nuclear matrix element.

  19. Relating Mason number to Bingham number in magnetorheological fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherman, Stephen G.; Becnel, Andrew C.; Wereley, Norman M.

    2015-04-01

    Magnetorheological (MR) fluids are described using two nondimensional numbers, the Bingham and Mason numbers. The Mason number is the ratio of particle magnetic forces to viscous forces and describes the behavior of MR fluids at the microscopic, particle level scale. At the macroscopic, continuum scale, Bingham number is the ratio of yield stress to viscous stress, and describes the bulk motion of the fluid. If these two nondimensional numbers can be related, then microscopic models can be directly compared to macroscopic results. We show that if microscopic and macroscopic forces are linearly related, then Bingham and Mason number are inversely related, or, alternatively, that the product of the Bingham number and the Mason number is a constant. This relationship is experimentally validated based on measurements of apparent viscosity on a high shear rate, ? ? ? 10 000s-1, Searle cell rheometer. This relationship between Mason number and Bingham number is then used to analyze a Mason number based result, and is also used to inform the MR fluid device design process.

  20. Number games, magnitude representation, and basic number skills in preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Whyte, Jemma Catherine; Bull, Rebecca

    2008-03-01

    The effect of 3 intervention board games (linear number, linear color, and nonlinear number) on young children's (mean age = 3.8 years) counting abilities, number naming, magnitude comprehension, accuracy in number-to-position estimation tasks, and best-fit numerical magnitude representations was examined. Pre- and posttest performance was compared following four 25-min intervention sessions. The linear number board game significantly improved children's performance in all posttest measures and facilitated a shift from a logarithmic to a linear representation of numerical magnitude, emphasizing the importance of spatial cues in estimation. Exposure to the number card games involving nonsymbolic magnitude judgments and association of symbolic and nonsymbolic quantities, but without any linear spatial cues, improved some aspects of children's basic number skills but not numerical estimation precision. PMID:18331146

  1. PLURIDICTA, Numbers 28-35.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Johannes, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    The eight titles in this document include the following: "Comprehension and Input Processing as Useful Terms in the Field of SLA" (number 28) (Teresa Cadierno); "On the Role of Instruction in SLA: Research Results and Theoretical Explanations" (number 29) (Teresa Cadierno); "Can Writing Be Taught" (number 30) (Stuart Greene); "Academic Listening"…

  2. Random Numbers and Quantum Computers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCartney, Mark; Glass, David

    2002-01-01

    The topic of random numbers is investigated in such a way as to illustrate links between mathematics, physics and computer science. First, the generation of random numbers by a classical computer using the linear congruential generator and logistic map is considered. It is noted that these procedures yield only pseudo-random numbers since…

  3. What Exactly Do Numbers Mean?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Yi Ting; Spelke, Elizabeth; Snedeker, Jesse

    2013-01-01

    Number words are generally used to refer to the exact cardinal value of a set, but cognitive scientists disagree about their meanings. Although most psychological analyses presuppose that numbers have exact semantics ("two" means exactly two), many linguistic accounts propose that numbers have lower-bounded semantics (at least two), and…

  4. Random Numbers and Quantum Computers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCartney, Mark; Glass, David

    2002-01-01

    The topic of random numbers is investigated in such a way as to illustrate links between mathematics, physics and computer science. First, the generation of random numbers by a classical computer using the linear congruential generator and logistic map is considered. It is noted that these procedures yield only pseudo-random numbers since…

  5. Numbers and Math. Beginnings Workshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Fred E.; Elkind, CavidEpstein, Ann S.; Copley, Juanita V.; Haugen, Ginny; Haugen, Kirsten

    2003-01-01

    Presents five articles addressing numbers and math instruction for young children: "Math Talk with Young Children: One Parent's Experience" (Fred E. Gross); "How Children Build Their Understanding of Numbers" (David Elkind); "Early Math: It's More than Numbers" (Ann S. Epstein); "Assessing Mathematical Learning: Observing and Listening to…

  6. The Algebra of Complex Numbers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LePage, Wilbur R.

    This programed text is an introduction to the algebra of complex numbers for engineering students, particularly because of its relevance to important problems of applications in electrical engineering. It is designed for a person who is well experienced with the algebra of real numbers and calculus, but who has no experience with complex number…

  7. Linear or Exponential Number Lines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stafford, Pat

    2011-01-01

    Having decided to spend some time looking at one's understanding of numbers, the author was inspired by "Alex's Adventures in Numberland," by Alex Bellos to look at one's innate appreciation of number. Bellos quotes research studies suggesting that an individual's natural appreciation of numbers is more likely to be exponential rather than linear,…

  8. What Exactly Do Numbers Mean?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Yi Ting; Spelke, Elizabeth; Snedeker, Jesse

    2013-01-01

    Number words are generally used to refer to the exact cardinal value of a set, but cognitive scientists disagree about their meanings. Although most psychological analyses presuppose that numbers have exact semantics ("two" means exactly two), many linguistic accounts propose that numbers have lower-bounded semantics (at least two), and…

  9. A Lesson in Number Pattern

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Rodney

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a guided investigation into the spacial relationships between the centres of the squares in a Fibonacci tiling. It is essentially a lesson in number pattern, but includes work with surds, coordinate geometry, and some elementary use of complex numbers. The investigation could be presented to students in a number of ways…

  10. Linear or Exponential Number Lines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stafford, Pat

    2011-01-01

    Having decided to spend some time looking at one's understanding of numbers, the author was inspired by "Alex's Adventures in Numberland," by Alex Bellos to look at one's innate appreciation of number. Bellos quotes research studies suggesting that an individual's natural appreciation of numbers is more likely to be exponential rather than linear,…

  11. Small numbers in supersymmetric theories of nature

    SciTech Connect

    Graesser, Michael L.

    1999-05-01

    The Standard Model of particle interactions is a successful theory for describing the interactions of quarks, leptons and gauge bosons at microscopic distance scales. Despite these successes, the theory contains many unsatisfactory features. The origin of particle masses is a central mystery that has eluded experimental elucidation. In the Standard Model the known particles obtain their mass from the condensate of the so-called Higgs particle. Quantum corrections to the Higgs mass require an unnatural fine tuning in the Higgs mass of one part in 10{sup {minus}32} to obtain the correct mass scale of electroweak physics. In addition, the origin of the vast hierarchy between the mass scales of the electroweak and quantum gravity physics is not explained in the current theory. Supersymmetric extensions to the Standard Model are not plagued by this fine tuning issue and may therefore be relevant in Nature. In the minimal supersymmetric Standard Model there is also a natural explanation for electroweak symmetry breaking. Supersymmetric Grand Unified Theories also correctly predict a parameter of the Standard Model. This provides non-trivial indirect evidence for these theories. The most general supersymmetric extension to the Standard Model however, is excluded by many physical processes, such as rare flavor changing processes, and the non-observation of the instability of the proton. These processes provide important information about the possible structure such a theory. In particular, certain parameters in this theory must be rather small. A physics explanation for why this is the case would be desirable. It is striking that the gauge couplings of the Standard Model unify if there is supersymmetry close to the weak scale. This suggests that at high energies Nature is described by a supersymmetric Grand Unified Theory. But the mass scale of unification must be introduced into the theory since it does not coincide with the probable mass scale of strong quantum gravity. The subject of this dissertation is both the phenomenology and model-building opportunities that may lie behind the small numbers that appear in supersymmetric extensions of the Standard Model.

  12. Approximate Number Sense, Symbolic Number Processing, or Number-Space Mappings: What Underlies Mathematics Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sasanguie, Delphine; Gobel, Silke M.; Moll, Kristina; Smets, Karolien; Reynvoet, Bert

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the performance of typically developing 6- to 8-year-old children on an approximate number discrimination task, a symbolic comparison task, and a symbolic and nonsymbolic number line estimation task was examined. For the first time, children's performances on these basic cognitive number processing tasks were explicitly contrasted…

  13. Nonequilibrium hadronization and constituent quark number scaling

    SciTech Connect

    Zschocke, Sven; Horvat, Szabolcs; Mishustin, Igor N.; Csernai, Laszlo P.

    2011-04-15

    The constituent quark number scaling of elliptic flow is studied in a nonequilibrium hadronization and freeze-out model with rapid dynamical transition from ideal, deconfined, and chirally symmetric quark-gluon plasma, to final noninteracting hadrons. In this transition a bag model of constituent quarks is considered, where the quarks gain constituent quark mass while the background bag field breaks up and vanishes. The constituent quarks then recombine into simplified hadron states, while chemical, thermal, and flow equilibrium break down one after the other. In this scenario the resulting temperatures and flow velocities of baryons and mesons are different. Using a simplified few source model of the elliptic flow, we are able to reproduce the constituent quark number scaling, with assumptions on the details of the nonequilibrium processes.

  14. THE MASS DISTRIBUTION OF SUBGIANT PLANET HOSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Lloyd, James P.

    2013-09-01

    High mass stars are hostile to Doppler measurements due to rotation and activity on the main-sequence, so RV searches for planets around massive stars have relied on evolved stars. A large number of planets have been found around evolved stars with M > 1.5 M{sub Sun }. To test the robustness of mass determinations, Lloyd compared mass distributions of planet hosting subgiants with distributions from integrating isochrones and concluded that it is unlikely the subgiant planet hosts are this massive, but rather that the mass inferences are systematically in error. The conclusions of Lloyd have been called in to question by Johnson et al., who show TRILEGAL-based mass distributions that disagree with the mass distributions in Lloyd, which they attribute to Malmquist bias. Johnson et al. argue that the very small spectroscopic observational uncertainties favor high masses, and there are a large number of high mass sub giants in RV surveys. However, in this Letter, it is shown that Malmquist bias does not impact the mass distributions, but the mass distribution is sensitive to Galaxy model. The relationship needed to reconcile the subgiant planet host masses with any model of the Galactic stellar population is implausible, and the conclusion of Lloyd that spectroscopic mass determinations of subgiants are likely to have been overestimated is robust.

  15. Irrational Numbers on the Number Line: Perfectly Placed.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffey, Margaret E.

    2001-01-01

    Describes a low-tech, hands-on activity to improve student understanding of irrational numbers. Each student creates a number line from adding machine tapes and uses a square and a precisely folded triangle as the only measuring device. (KHR)

  16. Nonliteral understanding of number words

    PubMed Central

    Kao, Justine T.; Wu, Jean Y.; Bergen, Leon; Goodman, Noah D.

    2014-01-01

    One of the most puzzling and important facts about communication is that people do not always mean what they say; speakers often use imprecise, exaggerated, or otherwise literally false descriptions to communicate experiences and attitudes. Here, we focus on the nonliteral interpretation of number words, in particular hyperbole (interpreting unlikely numbers as exaggerated and conveying affect) and pragmatic halo (interpreting round numbers imprecisely). We provide a computational model of number interpretation as social inference regarding the communicative goal, meaning, and affective subtext of an utterance. We show that our model predicts humans’ interpretation of number words with high accuracy. Our model is the first to our knowledge to incorporate principles of communication and empirically measured background knowledge to quantitatively predict hyperbolic and pragmatic halo effects in number interpretation. This modeling framework provides a unified approach to nonliteral language understanding more generally. PMID:25092304

  17. Chaotic Nonlinear Prime Number Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mateos, Luis A.

    2011-06-01

    Dynamical systems in nature, such as heartbeat patterns, DNA sequence pattern, prime number distribution, etc., exhibit nonlinear (chaotic) space-time fluctuations and exact quantification of the fluctuation pattern for predictability purposes has not yet been achieved [1]. In this paper a chaotic-nonlinear prime number function P(s) is developed, from which prime numbers are generated and decoded while composite numbers are encoded over time following the Euler product methodology, which works on sequences progressively culled from multiples of the preceding primes. By relating this P(s) to a virtually closed 2D number line manifold, it is possible to represent the evolving in time of nonlinear (chaotic) systems to a final value where the system becomes stable, becomes linear. This nonlinear prime number function is proposed as a chaotic model system able to describe chaotic systems.

  18. What exactly do numbers mean?

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yi Ting; Spelke, Elizabeth; Snedeker, Jesse

    2014-01-01

    Number words are generally used to refer to the exact cardinal value of a set, but cognitive scientists disagree about their meanings. Although most psychological analyses presuppose that numbers have exact semantics (two means EXACTLY TWO), many linguistic accounts propose that numbers have lower-bounded semantics (AT LEAST TWO), and that speakers restrict their reference through a pragmatic inference (scalar implicature). We address this debate through studies of children who are in the process of acquiring the meanings of numbers. Adults and 2- and 3-year-olds were tested in a novel paradigm that teases apart semantic and pragmatic aspects of interpretation (the covered box task). Our findings establish that when scalar implicatures are cancelled in the critical trials of this task, both adults and children consistently give exact interpretations for number words. These results, in concert with recent work on real-time processing, provide the first unambiguous evidence that number words have exact semantics. PMID:25285053

  19. What exactly do numbers mean?

    PubMed

    Huang, Yi Ting; Spelke, Elizabeth; Snedeker, Jesse

    2013-01-01

    Number words are generally used to refer to the exact cardinal value of a set, but cognitive scientists disagree about their meanings. Although most psychological analyses presuppose that numbers have exact semantics (two means EXACTLY TWO), many linguistic accounts propose that numbers have lower-bounded semantics (AT LEAST TWO), and that speakers restrict their reference through a pragmatic inference (scalar implicature). We address this debate through studies of children who are in the process of acquiring the meanings of numbers. Adults and 2- and 3-year-olds were tested in a novel paradigm that teases apart semantic and pragmatic aspects of interpretation (the covered box task). Our findings establish that when scalar implicatures are cancelled in the critical trials of this task, both adults and children consistently give exact interpretations for number words. These results, in concert with recent work on real-time processing, provide the first unambiguous evidence that number words have exact semantics. PMID:25285053

  20. Dynamic Virtual Credit Card Numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molloy, Ian; Li, Jiangtao; Li, Ninghui

    Theft of stored credit card information is an increasing threat to e-commerce. We propose a dynamic virtual credit card number scheme that reduces the damage caused by stolen credit card numbers. A user can use an existing credit card account to generate multiple virtual credit card numbers that are either usable for a single transaction or are tied with a particular merchant. We call the scheme dynamic because the virtual credit card numbers can be generated without online contact with the credit card issuers. These numbers can be processed without changing any of the infrastructure currently in place; the only changes will be at the end points, namely, the card users and the card issuers. We analyze the security requirements for dynamic virtual credit card numbers, discuss the design space, propose a scheme using HMAC, and prove its security under the assumption the underlying function is a PRF.

  1. Koide's Mass Formula for Neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brannen, Carl

    2006-05-01

    We derive Koide's mass formula as an eigenvector equation. We show that to within current experimental error, the square roots of the masses of the charged leptons follow the simple equation (m^-n)^0.5 = ?1(1 + ?2(?1+ 2n?/3)) where ?1 is the interesting number .22222204717(48) and ?1 is a constant. Next we generalize the Koide formula to the neutrinos by assuming that the square root of the mass of the smallest neutrino must be taken to be negative. Then masses of the simple form (m^0n)^0.5 = ?0(1 + ?2(?1+ ?/12 + 2n?/3)) where 3;?0= 3^12 ;?1, satisfy recent neutrino oscillation measurements close to the centers of the error bars. Finally, we discuss the preon model for the fermions that led to the above discovery.

  2. Familial Sinistrals Avoid Exact Numbers

    PubMed Central

    Sauerland, Uli; Gotzner, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    We report data from an internet questionnaire of sixty number trivia. Participants were asked for the number of cups in their house, the number of cities they know and 58 other quantities. We compare the answers of familial sinistrals – individuals who are left-handed themselves or have a left-handed close blood-relative – with those of pure familial dextrals – right-handed individuals who reported only having right-handed close blood-relatives. We show that familial sinistrals use rounder numbers than pure familial dextrals in the survey responses. Round numbers in the decimal system are those that are multiples of powers of 10 or of half or a quarter of a power of 10. Roundness is a gradient concept, e.g. 100 is rounder than 50 or 200. We show that very round number like 100 and 1000 are used with 25% greater likelihood by familial sinistrals than by pure familial dextrals, while pure familial dextrals are more likely to use less round numbers such as 25, 60, and 200. We then use Sigurd’s (1988, Language in Society) index of the roundness of a number and report that familial sinistrals’ responses are significantly rounder on average than those of pure familial dextrals. To explain the difference, we propose that the cognitive effort of using exact numbers is greater for the familial sinistral group because their language and number systems tend to be more distributed over both hemispheres of the brain. Our data support the view that exact and approximate quantities are processed by two separate cognitive systems. Specifically, our behavioral data corroborates the view that the evolutionarily older, approximate number system is present in both hemispheres of the brain, while the exact number system tends to be localized in only one hemisphere. PMID:23544052

  3. Familial sinistrals avoid exact numbers.

    PubMed

    Sauerland, Uli; Gotzner, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    We report data from an internet questionnaire of sixty number trivia. Participants were asked for the number of cups in their house, the number of cities they know and 58 other quantities. We compare the answers of familial sinistrals--individuals who are left-handed themselves or have a left-handed close blood-relative--with those of pure familial dextrals--right-handed individuals who reported only having right-handed close blood-relatives. We show that familial sinistrals use rounder numbers than pure familial dextrals in the survey responses. Round numbers in the decimal system are those that are multiples of powers of 10 or of half or a quarter of a power of 10. Roundness is a gradient concept, e.g. 100 is rounder than 50 or 200. We show that very round number like 100 and 1000 are used with 25% greater likelihood by familial sinistrals than by pure familial dextrals, while pure familial dextrals are more likely to use less round numbers such as 25, 60, and 200. We then use Sigurd's (1988, Language in Society) index of the roundness of a number and report that familial sinistrals' responses are significantly rounder on average than those of pure familial dextrals. To explain the difference, we propose that the cognitive effort of using exact numbers is greater for the familial sinistral group because their language and number systems tend to be more distributed over both hemispheres of the brain. Our data support the view that exact and approximate quantities are processed by two separate cognitive systems. Specifically, our behavioral data corroborates the view that the evolutionarily older, approximate number system is present in both hemispheres of the brain, while the exact number system tends to be localized in only one hemisphere. PMID:23544052

  4. Power Series of Fuzzy Numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadak, U?ur; Ba?ar, Feyzi

    2010-11-01

    Following Talo and Ba?ar [Determination of the duals of classical sets of sequences of fuzzy numbers and related matrix transformations, Comput. Math. Appl. 58(2009), 717-733], we essentially deal with the power series of fuzzy numbers with real or fuzzy coefficients. We consider the different cases of power series of fuzzy numbers to be convergent and give the theorem on the term by term differentiation of power series of fuzzy numbers. Finally, we present a result on the Taylor expansion of a fuzzy valued function.

  5. Compendium of Experimental Cetane Numbers

    SciTech Connect

    Yanowitz, J.; Ratcliff, M. A.; McCormick, R. L.; Taylor, J. D.; Murphy, M. J.

    2014-08-01

    This report is an updated version of the 2004 Compendium of Experimental Cetane Number Data and presents a compilation of measured cetane numbers for pure chemical compounds. It includes all available single compound cetane number data found in the scientific literature up until March 2014 as well as a number of unpublished values, most measured over the past decade at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. This Compendium contains cetane values for 389 pure compounds, including 189 hydrocarbons and 201 oxygenates. More than 250 individual measurements are new to this version of the Compendium. For many compounds, numerous measurements are included, often collected by different researchers using different methods. Cetane number is a relative ranking of a fuel's autoignition characteristics for use in compression ignition engines; it is based on the amount of time between fuel injection and ignition, also known as ignition delay. The cetane number is typically measured either in a single-cylinder engine or a constant volume combustion chamber. Values in the previous Compendium derived from octane numbers have been removed, and replaced with a brief analysis of the correlation between cetane numbers and octane numbers. The discussion on the accuracy and precision of the most commonly used methods for measuring cetane has been expanded and the data has been annotated extensively to provide additional information that will help the reader judge the relative reliability of individual results.

  6. On gauged Baryon and Lepton numbers

    SciTech Connect

    Rajpoot, S.

    1990-01-01

    The observation that Baryon number and Lepton number are conserved in nature provides strong motivation for associating gauge symmetries to these conserved numbers. This endeavor requires that the gauge group of electroweak interactions be extended from SU(2){sub L} X U(1){sub Y} to SU(2){sub L} X U(1){sub R} X U(1){sub Lepton} where U(1){sub R} couples only to the right-handed quarks and leptons. If it furthur postulated that right-handed currents exist on par with the left-handed ones, then the full electroweak symmetry is SU(2){sub L} X SU(2){sub R} X U(1){sub Baryon} X U(1){sub Lepton}. The SU(2){sub L} X SU(2){sub R} X U(1){sub Baryon} X U(1){sub Lepton} model is described in some detail. The triangle anomalies of the three families of quarks and leptons in the model are cancelled invoking leptoquark matter which is new fermionic matter that carries baryon as well as lepton numbers. In addition to the standard neutral boson (Z {degree}), the theory predicts two neutral gauge bosons with mass lower bounds of 120 GeV and 210 GeV which makes these particles prospective candidates for production at LEP, the TEVATRON and the SSC.

  7. Measuring Distance of Fuzzy Numbers by Trapezoidal Fuzzy Numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajjari, Tayebeh

    2010-11-01

    Fuzzy numbers and more generally linguistic values are approximate assessments, given by experts and accepted by decision-makers when obtaining value that is more accurate is impossible or unnecessary. Distance between two fuzzy numbers plays an important role in linguistic decision-making. It is reasonable to define a fuzzy distance between fuzzy objects. To achieve this aim, the researcher presents a new distance measure for fuzzy numbers by means of improved centroid distance method. The metric properties are also studied. The advantage is the calculation of the proposed method is far simple than previous approaches.

  8. Pseudo-Random Number Generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, L. W.; Rheinfurth, M. H.

    1984-01-01

    Package features comprehensive selection of probabilistic distributions. Monte Carlo simulations resorted to whenever systems studied not amenable to deterministic analyses or when direct experimentation not feasible. Random numbers having certain specified distribution characteristic integral part of simulations. Package consists of collector of "pseudorandom" number generators for use in Monte Carlo simulations.

  9. Spontaneous Number Representation in Mosquitofish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dadda, Marco; Piffer, Laura; Agrillo, Christian; Bisazza, Angelo

    2009-01-01

    While there is convincing evidence that preverbal human infants and non-human primates can spontaneously represent number, considerable debate surrounds the possibility that such capacity is also present in other animals. Fish show a remarkable ability to discriminate between different numbers of social companions. Previous work has demonstrated…

  10. Know Your Blood Sugar Numbers

    MedlinePLUS

    Know Your Blood Sugar Numbers If you have diabetes, keeping your blood sugar (glucose) numbers in your target range can help you feel ... Prevention There are two ways to measure blood sugar. 1 The A1C is a lab test that ...

  11. Spontaneous Number Representation in Mosquitofish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dadda, Marco; Piffer, Laura; Agrillo, Christian; Bisazza, Angelo

    2009-01-01

    While there is convincing evidence that preverbal human infants and non-human primates can spontaneously represent number, considerable debate surrounds the possibility that such capacity is also present in other animals. Fish show a remarkable ability to discriminate between different numbers of social companions. Previous work has demonstrated…

  12. Acceptance of Others (Number Form).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masters, James R.; Laverty, Grace E.

    As part of the instrumentation to assess the effectiveness of the Schools Without Failure (SWF) program in 10 elementary schools in the New Castle, Pa. School District, the Acceptance of Others (Number Form) was prepared to determine pupil's attitudes toward classmates. Given a list of all class members, pupils are asked to circle a number from 1…

  13. Toddlers' Spontaneous Attention to Number

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baroody, Arthur J.; Li, Xia; Lai, Meng-lung

    2008-01-01

    Hannula and Lehtinen (2001, 2005) defined spontaneous focusing on numerosity (SFON) as the tendency to notice the relatively abstract attribute of number despite the presence of other attributes. According to nativists, an innate concept of one to three directs young children's attention to these "intuitive numbers" in everyday situations--even…

  14. Number Talks Build Numerical Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parrish, Sherry D.

    2011-01-01

    "Classroom number talks," five- to fifteen-minute conversations around purposefully crafted computation problems, are a productive tool that can be incorporated into classroom instruction to combine the essential processes and habits of mind of doing math. During number talks, students are asked to communicate their thinking when presenting and…

  15. Number Talks Build Numerical Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parrish, Sherry D.

    2011-01-01

    "Classroom number talks," five- to fifteen-minute conversations around purposefully crafted computation problems, are a productive tool that can be incorporated into classroom instruction to combine the essential processes and habits of mind of doing math. During number talks, students are asked to communicate their thinking when presenting and…

  16. On Counting the Rational Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almada, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we show how to construct a function from the set N of natural numbers that explicitly counts the set Q[superscript +] of all positive rational numbers using a very intuitive approach. The function has the appeal of Cantor's function and it has the advantage that any high school student can understand the main idea at a glance…

  17. Investigating the Randomness of Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pendleton, Kenn L.

    2009-01-01

    The use of random numbers is pervasive in today's world. Random numbers have practical applications in such far-flung arenas as computer simulations, cryptography, gambling, the legal system, statistical sampling, and even the war on terrorism. Evaluating the randomness of extremely large samples is a complex, intricate process. However, the…

  18. Building Buildings with Triangular Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pagni, David L.

    2006-01-01

    Triangular numbers are used to unravel a new sequence of natural numbers here-to-fore not appearing on the Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences website. Insight is provided on the construction of the sequence using "buildings" as a viewable model of the sequence entries. A step-by-step analysis of the sequence pattern reveals a method for generating…

  19. Old and New Magic Numbers

    SciTech Connect

    Talmi, Igal

    2008-11-11

    The discovery of magic numbers led to the shell model. They indicated closure of major shells and are robust: proton magic numbers are rather independent of the occupation of neutron orbits and vice versa. Recently the magic property became less stringent and we hear a lot about the discovery of new magic numbers. These, however, indicate sub-shell closures and strongly depend on occupation numbers and hence, may be called quasi-magic numbers. Some of these have been known for many years and the mechanism for their appearance as well as disappearance, was well understood within the simple shell model. The situation will be illustrated by a few examples which demonstrate the simple features of the shell model. Will this simplicity emerge from the complex computations of nuclear many-body theory?.

  20. Number line compression and the illusory perception of random numbers.

    PubMed

    Viarouge, Arnaud; Hubbard, Edward M; Dehaene, Stanislas; Sackur, Jérôme

    2010-01-01

    Developmental studies indicate that children initially possess a compressed intuition of numerical distances, in which larger numbers are less discriminable than small ones. Education then "linearizes" this responding until by about age eight, children become able to map symbolic numerals onto a linear spatial scale. However, this illusion of compression of symbolic numerals may still exist in a dormant form in human adults and may be observed in appropriate experimental contexts. To investigate this issue, we asked adult participants to rate whether a random sequence of numbers contained too many small numbers or too many large ones. Participants exhibited a large bias, judging as random a geometric series that actually oversampled small numbers, consistent with a compression of large numbers. This illusion resisted training on a number-space mapping task, even though performance was linear on this task. While the illusion was moderately reduced by explicit exposure to linear sequences, responding was still significantly compressed. Thus, the illusion of compression is robust in this task, but linear and compressed responding can be exhibited in the same participants depending on the experimental context. PMID:20382625

  1. Lepton number violation in theories with a large number of standard model copies

    SciTech Connect

    Kovalenko, Sergey; Schmidt, Ivan; Paes, Heinrich

    2011-03-01

    We examine lepton number violation (LNV) in theories with a saturated black hole bound on a large number of species. Such theories have been advocated recently as a possible solution to the hierarchy problem and an explanation of the smallness of neutrino masses. On the other hand, the violation of the lepton number can be a potential phenomenological problem of this N-copy extension of the standard model as due to the low quantum gravity scale black holes may induce TeV scale LNV operators generating unacceptably large rates of LNV processes. We show, however, that this issue can be avoided by introducing a spontaneously broken U{sub 1(B-L)}. Then, due to the existence of a specific compensation mechanism between contributions of different Majorana neutrino states, LNV processes in the standard model copy become extremely suppressed with rates far beyond experimental reach.

  2. Alienation, Mass Society and Mass Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dam, Hari N.

    This monograph examines the nature of alienation in mass society and mass culture. Conceptually based on the "Gemeinschaft-Gesellschaft" paradigm of sociologist Ferdinand Tonnies, discussion traces the concept of alienation as it appears in the philosophies of Hegel, Marx, Kierkegaard, Sartre, and others. Dwight Macdonald's "A Theory of Mass…

  3. Number without a language model

    PubMed Central

    Spaepen, Elizabet; Coppola, Marie; Spelke, Elizabeth S.; Carey, Susan E.; Goldin-Meadow, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Cross-cultural studies suggest that access to a conventional language containing words that can be used for counting is essential to develop representations of large exact numbers. However, cultures that lack a conventional counting system typically differ from cultures that have such systems, not only in language but also in many other ways. As a result, it is difficult to isolate the effects of language on the development of number representations. Here we examine the numerical abilities of individuals who lack conventional language for number (deaf individuals who do not have access to a usable model for language, spoken or signed) but who live in a numerate culture (Nicaragua) and thus have access to other aspects of culture that might foster the development of number. These deaf individuals develop their own gestures, called homesigns, to communicate. We show that homesigners use gestures to communicate about number. However, they do not consistently extend the correct number of fingers when communicating about sets greater than three, nor do they always correctly match the number of items in one set to a target set when that target set is greater than three. Thus, even when integrated into a numerate society, individuals who lack input from a conventional language do not spontaneously develop representations of large exact numerosities. PMID:21300893

  4. Fermion Mass Matrices, Textures and Beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Manmohan; Fakay, Priyanka; Sharma, Samandeep; Ahuja, Gulsheen

    The issue of texture specific fermion mass matrices have been examined briefly from the `bottom-up' perspective. In case no conditions are imposed, the texture ansätze leads to a large number of viable possibilities. However, besides textures, if in case one incorporates the ideas of `natural mass matrices' and uses the facility of Weak Basis Transformations, then one is able to arrive at a minimal finite set of viable mass matrices in the case of quarks.

  5. Reynolds number influences in aeronautics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bushnell, Dennis M.; Yip, Long P.; Yao, Chung-Sheng; Lin, John C.; Lawing, Pierce L.; Batina, John T.; Hardin, Jay C.; Horvath, Thomas J.; Fenbert, James W.; Domack, Christopher S.

    1993-01-01

    Reynolds number, a measure of the ratio of inertia to viscous forces, is a fundamental similarity parameter for fluid flows and therefore, would be expected to have a major influence in aerodynamics and aeronautics. Reynolds number influences are generally large, but monatomic, for attached laminar (continuum) flow; however, laminar flows are easily separated, inducing even stronger, non-monatomic, Reynolds number sensitivities. Probably the strongest Reynolds number influences occur in connection with transitional flow behavior. Transition can take place over a tremendous Reynolds number range, from the order of 20 x 10(exp 3) for 2-D free shear layers up to the order of 100 x 10(exp 6) for hypersonic boundary layers. This variability in transition behavior is especially important for complex configurations where various vehicle and flow field elements can undergo transition at various Reynolds numbers, causing often surprising changes in aerodynamics characteristics over wide ranges in Reynolds number. This is further compounded by the vast parameterization associated with transition, in that any parameter which influences mean viscous flow development (e.g., pressure gradient, flow curvature, wall temperature, Mach number, sweep, roughness, flow chemistry, shock interactions, etc.), and incident disturbance fields (acoustics, vorticity, particulates, temperature spottiness, even electro static discharges) can alter transition locations to first order. The usual method of dealing with the transition problem is to trip the flow in the generally lower Reynolds number wind tunnel to simulate the flight turbulent behavior. However, this is not wholly satisfactory as it results in incorrectly scaled viscous region thicknesses and cannot be utilized at all for applications such as turbine blades and helicopter rotors, nacelles, leading edge and nose regions, and High Altitude Long Endurance and hypersonic airbreathers where the transitional flow is an innately critical portion of the problem.

  6. Number fields without small generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaaler, Jeffrey D.; Widmer, Martin

    2015-11-01

    Let $D>1$ be an integer, and let $b=b(D)>1$ be its smallest divisor. We show that there are infinitely many number fields of degree $D$ whose primitive elements all have relatively large height in terms of $b$, $D$ and the discriminant of the number field. This provides a negative answer to a questions of W. Ruppert from 1998 in the case when $D$ is composite. Conditional on a very weak form of a folk conjecture about the distribution of number fields, we negatively answer Ruppert's question for all $D>3$.

  7. Numbered nasal discs for waterfowl

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartonek, J.C.; Dane, C.W.

    1964-01-01

    Numbered nasal discs were successfully used in studies requiring large numbers of individually marked waterfowl. The procedure for constructing these discs is outlined. Blue-winged teal (Anas discors) with 5/8-inch discs, and canvasback (Aythya valisineria) and redhead (A. americana) with 3/4-inch discs can be individually identified up to 50 and 80 yards, respectively, with a gunstock-mounted, 20-power spotting scope. The particular value of these markers is their durability, the number of combinations possible, and the apparent absence of behavioral or mortality influence among such species as the blue-winged teal.

  8. Liquid-fuel burning with nonunitary Lewis number

    SciTech Connect

    Sirignano, William A.

    2007-02-15

    An analysis is presented for liquid-fuel vaporization and burning with nonunitary Lewis number (i.e., nonsimilar heat and mass diffusion) in a general geometrical situation, e.g., a dense spray. Variable transport properties are considered and only Stefan flow is allowed. The analysis builds on the approach of Imaoka and Sirignano for unitary Lewis number. Fickian diffusion with differing diffusivities for each species is considered. It is shown that the problem can conveniently be separated, using a mass-flux potential function, into a one-dimensional problem for the quasi-steady, gas-phase scalar properties and a three-dimensional problem for the mass-flux potential, which satisfies Laplace's equation. This allows some previous calculations of the potential function for unitary Lewis number to be used for the potential-function solution. The scalar properties are shown to be functions of the mass-flux potential only. It is demonstrated that a mass-flux-weighted sensible specific enthalpy is more natural and convenient than the traditional mass-weighted value. This modification results in a new definition of the Lewis number. A generalization of the classical Spalding heat transfer number is presented. The theory predicts scalar gas-phase profiles, flame position, and vaporization rates. Quantitative results are presented for special cases where the Lewis number is piecewise constant. The thin-flame temperature and the effective latent heat of vaporization can be determined as functions of the liquid-surface temperature via solution of nonlinear algebraic equations; these values do not depend on the specific configuration and therefore have some universality. (author)

  9. Mass Media and the Fear of Crime.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heath, Linda; Gilbert, Kevin

    1996-01-01

    Provides an overview of the research on mass media effects on perceptions of crime danger, personal fear of crime, and reactions to crime risk. Discovers that mass media effects involve a number of variables and moderators. These include audience characteristics, degree and type of coverage, and location. (MJP)

  10. Oscillations of a String with Concentrated Masses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez, B. J.; Repetto, C. E.; Stia, C. R.; Welti, R.

    2007-01-01

    In this work, the oscillations of a homogeneous string fixed at both ends, and loaded with a finite number of masses, are studied. Through a simple device, the cases with one and two concentrated masses are analysed in detail. The normal modes are observed and the corresponding frequencies are recorded. The experimental results and the solutions…

  11. Lepton number asymmetry via inflaton decay in a modified radiative seesaw model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashiwase, Shoichi; Suematsu, Daijiro

    2015-10-01

    We propose a non-thermal scenario for the generation of baryon number asymmetry in a radiative neutrino mass model which is modified to realize inflation at the early Universe. In this scenario, inflaton plays a crucial role in both generation of neutrino masses and lepton number asymmetry. Lepton number asymmetry is firstly generated in the dark matter sector through direct decay of inflaton. It is transferred to the lepton sector via the dark matter annihilation and then converted to the baryon number asymmetry due to the sphaleron interaction. All of the neutrino masses, the baryon number asymmetry and the dark matter are intimately connected to each other through the inflaton.

  12. Mass of the H Dibaryon

    SciTech Connect

    Shanahan, P. E.; Thomas, A. W.; Young, R. D.

    2011-08-26

    Recent lattice QCD calculations have reported evidence for the existence of a bound state with strangeness -2 and baryon number 2 at quark masses somewhat higher than the physical values. By developing a description of the dependence of this binding energy on the up, down and strange quark masses that allows a controlled chiral extrapolation, we explore the hypothesis that this state is to be identified with the H dibaryon. Taking as input the recent results of the HAL and NPLQCD Collaborations, we show that the H dibaryon is likely to be unbound by 13{+-}14 MeV at the physical point.

  13. Mass of the H dibaryon.

    PubMed

    Shanahan, P E; Thomas, A W; Young, R D

    2011-08-26

    Recent lattice QCD calculations have reported evidence for the existence of a bound state with strangeness -2 and baryon number 2 at quark masses somewhat higher than the physical values. By developing a description of the dependence of this binding energy on the up, down and strange quark masses that allows a controlled chiral extrapolation, we explore the hypothesis that this state is to be identified with the H dibaryon. Taking as input the recent results of the HAL and NPLQCD Collaborations, we show that the H dibaryon is likely to be unbound by 13±14??MeV at the physical point. PMID:21929231

  14. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Ti-59 (Titanium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume A `Nuclei with Z = 1 - 54' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms'. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Ti-59 (Titanium, atomic number Z = 22, mass number A = 59).

  15. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for B-12 (Boron)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume A `Nuclei with Z = 1 - 54' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms'. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope B-12 (Boron, atomic number Z = 5, mass number A = 12).

  16. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for F-35 (Fluorine)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume A `Nuclei with Z = 1 - 54' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms'. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope F-35 (Fluorine, atomic number Z = 9, mass number A = 35).

  17. Avogadro's Number and Avogadro's Constant

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, R. O.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses three possible methods of thinking about the implications of the definitions of the Avogadro constant and number. Indicates that there is only one way to arrive at a simple and standard conclusion. (CC)

  18. Integral Presentations of Catalan Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dana-Picard, Thierry

    2010-01-01

    We compute in three different ways the same definite parametric integral. By-products are the derivation of a combinatorial identity and two integral presentations of Catalan numbers. One of them leads to a presentation using the [gamma] function.

  19. Fibonacci Numbers and the Spreadsheet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verderber, Nadine L.

    1991-01-01

    Described is a classroom activity incorporating a computer spreadsheet to study number patterns generated by the Fibonacci sequence. Included are examples and suggestions for the use of the spreadsheet in other recursive relationships. (JJK)

  20. Ultra High Mass Range Mass Spectrometer System

    DOEpatents

    Reilly, Peter T. A. [Knoxville, TN

    2005-12-06

    Applicant's present invention comprises mass spectrometer systems that operate in a mass range from 1 to 10.sup.16 DA. The mass spectrometer system comprising an inlet system comprising an aerodynamic lens system, a reverse jet being a gas flux generated in an annulus moving in a reverse direction and a multipole ion guide; a digital ion trap; and a thermal vaporization/ionization detector system. Applicant's present invention further comprises a quadrupole mass spectrometer system comprising an inlet system having a quadrupole mass filter and a thermal vaporization/ionization detector system. Applicant's present invention further comprises an inlet system for use with a mass spectrometer system, a method for slowing energetic particles using an inlet system. Applicant's present invention also comprises a detector device and a method for detecting high mass charged particles.

  1. Digital random-number generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brocker, D. H.

    1973-01-01

    For binary digit array of N bits, use N noise sources to feed N nonlinear operators; each flip-flop in digit array is set by nonlinear operator to reflect whether amplitude of generator which feeds it is above or below mean value of generated noise. Fixed-point uniform distribution random number generation method can also be used to generate random numbers with other than uniform distribution.

  2. Entropy estimation and Fibonacci numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timofeev, Evgeniy A.; Kaltchenko, Alexei

    2013-05-01

    We introduce a new metric on a space of right-sided infinite sequences drawn from a finite alphabet. Emerging from a problem of entropy estimation of a discrete stationary ergodic process, the metric is important on its own part and exhibits some interesting properties. Notably, the number of distinct metric values for a set of sequences of length m is equal to Fm+3 - 1, where Fm is a Fibonacci number.

  3. Possible number of different neutrinos

    SciTech Connect

    Manko, V.I.; Markov, M.A.

    1986-05-01

    It is hypothesized that the number of different types of neutrinos may be related to the dimensionality of the space. This relationship is illustrated by a model of a four-dimensional relativistic oscillator which is an element of a relativistic string. It is shown that the total number of different neutrinos may vary from three to five (depending on the model), in agreement with astrophysical data. 5 references.

  4. Copy number variation and mutation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Brian; Weidner, Jacob; Wabick, Kevin

    2009-11-01

    Until very recently, the standard model of DNA included two genes for each trait. This dated model has given way to a model that includes copies of some genes well in excess of the canonical two. Copy number variations in the human genome play critical roles in causing or aggravating a number of syndromes and diseases while providing increased resistance to others. We explore the role of mutation, crossover, inversion, and reproduction in determining copy number variations in a numerical simulation of a population. The numerical model consists of a population of individuals, where each individual is represented by a single strand of DNA with the same number of genes. Each gene is initially assigned to one of two traits. Fitness of the individual is determined by the two most fit genes for trait one, and trait two genetic material is treated as a reservoir of junk DNA. After a sufficient number of generations, during which the genetic distribution is allowed to reach a steady-state, the mean numberof genes per trait and the copy number variation are recorded. Here, we focus on the role of mutation and compare simulation results to theory.

  5. Low-Reynolds-number swimming at pycnoclines.

    PubMed

    Doostmohammadi, Amin; Stocker, Roman; Ardekani, Arezoo M

    2012-03-01

    Microorganisms play pivotal functions in the trophic dynamics and biogeochemistry of aquatic ecosystems. Their concentrations and activities often peak at localized hotspots, an important example of which are pycnoclines, where water density increases sharply with depth due to gradients in temperature or salinity. At pycnoclines organisms are exposed to different environmental conditions compared to the bulk water column, including reduced turbulence, slow mass transfer, and high particle and predator concentrations. Here we show that, at an even more fundamental level, the density stratification itself can affect microbial ecology at pycnoclines, by quenching the flow signature, increasing the energetic expenditure, and stifling the nutrient uptake of motile organisms. We demonstrate this through numerical simulations of an archetypal low-Reynolds-number swimmer, the "squirmer." We identify the Richardson number--the ratio of buoyancy forces to viscous forces--as the fundamental parameter that quantifies the effects of stratification. These results demonstrate an unexpected effect of buoyancy on low-Reynolds-number swimming, potentially affecting a broad range of abundant organisms living at pycnoclines in oceans and lakes. PMID:22355147

  6. Low-Reynolds-number swimming at pycnoclines

    PubMed Central

    Doostmohammadi, Amin; Stocker, Roman; Ardekani, Arezoo M.

    2012-01-01

    Microorganisms play pivotal functions in the trophic dynamics and biogeochemistry of aquatic ecosystems. Their concentrations and activities often peak at localized hotspots, an important example of which are pycnoclines, where water density increases sharply with depth due to gradients in temperature or salinity. At pycnoclines organisms are exposed to different environmental conditions compared to the bulk water column, including reduced turbulence, slow mass transfer, and high particle and predator concentrations. Here we show that, at an even more fundamental level, the density stratification itself can affect microbial ecology at pycnoclines, by quenching the flow signature, increasing the energetic expenditure, and stifling the nutrient uptake of motile organisms. We demonstrate this through numerical simulations of an archetypal low-Reynolds-number swimmer, the “squirmer.” We identify the Richardson number—the ratio of buoyancy forces to viscous forces—as the fundamental parameter that quantifies the effects of stratification. These results demonstrate an unexpected effect of buoyancy on low-Reynolds-number swimming, potentially affecting a broad range of abundant organisms living at pycnoclines in oceans and lakes. PMID:22355147

  7. Number matters: control of mammalian mitochondrial DNA copy number

    PubMed Central

    Clay Montier, Laura L.; Deng, Janice; Bai, Yidong

    2016-01-01

    Regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis is essential for proper cellular functioning. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) depletion and the resulting mitochondrial malfunction have been implicated in cancer, neurodegeneration, diabetes, aging, and many other human diseases. Although it is known that the dynamics of the mammalian mitochondrial genome are not linked with that of the nuclear genome, very little is known about the mechanism of mtDNA propagation. Nevertheless, our understanding of the mode of mtDNA replication has advanced in recent years, though not without some controversies. This review summarizes our current knowledge of mtDNA copy number control in mammalian cells, while focusing on both mtDNA replication and turnover. Although mtDNA copy number is seemingly in excess, we reason that mtDNA copy number control is an important aspect of mitochondrial genetics and biogenesis and is essential for normal cellular function. PMID:19302968

  8. USING CUMULATIVE NUMBER DENSITIES TO COMPARE GALAXIES ACROSS COSMIC TIME

    SciTech Connect

    Behroozi, Peter S.; Wechsler, Risa H.; Marchesini, Danilo; Muzzin, Adam; Papovich, Casey; Stefanon, Mauro

    2013-11-01

    Comparing galaxies across redshifts at fixed cumulative number density is a popular way to estimate the evolution of specific galaxy populations. This method ignores scatter in mass accretion histories and galaxy-galaxy mergers, which can lead to errors when comparing galaxies over large redshift ranges (?z > 1). We use abundance matching in the ?CDM paradigm to estimate the median change in cumulative number density with redshift and provide a simple fit (+0.16 dex per unit ?z) for progenitors of z = 0 galaxies. We find that galaxy descendants do not evolve in the same way as galaxy progenitors, largely due to scatter in mass accretion histories. We also provide estimates for the 1? range of cumulative number densities corresponding to galaxy progenitors and descendants. Finally, we discuss some limits on cumulative number density comparisons, which arise due to difficulties measuring physical quantities (e.g., stellar mass) consistently across redshifts. A public tool to calculate cumulative number density evolution for galaxies, as well as approximate halo masses, is available online.

  9. Multiple paternity in wild house mice (Mus musculus musculus): effects on offspring genetic diversity and body mass

    PubMed Central

    Thonhauser, Kerstin E; Thoß, Michaela; Musolf, Kerstin; Klaus, Teresa; Penn, Dustin J

    2014-01-01

    Multiple mating is common in many species, but it is unclear whether multiple paternity enhances offspring genetic diversity or fitness. We conducted a survey on wild house mice (Mus musculus musculus), and we found that in 73 pregnant females, 29% of litters had multiple sires, which is remarkably similar to the 23–26% found in feral populations of Mus musculus domesticus in the USA and Australia, respectively. The question is: How has selection maintained multiple mating in these subspecies since the evolutionary divergence, ca. 2800–6000 years ago? We found no evidence that multiple paternity enhanced females’ litter size, contrary to the fertility assurance or genetic benefits hypotheses. Multiple paternity was associated with reduced mean and variance in offspring body mass, which suggests that females allocate fewer resources or that there is increased intrauterine conflict in multiple-versus single-sired litters. We found increased allelic diversity (though not heterozygosity) in multiple-sired litters, as predicted by the genetic diversity hypothesis. Finally, we found that the dams’ heterozygosity was correlated with the mean heterozygosity of their offspring in single-and multiple-sired litters, suggesting that outbred, heterozygous females were more likely to avoid inbreeding than inbred, homozygous females. Future studies are needed to examine how increased genetic diversity of litters and smaller mean (and variance) offspring body mass associated with multiple paternity affect offspring fitness. PMID:24558575

  10. Number Meaning and Number Grammar in English and Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bock, Kathryn; Carreiras, Manuel; Meseguer, Enrique

    2012-01-01

    Grammatical agreement makes different demands on speakers of different languages. Being widespread in the languages of the world, the features of agreement systems offer valuable tests of how language affects deep-seated domains of human cognition and categorization. Number agreement is one such domain, with intriguing evidence that typological…

  11. Number Meaning and Number Grammar in English and Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bock, Kathryn; Carreiras, Manuel; Meseguer, Enrique

    2012-01-01

    Grammatical agreement makes different demands on speakers of different languages. Being widespread in the languages of the world, the features of agreement systems offer valuable tests of how language affects deep-seated domains of human cognition and categorization. Number agreement is one such domain, with intriguing evidence that typological…

  12. Avogadro's number and the kinetic theory of gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryan, Ronald

    2000-02-01

    Since the rms speed vrms of gas molecules in a container does not depend on the number of molecules but only on the pressure, the volume, and the total mass of the gas, Bernoulli probably knew that his kinetic theory required an atmospheric vrms is approximately equal to 1100 mi/hr at STP. Concerns over such a high speed were no doubt lessened with measurement of Avogardo's number some 170 years later.

  13. Momentum autocorrelation function of Fibonacci chains with finite number oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, M. B.

    2012-11-01

    A Fibonacci chain is composed of oscillators with two different masses and its total (even) number of oscillators N is associated with Fibonacci numbers. The momentum autocorrelation function of a specific oscillator in the chain is shown to be combination of 1 + ( N/2) cosines, their frequencies and amplitudes are calculated numerically for N ? 40. The momentum autocorrelation functions are illustrated for Fibonacci chains with N up to 176.

  14. Experimental determination of Ramsey numbers.

    PubMed

    Bian, Zhengbing; Chudak, Fabian; Macready, William G; Clark, Lane; Gaitan, Frank

    2013-09-27

    Ramsey theory is a highly active research area in mathematics that studies the emergence of order in large disordered structures. Ramsey numbers mark the threshold at which order first appears and are extremely difficult to calculate due to their explosive rate of growth. Recently, an algorithm that can be implemented using adiabatic quantum evolution has been proposed that calculates the two-color Ramsey numbers R(m,n). Here we present results of an experimental implementation of this algorithm and show that it correctly determines the Ramsey numbers R(3,3) and R(m,2) for 4≤m≤8. The R(8,2) computation used 84 qubits of which 28 were computational qubits. This computation is the largest experimental implementation of a scientifically meaningful adiabatic evolution algorithm that has been done to date. PMID:24116761

  15. On the three primordial numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gobbetti, Roberto; Pajer, Enrico; Roest, Diederik

    2015-09-01

    Cosmological observations have provided us with the measurement of just three numbers that characterize the very early universe: 1?ns , N and ln ?R2. Although each of the three numbers individually carries limited information about the physics of inflation, one may hope to extract non-trivial information from relations among them. Invoking minimality, namely the absence of ad hoc large numbers, we find two viable and mutually exclusive inflationary scenarios. The first is the well-known inverse relation between 1? ns and N. The second implies a new relation between 1?ns and ln ?R2, which might provide us with a handle on the beginning of inflation and predicts the intriguing lower bound on the tensor-to-scalar ratio r > 0.006 (95% CL).

  16. Bayesian DNA copy number analysis

    PubMed Central

    Rancoita, Paola MV; Hutter, Marcus; Bertoni, Francesco; Kwee, Ivo

    2009-01-01

    Background Some diseases, like tumors, can be related to chromosomal aberrations, leading to changes of DNA copy number. The copy number of an aberrant genome can be represented as a piecewise constant function, since it can exhibit regions of deletions or gains. Instead, in a healthy cell the copy number is two because we inherit one copy of each chromosome from each our parents. Bayesian Piecewise Constant Regression (BPCR) is a Bayesian regression method for data that are noisy observations of a piecewise constant function. The method estimates the unknown segment number, the endpoints of the segments and the value of the segment levels of the underlying piecewise constant function. The Bayesian Regression Curve (BRC) estimates the same data with a smoothing curve. However, in the original formulation, some estimators failed to properly determine the corresponding parameters. For example, the boundary estimator did not take into account the dependency among the boundaries and succeeded in estimating more than one breakpoint at the same position, losing segments. Results We derived an improved version of the BPCR (called mBPCR) and BRC, changing the segment number estimator and the boundary estimator to enhance the fitting procedure. We also proposed an alternative estimator of the variance of the segment levels, which is useful in case of data with high noise. Using artificial data, we compared the original and the modified version of BPCR and BRC with other regression methods, showing that our improved version of BPCR generally outperformed all the others. Similar results were also observed on real data. Conclusion We propose an improved method for DNA copy number estimation, mBPCR, which performed very well compared to previously published algorithms. In particular, mBPCR was more powerful in the detection of the true position of the breakpoints and of small aberrations in very noisy data. Hence, from a biological point of view, our method can be very useful, for example, to find targets of genomic aberrations in clinical cancer samples. PMID:19133123

  17. Determination of Avogadro's Number by Improved Electroplating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seiglie, Carlos A.

    2003-06-01

    A quick and accurate measurement of Avogadro‘s number from the amount of plated material can be made using a modification of an established electrolytic experiment. The experiment was modified to prevent loss of the copper plated at the cathode (copper plate) as a result of poor plating. The copper plating thus obtained was a firmly bonded and smooth layer, and the percent error of the results was reduced from approximately 20% to about 1% (the small error remaining is caused by the ammeter limits, not loss of plated mass). Control of the current during the experiment was also easier. If copper is not available it can be replaced by commonly available, inexpensive metals such as iron, zinc, or nickel.

  18. Biotechnology at low Reynolds numbers.

    PubMed Central

    Brody, J P; Yager, P; Goldstein, R E; Austin, R H

    1996-01-01

    The shrinking of liquid handling systems to the micron and submicron size range entails moving into the area of small Reynolds numbers. The fluid dynamics in this regime are very different from the macroscale. We present an intuitive explanation of how the different physics of small Reynolds numbers flow, along with microscopic sizes, can influence device design, and give examples from our own work using fluid flow in microfabricated devices designed for biological processing. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 PMID:8968612

  19. An Entrance Region Mass Transfer Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youngquist, G. R.

    1979-01-01

    This paper describes an experiment designed to reveal the consequences of the development of a concentration boundary layer. The rate of a mass transfer limited electrochemical reaction is measured and used to obtain the dependence of average Sherwood number on Reynolds number and entrance length. (Author/BB)

  20. Storage and retrieval of mass spectral information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hohn, M. E.; Humberston, M. J.; Eglinton, G.

    1977-01-01

    Computer handling of mass spectra serves two main purposes: the interpretation of the occasional, problematic mass spectrum, and the identification of the large number of spectra generated in the gas-chromatographic-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) analysis of complex natural and synthetic mixtures. Methods available fall into the three categories of library search, artificial intelligence, and learning machine. Optional procedures for coding, abbreviating and filtering a library of spectra minimize time and storage requirements. Newer techniques make increasing use of probability and information theory in accessing files of mass spectral information.

  1. Metrics For Comparing Plasma Mass Filters

    SciTech Connect

    Abraham J. Fetterman and Nathaniel J. Fisch

    2012-08-15

    High-throughput mass separation of nuclear waste may be useful for optimal storage, disposal, or environmental remediation. The most dangerous part of nuclear waste is the fission product, which produces most of the heat and medium-term radiation. Plasmas are well-suited to separating nuclear waste because they can separate many different species in a single step. A number of plasma devices have been designed for such mass separation, but there has been no standardized comparison between these devices. We define a standard metric, the separative power per unit volume, and derive it for three different plasma mass filters: the plasma centrifuge, Ohkawa filter, and the magnetic centrifugal mass filter. __________________________________________________

  2. Metrics for comparing plasma mass filters

    SciTech Connect

    Fetterman, Abraham J.; Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    2011-10-15

    High-throughput mass separation of nuclear waste may be useful for optimal storage, disposal, or environmental remediation. The most dangerous part of nuclear waste is the fission product, which produces most of the heat and medium-term radiation. Plasmas are well-suited to separating nuclear waste because they can separate many different species in a single step. A number of plasma devices have been designed for such mass separation, but there has been no standardized comparison between these devices. We define a standard metric, the separative power per unit volume, and derive it for three different plasma mass filters: the plasma centrifuge, Ohkawa filter, and the magnetic centrifugal mass filter.

  3. Mass spectrometric immunoassay

    DOEpatents

    Nelson, Randall W (Phoenix, AZ); Williams, Peter (Phoenix, AZ); Krone, Jennifer Reeve (Granbury, TX)

    2007-12-04

    Rapid mass spectrometric immunoassay methods for detecting and/or quantifying antibody and antigen analytes utilizing affinity capture to isolate the analytes and internal reference species (for quantification) followed by mass spectrometric analysis of the isolated analyte/internal reference species. Quantification is obtained by normalizing and calibrating obtained mass spectrum against the mass spectrum obtained for an antibody/antigen of known concentration.

  4. Mass spectrometric immunoassay

    DOEpatents

    Nelson, Randall W; Williams, Peter; Krone, Jennifer Reeve

    2013-07-16

    Rapid mass spectrometric immunoassay methods for detecting and/or quantifying antibody and antigen analytes utilizing affinity capture to isolate the analytes and internal reference species (for quantification) followed by mass spectrometric analysis of the isolated analyte/internal reference species. Quantification is obtained by normalizing and calibrating obtained mass spectrum against the mass spectrum obtained for an antibody/antigen of known concentration.

  5. Mass spectrometric immunoassay

    DOEpatents

    Nelson, Randall W.; Williams, Peter; Krone, Jennifer Reeve

    2005-12-13

    Rapid mass spectrometric immunoassay methods for detecting and/or quantifying antibody and antigen analytes utilizing affinity capture to isolate the analytes and internal reference species (for quantification) followed by mass spectrometric analysis of the isolated analyte/internal reference species. Quantification is obtained by normalizing and calibrating obtained mass spectrum against the mass spectrum obtained for an antibody/antigen of known concentration.

  6. Poison control center - emergency number

    MedlinePLUS

    For a POISON EMERGENCY call: 1-800-222-1222 ANYWHERE IN THE UNITED STATES This national hotline number will let you talk to ... ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12630734 . Shannon MW. Emergency management of poisoning. In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, ...

  7. Squirming At Finite Reynolds Number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chisholm, Nicholas; Zhu, Ziyi; Khair, Aditya

    2013-11-01

    The dynamics of swimming microorganisms at zero Reynolds number (Re = 0) has been the subject of extensive theoretical and experimental investigation over the past decade, and the study of locomotion at high Reynolds number (Re >> 1), where inertial forces are dominant, has a venerable history. In this talk, we consider swimming between these limits, i.e. at finite Reynolds numbers, using the popular ``squirmer'' model of self-propulsion, wherein locomotion is achieved through surface distortions. We first utilize matched asymptotic expansions to derive an analytical expression for the swimming velocity of a squirmer through O (Re2) , which highlights that inertia affects so-called ``pusher'' and ``puller'' swimmers in fundamentally different manners. (The equivalent of Whitehead's paradox for a self-propelled object is elucidated in the process.) Next, we employ numerical methods to compute the swimming velocity of pushers and pullers for higher Reynolds numbers. Finally, we demonstrate that inertia causes squirmers (which are non-chiral) to drift across the streamlines of an imposed shear flow.

  8. Adjuncts Build Strength in Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    June, Audrey Williams

    2012-01-01

    When professors in positions that offer no chance of earning tenure begin to stack the faculty, campus dynamics start to change. Growing numbers of adjuncts make themselves more visible. They push for roles in governance, better pay and working conditions, and recognition for work well done. And they do so at institutions where tenured faculty,…

  9. Magic Numbers and Pascal's Triangle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Cruz, Elías

    2002-03-01

    Papers concerning the so called "magic numbers"^1-3 span different areas of Solid State Physics. Treatment of the growth of metal clusters and its stability conditions from the theoretical point of view in Ref. 1 leads to the conclusion that the clusters can take place in two or three dimensions. The clusters are triangular or tetrahedral and are obtained only for certain "magic numbers". Experimental work concerning the growth of metal clusters in two dimensions^2 have confirmed the growth only for certain magic numbers and these are the same as the calculated ones in Ref. 1. The present work shows that these "magic numbers" can be deduced from the numeric arrangement called Pascal's Triangle as two of the many numeric sequences contained in the triangle. Some other sequences will be discussed. 1. S.M. Reimann, M. Kuskinen, H. Häkkinen, P.E. Lindelof, and M. Manninen, Phys. Rev. B 56, 12147 (1997-I) 2. M.Y. Lai and Y.L. Wang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 164 (1998) 3. T.E.M. Staab, M. Haugk, Th. Frauenheim, and H.S. Leipner, Phys. REv. Lett. 83, 5519 (1999)

  10. Solar System Number-Crunching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albrecht, Bob; Firedrake, George

    1997-01-01

    Defines terrestrial and Jovian planets and provides directions to obtain planetary data from the National Space Science Data Center Web sites. Provides "number-crunching" activities for the terrestrial planets using Texas Instruments TI-83 graphing calculators: computing volumetric mean radius and volume, density, ellipticity, speed, surface…

  11. The Mathematics of Identification Numbers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallian, Joseph A.

    1991-01-01

    Discussed are the mathematical methods for detecting a variety of common error patterns within the bar-coded identification numbers utilized in conjunction with scanning devices. Schemes for the use of check digits are examined that ensure conditions for detecting errors of specific types, including single digit error, transposition error, twin…

  12. Oxidation Numbers and Their Limitations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolf, A. A.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews a method for determining oxidation numbers in covalent compounds and balancing mixed organic-inorganic or purely organic systems. Points out ambiguities presented when adjacent atoms have small or zero electronegativity differences. Presents other limitations that arise when using electronegativity values. (CW)

  13. Not Just a Number Anymore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Nancy

    2008-01-01

    In the Essex, Cincinnati retirement center where they both worked as nurses, Holly Doherty and Michele Schavoir often heard aides complain about one longtime resident in particular. The patient kicks and screams and nurses can not stand to be around her. After a year of playing detective, Doherty found a number of the patient's relatives in…

  14. Project Solo; Newsletter Number Eleven.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pittsburgh Univ., PA. Project Solo.

    An experimental 9th grade computer science syllabus is proposed. The syllabus would include the technical information needed for controlling and programing the computer in a number of modes and would preview some of the areas covered in the high school curriculum. A sample module of a topic not normally taught in high school--distance and…

  15. Questioning Zero and Negative Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcox, Virginia B.

    2008-01-01

    After experiencing a Developing Mathematical Ideas (DMI) class on the construction of algebraic concepts surrounding zero and negative numbers, the author conducted an interview with a first grader to determine the youngster's existing level of understanding about these topics. Uncovering young students' existing understanding can provide focus…

  16. Number Crunching: A Sheep's Tale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sam, Chris Lam

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about an allegorical tale which he has written as a message for teachers of mathematics. The story is about Gordon, who led a flock of small sheep. Gordon was a mathematics genius; however, his flock criticized his teaching of numbers and his boring lectures. His furry-god-farmer advised him to share his…

  17. Ten Is the Magic Number!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Lindsay

    2009-01-01

    How this teacher develops composition of ten with second graders was dramatically reshaped by the 2006 release of NCTM's "Curriculum Focal Points." The release of "Curriculum Focal Points"--particularly the suggestion that number sense and computation be focal areas in the second-grade mathematics curriculum--resulted in positive changes in this…

  18. High Reynolds number research - 1980

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckinney, L. W. (Editor); Baals, D. D. (Editor)

    1981-01-01

    The fundamental aerodynamic questions for which high Reynolds number experimental capability is required were examined. Potential experiments which maximize the research returns from the use of the National Transonic Facility (NTF) were outlined. Calibration plans were reviewed and the following topics were discussed: fluid dynamics; high lit; configuration aerodynamics; aeroelasticity and unsteady aerodynamics; wind tunnel/flight correlation; space vehicles; and theoretical aerodynamics

  19. Materiales. Numbers 17-20.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Materiales, 1995

    1995-01-01

    Four booklets present articles on Spanish language and culture aimed at teachers of Spanish in the United States for student use in their classes. Number 17, "Los Jovenes Espanoles" (Spanish Youth), includes articles on Spanish youth sports, music, gangs, thoughts, and t-shirt slogans: (1) "Young Spanish Athletes"; (2) "Youth Music"; (3) "Urban…

  20. Materiales. Numbers 21-23.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Materiales, 1997

    1997-01-01

    These three journals of contemporary cultural, historical, and social interest contain activities designed to enhance the awareness of students of Spanish as a foreign language regarding the entire panorama of daily life in Spain. Number 21 focuses on the role of modern Spanish women; their career status; female authors; and the changing place of…

  1. Residual number processing in dyscalculia?

    PubMed Central

    Cappelletti, Marinella; Price, Cathy J.

    2013-01-01

    Developmental dyscalculia – a congenital learning disability in understanding numerical concepts – is typically associated with parietal lobe abnormality. However, people with dyscalculia often retain some residual numerical abilities, reported in studies that otherwise focused on abnormalities in the dyscalculic brain. Here we took a different perspective by focusing on brain regions that support residual number processing in dyscalculia. All participants accurately performed semantic and categorical colour-decision tasks with numerical and non-numerical stimuli, with adults with dyscalculia performing slower than controls in the number semantic tasks only. Structural imaging showed less grey-matter volume in the right parietal cortex in people with dyscalculia relative to controls. Functional MRI showed that accurate number semantic judgements were maintained by parietal and inferior frontal activations that were common to adults with dyscalculia and controls, with higher activation for participants with dyscalculia than controls in the right superior frontal cortex and the left inferior frontal sulcus. Enhanced activation in these frontal areas was driven by people with dyscalculia who made faster rather than slower numerical decisions; however, activation could not be accounted for by response times per se, because it was greater for fast relative to slow dyscalculics but not greater for fast controls relative to slow dyscalculics. In conclusion, our results reveal two frontal brain regions that support efficient number processing in dyscalculia. PMID:24266008

  2. Time to Make the Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Surrena, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    In order to inspire her students to work in mixed media, the author chose to highlight the art of Jasper Johns and Robert Indiana, both of whom used numbers and letters as a main focus in their art. In this article, the author describes a mixed-media printmaking project. (Contains 2 online resources.)

  3. A generalized sense of number

    PubMed Central

    Arrighi, Roberto; Togoli, Irene; Burr, David C.

    2014-01-01

    Much evidence has accumulated to suggest that many animals, including young human infants, possess an abstract sense of approximate quantity, a number sense. Most research has concentrated on apparent numerosity of spatial arrays of dots or other objects, but a truly abstract sense of number should be capable of encoding the numerosity of any set of discrete elements, however displayed and in whatever sensory modality. Here, we use the psychophysical technique of adaptation to study the sense of number for serially presented items. We show that numerosity of both auditory and visual sequences is greatly affected by prior adaptation to slow or rapid sequences of events. The adaptation to visual stimuli was spatially selective (in external, not retinal coordinates), pointing to a sensory rather than cognitive process. However, adaptation generalized across modalities, from auditory to visual and vice versa. Adaptation also generalized across formats: adapting to sequential streams of flashes affected the perceived numerosity of spatial arrays. All these results point to a perceptual system that transcends vision and audition to encode an abstract sense of number in space and in time. PMID:25377454

  4. FOREWORD: Special issue on mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gläser, Michael

    2003-12-01

    This special issue is intended to present a review of mass standards, mass determination and the efforts to replace the international prototype of the kilogram by a new definition of the kilogram based on a fundamental constant of physics. Mass is a quantity that is familiar to everybody primarily for its importance in commerce. It is not only one of the traditional quantities of metrology but also of science in general. The unit of mass has always been based on a material object and, since 1889, on the international prototype of the kilogram. The mass of any standard weight is derived from this prototype by a cascade of comparison measurements using balances. The sources of uncertainty of the mass of a standard depend upon the circumstances of the weighing process and the long-term instabilities of the intermediate standards. The international prototype—its mass is one kilogram by definition—may also suffer from instabilities or drifts in time, but until now it has not been possible to check this by comparison with a fundamental constant in physics. Repeated verifications of some 40 or so national prototypes of the members of the Metre Convention have shown significant drifts with an average of about 50 µg within 100 years, a fact that casts doubt on the stability of the international prototype itself. Experiments have been underway for about 30 years on linking fundamental constants such as the Avogadro constant or, correspondingly, the atomic mass unit and Planck's constant to the kilogram. Relative uncertainties of the order of 10-7 have been reached today, still one order of magnitude too large for monitoring the stability of the international prototype or for a new definition. The first article of this special issue gives information on the international and the national prototypes of the kilogram, its material, manufacture, cleaning procedures, stability investigations and the periodic verifications of national prototypes. The next article describes methods for determining the mass of multiples and submultiples of the kilogram. In practice, mass standards in the range from one milligram up to several thousands of kilograms are used for the mass determination of commercial objects or for the calibration of weighing instruments. The determination of the mass of multiples and submultiples of the kilogram is a procedure that links such mass standards to the kilogram by a number of—mostly redundant—weighing processes and mathematical procedures that result in the values and the uncertainties of the standards involved. The reproducibility of E-class weights is the topic of the next article. Classification of weights is defined in an international recommendation for legal metrology and is carried over into the national regulations of most countries. E-class weights are at the highest level in this context. Reproducibility is related to the instability of mass standards within some time interval. Corresponding observations and discussions of the results are reported. As already mentioned, weighing is an important source of the uncertainty of a mass standard. The requirements on weighing in legal metrology are discussed in the following article. It refers to the project of a new international recommendation for weights (revised OIML R 111) that describes procedures for mass determination and for testing the properties of weights according to the stated requirements for the different classes. The instability of mass standards is mostly due to surface contamination. A review of the stability of platinum-iridium and stainless-steel standards and their surface contamination is presented in the next article. It gives a comprehensive overview of published data and investigations on this topic. Magnetic weights interact with the magnetic field generated by a balance. A change in the balance indication is the consequence if certain limits are exceeded. Magnetic properties of weights, their measurements and magnetic interactions between weights and balances constitute the theme of the next article. After an introduction to

  5. Development of the Vortex Mass Flowmeter with Wall Pressure Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhiyong; Sun, Zhiqiang

    2013-01-01

    Mass flow measurement is essential to the understanding and control of processes concerning fluid flow. The availability of reliable mass flowmeters, however, is far inadequate to meet the demand. In this paper we developed a practical vortex mass flowmeter with wall pressure measurement. The meter coefficient of mass flow rate was acquired through experiments with air at Reynolds numbers from 1.3×103 to 9.8×103. Here we show that the meter coefficient of mass flow rate is nearly constant at Reynolds numbers greater than 5.5×103. To further extend the lower limit, a correction factor related to the Reynolds number was introduced into the vortex mass flowmeter. The results show that the relative errors of the vortex mass flowmeter developed are basically within ±5%. This device can satisfy a diversity of requirements of mass flow measurement in engineering fields.

  6. Higgs-Thomson-Fibonacci generation of lepton and quark masses

    SciTech Connect

    Rosen, G.

    1996-02-01

    Lepton-quark mass may derive from the primary Higgs-mechanism fermion mass by a fundamental law for fermion mass modification, without extension of the minimal standard model. Accurate mass values are obtained for all charged leptons and quarks if the fundamental law for fermion mass modification is given by m = m{sub e}Q{sup 2}(exp {lambda}{sub n}), where m{sub e} is the Higgs-generated electron mass, Q is the charge number of the lepton or quark and {lambda}{sub n}, a linearly additive parameter that depends on the fermion principal quantum number n, is simply related to the small Fibonacci numbers. The three neutrino masses are zero, and the top mass is close to m{sub t} = 163.6 GeV.

  7. Parasites in algae mass culture

    PubMed Central

    Carney, Laura T.; Lane, Todd W.

    2014-01-01

    Parasites are now known to be ubiquitous across biological systems and can play an important role in modulating algal populations. However, there is a lack of extensive information on their role in artificial ecosystems such as algal production ponds and photobioreactors. Parasites have been implicated in the demise of algal blooms. Because individual mass culture systems often tend to be unialgal and a select few algal species are in wide scale application, there is an increased potential for parasites to have a devastating effect on commercial scale monoculture. As commercial algal production continues to expand with a widening variety of applications, including biofuel, food and pharmaceuticals, the parasites associated with algae will become of greater interest and potential economic impact. A number of important algal parasites have been identified in algal mass culture systems in the last few years and this number is sure to grow as the number of commercial algae ventures increases. Here, we review the research that has identified and characterized parasites infecting mass cultivated algae, the techniques being proposed and or developed to control them, and the potential impact of parasites on the future of the algal biomass industry. PMID:24936200

  8. Heavy quark masses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Testa, Massimo

    1990-01-01

    In the large quark mass limit, an argument which identifies the mass of the heavy-light pseudoscalar or scalar bound state with the renormalized mass of the heavy quark is given. The following equation is discussed: m(sub Q) = m(sub B), where m(sub Q) and m(sub B) are respectively the mass of the heavy quark and the mass of the pseudoscalar bound state.

  9. Linear mass actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holloway, Sidney E., III (Inventor); Crossley, Edward A., Jr. (Inventor); Jones, Irby W. (Inventor); Miller, James B. (Inventor); Davis, C. Calvin (Inventor); Behun, Vaughn D. (Inventor); Goodrich, Lewis R., Sr. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A linear mass actuator includes an upper housing and a lower housing connectable to each other and having a central passageway passing axially through a mass that is linearly movable in the central passageway. Rollers mounted in the upper and lower housings in frictional engagement with the mass translate the mass linearly in the central passageway and drive motors operatively coupled to the roller means, for rotating the rollers and driving the mass axially in the central passageway.

  10. Imaging mass spectrometer with mass tags

    DOEpatents

    Felton, James S.; Wu, Kuang Jen J.; Knize, Mark G.; Kulp, Kristen S.; Gray, Joe W.

    2013-01-29

    A method of analyzing biological material by exposing the biological material to a recognition element, that is coupled to a mass tag element, directing an ion beam of a mass spectrometer to the biological material, interrogating at least one region of interest area from the biological material and producing data, and distributing the data in plots.

  11. Imaging mass spectrometer with mass tags

    DOEpatents

    Felton, James S.; Wu, Kuang Jen; Knize, Mark G.; Kulp, Kristen S.; Gray, Joe W.

    2010-06-01

    A method of analyzing biological material by exposing the biological material to a recognition element, that is coupled to a mass tag element, directing an ion beam of a mass spectrometer to the biological material, interrogating at least one region of interest area from the biological material and producing data, and distributing the data in plots.

  12. Psychosocial considerations for mass decontamination.

    PubMed

    Lemyre, Louise; Johnson, Colleen; Corneil, Wayne

    2010-11-01

    Mass exposure to explosions, infectious agents, foodborne illnesses, chemicals or radiological materials may require mass decontamination that have critical psychosocial implications for the public and for both traditional and non-traditional responders in terms of impact and of response. Five main issues are common to mass decontamination events: (i) perception, (ii) somatisation, (iii) media role and communication, (iv) information sharing, (v) behavioural guidance and (vi) organisational issues. Empirical evidence is drawn from a number of cases, including Chernobyl; Goiania, Brazil; the sarin gas attack in Tokyo; the anthrax attacks in the USA; Three Mile Island; and by features of the 2003 severe acute respiratory syndrome pandemic. In this paper, a common platform for mass casualty management is explored and suggestions for mass interventions are proposed across the complete event timeline, from pre-event threat and warning stages through to the impact and reconstruction phases. Implication for responders, healthcare and emergency infrastructure, public behaviour, screening processes, risk communication and media management are described. PMID:20924122

  13. Using System Mass (SM), Equivalent Mass (EM), Equivalent System Mass (ESM) or Life Cycle Mass (LCM) in Advanced Life Support (ALS) Reporting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry

    2003-01-01

    The Advanced Life Support (ALS) has used a single number, Equivalent System Mass (ESM), for both reporting progress and technology selection. ESM is the launch mass required to provide a space system. ESM indicates launch cost. ESM alone is inadequate for technology selection, which should include other metrics such as Technology Readiness Level (TRL) and Life Cycle Cost (LCC) and also consider perfom.arxe 2nd risk. ESM has proven difficult to implement as a reporting metric, partly because it includes non-mass technology selection factors. Since it will not be used exclusively for technology selection, a new reporting metric can be made easier to compute and explain. Systems design trades-off performance, cost, and risk, but a risk weighted cost/benefit metric would be too complex to report. Since life support has fixed requirements, different systems usually have roughly equal performance. Risk is important since failure can harm the crew, but it is difficult to treat simply. Cost is not easy to estimate, but preliminary space system cost estimates are usually based on mass, which is better estimated than cost. Amass-based cost estimate, similar to ESM, would be a good single reporting metric. The paper defines and compares four mass-based cost estimates, Equivalent Mass (EM), Equivalent System Mass (ESM), Life Cycle Mass (LCM), and System Mass (SM). EM is traditional in life support and includes mass, volume, power, cooling and logistics. ESM is the specifically defined ALS metric, which adds crew time and possibly other cost factors to EM. LCM is a new metric, a mass-based estimate of LCC measured in mass units. SM includes only the factors of EM that are originally measured in mass, the hardware and logistics mass. All four mass-based metrics usually give similar comparisons. SM is by far the simplest to compute and easiest to explain.

  14. Lepton number violation in D meson decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Hai-Rong; Feng, Feng; Li, Hai-Bo

    2015-01-01

    The lepton number violation (LNV) process can be induced by introducing a fourth generation heavy Majorana neutrino, which is coupled to the charged leptons of the Standard Model (SM). There have been many previous studies on the leptonic number violating decay processes with this mechanism. We follow the trend to study the process: D?Kll? with the same-sign dilepton final states. We restrict ourselves to certain neutrino mass regions, in which the heavy neutrino could be on-shell and the dominant contribution to the branching fraction comes from the resonance enhanced effect. Applying the narrow width approximation (NWA), we found that the upper limit for the branching fractions for D0 ? K-l+l+?- are generally at the order of 10-12 to 10-9, if we take the most stringent upper limit bound currently available in the literature for the mixing matrix elements. We also provide the constraints, which is competitive compared to the LNV B decays, on the mixing matrix element |VeN|2 based on the upper limit of D0 ? K-e+e+?- estimated from the Monte-Carlo (MC) study at BESIII. Although the constraints are worse than the ones from (0???) decay in the literature, the future experiment at the charm factory may yield more stringent constraints.

  15. Estimating the Number of Buildings in Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behnisch, M.; Ultsch, A.

    The debate on sustainable development has lead to the view of buildings as flows (mass, energy, money and information) or capitals. In this context buildings are considered as the largest physical, economical, social and cultural capital of a society. In Germany many institutions record different kind of data about buildings. Unfortunately there are just a few basic statistics about the amount of buildings. Collection of data is very complicated, often expensive and the handling of missing data is one of the biggest handicaps. With the exception of data about residential buildings and particularly monuments, it is an unsolved problem to determine the total number of buildings. Thus the main issue of this article is the description of an appropriate estimation procedure. This procedure relies on 12,430 communes and refers to data from the Cadaster of Real Estates and the Federal Office for Building and Regional Planning (BBR). The estimation is based on statistical data from well-known and easily accessible institutions. The number of buildings is estimated for communes with missing data. Using methods from the, so called, Urban Data Mining approach, unsuspected relationships are found in the urban data. These relationships are valuable for the estimation. The quality of the estimation is analyzed by training and test data sets. Information optimization leads to the conclusion that 20% of the communes hold 80% of all buildings. For an improvement of the estimation it is essential to refine the amount and quality of data in the larger communes.

  16. In Defense of Quantum Numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Robert M.

    1998-05-01

    A recent paper has argued that the derivation of the periodic table using quantum numbers is a topic that should be eliminated from introductory chemistry courses because it is too abstract, mysterious, and esoteric. A rebuttal is offered based on the claim that it would be wrong to omit discussions of the inductive approach of Mendeleev and the deductive approach initiated by Schroedinger, because they compose the consummate example of that interaction of empirical and rational epistemologies that defines how chemists think.

  17. Semantic alignment and number comparison.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Jamie I D; Sacher, Sean G

    2012-01-01

    Are the quantity representations activated by Arabic digits influenced by semantic context? We developed a novel paradigm to examine semantic alignment effects (e.g., Bassok et al. in J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn 34:343-352, 2008) in number comparison. A horizontal word pair (either less more or few many) appeared for 480 ms to prime either relative magnitude (less more) or quantity (few many). Then a horizontal pair of single digits that were either successors (near) or differed by at least four (far) appeared above the word pair. Participants indicated verbally whether or not the word and digit pairs were congruent with respect to left-to-right ascending or descending relative magnitude. The RT advantage for far number pairs compared to near pairs (the distance effect) was greater with magnitude primes (81 ms) than quantity primes (17 ms), demonstrating a semantic alignment effect. This effect disappeared in Experiment 2 in which participants received identical stimuli but named the larger of the two digits and were free to ignore the primes. Nonetheless, mean RT in Experiment 2 was faster with prime and target pairs both ascending or both descending, but only with quantity primes. This prime-dependent order-congruity effect suggests that semantic alignment with respect to numerical order affected number comparison in Experiment 2. The results thereby demonstrate that number comparison exhibits task-dependent semantic alignment effects and recruits distinct numerical representations as a function of semantic context (e.g., Cohen Kadosh and Walsh in Behav Brain Sci 32:313-373, 2009). PMID:21461771

  18. Approximate number sense, symbolic number processing, or number-space mappings: what underlies mathematics achievement?

    PubMed

    Sasanguie, Delphine; Göbel, Silke M; Moll, Kristina; Smets, Karolien; Reynvoet, Bert

    2013-03-01

    In this study, the performance of typically developing 6- to 8-year-old children on an approximate number discrimination task, a symbolic comparison task, and a symbolic and nonsymbolic number line estimation task was examined. For the first time, children's performances on these basic cognitive number processing tasks were explicitly contrasted to investigate which of them is the best predictor of their future mathematical abilities. Math achievement was measured with a timed arithmetic test and with a general curriculum-based math test to address the additional question of whether the predictive association between the basic numerical abilities and mathematics achievement is dependent on which math test is used. Results revealed that performance on both mathematics achievement tests was best predicted by how well childrencompared digits. In addition, an association between performance on the symbolic number line estimation task and math achievement scores for the general curriculum-based math test measuring a broader spectrum of skills was found. Together, these results emphasize the importance of learning experiences with symbols for later math abilities. PMID:23270796

  19. Quasiperpendicular High Mach Number Shocks.

    PubMed

    Sulaiman, A H; Masters, A; Dougherty, M K; Burgess, D; Fujimoto, M; Hospodarsky, G B

    2015-09-18

    Shock waves exist throughout the Universe and are fundamental to understanding the nature of collisionless plasmas. Reformation is a process, driven by microphysics, which typically occurs at high Mach number supercritical shocks. While ongoing studies have investigated this process extensively both theoretically and via simulations, their observations remain few and far between. In this Letter we present a study of very high Mach number shocks in a parameter space that has been poorly explored and we identify reformation using in situ magnetic field observations from the Cassini spacecraft at 10 AU. This has given us an insight into quasiperpendicular shocks across 2 orders of magnitude in Alfvén Mach number (M_{A}) which could potentially bridge the gap between modest terrestrial shocks and more exotic astrophysical shocks. For the first time, we show evidence for cyclic reformation controlled by specular ion reflection occurring at the predicted time scale of ~0.3?_{c}, where ?_{c} is the ion gyroperiod. In addition, we experimentally reveal the relationship between reformation and M_{A} and focus on the magnetic structure of such shocks to further show that for the same M_{A}, a reforming shock exhibits stronger magnetic field amplification than a shock that is not reforming. PMID:26430997

  20. Vertebral numbers and human evolution.

    PubMed

    Williams, Scott A; Middleton, Emily R; Villamil, Catalina I; Shattuck, Milena R

    2016-01-01

    Ever since Tyson (1699), anatomists have noted and compared differences in the regional numbers of vertebrae among humans and other hominoids. Subsequent workers interpreted these differences in phylogenetic, functional, and behavioral frameworks and speculated on the history of vertebral numbers during human evolution. Even in a modern phylogenetic framework and with greatly expanded sample sizes of hominoid species, researchers' conclusions vary drastically, positing that hominins evolved from either a "long-backed" (numerically long lumbar column) or a "short-backed" (numerically short lumbar column) ancestor. We show that these disparate interpretations are due in part to the use of different criteria for what defines a lumbar vertebra, but argue that, regardless of which lumbar definition is used, hominins are similar to their great ape relatives in possessing a short trunk, a rare occurrence in mammals and one that defines the clade Hominoidea. Furthermore, we address the recent claim that the early hominin thoracolumbar configuration is not distinct from that of modern humans and conclude that early hominins show evidence of "cranial shifting," which might explain the anomalous morphology of several early hominin fossils. Finally, we evaluate the competing hypotheses on numbers of vertebrae and argue that the current data support a hominin ancestor with an African ape-like short trunk and lower back. Am J Phys Anthropol 159:S19-S36, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26808105

  1. Quasiperpendicular High Mach Number Shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulaiman, A. H.; Masters, A.; Dougherty, M. K.; Burgess, D.; Fujimoto, M.; Hospodarsky, G. B.

    2015-09-01

    Shock waves exist throughout the Universe and are fundamental to understanding the nature of collisionless plasmas. Reformation is a process, driven by microphysics, which typically occurs at high Mach number supercritical shocks. While ongoing studies have investigated this process extensively both theoretically and via simulations, their observations remain few and far between. In this Letter we present a study of very high Mach number shocks in a parameter space that has been poorly explored and we identify reformation using in situ magnetic field observations from the Cassini spacecraft at 10 AU. This has given us an insight into quasiperpendicular shocks across 2 orders of magnitude in Alfvén Mach number (MA ) which could potentially bridge the gap between modest terrestrial shocks and more exotic astrophysical shocks. For the first time, we show evidence for cyclic reformation controlled by specular ion reflection occurring at the predicted time scale of ˜0.3 ?c , where ?c is the ion gyroperiod. In addition, we experimentally reveal the relationship between reformation and MA and focus on the magnetic structure of such shocks to further show that for the same MA , a reforming shock exhibits stronger magnetic field amplification than a shock that is not reforming.

  2. A Pseudo-Random Number Generator Based on Normal Numbers

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, David H.

    2004-12-31

    In a recent paper, Richard Crandall and the present author established that each of a certain class of explicitly given real constants, uncountably infinite in number, is b-normal, for an integer that appears in the formula defining the constant. A b-normal constant is one where every string of m digits appears in the base-b expansion of the constant with limiting frequency b{sup -m}. This paper shows how this result can be used to fashion an efficient and effective pseudo-random number generator, which generates successive strings of binary digits from one of the constants in this class. The resulting generator, which tests slightly faster than a conventional linear congruential generator, avoids difficulties with large power-of-two data access strides that may occur when using conventional generators. It is also well suited for parallel processing--each processor can quickly and independently compute its starting value, with the collective sequence generated by all processors being the same as that generated by a single processor.

  3. New paradigm for baryon and lepton number violation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fileviez Pérez, Pavel

    2015-09-01

    The possible discovery of proton decay, neutron-antineutron oscillation, neutrinoless double beta decay in low energy experiments, and exotic signals related to the violation of the baryon and lepton numbers at collider experiments will change our understanding of the conservation of fundamental symmetries in nature. In this review we discuss the rare processes due to the existence of baryon and lepton number violating interactions. The simplest grand unified theories and the neutrino mass generation mechanisms are discussed. The theories where the baryon and lepton numbers are defined as local gauge symmetries spontaneously broken at the low scale are discussed in detail. The simplest supersymmetric gauge theory which predicts the existence of lepton number violating processes at the low scale is investigated. The main goal of this review is to discuss the main implications of baryon and lepton number violation in physics beyond the Standard Model.

  4. The conceptual representation of number.

    PubMed

    Patson, Nikole D; George, Gerret; Warren, Tessa

    2014-01-01

    The experiments reported here investigated the format of plural conceptual representations using a picture-matching paradigm. In Experiment 1, participants read sentences that ended with a singular noun phrase (NP), a two-quantified plural NP, or a plural definite description [The parents handed the child the (two) crayon/s] and then saw a picture of one or multiple referents for the NP. Judgement times to confirm that there was overlap between the pictured object(s) and a noun in the sentence showed an interaction between the NP's number and NP-picture match. For singular NPs and two-quantified NPs, participants were reliably faster to respond "yes" to a picture that had the exact number of objects specified by the NP, but for plural definite descriptions, the effect of the number of pictured items was not reliable. Experiment 2 extended this finding to conceptual plurals. Participants read sentences biased toward either a collective (Together the men carried a box-box is interpreted as singular) or distributed (Each of the men carried a box-box is likely interpreted as plural) reading. Experiment 2 showed the same interaction between NP conceptual plurality and NP-picture match as that in Experiment 1. These results suggest that: (a) our default conceptual representations for plural definite descriptions are no more similar to images of small sets of multiple items than to images of singular items; and (b) the difference between singular and plural conceptual representations is unlikely to be simply the presence or absence of a plural feature. The results are consistent with theories in which plurality is unmarked, such that some plural NPs can refer to singular referents [e.g., Sauerland, U., Anderssen, J., & Yatsushiro, J. (2005). The plural is semantically unmarked. In S. Kepser & M. Reis (Eds.), Linguistic evidence (pp. 413-434). Berlin: de Gruyter]. PMID:24251989

  5. Propulsion at low Reynolds number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najafi, Ali; Golestanian, Ramin

    2005-04-01

    We study the propulsion of two model swimmers at low Reynolds number. Inspired by Purcell's model, we propose a very simple one-dimensional swimmer consisting of three spheres that are connected by two arms whose lengths can change between two values. The proposed swimmer can swim with a special type of motion, which breaks the time-reversal symmetry. We also show that an ellipsoidal membrane with tangential travelling wave on it can also propel itself in the direction preferred by the travelling wave. This system resembles the realistic biological animals like Paramecium.

  6. 43 CFR 3106.4-3 - Mass transfers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Mass transfers. 3106.4-3 Section 3106.4-3... or Otherwise § 3106.4-3 Mass transfers. (a) A mass transfer may be utilized in lieu of the provisions... large number of Federal leases to the same transferee. (b) Three originally executed copies of the...

  7. Excited State Effective Masses

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Huey-Wen; Cohen, Saul; Fleming, George

    2007-11-01

    The effective mass description of Euclidean time hadron correlation functions is extended to incorporate multiple excited states and multiple correlation functions. In general, the effective masses will be determined by finding the roots of some polynomial.

  8. Mass modeling for bars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Thomas G.

    1987-01-01

    Methods of modeling mass for bars are surveyed. A method for extending John Archer's concept of consistent mass beyond just translational inertia effects is included. Recommendations are given for various types of modeling situations.

  9. Semantic priming in number naming.

    PubMed

    Reynvoet, Bert; Brysbaert, Marc; Fias, Wim

    2002-10-01

    The issue of semantic and non-semantic conversion routes for numerals is still debated in numerical cognition. We report two number-naming experiments in which the target numerals were preceded by another numeral (prime). The primes and targets could be presented either in arabic (digit) notation or in verbal (alphabetical) notation. The results reveal a semantically related distance effect: Latencies are fastest when the prime has the same value as the target and increase when the distance between prime and target increases. We argue that the present results are congruent with the idea that the numerals make access to an ordered semantic number line common to all notations, as the results are the same for within-notation priming (arabic-arabic or verbal-verbal) and between-notations priming (arabic-verbal or verbal-arabic). The present results also point to a rapid involvement of semantics in the naming of numerals, also when the numerals are words. As such, they are in line with recent claims of rapid semantic mediation in word naming. PMID:12420988

  10. Sperm Competition, Sperm Numbers and Sperm Quality in Muroid Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Gómez Montoto, Laura; Magaña, Concepción; Tourmente, Maximiliano; Martín-Coello, Juan; Crespo, Cristina; Luque-Larena, Juan José

    2011-01-01

    Sperm competition favors increases in relative testes mass and production efficiency, and changes in sperm phenotype that result in faster swimming speeds. However, little is known about its effects on traits that contribute to determine the quality of a whole ejaculate (i.e., proportion of motile, viable, morphologically normal and acrosome intact sperm) and that are key determinants of fertilization success. Two competing hypotheses lead to alternative predictions: (a) sperm quantity and quality traits co-evolve under sperm competition because they play complementary roles in determining ejaculate's competitive ability, or (b) energetic constraints force trade-offs between traits depending on their relevance in providing a competitive advantage. We examined relationships between sperm competition levels, sperm quantity, and traits that determine ejaculate quality, in a comparative study of 18 rodent species using phylogenetically controlled analyses. Total sperm numbers were positively correlated to proportions of normal sperm, acrosome integrity and motile sperm; the latter three were also significantly related among themselves, suggesting no trade-offs between traits. In addition, testes mass corrected for body mass (i.e., relative testes mass), showed a strong association with sperm numbers, and positive significant associations with all sperm traits that determine ejaculate quality with the exception of live sperm. An “overall sperm quality” parameter obtained by principal component analysis (which explained 85% of the variance) was more strongly associated with relative testes mass than any individual quality trait. Overall sperm quality was as strongly associated with relative testes mass as sperm numbers. Thus, sperm quality traits improve under sperm competition in an integrated manner suggesting that a combination of all traits is what makes ejaculates more competitive. In evolutionary terms this implies that a complex network of genetic and developmental pathways underlying processes of sperm formation, maturation, transport in the female reproductive tract, and preparation for fertilization must all evolve in concert. PMID:21464956

  11. Elbow mass flow meter

    DOEpatents

    McFarland, Andrew R. (College Station, TX); Rodgers, John C. (Santa Fe, NM); Ortiz, Carlos A. (Bryan, TX); Nelson, David C. (Santa Fe, NM)

    1994-01-01

    Elbow mass flow meter. The present invention includes a combination of an elbow pressure drop generator and a shunt-type mass flow sensor for providing an output which gives the mass flow rate of a gas that is nearly independent of the density of the gas. For air, the output is also approximately independent of humidity.

  12. On Defining Mass

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hecht, Eugene

    2011-01-01

    Though central to any pedagogical development of physics, the concept of mass is still not well understood. Properly defining mass has proven to be far more daunting than contemporary textbooks would have us believe. And yet today the origin of mass is one of the most aggressively pursued areas of research in all of physics. Much of the excitement…

  13. On Defining Mass

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hecht, Eugene

    2011-01-01

    Though central to any pedagogical development of physics, the concept of mass is still not well understood. Properly defining mass has proven to be far more daunting than contemporary textbooks would have us believe. And yet today the origin of mass is one of the most aggressively pursued areas of research in all of physics. Much of the excitement…

  14. The gluon masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larin, S. A.

    2016-02-01

    It is shown that the fundamental Lagrangian of Quantum Chromodynamis should be modified by the adding gluon masses to produce the mass-gap in accordance with the Källen-Lehmann spectral representation. On mass-shell renormalizability and unitarity of the resulting theory is demonstrated.

  15. Fourier Transform Mass Spectrometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Michael L.; Rempel, Don L.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the nature of Fourier transform mass spectrometry and its unique combination of high mass resolution, high upper mass limit, and multichannel advantage. Examines its operation, capabilities and limitations, applications (ion storage, ion manipulation, ion chemistry), and future applications and developments. (JN)

  16. Pangloss: Reconstructing lensing mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collett, Thomas E.; Marshall, Philip J.; Mason, Charlotte

    2015-11-01

    Pangloss reconstructs all the mass within a light cone through the Universe. Understanding complex mass distributions like this is important for accurate time delay lens cosmography, and also for accurate lens magnification estimation. It aspires to use all available data in an attempt to make the best of all mass maps.

  17. Theories of fermion masses

    SciTech Connect

    Bagger, J.; Dimopoulos, S.; Georgi, H.; Raby, S.

    1984-05-01

    We present grand unified theories in which the quark masses and mixing angles are calculated in terms of the lepton masses through simple group theory. The theories contain no small Yukawa couplings. A favored value of the top quark mass is 35 GeV.

  18. Relations between Central Black Hole Mass and Total Galaxy Stellar Mass in the Local Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reines, Amy E.; Volonteri, Marta

    2015-11-01

    Scaling relations between central black hole (BH) mass and host galaxy properties are of fundamental importance to studies of BH and galaxy evolution throughout cosmic time. Here we investigate the relationship between BH mass and host galaxy total stellar mass using a sample of 262 broad-line active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in the nearby universe (z < 0.055), as well as 79 galaxies with dynamical BH masses. The vast majority of our AGN sample is constructed using Sloan Digital Sky Survey spectroscopy and searching for Seyfert-like narrow-line ratios and broad H? emission. BH masses are estimated using standard virial techniques. We also include a small number of dwarf galaxies with total stellar masses Mstellar ? 109.5 M? and a subsample of the reverberation-mapped AGNs. Total stellar masses of all 341 galaxies are calculated in the most consistent manner feasible using color-dependent mass-to-light ratios. We find a clear correlation between BH mass and total stellar mass for the AGN host galaxies, with MBH ? Mstellar, similar to that of early-type galaxies with dynamically detected BHs. However, the relation defined by the AGNs has a normalization that is lower by more than an order of magnitude, with a BH-to-total stellar mass fraction of MBH/Mstellar ? 0.025% across the stellar mass range 108 ? Mstellar/M? ? 1012. This result has significant implications for studies at high redshift and cosmological simulations in which stellar bulges cannot be resolved.

  19. Constraining thawing and freezing models with cluster number counts

    SciTech Connect

    Devi, N. Chandrachani; Gonzalez, J.E.; Alcaniz, J.S. E-mail: javierernesto@on.br

    2014-06-01

    Measurements of the cluster abundance as a function of mass and redshift provide an important cosmological test that probe not only the expansion rate but also the growth of perturbations. In this paper we adopt a scalar field scenario which admits both thawing and freezing solutions from an appropriate choice of the model parameters and derived all relevant expressions to calculate the mass function and the cluster number density. We discuss the ability of cluster observations to distinguish between these scalar field behaviors and the standard ΛCDM scenario by considering the eROSITA and SPT cluster surveys.

  20. Graviton mass or cosmological constant?

    SciTech Connect

    Gabadadze, Gregory; Gruzinov, Andrei

    2005-12-15

    To describe a massive graviton in 4D Minkowski space-time one introduces a quadratic term in the Lagrangian. This term, however, can lead to a readjustment or instability of the background instead of describing a massive graviton on flat space. We show that for all local 4D Lorentz-invariant mass terms Minkowski space is unstable. The instability can develop in a time scale that is many orders of magnitude shorter than the inverse graviton mass. We start with the Pauli-Fierz (PF) term that is the only local mass term with no ghosts in the linearized approximation. We show that nonlinear completions of the PF Lagrangian give rise to instability of Minkowski space. We continue with the mass terms that are not of a PF type. Although these models are known to have ghosts in the linearized approximations, nonlinear interactions can lead to background change in which the ghosts are eliminated. In the latter case, however, the graviton perturbations on the new background are not massive. We argue that a consistent theory of a massive graviton on flat space can be formulated in theories with extra dimensions. They require an infinite number of fields or nonlocal description from a 4D point of view.

  1. Quark masses and their hierarchies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ida, M.

    1987-12-01

    Electroweak symmetry breaking is attributed to dynamical generation of quark masses. Quarks q (and leptons l) are assumed to be produced by hypercolor confinement of preons at an intermediate scale ? hc. Hierarchies observed in the q mass spectra can be explained by a BCS mechanism if the color interaction is enough asymptotically free and if residual ones emerging by the confinement are medium strong. The former assumption claims that N?4, where N is the family number of q and l. Dynamical equations to determine q masses and mixings are given, but they require knowledge on the physics at ? hc. A phenomenological approach is also made on the basis of an SU(7)× SU(7) chiral preon model with N=4. The mass ratio m t/ mb is related to ( m c/ m s)?B with ? B?1.1 and m t'/ mb' to ( m u/ m d)?A with ? A?1.4. In this scheme the fourth down quark is the heaviest (˜ 110 GeV) and contributes dominantly to F 2, where F is the Fermi scale.

  2. A correlation for mass transfer coefficients in elbows

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.; Shirazi, S.A.; Shadley, J.R.; Rybicki, E.F.; Dayalan, E.

    1998-12-31

    Mass transfer can have a significant effect on corrosion rates depending on the solution chemistry and flow conditions. Therefore, knowledge of the distribution of mass transfer coefficients along the flow geometry can be useful in determining the severity of corrosion rates in situations where mass transfer is a factor. In this investigation, mass transfer in 90 elbows was examined. A computational fluid dynamic (CFD) code was used to model the flow in an elbow and compute mass transfer coefficients. Results were compared to available experimental data to verify the model. Although the number of variables involved in corrosion process is large, only two dimensionless parameters, namely, the flow Reynolds number and the Schmidt number are important for characterizing the mass transfer process. Mass transfer in elbows is also influenced by elbow geometry parameters such as the elbow radius to pipe diameter ratio (r/D). Based on these three dimensionless parameters, mass transfer between the elbow wall and the fluid was simulated and a correlation was developed to predict the maximum elbow mass transfer coefficient as a function of the flow Reynolds number, the Schmidt number and the elbow r/D. This investigation was motivated by a need to predict mass transfer coefficients in elbows for use in conjunction with a comprehensive model for calculating CO{sub 2} corrosion rates in oil and gas pipelines.

  3. Digital imaging mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Bamberger, Casimir; Renz, Uwe; Bamberger, Andreas

    2011-06-01

    Methods to visualize the two-dimensional (2D) distribution of molecules by mass spectrometric imaging evolve rapidly and yield novel applications in biology, medicine, and material surface sciences. Most mass spectrometric imagers acquire high mass resolution spectra spot-by-spot and thereby scan the object's surface. Thus, imaging is slow and image reconstruction remains cumbersome. Here we describe an imaging mass spectrometer that exploits the true imaging capabilities by ion optical means for the time of flight mass separation. The mass spectrometer is equipped with the ASIC Timepix chip as an array detector to acquire the position, mass, and intensity of ions that are imaged by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) directly from the target sample onto the detector. This imaging mass spectrometer has a spatial resolving power at the specimen of (84 ± 35) μm with a mass resolution of 45 and locates atoms or organic compounds on a surface area up to ~2 cm(2). Extended laser spots of ~5 mm(2) on structured specimens allows parallel imaging of selected masses. The digital imaging mass spectrometer proves high hit-multiplicity, straightforward image reconstruction, and potential for high-speed readout at 4 kHz or more. This device demonstrates a simple way of true image acquisition like a digital photographic camera. The technology may enable a fast analysis of biomolecular samples in near future. PMID:21953049

  4. Fourier Transform Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Scigelova, Michaela; Hornshaw, Martin; Giannakopulos, Anastassios; Makarov, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    This article provides an introduction to Fourier transform-based mass spectrometry. The key performance characteristics of Fourier transform-based mass spectrometry, mass accuracy and resolution, are presented in the view of how they impact the interpretation of measurements in proteomic applications. The theory and principles of operation of two types of mass analyzer, Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance and Orbitrap, are described. Major benefits as well as limitations of Fourier transform-based mass spectrometry technology are discussed in the context of practical sample analysis, and illustrated with examples included as figures in this text and in the accompanying slide set. Comparisons highlighting the performance differences between the two mass analyzers are made where deemed useful in assisting the user with choosing the most appropriate technology for an application. Recent developments of these high-performing mass spectrometers are mentioned to provide a future outlook. PMID:21742802

  5. Inflationary predictions and moduli masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Kumar; Dutta, Koushik; Maharana, Anshuman

    2015-12-01

    A generic feature of inflationary models in supergravity/string constructions is vacuum misalignment for the moduli fields. The associated production of moduli particles leads to an epoch in the post-inflationary history in which the energy density is dominated by cold moduli particles. This modification of the post-inflationary history implies that the preferred range for the number of e-foldings between horizon exit of the modes relevant for CMB observations and the end of inflation (Nk) depends on moduli masses. This in turn implies that the precision CMB observables ns and r are sensitive to moduli masses. We analyse this sensitivity for some representative models of inflation and find the effect to be highly relevant for confronting inflationary models with observations.

  6. Supersymmetric origin of neutrino mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirsch, M.; Valle, J. W. F.

    2004-07-01

    Supersymmetry with breaking of R-parity provides an attractive way to generate neutrino masses and lepton mixing angles in accordance with the present neutrino data. We review the main theoretical features of the bilinear R-parity breaking (BRpV) model, and stress that it is the simplest extension of the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM), which includes lepton number violation. We describe how it leads to a successful phenomenological model with hierarchical neutrino masses. In contrast with see-saw models, the BRpV model can be probed at future collider experiments, such as the Large Hadron Collider or the Next Linear Collider, since the decay pattern of the lightest supersymmetric particle provides a direct connection with the lepton mixing angles determined by neutrino experiments.

  7. Number systems, ?-splines and refinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zube, Severinas

    2004-12-01

    This paper is concerned with the smooth refinable function on a plane relative with complex scaling factor . Characteristic functions of certain self-affine tiles related to a given scaling factor are the simplest examples of such refinable function. We study the smooth refinable functions obtained by a convolution power of such charactericstic functions. Dahlke, Dahmen, and Latour obtained some explicit estimates for the smoothness of the resulting convolution products. In the case ?=1+i, we prove better results. We introduce ?-splines in two variables which are the linear combination of shifted basic functions. We derive basic properties of ?-splines and proceed with a detailed presentation of refinement methods. We illustrate the application of ?-splines to subdivision with several examples. It turns out that ?-splines produce well-known subdivision algorithms which are based on box splines: Doo-Sabin, Catmull-Clark, Loop, Midedge and some -subdivision schemes with good continuity. The main geometric ingredient in the definition of ?-splines is the fundamental domain (a fractal set or a self-affine tile). The properties of the fractal obtained in number theory are important and necessary in order to determine two basic properties of ?-splines: partition of unity and the refinement equation.

  8. Verification Challenges at Low Numbers

    SciTech Connect

    Benz, Jacob M.; Booker, Paul M.; McDonald, Benjamin S.

    2013-06-01

    Many papers have dealt with the political difficulties and ramifications of deep nuclear arms reductions, and the issues of “Going to Zero”. Political issues include extended deterrence, conventional weapons, ballistic missile defense, and regional and geo-political security issues. At each step on the road to low numbers, the verification required to ensure compliance of all parties will increase significantly. Looking post New START, the next step will likely include warhead limits in the neighborhood of 1000 . Further reductions will include stepping stones at1000 warheads, 100’s of warheads, and then 10’s of warheads before final elimination could be considered of the last few remaining warheads and weapons. This paper will focus on these three threshold reduction levels, 1000, 100’s, 10’s. For each, the issues and challenges will be discussed, potential solutions will be identified, and the verification technologies and chain of custody measures that address these solutions will be surveyed. It is important to note that many of the issues that need to be addressed have no current solution. In these cases, the paper will explore new or novel technologies that could be applied. These technologies will draw from the research and development that is ongoing throughout the national laboratory complex, and will look at technologies utilized in other areas of industry for their application to arms control verification.

  9. Choice and number of reinforcers

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Jay

    1979-01-01

    Pigeons were exposed to the concurrent-chains procedure in two experiments designed to investigate the effects of unequal numbers of reinforcers on choice. In Experiment 1, the pigeons were indifferent between long and short durations of access to variable-interval schedules of equal reinforcement density, but preferred a short high-density terminal link over a longer, lower density terminal link, even though in both sets of comparisons there were many more reinforcers per cycle in the longer terminal link. In Experiment 2, the pigeons preferred five reinforcers, the first of which was available after 30 sec, over a single reinforcer available at 30 sec, but only when the local interval between successive reinforcers was short. The pigeons were indifferent when this local interval was sufficiently long. The pigeons' behavior appeared to be under the control of local terminal-link variables, such as the intervals to the first reinforcer and between successive reinforcers, and was not well described in terms of transformed delays of reinforcement or reductions in average delay to reinforcement. PMID:16812143

  10. Verification Challenges at Low Numbers

    SciTech Connect

    Benz, Jacob M.; Booker, Paul M.; McDonald, Benjamin S.

    2013-07-16

    This paper will explore the difficulties of deep reductions by examining the technical verification challenges. At each step on the road to low numbers, the verification required to ensure compliance of all parties will increase significantly. Looking post New START, the next step will likely include warhead limits in the neighborhood of 1000 (Pifer 2010). Further reductions will include stepping stones at 100’s of warheads, and then 10’s of warheads before final elimination could be considered of the last few remaining warheads and weapons. This paper will focus on these three threshold reduction levels, 1000, 100’s, 10’s. For each, the issues and challenges will be discussed, potential solutions will be identified, and the verification technologies and chain of custody measures that address these solutions will be surveyed. It is important to note that many of the issues that need to be addressed have no current solution. In these cases, the paper will explore new or novel technologies that could be applied. These technologies will draw from the research and development that is ongoing throughout the national lab complex, and will look at technologies utilized in other areas of industry for their application to arms control verification.

  11. The halo mass function goes nonlinear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heneka, Caroline; Rapetti, David; Cataneo, Matteo; Mantz, Adam; Allen, Steven W.; Von Der Linden, Anja; Applegate, Douglas

    2016-01-01

    When using cluster number counts to estimate cosmological parameters, cosmological model information at the nonlinear level can be incorporated into the halo mass function. Here the halo mass function is carefully recalibrated to include the effect of dark energy perturbations for an accurate description, employing the spherical collapse formalism. Using our MCMC likelihood analysis of X-ray cluster samples together with standard cosmological data sets, we constrain cosmological parameters when incorporating these nonlinear corrections. We emphasize the impact on the constraints of the cosmological parameters and the relevance of including these corrections in the cluster mass function calculation.

  12. Harmonic resolution as a holographic quantum number

    SciTech Connect

    Bousso, Raphael

    2004-01-31

    The Bekenstein bound takes the holographic principle into the realm of flat space, promising new insights on the relation of non-gravitational physics to quantum gravity. This makes it important to obtain a precise formulation of the bound. Conventionally, one specifies two macroscopic quantities, mass and spatial width, which cannot be simultaneously diagonalized. Thus, the counting of compatible states is not sharply defined. The resolution of this and other formal difficulties leads naturally to a definition in terms of discretized light-cone quantization. In this form, the area difference specified in the covariant bound converts to a single quantum number, the harmonic resolution K. The Bekenstein bound then states that the Fock space sector with K units of longitudinal momentum contains no more than exp(2 pi^2 K) independent discrete states. This conjecture can be tested unambiguously for a given Lagrangian, and it appears to hold true for realistic field theories, including models arising from string compactifications. For large K, it makes contact with more conventional but less well-defined formulations.

  13. Probing the Relationship Between Black Hole Mass and Galaxy Mass for Reverberation-Mapped AGN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ou-Yang, Benjamin; Bentz, Misty; Johnson, Megan C.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the relationship between the black hole mass and galaxy mass for active galactic nuclei (AGN) with direct black hole mass measurements. Black hole masses were determined from reverberation mapping, which relies on the velocity of the broad line region (BLR) clouds and the light travel time as a measure of the size of the BLR. We constrain the rotation velocity, and therefore the mass, of each AGN host galaxy with HI spectroscopy obtained at the NRAO Green Bank Telescope. We also explore the relationship between black hole mass and dark matter mass by constraining the stellar mass component with ground-based and Hubble Space Telescope optical images combined with the integrated HI flux as a constraint the mass of the gas component. Black hole scaling relations such as these can provide convenient alternatives for large numbers of black hole mass estimates when time and resource constraints preclude black hole mass measurements. Additionally, they can provide constraints for simulations of galaxy evolution and co-evolution with the central black hole.

  14. Cotyledon damage affects seed number through final plant size in the annual grassland species Medicago lupulina

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shiting; Zhao, Chuan; Lamb, Eric G.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims The effects of cotyledon damage on seedling growth and survival are relatively well established, but little is known about the effects on aspects of plant fitness such as seed number and size. Here the direct and indirect mechanisms linking cotyledon damage and plant fitness in the annual species Medicago lupulina are examined. Methods Growth and reproductive traits, including mature plant size, time to first flowering, flower number, seed number and individual seed mass were monitored in M. lupulina plants when zero, one or two cotyledons were removed at 7 d old. Structural equation modelling (SEM) was used to examine the mechanisms linking cotyledon damage to seed number and seed mass. Key Results Cotyledon damage reduced seed number but not individual seed mass. The primary mechanism was a reduction in plant biomass with cotyledon damage that in turn reduced seed number primarily through a reduction in flower numbers. Although cotyledon damage delayed flower initiation, it had little effect on seed number. Individual seed mass was not affected by cotyledon removal, but there was a trade-off between seed number and seed mass. Conclusions It is shown how a network of indirect mechanisms link damage to cotyledons and fitness in M. lupulina. Cotyledon damage had strong direct effects on both plant size and flowering phenology, but an analysis of the causal relationships among plant traits and fitness components showed that a reduction in plant size associated with cotyledon damage was an important mechanism influencing fitness. PMID:21196450

  15. Probing the primordial power spectrum with cluster number counts

    SciTech Connect

    Chantavat, Teeraparb; Gordon, Christopher; Silk, Joseph

    2009-04-15

    We investigate how well galaxy cluster number counts can constrain the primordial power spectrum. Measurements of the primary anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background may be limited, by the presence of foregrounds from secondary sources, to probing the primordial power spectrum at wave numbers less than about 0.30h Mpc{sup -1}. We break up the primordial power spectrum into a number of nodes and interpolate linearly between each node. This allows us to show that cluster number counts could then extend the constraints on the form of the primordial power spectrum up to wave numbers of about 0.45h Mpc{sup -1}. We estimate combinations of constraints from PLANCK and SPT primary cosmic microwave background and their respective Sunyaev-Zeldovich surveys. We find that their constraining ability is limited by uncertainties in the mass-scaling relations. We also estimate the constraint from clusters detected from a SNAP-like gravitational lensing survey. As there is an unambiguous and simple relationship between the filtered shear of the lensing survey and the cluster mass, it may be possible to obtain much tighter constraints on the primordial power spectrum in this case.

  16. The mass of the photon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Liang-Cheng; Luo, Jun; Gillies, George T.

    2005-01-01

    Because classical Maxwellian electromagnetism has been one of the cornerstones of physics during the past century, experimental tests of its foundations are always of considerable interest. Within that context, one of the most important efforts of this type has historically been the search for a rest mass of the photon. The effects of a nonzero photon rest mass can be incorporated into electromagnetism straightforwardly through the Proca equations, which are the simplest relativistic generalization of Maxwell's equations. Using them, it is possible to consider some far-reaching implications of a massive photon, such as variation of the speed of light, deviations in the behaviour of static electromagnetic fields, longitudinal electromagnetic radiation and even questions of gravitational deflection. All of these have been studied carefully using a number of different approaches over the past several decades. This review attempts to assess the status of our current knowledge and understanding of the photon rest mass, with particular emphasis on a discussion of the various experimental methods that have been used to set upper limits on it. All such tests can be most easily categorized in terms of terrestrial and extra-terrestrial approaches, and the review classifies them as such. Up to now, there has been no conclusive evidence of a finite mass for the photon, with the results instead yielding ever more stringent upper bounds on the size of it, thus confirming the related aspects of Maxwellian electromagnetism with concomitant precision. Of course, failure to find a finite photon mass in any one experiment or class of experiments is not proof that it is identically zero and, even as the experimental limits move more closely towards the fundamental bounds of measurement uncertainty, new conceptual approaches to the task continue to appear. The intrinsic importance of the question and the lure of what might be revealed by attaining the next decimal place are as strong a draw on this question as they are in any other aspect of precise tests of physical laws.

  17. Lepton Number Violation and Lepton Flavour Violation at LHCb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adeva, B.; Lhcb Collaboration

    2013-07-01

    Searches for heavy Majorana neutrinos in B- decays with final states containing hadrons plus a ?-?- pair are performed using 0.41 fb-1 of data collected with the LHCb detector in proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV. No signals are found and upper limits are set on Majorana neutrino production and B- decay branching fractions as a function of the Majorana neutrino mass. A search is also made for the lepton flavour violating decay ? ? ?+?-?- using 1.0 fb-1 of data collected by LHCb in 2011. The observed number of events is consistent with the background expectation, and an upper limit on the branching ratio is set. Using a similar procedure, the lepton flavour violating and baryon number violating decays ?- ? bar p?+?- and ?- ? p?-?- are searched for, and upper limits provided at 95% confidence level.

  18. Lepton number violation within the conformal inverse seesaw

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humbert, Pascal; Lindner, Manfred; Patra, Sudhanwa; Smirnov, Juri

    2015-09-01

    We present a novel framework within the conformal inverse seesaw scheme allowing large lepton number violation while the neutrino mass formula is still governed by the low-scale inverse seesaw mechanism. This model includes new contributions to rare low-energy lepton number violating processes like neutrinoless double beta decay. We find that the lifetime for this rare process due to heavy sterile neutrinos can saturate current experimental limits in contrast to the usual inverse seesaw where this process is suppressed. The characteristic collider signature of the present conformal inverse seesaw scheme includes, same-sign dilepton plus two jets and same-sign dilepton plus four jets. Finally, we comment on the testability of the model at the Large Hadron Collider since there are new scalars, new fermions and an extra neutral gauge boson with masses around few 100 GeV to few TeV.

  19. Lepton Number Violation in Higgs Decay at LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maiezza, Alessio; Nemevšek, Miha; Nesti, Fabrizio

    2015-08-01

    We show that within the left-right symmetric model, lepton number violating decays of the Higgs boson can be discovered at the LHC. The process is due to the mixing of the Higgs boson with the triplet that breaks parity. As a result, the Higgs boson can act as a gateway to the origin of the heavy Majorana neutrino mass. To assess the LHC reach, a detailed collider study of the same-sign dileptons plus jets channel is provided. This process is complementary to the existing nuclear and collider searches for lepton number violation and can probe the scale of parity restoration even beyond other direct searches.

  20. Lepton Number Violation in Higgs Decay at LHC.

    PubMed

    Maiezza, Alessio; Nemevšek, Miha; Nesti, Fabrizio

    2015-08-21

    We show that within the left-right symmetric model, lepton number violating decays of the Higgs boson can be discovered at the LHC. The process is due to the mixing of the Higgs boson with the triplet that breaks parity. As a result, the Higgs boson can act as a gateway to the origin of the heavy Majorana neutrino mass. To assess the LHC reach, a detailed collider study of the same-sign dileptons plus jets channel is provided. This process is complementary to the existing nuclear and collider searches for lepton number violation and can probe the scale of parity restoration even beyond other direct searches. PMID:26340181

  1. On the Masses of the Fundamental Particles in the Bound State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subramanium, R.; Goh, N. K.; Chia, L. S.

    1996-07-01

    A simple computational approach is presented to show that the masses of the fundamental particles are not only lower in the elements but are also different for the various elements. Only basic concepts relating to an atom such as mass number, atomic number, relative isotopic mass, and Avogadro's Number are required. The mass values of the fundamental particles are not needed in the proposed treatment, except for comparison. Some pedagogical elements of interest are also addressed.

  2. Mass spectra of copolymers.

    PubMed

    Montaudo, Maurizio S

    2002-01-01

    Recent and older literature (covering the last 12-13 years) in the field of mass spectra of random and block copolymers is reviewed. A detailed description is given of the information on copolymer properties that can be recovered from the analysis of the low-mass region of the spectrum (the region below 500 Da) and the high-mass region. The features of mass spectra of copolymers obtained by different synthetic routes are discussed, such as free radical, condensation, ring-chain equilibration, microbial synthesis, ring-opening, simple anionic, cationic, Ziegler-Natta, and/or metallocene catalysis, along with some random and block copolymers that occur in Nature. The emphasis is on copolymer composition and average molar mass determination, and on the benefits of coupling mass spectrometry (MS) with separation techniques such as size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). PMID:12373747

  3. Top quark mass measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, Christopher S.; /UC, Santa Barbara

    2004-12-01

    The top quark, with its extraordinarily large mass (nearly that of a gold atom), plays a significant role in the phenomenology of EWSB in the Standard Model. In particular, the top quark mass when combined with the W mass constrains the mass of the as yet unobserved Higgs boson. Thus, a precise determination of the mass of the top quark is a principal goal of the CDF and D0 experiments. With the data collected thus far in Runs 1 and 2 of the Tevatron, CDF and D0 have measured the top quark mass in both the lepton+jets and dilepton decay channels using a variety of complementary experimental techniques. The author presents an overview of the most recent of the measurements.

  4. Measurement of non-volatile particle number size distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gkatzelis, G. I.; Papanastasiou, D. K.; Florou, K.; Kaltsonoudis, C.; Louvaris, E.; Pandis, S. N.

    2015-06-01

    An experimental methodology was developed to measure the non-volatile particle number concentration using a thermodenuder (TD). The TD was coupled with a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer, measuring the chemical composition and mass size distribution of the submicrometer aerosol and a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) that provided the number size distribution of the aerosol in the range from 10 to 500 nm. The method was evaluated with a set of smog chamber experiments and achieved almost complete evaporation (> 98 %) of secondary organic as well as freshly nucleated particles, using a TD temperature of 400 °C and a centerline residence time of 15 s. This experimental approach was applied in a winter field campaign in Athens and provided a direct measurement of number concentration and size distribution for particles emitted from major pollution sources. During periods in which the contribution of biomass burning sources was dominant, more than 80 % of particle number concentration remained after passing through the thermodenuder, suggesting that nearly all biomass burning particles had a non-volatile core. These remaining particles consisted mostly of black carbon (60 % mass contribution) and organic aerosol, OA (40 %). Organics that had not evaporated through the TD were mostly biomass burning OA (BBOA) and oxygenated OA (OOA) as determined from AMS source apportionment analysis. For periods during which traffic contribution was dominant 50-60 % of the particles had a non-volatile core while the rest evaporated at 400 °C. The remaining particle mass consisted mostly of black carbon (BC) with an 80 % contribution, while OA was responsible for another 15-20 %. Organics were mostly hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA) and OOA. These results suggest that even at 400 °C some fraction of the OA does not evaporate from particles emitted from common combustion processes, such as biomass burning and car engines, indicating that a fraction of this type of OA is of extremely low volatility.

  5. Neutrino Mass Anarchy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Lawrence; Murayama, Hitoshi; Weiner, Neal

    2000-03-01

    What is the form of the neutrino mass matrix which governs the oscillations of the atmospheric and solar neutrinos? Features of the data have led to a dominant viewpoint where the mass matrix has an ordered, regulated pattern, perhaps dictated by a flavor symmetry. We challenge this viewpoint and demonstrate that the data are well accounted for by a neutrino mass matrix which appears to have random entries.

  6. Neutrino mass anarchy

    PubMed

    Hall; Murayama; Weiner

    2000-03-20

    What is the form of the neutrino mass matrix which governs the oscillations of the atmospheric and solar neutrinos? Features of the data have led to a dominant viewpoint where the mass matrix has an ordered, regulated pattern, perhaps dictated by a flavor symmetry. We challenge this viewpoint and demonstrate that the data are well accounted for by a neutrino mass matrix which appears to have random entries. PMID:11017272

  7. Bounding gauged Skyrmion masses

    SciTech Connect

    Brihaye, Yves; Hill, Christopher T.; Zachos, Cosmas K.

    2004-12-01

    Normally, standard (ungauged) skyrmion masses are proportional to the coupling of the Skyrme term needed for stability, and so can grow to infinite magnitude with increasing coupling. In striking contrast, when skyrmions are gauged, their masses are bounded above for any Skyrme coupling, and, instead, are of the order of monopole masses, O(v/g), so that the coupling of the Skyrme term is not very important. This boundedness phenomenon and its implications are investigated.

  8. THE EVOLUTION OF THE NUMBER DENSITY OF COMPACT GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Poggianti, B. M.; Calvi, R.; Renzini, A.; Moretti, A.; D'Onofrio, M.; Valentinuzzi, T.; Fritz, J.

    2013-11-10

    We compare the number density of compact (small size) massive galaxies at low and high redshift using our Padova Millennium Galaxy and Group Catalogue (PM2GC) at z = 0.03-0.11 and the CANDELS results from Barro et al. at z = 1-2. The number density of local compact galaxies with luminosity weighted (LW) ages compatible with being already passive at high redshift is compared with the density of compact passive galaxies observed at high-z. Our results place an upper limit of a factor ∼2 on the evolution of the number density and are inconsistent with a significant size evolution for most of the compact galaxies observed at high-z. Instead, the evolution may be significant (up to a factor five) for the most extreme, ultracompact galaxies. Considering all compact galaxies, regardless of LW age and star formation activity, a minority of local compact galaxies (≤1/3) might have formed at z < 1. Finally, we show that the secular decrease of the galaxy stellar mass due to simple stellar evolution may in some cases be a non-negligible factor in the context of the evolution of the mass-size relation, and we caution that passive evolution in mass should be taken into account when comparing samples at different redshifts.

  9. Constraining planetary interiors with the Love number k2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramm, Ulrike; Nettelmann, Nadine; Redmer, Ronald

    2011-11-01

    For the solar sytem giant planets the measurement of the gravitational moments J2 and J4 provided valuable information about the interior structure. However, for extrasolar planets the gravitational moments are not accessible. Nevertheless, an additional constraint for extrasolar planets can be obtained from the tidal Love number k2, which, to first order, is equivalent to J2. k2 quantifies the quadrupolic gravity field deformation at the surface of the planet in response to an external perturbing body and depends solely on the planet's internal density distribution. On the other hand, the inverse deduction of the density distribution of the planet from k2 is non-unique. The Love number k2 is a potentially observable parameter that can be obtained from tidally induced apsidal precession of close-in planets (Ragozzine & Wolf 2009) or from the orbital parameters of specific two-planet systems in apsidal alignment (Mardling 2007). We find that for a given k2, a precise value for the core mass cannot be derived. However, a maximum core mass can be inferred which equals the core mass predicted by homogeneous zero metallicity envelope models. Using the example of the extrasolar transiting planet HAT-P-13b we show to what extend planetary models can be constrained by taking into account the tidal Love number k2.

  10. The Numbers Game: A Values Clarification Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ognibene, Richard; Winter, Cynthia

    1976-01-01

    After completing personal identification forms consisting only of numbers (phone number, Social Security number, etc.), students discuss the need for more personal means of identification within society in order for people to feel a useful sense of identity. (AV)

  11. The mass function of Seyfert 1 nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Padovani, P.; Burg, R.; Edelson, R. A.

    1990-01-01

    The first mass function of Seyfert 1 nuclei is derived from optical spectra of the complete CfA sample of Seyfert galaxies by estimating the mass for each object from a dynamical relation. An independent estimate is also derived using a complete infrared-selected sample. The two mass functions are indistinguishable. The mean mass of Seyfert 1 nuclei is about 2 x 10 to the 7th solar masses, and the integrated mass density is about 6 x 10 to the 11th solar masses/cu Gpc. This is approximately two orders of magnitude less than the value inferred from the energetics associated with quasar counts. A careful analysis of the various parameters and assumptions involved suggests that this large difference is not due to systematic errors in the determinations. Therefore, the bulk of mass related to the accretion processes connected with past quasar activity does not reside in Seyfert 1 nuclei. Instead, the remnants of past activity must be present in a much larger number of galaxies, and a one-to-one relation between distant and local active galactic nuclei seems then to be excluded.

  12. Ultrafine beryllium number concentration as a possible metric for chronic beryllium disease risk.

    PubMed

    McCawley, M A; Kent, M S; Berakis, M T

    2001-05-01

    Beryllium is a lightweight metal which causes a chronic granulomatous lung disease among workers who become sensitized to it. Recent research has shown a persistence of the disease despite efforts at control with mean exposures below the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) occupational exposure limit of 2 microg/m3. Results of our current research confirm a previous finding in certain plants that particle number concentrations are higher in areas where historical estimate of risk showed a high risk of disease despite relatively lower mass concentrations. By providing side-by-side measurements of both particle number and mass, this research adds support to the proposal that particle number rather than particle mass may be more reflective of target organ dose and subsequently a more appropriate measure of exposure for chronic beryllium disease. Our evidence also shows that particle mass exposure measurements and particle number exposure measurements were not correlated. PMID:11370941

  13. Papers and Proceedings. Syntopican VIII: "Moving Information--Concepts in Transition." (Minneapolis, MN, June 23-26, 1980).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1980

    This collection of 22 papers examines various word processing (WP) technologies, systems, and applications. The first five papers by C. Briggs, C. Taylor, G. McLean, D. Remsen, and C. Norris discuss WP applications in the Army, a WP system for an insurance firm, the organization of the International Word Processing Association, WP fundamentals,…

  14. EXPLORING EDUCATION OF GIFTED CHILDREN, REPORT ON FOUR REGIONAL CONFERENCES, DEVILS LAKE, JAMESTOWN, MINOT, DICKINSON, JANUARY 23-26,1962.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PETERSON, M.F.

    FOR DISCUSSION PURPOSES, GIFTED PUPILS WERE DEFINED AS THE UPPER 15 PERCENT OF THE SCHOOL POPULATION, INCLUDING THE INTELLECTUALLY SUPERIOR, THE TALENTED, THE SKILLFUL, AND THE ABLE LEARNER. MANY BOOKS AND PAMPHLETS WERE ON DISPLAY, INCLUDING "CURRICULUM ADJUSTMENTS FOR GIFTED CHILDREN," BY ELISE MARTENS, "THE CHALLENGE," A PROGRAM FOR GIFTED…

  15. ERTS 1 launch and flight activation evaluation report, 23 - 26 July 1972. Launch through Orbit 35 and orbit adjust operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The results of the analysis conducted on the telemetry data from the prelaunch, launch, and flight activation phases of the ERTS-1 spacecraft are presented. It is presented by sub system sections and provides for inter-relationships as they exist between the several subsystems. A brief statement of subsystem characteristics precedes flight evaluation statements. The appendix contains a total list of components flow on ERTS-1 and a complete listing of commands and telemetry functions for reference.

  16. A report from the Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI) 2015 (February 23-26--Seattle, Washington, USA).

    PubMed

    Rabasseda, X

    2015-03-01

    The largest conference on HIV and AIDS, the annual Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI) also encompasses opportunistic and other important pathogens, notably in 2015 hepatitis C virus and the Ebola virus. This year's conference involved 4 days of discussions on highly relevant basic, translational and clinical research and developments in the ongoing battle against these infections. PMID:25876564

  17. Grace and Courtesy: A Human Responsibility. AMI/USA Conference (Oak Brook, Illinois, July 23-26, 1998).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Montessori International of the United States, Inc., Rochester, NY.

    This conference proceedings compile presentations from a 1998 meeting of the American Montessori International of the United States, focusing on the importance of grace and courtesy in children's lives and in Montessori education. The papers presented are: (1) "Grace--The Felicity of Being" (Renilde Montessori); (2) "A Montessori Community for…

  18. ALIA 2000. Capitalising on Knowledge: The Information Profession in the 21st Century (Canberra, Australia, October 23-26, 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Library and Information Association, Deakin.

    This proceeding of the Australian Library and Information Association (ALIA) 2000 conference contains 64 papers presented at the main conference and 12 papers presented at the fringe conference. Topics covered include: the 21st century information environment; user perspectives of the future of the Internet; the user interface; public libraries in…

  19. OPENING OF CONFERENCE. NATIONAL OUTLOOK CONFERENCE ON RURAL YOUTH, OCTOBER 23-26, 1967, WASHINGTON, D. C.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FREEMAN, ORVILLE L.

    AMERICAN YOUTH HAVE ALWAYS HARBORED DISCONTENT WITH THE STATUS QUO. HOWEVER, IN THIS GENERATION TOO OFTEN HEALTHY DISCONTENT GIVES WAY TO DISENCHANTMENT AND SICK DESPAIR, AND THERE IS AMPLE REASON FOR YOUTH TO BE DISCONTENTED WITH OUR SOCIETY, WHEN WE ARE UNABLE TO MOBILIZE OUR VAST CAPACITIES TO MAXIMUM EFFECTIVENESS. SOME OF THESE CAPACITIES…

  20. Papers and Proceedings. Syntopican VIII: "Moving Information--Concepts in Transition." (Minneapolis, MN, June 23-26, 1980).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1980

    This collection of 22 papers examines various word processing (WP) technologies, systems, and applications. The first five papers by C. Briggs, C. Taylor, G. McLean, D. Remsen, and C. Norris discuss WP applications in the Army, a WP system for an insurance firm, the organization of the International Word Processing Association, WP fundamentals,…

  1. Portable mass spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giffin, C. E.; Sieradski, L. M.

    1977-01-01

    Eighteen-pound unit gives real-time onsite sample analysis. Mass range is twelve to two hundred atomic mass units with resolution of two hundred. Device has biomedical application possibilities, such as determination of alcohol and gas content of blood and breath.

  2. Elbow mass flow meter

    DOEpatents

    McFarland, A.R.; Rodgers, J.C.; Ortiz, C.A.; Nelson, D.C.

    1994-08-16

    The present invention includes a combination of an elbow pressure drop generator and a shunt-type mass flow sensor for providing an output which gives the mass flow rate of a gas that is nearly independent of the density of the gas. For air, the output is also approximately independent of humidity. 3 figs.

  3. Mass Media Consumption Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koziol, Robert V.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses a study of Maryland English and language arts teachers. Explains that teachers generally supported mass media consumption education. Identifies educators' concerns that such a program could interfere with more traditional instruction. Suggests that concerted efforts to formulate a mass media curriculum can increase the likelihood of its…

  4. The Origins of Mass

    ScienceCinema

    Lincoln, Don

    2014-08-07

    The Higgs boson was discovered in July of 2012 and is generally understood to be the origin of mass. While those statements are true, they are incomplete. It turns out that the Higgs boson is responsible for only about 2% of the mass of ordinary matter. In this dramatic new video, Dr. Don Lincoln of Fermilab tells us the rest of the story.

  5. Geometry of mass.

    PubMed

    Dietrich, D D

    2015-08-01

    We study the effect of mass on geometric descriptions of gauge field theories. In an approach in which the massless theory resembles general relativity, the introduction of the mass entails non-zero torsion and the generalization to Einstein-Cartan-Sciama-Kibble theories. The relationships to pure torsion formulations (teleparallel gravity) and to higher gauge theories are also discussed. PMID:26124248

  6. Measurement of Mass.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerer, Robert W.

    1983-01-01

    Various instruments and techniques for measuring mass are discussed, focusing on the physics behind techniques employed. Equal-arm balances, electronic substitution balance (using electromagnetic force), non-gravimetric weighing (intertial-mass measurement) are among the instruments/techniques considered. (JN)

  7. Mass Storage Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranade, Sanjay; Schraeder, Jeff

    1991-01-01

    Presents an overview of the mass storage market and discusses mass storage systems as part of computer networks. Systems for personal computers, workstations, minicomputers, and mainframe computers are described; file servers are explained; system integration issues are raised; and future possibilities are suggested. (LRW)

  8. Cyclotrons as mass spectrometers

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, D.J.

    1984-04-01

    The principles and design choices for cyclotrons as mass spectrometers are described. They are illustrated by examples of cyclotrons developed by various groups for this purpose. The use of present high energy cyclotrons for mass spectrometry is also described. 28 references, 12 figures.

  9. The Origins of Mass

    SciTech Connect

    Lincoln, Don

    2014-07-30

    The Higgs boson was discovered in July of 2012 and is generally understood to be the origin of mass. While those statements are true, they are incomplete. It turns out that the Higgs boson is responsible for only about 2% of the mass of ordinary matter. In this dramatic new video, Dr. Don Lincoln of Fermilab tells us the rest of the story.

  10. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Md-303 (Mendelevium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Md-303 (Mendelevium, atomic number Z = 101, mass number A = 303).

  11. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Md-323 (Mendelevium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Md-323 (Mendelevium, atomic number Z = 101, mass number A = 323).

  12. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Md-272 (Mendelevium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Md-272 (Mendelevium, atomic number Z = 101, mass number A = 272).

  13. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Md-289 (Mendelevium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Md-289 (Mendelevium, atomic number Z = 101, mass number A = 289).

  14. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Md-310 (Mendelevium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Md-310 (Mendelevium, atomic number Z = 101, mass number A = 310).

  15. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Md-307 (Mendelevium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Md-307 (Mendelevium, atomic number Z = 101, mass number A = 307).

  16. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Md-292 (Mendelevium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Md-292 (Mendelevium, atomic number Z = 101, mass number A = 292).

  17. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Md-322 (Mendelevium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Md-322 (Mendelevium, atomic number Z = 101, mass number A = 322).

  18. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Md-263 (Mendelevium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Md-263 (Mendelevium, atomic number Z = 101, mass number A = 263).

  19. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Md-298 (Mendelevium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Md-298 (Mendelevium, atomic number Z = 101, mass number A = 298).

  20. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Md-297 (Mendelevium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Md-297 (Mendelevium, atomic number Z = 101, mass number A = 297).

  1. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Md-336 (Mendelevium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Md-336 (Mendelevium, atomic number Z = 101, mass number A = 336).

  2. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Md-305 (Mendelevium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Md-305 (Mendelevium, atomic number Z = 101, mass number A = 305).

  3. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Md-312 (Mendelevium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Md-312 (Mendelevium, atomic number Z = 101, mass number A = 312).

  4. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Md-293 (Mendelevium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Md-293 (Mendelevium, atomic number Z = 101, mass number A = 293).

  5. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Md-290 (Mendelevium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Md-290 (Mendelevium, atomic number Z = 101, mass number A = 290).

  6. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Md-330 (Mendelevium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Md-330 (Mendelevium, atomic number Z = 101, mass number A = 330).

  7. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Md-275 (Mendelevium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Md-275 (Mendelevium, atomic number Z = 101, mass number A = 275).

  8. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Md-288 (Mendelevium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Md-288 (Mendelevium, atomic number Z = 101, mass number A = 288).

  9. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Md-306 (Mendelevium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Md-306 (Mendelevium, atomic number Z = 101, mass number A = 306).

  10. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Md-271 (Mendelevium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Md-271 (Mendelevium, atomic number Z = 101, mass number A = 271).

  11. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Md-314 (Mendelevium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Md-314 (Mendelevium, atomic number Z = 101, mass number A = 314).

  12. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Md-318 (Mendelevium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Md-318 (Mendelevium, atomic number Z = 101, mass number A = 318).

  13. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Md-311 (Mendelevium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Md-311 (Mendelevium, atomic number Z = 101, mass number A = 311).

  14. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Md-253 (Mendelevium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Md-253 (Mendelevium, atomic number Z = 101, mass number A = 253).

  15. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Md-331 (Mendelevium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Md-331 (Mendelevium, atomic number Z = 101, mass number A = 331).

  16. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Md-287 (Mendelevium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Md-287 (Mendelevium, atomic number Z = 101, mass number A = 287).

  17. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Md-341 (Mendelevium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Md-341 (Mendelevium, atomic number Z = 101, mass number A = 341).

  18. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Md-319 (Mendelevium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Md-319 (Mendelevium, atomic number Z = 101, mass number A = 319).

  19. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Md-332 (Mendelevium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Md-332 (Mendelevium, atomic number Z = 101, mass number A = 332).

  20. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Md-335 (Mendelevium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Md-335 (Mendelevium, atomic number Z = 101, mass number A = 335).

  1. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Md-261 (Mendelevium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Md-261 (Mendelevium, atomic number Z = 101, mass number A = 261).

  2. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Md-327 (Mendelevium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Md-327 (Mendelevium, atomic number Z = 101, mass number A = 327).

  3. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Md-277 (Mendelevium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Md-277 (Mendelevium, atomic number Z = 101, mass number A = 277).

  4. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Md-265 (Mendelevium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Md-265 (Mendelevium, atomic number Z = 101, mass number A = 265).

  5. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Md-285 (Mendelevium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Md-285 (Mendelevium, atomic number Z = 101, mass number A = 285).

  6. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Md-338 (Mendelevium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Md-338 (Mendelevium, atomic number Z = 101, mass number A = 338).

  7. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Md-291 (Mendelevium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Md-291 (Mendelevium, atomic number Z = 101, mass number A = 291).

  8. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Md-280 (Mendelevium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Md-280 (Mendelevium, atomic number Z = 101, mass number A = 280).

  9. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Md-299 (Mendelevium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Md-299 (Mendelevium, atomic number Z = 101, mass number A = 299).

  10. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Md-317 (Mendelevium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Md-317 (Mendelevium, atomic number Z = 101, mass number A = 317).

  11. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Md-337 (Mendelevium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Md-337 (Mendelevium, atomic number Z = 101, mass number A = 337).

  12. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Md-339 (Mendelevium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Md-339 (Mendelevium, atomic number Z = 101, mass number A = 339).

  13. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Md-283 (Mendelevium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Md-283 (Mendelevium, atomic number Z = 101, mass number A = 283).

  14. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Md-316 (Mendelevium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Md-316 (Mendelevium, atomic number Z = 101, mass number A = 316).

  15. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Md-274 (Mendelevium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Md-274 (Mendelevium, atomic number Z = 101, mass number A = 274).

  16. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Md-273 (Mendelevium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Md-273 (Mendelevium, atomic number Z = 101, mass number A = 273).

  17. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Md-260 (Mendelevium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Md-260 (Mendelevium, atomic number Z = 101, mass number A = 260).

  18. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Md-284 (Mendelevium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Md-284 (Mendelevium, atomic number Z = 101, mass number A = 284).

  19. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Md-334 (Mendelevium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Md-334 (Mendelevium, atomic number Z = 101, mass number A = 334).

  20. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Md-302 (Mendelevium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Md-302 (Mendelevium, atomic number Z = 101, mass number A = 302).