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1

Bone Mass Measurement: What the Numbers Mean  

MedlinePLUS

... Bone Basics Bone Mass Measurement: What the Numbers Mean Publication available in: PDF (168 KB) Español Chinese ( ... Health and Osteoporosis Surgeon General's Report: What It Means to You Informe del Año 2004 del Cirujano ...

2

Mass-induced transition in fermion number  

SciTech Connect

We show that if we increase the mass of fermions in interaction with a topological (kink) scalar background in 1+1 dimensions, the fractional fermion number of the system will eventually vanish. The transition is sharp and corresponds to the disappearance of localized states from the spectrum of a Dirac operator which is exactly solvable. Possible applications to different physical systems are discussed.

Aragao de Carvalho, C.; Pureza, J. M.

1989-05-15

3

Electric potential patterns deduced for the SUNDIAL period of September 23-26, 1986  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-latitude electric potential and ionospheric conductance patterns are presented and discussed for the Northern Hemisphere during the SUNDIAL period of September 23-26, 1986 using the Assimilative Mapping of Ionospheric Electrodynamics (AMIE) technique of Richmond and Kamide (1988). Data sources used for the model are satellite and ground magnetometers, electron precipitation instruments, incoherent scatter radars, and ionospheric coherent radars. The period

B. A. Emery; A. D. Richmond; H. W. Kroehl; C. D. Wells; J. M. Ruohoniemi

1990-01-01

4

Neutrino masses, lepton number violation and unification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theories with parity as a short-distance symmetry lead rather naturally to a small but non-vanishing nu L\\/sub 2\\/ mass. A reference formula for the size of the effect is m\\/sub nu \\/ approximately=m\\/sup 2 \\/\\/M with M a huge Majorana mass of the nu \\/sub R\\/ field, associated with the breaking of the group down to SU(3)*SU(2)*U(1) and m a

Riccardo Barbieri

1980-01-01

5

Electric potential patterns deduced for the SUNDIAL period of September 23-26, 1986  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High-latitude electric potential and ionospheric conductance patterns are presented and discussed for the Northern Hemisphere during the SUNDIAL period of September 23-26, 1986 using the Assimilative Mapping of Ionospheric Electrodynamics (AMIE) technique of Richmond and Kamide (1988). Data sources used for the model are satellite and ground magnetometers, electron precipitation instruments, incoherent scatter radars, and ionospheric coherent radars. The period was characterized by many substorms, and a wide variety of instantaneous patterns of electrodynamic parameters on a hemispheric scale are derived throughout this period, of which only a few examples are displayed. The entire set of electric potentials and conductances are being made available through the NCAR CEDAR Data Base for further analysis and utilization in simulation models.

Emery, B. A.; Richmond, A. D.; Kroehl, H. W.; Wells, C. D.; Ruohoniemi, J. M.

1990-01-01

6

Floods of July 23-26, 2010, in the Little Maquoketa River and Maquoketa River Basins, Northeast Iowa.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Minor flooding occurred July 23, 2010, in the Little Maquoketa River Basin and major flooding occurred July 23-26, 2010, in the Maquoketa River Basin in northeast Iowa following severe thunderstorm activity over the region during July 22-24. A breach of t...

D. A. Eash

2011-01-01

7

Neutrino masses in the lepton number violating MSSM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider the most general supersymmetric model with minimal particle content and an additional discrete Script Z3 symmetry (instead of R-parity), which allows lepton number violating terms and results in non-zero Majorana neutrino masses. We investigate whether the currently measured values for lepton masses and mixing can be reproduced. We set up a framework in which Lagrangian parameters can be initialised without recourse to assumptions concerning trilinear or bilinear superpotential terms, CP-conservation or intergenerational mixing and analyse in detail the one loop corrections to the neutrino masses. We present scenarios in which the experimental data are reproduced and show the effect varying lepton number violating couplings has on the predicted atmospheric and solar mass2 differences. We find that with bilinear lepton number violating couplings in the superpotential of the order 1 MeV the atmospheric mass scale can be reproduced. Certain trilinear superpotential couplings, usually, of the order of the electron Yukawa coupling can give rise to either atmospheric or solar mass scales and bilinear supersymmetry breaking terms of the order 0.1 GeV2 can set the solar mass scale. Further details of our calculation, Lagrangian, Feynman rules and relevant generic loop diagrams, are presented in three appendices.

Dedes, Athanasios; Rimmer, Steven; Rosiek, Janusz

2006-08-01

8

Occupation number-based energy functional for nuclear masses.  

SciTech Connect

We develop an energy functional with shell-model occupations as the relevant degrees of freedom and compute nuclear masses across the nuclear chart. The functional is based on Hohenberg-Kohn theory with phenomenologically motivated terms. A global fit of the 17-parameter functional to 2049 nuclear masses yields a root-mean-square deviation of {chi} = 1.31 MeV. Nuclear radii are computed within a model that employs the resulting occupation numbers.

Bertolli, M.; Papenbrock, T.; Wild, S. M. (Mathematics and Computer Science); (Department ofo Physics and Astronomy, Univ. of Tennessee); (Physics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory)

2012-01-01

9

Occupation-number-based energy functional for nuclear masses  

SciTech Connect

We develop an energy functional with shell-model occupations as the relevant degrees of freedom and compute nuclear masses across the nuclear chart. The functional is based on Hohenberg-Kohn theory with phenomenologically motivated terms. A global fit of the 17-parameter functional to 2049 nuclear masses yields a root-mean-square deviation of =1.31 MeV. Nuclear radii are computed within a model that employs the resulting occupation numbers.

Bertolli, Michael G. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Papenbrock, Thomas F [ORNL; Wild, S. M. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL)

2012-01-01

10

Bounds on the number and masses of quarks and leptons  

Microsoft Academic Search

We assume weak, electromagnetic and strong interactions to be asymptotically divergent, and to become strong at very large energies, of the order of the Plank mass. In this picture, the ``low-energy'' couplings (i.e. in the 102 GeV region) must be near the infrared stable point, and this allows us to put bounds on the number of elementary fermions (quarks and

L. Maiani; G. Parisi; R. Petronzio

1978-01-01

11

SIMULTANEOUS CONSTRAINTS ON THE NUMBER AND MASS OF RELATIVISTIC SPECIES  

SciTech Connect

Recent indications from both particle physics and cosmology suggest the possible existence of more than three neutrino species. In cosmological analyses the effects of neutrino mass and number of species can in principle be disentangled for fixed cosmological parameters. However, since we do not have perfect measurements of the standard {Lambda} cold dark matter model parameters, some correlation remains between the neutrino mass and number of species, and both parameters should be included in the analysis. Combining the newest observations of several cosmological probes (cosmic microwave background, large-scale structure, expansion rate), we obtain N {sub eff} = 3.58{sup +0.15} {sub -0.16}(68% CL){sup +0.55} {sub -0.53}(95% CL) and {Sigma}m {sub {nu}} < 0.60 eV(95% CL), which are currently the strongest constraints on N {sub eff} and {Sigma}m {sub {nu}} from an analysis including both parameters. The preference for N {sub eff} >3 is at the 2{sigma} level.

Riemer-Sorensen, Signe; Parkinson, David; Davis, Tamara M. [School of Mathematics and Physics, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072 (Australia)] [School of Mathematics and Physics, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072 (Australia); Blake, Chris, E-mail: signe@physics.uq.edu.au [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University of Technology, P.O. Box 218, Hawthorn, VIC 3122 (Australia)] [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University of Technology, P.O. Box 218, Hawthorn, VIC 3122 (Australia)

2013-02-15

12

PROCEEDINGS: 1987 JOINT SYMPOSIUM ON STATIONARY SOURCE COMBUSTION NOX CONTROL. HELD IN NEW ORLEANS, LOUISIANA ON MARCH 23-26, 1987  

EPA Science Inventory

The two-volume proceedings document the 1987 Joint (EPA and EPRI) Symposium on Stationary Combustion NOx Control, held March 23-26, 1987 in New Orleans, LA. The 49 presentations covered: low NOx combustion developments (e.g., reburning and burner design modifications); coal-, oil...

13

Floods of July 23-26, 2010, in the Little Maquoketa River and Maquoketa River Basins, Northeast Iowa  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Minor flooding occurred July 23, 2010, in the Little Maquoketa River Basin and major flooding occurred July 23–26, 2010, in the Maquoketa River Basin in northeast Iowa following severe thunderstorm activity over the region during July 22–24. A breach of the Lake Delhi Dam on July 24 aggravated flooding on the Maquoketa River. Rain gages at Manchester and Strawberry Point, Iowa, recorded 72-hour-rainfall amounts of 7.33 and 12.23 inches, respectively, on July 24. The majority of the rainfall occurred during a 48-hour period. Within the Little Maquoketa River Basin, a peak-discharge estimate of 19,000 cubic feet per second (annual flood-probability estimate of 4 to 10 percent) at the discontinued 05414500 Little Maquoketa River near Durango, Iowa streamgage on July 23 is the sixth largest flood on record. Within the Maquoketa River Basin, peak discharges of 26,600 cubic feet per second (annual flood-probability estimate of 0.2 to 1 percent) at the 05416900 Maquoketa River at Manchester, Iowa streamgage on July 24, and of 25,000 cubic feet per second (annual flood-probability estimate of 1 to 2 percent) at the 05418400 North Fork Maquoketa River near Fulton, Iowa streamgage on July 24 are the largest floods on record for these sites. A peak discharge affected by the Lake Delhi Dam breach on July 24 at the 05418500 Maquoketa River near Maquoketa, Iowa streamgage, located downstream of Lake Delhi, of 46,000 cubic feet per second on July 26 is the third highest on record. High-water marks were measured at five locations along the Little Maquoketa and North Fork Little Maquoketa Rivers between U.S. Highway 52 near Dubuque and County Road Y21 near Rickardsville, a distance of 19 river miles. Highwater marks were measured at 28 locations along the Maquoketa River between U.S. Highway 52 near Green Island and State Highway 187 near Arlington, a distance of 142 river miles. High-water marks were measured at 13 locations along the North Fork Maquoketa River between Rockdale Road near Maquoketa and U.S. Highway 52 near Luxemburg, a distance of 90 river miles. The high-water marks were used to develop flood profiles for the Little Maquoketa, North Fork Little Maquoketa, Maquoketa, and North Fork Maquoketa Rivers.

Eash, David A.

2012-01-01

14

Relationships Among Particle Number, Surface Area, and Respirable Mass Concentrations in Automotive Engine Manufacturing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the relationships between particle number, surface area, and respirable mass concentration measured simultaneously in a foundry and an automotive engine machining and assembly center. Aerosol concentrations were measured throughout each plant with a condensation particle counter for number concentration, a diffusion charger for active surface area concentration, and an optical particle counter for respirable mass concentration. At

William A. Heitbrink; Douglas E. Evans; Bon Ki Ku; Andrew D. Maynard; Thomas J. Slavin; Thomas M. Peters

2008-01-01

15

Scaling of offspring number and mass to plant and animal size: model and meta-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The scaling of reproductive parameters to body size is important for understanding ecological and evolutionary patterns. Here,\\u000a we derived allometric relationships for the number and mass of seeds, eggs and neonates from an existing model on population\\u000a production. In a separate meta-analysis, we collected 79 empirical regressions on offspring mass and number covering different\\u000a taxa and various habitats. The literature

A. Jan Hendriks; Christian Mulder

2008-01-01

16

Neutrino masses and lepton-number violation in the littlest Higgs scenario  

SciTech Connect

We investigate the sources of neutrino mass generation in little Higgs theories, by confining ourselves to the 'littlest Higgs' scenario. Our conclusion is that the most satisfactory way of incorporating neutrino masses is to include a lepton-number violating interaction between the scalar triplet and lepton doublets. The tree-level neutrino masses generated by the vacuum expectation value of the triplet are found to dominate over contributions from dimension-five operators so long as no additional large lepton-number violating physics exists at the cutoff scale of the effective theory. We also calculate the various decay branching ratios of the charged and neutral scalar triplet states, in regions of the parameter space consistent with the observed neutrino masses, hoping to search for signals of lepton-number violating interactions in collider experiments.

Han Tao; Logan, Heather E.; Mukhopadhyaya, Biswarup; Srikanth, Raghavendra [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Harish-Chandra Research Institute, Chhatnag Road, Jhusi, Allahabad - 211 019 (India)

2005-09-01

17

Numbers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This engaging web site contains information and interactive applets related to various number systems: Egyptian, Babylonian, Chinese, Greek, Roman, Mayan, and Arabic. Users learn the history and structure of each system as well as how to count and write numbers. The site also allows users to explore finger systems, calculating machines, other number bases, and "interesting numbers." A series of pages on data and graphs includes information and activities on gathering, analyzing, graphing and sorting data. (Because the section on the Arabic number system is so extensive, it is cataloged separately as a related resource.)

Edkins, Jo

2006-01-01

18

Supergravity can reconcile dark matter with lepton number violating neutrino masses  

SciTech Connect

Supersymmetry offers a cold dark matter candidate, provided that lepton number is not violated by an odd number of units. On the other hand, lepton number violation by even (two) units gives us an attractive mechanism of neutrino mass generation. Here we offer an explanation of this, in a supergravity framework underlying a supersymmetric scenario, the essential feature being particles carrying lepton numbers, which interact only gravitationally with all other known particles. It is shown that one can have the right amount of {delta}L=2 effect giving rise to neutrino masses, whereas the lifetime for {delta}L=1 decays of the lightest supersymmetric particle can be prolonged beyond the present age of the Universe.

Mukhopadhyaya, Biswarup; Srikanth, Raghavendra [Harish-Chandra Research Institute, Chhatnag Road, Jhusi, Allahabad - 211 019 (India); SenGupta, Soumitra [Department of Theoretical Physics, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Kolkata - 700 032 (India)

2007-10-01

19

Mass and heat transport in strongly time-dependent thermal convection at infinite prandtl number  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have studied heat and mass transport in two-dimensional, infinite Prandtl number, incompressible thermal convection for a range of Rayleigh numbers (Ra), between 10 and 10, and two different aspect-ratio boxes, between 1·8 and 10. This study has been motivated by recent developments in studying the transition from weak to strong turbulence in thermal convection. We have employed a two-dimensional

Ulrich Hansen; David A. Yuen; Sherri E. Kroening

1992-01-01

20

Inducing Conservation of Number, Weight, Volume, Area, and Mass in Pre-School Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The major question this study attempted to answer was, "Can conservation of number, area, weight, mass, and volume to be induced and retained by 3- and 4-year-old children by structured instruction with a multivariate approach? Three nursery schools in Iowa City supplied subjects for this study. The Institute of Child Behavior and Development…

Young, Beverly S.

21

Constraints on the Dark Matter Particle Mass from the Number of Milky Way Satellites.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We have conducted N-body simulations of the growth of Milky Way- sized halos in cold and warm dark matter cosmologies. The number of dark matter satellites in our simulated Milky Ways decreases with decreasing mass of the dark matter particle. Assuming th...

E. Polisensky M. Ricotti

2010-01-01

22

Relationships among particle number, surface area, and respirable mass concentrations in automotive engine manufacturing.  

PubMed

This study investigated the relationships between particle number, surface area, and respirable mass concentration measured simultaneously in a foundry and an automotive engine machining and assembly center. Aerosol concentrations were measured throughout each plant with a condensation particle counter for number concentration, a diffusion charger for active surface area concentration, and an optical particle counter for respirable mass concentration. At selected locations, particle size distributions were characterized with the optical particle counter and an electrical low pressure impactor. Statistical analyses showed that active surface area concentration was correlated with ultrafine particle number concentration and weakly correlated with respirable mass concentration. Correlation between number and active surface area concentration was stronger during winter (R2 = 0.6 for both plants) than in the summer (R2 = 0.38 and 0.36 for the foundry and engine plant respectively). The stronger correlation in winter was attributed to use of direct-fire gas fired heaters that produced substantial numbers of ultrafine particles with a modal diameter between 0.007 and 0.023 mu m. These correlations support findings obtained through theoretical analysis. Such analysis predicts that active surface area increasingly underestimates geometric surface area with increasing particle size, particularly for particles larger than 100 nm. Thus, a stronger correlation between particle number concentration and active surface area concentration is expected in the presence of high concentrations of ultrafine particles. In general, active surface area concentration may be a concentration metric that is distinct from particle number concentration and respirable mass concentration. For future health effects or toxicological studies involving nano-materials or ultrafine aerosols, this finding needs to be considered, as exposure metrics may influence data interpretation. PMID:18982535

Heitbrink, William A; Evans, Douglas E; Ku, Bon Ki; Maynard, Andrew D; Slavin, Thomas J; Peters, Thomas M

2009-01-01

23

Estimation of particle number size distributions from mass based model simulations and comparison to observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The atmospheric Chemistry Transport Model system COSMO-MUSCAT was used to determine the particle mass concentrations of dust and anthropogenically emitted aerosol particles over Europe. The model system consists of the online coupled code of the operational forecast model COSMO (Schättler et al., 2009) and the chemistry-transport model MUSCAT (Wolke et al., 2012). For a four-months-period in 2008 (May to August), the dust and anthropogenic aerosol mass concentrations for six different species (sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, organic and elemental carbon and sea salt) were simulated. For the dust, five different size bins were used and a representative particle size and density were assumed for each size bin. Afterwards, the number concentration was calculated. For the anthropogenic aerosol, lognormal modes were assumed with a representative mode diameter, sigma and density for each component. These parameters were then used to convert the simulated mass concentrations to number concentrations and number size distributions for each component. Those individual size distributions can then be summed up to a total particle number size distribution. A first comparison with measurement data from the Cape Verde Islands showed a good agreement between observed and simulated dust particle size distributions. Both, the shape of the number size distributions and the order of magnitude of the particle number concentrations compared well. Only for the smallest size bin, observed numbers were occasionally higher, which can be explained by anthropogenic or biomass burning aerosol, which is included in the measurements of the total particle size distributions but was not included in the model runs. Comparisons of measured and simulated size distributions of the anthropogenic aerosol will be available soon. In case the data are available, we will also present an estimation of the particle number concentrations with the aerosol microphysical aerosol module ext-M7 for the duration of a measurement campaign in spring 2013 (HOPE).

Engler, Christa; Heinold, Bernd; Tegen, Ina

2014-05-01

24

Unsteady mass transfer from oil sand spheres in convective streams at low Reynolds number  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on the process of transient mass transfer in and around oil sand spheres that was investigated experimentally. Preshaped molded spherical particles of Athabasca oil sands were subjected to hot air streams at atmospheric pressure and constant temperature ranging from 150{degrees}C up to 475{degrees}C with a uniform stream velocity covering the range 0.15 m/s up to 1.7 m/s and Reynolds number over the range 33-1650. The rate of mass loss due to fluid volatilization for each set of experimental conditions was established and correlated with the residence time in terms of dimensionless groupings.

Abdrabboh, M.A. (Al-Azhan Univ., Mechanical Engineering Dept., Cairo (EG)); Karim, G.A. (Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Univ. of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (CA))

1990-12-01

25

Islet Number Rather Than Islet Size Is a Major Determinant of ?- and ?-Cell Mass in Humans.  

PubMed

Objective: The objective of the study was to clarify the relative contribution of islet number and islet size to ?- and ?-cell mass in humans. Research Design and Methods: We obtained the pancreas at autopsy from 72 Japanese adults with no history of diabetes or pancreatitis (aged 47 ± 12 years, body mass index 24.1 ± 5.0 kg/m(2)). Pancreatic sections were stained for insulin or glucagon, and fractional ?-cell area (%BCA) and ?-cell area (%ACA) were measured. Islet number and islet size as well as ?-cell turnover were also quantified. Glycosylated hemoglobin measured within 1 year prior to death was obtained in 38 individuals. Results: There was considerable interindividual variation in islet density and mean islet size, with a significant negative correlation between the two (r = -0.25, P = .03). There were significant positive correlations between islet density and %BCA or %ACA (r = 0.63, P < .001, and r = 0.41, P = .001), whereas mean islet size correlated with neither of them. Islet density as well as %BCA, but not mean islet size, was negatively correlated with glycosylated hemoglobin (r = -0.37, P = .02, and r = -0.36, P = .03). Conclusion: The present study suggests that islet number rather than islet size is a major determinant of ?- and ?-cell mass in humans. Interindividual difference in islet number may contribute to susceptibility to development of glucose intolerance. PMID:24517149

Kou, Kinsei; Saisho, Yoshifumi; Sato, Seiji; Yamada, Taketo; Itoh, Hiroshi

2014-05-01

26

Characteristics of particle number and mass concentrations in residential houses in Brisbane, Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diurnal variation of indoor submicrometer (0.007-0.808 ?m) particle number and particle mass (approximation of PM 2.5) concentrations was investigated in 15 houses in a residential suburb of Brisbane during winter in 1999. Continuous monitoring for more than 48 h was conducted using a condensation particle counter (CPC) and a photometer (DustTrak) in the kitchen of each house, and the residents kept diaries of the activities conducted. In addition, data from a central monitoring station was used to investigate indoor/outdoor relationships. The results show that there were clear diurnal variations in both particle number and approximation of PM 2.5 concentrations, for all the investigated houses. The pattern of diurnal variations varied from house to house, however, there was always a close relationship between the concentration and human indoor activities. The average number and mass concentrations during indoor activities were (18.2±3.9)×10 3 particles cm -3 and (15.5±7.9) ?g m -3, respectively, and under non-activity conditions, (12.4±2.7)×10 3 particles cm -3 (11.1±2.6)±?g m -3, respectively. In general, there was a poor correlation between mass and number concentrations and the correlation coefficients were highly variable from day to day and from house to house. This implies that conclusions cannot be drawn about either one of the number or mass concentration characteristics of indoor particles, based on measurement of the other. The study also showed that it is unlikely that particle concentrations indoors could be represented by measurements conducted at a fixed monitoring station due to the large impact of indoor and local sources.

Morawska, Lidia; He, Congrong; Hitchins, Jane; Mengersen, Kerrie; Gilbert, Dale

27

Use of statistical methods for estimation of total number of charges in a mass spectrometry experiment.  

PubMed

Estimation of the number of ions in a mass spectrometry experiment is needed to determine instrumentation parameters such as ionization efficiency, collision-induced dissociation efficiency, ion-transfer efficiency, ion trapping efficiency, and preamplifier detection limit. This work aims at analyzing the statistical characteristics (primarily variance) in the intensities of the isotopic distributions, which depend on the number of ions in the cell. A mathematical derivation was developed based on the maximum likelihood estimation method, which estimates the most likely number of ions in the cell using a method known as nonrandom parameter estimation. The performance of the method improves with increase in the number of observed distributions. The method works well provided the spectra show isotopic resolution and is independent of the instrument or method used to arrive at the spectra. PMID:15144185

Kaur, Parminder; O'Connor, Peter B

2004-05-15

28

Number projected isovector neutron-proton pairing effect in odd-mass nuclei  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A formalism which enables one to strictly conserve the number of particles when taking into account the isovector pairing correlations is presented in the case of odd-mass nuclei. With this aim, we had to first establish the expression of the projector for such systems. Expressions of the ground state and its energy have been exhibited. The model has been numerically tested in the framework of a schematic model.

Berbiche, Amine; Fellah, Mohamed; Allal, Nassima H.

2014-03-01

29

Estimation of surface area concentration of workplace incidental nanoparticles based on number and mass concentrations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface area was estimated by three different methods using number and\\/or mass concentrations obtained from either two or\\u000a three instruments that are commonly used in the field. The estimated surface area concentrations were compared with reference\\u000a surface area concentrations (SAREF) calculated from the particle size distributions obtained from a scanning mobility particle sizer and an optical particle\\u000a counter (OPC). The

J. Y. Park; G. Ramachandran; P. C. Raynor; S. W. Kim

30

Constraints on the dark matter particle mass from the number of Milky Way satellites  

SciTech Connect

We have conducted N-body simulations of the growth of Milky Way-sized halos in cold and warm dark matter cosmologies. The number of dark matter satellites in our simulated Milky Ways decreases with decreasing mass of the dark matter particle. Assuming that the number of dark matter satellites exceeds or equals the number of observed satellites of the Milky Way, we derive lower limits on the dark matter particle mass. We find with 95% confidence m{sub s}>13.3 keV for a sterile neutrino produced by the Dodelson and Widrow mechanism, m{sub s}>8.9 keV for the Shi and Fuller mechanism, m{sub s}>3.0 keV for the Higgs decay mechanism, and m{sub WDM}>2.3 keV for a thermal dark matter particle. The recent discovery of many new dark matter dominated satellites of the Milky Way in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey allows us to set lower limits comparable to constraints from the complementary methods of Lyman-{alpha} forest modeling and x-ray observations of the unresolved cosmic x-ray background and of dark matter halos from dwarf galaxy to cluster scales. Future surveys like LSST, DES, PanSTARRS, and SkyMapper have the potential to discover many more satellites and further improve constraints on the dark matter particle mass.

Polisensky, Emil [Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C. 20375 (United States); Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20745 (United States); Ricotti, Massimo [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20745 (United States)

2011-02-15

31

Early Life Nutrition Modulates Muscle Stem Cell Number: Implications for Muscle Mass and Repair  

PubMed Central

Suboptimal nutrition during prenatal and early postnatal development is associated with increased risk for type 2 diabetes during adult life. A hallmark of such diabetes risk is altered body composition, including reduced lean mass and increased adiposity. Since stem cell number and activity are important determinants of muscle mass, modulation of perinatal nutrition could alter stem cell number/function, potentially mediating developmentally programmed reductions in muscle mass. Skeletal muscle precursors (SMP) were purified from muscle of mice subjected to prenatal undernutrition and/or early postnatal high-fat diet (HFD)—experimental models that are both associated with obesity and diabetes risk. SMP number was determined by flow cytometry, proliferative capacity measured in vitro, and regenerative capacity of these cells determined in vivo after muscle freeze injury. Prenatally undernutrition (UN) mice showed significantly reduced SMP frequencies [Control (C) 4.8%±0.3% (% live cells) vs. UN 3.2%±0.4%, P=0.015] at 6 weeks; proliferative capacity was unaltered. Reduced SMP in UN was associated with 32% decrease in regeneration after injury (C 16%±3% of injured area vs. UN 11%±2%; P<0.0001). SMP frequency was also reduced in HFD-fed mice (chow 6.4%±0.6% vs. HFD 4.7%±0.4%, P=0.03), and associated with 44% decreased regeneration (chow 16%±2.7% vs. HFD 9%±2.2%; P<0.0001). Prenatal undernutrition was additive with postnatal HFD. Thus, both prenatal undernutrition and postnatal overnutrition reduce myogenic stem cell frequency and function, indicating that developmentally established differences in muscle-resident stem cell populations may provoke reductions in muscle mass and repair and contribute to diabetes risk.

Woo, Melissa; Isganaitis, Elvira; Cerletti, Massimiliano; Fitzpatrick, Connor; Wagers, Amy J.; Jimenez-Chillaron, Jose

2011-01-01

32

Aerosol formation from high-velocity uranium drops: Comparison of number and mass distributions. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of an experimental study of the aerosol produced by the combustion of high-velocity molten-uranium droplets produced by the simultaneous heating and electromagnetic launch of uranium wires. These tests are intended to simulate the reduction of high-velocity fragments into aerosol in high-explosive detonations or reactor accidents involving nuclear materials. As reported earlier, the resulting aerosol consists mainly of web-like chain agglomerates. A condensation nucleus counter was used to investigate the decay of the total particle concentration due to coagulation and losses. Number size distributions based on mobility equivalent diameter obtained soon after launch with a Differential Mobility Particle Sizer showed lognormal distributions with an initial count median diameter (CMD) of 0.3 {mu}m and a geometric standard deviation, {sigma}{sub g} of about 2; the CMD was found to increase and {sigma}{sub g} decrease with time due to coagulation. Mass size distributions based on aerodynamic diameter were obtained for the first time with a Microorifice Uniform Deposit Impactor, which showed lognormal distributions with mass median aerodynamic diameters of about 0.5 {mu}m and an aerodynamic geometric standard deviation of about 2. Approximate methods for converting between number and mass distributions and between mobility and aerodynamic equivalent diameters are presented.

Rader, D.J.; Benson, D.A.

1995-05-01

33

Effects of Lewis number on coupled heat and mass transfer in a circular tube subjected to external convective heating  

PubMed Central

Heat and mass transfer in a circular tube subject to the boundary condition of the third kind is investigated. The closed form of temperature and concentration distributions, the local Nusselt number based on the total external heat transfer and convective heat transfer inside the tube, as well as the Sherwood number were obtained. The effects of Lewis number and Biot number on heat and mass transfer were investigated.

Jiao, Anjun; Zhang, Yuwen; Ma, Hongbin; Critser, John

2010-01-01

34

The Expected Number of Background Disease Events during Mass Immunization in China  

PubMed Central

It is critical to distinguish events that are temporarily associated with, but not caused by, vaccination from those caused by vaccination during mass immunization. We performed a literature search in China National Knowledge Infrastructure and Pubmed databases. The number of coincident events was calculated based on its incidence rate and periods after receipt of a dose of hypothesized vaccine. We included background incidences of Guillain-Barré syndrome, anaphylaxis, seizure, sudden adult death syndrome, sudden cardiac death, spontaneous abortion, and preterm labour or delivery. In a cohort of 10 million individuals, 7.71 cases of Guillain-Barré syndrome would be expected to occur within six weeks of vaccination as coincident background cases. Even for rare events, a large number of events can be expected in a short period because of the large population targeted for immunization. These findings may encourage health authorities to screen the safety of vaccines against unpredictable pathogens.

Wang, YouXin; Wu, LiJuan; Yu, XinWei; Zhao, FeiFei; Russell, Alyce; Song, ManShu; Wang, Wei

2013-01-01

35

Mass, surface area and number metrics in diesel occupational exposure assessment.  

PubMed

While diesel aerosol exposure assessment has traditionally been based on the mass concentration metric, recent studies have suggested that particle number and surface area concentrations may be more health-relevant. In this study, we evaluated the exposures of three occupational groups-bus drivers, parking garage attendants, and bus mechanics-using the mass concentration of elemental carbon (EC) as well as surface area and number concentrations. These occupational groups are exposed to mixtures of diesel and gasoline exhaust on a regular basis in various ratios. The three groups had significantly different exposures to workshift TWA EC with the highest levels observed in the bus garage mechanics and the lowest levels in the parking ramp booth attendants. In terms of surface area, parking ramp attendants had significantly greater exposures than bus garage mechanics, who in turn had significantly greater exposures than bus drivers. In terms of number concentrations, the exposures of garage mechanics exceeded those of ramp booth attendants by a factor of 5-6. Depending on the exposure metric chosen, the three occupational groups had quite different exposure rankings. This illustrates the importance of the choice of exposure metric in epidemiological studies. If these three occupational groups were part of an epidemiological study, depending on the metric used, they may or may not be part of the same similarly exposed group (SEG). The exposure rankings (e.g., low, medium, or high) of the three groups also changes with the metric used. If the incorrect metric is used, significant misclassification errors may occur. PMID:15986054

Ramachandran, Gurumurthy; Paulsen, Dwane; Watts, Winthrop; Kittelson, David

2005-07-01

36

COSMOLOGICAL CONSTRAINTS FROM GALAXY CLUSTERING AND THE MASS-TO-NUMBER RATIO OF GALAXY CLUSTERS  

SciTech Connect

We place constraints on the average density ({Omega}{sub m}) and clustering amplitude ({sigma}{sub 8}) of matter using a combination of two measurements from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey: the galaxy two-point correlation function, w{sub p} (r{sub p} ), and the mass-to-galaxy-number ratio within galaxy clusters, M/N, analogous to cluster M/L ratios. Our w{sub p} (r{sub p} ) measurements are obtained from DR7 while the sample of clusters is the maxBCG sample, with cluster masses derived from weak gravitational lensing. We construct nonlinear galaxy bias models using the Halo Occupation Distribution (HOD) to fit both w{sub p} (r{sub p} ) and M/N for different cosmological parameters. HOD models that match the same two-point clustering predict different numbers of galaxies in massive halos when {Omega}{sub m} or {sigma}{sub 8} is varied, thereby breaking the degeneracy between cosmology and bias. We demonstrate that this technique yields constraints that are consistent and competitive with current results from cluster abundance studies, without the use of abundance information. Using w{sub p} (r{sub p} ) and M/N alone, we find {Omega}{sup 0.5}{sub m}{sigma}{sub 8} = 0.465 {+-} 0.026, with individual constraints of {Omega}{sub m} = 0.29 {+-} 0.03 and {sigma}{sub 8} = 0.85 {+-} 0.06. Combined with current cosmic microwave background data, these constraints are {Omega}{sub m} = 0.290 {+-} 0.016 and {sigma}{sub 8} = 0.826 {+-} 0.020. All errors are 1{sigma}. The systematic uncertainties that the M/N technique are most sensitive to are the amplitude of the bias function of dark matter halos and the possibility of redshift evolution between the SDSS Main sample and the maxBCG cluster sample. Our derived constraints are insensitive to the current level of uncertainties in the halo mass function and in the mass-richness relation of clusters and its scatter, making the M/N technique complementary to cluster abundances as a method for constraining cosmology with future galaxy surveys.

Tinker, Jeremy L.; Blanton, Michael R. [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Department of Physics, New York University, New York, NY 10013 (United States); Sheldon, Erin S. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Wechsler, Risa H. [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Physics Department, and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Becker, Matthew R.; Rozo, Eduardo [Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Zu, Ying; Weinberg, David H. [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Zehavi, Idit [Department of Astronomy and CERCA, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Busha, Michael T. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics, University of Zurich, CH-8057 Zurich (Switzerland); Koester, Benjamin P. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 6037 (United States)

2012-01-20

37

Extended Glauber Model of Antiproton-Nucleus Annihilation for All Energies and Mass Numbers  

SciTech Connect

Previous analytical formulas in the Glauber model for high-energy nucleus-nucleus collisions developed by Wong are utilized and extended to study Antiproton-nucleus annihilations for both high and low energies, after taking into account the effects of Coulomb and nuclear interactions, and the change of the antiproton momentum inside a nucleus. The extended analytical formulas capture the main features of the experimental antiproton-nucleus annihilation cross sections for all energies and mass numbers. At high antiproton energies, they exhibit the granular property for the lightest nuclei and the black-disk limit for the heavy nuclei. At low antiproton energies, they display the effect of the antiproton momentum increase due to the nuclear interaction for the light nuclei, and the effect of the magnification due to the attractive Coulomb interaction for the heavy nuclei.

Lee, Teck-Ghee [Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama] [Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama; Wong, Cheuk-Yin [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-01-01

38

Determination of mass attenuation coefficients, effective atomic and electron numbers for some natural minerals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The total mass attenuation coefficients ( ? m) for SiO 2 {Quartz (1 1 0 1), Quartz (1 1 0 0) and Quartz (0 0 0 1)}, KAlSi 3O 8 {Orthoclase (0 1 0), Orthoclase (1 0 0)}, CaSO 4·2H 2O (gypsum), FeS 2 (pyrite) and Mg 2Si 2O 6 (pyroxene) natural minerals were measured at 22.1, 25.0, 59.5 and 88.0 keV photon energies. The ?- and X-rays were counted by a Si(Li) detector with a resolution of 160 eV at 5.9 keV. Atomic and electronic cross sections ( ? t and ? e), the effective atomic and electron numbers or electron densities ( Z eff and N eff) were determined using the obtained ? m values for investigated samples.

Han, I.; Demir, L.; ?ahin, M.

2009-09-01

39

Extended Glauber model of antiproton-nucleus annihilation for all energies and mass numbers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous analytical formulas in the Glauber model for high-energy nucleus-nucleus collisions developed by Wong are utilized and extended to study antiproton-nucleus annihilations for both high and low energies, after taking into account the effects of Coulomb and nuclear interactions, and the change of the antiproton momentum inside a nucleus. The extended analytical formulas capture the main features of the experimental antiproton-nucleus annihilation cross sections for all energies and mass numbers. At high antiproton energies, they exhibit the granular property for the lightest nuclei and the black-disk limit for the heavy nuclei. At low antiproton energies, they display the effect of antiproton momentum increase due to the nuclear interaction for light nuclei, and the effect of magnification due to the attractive Coulomb interaction for heavy nuclei.

Lee, Teck-Ghee; Wong, Cheuk-Yin

2014-05-01

40

Studies on mass attenuation coefficient, effective atomic number and electron density of some thermoluminescent dosimetric compounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mass attenuation coefficient, ?m , effective atomic number, Zeff, and effective electron density, Nel, were determined experimentally and theoretically for some thermoluminescent dosimetric (TLD) compounds such as MgSO4, CdSO4, Al2O3, Mg2SiO4, ZnSO4, CaSO4, CaF2, NaSO4, Na4P2O7, Ca5F(PO4)3, SiO2, CaCO3 and BaSO4 at 8.04, 8.91, 13.37, 14.97, 17.44, 19.63, 22.10, 24.90, 30.82, 32.06, 35.40, 36.39, 37.26, 43.74, 44.48, 50.38, 51.70, 53.16, 80.99, 276.40, 302.85, 356.01, 383.85 and 661.66 keV photon energies by using an HPGe detector with a resolution of 182 eV at 5.9 keV. The theoretical mass attenuation coefficients were estimated using mixture rule. The calculated values were compared with the experimental values for all compounds. Good agreement has been observed between experimental and theoretical values within experimental uncertainties.

Önder, P.; Tur?ucu, A.; Demir, D.; Gürol, A.

2012-12-01

41

Measurements of mass attenuation coefficient, effective atomic number and electron density of some amino acids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mass attenuation coefficients of some amino acids, such as DL-aspartic acid-LR(C4H7NO4), L-glutamine (C4H10N2O3), creatine monohydrate LR(C4H9N3O2H2O), creatinine hydrochloride (C4H7N3O·HCl) L-asparagine monohydrate(C4H9N3O2H2O), L-methionine LR(C5H11NO2S), were measured at 122, 356, 511, 662, 1170, 1275 and 1330 keV photon energies using a well-collimated narrow beam good geometry set-up. The gamma-rays were detected using NaI (Tl) scintillation detection system with a resolution of 0.101785 at 662 keV. The attenuation coefficient data were then used to obtain the effective atomic numbers (Zeff), and effective electron densities (Neff) of amino acids. It was observed that the effective atomic number (Zeff) and effective electron densities (Neff) initially decrease and tend to be almost constant as a function of gamma-ray energy. Zeff and Neff experimental values showed good agreement with the theoretical values with less than 1% error for amino acids.

Kore, Prashant S.; Pawar, Pravina P.

2014-05-01

42

Relation between number of component views and accuracy of left ventricular mass determined by three-dimensional echocardiography.  

PubMed

Three-dimensional echocardiography (3DE) allows the accurate determination of left ventricular (LV) mass, but the optimal number of component or extracted 2-dimensional (2D) image planes that should be used to calculate LV mass is not known. This study was performed to determine the relation between the number of 2D image planes used for 3DE and the accuracy of LV mass, using cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging as the reference standard. Three-dimensional echocardiography data sets were analyzed using 4, 6, 8, 10 and 20 component 2D planes as well as biplane 2D echocardiography and CMR in 25 subjects with a variety of LV pathologies. Repeated-measures analysis of variance and the Bland-Altman method were used to compare measures of LV mass. To further assess the potential clinical impact of reducing the number of component image planes used for 3DE, the number of discrepancies between CMR and each of the 3DE estimates of LV mass at prespecified levels (i.e., > or =5%, > or =10%, and > or =20% difference from CMR LV mass) was tabulated. The mean LV mass by magnetic resonance imaging was 177 +/- 56 g (range 91 to 316). Biplane 2-dimensional echocardiography significantly underestimated CMR LV mass (p <0.05), but LV mass by 3DE was not statistically different from that by CMR regardless of the number of planes used. However, error variability and Bland-Altman 95% confidence intervals decreased with the use of additional image planes. In conclusion, transthoracic 3DE measures LV mass more accurately than biplane 2-dimensional echocardiography when > or =6 component 2D image planes are used. The use of >6 planes further increases the accuracy of 3DE, but at the cost of greater analysis time and potentially increased scanning times. PMID:17478166

Chuang, Michael L; Salton, Carol J; Hibberd, Mark G; Manning, Warren J; Douglas, Pamela S

2007-05-01

43

Variation in Numbers and Mass of Ciliate Protozoa in the Rumens of Sheep Fed Chaffed Alfalfa (Medicago sativa)  

PubMed Central

Masses and numbers of rumen ciliate protozoa were markedly different in individual sheep fed chaffed alfalfa hay under different feeding regimens. Studies on the ciliate contribution to specific aspects of rumen fermentation should take into account the size of members of each genus in individual animals as well as the numbers present.

Clarke, Richard T. J.; Ulyatt, Marcus J.; John, Andrew

1982-01-01

44

A method for the estimation of fissile mass by measuring the number of neutron signals within a specific time interval  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a new method for fissile mass estimation by passive neutron interrogation. The method uses the stochastic transport equation to express the first three central moments (mean, variance and skewness) for the number of detected neutrons within a given time interval in terms of the fissile mass, the (?,n) rate and the multiplicity factor. Solving these three equations allows estimation of the fissile mass. As the primary validation of the method, it was implemented for several fissile mass measurements, which were conducted by the Nuclear Security Unit of the Joint Research Center (JRC) in Italy and by the Institute of Isotopes in Hungary.

Dubi, C.; Ridnick, T.; Israelashvili, I.; Bagi, J.; Huszti, J.

2012-05-01

45

Mass transfer between bubbles and the dense phase in a nonuniform fluidized bed at large peclet numbers  

SciTech Connect

It is known that heat and mass transfer between bubbles and the dense phase have a significant influence on transport processes in fluidized beds. Therefore mass transfer between bubbles and the dense phase in fluidized beds has been the subject of a considerable number of theoretical and experimental studies. The purpose of the present work is to construct, on the basis of results published earlier, a mathematical model of mass transfer between a bubble and the dense phase of a fluidized bed, with hydrodynamic interaction between the bubbles taken into account. Resistance to mass transfer both within and outside the region of gas circulation is considered. The problem is solved within the framework of assumptions of the theory of the diffusional boundary layer, i.e., at large Peclet numbers. The results of this investigation can be used in calculations relating to mass transfer in fluidized beds of granular materials.

Chesnokov, Y.G.; Protod'yakonov, I.O.

1983-02-01

46

The F Box Protein S Phase Kinase-associated Protein 2 Regulates Adipose Mass and Adipocyte Number in Vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The etiology of some obesity may involve adipocyte hyperplasia. However, the role of adipocyte number in establishing adipose mass is unclear. Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27 regulates activity of cyclin\\/cyclin-dependent kinase complexes responsible for cell cycle progression. This protein is critical for establishing adult adipocyte number, and p27 knockout increases adult adipocyte number. The SCF (for Skp1-Cullin-F-box protein) complex targets

Paul S. Cooke; Denise R. Holsberger; Melissa A. Cimafranca; Daryl D. Meling; Charity M. Beals; Keiko Nakayama; Keiichi I. Nakayama; Hiroaki Kiyokawa

2007-01-01

47

Annual Enrollment Report Number of Students Studying Journalism and Mass Communication at All-time High.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Finds that journalism and mass communication programs appear to be entering another period of rapid enrollment growth, swept up by overall increases in enrollments at United States universities. Finds that only about four in ten of the journalism and mass communication programs report enrollments by race, suggesting many administrators are not…

Becker, Lee B.; Vlad, Tudor; Huh, Jisu; Prine, Joelle

2001-01-01

48

Annual Enrollment Report: Growth in Number of Students Studying Journalism and Mass Communication Slows.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides the key findings of the 2001 Annual Survey of Journalism and Mass Communication Enrollments. Shows that undergraduate enrollments continued to grow while graduate enrollments declined. Discusses degrees granted and race, ethnicity, and gender factors. (PM)

Becker, Lee B.; Vlad, Tudor; Huh, Jisu; Daniels, George L.

2002-01-01

49

Analysis of turbulent heat transfer, mass transfer, and friction in smooth tubes at high Prandtl and Schmidt numbers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The expression for eddy diffusivity from a previous analysis was modified in order to account for the effect of kinematic viscosity on the turbulence in the region close to a wall. By using the modified expression, good agreement was obtained between predicted and experimental results for heat and mass transfer at Prandtl and Schmidt numbers between 0.5 and 3000. The effects of length-to-diameter ratio and of variable viscosity were also investigated for a wide range of Prandtl numbers.

Deissler, Robert G

1955-01-01

50

Computation of Ion Collection by a Rocket-Mounted Mass Spectrometer in the Limit of Vanishing Debye Number.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Self-consistent calculations are made of the ion current density at the central point (orifice) of an electrically charged mass-spectrometer plate mounted on a rocket, in the limit of zero Debye number (Debye length divided by plate radius). In this limit...

L. W. Parker

1973-01-01

51

The number of information bits related to the minimum quantum and gravitational masses in a vacuum dominated universe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wesson obtained a limit on quantum and gravitational mass in the universe by combining the cosmological constant ?, Planck's constant ?, the speed of light c, and also the gravitational constant G. The corresponding masses are 2.0×10-62 kg and 2.3×1054 kg respectively, and in general can be obtained with the help of a generic dimensional analysis, or from an analysis where the cosmological constant appears in a four dimensional space-time and as a result of a higher dimensional reduction. In this paper our goal is to establish a relation for both quantum and gravitational mass as function of the information number bit N. For this reason, we first derive an expression for the cosmological constant as a function of information bit, since both masses depend on it, and then various resulting relations are explored, in relation to information number of bits N. Fractional information bits imply no information extraction is possible. We see, that the order of magnitude of the various parameters as well as their ratios involve the large number 10122, that is produced naturally from the fundamental parameters of modern cosmology. Finally, we propose that in a complete quantum gravity theory the idea of information the might have to be included, with the quantum bits of information ( q-bits) as one of its fundamental parameters, resulting thus to a more complete understanding of the universe, its laws, and its evolution.

Haranas, Ioannis; Gkigkitzis, Ioannis

2013-07-01

52

Relationships between size segregated mass concentration data and ultrafine particle number concentrations in urban areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mass concentration data derived from samples collected with a micro-orifice uniform deposit impactor (MOUDI) in six Australian urban centers during periods of significant particle loading have been used to investigate the relationships between TSP, PM10, PM2.5, PM1 and ultrafine particles. While PM10 and PM2.5 display a clear relationship, the lack of correlation between PM10 and the coarse fraction of PM10

M. D. Keywood; G. P. Ayers; J. L. Gras; R. W. Gillett; D. D. Cohen

1999-01-01

53

CPT and lepton number violation in the neutrino sector: Modified mass matrix and oscillation due to gravity  

SciTech Connect

We study the consequences of CPT and lepton number violation in the neutrino sector. For CPT violation we take gravity with which neutrino and antineutrino couple differently. Gravity mixes neutrino and antineutrino in an unequal ratio to give two mass eigenstates. Lepton number violation interaction together with CPT violation gives rise to neutrino-antineutrino oscillation. Subsequently, we study the neutrino flavor mixing and oscillation under the influence of gravity. It is found that gravity changes flavor oscillation significantly which influences the relative abundance of different flavors in present universe. We show that the neutrinoless double beta decay rate is modified due to the presence of gravity--the origin of CPT violation, as the mass of the flavor state is modified.

Sinha, Monika; Mukhopadhyay, Banibrata [Theory Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700 064 (India); Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India)

2008-01-15

54

Extending the Capabilities of Single Particle Mass Spectrometry: I. Measurements of Aerosol Number Concentration, Size Distribution, and Asphericity  

SciTech Connect

Single particle mass spectrometers have traditionally been deployed to measure the size and composition of individual particles at relatively slow sampling rates that are determined by the rate at which the ionization lasers can fire and/or mass spectra can be recorded. To take advantage of the fact that under most conditions SPLAT can detect and size particles at much higher rates we developed a dual data acquisition mode, in which particle number concentrations, size distributions, and asphericity parameters are measured at a particle concentration determined rate, all the while the instrument generates and records mass-spectra at an operator set rate. We show that with this approach particle number concentration and asphericity parameters are measured with 1 sec resolution and particle vacuum aerodynamic size distributions are measured with 10 sec to 60 sec resolution. SPLAT measured particle number concentrations are in perfect agreement with the PCASP. Particle asphericity parameters are based on measured particle beam divergence. We illustrate the effect that high particle concentrations can have on the measured size distributions and develop a method to remove these effects and correct the size distributions.

Vaden, Timothy D.; Imre, D.; Beranek, Josef; Zelenyuk, Alla

2011-01-04

55

Relationship and variations of aerosol number and PM 10 mass concentrations in a highly polluted urban environment—New Delhi, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements of the aerosol number concentration and the PM10 mass concentrations of urban background aerosols in different seasons were performed in New Delhi 2002, including the simultaneous measurements of NO2, SO2 and CO concentrations. The results indicate an interesting relationship between the aerosol number and the PM10 mass concentrations. The number concentration increases with the mass concentration up to 300?gm?3.

P. Mönkkönen; R. Uma; D. Srinivasan; I. K. Koponen; K. E. J. Lehtinen; K. Hämeri; R. Suresh; V. P. Sharma; M. Kulmala

2004-01-01

56

Contribution from indoor sources to particle number and mass concentrations in residential houses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of a large study investigating indoor air in residential houses in Brisbane, Australia, the purpose of this work was to quantify emission characteristics of indoor particle sources in 15 houses. Submicrometer particle number and approximation of PM 2.5 concentrations were measured simultaneously for more than 48 h in the kitchen of all the houses by using a condensation particle counter (CPC) and a photometer (DustTrak), respectively. In addition, characterizations of particles resulting from cooking conducted in an identical way in all the houses were measured by using a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS), an aerodynamic particle sizer (APS) and a DustTrak. All the events of elevated particle concentrations were linked to indoor activities using house occupants diary entries, and catalogued into 21 different types of indoor activities. This enabled quantification of the effect of indoor sources on indoor particle concentrations as well as quantification of emission rates from the sources. For example, the study found that frying, grilling, stove use, toasting, cooking pizza, cooking, candle vaporizing eucalyptus oil and fan heater use, could elevate the indoor submicrometer particle number concentration levels by more than five times, while PM 2.5 concentrations could be up to 3, 30 and 90 times higher than the background levels during smoking, frying and grilling, respectively.

He, Congrong; Morawska, Lidia; Hitchins, Jane; Gilbert, Dale

57

Isospin symmetry and giant resonance in nuclei of mass number A = 14  

SciTech Connect

An analysis of the cross sections for photon absorption by isobar nuclei {sup 14}C and {sup 14}N in the giant-dipole-resonance region demonstrates a high degree of isospin symmetry for this type of collective excitations in the above nuclei. Giant resonances in A = 14 isobar nuclei are related by a simple rescaling procedure that is based on the fact that, for these nuclei, the isospin remains a good quantum number in the process of dipole excitations of energy up to about 40 MeV. The features of the isospin splitting of the giant resonance in the {sup 14}C nucleus are refined. The shape of the cross section for photoabsorption in the {sup 14}C nucleus-in particular, a large width of the giant resonance in this nucleus-is exhaustively explained.

Ishkhanov, B. S.; Kapitonov, I. M.; Makarenko, I. V. [Moscow State University, Institute of Nuclear Physics (Russian Federation)], E-mail: makarenko-irina@yandex.ru

2007-06-15

58

Evaluation of filter media for particle number, surface area and mass penetrations.  

PubMed

The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) developed a standard for respirator certification under 42 CFR Part 84, using a TSI 8130 automated filter tester with photometers. A recent study showed that photometric detection methods may not be sensitive for measuring engineered nanoparticles. Present NIOSH standards for penetration measurement are mass-based; however, the threshold limit value/permissible exposure limit for an engineered nanoparticle worker exposure is not yet clear. There is lack of standardized filter test development for engineered nanoparticles, and development of a simple nanoparticle filter test is indicated. To better understand the filter performance against engineered nanoparticles and correlations among different tests, initial penetration levels of one fiberglass and two electret filter media were measured using a series of polydisperse and monodisperse aerosol test methods at two different laboratories (University of Minnesota Particle Technology Laboratory and 3M Company). Monodisperse aerosol penetrations were measured by a TSI 8160 using NaCl particles from 20 to 300 nm. Particle penetration curves and overall penetrations were measured by scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS), condensation particle counter (CPC), nanoparticle surface area monitor (NSAM), and TSI 8130 at two face velocities and three layer thicknesses. Results showed that reproducible, comparable filtration data were achieved between two laboratories, with proper control of test conditions and calibration procedures. For particle penetration curves, the experimental results of monodisperse testing agreed well with polydisperse SMPS measurements. The most penetrating particle sizes (MPPSs) of electret and fiberglass filter media were ~50 and 160 nm, respectively. For overall penetrations, the CPC and NSAM results of polydisperse aerosols were close to the penetration at the corresponding median particle sizes. For each filter type, power-law correlations between the penetrations measured by different instruments show that the NIOSH TSI 8130 test may be used to predict penetrations at the MPPS as well as the CPC and NSAM results with polydisperse aerosols. It is recommended to use dry air (<20% RH) as makeup air in the test system to prevent sodium chloride particle deliquescing and minimizing the challenge particle dielectric constant and to use an adequate neutralizer to fully neutralize the polydisperse challenge aerosol. For a simple nanoparticle penetration test, it is recommended to use a polydisperse aerosol challenge with a geometric mean of ~50 nm with the CPC or the NSAM as detectors. PMID:22752097

Li, Lin; Zuo, Zhili; Japuntich, Daniel A; Pui, David Y H

2012-07-01

59

Particle number, particle mass and NOx emission factors at a highway and an urban street in Copenhagen  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents measurements of traffic-generated gas and particle pollution at two sites, one near a major highway and one near a busy urban street in Copenhagen, Denmark. Both sites were equipped for a 4-week period with a set of two measurement stations, one close to the kerbside and one background station. Measurements were carried out from March to April 2008, investigating NOx concentrations, submicrometer particle number size distribution (size range 10-700 nm), particle mass (PM2.5, PM10), and meteorological parameters. In this study we further estimate the emission factors for NOx, particle number and particle mass using measured traffic volume and dilution rate calculated by the Operational Street Pollution Model (WinOSPM). The mean concentrations of most of the measured pollutants are similar for the highway and the urban kerbside stations due to similar traffic density. The average concentrations of NOx are 142 ?g mnumber concentration is 24 860 particles cm-3 and 27 100 particles cm-3 for the highway and the urban kerbside stations, respectively, and these values exceed those measured at the background stations by a factor of 3 to 5. The temporal variation of the traffic contribution (difference of kerbside and background concentrations) is analysed for NOx, particle number and mass, and it follows the traffic pattern at the urban and the highway sites. Emission factors for particle number are found to be quite similar at both sites, (215.4±5.3) 1012 particles veh-1 km-1 for the highway and (187.1±3.1)1012 particles veh-1 kmnumber and size spectra emission factors will provide valuable input for air quality and particle dispersion modelling near highways and in urban areas.

Wang, F.; Ketzel, M.; Ellermann, T.; Wåhlin, P.; Jensen, S. S.; Fang, D.; Massling, A.

2009-09-01

60

Particle number, particle mass and NOx emission factors at a highway and an urban street in Copenhagen  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents measurements of traffic-generated gas and particle pollution at two sites, one near a major highway and one near a busy urban street in Copenhagen, Denmark. Both sites were equipped for a 4-week period with a set of two measurement stations, one close to the kerbside and one background station. Measurements were carried out from March to April~2008, investigating NOx concentrations, submicrometer particle number size distribution (size range 10-700 nm), particle mass (PM2.5, PM10), and meteorological parameters. In this study we also estimate the emission factors for NOx, particle number and particle mass using measured traffic volume and dilution rate calculated by the Operational Street Pollution Model (WinOSPM). The mean concentrations of most of the measured pollutants are similar for the highway and the urban kerbside stations due to similar traffic density. The average concentrations of NOx are 142 ?g m-3 and 136 ?g m-3 for the highway and the urban kerbside stations, respectively. These values are about 5 times higher compared to the corresponding background values. The average particle number concentration is 24 900 particles cm-3 and 27 100 particles cm-3 for the highway and the urban kerbside stations, respectively, and these values exceed those measured at the background stations by a factor of 3 to 5. The temporal variation of the traffic contribution (difference of kerbside and background concentrations) is analysed for NOx, particle number and mass, and it follows the traffic pattern at the urban and the highway sites. Emission factors for particle number are found to be quite similar at both sites, (215±5) 1012 particles veh-1 km-1 for the highway and (187±3) 1012 particles veh-1 km-1 for the urban site. Heavy duty vehicles (HDVs) are found to emit about 20 times more particles than light duty vehicles (LDVs), which is in good agreement with other published studies. Emission factors are also determined for individual particle modes identified in the size spectra. Average fleet emission factors for PM2.5 at the highway and the urban site are 29 mg veh-1 km-1 and 46 mg veh-1 km-1, respectively. The estimated particle number and size spectra emission factors will provide valuable input for air quality and particle dispersion modelling near highways and in urban areas.

Wang, F.; Ketzel, M.; Ellermann, T.; Wåhlin, P.; Jensen, S. S.; Fang, D.; Massling, A.

2010-03-01

61

Genome-wide association study of copy number variation identified gremlin1 as a candidate gene for lean body mass.  

PubMed

Lean body mass (LBM) is a heritable trait predicting a series of health problems, such as osteoporotic fracture and sarcopenia. We aim to identify sequence variants associated with LBM by a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of copy number variants (CNVs). We genotyped genome-wide CNVs of 1627 individuals of the Chinese population with Affymetrix SNP6.0 genotyping platform, which comprised of 9?40?000 copy number probes. We then performed a GWAS of CNVs with lean mass at seven sites: left and right arms, left and right legs, total of limb, trunk and whole body. We identified a CNV that is associated with LBM variation at the genome-wide significance level (CNV2073, Bonferroni corrected P-value 0.002 at right arm). CNV2073 locates at chromosome 15q13.3, which has been implicated as a candidate region for LBM by our previous linkage studies. The nearest gene, gremlin1, has a key role in the regulation of skeletal muscle formation and repair. Our results suggest that the gremlin1 gene is a potentially important gene for LBM variation. Our findings also show the utility and efficacy of CNV as genetic markers in association studies. PMID:22048656

Hai, Rong; Pei, Yu-Fang; Shen, Hui; Zhang, Lei; Liu, Xiao-Gang; Lin, Yong; Ran, Shu; Pan, Feng; Tan, Li-Jun; Lei, Shu-Feng; Yang, Tie-Lin; Zhang, Yan; Zhu, Xue-Zhen; Zhao, Lan-Juan; Deng, Hong-Wen

2012-01-01

62

Influence of trans-boundary biomass burning impacted air masses on submicron particle number concentrations and size distributions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Submicron particle number concentration (PNC) and particle size distribution (PSD) in the size range of 5.6-560 nm were investigated in Singapore from 27 June 2009 through 6 September 2009. Slightly hazy conditions lasted in Singapore from 6 to 10 August. Backward air trajectories indicated that the haze was due to the transport of biomass burning impacted air masses originating from wild forest and peat fires in Sumatra, Indonesia. Three distinct peaks in the morning (08:00-10:00), afternoon (13:00-15:00) and evening (16:00-20:00) were observed on a typical normal day. However, during the haze period no distinct morning and afternoon peaks were observed and the PNC (39,775 ± 3741 cm-3) increased by 1.5 times when compared to that during non-haze periods (26,462 ± 6017). The morning and afternoon peaks on the normal day were associated with the local rush hour traffic while the afternoon peak was induced by new particle formation (NPF). Diurnal profiles of PNCs and PSDs showed that primary particle peak diameters were large during the haze (60 nm) period when compared to that during the non-haze period (45.3 nm). NPF events observed in the afternoon period on normal days were suppressed during the haze periods due to heavy particle loading in atmosphere caused by biomass burning impacted air masses.

Betha, Raghu; Zhang, Zhe; Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar

2014-08-01

63

A constant-volume rapid exhaust dilution system for motor vehicle particulate matter number and mass measurements.  

PubMed

An improved version of the constant volume sampling (CVS) methodology that overcomes a number of obstacles that exist with the current CVS dilution tunnel system used in most diesel and gasoline vehicle emissions test facilities is presented. The key feature of the new sampling system is the introduction of dilution air immediately at the vehicle tailpipe. In the present implementation, this is done concentrically through a cylindrical air filter. Elimination of the transfer hose conventionally used to connect the tailpipe to the dilution tunnel significantly reduces the hydrocarbon and particulate matter (PM) storage release artifacts that can lead to wildly incorrect particle number counts and to erroneous filter-collected PM mass. It provides accurate representations of particle size distributions for diesel vehicles by avoiding the particle coagulation that occurs in the transfer hose. Furthermore, it removes the variable delay time that otherwise exists between the time that emissions exit the tailpipe and when they are detected in the dilution tunnel. The performance of the improved CVS system is examined with respect to diesel, gasoline, and compressed natural gas vehicles. PMID:14604329

Maricq, M Matti; Chase, Richard E; Xu, Ning; Podsiadlik, Diane H

2003-10-01

64

The Novel GLP-1-Gastrin Dual Agonist ZP3022 Improves Glucose Homeostasis and Increases ?-Cell Mass without Affecting Islet Number in db/db Mice.  

PubMed

Antidiabetic treatments aiming to preserve or even to increase ?-cell mass are currently gaining increased interest. Here we investigated the effect of chronic treatment with the novel glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1)-gastrin dual agonist ZP3022 (HGEGTFTSDLSKQMEEEAVRLFIEWLKN-8Ado-8Ado-YGWLDF-NH2) on glycemic control, ?-cell mass and proliferation, and islet number. Male db/db mice were treated with ZP3022, liraglutide, or vehicle for 2, 4, or 8 weeks, with terminal assessment of hemoglobin A1c, basal blood glucose, and plasma insulin concentrations. Pancreata were removed for immunohistochemical staining and stereological quantification of ?-cell mass, islet numbers, proliferation, and apoptosis. Treatment with ZP3022 or liraglutide led to a significant improvement in glycemic control. ZP3022 treatment resulted in a sustained increase in ?-cell mass after 4 and 8 weeks of treatment, whereas the effect of liraglutide was transient. The expansion in ?-cell mass observed in the ZP3022-treated mice appeared to be driven by increased ?-cell proliferation in existing islets rather than by formation of new islets, as mean islet mass increased but the number of islets remained constant. Our data demonstrate that the GLP-1-gastrin dual agonist ZP3022 causes a sustained improvement in glycemic control accompanied by an increase in ?-cell mass, increased proliferation, and increased mean islet mass. The results highlight that the GLP-1-gastrin dual agonist increases ?-cell mass more than liraglutide and that dual agonists could potentially be developed into a new class of antidiabetic treatments. PMID:24902584

Dalbøge, Louise S; Almholt, Dorthe L C; Neerup, Trine S R; Vrang, Niels; Jelsing, Jacob; Fosgerau, Keld

2014-08-01

65

Mother and offspring fitness in an insect with maternal care: phenotypic trade-offs between egg number, egg mass and egg care  

PubMed Central

Background Oviparous females have three main options to increase their reproductive success: investing into egg number, egg mass and/or egg care. Although allocating resources to either of these three components is known to shape offspring number and size, potential trade-offs among them may have key impacts on maternal and offspring fitness. Here, we tested the occurrence of phenotypic trade-offs between egg number, egg mass and maternal expenditure on egg care in the European earwig, Forficula auricularia, an insect with pre- and post-hatching forms of maternal care. In particular, we used a series of laboratory observations and experiments to investigate whether these three components non-additively influenced offspring weight and number at hatching, and whether they were associated with potential costs to females in terms of future reproduction. Results We found negative associations between egg number and mass as well as between egg number and maternal expenditure on egg care. However, these trade-offs could only be detected after statistically correcting for female weight at egg laying. Hatchling number was not determined by single or additive effects among the three life-history traits, but instead by pairwise interactions among them. In particular, offspring number was positively associated with the number of eggs only in clutches receiving high maternal care or consisting of heavy eggs, and negatively associated with mean egg mass in clutches receiving low care. In contrast, offspring weight was positively associated with egg mass only. Finally, maternal expenditure on egg care reduced their future reproduction, but this effect was only detected when mothers were experimentally isolated from their offspring at egg hatching. Conclusions Overall, our study reveals simultaneous trade-offs between the number, mass and care of eggs. It also demonstrates that these factors interact in their impact on offspring production, and that maternal expenditure on egg care possibly shapes female future reproduction. These findings emphasize that studying reproductive success requires consideration of phenotypic trade-offs between egg-number, egg mass and egg care in oviparous species.

2014-01-01

66

Tests of a mixed compression axisymmetric inlet with large transonic mass flow at Mach numbers 0.6 to 2.65  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A 38.8-cm (15.28-in.) capture diameter model of a mixed-compression axisymmetric inlet system with a translating cowl was designed and tested. The internal contours, designed for Mach number 2.65, provided a throat area of 59 percent of the capture area when the cowl was retracted for transonic operation. Other model features included a boundary-layer removal system, vortex generators, an engine airflow bypass system, cowl support struts, and rotating rakes at the engine face. All tunnel testing was conducted at a tunnel total pressure of about 1 atm (a unit Reynolds number of about 8.53 million/m at Mach number 2.65) at angles of attack from 0 deg to 4 deg. Results for the following were obtained: total-pressure recovery and distortion at the engine face as a function of bleed mass-flow ratio, the effect of bleed and vortex generator configurations on pressure recovery and distortion, inlet tolerance to unstart due to changes in angle of attack or Mach number, surface pressure distributions, boundary-layer profiles, and transonic additive drag. At Mach number 2.65 and with the best bleed configurations, maximum total pressure recovery at the engine face ranged from 91 to 94.5 percent with bleed mass-flow ratios from 4 to 9 percent, respectively, and total-pressure distortion was less than 10 percent. At off-design supersonic Mach numbers above 1.70, maximum total-pressure recoveries and corresponding bleed mass flows were about the same as at Mach number 2.65, with about 10 to 15 percent distortion. In the transonic Mach number range, total pressure recovery was high (above 96 percent) and distortion was low (less than 15 percent) only when the inlet mass-flow ration was reduced 0.02 to 0.06 from the maximum theoretical value (0.590 at Mach number 1.0).

Smeltzer, D. B.; Sorensen, N. E.

1972-01-01

67

Determination of mass attenuation coefficients, effective atomic and electron numbers, mean free paths and kermas for PbO, barite and some boron ores  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The total mass attenuation coefficients, ? m, for PbO, barite, colemanite, tincal and ulexite were determined at 80.1, 302.9, 356.0, 661.7 and 1250.0 keV photon energies by using NaI (Tl) scintillation detector. Effective atomic number, Z eff, effective electron number, N eff, total atomic cross-section, ? t, total electronic cross-section, ? e, mean free path, mfp, and kerma relative to air were determined experimentally and theoretically. The theoretical mass attenuation coefficients were estimated using mixture rule. The calculated values were compared with the experimental values for all samples.

Un, A.; Sahin, Y.

2011-07-01

68

The Efficacy of a Mathematics Readiness Program for Inducing Conservation of Number, Weight, Area, Mass, and Volume in Disadvantaged Preschool Children in the Southern United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study was designed to determine whether conservation of number, weight, volume, area, and mass could be learned and retained by disadvantaged preschool children when taught by an inexperienced classroom teacher. An instructional sequence of 10-minute lessons was presented on alternate days over a 3 1/2 week period by preservice…

Young, Beverly S.

69

ANALYSIS OF RESPIRATORY DEPOSITION OF INHALED PARTICLES FOR DIFFERENT DOSE METRICS: COMPARISON OF NUMBER, SURFACE AREA AND MASS DOSE OF TYPICAL AMBIENT BI-MODAL AEROSOLS  

EPA Science Inventory

ANALYSIS OF RESPIRATORY DEPOSITION OF INHALED PARTICLES FOR DIFFERENT DOSE METRICS: COMPARISON OF NUMBER, SURFACE AREA AND MASS DOSE OF TYPICAL AMBIENT BI-MODAL AEROSOLS. Chong S. Kim, SC. Hu*, PA Jaques*, US EPA, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, ...

70

A study on the relationship between mass concentrations, chemistry and number size distribution of urban fine aerosols in Milan, Barcelona and London  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A physicochemical characterization, including aerosol number size distribution, chemical composition and mass concentrations, of the urban fine aerosol captured in MILAN, BARCELONA and LONDON is presented in this article. The objective is to obtain a comprehensive picture of the microphysical processes involved in aerosol dynamics during the: 1) regular evolution of the urban aerosol (daily, weekly and seasonal basis) and in the day-to-day variations (from clean-air to pollution-events), and 2) the link between "aerosol chemistry and mass concentrations" with the "number size distribution". The mass concentrations of the fine PM2.5 aerosol exhibit a high correlation with the number concentration of >100 nm particles N>100 (nm) ("accumulation mode particles") which only account for <20% of the total number concentration N of fine aerosols; but do not correlate with the number of <100 nm particles ("ultrafine particles"), which accounts for >80% of fine particles number concentration. Organic matter and black-carbon are the only aerosol components showing a significant correlation with the ultrafine particles, attributed to vehicles exhausts emissions; whereas ammonium-nitrate, ammonium-sulphate and also organic matter and black-carbon correlate with N>100 (nm) and attributed to condensation mechanisms, other particle growth processes and some primary emissions. Time series of the aerosol DpN diameter (dN/dlogD mode), mass PM2.5 concentrations and number N>100 (nm) concentrations exhibit correlated day-to-day variations, which point to a significant involvement of condensation of semi-volatile compounds during urban pollution events. This agrees with the observation that ammonium-nitrate is the component exhibiting the highest increases from mid-to-high pollution episodes, when the highest DpN increases are observed. The results indicates that "fine PM2.5 particles urban pollution events" tend to occur when condensation processes have made particles grow large enough to produce significant number concentrations of N>100 (nm) ("accumulation mode particles"). In contrast, because the low contribution of ultrafine particles to the fine aerosol mass concentrations, high "ultrafine particles N<100(nm) events" frequently occurs under low PM2.5 conditions. The results of this study demonstrate that vehicles exhausts emissions are strongly involved in this ultrafine particles aerosol pollution.

Rodríguez, S.; van Dingenen, R.; Putaud, J.-P.; Dell'Acqua, A.; Pey, J.; Querol, X.; Alastuey, A.; Chenery, S.; Ho, K.-F.; Harrison, R.; Tardivo, R.; Scarnato, B.; Gemelli, V.

2007-05-01

71

Long-term measurements of particle number size distributions and the relationships with air mass history and source apportionment in the summer of Beijing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A series of long-term and temporary measurements were conducted to study the improvement of air quality in Beijing during Olympic Games period (8-24 August 2008). To evaluate actions taken to improve the air quality, comparisons of particle number and volume size distributions of August 2008 and 2004-2007 were performed. The total particle number and volume concentrations were 14 000 cm-3 and 37 ?m3 cm-3 in August of 2008, respectively. These were reductions of 41% and 35% compared with the mean values of August 2004-2007. A cluster analysis on air mass history and source apportionment were performed, exploring reasons of the reduction of particle concentrations. Back trajectories were classified into five major clusters. Air mass from south direction are always associated with pollution events during the summertime of Beijing. In August 2008, the frequency of air mass arriving from south has been twice higher compared to the average of the previous years, these southerly air masses did however not result in elevated particle volume concentrations in Beijing. This result implied that the air mass history was not the key factor, explaining reduced particle number and volume concentrations during the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games. Four factors were found influencing particle concentrations using a Positive matrix factorization (PMF) model. They were identified to local and remote traffic emissions, combustion sources as well as secondary transformation. The reductions of the four sources were calculated to 47%, 44%, 43% and 30%, respectively. The significant reductions of particle number and volume concentrations may attribute to actions taken, focusing on primary emissions, especially related to the traffic and combustion sources.

Wang, Z. B.; Hu, M.; Wu, Z. J.; Yue, D. L.; He, L. Y.; Huang, X. F.; Liu, X. G.; Wiedensohler, A.

2013-02-01

72

Detection of Masses in Digital Breast Tomosynthesis Mammography: Effects of the Number of Projection Views and Dose  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are developing a computer-aided detection (CAD) system for masses on digital breast tomosynthesis mammograms (DBT). A data\\u000a set of DBT from patients was collected with informed consent using a GE prototype DBT system. The system has an Rh\\/Rh x-ray\\u000a source and a CsI\\/a:Si detector, and acquires 21 projection view (PV) images over a 60º arc in 3º increments. The

Heang-ping Chan; Jun Wei; Yiheng Zhang; Berkman Sahiner; Lubomir M. Hadjiiski; Mark A. Helvie

2008-01-01

73

Troglitazone increases the number of small adipocytes without the change of white adipose tissue mass in obese Zucker rats.  

PubMed Central

Troglitazone (CS-045) is one of the thiazolidinediones that activate the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma), which is expressed primarily in adipose tissues. To elucidate the mechanism by which troglitazone relieves insulin resistance in vivo, we studied its effects on the white adipose tissues of an obese animal model (obese Zucker rat). Administration of troglitazone for 15 d normalized mild hyperglycemia and marked hyperinsulinemia in these rats. Plasma triglyceride level was decreased by troglitazone in both obese and lean rats. Troglitazone did not change the total weight of white adipose tissues but increased the number of small adipocytes (< 2,500 micron2) approximately fourfold in both retroperitoneal and subcutaneous adipose tissues of obese rats. It also decreased the number of large adipocytes (> 5,000 micron2) by approximately 50%. In fact, the percentage of apoptotic nuclei was approximately 2.5-fold higher in the troglitazone-treated retroperitoneal white adipose tissue than control. Concomitantly, troglitazone normalized the expression levels of TNF-alpha which were elevated by 2- and 1.4-fold in the retroperitoneal and mesenteric white adipose tissues of the obese rats, respectively. Troglitazone also caused a dramatic decrease in the expression levels of leptin, which were increased by 4-10-fold in the white adipose tissues of obese rats. These results suggest that the primary action of troglitazone may be to increase the number of small adipocytes in white adipose tissues, presumably via PPARgamma. The increased number of small adipocytes and the decreased number of large adipocytes in white adipose tissues of troglitazone-treated obese rats appear to be an important mechanism by which increased expression levels of TNF-alpha and higher levels of plasma lipids are normalized, leading to alleviation of insulin resistance.

Okuno, A; Tamemoto, H; Tobe, K; Ueki, K; Mori, Y; Iwamoto, K; Umesono, K; Akanuma, Y; Fujiwara, T; Horikoshi, H; Yazaki, Y; Kadowaki, T

1998-01-01

74

Mass number and prompt neutron emission of individual fission fragments as functions of nuclear charge, both involving parameters determinable from radiochemical data  

SciTech Connect

We lack an equation relating fission fragment mass before prompt neutron emission to the mass of the resulting fission product. It is shown that by using conveniently defined auxiliary functions and partly neglecting fine structure effects, expressions may be derived for mass number, charge density, and prompt neutron yields of individual fission fragments. All expressions involve parameters which can be evaluated from radiochemical fission product yield data, without recourse to any physical measurement whatsoever. The expressions for neutron yields from individual fragments reproduce the well-known saw-tooth curve. The fragment mass number as a function of charge is composed of two parallel straight lines with a simple discontinuity at symmetric charge division. Similarly, the fragment charge density versus charge has two branches extending in the heavy and light fragment regions, respectively. The corresponding relationship is a homographic function of charge, and is discontinuous at symmetric charge division, where Dirichlet's theorem applies. In the fission of /sup 238/U, the two branches come closer together at symmetric charge division as excitation energy of the fissioning nucleus increases. The expressions mentioned above have been applied to nine different low excitation energy (< or =14 MeV) fission processes for which selected recommended data are available. CompThe expression predicted by the liquid drop model for mass asymmetry of fission is shown to be identically valid for charge and neutron asymmetry also. Two new identities are also reported. In addition, two quantities are defined, namely, the proton dilution number with respect to nucleons and that with respect to neutrons. It is shown that the arithmetic mean of either of these quantities for the average light and heavy fragments equals the corresponding quantity for the fissioning nucleus, and that this equality holds true with notable accuracy in all low-energy fission processes considered.

Talat-Erben, M.; Tokay, R.K.

1981-09-01

75

Instrumentation for Application Number 1: Mass spectrometric analysis of the boundary layer associated with the tethered satellite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Knowledge about the boundary layer associated with high enthalpy flow fields has mostly been derived from measurements of physical properties. To further this understanding, the chemistry of the gaseous layer must be studied as well. This requires that instrumentation and measurement methods be developed that can analyze the gases while having a minimal effect on the flow field and composition. Because of its sensitivity and ability to identify species, the mass spectrometer is the most promising instrument for this application, although other spectroscopic methods are being evaluated as well. There are, however, several non-trivial problems that must be solved in order to apply the mass spectrometer, including the obtaining of a representative sample from near the model surface. These problems are being addressed in a research program to develop qualitative and quantitative measurement methods to examine the gas chemistry in several large hot-gas blowdown facilities, and to study the aerodynamics of the boundary layer associated with models in these facilities and in instrumented hypersonic vehicles. These methods can also be applied to the tethered satellite, which will provide a unique opportunity to obtain aerothermodynamic data that is unaltered by effects from the test facility.

Wood, G. M.

1985-01-01

76

Number Size Distribution, Mass Concentration, and Particle Composition of PM1, PM2.5, and PM10 in Bag Filling Areas of Carbon Black Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Number size characteristics and PM10 mass concentrations of particles emitted during the packaging of various kinds of carbon blacks were measured continuously in the bag filling areas of three carbon black plants and concurrently at ambient comparison sites. PM10, PM2.5, and PM1 dust fractions were also determined in the bag filling areas. The filter samples were then analyzed for elemental

T. A. J. Kuhlbusch; S. Neumann; H. Fissan

2004-01-01

77

An investigation of several NACA 1-series inlets at Mach numbers from 0.4 to 1.29 for mass flow ratios near 1.0  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation to determine the performance of eight NACA 1-series inlets at massflow ratios near 1.0 was conducted in the Langley 16-foot transonic tunnel. The inlet diameter ratios (ratio of inlet diameter to maximum diameter) were 0.85 and 0.89 for an inlet length ratio (ratio of inlet length to maximum diameter) of 1.0. Inlet lip radius varied from 0.061 cm to 0.251 cm, and internal contraction area ratio (ratio of inlet area to throat area) varied from 1.006 to 1.201. Reynolds number based on model maximum diameter ranged from 3,600,000 at a Mach number of 400,000 to 5,900,000 at a Mach number of 1.29. The results indicate that nearly uniform pressure distributions on a given inlet were obtained over a limited range of mass-flow ratios and Mach numbers. When inlet lip thickness was increased by means of lip radius or contraction ratio, the inlet critical Mach number decreased. Drag-divergence Mach number inferred from forebody pressure integrations was above 0.94 for most of the inlets tested.

Re, R. J.

1975-01-01

78

Long-term measurements of particle number size distributions and the relationships with air mass history and source apportionment in the summer of Beijing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A series of long-term and temporary measurements were conducted to study the improvement of air quality in Beijing during the Olympic Games period (8-24 August 2008). To evaluate actions taken to improve the air quality, comparisons of particle number and volume size distributions of August 2008 and 2004-2007 were performed. The total particle number and volume concentrations were 14 000 cm-3 and 37 ?m-3 cm-3 in August of 2008, respectively. These were reductions of 41% and 35% compared with mean values of August 2004-2007. A cluster analysis on air mass history and source apportionment were performed, exploring reasons for the reduction of particle concentrations. Back trajectories were classified into five major clusters. Air masses from the south direction are always associated with pollution events during the summertime in Beijing. In August 2008, the frequency of air mass arriving from the south was 1.3 times higher compared to the average of the previous years, which however did not result in elevated particle volume concentrations in Beijing. Therefore, the reduced particle number and volume concentrations during the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games cannot be only explained by meteorological conditions. Four factors were found influencing particle concentrations using a positive matrix factorization (PMF) model. They were identified as local and remote traffic emissions, combustion sources as well as secondary transformation. The reductions of the four sources were calculated to 47%, 44%, 43% and 30%, respectively. The significant reductions of particle number and volume concentrations may attribute to actions taken, focusing on primary emissions, especially related to the traffic and combustion sources.

Wang, Z. B.; Hu, M.; Wu, Z. J.; Yue, D. L.; He, L. Y.; Huang, X. F.; Liu, X. G.; Wiedensohler, A.

2013-10-01

79

Studies on mass attenuation coefficient, effective atomic number and electron density of some amino acids in the energy range 0.122-1.330 MeV  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The total mass attenuation coefficients of some amino acids, such as Glycine (C2H5NO2), DL-Alanine (C3H7NO2), Proline (C5H9NO2), L-Leucine (C6H13NO2 ), L-Arginine (C6H14N4O2) and L-Arginine Monohydrochloride (C6H15ClN4O2), were measured at 122, 356, 511, 662, 1170, 1275 and 1330 keV photon energies using a well-collimated narrow beam good geometry set-up. The gamma rays were detected using NaI (Tl) scintillation detection system with a resolution of 10.2% at 662 keV. The attenuation coefficient data were then used to obtain the effective atomic numbers (Zeff) and effective electron densities (Neff) of amino acids. It was observed that the effective atomic number (Zeff) and effective electron densities (Neff) tend to be almost constant as a function of gamma-ray energy. The results show that, the experimental values of mass attenuation coefficients, effective atomic numbers and effective electron densities are in good agreement with the theoretical values with less than 1% error.

Pawar, Pravina P.; Bichile, Govind K.

2013-11-01

80

Near-Infrared Properties of Moderate-Redshift Galaxy Clusters: Halo Occupation Number, Mass-to-Light Ratios and Omega(M)  

SciTech Connect

Using K-band imaging for 15 of the Canadian Network for Observational Cosmology (CNOC1) clusters we examine the near-infrared properties of moderate-redshift (0.19 < z < 0.55) galaxy clusters. We find that the number of K-band selected cluster galaxies within R{sub 500} (the Halo Occupation Number, HON) is well-correlated with the cluster dynamical mass (M{sub 500}) and X-ray Temperature (T{sub x}); however, the intrinsic scatter in these scaling relations is 37% and 46% respectively. Comparison with clusters in the local universe shows that the HON-M{sub 500} relation does not evolve significantly between z = 0 and z {approx} 0.3. This suggests that if dark matter halos are disrupted or undergo significant tidal-stripping in high-density regions as seen in numerical simulations, the stellar mass within the halos is tightly bound, and not removed during the process. The total K-band cluster light (L{sub 200},K) and K-band selected richness (parameterized by B{sub gc,K}) are also correlated with both the cluster T{sub x} and M{sub 200}. The total (intrinsic) scatter in the L{sub 200,K}-M{sub 200} and B{sub gc,K}-M{sub 200} relations are 43%(31%) and 35%(18%) respectively and indicates that for massive clusters both L{sub 200,K} and B{sub gc,K} can predict M{sub 200} with similar accuracy as T{sub x}, L{sub x} or optical richness (B{sub gc}). Examination of the mass-to-light ratios of the clusters shows that similar to local clusters, the K-band mass-to-light ratio is an increasing function of halo mass. Using the K-band mass-to-light ratios of the clusters, we apply the Oort technique and find {Omega}{sub m,0} = 0.22 {+-} 0.02, which agrees well with recent combined concordance cosmology parameters, but, similar to previous cluster studies, is on the low-density end of preferred values.

Muzzin, Adam; Yee, H.K.C.; /Toronto U., Astron. Dept.; Hall, Patrick B.; /York U., Canada; Lin, Huan; /Fermilab

2007-03-01

81

Mass number and prompt neutron emission of individual fission fragments as functions of nuclear charge, both involving parameters determinable from radiochemical data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We lack an equation relating fission fragment mass before prompt neutron emission to the mass of the resulting fission product. It is shown that by using conveniently defined auxiliary functions and partly neglecting fine structure effects, expressions may be derived for mass number, charge density, and prompt neutron yields of individual fission fragments. All expressions involve parameters which can be evaluated from radiochemical fission product yield data, without recourse to any physical measurement whatsoever. The expressions for neutron yields from individual fragments reproduce the well-known saw-tooth curve. The fragment mass number as a function of charge is composed of two parallel straight lines with a simple discontinuity at symmetric charge division. Similarly, the fragment charge density versus charge has two branches extending in the heavy and light fragment regions, respectively. The corresponding relationship is a homographic function of charge, and is discontinuous at symmetric charge division, where Dirichlet's theorem applies. In the fission of 238U, the two branches come closer together at symmetric charge division as excitation energy of the fissioning nucleus increases. The expressions mentioned above have been applied to nine different low excitation energy (<=14 MeV) fission processes for which selected recommended data are available. Comparison is made with published data wherever available; in general, good agreement is observed. The expression predicted by the liquid drop model for mass asymmetry of fission is shown to be identically valid for charge and neutron asymmetry also. Two new identities are also reported. In addition, two quantities are defined, namely, the inverse charge density with respect to nucleons and that with respect to neutrons. It is shown that the arithmetic mean of either of these quantities for the average light and heavy fragments equals the corresponding quantity for the fissioning nucleus, and that this equality holds true with notable accuracy in all low-energy fission processes considered. NUCLEAR REACTIONS, FISSION 232Th, 233U, 235U, 238U, 239Pu, 252Cf. Expressions for fragment mass, charge density, and neutron yields versus charge involving parameters determinable from radiochemical yields.

Talât-Erben, M.; Tokay, R. K.

1981-09-01

82

Prepregnancy Body Mass Index, Vaginal Inflammation, and the Racial Disparity in Preterm Birth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors sought to quantify the overall and race\\/ethnic-specific relations between prepregnancy body mass index and both preterm birth and vaginal inflammation. Data from a cohort of 11,392 women who enrolled in the multicenter Vaginal Infections and Prematurity Study (1984-1989) at 23-26 weeks' gestation were used. Com- pared with a prepregnancy body mass index of 22, a body mass index

Hyagriv N. Simhan; Lisa M. Bodnar

83

Mass attenuation coefficients and effective atomic numbers in phosphate glass containing Bi 2O 3, PbO and BaO at 662 keV  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, the mass attenuation coefficients, partial interactions and the effective atomic numbers ( Zeff) of Bi 2O 3, PbO and BaO in xR mO n:(100- x)P 2O 5 (where x=30? x?70 (% by weight)) glass system have been investigated on the basis of the mixture rule at 662 keV. The total and partial interactions were calculated by WinXCom software. It has been found that the total mass attenuation coefficients of glasses increase with increasing Bi 2O 3 and PbO concentrations, due to the increasing photoelectric absorption in glass samples. However, Compton scattering gives dominant contribution to the total mass attenuation coefficients for the studied glass samples. The Zeff increases with increase in Bi 2O 3, PbO and BaO concentrations. For comparison, the Zeff of PbO glasses are comparable to that of Bi 2O 3 glasses and Zeff of both glasses are greater than BaO glasses. These results are very useful for designing radiation shielding glass and reflecting the influence of bismuth, barium, and lead content in radiation shielding phosphate glass. Besides the mentioned usefulness of the new materials, development of lead-free radiation protecting glass also leaves non-toxic impact on our environment.

Kaewkhao, J.; Limsuwan, P.

2010-07-01

84

Highly sensitive and specific detection of histamine via the formation of a self-assembled magic number cluster with thymine by mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A novel method for the detection of histamine (HIM) via the formation of a self-assembled magic number cluster with thymine (T) by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) is described. The formation of the magic number cluster [T17 + HIM + 2H](2+) shifts the MS signal of histamine to the interference-free higher mass range and the signal intensity is increased by four orders of magnitude. In addition, the formation of [T17 + HIM + 2H](2+) is highly specific to histamine compared with its metabolite and other similar biogenic amines, which may be attributed to both of its amino and imidazole groups. The linear dynamic range of the method is in the range of 1 nM-20 ?M, and the limit of detection can be as low as 0.1 nM. The feasibility of this method is further demonstrated by the quantitative analysis of histamine in a red wine sample. Since little sample preparation or separation is required before the analysis, this method provides a rapid new way for the sensitive and specific detection of histamine by MS. PMID:24804297

Sun, Jiamu; Qin, Zhen; Liu, Jia; Zhang, Chengsen; Luo, Hai

2014-06-21

85

Experimental validation of an effective carbon number-based approach for the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry quantification of 'compounds lacking authentic standards or surrogates'.  

PubMed

For the quantitative analysis of 'compounds lacking authentic standards or surrogates' (CLASS) in environmental media, we previously introduced an effective carbon number (ECN) approach to develop an empirical equation for the prediction of their response factor (RF). In this research, a series of laboratory experiments were carried out to benchmark the reliability of an ECN approach for sorbent tube/thermal desorption/gas chromatography (GC)/mass spectrometry (MS) applications. First, the ECN values were determined using external calibration data from 25 reference volatile organic compounds (VOCs) using two MS dectectors (quadrupole (Q) and time-of-flight (TOF)). Then, a certified standard mixture of 54 VOCs was analyzed by each system as a simulated unknown sample. The analytical bias, assessed in terms of percentage difference (PD) between the certified and ECN-predicted mass values, averaged 19.2±16.1% (TOF-MS) and 28.2±27.6% (Q-MS). The bias using a more simplified carbon number (CN)-based prediction increased considerably, yielding 53.4±53.3% (TOF-MS) and 61.7±81.3% (Q-MS). However, the bias obtained using the ECN-based prediction decreased significantly to yield average PD values of 9.84±7.28% (TOF-MS) and 16.8±8.35% (Q-MS), if the comparison was limited to 26 (out of 54) VOCs with CN?4 (i.e., 25 aromatics and hexachlorobutadiene). PMID:24856509

Kim, Yong-Hyun; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Szulejko, Jan E; Bae, Min-Suk; Brown, Richard J C

2014-06-01

86

Extension to Higher Mass Numbers of an Improved Knockout-Ablation-Coalescence Model for Secondary Neutron and Light Ion Production in Cosmic Ray Interactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Purpose: An analytical knockout-ablation-coalescence model capable of making quantitative predictions of the neutron spectra from high-energy nucleon-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions is being developed for use in space radiation protection studies. The FORTRAN computer code that implements this model is called UBERNSPEC. The knockout or abrasion stage of the model is based on Glauber multiple scattering theory. The ablation part of the model uses the classical evaporation model of Weisskopf-Ewing. In earlier work, the knockout-ablation model has been extended to incorporate important coalescence effects into the formalism. Recently, alpha coalescence has been incorporated, and the ability to predict light ion spectra with the coalescence model added. The earlier versions were limited to nuclei with mass numbers less than 69. In this work, the UBERNSPEC code has been extended to make predictions of secondary neutrons and light ion production from the interactions of heavy charged particles with higher mass numbers (as large as 238). The predictions are compared with published measurements of neutron spectra and light ion energy for a variety of collision pairs. Furthermore, the predicted spectra from this work are compared with the predictions from the recently-developed heavy ion event generator incorporated in the Monte Carlo radiation transport code HETC-HEDS.

Indi Sriprisan, Sirikul; Townsend, Lawrence; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Miller, Thomas M.

87

Surveillance study of a number of synthetic and natural growth promoters in bovine muscle samples using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A simple, new method permitting the simultaneous determination and confirmation of trace residues of 24 different growth promoters and metabolites using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was developed and validated. The compounds were extracted from bovine tissue using acetonitrile; sodium sulphate was also added at this stage to aid with purification. The resulting mixture was then evaporated to approximately 1 ml and subsequently centrifuged at high speed and an aliquot injected onto the LC-MS/MS system. The calculated CC? values ranged between 0.11 and 0.46 µg kg(-1); calculated CC? were in the range 0.19-0.79 µg kg(-1). Accuracy, measurement of uncertainty, repeatability and linearity were also determined for each analyte. The analytical method was applied to a number of bovine tissue samples imported into Ireland from third countries. Levels of progesterone were found in a number of samples at concentrations ranging between 0.28 and 30.30 µg kg(-1). Levels of alpha- and beta-testosterone were also found in a number of samples at concentrations ranging between 0.22 and 8.63 µg kg(-1) and between 0.16 and 2.08 µg kg(-1) respectively. PMID:21598141

Malone, E; Elliott, C; Kennedy, G; Savage, D; Regan, L

2011-05-01

88

42 CFR 23.26 - How is the loan repaid?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

Payments shall be made at monthly intervals, beginning 1 month from the date of the loan disbursement, in accordance with the repayment schedule established by the Secretary and set forth in the loan agreement. Only interest payments are required during the first 2...

2012-10-01

89

Estimate of the hadronic production of the doubly charmed baryon ?cc in the general-mass variable-flavor-number scheme  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To try to understand the experimental observation of SELEX Collaboration and to check the existent results in literature, we have done a theoretical investigation on hadronic production of the doubly charmed baryon ?cc (?cc++ or ?cc+) under the general-mass variable-flavor-number (GM-VFN) scheme. A similar study of the production at LHC and TEVATRON is also performed. The production here is realized via production of a binding diquark either (cc)[S13]3¯ (in configuration S-wave and in color 3¯) or (cc)[S01]6 (in configuration S-wave and in color 6) instead of only the diquark (cc)[S13]3¯ is considered. Numerical results show that the production via each configuration of the diquark is comparable at LHC and TEVATRON under the condition that the NRQCD matrix elements relevant to the diquark production are assumed approximately to be equal to each other; and the contributions from collision of a so-called “extrinsic“ charm and a gluon inside the colliding hadrons are comparable with, or even greater than, those from the so-called gluon-gluon fusion, especially, in the region of small transverse-momentum pt. We also note that due to the contributions from the “extrinsic“ charm, the theoretical prediction on the production of the baryon ?cc is raised by one order in comparison with the existent predictions almost.

Chang, Chao-Hsi; Qiao, Cong-Feng; Wang, Jian-Xiong; Wu, Xing-Gang

2006-05-01

90

Estimation of size-resolved ambient particle density based on the measurement of aerosol number, mass, and chemical size distributions in the winter in Beijing.  

PubMed

Simultaneous measurements of aerosol size, distribution of number, mass, and chemical compositions were conducted in the winter of 2007 in Beijing using a Twin Differential Mobility Particle Sizer and a Micro Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor. Both material density and effective density of ambient particles were estimated to be 1.61 ± 0.13 g cm(-3) and 1.62 ± 0.38 g cm(-3) for PM(1.8) and 1.73 ± 0.14 g cm(-3) and 1.67 ± 0.37 g cm(-3) for PM(10). Effective density decreased in the nighttime, indicating the primary particles emission from coal burning influenced the density of ambient particles. Size-resolved material density and effective density showed that both values increased with diameter from about 1.5 g cm(-3) at the size of 0.1 ?m to above 2.0 g cm(-3) in the coarse mode. Material density was significantly higher for particles between 0.56 and 1.8 ?m during clean episodes. Dynamic Shape Factors varied within the range of 0.95-1.13 and decreased with particle size, indicating that coagulation and atmospheric aging processes may change the shape of particles. PMID:22458861

Hu, Min; Peng, Jianfei; Sun, Kang; Yue, Dingli; Guo, Song; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Wu, Zhijun

2012-09-18

91

Centrality dependence of two-particle number and transverse momentum correlations in center of mass energy = 200 GeV gold+gold collisions at RHIC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present plots of the pattern of particle formation in sNN = 200 GeV Au+Au heavy ion collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) using three different two-particle correlation measurements of number and transverse momentum as a function of relative azimuth, pseudorapidity and centrality. All three observables show the onset with increasing centrality of a near-side "ridge" of enhanced correlations in pseudorapidity. The plots of real data are compared to plots of simulations using RQMD data and data from a simple "cluster" model. RQMD (relativistic quantum molecular dynamics) program uses a transport theoretical model of hadron collisions. The "cluster" dataset is a simplistic cartoon of a decay event involving an invariant mass that receives a longitudinal and then transverse Lorentz boost. The effect of radial flow on clusters is shown with a radial boost applied both collectively and to individual clusters. We find that the kinematic effect of radial flow in simulated cluster data produces a near-side "ridge" similar to that seen in the data.

Tarini, Laurence

92

Quasistatic reduced yield stress number in London-van der Waals interacting solid-liquid media: Influence of high solid mass concentrations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A set of ?1 functions, dependent on a parameter, is theoretically constructed to investigate the influence of the solid mass concentration cn on the (quasi)static yield stress ?0 of a liquid dispersion of solid particles near or at the isoelectric point and ruled by Derjaguin-Vervey-Landau-Overbeek interactions. The yield stress has been described as the force per unit area necessary to break two-particle clusters governed by attractive London-van der Waals interactions. As soon as an external stress begins to move the slurry, in the limit of zero velocity profile, the interparticle potential averaged over the cluster volume at the equilibrium state approaches the value deriving from the Hamaker law and gives rise to a relationship involving ?0 and cn. The achieved theoretical curves closely agree with experimental data concerning Si3N4, Zr2O and Ca3(PO4)2 aqueous suspensions as well as flocculated Al2O3 systems. Correspondingly, the parameter value turns out to be predictable from a phenomenological relationship involving the Hamaker constant and/or the mean interparticle energy. Theoretical descriptions were formulated in terms of a ``reduced yield stress number'' (?=?0/?~0, for some experimental value ?~0), which accounts for the contribution associated to dispersion forces.

Mezzasalma, Stefano A.

1998-03-01

93

Three years of aerosol mass, black carbon and particle number concentrations at Montsec (southern Pyrenees, 1570 m a.s.l.)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Time variation of mass particulate matter (PM1 and PM1&minus10), black carbon (BC) and number of particles (N3: number of particles with an aerodynamic diameter higher than 3 nm, and N10: higher than 10 nm) concentrations at the high-altitude site of Montsec (MSC) in the southern Pyrenees was interpreted for the period 2010-2012. At MSC, PM10 (12 ?g m-3) and N7 (2140 # cm-3) three-year arithmetic average concentrations were higher than those measured at other high-altitude sites in central Europe during the same period (PM10: 3-9 ?g m-3 and N: 634-2070 # cm-3). By contrast, BC concentrations at MSC (0.2 ?g m-3) were equal to or even lower than those measured at these European sites (0.2-0.4 ?g m-3). These differences were attributed to the higher relevance of Saharan dust transport and to the higher importance of the biogenic precursor emissions and new particle formation (NPF) processes, and to the lower influence of anthropogenic emissions at MSC. The different time variation of PM and BC concentrations compared with that of N suggests that these aerosol parameters were governed by diverse factors at MSC. Both PM and BC concentrations showed marked differences for different meteorological scenarios, with enhanced concentrations under North African air outbreaks (PM1&minus10: 13 ?g m-3, PM1: 8 ?g m-3 and BC: 0.3 ?g m-3) and low concentrations when Atlantic advections occurred (PM1-10: 5 ?g m-3, PM1: 4 ?g m-3 and BC: 0.1 ?g m-3). PM and BC concentrations increased in summer, with a secondary maximum in early spring, and were at their lowest in winter, due to the contrasting origin of the air masses in the warmer seasons (spring and summer) and in the colder seasons (autumn and winter). The maximum in the warmer seasons was attributed to long-range transport processes that mask the breezes and regional transport breaking the daily cycles of these pollutants. By contrast, PM and BC concentrations showed clear diurnal cycles, with maxima at midday in the colder seasons. A statistically significant weekly variation was also obtained for the BC concentrations, displaying a progressive increase from Tuesday to Saturday, followed by a significant decrease on Sunday and Monday. N concentrations depended more on local meteorological variables such as temperature and solar radiation intensity than on the origin of the air mass. Therefore, arithmetic averages as a function of meteorological episodes showed the highest concentrations of N during summer regional episodes (N3: 4461 # cm-3 and N7: 3021 # cm-3) and the lowest concentrations during winter regional scenarios (N3: 2496 # cm-3 and N7: 1073 # cm-3). This dependence on temperature and solar radiation also accounted for the marked diurnal cycle of N concentrations throughout the year, with a peak at midday and for the absence of a weekly pattern. Measurements carried out at MSC enabled us to characterize the tropospheric background aerosols in the western Mediterranean basin (WMB). Our results highlight the importance of the NPF processes in southern Europe, underline the high contribution of long-range dust transport with respect to central Europe and its prevalence in elevated layers, and reveal that MSC is much less affected by anthropogenic emissions than other high-altitude sites in central Europe.

Ripoll, A.; Pey, J.; Minguillón, M. C.; Pérez, N.; Pandolfi, M.; Querol, X.; Alastuey, A.

2014-04-01

94

Three years of aerosol mass, black carbon and particle number concentrations at Montsec (southern~Pyrenees, 1570 m a.s.l.)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Time variation of mass particulate matter (PM1 and PM1-10), black carbon (BC) and particle number (N) concentrations at the high altitude site of Montsec (MSC) in the southern Pyrenees was interpreted for the period 2010-2012. The MSC site registered higher PM10 (12 ?g m-3) and N > 7 nm (2209 # cm-3) concentrations than those measured at other high altitude sites in central Europe (PM10: 3-9 ?g m-3 and N: 634-2070 # cm-3). By contrast, BC concentrations at MSC (0.2 ?g m-3) were equal or even lower than those measured at these European sites (0.2-0.4 ?g m-3). These differences were attributed to the lower influence of anthropogenic emissions and to the higher relevance of Saharan dust transport and new particle formation (NPF) processes at MSC. The different time variation of PM and BC concentrations compared with that of N suggests that these aerosol parameters were governed by diverse factors at MSC. Both PM and BC concentrations showed marked differences for different meteorological scenarios, with enhanced concentrations under North African outbreaks (PM1-10: 13 ?g m-3, PM1: 8 ?g m-3 and BC: 0.3 ?g m-3) and low concentrations when Atlantic advections occurred (PM1-10: 5 ?g m-3, PM1: 4 ?g m-3 and BC: 0.1 ?g m-3). Because of the contrasting origin of the air masses in the warmer seasons (spring and summer) and in the colder seasons (autumn and winter), PM and BC concentrations showed a marked increase in summer, with a secondary maximum in early spring, and were at their lowest during winter. The maximum in the warmer seasons was attributed to long-range transport processes which mask the breezes and regional transport breaking the daily cycles of these pollutants. By contrast, PM and BC concentrations showed clear diurnal cycles with maxima at midday in the colder seasons. A statistically significant weekly variation was also obtained for the BC concentrations, displaying a progressive increase from Tuesday to Saturday, followed by a significant decrease on Sunday and Monday. N concentrations depended more on local meteorological variables such as solar radiation than on the air mass origin. Therefore, the highest concentrations of N were associated with summer regional episodes (N > 3 nm: 4461 # cm-3 and N > 7 nm: 3021 # cm-3) and the lowest concentrations were related to winter regional scenarios (N > 3 nm: 2496 # cm-3 and N > 7 nm: 1073 # cm-3). This dependence on solar radiation also accounted for the marked diurnal cycle of N concentrations throughout the year with a peak at midday and for the absence of a weekly pattern. Measurements carried out at MSC enabled us to characterize the tropospheric background aerosols in the Western Mediterranean Basin (WMB). Our results highlight the importance of the NPF processes in southern Europe, reveal much lower anthropogenic emissions than in central Europe, and underline the contribution of natural long-range transport such as Saharan dust.

Ripoll, A.; Pey, J.; Minguillón, M. C.; Pérez, N.; Pandolfi, M.; Querol, X.; Alastuey, A.

2013-10-01

95

Estimate of the hadronic production of the doubly charmed baryon {xi}{sub cc} in the general-mass variable-flavor-number scheme  

SciTech Connect

To try to understand the experimental observation of SELEX Collaboration and to check the existent results in literature, we have done a theoretical investigation on hadronic production of the doubly charmed baryon {xi}{sub cc} ({xi}{sub cc}{sup ++} or {xi}{sub cc}{sup +}) under the general-mass variable-flavor-number (GM-VFN) scheme. A similar study of the production at LHC and TEVATRON is also performed. The production here is realized via production of a binding diquark either (cc)[{sup 3}S{sub 1}]{sub 3} (in configuration S-wave and in color 3) or (cc)[{sup 1}S{sub 0}]{sub 6} (in configuration S-wave and in color 6) instead of only the diquark (cc)[{sup 3}S{sub 1}]{sub 3} is considered. Numerical results show that the production via each configuration of the diquark is comparable at LHC and TEVATRON under the condition that the NRQCD matrix elements relevant to the diquark production are assumed approximately to be equal to each other; and the contributions from collision of a so-called 'extrinsic' charm and a gluon inside the colliding hadrons are comparable with, or even greater than, those from the so-called gluon-gluon fusion, especially, in the region of small transverse-momentum p{sub t}. We also note that due to the contributions from the 'extrinsic' charm, the theoretical prediction on the production of the baryon {xi}{sub cc} is raised by one order in comparison with the existent predictions almost.

Chang Chaohsi [CCAST (World Laboratory), P.O.Box 8730, Beijing 100080 (China); Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O.Box 2735, Beijing 100080 (China); Qiao Congfeng [Department of Physics, Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Wang Jianxiong [Institute of High Energy Physics, P.O.Box 918(4), Beijing 100049 (China); Wu Xinggang [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O.Box 2735, Beijing 100080 (China)

2006-05-01

96

A Novel Derivatization Reagent in the Determination of the Number of OH End Groups in Poly(ethylene glycol) by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry  

PubMed Central

The potential of a novel derivatization reagent, trifluoroacetic anhydride (TFAA), in determining the number of OH groups in poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) was investigated by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS). The MALDI mass spectra of the products revealed peaks of sodiated derivative cations, whose shift by the respective increments, ?m/z: 96?×?number of OH, allowed for the determination of the number of end functional groups with active hydrogens. In the present study, complete acylation of OH groups by TFAA proceeded rapidly, and only required mixing in acetonitrile solvent without purification. As a result, the number of OH end groups of PEG could be determined rapidly.

Kagawa, Shuji

2013-01-01

97

Number Track  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students can use this interactive Flash applet to practice ordering whole numbers within 20. The applet displays a track and number tiles, which the user drags to create the correct sequence of numbers 1 through 20. Users may choose from four levels: place 5 missing numbers, place 10 numbers, arrange all 20 numbers, or create your own challenge.

Bunker, Dan

2010-01-01

98

Identification of sources of atmospheric PM at the Pittsburgh Supersite—Part II: Quantitative comparisons of single particle, particle number, and particle mass measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A single particle mass spectrometer, RSMS-3, and a MOUDI were deployed during the Pittsburgh Air Quality Study (PAQS), July 2001-September 2002, to obtain size resolved measurements of elemental composition for particulate matter (PM) within the Pittsburgh area. Elemental mass distributions from analysis of the MOUDI stages were directly compared to those constructed using the single particle data, in conjunction with coincident SMPS measurements, for specific days within the PAQS. Results from one episode on 27 October 2001 showed that approximately 80% of the metal containing particles detected on this day belonged to the Na/Si/K/Ca/Fe/Ga/Pb particle class. The density and shape factor of these particles were estimated to be 3.9±0.8 g/cc and 1.5±0.2, respectively, and the relative sensitivity factors for individual metals showed little variation with respect to particle diameter over the size range of 70-800 nm. Compared to the 27 October 2001 episode, there was a larger degree of variability in the metal containing particles detected during another episode on 14 March 2002. The Ca and Pb mass distributions from this day represent an ensemble of externally mixed particles. Estimates of particle density were provided for the dominant particle types, including EC/OC/Ca, Al/Si/Ca/Fe, EC/OC/Pb and Na/K/Zn/Pb, and estimates of particle shape factor were provided for the EC/OC/Ca and Na/K/Zn/Pb classes. Comparison with the 27 October 2001 Ca and Pb mass distributions revealed that the RSMS data reconstructed the MOUDI mass much better from the Ca/Pb containing particles detected on 14 March 2002 than those observed on 27 October 2001, suggesting that the single particle instrument sensitivity to both Ca and Pb depends on the particle matrix.

Bein, Keith J.; Zhao, Yongjing; Pekney, Natalie J.; Davidson, Cliff I.; Johnston, Murray V.; Wexler, Anthony S.

99

Number Sense  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Hacker has given you a challenge. Heâll run his number machine to create a number. Then youâll get three numbers between one and nine. The challenge is to make a number that is larger than the one on Hackerâs machine. Be careful though--Hacker will give you numbers that canât be bigger than his!

2008-01-01

100

Number Line  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This iOS app helps students to visualize number sentences and create models for addition, subtractions, multiplication, and division. The number line can be adjusted to represent multiples of numbers from one to one hundred.

Clarity Innovations, Inc.

2013-11-22

101

Story Numbers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A concrete approach to prime numbers is presented using rectangles and triangles to construct a building for each number so that each story represents a pair of factors and the triangular-shaped roof represents the number. (MP)

Swafford, Jane; McGinty, Robert

1978-01-01

102

Quasistatic reduced yield stress number in London-van der Waals interacting solid-liquid media: Influence of high solid mass concentrations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A set of ?1 functions, dependent on a parameter, is theoretically constructed to investigate the influence of the solid mass concentration cn on the (quasi)static yield stress tau0 of a liquid dispersion of solid particles near or at the isoelectric point and ruled by Derjaguin-Vervey-Landau-Overbeek interactions. The yield stress has been described as the force per unit area necessary to

Stefano A. Mezzasalma

1998-01-01

103

Number Flash  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This iOS app helps students make the transition from counting to number recognition by thinking of a number of objects in relation to five and ten. The app displays a set number of items from one to twenty in ten frames then flashes away after the preset number of seconds. The user must identify the number that was shown on the ten frames.

Mark, Mitchell

2013-03-10

104

Nifty Numbers!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

You will be working with numbers in all sorts of ways. First, you will play cop by picking numbers based on their divisibility. Then you will be adding and subtracting fractions in two fun and exciting games. First, as a cop, you will catch numbers that are divisible by which ever number you pick, avoinding crashing into non-divisible numbers. Number Cop-Divisibility Now, play Fishy Fractions! and help feed the seagull by practicing adding fractions. Make sure you read the instructions before getting started! Make sure to simplify your answers! After you ...

Miss.cochran

2008-03-26

105

Tooth Numbering  

MedlinePLUS

... numbered as well. Illustrations created by Simple Steps designer Michael Becker Universal Numbering System Adults In this ... indicates that it is a deciduous (primary or "baby") tooth. So, a child's first tooth on the ...

106

Negative Numbers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article is an account of how negative numbers became part of the "vocabulary" of mathematicians and of some of the earliest appearances of negative numbers in calculations of the ancient civilizations of China, India and Greece. Although negative numbers were used in calculations, negative answers to mathematical problems were considered meaningless or impossible. The troubled history of negative numbers presented in this article shows how the simple mathematical principles taken for granted today have taken thousands of years to develop.

Howard, Jill

2009-05-01

107

Number Balance  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This open-ended interactive Flash applet helps students develop operation and number sense, facility with number facts, and understanding of equations. Users designate single-digit whole numbers or integers and operations on both sides of an equation and test for balance. Users can enter numbers by using the keyboard or arrow buttons or by dragging number tiles. Each element can be hidden and a seesaw may be toggled on/off. Teachers may use this applet to lead instruction, or students may use it independently to perform specific investigations or explore freely. Supplementary documents include Objectives, containing teaching suggestions, and a student recording sheet.

Bunker, Dan

2005-01-01

108

An investigation of several NACA 1 series axisymmetric inlets at Mach numbers from 0.4 to 1.29. [wind tunnel tests over range of mass-flow ratios and at angle of attack  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation was conducted in the Langley 16-foot transonic tunnel to determine the performance of seven inlets having NACA 1-series contours and one inlet having an elliptical contour over a range of mass-flow ratios and at angle of attack. The inlet diameter ratio varied from 0.81 to 0.89; inlet length ratio varied from 0.75 to 1.25; and internal contraction ratio varied from 1.009 to 1.093. Reynolds number based on inlet maximum diameter varied from 3.4 million at a Mach number of 0.4 to 5.6 million at a Mach number of 1.29.

Re, R. J.

1974-01-01

109

Mass, quark-number, and {radical}(s{sub NN}) dependence of the second and fourth flow harmonics in ultrarelativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions  

SciTech Connect

We present STAR measurements of the azimuthal anisotropy parameter v{sub 2} for pions, kaons, protons, {lambda},{lambda},{xi}+{xi}, and {omega}+{omega}, along with v{sub 4} for pions, kaons, protons, and {lambda}+{lambda} at midrapidity for Au+Au collisions at {radical}(s{sub NN})=62.4 and 200 GeV. The v{sub 2}(p{sub T}) values for all hadron species at 62.4 GeV are similar to those observed in 130 and 200 GeV collisions. For observed kinematic ranges, v{sub 2} values at 62.4, 130, and 200 GeV are as little as 10-15% larger than those in Pb+Pb collisions at {radical}(s{sub NN})=17.3 GeV. At intermediate transverse momentum (p{sub T} from 1.5-5 GeV/c), the 62.4 GeV v{sub 2}(p{sub T}) and v{sub 4}(p{sub T}) values are consistent with the quark-number scaling first observed at 200 GeV. A four-particle cumulant analysis is used to assess the nonflow contributions to pions and protons and some indications are found for a smaller nonflow contribution to protons than pions. Baryon v{sub 2} is larger than antibaryon v{sub 2} at 62.4 and 200 GeV, perhaps indicating either that the initial spatial net-baryon distribution is anisotropic, that the mechanism leading to transport of baryon number from beam- to midrapidity enhances v{sub 2} or that antibaryon and baryon annihilation is larger in the in-plane direction.

Abelev, B. I.; Baumgart, S.; Bielcik, J.; Bielcikova, J.; Caines, H.; Catu, O.; Chikanian, A.; Du, F.; Finch, E.; Harris, J. W.; Heinz, M.; Knospe, A. G.; Lamont, M. A. C.; Lin, G.; Majka, R.; Nattrass, C.; Salur, S.; Sandweiss, J.; Smirnov, N.; Witt, R. [Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States)] (and others)

2007-05-15

110

Number Grids and Number Triangles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Practice counting, counting by tens, place value, and fact families by entering your answers into the blank boxes; click the big blue and green buttons to check your work. Each of the five levels of Number Grid activities displays a section of a matrix containing a set of of consecutive whole numbers. A move from one number to the next within a row corresponds to a change of one; a move from one number to the next within a column refers to a change of ten. The three levels of Number Triangle activities provide practice with fact families and inverse relationships through flash cards. An addition/subtraction Number Triangle has two addends and a sum; a multiplication/division Number Triangle has two factors and a product.

Brown, Quincy; Fetter, Annie

2006-08-01

111

Contrast in air pollution components between major streets and background locations: Particulate matter mass, black carbon, elemental composition, nitrogen oxide and ultrafine particle number  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Policies to reduce outdoor air pollution concentrations are often assessed on the basis of the regulated pollutants. Whether these are the most appropriate components to assess the potential health benefits is questionable, as other health-relevant pollutants may be more strongly related to traffic. The aim of this study is to compare the contrast in concentration between major roads and (sub)urban background for a large range of pollutants and to analyze the magnitude of the measured difference in the street - background for major streets with different street configurations. Measurements of PM 10, PM 2.5, particle number concentrations (PNC), black carbon (BC), elemental composition of PM 10 and PM 2.5 and NO x were conducted simultaneously in eight major streets and nine (sub)urban background locations in the Netherlands. Measurements were done six times for a week during a six month period in 2008. High contrasts between busy streets and background locations in the same city were found for chromium, copper and iron (factor 2-3). These elements were especially present in the coarse fraction of PM. In addition, high contrasts were found for BC and NO x (factor 1.8), typically indicators of direct combustion emissions. The contrast for PNC was similar to BC. NO 2 contrast was lower (factor 1.5). The largest contrast was found for two street canyons and two streets with buildings at one side of the street only. The contrast between busy streets and urban background in NO 2 was less than the contrast found for BC, PNC and elements indicative of non-exhaust emissions, adding evidence that NO 2 is not representing (current) traffic well. The study supports a substantial role for non-exhaust emissions including brake- and tyre wear and road dust in addition to direct combustion emissions. Significant underestimation of disease burden may occur when relying too much on the regulated components.

Boogaard, Hanna; Kos, Gerard P. A.; Weijers, Ernie P.; Janssen, Nicole A. H.; Fischer, Paul H.; van der Zee, Saskia C.; de Hartog, Jeroen J.; Hoek, Gerard

2011-01-01

112

Anti-interleukin-6 receptor antibody prevents systemic bone mass loss via reducing the number of osteoclast precursors in bone marrow in a collagen-induced arthritis model.  

PubMed

Systemic bone loss is a hallmark of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-6 promote bone resorption by osteoclasts. Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) controls the migration of osteoclast precursor cells (OCPs) between the blood and bone marrow, in part via S1P receptors (S1PR1 and S1PR2) expressed on the surface of OCPs. OCPs (CD11b(+) Gr-1(low+med) ) isolated from bone marrow of DBA/1J mice were stimulated with IL-6. S1P-directed chemotaxis of OCPs was evaluated using a transwell plate. mRNA expression of S1PR1 and S1PR2 was measured. DBA/1J mice were immunized with bovine type II collagen (days 0 and 21) and anti-mouse IL-6 receptor antibody (MR16-1) was administered on days 0 and/or 21. Trabecular bone volume was analysed using micro-computed tomography. The percentage of OCPs in tibial bone marrow and S1PR1 and S1PR2 mRNA expression in OCPs were measured. IL-6 stimulation significantly decreased S1P-directed chemotaxis of OCPs. IL-6 induced S1PR2 mRNA expression, but not S1PR1 mRNA expression, in OCPs. Bone volume was significantly lower in arthritic mice than in non-arthritic control mice on day 35. Treatment of immunized mice with MR16-1 significantly inhibited bone loss. In MR16-1-treated mice, the percentage of OCPs and expression of S1PR2 mRNA was each decreased compared with arthritic mice on day 14, but not on day 35. IL-6 increased the number of OCPs in tibial bone marrow via up-regulating S1PR2, thus playing a crucial role in systemic bone loss induced by inflammation. PMID:24028747

Tanaka, Keisuke; Hashizume, Misato; Mihara, Masahiko; Yoshida, Hiroto; Suzuki, Miho; Matsumoto, Yoshihiro

2014-02-01

113

Matching Numbers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive Flash version of the familiar game Concentration helps students develop number sense by matching various symbolic and pictorial representations of single digit numbers. The scoring rewards a systematic strategy over random guessing. The resource includes teacher notes with suggestions for implementation and differentiation, discussion questions, and printable sets of cards (pdf).

2014-01-01

114

Complex Numbers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Written by Tony R. Kuphaldt and Jason Starck, this chapter of All About Circuit's second volume on Alternating Current describes complex numbers: "In order to successfully analyze AC circuits, we need to work with mathematical objects and techniques capable of representing these multi-dimensional quantities. Here is where we need to abandon scalar numbers for something better suited: complex numbers." In addition to the introduction and credits to contributors, the chapter has seven sections: Vectors and AC waveforms, Simple vector addition, Complex vector addition, Polar and rectangular notation, Complex number arithmetic, More on AC "polarity," and Some examples with AC circuits. Each section has clear illustrations and a concise, bulleted review of what was covered at the end.

Kuphaldt, Tony R.

2008-07-15

115

Ordering numbers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Khan Academy Exercise bank - Ordering numbers Students are able to use the knowledge map and progress tracking tool to record and support their learning goals. Hints are provided and supporting video tutorials are identified and linked.

Khan, Sal

2011-04-01

116

Number Line  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this brief article the numerous uses of the number line are detailed: counting, measurement, addition, subtraction, decimals, and fractions. The article contains visual representations of the some of the concepts and links to related topics.

2012-08-27

117

Number Cruncher  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Similar to the original "Function Machine" but lists input and output in a table and will not let the user attempt to guess the rule without having at least two data points. Number Cruncher is one of the Interactivate assessment explorers.

118

Number Patterns  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, learners are challenged to discover the relationship among six numbers. The objective of this activity is to engage learners in a problem-solving situation in which they practice aspects of the process of science. Learners can use an included Science Flowchart to chart their scientific experience. This lesson serves as a good introduction to the nature of scientific inquiry.

Scotchmoor, Judy

2010-01-01

119

Numbers Sense  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports on work undertaken by schools as part of Qualifications and Curriculum Authority's (QCA's) "Engaging mathematics for all learners" project. The goal was to use in the classroom, materials and approaches from a Royal Institution (Ri) Year 10 master-class, "Number Sense", which was inspired by examples from Michael Blastland and…

Kathotia, Vinay

2009-01-01

120

Table Numbers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive applet helps students develop fluency with multiplication facts. Users chose a factor from among the digits 1-9, each of which is associated with a mnemonic graphic. The applet then displays three numbers and the user selects the one which is a multiple of the chosen factor. The player must respond correctly to ten examples to complete a round. A one-point penalty for selecting an incorrect product discourages guessing. The few words that are displayed are in Dutch.

2008-01-01

121

Number 8  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

29 January 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a spotted, high latitude plain, south of the Argyre basin. When the image was received from Mars by the MOC operations team, they noticed -- with a sense of humor -- the number '8' on this martian surface. The '8' is located at the center-right and is formed by the rims of two old impact craters that have been eroded and partly-filled and partly-buried beneath the surface.

Location near: 68.6oS, 38.4oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Summer

2006-01-01

122

Avogadro Number and Mole: A Royal Confusion.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is a great deal of confusion in physics and chemistry textbooks, dictionaries, manuals, and handbooks about the definition of Avogadro's number and the term "mole." Avogadro's number is defined simply as the number of atomic mass units in one gram. Mole is defined as the mass of one Avogadro number of identical items. (Author/PR)

Emiliani, Cesare

1991-01-01

123

The combination of inhibitors of FGF/MEK/Erk and GSK3? signaling increases the number of OCT3/4- and NANOG-positive cells in the human inner cell mass, but does not improve stem cell derivation.  

PubMed

In embryonic stem cell culture, small molecules can be used to alter key signaling pathways to promote self-renewal and inhibit differentiation. In mice, small-molecule inhibition of both the FGF/MEK/Erk and the GSK3? pathways during preimplantation development suppresses hypoblast formation, and this results in more pluripotent cells of the inner cell mass (ICM). In this study, we evaluated the effects of different small-molecule inhibitors of the FGF/MEK/Erk and GSK3? pathway on embryo preimplantation development, early lineage segregation, and subsequent embryonic stem cell derivation in the humans. We did not observe any effect on blastocyst formation, but small-molecule inhibition did affect the number of OCT3/4- and NANOG-positive cells in the human ICM. We found that combined inhibition of the FGF/MEK/Erk and GSK3? pathways by PD0325901 and CHIR99021, respectively, resulted in ICMs containing significantly more OCT3/4-positive cells. Inhibition of FGF/MEK/Erk alone as well as in combination with inhibition of GSK3? significantly increased the number of NANOG-positive cells in blastocysts possessing good-quality ICMs. Secondly, we verified the influence of this increased pluripotency after 2i culture on the efficiency of stem cell derivation. Similar human embryonic stem cell (hESC) derivation rates were observed after 2i compared to control conditions, resulting in 2 control hESC lines and 1 hESC line from an embryo cultured in 2i conditions. In conclusion, we demonstrated that FGF/MEK/Erk and GSK3? signaling increases the number of OCT3/4- and NANOG-positive cells in the human ICM, but does not improve stem cell derivation. PMID:22784186

Van der Jeught, Margot; O'Leary, Thomas; Ghimire, Sabitri; Lierman, Sylvie; Duggal, Galbha; Versieren, Karen; Deforce, Dieter; Chuva de Sousa Lopes, Susana; Heindryckx, Björn; De Sutter, Petra

2013-01-15

124

The Combination of Inhibitors of FGF/MEK/Erk and GSK3? Signaling Increases the Number of OCT3/4- and NANOG-Positive Cells in the Human Inner Cell Mass, But Does Not Improve Stem Cell Derivation  

PubMed Central

In embryonic stem cell culture, small molecules can be used to alter key signaling pathways to promote self-renewal and inhibit differentiation. In mice, small-molecule inhibition of both the FGF/MEK/Erk and the GSK3? pathways during preimplantation development suppresses hypoblast formation, and this results in more pluripotent cells of the inner cell mass (ICM). In this study, we evaluated the effects of different small-molecule inhibitors of the FGF/MEK/Erk and GSK3? pathway on embryo preimplantation development, early lineage segregation, and subsequent embryonic stem cell derivation in the humans. We did not observe any effect on blastocyst formation, but small-molecule inhibition did affect the number of OCT3/4- and NANOG-positive cells in the human ICM. We found that combined inhibition of the FGF/MEK/Erk and GSK3? pathways by PD0325901 and CHIR99021, respectively, resulted in ICMs containing significantly more OCT3/4-positive cells. Inhibition of FGF/MEK/Erk alone as well as in combination with inhibition of GSK3? significantly increased the number of NANOG-positive cells in blastocysts possessing good-quality ICMs. Secondly, we verified the influence of this increased pluripotency after 2i culture on the efficiency of stem cell derivation. Similar human embryonic stem cell (hESC) derivation rates were observed after 2i compared to control conditions, resulting in 2 control hESC lines and 1 hESC line from an embryo cultured in 2i conditions. In conclusion, we demonstrated that FGF/MEK/Erk and GSK3? signaling increases the number of OCT3/4- and NANOG-positive cells in the human ICM, but does not improve stem cell derivation.

O'Leary, Thomas; Ghimire, Sabitri; Lierman, Sylvie; Duggal, Galbha; Versieren, Karen; Deforce, Dieter; Chuva de Sousa Lopes, Susana; Heindryckx, Bjorn; De Sutter, Petra

2013-01-01

125

Belief functions on real numbers  

Microsoft Academic Search

We generalize the TBM (transferable belief model) to the case where the frame of discernment is the extended set of real numbers R = (1 ,1), under the assumptions that 'masses' can only be given to intervals. Masses become densities, belief functions, plausibility functions and commonality functions become integrals of these densities and pignistic probabilities become pignistic densities. The mathematics

Philippe Smets

2005-01-01

126

Neutrino mass  

SciTech Connect

Neutrinos play a dominant role in both particle physics, astrophysics, and cosmology. In the our present understanding of the strong, weak, and electromagnetic forces, the group structure of the Standard Model is SU(3){sub C} {circle_times} SU(2){sub L} {circle_times} U(I){sub EM}. In the Weinberg-Salam-Glashow Standard Electroweak Model, left-handed neutrinos sit in a doublet, while right-handed neutrinos are in a singlet, and therefore do not interact with the other known particles. Also in this model, the neutrinos are intrinsically massless. However, while the W-S-G model provides an amazingly accurate picture of our present cold Universe, It has a number of deficits. The Standard Model does not explain the origin of the group structure, It does not reduce the number of coupling constants required, nor does it offer any prediction for the physical masses of the particles. Thus, it is generally assumed that the Standard Model is but a subset of some larger gauge theory. A wide variety of Grand Unified field Theories (GUTs), Super Symmetric Models (SUSY), and Superstring models have been proposed as the model for this larger structure. In general, these models predict nonzero neutrino masses and contain mechanisms that provide for lepton-number violation. Thus, a variety of new phenomena are predicted, including finite neutrino masses and the possibility that neutrinos can oscillate from one type to another. This report looks at the possibility of detecting neutrino vat mass.

Bowles, T.J.

1993-04-01

127

Neutrino mass  

SciTech Connect

Neutrinos play a dominant role in both particle physics, astrophysics, and cosmology. In the our present understanding of the strong, weak, and electromagnetic forces, the group structure of the Standard Model is SU(3)[sub C] [circle times] SU(2)[sub L] [circle times] U(I)[sub EM]. In the Weinberg-Salam-Glashow Standard Electroweak Model, left-handed neutrinos sit in a doublet, while right-handed neutrinos are in a singlet, and therefore do not interact with the other known particles. Also in this model, the neutrinos are intrinsically massless. However, while the W-S-G model provides an amazingly accurate picture of our present cold Universe, It has a number of deficits. The Standard Model does not explain the origin of the group structure, It does not reduce the number of coupling constants required, nor does it offer any prediction for the physical masses of the particles. Thus, it is generally assumed that the Standard Model is but a subset of some larger gauge theory. A wide variety of Grand Unified field Theories (GUTs), Super Symmetric Models (SUSY), and Superstring models have been proposed as the model for this larger structure. In general, these models predict nonzero neutrino masses and contain mechanisms that provide for lepton-number violation. Thus, a variety of new phenomena are predicted, including finite neutrino masses and the possibility that neutrinos can oscillate from one type to another. This report looks at the possibility of detecting neutrino vat mass.

Bowles, T.J.

1993-01-01

128

Mass-spectroscopic atomic mass differences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  New mass-spectroscopic data on atomic mass differences published since 1957 in the medium and heavy mass regions have been\\u000a compiled and tabulated. Corresponding values in the new scale based on12C as the standard are also given. Unadjusted experimental values for nuclidic masses in the new scale have been listed. For\\u000a a large number of stable nuclides in the region from

V. B. Bhanot; S. C. Gupta

1963-01-01

129

Topics in Number Theory: The Number Game.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This teacher's guide contains nine topics in number theory. Suggested questions for the teacher, short investigations, and possible exercises for the student are included. Chapter 1 is an introduction to sequences and series using geoboard activities involving triangular numbers, square numbers, rectangular numbers, and pentagonal numbers. The…

Batra, Laj, Ed.; And Others

130

Mass spectrometer mixture calibrations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mass spectrometric analyses of hydrogen isotope mixtures can be difficult to make for a number of reasons. The most difficult problem is the possibility of confronting extremely great and extremely small relative mass differences in the same analysis. Commercial mass spectrometers are now available that can overcome these problems. The analytical capabilities and limitations of these instruments will be discussed.

Hicks

1986-01-01

131

Neutrino mass and unification  

SciTech Connect

In this talk a discussion of neutrino masses in grand unified theories is presented. Special care is paid to the question of intermediate mass scales and it is shown how they play a crucial role in the predictions for neutrino masses. SU(5) and SO(10) models are covered, with SO(10) offering a possibility of low energy parity restoration and appreciable neutrino masses and lepton number violation.

Senjanovic, G.

1981-01-01

132

50 CFR 23.26 - When is a U.S. or foreign CITES document valid?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN ENDANGERED SPECIES OF WILD FAUNA AND FLORA (CITES...would not allow trade in CITES species. (3) CITES document U...that would not allow trade in the species. (6) Extension of...

2013-10-01

133

Lepton family number violation  

SciTech Connect

At present there is evidence from neutrino oscillation searches that the neutrinos are in fact massive particles and that they mix. If confirmed, this would imply that the conservation of LFN is not exact. Lepton family number violation (LFNV) has been searched for with impressive sensitivities in many processes involving charged leptons. The present experimental limits on some of them (those which the author shall consider here) are shown in Table 1. These stringent limits are not inconsistent with the neutrino oscillation results since, given the experimental bounds on the masses of the known neutrinos and the neutrino mass squared differences required by the oscillation results, the effects of LFNV from neutrino mixing would be too small to be seen elsewhere (see Section 2). The purpose of experiments searching for LFNV involving the charged leptons is to probe the existence of other sources of LFNV. Such sources are present in many extensions of the SM. In this lecture the author shall discuss some of the possibilities, focusing on processes that require muon beams. Other LFNV processes, such as the decays of the kaons and of the {tau}, provide complementary information. In the next Section he shall consider some sources of LFNV that do not require an extension of the gauge group of the SM (the added leptons or Higgs bosons may of course originate from models with extended gauge groups). In Section 3 he discusses LFNV in left-right symmetric models. In Section 4 he considers LFNV in supersymmetric models, first in R-parity conserving supersymmetric grand unified models, and then in the minimal supersymmetric standard model with R-parity violation. The last section is a brief summary of the author`s conclusions.

Herczeg, P.

1999-03-01

134

Number Square Puzzle: 10 Missing Numbers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity for the interactive white board (free access with registration) allows the learner to explore the patterns in the hundreds chart and notice the relationships between the numbers in the horizontal and vertical puzzles. Users drag and drop the individual numbers back in their correct places in the blank 10 X 10 grid.

2012-07-19

135

The Mass Extinctions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This brief overview of the six generally agreed-upon mass extinction events in geologic history examines the gaps in the fossil record and the possibility of a cyclic nature to mass extinctions. Links are provided to information on each of the six known mass extinction events, including their approximate ages, types and numbers or percentages of species that disappeared, and some postulated reasons for the die-offs.

136

Galaxy masses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Galaxy masses play a fundamental role in our understanding of structure formation models. This review addresses the variety and reliability of mass estimators that pertain to stars, gas, and dark matter. The different sections on masses from stellar populations, dynamical masses of gas-rich and gas-poor galaxies, with some attention paid to our Milky Way, and masses from weak and strong lensing methods all provide review material on galaxy masses in a self-consistent manner.

Courteau, Stéphane; Cappellari, Michele; de Jong, Roelof S.; Dutton, Aaron A.; Emsellem, Eric; Hoekstra, Henk; Koopmans, L. V. E.; Mamon, Gary A.; Maraston, Claudia; Treu, Tommaso; Widrow, Lawrence M.

2014-01-01

137

[Specific features of the numbers and structure of the population of Proteocephalus longicollis (Zeder 1800) (Cestoda: Proteocephalidea)--a mass parasite of whitefish Coregonus lavaretus L. under conditions of technogenic pollution of the water body].  

PubMed

The numbers, age structure, and morphological variation of the cestode Proteocephalus longicollis from whitefish of a natural water body (Kamennoe Lake) and those of Kostomuksha Lake polluted with wastes of the mining industry (Northern Karelia) have been studied. In the polluted water body, a high infestation of whitefish and domination of larval stages in the structure of the parasite population have been established. It is shown that under conditions of pollution, only one of the variations ofscolex signs dominates in the structure of phenotypic diversity. The size indices of cestodes are reliably smaller as compared with cestodes from the natural water body. The data obtained indicate that technogenic pollution determines a decrease in the intrapopulation diversity of P. longiocollis, and a decrease in the values of morphometric characters indicates inhibition of the morphophysiological state of individuals. PMID:22988762

Anikeeva, L V; Ieshko, E P; Il'mast, N V; Lebedeva, D I; Kuchko, Ia A

2012-01-01

138

Numbers and Operations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Numbers, Matching and Addition Let\\'s count How many chicks are there? Great! Now lets try Number Match Let\\'s try Seahorse Counting Now Concentrate on Concentration Number Match Addition Practice Quick Adding and Robot Addition Make the number with Base 10 ...

Williams, Mrs.

2008-04-03

139

Are Numbers Gendered?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examined the possibility that nonsocial, highly generic concepts are gendered. Specifically, we investigated the gender connotations of Arabic numerals. Across several experiments, we show that the number 1 and other odd numbers are associated with masculinity, whereas the number 2 and other even numbers are associated with femininity, in ways…

Wilkie, James E. B.; Bodenhausen, Galen V.

2012-01-01

140

Sum-Difference Numbers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Starting with an interesting number game sometimes used by school teachers to demonstrate the factorization of integers, "sum-difference numbers" are defined. A positive integer n is a "sum-difference number" if there exist positive integers "x, y, w, z" such that n = xy = wz and x ? y = w + z. This paper characterizes all sum-difference numbers

Shi, Yixun

2010-01-01

141

Enriching Number Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Exploring number systems of other cultures can be an enjoyable learning experience that enriches students' knowledge of numbers and number systems in important ways. It helps students deepen mental computation fluency, knowledge of place value, and equivalent representations for numbers. This article describes how the author designed her…

Mack, Nancy K.

2011-01-01

142

PET: [number sign]1 is number one  

SciTech Connect

Subsidized in the beginning by bottle deposits, now spurred by the ability of curbside recycling to collect more than soda bottles, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) recycling has made great strides in the last 10 years. Its growth rate and increased market demand are the envy of many other materials. Appropriate, if not deliberately, this number-one resin is listed under the Society for the Plastics Industry's resin identification code as [number sign]1. Unlike most recyclables, the market demand for recycled PET is greater than the supply. As a result, demand not supply, is fueling the increase in PET recycling.

Miller, C.

1994-09-01

143

Manipulative Models for Figurate Numbers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses figurate number learning activities using patterns and manipulative models. Provides examples of square numbers, triangular numbers, pentagonal numbers, hexagonal numbers, and oblong numbers. (YP)

Robold, Alice I.

1989-01-01

144

Number Sense Made Simple Using Number Patterns  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article highlights investigating intriguing number patterns utilising an emerging technology called the Square Tool. Mathematics teachers of grades K-12 will find the Square Tool useful in making connections and bridging the gap from the concrete to the abstract. Pattern recognition helps students discover various mathematical concepts. With…

Su, Hui Fang Huang; Marinas, Carol; Furner, Joseph

2011-01-01

145

Summing Consecutive Numbers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This problem offers a simple context to begin an exploration of the properties of numbers and to make conjectures about those properties. Learners explore the sums of consecutive numbers and whether all positive numbers from 1-30 can be written as the sum of two or more consecutive numbers. The Teachers' Notes page offers suggestions for implementation, key discussion questions, ideas for extension and support.

2008-09-01

146

Whole Number Cruncher  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Give input to the Whole Number Cruncher and try to guess what it did from the output it generates. This activity only generates multiplication and addition functions to avoid outputting any negative numbers. Whole Number Cruncher is one of the Interactivate assessment explorers.

147

Discovery: Prime Numbers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prime numbers are important as the building blocks for the set of all natural numbers, because prime factorisation is an important and useful property of all natural numbers. Students can discover them by using the method known as the Sieve of Eratosthenes, named after the Greek geographer and astronomer who lived from c. 276-194 BC. Eratosthenes…

de Mestre, Neville

2008-01-01

148

Estimating Large Numbers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite their importance in public discourse, numbers in the range of 1 million to 1 trillion are notoriously difficult to understand. We examine magnitude estimation by adult Americans when placing large numbers on a number line and when qualitatively evaluating descriptions of imaginary geopolitical scenarios. Prior theoretical conceptions…

Landy, David; Silbert, Noah; Goldin, Aleah

2013-01-01

149

Random Number Generation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The process of creating numbers that simulate randomness on a computer is known as pseudorandom number generation. The "pseudo" in pseudo random refers to the fact that if you use a rule to generate a number, it is by definition not random, though it may appear so, and be close enough to random for all practical purposes.

Joiner, David; The Shodor Education Foundation, Inc.

150

Law of Large Numbers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The controls on this applet let you change the number of trials, the probability of success in each trial, and toggle between viewing either the difference between the number of successes and the expected number of successes, or the difference between the percentage of successes and the probability of success in each trial.

Stark, Philip B.

2009-10-26

151

Theory of Numbers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This course provides an introduction to number theory, including topics such as prime numbers, congruences, quadratic reciprocity, diophantine equations, irrational numbers, continued fractions and elliptic curves. The materials include lecture notes, exams and assignments with solutions. MIT presents OpenCourseWare as free educational material online. No registration or enrollment is required to use the materials.

Olsson, Martin

2010-12-27

152

Decompose That Teen Number!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The students will receive explicit instruction from the teacher on the definition of decomposing a number and how to represent a decomposition with manipulatives, drawings, and equations. The students will use linking cubes to reflect numbers from 11-19, and to show their understanding of how to decompose a number. Students will record decompositions as an equation.

Marmitt, Robin

2012-09-03

153

Number Relationships in Preschool  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When a child understands number relationships, he or she comprehends the meaning of numbers by developing multiple, flexible ways of representing them. The importance of developing number relationships in the early years has been highlighted because it helps children build a good foundation for developing a more sophisticated understanding of…

Jung, Myoungwhon

2011-01-01

154

Numbers in the News  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

All those numbers in the newspaper: what do they mean? Challenge learners to find out as they develop their number sense. Distribute newspaper pages to learners so that each pair gets a section with numbers at the right level of difficulty: easyâweather or sports scores; mediumâclothing ads or event listings with times and dates; hardâautomobile ads, monetary exchange rates. Learners try to find the smallest and largest numbers on the page (including best deal/best rate) and explain to others what they found. Variation for younger learners: look for the largest or smallest number on a walk around the building or around the block. Available as a web page and downloadable pdf.

Terc

2010-01-01

155

Estimating large numbers.  

PubMed

Despite their importance in public discourse, numbers in the range of 1 million to 1 trillion are notoriously difficult to understand. We examine magnitude estimation by adult Americans when placing large numbers on a number line and when qualitatively evaluating descriptions of imaginary geopolitical scenarios. Prior theoretical conceptions predict a log-to-linear shift: People will either place numbers linearly or will place numbers according to a compressive logarithmic or power-shaped function (Barth & Paladino, ; Siegler & Opfer, ). While about half of people did estimate numbers linearly over this range, nearly all the remaining participants placed 1 million approximately halfway between 1 thousand and 1 billion, but placed numbers linearly across each half, as though they believed that the number words "thousand, million, billion, trillion" constitute a uniformly spaced count list. Participants in this group also tended to be optimistic in evaluations of largely ineffective political strategies, relative to linear number-line placers. The results indicate that the surface structure of number words can heavily influence processes for dealing with numbers in this range, and it can amplify the possibility that analogous surface regularities are partially responsible for parallel phenomena in children. In addition, these results have direct implications for lawmakers and scientists hoping to communicate effectively with the public. PMID:23819823

Landy, David; Silbert, Noah; Goldin, Aleah

2013-07-01

156

Abdominal mass  

MedlinePLUS

... as the navel. Cholecystitis can cause a very tender mass that is felt below the liver in ... Crohn's disease or bowel obstruction can cause many tender, sausage-shaped masses anywhere in the abdomen. Diverticulitis ...

157

Mass Sensor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this CRADA was to use Honeywell's experience in low temperature cofire ceramics and traditional ceramics to assemble a relatively low-cost, mass-producible miniature mass analyzer. The specific design, given to us by Mass Sensors, LLC, was used to test for helium. The direct benefit for the participant was to have a prototype unit assembled for the purpose of

2001-01-01

158

The elephant brain in numbers  

PubMed Central

What explains the superior cognitive abilities of the human brain compared to other, larger brains? Here we investigate the possibility that the human brain has a larger number of neurons than even larger brains by determining the cellular composition of the brain of the African elephant. We find that the African elephant brain, which is about three times larger than the human brain, contains 257 billion (109) neurons, three times more than the average human brain; however, 97.5% of the neurons in the elephant brain (251 billion) are found in the cerebellum. This makes the elephant an outlier in regard to the number of cerebellar neurons compared to other mammals, which might be related to sensorimotor specializations. In contrast, the elephant cerebral cortex, which has twice the mass of the human cerebral cortex, holds only 5.6 billion neurons, about one third of the number of neurons found in the human cerebral cortex. This finding supports the hypothesis that the larger absolute number of neurons in the human cerebral cortex (but not in the whole brain) is correlated with the superior cognitive abilities of humans compared to elephants and other large-brained mammals.

Herculano-Houzel, Suzana; Avelino-de-Souza, Kamilla; Neves, Kleber; Porfirio, Jairo; Messeder, Debora; Mattos Feijo, Larissa; Maldonado, Jose; Manger, Paul R.

2014-01-01

159

The elephant brain in numbers.  

PubMed

What explains the superior cognitive abilities of the human brain compared to other, larger brains? Here we investigate the possibility that the human brain has a larger number of neurons than even larger brains by determining the cellular composition of the brain of the African elephant. We find that the African elephant brain, which is about three times larger than the human brain, contains 257 billion (10(9)) neurons, three times more than the average human brain; however, 97.5% of the neurons in the elephant brain (251 billion) are found in the cerebellum. This makes the elephant an outlier in regard to the number of cerebellar neurons compared to other mammals, which might be related to sensorimotor specializations. In contrast, the elephant cerebral cortex, which has twice the mass of the human cerebral cortex, holds only 5.6 billion neurons, about one third of the number of neurons found in the human cerebral cortex. This finding supports the hypothesis that the larger absolute number of neurons in the human cerebral cortex (but not in the whole brain) is correlated with the superior cognitive abilities of humans compared to elephants and other large-brained mammals. PMID:24971054

Herculano-Houzel, Suzana; Avelino-de-Souza, Kamilla; Neves, Kleber; Porfírio, Jairo; Messeder, Débora; Mattos Feijó, Larissa; Maldonado, José; Manger, Paul R

2014-01-01

160

Interactive Fraction Number Lines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson students make models of fractions, including a human number line. Using a number line, students develop conceptual understanding of fractions. Students use the number line to represent and compare fractions less than one. The activities are engaging and include full participation/engagement of all students. The fractions are limited to positive fractions less than one with a denominator of 2 or 4 including 0 and 1 whole.

Green, Michael

2012-05-25

161

Guess the Number  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive game gives students practice in counting and ordering numbers. Users try to determine the magician's secret number in as few tries as possible by adjusting their successive guesses according to feedback (too high or too low). Solvers can choose from three ranges of numbers (1 to 10, 1 to 100, or -1000 to 1000) and choose whether or not to view previous guesses.

2011-01-01

162

Your Number Was  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This problem provides an opportunity to introduce the concept of representing operations on unknown numbers algebraically and leads to work on inverse operations. Students are asked to think of a number, follow a sequence of computational instructions and finally to enter the result into the "machine." Students explore how the "machine" works out the starting number. The Teachers' Notes page offers rationale, suggestions for implementation, discussion questions, ideas for extension and support.

2010-10-01

163

Your Number Is...  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This problem provides an opportunity to introduce a visual way of representing operations on unknown numbers to help lead students to using a symbolic representation. Learners are asked to think of a number and then through an interactivity are given a sequence of operational instructions to follow which leads all students to the same final number. The Teachers' Notes page offers suggestions for implementation, key discussion questions, ideas for extension and support.

2010-10-01

164

Biggest Number Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this game, learners build a multi-digit number by rolling dice and deciding which place value box to place each number. This requires strategy and planning as they must consider what they may roll in the future and which boxes are still open. Learners can compete to make the largest or smallest numbers during each round of play. Educators can use this game to introduce and/or practice strategy, risk, and place value.

Houston, Children'S M.

2013-05-15

165

A Square of Numbers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this problem students practice basic number facts while developing systematic thinking and understanding of properties of numbers and operations. Four calculations are presented in a square configuration; solvers arrange the numbers 1 through 8 to make the calculations correct. An interactive applet is provided. The Teachers' Notes page offers suggestions for implementation, discussion questions, ideas for extension and support, and a downloadable pdf of the puzzle.

2009-09-01

166

Mass spectrometry.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Review of the current state of mass spectrometry, indicating its unique importance for advanced scientific research. Mass spectrometry applications in computer techniques, gas chromatography, ion cyclotron resonance, molecular fragmentation and ionization, and isotope labeling are covered. Details are given on mass spectrometry applications in bio-organic chemistry and biomedical research. As the subjects of these applications are indicated alkaloids, carbohydrates, lipids, terpenes, quinones, nucleic acid components, peptides, antibiotics, and human and animal metabolisms. Particular attention is given to the mass spectra of organo-inorganic compounds, inorganic mass spectrometry, surface phenomena such as secondary ion and electron emission, and elemental and isotope analysis. Further topics include mass spectrometry in organic geochemistry, applications in geochronology and cosmochemistry, and organic mass spectrometry.

Burlingame, A. L.; Johanson, G. A.

1972-01-01

167

My First Number Book  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, "students produce a book that includes a page for numbers 0-10. On each page they write the numeral, the word for that numeral and place the correct number of stickers to represent the numeral. The cover includes a title, student's name and an illustration." (from Beacon Learning Center)

Center, Beacon L.

2008-12-15

168

Blank Number Lines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Once students have gotten the concept of the number line, you can have them make their own using these blank number lines. You can even have them use it for skip counting. http://www.math-drills.com/numbersense/numberline_blank.html

2012-04-30

169

Language: Life without numbers.  

PubMed

If your language did not have words for numbers, would you be able to think about numeric quantities? An Amazonian culture where number words are limited to one, two and many has provided new insights to the interaction between thought and language. PMID:15530385

Hespos, Susan J

2004-11-01

170

Language: Life without Numbers  

Microsoft Academic Search

If your language did not have words for numbers, would you be able to think about numeric quantities? An Amazonian culture where number words are limited to one, two and many has provided new insights to the interaction between thought and language.

Susan J. Hespos

2004-01-01

171

Prime Numbers Video  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This 4-minute video introduces the definition of a prime number and illustrates it through a discussion of factors and composite numbers. It makes use of the definition to explain why 1 is not a prime and ends with a question for the viewer to ponder.

2010-01-01

172

Number Base Clocks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Visually explore counting and place value with different number bases, from base 2 to base 16, and up to the hundreds place using a clock like interface. The activity also allows you to look at the numbers on the clock in base 10 or in your other chosen base to explore the relationship between those values.

173

Guess My Number  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this math activity, learners play a game similar to 20 Questions, in which learners must identify a secret number drawn from a bag. Learners practice their logical thinking and questioning skills as they develop their number sense. This activity guide contains a material list, sample questions to ask, literary connections, extensions, and alignment to local and national standards.

Houston, Children'S M.

2014-04-07

174

Fraction Number Line  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Using this interactive fraction number line, students can identify and locate equivalent fractions as well as compare fractions. They can move the mouse to the left or right and "mark" fractions on the number line. A section called "Which is Larger?" provides examples of fraction pairs to compare.

2010-01-01

175

Numbers Many Ways  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students work with subtraction at the intuitive level as they explore number families and ways to decompose numbers to 10. They will also identify members of 'fact families.' This is lesson 5 in an 8-lesson unit called, "Begin with Buttons".

Math, Illuminations N.

2009-01-13

176

The Fibonacci Numbers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

After a brief historical account of Leonardo Pisano Fibonacci, some basic results concerning the Fibonacci numbers are developed and proved, and entertaining examples are described. Connections are made between the Fibonacci numbers and the Golden Ratio, biological nature, and other combinatorics examples. (MDH)

Onstad, Torgeir

1991-01-01

177

Neutrino mass and leptogenesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show that the seesaw mechanism may explain two independent physical parameters, small neutrino masses and universe's baryon-number asymmetry. The seesaw mechanism, thus, provides us with a big dream to relate the present baryon asymmetry to observables in neutrino physics. We show a simple model that can predict the sign of CP violation in low-energy neutrino oscillation provided that the baryon number in the present universe is positive.

Yanagida, T.

2003-04-01

178

1.NBT Ordering Numbers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: Malik is given a list of numbers: 1 \\ \\ 5 \\ \\ 10 \\ \\ 50 \\ \\ 100 He wants to include the following numbers so all numbers will be listed in order from l...

179

Introduction to Negative Numbers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan based on a Cyberchase activity, first addresses a common misconception: starting measurement from 1 instead of 0. Then, it introduces negative numbers by extending a number line beyond 0 in the negative (left) direction. It is motivated by the Cyber Squadâs mission to find the captured Cyberchase Council on a particular floor of a tall building as seen in two quicktime videos: âImportance of the Origin" and "Inventing Negative Numbers" (each are cataloged separately). In addition to the learning activity, other support materials are included: handouts, assessments and answer keys.

Wnet.org

2006-01-01

180

On Hultman Numbers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Finding a sequence of transpositions that transforms a given permutation into the identity permutation and is of the shortest possible length is an important problem in bioinformatics. Here, a transposition consists in exchanging two contiguous intervals of the permutation. Bafna and Pevzner introduced the cycle graph as a tool for working on this problem. In particular, they took advantage of the decomposition of the cycle graph into so-called alternating cycles. Later, Hultman raised the question of determining the number of permutations with a cycle graph containing a given quantity of alternating cycles. The resulting number is therefore similar to the Stirling number of the first kind. We provide an explicit formula for computing what we call the Hultman numbers, and give a few numerical values. We also derive formulae for related cases, as well as for a much more general problem. Finally, we indicate a counting result related to another operation on permutations called the "block-interchange".

Doignon, Jean-Paul; Labarre, Anthony

2007-06-01

181

Zero: A "None" Number?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses the challenges students face in making sense of zero as a number. A range of different student responses to a computation problem involving zero reveal students' different understandings of zero.

Anthony, Glenda J.; Walshaw, Margaret A.

2004-01-01

182

High Mach Number Combustion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Recent developments in the mathematical theory of high Mach number combustion are presented. The phenomena in this regime are enormously complex and the mechanisms responsible for the variety of physical phenomena are poorly understood. The current advanc...

A. Majda

1986-01-01

183

The Numbers Game.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a simple activity that explores and reveals the principles of significant figures and scientific notation using a 500 gram bag of unpopped popcorn. Students must devise a method for determining the number of kernels in the bag. (DDR)

Lustick, David

1997-01-01

184

Neutrino mass  

SciTech Connect

The existence of a finite neutrino mass would have important consequences in particle physics, astrophysics, and cosmology. Experimental sensitivities have continued to be pushed down without any confirmed evidence for a finite neutrino mass. Yet there are several observations of discrepancies between theoretical predictions and observations which might be possible indications of a finite neutrino mass. Thus, extensive theoretical and experimental work is underway to resolve these issues.

Bowles, T.J.

1994-04-01

185

Mass Wasting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Mass Wasting is a course handout designed to initiate discussion on the factors involved in mass wasting (eg. creep, solifluction, falls, slides, and flows) and the methods used to prevent mass wasting. Definitions are given for key terms such as angle of repose and lahars. Photographs illustrate the effects of rockslides and slumps. Links are provided to the online Physical Geology resources at Georgia Perimeter College.

Gore, Pamela

1998-11-28

186

Uniform random number generators  

Microsoft Academic Search

We briefly overview the design principles, implementationtechniques, and empirical testing of uniformrandom number generators for simulation. We firstdiscuss some philosophical issues and quality criteria.Then we explain a few concrete families of generatorsand give appropriate references to further details andto recommended implementations.1. WHAT ARE WE LOOKING FOR?1.1. DefinitionWhat we call a random number generator (RNG)is actually a program that produces, once

Pierre L'Ecuyer

1998-01-01

187

High Lundquist Number Reconnection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years there has been a resurgence of interest in exploring the properties of resistive magnetic reconnection layers. This was spurred on by the observations that at high Lundquist number these systems depart from the traditional Sweet-Parker scaling, opening the possibility of so-called fast resistive magnetic reconnection. This proceedings presents my recent efforts at simulating resistive magnetic reconnection layers in high Lundquist number systems highlighting the numerical algorithms, simulation results and convergence behavior.

Gardiner, T. A.

2011-10-01

188

Number Sense Challenges  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The resource consists of 3 unrelated problem-solving challenges that can build number sense. Activity 1: Students explore the concept of a million to determine if 1 million dollar bills can fit into a standard suitcase. Activity 2: Students use a paper disk to estimate and name exact fractions between 0 and 1. Activity 3: Students explore the effect of addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division on decimal numbers by playing an engaging game.

Illuminations, Nctm

2009-06-23

189

Controlled Conspiracy Number Search  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present a new conspiracy number search algorithm (CNS), called ControlledConspiracy Number Search (CCNS). The basic steps of any CNS algorithm, theselection, the expansion, and the backup of results have been modified compared to otherCNS algorithms. The selection is done by assigning demands, so called CN targets, to thenodes of the tree in a top-down fashion. By

Ulf Lorenz; Valentin Rottmann; Rainer Feldmann

1995-01-01

190

Dangerous Doubles (Doubling Numbers)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson teaches students to use the strategy doubling numbers and doubles plus or minus one in order to use mental math to add one digit numbers. The students are engaged in learning through the read aloud of Double the Ducks by Stephen Murphy and then get to work with a partner to draw doubles and write equations that relate to their drawings. Students individually work on solving word problems using these strategies and manipulatives as necessary to solve.

Sharrer, Stephanie

2012-07-14

191

SeanNumbers-Ofala  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page contains links to a video and several downloadable pdf files documenting the discussions of a third grade class investigating even and odd numbers. Included are a 10-minute Blue Stream video segment in which students discuss a classmate's suggestion that the number 6 could be even or odd, a document providing background information on the investigation that led to the discussion, a transcript of the video, and the teacher's journal entry reflecting on the discussion and its implications.

2010-02-01

192

Inertial Mass  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The inertial balance is one device that can help students to quantify the quality of inertia--a body's resistance to a change in movement--in more generally understood terms of mass. In this hands-on activity, students use the inertial balance to develop a more quantitative idea of what mass means in an inertial sense. The activity also helps…

King, Kenneth P.

2007-01-01

193

Quark masses  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review the current information about the eigenvalues of the quark mass matrix. The theoretical problems involved in a determination of the running masses mu, md, ms, mc and mb from experiment are discussed with the aim of getting reliable numerical values equipped with error bars that represent a conservative estimate of remaining uncertainties.

J. Gasser; H. Leutwyler

1982-01-01

194

Hydrodynamic mass  

SciTech Connect

Many structural components contain, or are submerged in, a fluid. The fluid moving with a vibrating structure has an important effect on the dynamics of the structure, particularly on its natural frequencies. The effect of the fluid on natural frequencies can be accounted for using the hydrodynamic mass associated with the structure. This paper provides formulas, graphs, and computer programs for calculating hydrodynamic mass.

Chung, H.; Chen, S.S.

1984-01-01

195

Ballistic Mass And Velocity Analyzer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Proposed device for measuring distribution of masses and velocities of ions in plasma or ion beam of general type denoted variously as mass, velocity, and energy analyzers. Yields indications of charge-to-mass ratios and velocities; from these quantities, one computes masses and energies if one also either measures charges of ions by other means or else makes realistic assumption that each ion carries small number (usually 1) of fundamental units of electric charge. In comparison with older devices of this type, device smaller, and operates faster, yielding simultaneous indications of both charge-to-mass ratios and velocities.

Chutjian, Ara; Smith, Steven J.; Hecht, Michael

1996-01-01

196

Beyond the number domain.  

PubMed

In a world without numbers, we would be unable to build a skyscraper, hold a national election, plan a wedding or pay for a chicken at the market. The numerical symbols used in all these behaviors build on the approximate number system (ANS) which represents the number of discrete objects or events as a continuous mental magnitude. Here, we first discuss evidence that the ANS bears a set of behavioral and brain signatures that are universally displayed across animal species, human cultures and development. We then turn to the question of whether the ANS constitutes a specialized cognitive and neural domain - a question central to understanding how this system works, the nature of its evolutionary and developmental trajectory and its physical instantiation in the brain. PMID:19131268

Cantlon, Jessica F; Platt, Michael L; Brannon, Elizabeth M

2009-02-01

197

Mass customization: Literature review and research directions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mass customization relates to the ability to provide individually designed products and services to every customer through high process flexibility and integration. Mass customization has been identified as a competitive strategy by an increasing number of companies. This paper surveys the literature on mass customization. Enablers to mass customization and their impact on the development of production systems are discussed

Giovani Da Silveira; Denis Borenstein; Flavio S. Fogliatto

2001-01-01

198

Masses of multiquark droplets  

SciTech Connect

The mass formulas for finite lumps of strange quark matter with [ital u], [ital d], and [ital s] quarks and nonstrange quark matter consisting of [ital u] and [ital d] quarks are derived in a nonrelativistic potential model. The finite-size effects comprising the surface and curvature were consistently obtained, which shows a converging trend. It is found that there is a good possibility for the formation of metastable strangelets of large mass. The model predicts a low charge to mass ratio as the characteristic signature of strange matter in agreement with the relativistic studies. This study also yields an estimate for the bag energy density [ital B] in terms of the constituent quark mass and the baryon number density.

Satpathy, L.; Sahu, P.K.; Uma Maheswari, V.S. (Institute of Physics, Bhubaneswar-751005 (India))

1994-05-01

199

Nevan Krogan: Mass Spectrometry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lecture from the iBioSeminars project, presented by Nevan Krogan of the Department of Cellular and Molecular Pharmacology at UC-San Francisco, covers mass spectrometry and its application to molecular biology. Mass spectrometry is a powerful tool for elucidating the elemental composition of a sample or molecule. More recently, it has been used to characterize biological material, in particular proteins and protein complexes, in a variety of organisms. This lecture will review the underlying principles of how a mass spectrometer works, discuss up to date instrumentation that is presently being used in the biological research setting and provide specific examples of how mass spectrometry is being used to reveal functional insight into different biological systems. The video runs 27:36 and can be downloaded in a number of formats: QuickTime, MP4, M4V, and PPT. The video can also be streamed through YouTube or iTunes U.

Krogan, Nevan

2013-07-12

200

Positive About Negative Numbers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article is devoted to the mathematical topic of negative numbers and provides a series of primary resources designed to familiarize children with the notion of counting on either side of a central point. The article presents that the activities listed should be played sequentially to build precursory ideas in understanding negative numbers. All the games discussed in the article are linked on the page and have been cataloged separately: Incy Wincy Spider, Tug of War, Swimming Pool, Tug Harder, First Connect Three and lastly Sea Level.

Woodham, Liz

2011-01-01

201

Mass and radius formulas for low-mass neutron stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neutron stars, produced at the death of massive stars, are often regarded as giant neutron-rich nuclei. This picture is especially relevant for low-mass (below about solar mass, M_?) neutron stars, where non-nucleonic components are not expected to occur. Due to the saturation property of nucleonic matter, leading to the celebrated liquid-drop picture of atomic nuclei, empirical nuclear masses and radii can be approximately expressed as a function of atomic mass number. It is, however, not straightforward to express masses and radii of neutron stars even in the low-mass range where the structure is determined by a balance between the pressure of neutron-rich nucleonic matter and gravity. Such expressions would be of great use given possible simultaneous mass and radius measurements. Here we successfully construct theoretical formulas for the masses and radii of low-mass neutron stars from various models that are consistent with empirical masses and radii of stable nuclei. In this process, we discover a new equation-of-state parameter that characterizes the structure of low-mass neutron stars. This parameter, which plays a key role in connecting the mass-radius relation of the laboratory nuclei to that of the celestial objects, could be constrained from future observations of low-mass neutron stars.

Sotani, Hajime; Iida, Kei; Oyamatsu, Kazuhiro; Ohnishi, Akira

2014-05-01

202

PSEUDORANDOM NUMBER GENERATORS  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review the basic principles underlying the design of uniform random number generators, their main quality requirements, their theoretical analysis, and their empirical testing. The main con- struction techniques of algorithmic generators are discussed, with an emphasis on the most com- mon ones, the linear generators. Nonlinear generators, as well as hardware-based generators, are also briefly discussed. For simulation, we

Pierre L'Ecuyer

203

Houses with Height Numbers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This applet allows students to freely build shapes by stacking cubes and "explore the relation between a building (house) consisting of cubes and the height numbers representing the height of the different parts of the building." This exercise helps students visualize and understand the concepts of volume and three-dimensional, measurable space.

Boon, Peter; Van Den Brink, Jan

2004-01-01

204

ALARA notes, Number 8  

SciTech Connect

This document contains information dealing with the lessons learned from the experience of nuclear plants. In this issue the authors tried to avoid the `tyranny` of numbers and concentrated on the main lessons learned. Topics include: filtration devices for air pollution abatement, crack repair and inspection, and remote handling equipment.

Khan, T.A.; Baum, J.W.; Beckman, M.C. [eds.] [eds.

1993-10-01

205

Paint by Numbers Revived!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Remember paint by numbers? This revived trend was a perfect solution to teaching geometric shapes to the author's first-grade students. Geometric shapes are identified and used in early elementary art classrooms, but this lesson gives students a deeper understanding of shape, encourages problem-solving, and makes a strong correlation between math…

Hahn, Nic

2012-01-01

206

Number and Operation Games  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Play the counting games below. First, help Curious George juggle the fruit in the Curious George Juggling game. Next, count the fish in the Fish Counting game. Then, try to catch the correct number of fish in the net. Go Fishing! ...

Allen, Ms.

2010-10-09

207

Stability in Numbers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this Illuminations lesson, students apply their knowledge of addition equations to investigate the equivalence of two numeric expressions using the "Pan Balance-Numbers" applet (cataloged separately). An instructional plan, questions for the students, assessment options, extensions, and teacher reflections are given for the lesson as well as links to the applet and a student activity sheet(word format).

Keller, Gary M.

2011-01-01

208

Introducing Complex Numbers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the difficulties in any teaching of mathematics is to bridge the divide between the abstract and the intuitive. Throughout school one encounters increasingly abstract notions, which are more and more difficult to relate to everyday experiences. This article examines a familiar approach to thinking about negative numbers, that is an…

Trudgian, Timothy

2009-01-01

209

Low chromosome number angiosperms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant with very low chromosome number are of interest for the analysis of the structure of chromosome and chromatin organization. Many studies have been carried out on the evolution of the karyotype in the An- giosperms with only two chromosomes in their haploid complement. The results of these analyses in the five An- giosperms with 2n=4 have been reported with

Cremonini Roberto

210

Uniform Random Number Generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter covers the basic design principles and methods for uniform random number generators used in simulation. We also briefly mention the connections between these methods and those used to construct highly-uniform point sets for quasi-Monte Carlo integration. The emphasis is on the methods based on linear recurrences modulo a large integer, or modulo 2. This reflects the fact that

Pierre L'Ecuyer

1993-01-01

211

Random numbers for simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the mind of the average computer user, the problem of generating uniform variates by computer has been solved long ago. After all, every computer :system offers one or more function(s) to do so. Many software products, like compilers, spreadsheets, statistical or numerical packages, etc. also offer their own. These functions supposedly return numbers that could be used, for all

Pierre L'Ecuyer

1990-01-01

212

Uniform random number generators  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Methods are presented for the generation of random numbers with uniform and normal distributions. Subprogram listings of Fortran generators for the Univac 1108, SDS 930, and CDC 3200 digital computers are also included. The generators are of the mixed multiplicative type, and the mathematical method employed is that of Marsaglia and Bray.

Farr, W. R.

1971-01-01

213

Atmospheric Mass  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a lesson about the amount of atmosphere a planet is likely to have. Learners will look for the relationship between atmospheric mass and other characteristics of the planet. When the results are not completely conclusive, the students explore possible causes of discrepancies in the data. They conclude that gravity, mass and diameter all have a role in determining atmospheric mass. The lesson models scientific inquiry using the 5E instructional model and includes teacher notes, prerequisite concepts, common misconceptions, student journal and reading. This is lesson 11 in the Astro-Venture Astronomy Unit. The lessons are designed for educators to use in conjunction with the Astro-Venture multimedia modules.

214

Mass media and public policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

If more informed voters receive favorable policies, then mass media should influence policy because it provides most of the information people use in voting. This paper uses a simple model to analyze the effect of mass media provision of news on a number of policy issues: redistribution, the size of the government sector, rents and corruption, the effectiveness of lobby

David Strömberg

2001-01-01

215

Mass Extinction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video segment adapted from NOVA scienceNOW, learn about a chain of events, including ancient volcanoes, global warming, and deadly gases, which may have caused Earth's greatest mass extinction 250 million years ago.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2009-11-02

216

Second grade Number Activities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page provides examples of Second Grade Number (Operations and Algebraic Thinking, and Number and Operations in Base Ten) activities aligned with the Common Core State Standards. A CCSS standard is stated and the possible activities are listed below and linked. All activities are suitable for use in Math Centers, small group or whole class settings and are designed to elicit a range of responses and provide opportunities for students to communicate their reasoning and mathematical thinking. Instructions for each task are typed in large print and written in child-friendly language to enable students to work on activities independently after a brief introduction to the task. All files listed are in PDF format.

Godwin, Nicola

2012-01-01

217

First Grade Number Actiivities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page provides examples of First Grade Number (Operations and Algebraic Thinking, and Number and Operations in Base Ten) activities aligned with the Common Core State Standards. A CCSS standard is stated and the possible activities are listed below and linked. All activities are suitable for use in Math Centers, small group or whole class settings and are designed to elicit a range of responses and provide opportunities for students to communicate their reasoning and mathematical thinking. Instructions for each task are typed in large print and written in child-friendly language to enable students to work on activities independently after a brief introduction to the task. All files listed are in PDF format.

Godwin, Nicola

2012-01-01

218

Air Masses  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students will examine the physical characteristics of several types of air masses (bodies of air that resemble the characteristics of the land surfaces beneath them). By analyzing maps of air temperature and of dewpoint temperature (prepared by the teacher), they will discover that air masses can be identified and defined by their temperature and moisture content. Student worksheets and links to the necessary maps are provided.

219

Inertial Mass  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The inertial balance is one device that can help students to quantify the quality of inertia--a body's resistance to a change in movement--in more generally understood terms of mass. In this hands-on activity, students use the inertial balance to develop a more quantitative idea of what mass means in an inertial sense. The activity also helps students refine their ability to use numerical data and line graphs as a tool for making predictions.

King, Kenneth P.

2007-12-01

220

All About Numbers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this 14-min video British teacher Rosalind Caren demonstrates group activities designed to develop number sense, fluency with addition and subtraction fact families, and reasoning skills. Caren exhibits effective questioning techniques and routines. Headteacher/math coordinator Kate Frood describes the guiding principles and expectations of teaching at the school. Following a class observation Frood provides constructive feedback to Caren and her teaching assistants.

2012-01-01

221

Is Baryon Number Conserved?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We suggest that baryon-number conservation may not be absolute and that an integrally charged quark may disintegrate into two leptons and an antilepton with a coupling strength GBmp2<~10-9. On the other hand, if quarks are much heavier than low-lying hadrons, the decay of a three-quark system like the proton is highly forbidden (proton lifetime >~ 1028 y). Motivation for these

Jogesh C. Pati; Abdus Salam

1973-01-01

222

Maths Doctor: Number  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Maths Doctor website from Macmillan Publishers contains more than 250 lessons that are free for anyone. Each lesson includes a three to five minute video tutorial on the topic and a related worksheet for the student to complete. Each worksheet has a convenient QR code that a student can scan to access the video. The Number section contains numerous lessons ranging from Conversion of Units to Dividing Fractions to Subtracting Negative Integers.

2014-06-20

223

A Pentagonal Number Sieve  

Microsoft Academic Search

We prove a general "pentagonal sieve" theorem that has corollaries such as the following. First, thenumber of pairs of partitions of n that have no parts in common isp(n)2\\\\Gamma p(n \\\\Gamma 1)2\\\\Gamma p(n \\\\Gamma 2)2+ p(n \\\\Gamma 5)2+ p(n \\\\Gamma 7)2\\\\Gamma : : : :Second, if two unlabeled rooted forests of the same number of vertices are chosen i.u.a.r., then

Sylvie Corteel; Carla D. Savage; Herbert S. Wilf; Doron Zeilberger

1998-01-01

224

Uniform random number generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract This chapter covers the basic design principles and methods for uniform random number,generators used in simulation. We also briefly mention the connections between these methods and those used to construct highly-uniform point sets for quasi-Monte Carlo integration. The emphasis is on the methods,based on linear recurrences modulo a large integer, or modulo 2. This reflects the fact that their

1994-01-01

225

Testing random number generators  

Microsoft Academic Search

So-called Random number generators on computersare deterministic functions producing a sequence of numberswhich should mimic a sample of i.i.d. U(0; 1) randomvariables. Two classes of tests are commonly applied tosuch generators. Firstly, the theoretical tests, which lookat the intrinsic structure of the generator to derive behavioralproperties of the sequence of points, usually overthe whole period. These theoretical tests are specific

Pierre L'Ecuyer

1992-01-01

226

Nature by Numbers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This 4-minute computer animation highlights three forms in nature that have connections with numbers and geometry. The Fibonacci sequence and the golden ratio are shown relating to the chambered nautilus shell and the sunflower seed pattern. The Delaunay triangulation and Voronoi tessellation are shown to simulate the capillary distribution on a dragonfly wing. Included are descriptions of the mathematics and stills from the production.

2013-02-01

227

Electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry and tandem mass spectrometry  

SciTech Connect

The ability to produce multiply charged molecular ions for biomolecules allows mass spectrometers to analyze compounds with molecular weights much in excess of the instrument's mass limit, but within the mass-to-charge range of most conventional mass spectrometers. In fact, proteins with molecular weights in excess of 130,000 daltons have been successfully analyzed by EIS-MS with a quadrupole mass spectrometer of limited m/z range (1700) in our laboratory. We have compared the ESI mass spectra of large proteins with and without reduction of its disulfide bridges. By cleavage of cysteine-cysteine bonds and thereby affecting the tertiary structure of the protein, a dramatic increase in the number of positive charges is observed. Highly charged ions desorbed from the droplets are sampled through a nozzle-skimmer orifice to be detected by the quadrupole mass spectrometer. Increasing collision energies also yields significant fragmentation of large peptide and proteins. 3 refs.

Loo, J.A.; Barinaga, C.J.; Edmonds, C.G.; Udseth, H.R.; Smith, R.D.

1989-05-01

228

Neither Name, Nor Number  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since its origins, quantum mechanics has presented problems with the concept of individuality. It is argued that quantum particles do not have individuality, and so, one can speak about "entities without identity". On the contrary, we claim that the problem of quantum non individuality goes deeper, and that one of its most important features is the fact that there are quantum systems for which particle number is not well defined. In this work, we continue this discussion in relation to the problem about the one and the many.

Holik, Federico

2014-03-01

229

HIGH-PRECISION DYNAMICAL MASSES OF VERY LOW MASS BINARIES  

SciTech Connect

We present the results of a three year monitoring program of a sample of very low mass (VLM) field binaries using both astrometric and spectroscopic data obtained in conjunction with the laser guide star adaptive optics system on the W. M. Keck II 10 m telescope. Among the 24 systems studied, 15 have undergone sufficient orbital motion, allowing us to derive their relative orbital parameters and hence their total system mass. These measurements more than double the number of mass measurements for VLM objects, and include the most precise mass measurement to date (<2%). Among the 11 systems with both astrometric and spectroscopic measurements, six have sufficient radial velocity variations to allow us to obtain individual component masses. This is the first derivation of the component masses for five of these systems. Altogether, the orbital solutions of these low mass systems show a correlation between eccentricity and orbital period, consistent with their higher mass counterparts. In our primary analysis, we find that there are systematic discrepancies between our dynamical mass measurements and the predictions of theoretical evolutionary models (TUCSON and LYON) with both models either underpredicting or overpredicting the most precisely determined dynamical masses. These discrepancies are a function of spectral type, with late-M through mid-L systems tending to have their masses underpredicted, while one T-type system has its mass overpredicted. These discrepancies imply that either the temperatures predicted by evolutionary and atmosphere models are inconsistent for an object of a given mass, or the mass-radius relationship or cooling timescales predicted by the evolutionary models are incorrect. If these spectral-type trends are correct and hold into the planetary mass regime, the implication is that the masses of directly imaged extrasolar planets are overpredicted by the evolutionary models.

Konopacky, Q. M.; Ghez, A. M.; McLean, I. S. [University of California, Los Angeles, Division of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1562 (United States); Barman, T. S. [Lowell Observatory, 1400 W. Mars Hill Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Rice, E. L. [American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West at 79th Street, New York, NY 10024-5192 (United States); Bailey, J. I. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48105 (United States); White, R. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303 (United States); Duchene, G., E-mail: konopacky1@llnl.go, E-mail: ghez@astro.ucla.ed, E-mail: mclean@astro.ucla.ed, E-mail: barman@lowell.ed, E-mail: baileyji@umich.ed, E-mail: white@chara.gsu.ed, E-mail: gduchene@berkeley.ed [Astronomy Department, University of California, Berkeley, 601 Campbell Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States)

2010-03-10

230

THE MASS DISTRIBUTION OF STELLAR-MASS BLACK HOLES  

SciTech Connect

We perform a Bayesian analysis of the mass distribution of stellar-mass black holes using the observed masses of 15 low-mass X-ray binary systems undergoing Roche lobe overflow and 5 high-mass, wind-fed X-ray binary systems. Using Markov Chain Monte Carlo calculations, we model the mass distribution both parametrically-as a power law, exponential, Gaussian, combination of two Gaussians, or log-normal distribution-and non-parametrically-as histograms with varying numbers of bins. We provide confidence bounds on the shape of the mass distribution in the context of each model and compare the models with each other by calculating their relative Bayesian evidence as supported by the measurements, taking into account the number of degrees of freedom of each model. The mass distribution of the low-mass systems is best fit by a power law, while the distribution of the combined sample is best fit by the exponential model. This difference indicates that the low-mass subsample is not consistent with being drawn from the distribution of the combined population. We examine the existence of a 'gap' between the most massive neutron stars and the least massive black holes by considering the value, M{sub 1%}, of the 1% quantile from each black hole mass distribution as the lower bound of black hole masses. Our analysis generates posterior distributions for M{sub 1%}; the best model (the power law) fitted to the low-mass systems has a distribution of lower bounds with M{sub 1%}>4.3 M{sub sun} with 90% confidence, while the best model (the exponential) fitted to all 20 systems has M{sub 1%}>4.5 M{sub sun} with 90% confidence. We conclude that our sample of black hole masses provides strong evidence of a gap between the maximum neutron star mass and the lower bound on black hole masses. Our results on the low-mass sample are in qualitative agreement with those of Ozel et al., although our broad model selection analysis more reliably reveals the best-fit quantitative description of the underlying mass distribution. The results on the combined sample of low- and high-mass systems are in qualitative agreement with Fryer and Kalogera, although the presence of a mass gap remains theoretically unexplained.

Farr, Will M.; Sravan, Niharika; Kalogera, Vicky [Northwestern University Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics, 2145 Sheridan Rd., Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Cantrell, Andrew; Kreidberg, Laura; Bailyn, Charles D. [Department of Astrophysics, Yale University, P. O. Box 208101, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Mandel, Ilya, E-mail: w-farr@northwestern.edu, E-mail: niharika.sravan@gmail.com, E-mail: vicky@northwestern.edu, E-mail: andrew.cantrell@yale.edu, E-mail: laura.kreidberg@yale.edu, E-mail: charles.bailyn@yale.edu, E-mail: ilyamandel@chgk.info [Kavli Institute, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

2011-11-10

231

Instrumentation for mass spectrometry: 1997  

SciTech Connect

All mass spectrometry experiments involve the manipulation of material, an interface with the mass spectrometer, ionization, ion manipulation/analysis, detection and data collection/reduction. Each of these elements involve instrumentation. The wide range of species now amenable to mass spectrometry and the diverse areas of physical science in which it plays a role have led to a seemingly unlimited array of instrumental combinations. However, only a limited number of mass analyzers, and their combinations, dominate. The dominant analyzers include time-of-flight, Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance, the Paul trap, the mass filter, and the sector mass spectrometer. Why there are so few (or so many, depending upon one`s point of view) can be understood upon consideration of a set of mass analyzer figures of merit. These include mass resolution, mass accuracy, mass range, dynamic range, abundance sensitivity, precision, efficiency, speed, MS{sup n} capability, compatibility with the ionizer, cost, and size. The most appropriate form of mass spectrometry is determined by the priorities of the particular measurement placed on the various mass analyzer characteristics and the relative strengths of the analyzers in meeting the requirements. Each of the analyzer types has a unique set of figures of merit that makes it optimally suited for particular applications. This paper discusses these figures of merit, provides data illustrating recent developments for each analyzer type, and gives the figures of merit of each type of analyzer as they stand in 1997. 101 refs., 24 figs.

McLuckey, S.A.

1997-08-01

232

Mass Extinction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This set of multimedia resources, produced for the NOVA television broadcast 'Mass Extinction', explains mass extinctions in general, and in particular the extinction event that occurred at the end of the Permian period, in which more than 90 percent of all marine species died out. An interactive feature presents some of the theories about what caused this event, and lets users vote for the one they consider most likely. There is also a video clip from the broadcast, an audio clip of an interview with a researcher who is using high-precision dating techniques to understand the time scale of the Permian extinction, and an ask-the expert feature in which a scientist from the Smithsonian Institution answers questions about the Permian and other mass extinctions. Other links access a teacher's guide, additional reading materials, and a transcript of the broadcast.

233

Mass customization origins: mass or custom manufacturing?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mass customization presents a paradox to traditional manufacturing practices. Historically, companies chose to produce either customized, crafted products or mass-produced, standardized products. Thus, mass customization presents a paradox by combining customization and mass production, offering unique products in a mass-produced, low cost, high volume production environment. If mass customization is truly a combination of mass production and craft manufacturer, how

Rebecca Duray

2002-01-01

234

Roadside Particle Number Distributions and Relationships Between Number Concentrations, Meteorology, and Traffic Along a Northern California Freeway  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vehicles are a major source of ultrafine (Dp < 100nm) particles and currently there is no method to estimate particle number emissions of ultrafine and nanoparticles from vehicles operating on the roadway. The ability to estimate particle number has become increasingly important because recent evidence suggests that particle number, not mass, may be the most important predictor of particle-based detrimental

K. Nanzetta; B. Holmen

2002-01-01

235

Modular redundant number systems  

SciTech Connect

With the increased use of public key cryptography, faster modular multiplication has become an important cryptographic issue. Almost all public key cryptography, including most elliptic curve systems, use modular multiplication. Modular multiplication, particularly for the large public key modulii, is very slow. Increasing the speed of modular multiplication is almost synonymous with increasing the speed of public key cryptography. There are two parts to modular multiplication: multiplication and modular reduction. Though there are fast methods for multiplying and fast methods for doing modular reduction, they do not mix well. Most fast techniques require integers to be in a special form. These special forms are not related and converting from one form to another is more costly than using the standard techniques. To this date it has been better to use the fast modular reduction technique coupled with standard multiplication. Standard modular reduction is much more costly than standard multiplication. Fast modular reduction (Montgomery`s method) reduces the reduction cost to approximately that of a standard multiply. Of the fast multiplication techniques, the redundant number system technique (RNS) is one of the most popular. It is simple, converting a large convolution (multiply) into many smaller independent ones. Not only do redundant number systems increase speed, but the independent parts allow for parallelization. RNS form implies working modulo another constant. Depending on the relationship between these two constants; reduction OR division may be possible, but not both. This paper describes a new technique using ideas from both Montgomery`s method and RNS. It avoids the formula problem and allows fast reduction and multiplication. Since RNS form is used throughout, it also allows the entire process to be parallelized.

NONE

1998-05-31

236

Grace and Courtesy: A Human Responsibility. AMI/USA Conference (Oak Brook, Illinois, July 23-26, 1998).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This conference proceedings compile presentations from a 1998 meeting of the American Montessori International of the United States, focusing on the importance of grace and courtesy in children's lives and in Montessori education. The papers presented are: (1) "Grace--The Felicity of Being" (Renilde Montessori); (2) "A Montessori Community for…

American Montessori International of the United States, Inc., Rochester, NY.

237

Optical information processing systems and architectures III; Proceedings of the Meeting, San Diego, CA, July 23-26, 1991  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Topics addressed include design and testing of three-level optimal correlation filters, a case study of design trade-offs for ternary phase-amplitude filters, optimal distortion-invariant quadratic filters, object-enhanced optical correlation, compact joint transform correlators in planar-integrated packages, and a real-time nonlinear optical correlator in speckle metrology. Attention is also given to empirical performance of binary phase-only synthetic discriminant functions, planetary lander guidance using binary phase-only filters, optical correlator techniques applied to robotic vision, optical multilayer neural networks, optical inference processing techniques for scene analysis, projection methods for evaluation of Hopfield-type CAM models, a miniature acousto-optic image correlator, error codes applied to optical algebraic processors, spatial light modulators, and an optoelectronic implementation of filtered-back-projection tomography algorithm.

Javidi, Bahram

238

78 FR 15341 - Auto Supply Chain Trade Mission to Mexico City and Monterrey, Mexico; September 23-26, 2013  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...International Trade Administration Auto Supply Chain Trade Mission to Mexico City and...Service (CS) is organizing an auto supply chain trade mission to Mexico City and...In the first and second-tier supply chain sector, opportunities...

2013-03-11

239

Proceedings of the Gulf Stream Workshop Held at West Greenwich, Rhode Island on 23-26 April 1985.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Topics included: Modeling of the Gulf Stream System - Local dynamics and non-local effects; Recent Gulf Stream Theoretical Work and Pertinent Observations; Data Assimilation, Mesoscale Dynamics and Dynamical Forecasting; Two Recent Views of the Gulf Strea...

D. R. Watts

1985-01-01

240

Proceedings of the International Pneumoconioses Conference (7th). Part 1. Held in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania on August 23-26, 1988.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The two volume set covers the proceedings of the VIIth International Pneumoconioses Conference held in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania on August 23 thru 26, 1988. The conference was organized by the International Labor Office (ILO), NIOSH, MSHA, OSHA, and the Un...

1990-01-01

241

Papers and Proceedings. Syntopican VIII: "Moving Information--Concepts in Transition." (Minneapolis, MN, June 23-26, 1980).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of 22 papers examines various word processing (WP) technologies, systems, and applications. The first five papers by C. Briggs, C. Taylor, G. McLean, D. Remsen, and C. Norris discuss WP applications in the Army, a WP system for an insurance firm, the organization of the International Word Processing Association, WP fundamentals,…

1980

242

ALIA 2000. Capitalising on Knowledge: The Information Profession in the 21st Century (Canberra, Australia, October 23-26, 2000).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This proceeding of the Australian Library and Information Association (ALIA) 2000 conference contains 64 papers presented at the main conference and 12 papers presented at the fringe conference. Topics covered include: the 21st century information environment; user perspectives of the future of the Internet; the user interface; public libraries in…

Australian Library and Information Association, Deakin.

243

OPENING OF CONFERENCE. NATIONAL OUTLOOK CONFERENCE ON RURAL YOUTH, OCTOBER 23-26, 1967, WASHINGTON, D. C.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

AMERICAN YOUTH HAVE ALWAYS HARBORED DISCONTENT WITH THE STATUS QUO. HOWEVER, IN THIS GENERATION TOO OFTEN HEALTHY DISCONTENT GIVES WAY TO DISENCHANTMENT AND SICK DESPAIR, AND THERE IS AMPLE REASON FOR YOUTH TO BE DISCONTENTED WITH OUR SOCIETY, WHEN WE ARE UNABLE TO MOBILIZE OUR VAST CAPACITIES TO MAXIMUM EFFECTIVENESS. SOME OF THESE CAPACITIES…

FREEMAN, ORVILLE L.

244

ERTS 1 launch and flight activation evaluation report, 23 - 26 July 1972. Launch through Orbit 35 and orbit adjust operation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of the analysis conducted on the telemetry data from the prelaunch, launch, and flight activation phases of the ERTS-1 spacecraft are presented. It is presented by sub system sections and provides for inter-relationships as they exist between the several subsystems. A brief statement of subsystem characteristics precedes flight evaluation statements. The appendix contains a total list of components flow on ERTS-1 and a complete listing of commands and telemetry functions for reference.

1972-01-01

245

Abstracts Presented at the 11th National Advanced Practice Neonatal Nurses Honolulu, HI, April 23-26, 2014.  

PubMed

These are the abstracts for the poster and podium presentations from the recent 11th National Advanced Practice Neonatal Nurses Conference in Honolulu, Hawaii. They represent a broad range of neonatal issues. By sharing this information, we hope to increase awareness of research and innovative programs within the neonatal health care community, and support evidence-based nursing practice. Some abstracts have been edited for publication. PMID:24816882

2014-01-01

246

Application of Rqd-Number and Rqd-Volume Multifractal Modelling to Delineate Rock Mass Characterisation in Kahang Cu-Mo Porphyry Deposit, Central Iran / Zastosowanie Metod Modelowania Numerycznego Oraz Modelowania Fraktalnego do Analizy JAKO?CI SKA? W Celu OKRE?LENIA Charakterystyki GÓROTWORU W Obszarze Z?O?A Cu-Mo W Kahang, ?RODKOWY Iran  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Identification of rock mass properties in terms of Rock Quality Designation (RQD) plays a significant role in mine planning and design. This study aims to separate the rock mass characterisation based on RQD data analysed from 48 boreholes in Kahang Cu-Mo porphyry deposit situated in the central Iran utilising RQD-Volume (RQD-V) and RQD-Number (RQD-N) fractal models. The log-log plots for RQD-V and RQD-N models show four rock mass populations defined by RQD thresholds of 3.55, 25.12 and 89.12% and 10.47, 41.68 and 83.17% respectively which represent very poor, poor, good and excellent rocks based on Deere and Miller rock classification. The RQD-V and RQD-N models indicate that the excellent rocks are situated in the NW and central parts of this deposit however, the good rocks are located in the most parts of the deposit. The results of validation of the fractal models with the RQD block model show that the RQD-N fractal model of excellent rock quality is better than the RQD-V fractal model of the same rock quality. Correlation between results of the fractal and the geological models illustrates that the excellent rocks are associated with porphyric quartz diorite (PQD) units. The results reveal that there is a multifractal nature in rock characterisation with respect to RQD for the Kahang deposit. The proposed fractal model can be intended for the better understanding of the rock quality for purpose of determination of the final pit slope. Identyfikacja w?a?ciwo?ci górotworu odgrywa zasadnicz? rol? w planowaniu wydobycia i projektowaniu kopalni. Praca niniejsza ma na celu okre?lenie charakterystyki górotworu w oparciu o dane o jako?ci ska? zebrane na podstawie próbek uzyskanych z 48 odwiertów wykonanych w z?o?u porfiru Cu-Mo w Kahang, zalegaj?cym w ?rodkowym Iranie przy u?yciu modeli fraktalnych RQD-V - Rock Quality Determination-Volume [Okre?lenie jako?ci ska?-obj?to??]) i RQD-N (Rock Quality Determination-Number [Okre?lenie jako?ci ska?-liczba]). Wykresy logarytmiczne wykonane dla modeli RQD-V i RQD-N wykazuj? istnienie czterech populacji warstw górotworu, okre?lonych na podstawie parametrów progowych: 3.55; 25.12; 89.12% oraz 10.47; 41.68 i 83.17%, odpowiadaj?cym kolejno stopniom jako?ci: bardzo s?aby, s?aby, dobry i bardzo dobry, zgodnie z klasyfikacj? ska? Deere i Millera. Wyniki uzyskane przy zastosowaniu modeli RQD-V i RQD-N wskazuj?, ?e najlepsze ska?y zalegaj? w pó?nocno- zachodniej i centralnej cz??ci z?o?a, z kolei dobrej jako?ci ska?y znale?? mo?na w obr?bie ca?ego z?o?a. Walidacja modeli fraktalnych w oparciu o model blokowy (RQD block model) wskazuje, ?e model RQD-N dla bardzo dobrej jako?ci ska? jest skuteczniejszy ni? model RQD-V dla tej samej jako?ci ska?. Wysoki stopie? korelacji pomi?dzy wynikami uzyskanymi w oparciu o modele fraktalne i geologiczne pokazuje, ?e najwy?szej jako?ci ska?y zwi?zane s? z obecno?ci? porfirowego diorytu kwarcowego. Badanie wykazuje fraktaln? natur? charakterystyki jako?ci ska? w z?o?u Kahang. Zaproponowany model fraktalny wykorzysta? mo?na do lepszego poznania zagadnienia jako?ci ska? w celu obliczenia nachylenia wyrobiska.

Yasrebi, Amir Bijan; Wetherelt, Andrew; Foster, Patrick J.; Afzal, Peyman; Coggan, John; Ahangaran, Dariush Kaveh

2013-12-01

247

Mass Extinction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video highlights a team of scientists who work on reconstructing the mass extinction that occurred 250 million years ago, the end of the Permian Period, and wiped out the majority of life on our planet, resetting the evolution of life. Clues suggest that deadly bacteria might have set off a chemical chain reaction that poisoned the Permian seas and atmosphere.

Sciencenow, Nova; Online, Pbs

248

TRACING GALAXIES THROUGH COSMIC TIME WITH NUMBER DENSITY SELECTION  

SciTech Connect

A central challenge in observational studies of galaxy formation is how to associate progenitor galaxies with their descendants at lower redshifts. One promising approach is to link galaxies at fixed number density rather than fixed luminosity or mass. This method is effective if stellar mass rank order is broadly conserved through cosmic time. In this paper, we use the Guo et al. semi-analytical model to analyze under what circumstances this assumption is valid in the context of a cosmological simulation. Specifically, we select progenitor galaxies at a constant number density and compare the stellar mass evolution of their descendants to the evolution at a constant number density. The median stellar mass of the descendants increases by a factor of four (0.6 dex) from z = 3 to z = 0. Constant number density selection reproduces this to within 40% (0.15 dex) over a wide range of number densities. We show that the discrepancy primarily results from scatter in the stellar mass growth rates and merging. After applying simple, observationally based corrections for these processes, the discrepancy is reduced to 12% (0.05 dex). We conclude that number density selection can be used to predict the median descendant mass of high-redshift progenitor galaxies. The main uncertainty in this study is that semi-analytical models do not reproduce the observed mass evolution of galaxies, which makes the quantitative aggregate effects of star formation, merging, and quenching on the rank order of galaxies somewhat uncertain.

Leja, Joel; Van Dokkum, Pieter [Astronomy Department, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States)] [Astronomy Department, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Franx, Marijn [Sterrewacht Leiden, Leiden University, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands)] [Sterrewacht Leiden, Leiden University, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands)

2013-03-20

249

Beyond Natural Numbers: Negative Number Representation in Parietal Cortex  

PubMed Central

Unlike natural numbers, negative numbers do not have natural physical referents. How does the brain represent such abstract mathematical concepts? Two competing hypotheses regarding representational systems for negative numbers are a rule-based model, in which symbolic rules are applied to negative numbers to translate them into positive numbers when assessing magnitudes, and an expanded magnitude model, in which negative numbers have a distinct magnitude representation. Using an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging design, we examined brain responses in 22 adults while they performed magnitude comparisons of negative and positive numbers that were quantitatively near (difference <4) or far apart (difference >6). Reaction times (RTs) for negative numbers were slower than positive numbers, and both showed a distance effect whereby near pairs took longer to compare. A network of parietal, frontal, and occipital regions were differentially engaged by negative numbers. Specifically, compared to positive numbers, negative number processing resulted in greater activation bilaterally in intraparietal sulcus (IPS), middle frontal gyrus, and inferior lateral occipital cortex. Representational similarity analysis revealed that neural responses in the IPS were more differentiated among positive numbers than among negative numbers, and greater differentiation among negative numbers was associated with faster RTs. Our findings indicate that despite negative numbers engaging the IPS more strongly, the underlying neural representation are less distinct than that of positive numbers. We discuss our findings in the context of the two theoretical models of negative number processing and demonstrate how multivariate approaches can provide novel insights into abstract number representation.

Blair, Kristen P.; Rosenberg-Lee, Miriam; Tsang, Jessica M.; Schwartz, Daniel L.; Menon, Vinod

2012-01-01

250

MOIRCS Deep Survey. I: DRG Number Counts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We used very deep near-infrared imaging data taken with the Multi-Object InfraRed Camera and Spectrograph (MOIRCS) on the Subaru Telescope to investigate the number counts of Distant Red Galaxies (DRGs). We observed a 4' × 7' field in the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey-North (GOODS-N), and our data reached J=24.6 and K=23.2 (5?, Vega magnitude). The surface density of DRGs selected by J - K > 2.3 is 2.35 ± 0.31 arcmin-2 at K < 22 and 3.54 ± 0.38 arcmin-2 at K < 23, respectively. These values are consistent with those in the GOODS-South and FIRES. Our deep and wide data suggest that the number counts of DRGs turn over at K ˜ 22, and the surface density of the faint DRGs with K > 22 is smaller than that expected from the number counts at the brighter magnitude. The result indicates that while there are many bright galaxies at 2 < z < 4 with the relatively old stellar population and/or heavy dust extinction, the number of faint galaxies with a similar red color is relatively small. Different behavior patterns of the number counts of the DRGs and bluer galaxies with 2 < zphot < 4 at K > 22 suggest that the mass-dependent color distribution, where most of the low-mass galaxies are blue, while more massive galaxies tend to have redder colors, had already been established at that epoch.

Kajisawa, Masaru; Konishi, Masahiro; Suzuki, Ryuji; Tokoku, Chihiro; Uchimoto, Yuka; Katsuno; Yoshikawa, Tomohiro; Akiyama, Masayuki; Ichikawa, Takashi; Ouchi, Masami; Omata, Koji; Tanaka, Ichi; Nishimura, Tetsuo; Yamada, Toru

2006-12-01

251

Cosmological baryon and lepton number in the presence of electroweak fermion-number violation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the presence of rapid fermion-number violation due to nonperturbative electroweak effects certain relations between the baryon number of the Universe and the lepton numbers of the Universe are predicted. In some cases the electron-neutrino asymmetry is exactly specified in terms of the baryon asymmetry. Without introducing new particles, beyond the usual quarks and leptons, it is necessary that the Universe possess a nonzero value of B - L prior to the epoch of fermion-number violation if baryon and lepton asymmetries are to survive. Contrary to intuition, even though electroweak processes violate B + L, a nonzero value of B + L persists after the epoch of rapid fermion-number violation. If the standard model is extended to include lepton-number violation, for example through Majorana neutrino masses, then electroweak processes will reduce the baryon number to zero even in the presence of an initial B - L unless 20 M(sub L) approximately greater than the square root of (T(sub B - L) m(sub P1)) where M(sub L) sets the scale of lepton number violation and T(sub B - L) is the temperature at which a B - L asymmetry is produced. In many models this implies that neutrinos must be so light that they cannot contribute appreciably to the mass density of the Universe.

Harvey, Jeffrey A.; Turner, Michael S.

1990-01-01

252

Mass determination for visual binaries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider a sample of 432 visual binaries having orbital elements and belonging to the Main Sequence. We calculate their total masses using the orbital elements and the new Hipparcos parallaxes by applying Kepler's third law. For the same pairs the total masses are also found by applying the mass-luminosity relation. The source for the apparent magnitudes is the Washington Double Star Catalog. The Keplerian total masses show a large scatter. Nevertheless, in a large number of cases the agreement between total masses obtained in these two different ways is quite satisfactory indicating that i) for many visual binaries, as a rule not too distant and with high-quality orbital elements, the Keplerian total masses can be reliable and ii) a correlation between the relative parallax error and orbit grade exists.

Cvetkovi?, Z.; Ninkovi?, S.

253

Mass Spectrometry for the Masses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A simple, qualitative experiment is developed for implementation, where the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) plays an important role, into the laboratory curriculum of a chemistry course designed for nonscience majors. This laboratory experiment is well suited for the students as it helps them to determine the validity of their…

Persinger, Jared D.; Hoops, Geoffrey, C.; Samide, Michael J.

2004-01-01

254

Mass customization and mass production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Total quality management resulting from total customer satisfaction today can mean giving every customer a product tailored specifically to his or her needs. In the past, manufacturing was usually characterized by keeping costs down with economies of scale. Mass customization can result in a challenging manufacturing environment typified by both high volume and an excellent product mix, where customers expect

Laetitia Radder; Lynette Louw

1999-01-01

255

Mass Moments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Mass Moments is not a website dedicated to celebrating public rebellions, uprisings, or other such activities of the masses, but rather it was created to serve as an electronic almanac of Massachusetts history. Started on January 1, 2005, the site serves as a repository of brief âÂÂmomentsâ in the stateâÂÂs history, such as vignettes that tell the story of WorcesterâÂÂs first airport or Frederick DouglassâÂÂs first appearance before a white audience. Visitors can play each moment, or just read the script. Historic photographs and/or other documents, as well as a nice selection of sources for additional information accompany each script. Visitors can also search all of the previous moments by subject or geographic region, and in keeping with the times, they can also receive each new moment by RSS feed or podcast.

256

Mass burning  

SciTech Connect

With only minimal sorting, garbage can be used to fire a boiler. But the design of a refuse-to-energy plant must account for the corrosive and abrasive nature of the fuel and must include means of scrubbing flue gases and removing ash. This paper describes the working of a typical mass-burning plant. Topics are grouped under the following headings: Firing equipment, Boiler Design, Control and operation, Research and Development, Air Pollution Controls, Ash removal.

Adkin, P.

1988-12-01

257

Series of Reciprocal Triangular Numbers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reciprocal triangular numbers have appeared in series since the very first infinite series were summed. Here we attack a number of subseries of the reciprocal triangular numbers by methodically expressing them as integrals.

Bruckman, Paul; Dence, Joseph B.; Dence, Thomas P.; Young, Justin

2013-01-01

258

Space Elevator Ribbon Mass and Taper Ratio  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assumptions about tensile strength and density aect the space elevator ribbon taper ratio, and therefore its mass. We examine the technical trade-os between material properties and total mass of a modern space elevator ribbon, and the economic trade-os between ribbon mass, the number of rocket launches required to loft the initial ribbon, and the time required to build the ribbon

Tom Nugent

259

Mass Sensor  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this CRADA was to use Honeywell's experience in low temperature cofire ceramics and traditional ceramics to assemble a relatively low-cost, mass-producible miniature mass analyzer. The specific design, given to us by Mass Sensors, LLC, was used to test for helium. The direct benefit for the participant was to have a prototype unit assembled for the purpose of proof of concept and the ability to secure venture capital investors. From that, the company would begin producing their own product for sale. The consumer/taxpayer benefits come from the wide variety of industries that can utilize this technology to improve quality of life. Medical industry can use this technology to improve diagnostic ability; manufacturing industry can use it for improved air, water, and soil monitoring to minimize pollution; and the law enforcement community can use this technology for identification of substances. These are just a few examples of the benefit of this technology. The benefits to DOE were in the area of process improvement for cofire and ceramic materials. From this project we demonstrated nonlinear thickfilm fine lines and spaces that were 5-mil wide with 5-mil spaces; determined height-to diameter-ratios for punched and filled via holes; demonstrated the ability to punch and fill 5-mil microvias; developed and demonstrated the capability to laser cut difficult geometries in 40-mil ceramic; developed and demonstrated coupling LTCC with standard alumina and achieving hermetic seals; developed and demonstrated three-dimensional electronic packaging concepts; and demonstrated printing variable resistors within 1% of the nominal value and within a tightly defined ratio. The capability of this device makes it invaluable for many industries. The device could be used to monitor air samples around manufacturing plants. It also could be used for monitoring automobile exhaust, for doing blood gas analysis, for sampling gases being emitted by volcanoes, for studying activities of insects, and many other things. The ultimate goal was to build two iterations of the mass sensor. However, due to technical difficulties, only one iteration of the device was manufactured. Initial work to optimize the ion source and build a small ion pump was not successful. Consequently, the ion pump was not incorporated into the analyzer design. Mass Sensors, LLC, is still testing the analyzers that were assembled.

Adams, B.E.

2001-01-18

260

Binary mass ratios: system mass not primary mass  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Binary properties are usually expressed (for good observational reasons) as a function of primary mass. It has been found that the distribution of companion masses - the mass ratio distribution - is different for different primary masses. We argue that system mass is the more fundamental physical parameter to use. We show that if system masses are drawn from a log-normal mass function, then the different observed mass ratio distributions as a function of primary mass, from M-dwarfs to A-stars, are all consistent with a universal, flat, system mass ratio distribution. We also show that the brown dwarf mass ratio distribution is not drawn from the same flat distribution, suggesting that the process which decides upon mass ratios is very different in brown dwarfs and stars.

Goodwin, Simon P.

2013-03-01

261

Decaying Warm Dark Matter and Neutrino Masses  

SciTech Connect

Neutrino masses may arise from spontaneous breaking of ungauged lepton number. Because of quantum gravity effects the associated Goldstone boson--the majoron--will pick up a mass. We determine the lifetime and mass required by cosmic microwave background observations so that the massive majoron provides the observed dark matter of the Universe. The majoron decaying dark matter scenario fits nicely in models where neutrino masses arise via the seesaw mechanism, and may lead to other possible cosmological implications.

Lattanzi, M. [Oxford Astrophysics, Denis Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, OX1 3RH, Oxford (United Kingdom); Valle, J. W. F. [Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular-C.S.I.C./Universitat de Valencia Campus de Paterna, Apt 22085, E-46071 Valencia (Spain)

2007-09-21

262

15. Stress Sheet, Truss number 2, span number 6, Superior ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

15. Stress Sheet, Truss number 2, span number 6, Superior Avenue viaduct. Drawing courtesy Engineering Dept., City of Cleveland. - Superior Avenue Viaduct, Cleveland East & West side, Cuyahoga Valley Vicinity, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

263

Secular love and tidal numbers of synchronously orbiting satellites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The secular Love and the secular tidal numbers have been computed for eight synchronously orbiting satellites in the solar system for which the triaxiality parameters and satellite-centric gravitational constant are available. Excepting Deimos the total mass of which should be first refined, the secular Love and tidal numbers are rather close to unity, as a rule. That is why, the

M. Bursa

1988-01-01

264

Toddlers' Spontaneous Attention to Number and Verbal Number Quantification  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"S"pontaneous "a"ttention to "n"umber (SAN) is the tendency to notice the relatively abstract attribute of number despite the presence of other attributes. According to nativists, an innate concept of one to three directs young children's attention to these "intuitive numbers" in everyday situations--even before they acquire language. According to…

Li, Xia

2009-01-01

265

Feeling Number: Grounding Number Sense in a Sense of Quantity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Drawing on results from psychology and from cultural and linguistic studies, we argue for an increased focus on developing quantity sense in school mathematics. We explore the notion of "feeling number", a phrase that we offer in a twofold sense--resisting tendencies to feel numb-er (more numb) by developing a feeling for numbers and the…

Wagner, David; Davis, Brent

2010-01-01

266

How Spencer Made Number: First Uses of the Number Words  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the development of number concepts between infancy and early childhood. It is based on a diary study that tracked number word use in a child from 12 to 38 months of age. Number words appeared early in the child's vocabulary, but accurate reference to specific numerosities evolved gradually over the entire 27-month period.…

Mix, Kelly S.

2009-01-01

267

The Neutron Star Mass Distribution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, the number of pulsars with secure mass measurements has increased to a level that allows us to probe the underlying neutron star (NS) mass distribution in detail. We critically review the radio pulsar mass measurements. For the first time, we are able to analyze a sizable population of NSs with a flexible modeling approach that can effectively accommodate a skewed underlying distribution and asymmetric measurement errors. We find that NSs that have evolved through different evolutionary paths reflect distinctive signatures through dissimilar distribution peak and mass cutoff values. NSs in double NS and NS-white dwarf (WD) systems show consistent respective peaks at 1.33 M ? and 1.55 M ?, suggesting significant mass accretion (?m ? 0.22 M ?) has occurred during the spin-up phase. The width of the mass distribution implied by double NS systems is indicative of a tight initial mass function while the inferred mass range is significantly wider for NSs that have gone through recycling. We find a mass cutoff at ~2.1 M ? for NSs with WD companions, which establishes a firm lower bound for the maximum NS mass. This rules out the majority of strange quark and soft equation of state models as viable configurations for NS matter. The lack of truncation close to the maximum mass cutoff along with the skewed nature of the inferred mass distribution both enforce the suggestion that the 2.1 M ? limit is set by evolutionary constraints rather than nuclear physics or general relativity, and the existence of rare supermassive NSs is possible.

Kiziltan, Bülent; Kottas, Athanasios; De Yoreo, Maria; Thorsett, Stephen E.

2013-11-01

268

Love number can be hard to measure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The waveform phase for a neutron star binary can be split into point-particle terms and finite-size terms (characterized by the Love number) that account for equation-of-state effects. The latter first enter at fifth post-Newtonian (5PN) order (i.e., proportional to the tenth power of the orbital velocity), but the former are only known completely to 3.5PN order, with higher-order terms only known to leading order in the mass ratio. We here find that not including point-particle terms at 4PN order to leading and first order in the mass ratio in the template model can severely deteriorate our ability to measure the equation of state. This problem can be solved if one uses numerical waveforms once their own systematic errors are under control.

Yagi, Kent; Yunes, Nicolás

2014-01-01

269

Planet Masses and Densities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The masses of Kepler planet candidates remain unknown until some dynamical technique measures the gravitational effect of that planet on either the star (with RV measurements) or other planets (with TTVs). Measuring planet masses is particularly important as, when combined with the transit-based planet radii, they yield the bulk density of the planets, constraining conditions in the interior, notably the amount of metal, rock, water, and gas. For planets smaller than 2 Earth-radii, the transition from Neptune-like to rocky planets is particularly intriguing, bearing on formation, evolution, and habitability. We report precise (2 m/s) Doppler RVs for 15 host stars of Kepler planet candidates. New RV techniques are now employed for faint stars of 13th mag, notably long-slit sky subtraction and statistical priors for the PSF and wavelength scale in the Doppler analysis. The RV observations are timed at moments near orbital quadrature to maximize the RV differences. We obtained 10-20 RVs for each of 15 host stars of Kepler planet candidates, with typical exposure times of 30 min. The RVs are fit with Keplerian models that include all transisting planets and their known ephemerides from the Kepler photometry. The two free parameters are only the masses of the planets and RV zero point. Both random and systematic errors will not be correlated with orbital phase, ensuring that the RV signal-to-noise improves as the square root of the number of RV observations. Orbital fits provide planet mass, density, and in some cases contraints on eccentricity. For RV non-detections, MCMC analyses provide upper limits to planet mass and density.

Marcy, Geoffrey W.

2012-05-01

270

Patent Number Sequence Classification Record.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The official microfilm record lists the original and cross-reference classifications together for each patent number, in Patent number order. The record comprises all patents issued through 29 Apr 69, all reclassifications made effective through 1 Jan 69,...

1970-01-01

271

Know Your Blood Sugar Numbers  

MedlinePLUS

... Numbers If you have diabetes, keeping your blood glucose (sugar) numbers in your target range can help ... a lab test that measures your average blood glucose level over the last 2 to 3 months. ...

272

Euler Numbers on Cobordant Hypersurfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When two hypersurfaces are mediated by a Lorentz cobordism, a homology selection rule restricts the number of general relativistic kinks that can occur on the hypersurfaces. In 2+1 dimensions, this selection rule translates to the requirement that the difference in the number of kinks on the two hypersurfaces be balanced by a corresponding difference in Euler number. This is explored for a particular spacetime by using a tetrad-based Jacobian integral formula for calculating the kink number.

Harriott, Tina A.; Williams, J. G.

2008-09-01

273

Small numbers in supersymmetric theories of nature  

SciTech Connect

The Standard Model of particle interactions is a successful theory for describing the interactions of quarks, leptons and gauge bosons at microscopic distance scales. Despite these successes, the theory contains many unsatisfactory features. The origin of particle masses is a central mystery that has eluded experimental elucidation. In the Standard Model the known particles obtain their mass from the condensate of the so-called Higgs particle. Quantum corrections to the Higgs mass require an unnatural fine tuning in the Higgs mass of one part in 10{sup {minus}32} to obtain the correct mass scale of electroweak physics. In addition, the origin of the vast hierarchy between the mass scales of the electroweak and quantum gravity physics is not explained in the current theory. Supersymmetric extensions to the Standard Model are not plagued by this fine tuning issue and may therefore be relevant in Nature. In the minimal supersymmetric Standard Model there is also a natural explanation for electroweak symmetry breaking. Supersymmetric Grand Unified Theories also correctly predict a parameter of the Standard Model. This provides non-trivial indirect evidence for these theories. The most general supersymmetric extension to the Standard Model however, is excluded by many physical processes, such as rare flavor changing processes, and the non-observation of the instability of the proton. These processes provide important information about the possible structure such a theory. In particular, certain parameters in this theory must be rather small. A physics explanation for why this is the case would be desirable. It is striking that the gauge couplings of the Standard Model unify if there is supersymmetry close to the weak scale. This suggests that at high energies Nature is described by a supersymmetric Grand Unified Theory. But the mass scale of unification must be introduced into the theory since it does not coincide with the probable mass scale of strong quantum gravity. The subject of this dissertation is both the phenomenology and model-building opportunities that may lie behind the small numbers that appear in supersymmetric extensions of the Standard Model.

Graesser, Michael L.

1999-05-01

274

The Number Space and Neglect  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent cognitive models of numerical abilities have postulated that number processing may in part rely on a representation of quantities where magnitude is organized by spatial proximity, along a “mental number line” extending from left to right. We describe four experiments that examined whether such a spatial representation of number would be affected by the presence of unilateral neglect after

Patrik Vuilleumier; Stéphanie Ortigue; Peter Brugger

2004-01-01

275

PLURIDICTA, Numbers 28-35.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The eight titles in this document include the following: "Comprehension and Input Processing as Useful Terms in the Field of SLA" (number 28) (Teresa Cadierno); "On the Role of Instruction in SLA: Research Results and Theoretical Explanations" (number 29) (Teresa Cadierno); "Can Writing Be Taught" (number 30) (Stuart Greene); "Academic Listening"…

Wagner, Johannes, Ed.

1998-01-01

276

Properties of Clebsch Gordan numbers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Clebsch-Gordan numbers are the multiplicity numbers for the occurrence of the states of total angular momentum in the coupling of n angular momenta. These numbers are defined and completely generated by repeated application of the Clebsch-Gordan series rule. The relatiohship of this rule to Gaussian polynomials is presented for equal angular momenta.

Louck, J. D.

2008-03-01

277

Semantic processing of neglected numbers  

Microsoft Academic Search

While neglected stimuli can still be processed, few studies have directly addressed the issue of the unconscious access to semantics. In order to clarify this issue, we engaged four patients with unilateral left spatial neglect in a number comparison task. Each target number was preceded by a lateralized number prime, either in the intact or neglected hemifield (HF). Both group

Jérôme Sackur; Lionel Naccache; Pascale Pradat-Diehl; Philippe Azouvi; Dominique Mazevet; Rose Katz; Laurent Cohen; Stanislas Dehaene

2008-01-01

278

Numbers and Math. Beginnings Workshop.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents five articles addressing numbers and math instruction for young children: "Math Talk with Young Children: One Parent's Experience" (Fred E. Gross); "How Children Build Their Understanding of Numbers" (David Elkind); "Early Math: It's More than Numbers" (Ann S. Epstein); "Assessing Mathematical Learning: Observing and Listening to…

Gross, Fred E.; Elkind, CavidEpstein, Ann S.; Copley, Juanita V.; Haugen, Ginny; Haugen, Kirsten

2003-01-01

279

The Child's Conception of Number.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on the hypothesis that the construction of number is closely related to the development of logic, this book records a series of experiments investigating classes, relations, and numbers as cognitive domains. The author finds that number is organized, stage after stage, in close connection with the gradual elaboration of systems of inclusions…

Piaget, Jean

280

Random Numbers and Quantum Computers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The topic of random numbers is investigated in such a way as to illustrate links between mathematics, physics and computer science. First, the generation of random numbers by a classical computer using the linear congruential generator and logistic map is considered. It is noted that these procedures yield only pseudo-random numbers since…

McCartney, Mark; Glass, David

2002-01-01

281

Linear or Exponential Number Lines  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Having decided to spend some time looking at one's understanding of numbers, the author was inspired by "Alex's Adventures in Numberland," by Alex Bellos to look at one's innate appreciation of number. Bellos quotes research studies suggesting that an individual's natural appreciation of numbers is more likely to be exponential rather than linear,…

Stafford, Pat

2011-01-01

282

What Exactly Do Numbers Mean?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Number words are generally used to refer to the exact cardinal value of a set, but cognitive scientists disagree about their meanings. Although most psychological analyses presuppose that numbers have exact semantics ("two" means exactly two), many linguistic accounts propose that numbers have lower-bounded semantics (at least two), and…

Huang, Yi Ting; Spelke, Elizabeth; Snedeker, Jesse

2013-01-01

283

Three Cubes in One Number  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Separate a three-digit number into its component digits. After raising each digit to the third power and computing the sum of the cubes, determine how often the original number reappears. Modular arithmetic is used to reduce the number of potential solutions to a more manageable quantity. (Contains 4 tables.)

Jue, Brian

2010-01-01

284

Investigations in Number, Data, and Space  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Investigations is a complete K-5 mathematics curriculum, developed at TERC in Cambridge, Mass. It is designed to help all children understand the fundamental ideas of number and operations, geometry, data, measurement, and early algebra. The curriculum has four major goals: to offer students meaningful mathematical problems; emphasize depth in mathematical thinking; communicate mathematics content and pedagogy to teachers; and expand the pool of mathematically literate students. This site includes descriptions of the units in each grade, K through 5; ordering information; and information on professional-development workshops designed to facilitate introduction of this curriculum.

Terc

285

Statistics of mass substructure from strong gravitational lensing: quantifying the mass fraction and mass function  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Bayesian statistical formalism is developed to quantify the level at which the mass function (dN/dm ~ m-?) and the projected cumulative mass fraction (f) of [cold dark matter (CDM)] substructure in strong gravitational lens galaxies, with arcs or Einstein rings, can be recovered as function of the lens survey parameters and the detection threshold of the substructure mass. The method is applied to different sets of mock data to explore a range of observational limits: (i) the number of lens galaxies in the survey; (ii) the mass threshold, Mlow, for the detection of substructures and (iii) the uncertainty of the measured substructure masses. We explore two different priors on the mass function slope: a uniform prior and a Gaussian prior with ? = 1.90 +/- 0.1. With a substructure detection threshold Mlow = 3 × 108Msolar, the number of lenses available now (nl = 30), a true dark matter mass fraction in (CDM) substructure <=1.0 per cent and a prior of ? = 1.90 +/- 0.1, we find that the upper limit of f can be constrained down to a level <=1.0 per cent [95 per cent confidence level (CL)]. In the case of a uniform prior, the complete substructure mass distribution (i.e. mass fraction and slope) can only be characterized in a number of favourable cases with a large number of detected substructures. This can be achieved by an increase of the resolution and the signal-to-noise ratio of the lensed images. In the case of a Gaussian prior on ?, instead, it is always possible to set stringent constraints on both parameters. We also find that lowering the detection threshold has the largest impact on the ability to recover ?, because of the (expected) steep mass function slope. In the future, thanks to new surveys with telescopes, such as Square Kilometre Array (SKA), Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) and Joint Dark Energy Mission (JDEM) and follow-up telescopes with high-fidelity data, a significant increase in the number of known lenses (i.e. >>104) will allow us to recover the satellite population in its completeness. For example, a sample of 200 lenses, equivalent in data quality to the Sloan Lens ACS Survey and a detection threshold of 108Msolar, allows one to determine f = 0.5 +/- 0.1 per cent (68 per cent CL) and ? = 1.90 +/- 0.2 (68 per cent CL).

Vegetti, Simona; Koopmans, L. V. E.

2009-12-01

286

AMR for low Mach number reacting flow  

SciTech Connect

We present a summary of recent progress on the development and application of adaptive mesh refinement algorithms for low Mach number reacting flows. Our approach uses a form of the low Mach number equations based on a general equation of state that discretely conserves both mass and energy. The discretization methodology is based on a robust projection formulation that accommodates large density contrasts. The algorithm supports modeling of multicomponent systems and incorporates an operator-split treatment of stiff reaction terms. The basic computational approach is embedded in an adaptive projection framework that uses structured hierarchical grids with subcycling in time that preserves the discrete conservation properties of the underlying single-grid algorithm. We present numerical examples illustrating the application of the methodology to turbulent premixed combustion and nuclear flames in type Ia supernovae.

Bell, John B.

2004-01-16

287

A Model of Mass Extinction  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the last few years a number of authors have suggested that evolution may be a so-called self-organized critical phenomenon, and that critical processes might have a significant effect on the dynamics of ecosystems. In particular it has been suggested that mass extinction may arise through a purely biotic mechanism as the result of “coevolutionary avalanches”. In this paper we

M. E. J. Newman

1997-01-01

288

Numbers and time doubly dissociate.  

PubMed

The magnitude dimensions of number, time and space have been suggested to share some common magnitude processing, which may imply symmetric interaction among dimensions. Here we challenge these suggestions by presenting a double dissociation between two neuropsychological patients with left (JT) and right (CB) parietal lesions and selective impairment of number and time processing respectively. Both patients showed an influence of task-irrelevant number stimuli on time but not space processing. In JT otherwise preserved time processing was severely impaired in the mere presence of task-irrelevant numbers, which themselves could not be processed accurately. In CB, impaired temporal estimation was influenced by preserved number processing: small numbers made (already grossly underestimated) time intervals appear even shorter relative to large numbers. However, numerical estimation was not influenced by time in healthy controls and in both patients. This new double dissociation between number and time processing and the asymmetric interaction of number on time: (1) provides further support to the hypothesis of a partly shared magnitude system among dimensions, instead of the proposal of a single, fully shared system or of independent magnitude systems which would not explain dissociations or interactions among dimensions; (2) may be explained in terms of a stable hierarchy of dimensions, with numbers being the strongest. PMID:21807010

Cappelletti, Marinella; Freeman, Elliot D; Cipolotti, Lisa

2011-09-01

289

Number in Early Childhood. Beecholme Nursery Number Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two essays examine the number aspect of mathematics learning for three- to five-year olds. The first contextualizes the research and reviews its progress, focusing on how children learn in contexts where numbers occur incidentally, and on developing appropriate ways of challenging children to solve problems. The second essay presents a case study…

Gifford, Sue; Wilson, Pauline

1995-01-01

290

Chaotic Nonlinear Prime Number Function  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dynamical systems in nature, such as heartbeat patterns, DNA sequence pattern, prime number distribution, etc., exhibit nonlinear (chaotic) space-time fluctuations and exact quantification of the fluctuation pattern for predictability purposes has not yet been achieved [1]. In this paper a chaotic-nonlinear prime number function P(s) is developed, from which prime numbers are generated and decoded while composite numbers are encoded over time following the Euler product methodology, which works on sequences progressively culled from multiples of the preceding primes. By relating this P(s) to a virtually closed 2D number line manifold, it is possible to represent the evolving in time of nonlinear (chaotic) systems to a final value where the system becomes stable, becomes linear. This nonlinear prime number function is proposed as a chaotic model system able to describe chaotic systems.

Mateos, Luis A.

2011-06-01

291

Familial Sinistrals Avoid Exact Numbers  

PubMed Central

We report data from an internet questionnaire of sixty number trivia. Participants were asked for the number of cups in their house, the number of cities they know and 58 other quantities. We compare the answers of familial sinistrals – individuals who are left-handed themselves or have a left-handed close blood-relative – with those of pure familial dextrals – right-handed individuals who reported only having right-handed close blood-relatives. We show that familial sinistrals use rounder numbers than pure familial dextrals in the survey responses. Round numbers in the decimal system are those that are multiples of powers of 10 or of half or a quarter of a power of 10. Roundness is a gradient concept, e.g. 100 is rounder than 50 or 200. We show that very round number like 100 and 1000 are used with 25% greater likelihood by familial sinistrals than by pure familial dextrals, while pure familial dextrals are more likely to use less round numbers such as 25, 60, and 200. We then use Sigurd’s (1988, Language in Society) index of the roundness of a number and report that familial sinistrals’ responses are significantly rounder on average than those of pure familial dextrals. To explain the difference, we propose that the cognitive effort of using exact numbers is greater for the familial sinistral group because their language and number systems tend to be more distributed over both hemispheres of the brain. Our data support the view that exact and approximate quantities are processed by two separate cognitive systems. Specifically, our behavioral data corroborates the view that the evolutionarily older, approximate number system is present in both hemispheres of the brain, while the exact number system tends to be localized in only one hemisphere.

Sauerland, Uli; Gotzner, Nicole

2013-01-01

292

Familial sinistrals avoid exact numbers.  

PubMed

We report data from an internet questionnaire of sixty number trivia. Participants were asked for the number of cups in their house, the number of cities they know and 58 other quantities. We compare the answers of familial sinistrals--individuals who are left-handed themselves or have a left-handed close blood-relative--with those of pure familial dextrals--right-handed individuals who reported only having right-handed close blood-relatives. We show that familial sinistrals use rounder numbers than pure familial dextrals in the survey responses. Round numbers in the decimal system are those that are multiples of powers of 10 or of half or a quarter of a power of 10. Roundness is a gradient concept, e.g. 100 is rounder than 50 or 200. We show that very round number like 100 and 1000 are used with 25% greater likelihood by familial sinistrals than by pure familial dextrals, while pure familial dextrals are more likely to use less round numbers such as 25, 60, and 200. We then use Sigurd's (1988, Language in Society) index of the roundness of a number and report that familial sinistrals' responses are significantly rounder on average than those of pure familial dextrals. To explain the difference, we propose that the cognitive effort of using exact numbers is greater for the familial sinistral group because their language and number systems tend to be more distributed over both hemispheres of the brain. Our data support the view that exact and approximate quantities are processed by two separate cognitive systems. Specifically, our behavioral data corroborates the view that the evolutionarily older, approximate number system is present in both hemispheres of the brain, while the exact number system tends to be localized in only one hemisphere. PMID:23544052

Sauerland, Uli; Gotzner, Nicole

2013-01-01

293

Schmidt number for quantum operations  

SciTech Connect

To understand how entangled states behave under local quantum operations is an open problem in quantum-information theory. The Jamiolkowski isomorphism provides a natural way to study this problem in terms of quantum states. We introduce the Schmidt number for quantum operations by this duality and clarify how the Schmidt number of a quantum state changes under a local quantum operation. Some characterizations of quantum operations with Schmidt number k are also provided.

Huang Siendong [Department of Applied Mathematics, National Dong Hwa University, Hualien 974, Taiwan (China)

2006-05-15

294

Random number generation and creativity.  

PubMed

A previous paper suggested that humans can generate genuinely random numbers. I tested this hypothesis by repeating the experiment with a larger number of highly numerate subjects, asking them to call out a sequence of digits selected from 0 through 9. The resulting sequences were substantially non-random, with an excess of sequential pairs of numbers and a deficit of repeats of the same number, in line with previous literature. However, the previous literature suggests that humans generate random numbers with substantial conscious effort, and distractions which reduce that effort reduce the randomness of the numbers. I reduced my subjects' concentration by asking them to call out in another language, and with alcohol - neither affected the randomness of their responses. This suggests that the ability to generate random numbers is a 'basic' function of the human mind, even if those numbers are not mathematically 'random'. I hypothesise that there is a 'creativity' mechanism, while not truly random, provides novelty as part of the mind's defence against closed programming loops, and that testing for the effects seen here in people more or less familiar with numbers or with spontaneous creativity could identify more features of this process. It is possible that training to perform better at simple random generation tasks could help to increase creativity, through training people to reduce the conscious mind's suppression of the 'spontaneous', creative response to new questions. PMID:17920778

Bains, William

2008-01-01

295

Multiple paternity in wild house mice (Mus musculus musculus): effects on offspring genetic diversity and body mass.  

PubMed

Multiple mating is common in many species, but it is unclear whether multiple paternity enhances offspring genetic diversity or fitness. We conducted a survey on wild house mice (Mus musculus musculus), and we found that in 73 pregnant females, 29% of litters had multiple sires, which is remarkably similar to the 23-26% found in feral populations of Mus musculus domesticus in the USA and Australia, respectively. The question is: How has selection maintained multiple mating in these subspecies since the evolutionary divergence, ca. 2800-6000 years ago? We found no evidence that multiple paternity enhanced females' litter size, contrary to the fertility assurance or genetic benefits hypotheses. Multiple paternity was associated with reduced mean and variance in offspring body mass, which suggests that females allocate fewer resources or that there is increased intrauterine conflict in multiple-versus single-sired litters. We found increased allelic diversity (though not heterozygosity) in multiple-sired litters, as predicted by the genetic diversity hypothesis. Finally, we found that the dams' heterozygosity was correlated with the mean heterozygosity of their offspring in single-and multiple-sired litters, suggesting that outbred, heterozygous females were more likely to avoid inbreeding than inbred, homozygous females. Future studies are needed to examine how increased genetic diversity of litters and smaller mean (and variance) offspring body mass associated with multiple paternity affect offspring fitness. PMID:24558575

Thonhauser, Kerstin E; Thoß, Michaela; Musolf, Kerstin; Klaus, Teresa; Penn, Dustin J

2014-01-01

296

Acceptance of Others (Number Form).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As part of the instrumentation to assess the effectiveness of the Schools Without Failure (SWF) program in 10 elementary schools in the New Castle, Pa. School District, the Acceptance of Others (Number Form) was prepared to determine pupil's attitudes toward classmates. Given a list of all class members, pupils are asked to circle a number from 1…

Masters, James R.; Laverty, Grace E.

297

Extremely portable random number generator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extremely portable subroutines are sometimes needed for which moderate quality and efficiency suffice. Typically, this occurs for library functions (like random number generation and incore sorting) which are not entirely universal or are not used in a standardized way.The literature on random number generators does not seem to contain an algorithm that meets requirements of this sort. An extremely portable

J. B. Kruskal

1969-01-01

298

Face Numbers of Scarf Complexes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this paper the authors study relations among the numbers fi. It is shown that fo,f1,....,f((d-3)/2) determine the other numbers via linear relations, and that there are additional non-linear relations.

A. Bjoerner

1998-01-01

299

Color by Numbers: Image Representation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Computers store drawings, photographs, and other pictures using only numbers. Through this activity, learners decode numbers to create pictures using the same process that computers use. They can then create and code their own pictures for other learners to decode. This lesson includes three activities (1 introductory and 2 worksheet) and background information.

Technology, National C.

2012-12-13

300

Investigating the Randomness of Numbers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of random numbers is pervasive in today's world. Random numbers have practical applications in such far-flung arenas as computer simulations, cryptography, gambling, the legal system, statistical sampling, and even the war on terrorism. Evaluating the randomness of extremely large samples is a complex, intricate process. However, the…

Pendleton, Kenn L.

2009-01-01

301

Number of Part D Enrollees  

Cancer.gov

The following table lists the number of persons appearing in the SEER-Medicare data who are enrolled in Medicare Part D as well as the total number of patients who were eligible to enroll according to the PEDSF file. The data are displayed by year, beginning in 2007, and by cancer site for patients with a first primary cancer.

302

Children as Apprentices to Number.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated understanding and use of numerals in 48 children ages 3 and 4. Found that children rarely noticed the absence of numbers if they were not able to explain their purpose. They used several methods to represent number on notes for the milkman, party invitations, and labels. Results suggest that understanding preceded use of numerals.…

Ewers-Rogers, Jennifer; Cowan, Richard

1996-01-01

303

Toddlers' Spontaneous Attention to Number  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hannula and Lehtinen (2001, 2005) defined spontaneous focusing on numerosity (SFON) as the tendency to notice the relatively abstract attribute of number despite the presence of other attributes. According to nativists, an innate concept of one to three directs young children's attention to these "intuitive numbers" in everyday situations--even…

Baroody, Arthur J.; Li, Xia; Lai, Meng-lung

2008-01-01

304

Efficient Generation of Prime Numbers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The generation of prime numbers underlies the use of most public-key schemes, essentially as a major primitive needed for the cre- ation of key pairs or as a computation stage appearing during various cryptographic setups. Surprisingly, despite decades of intense mathemat- ical studies on primality testing and an observed progressive intensi- cation of cryptographic usages, prime number generation algorithms remain

Marc Joye; Pascal Paillier; Serge Vaudenay

2000-01-01

305

Whole Numbers - When in Rome  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The students perform the Sieve of Eratosthenes in class to find the prime number between 1 and 100. They also look for patterns such as where the multiples of 2 or 5 appear in the sieve. At home or in a computer lab they then research the Fibonacci Sequence and other number systems.

2010-01-01

306

Spontaneous Number Representation in Mosquitofish  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While there is convincing evidence that preverbal human infants and non-human primates can spontaneously represent number, considerable debate surrounds the possibility that such capacity is also present in other animals. Fish show a remarkable ability to discriminate between different numbers of social companions. Previous work has demonstrated…

Dadda, Marco; Piffer, Laura; Agrillo, Christian; Bisazza, Angelo

2009-01-01

307

Pseudo-Random Number Generators  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Package features comprehensive selection of probabilistic distributions. Monte Carlo simulations resorted to whenever systems studied not amenable to deterministic analyses or when direct experimentation not feasible. Random numbers having certain specified distribution characteristic integral part of simulations. Package consists of collector of "pseudorandom" number generators for use in Monte Carlo simulations.

Howell, L. W.; Rheinfurth, M. H.

1984-01-01

308

Quick Images: Visualizing Number Combinations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this 6-minute video kindergarten teacher Stephanie Latimer describes and models techniques for developing children's number sense and visual recognition of number combinations. After quickly displaying groups of objects on a ten frame, she asks her students to describe the ways that they see the objects grouped. The resource includes reflection questions for viewers and a transcript of the video (doc).

2012-01-01

309

Building Buildings with Triangular Numbers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Triangular numbers are used to unravel a new sequence of natural numbers here-to-fore not appearing on the Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences website. Insight is provided on the construction of the sequence using "buildings" as a viewable model of the sequence entries. A step-by-step analysis of the sequence pattern reveals a method for generating…

Pagni, David L.

2006-01-01

310

Number Talks Build Numerical Reasoning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Classroom number talks," five- to fifteen-minute conversations around purposefully crafted computation problems, are a productive tool that can be incorporated into classroom instruction to combine the essential processes and habits of mind of doing math. During number talks, students are asked to communicate their thinking when presenting and…

Parrish, Sherry D.

2011-01-01

311

Distance Effects in Number Agreement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One pronoun production experiment and one pronoun comprehension experiment were performed to investigate the role of grammatical number information in long-distance anaphora, with referent and pronoun either in adjacent sentences or separated by an intervening sentence. The experiments tested the assumption that the influence of grammatical number

Schweppe, Judith

2013-01-01

312

Mass definition, mass measurement and recommendations  

SciTech Connect

Mass measurements may be greatly enhanced by an understanding of the operation of balances, the effects of buoyancy, practices encountered in weighing and the impacts and meanings of revelant mass standards. Beginning with the basic forces acting on weights, the equations brought to equality in balances are developed. These give explanation of the weighing process and an appreciation for some balance characteristics. The requirements of relevant mass standards are also reviewed. Recommendations are made for operation of practical mass calibration. An appendix is attached which gives computation examples using apparent mass'' and also gives a method for determining the density of mass artifacts or unknown materials. 2 tabs.

Braudaway, D.W.

1990-09-01

313

Mass Determination Studies of 104 Large Asteroids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The techniques described in an earlier paper were used to determine masses of 104 asteroids by the method of asteroid-asteroid gravitational interaction. For each of the 104 perturbers, 4 large sets of test particles selected by different criteria were used to calculate 4 mass values from a weighted mean of individual results within each set. The sheer number of test

William Zielenbach

2011-01-01

314

Neutrino Mass MSW Oscillations & Seesaw Mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Hugs 2002 student seminar sessions, I treat a number of topical issues in neutrino physics: the phenomenology of the MSW mechanism; a brief discussion of global analysis of atmospheric and solar neutrinos; Dirac and Majorana neutrino masses and the Seesaw mechanism as an explanation for the smallness of the neutrino mass. MSW model assumes that neutrinos are created

Hasan Yüksel

2004-01-01

315

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for F-24 (Fluorine)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume A `Nuclei with Z = 1 - 54' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms'. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope F-24 (Fluorine, atomic number Z = 9, mass number A = 24).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

316

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for As-74 (Arsenic)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume A `Nuclei with Z = 1 - 54' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms'. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope As-74 (Arsenic, atomic number Z = 33, mass number A = 74).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

317

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Ga-67 (Gallium)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume A `Nuclei with Z = 1 - 54' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms'. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Ga-67 (Gallium, atomic number Z = 31, mass number A = 67).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

318

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Sr-82 (Strontium)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume A `Nuclei with Z = 1 - 54' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms'. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Sr-82 (Strontium, atomic number Z = 38, mass number A = 82).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

319

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for F-30 (Fluorine)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume A `Nuclei with Z = 1 - 54' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms'. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope F-30 (Fluorine, atomic number Z = 9, mass number A = 30).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

320

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Sr-96 (Strontium)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume A `Nuclei with Z = 1 - 54' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms'. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Sr-96 (Strontium, atomic number Z = 38, mass number A = 96).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

321

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Ge-100 (Germanium)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume A `Nuclei with Z = 1 - 54' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms'. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Ge-100 (Germanium, atomic number Z = 32, mass number A = 100).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

322

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Ca-35 (Calcium)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume A `Nuclei with Z = 1 - 54' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms'. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Ca-35 (Calcium, atomic number Z = 20, mass number A = 35).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

323

Reynolds number influences in aeronautics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Reynolds number, a measure of the ratio of inertia to viscous forces, is a fundamental similarity parameter for fluid flows and therefore, would be expected to have a major influence in aerodynamics and aeronautics. Reynolds number influences are generally large, but monatomic, for attached laminar (continuum) flow; however, laminar flows are easily separated, inducing even stronger, non-monatomic, Reynolds number sensitivities. Probably the strongest Reynolds number influences occur in connection with transitional flow behavior. Transition can take place over a tremendous Reynolds number range, from the order of 20 x 10(exp 3) for 2-D free shear layers up to the order of 100 x 10(exp 6) for hypersonic boundary layers. This variability in transition behavior is especially important for complex configurations where various vehicle and flow field elements can undergo transition at various Reynolds numbers, causing often surprising changes in aerodynamics characteristics over wide ranges in Reynolds number. This is further compounded by the vast parameterization associated with transition, in that any parameter which influences mean viscous flow development (e.g., pressure gradient, flow curvature, wall temperature, Mach number, sweep, roughness, flow chemistry, shock interactions, etc.), and incident disturbance fields (acoustics, vorticity, particulates, temperature spottiness, even electro static discharges) can alter transition locations to first order. The usual method of dealing with the transition problem is to trip the flow in the generally lower Reynolds number wind tunnel to simulate the flight turbulent behavior. However, this is not wholly satisfactory as it results in incorrectly scaled viscous region thicknesses and cannot be utilized at all for applications such as turbine blades and helicopter rotors, nacelles, leading edge and nose regions, and High Altitude Long Endurance and hypersonic airbreathers where the transitional flow is an innately critical portion of the problem.

Bushnell, Dennis M.; Yip, Long P.; Yao, Chung-Sheng; Lin, John C.; Lawing, Pierce L.; Batina, John T.; Hardin, Jay C.; Horvath, Thomas J.; Fenbert, James W.; Domack, Christopher S.

1993-01-01

324

Baryogenesis and lepton number violation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cosmological baryon asymmetry can be explained by the nonperturbative electroweak reprocessing of a lepton asymmetry generated in the out-of-equilibrium decay of heavy right-handed Majorana neutrinos. We analyze this mechanism in detail in the framework of a SO(10)-subgroup. We take three right-handed neutrinos into account and discuss physical neutrino mass matrices.

Michael Plümacher

1997-01-01

325

Baryogenesis and Lepton number violation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cosmological baryon asymmetry can be explained by the nonperturbative electroweak reprocessing of a lepton asymmetry generated in the out-of-equilibrium decay of heavy right-handed Majorana neutrinos. We analyze this mechanism in detail in the framework of a SO(10)-subgroup. We take three right-handed neutrinos into account and discuss physical neutrino mass matrices.

Michael Plumacher

326

Numbered nasal discs for waterfowl  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Numbered nasal discs were successfully used in studies requiring large numbers of individually marked waterfowl. The procedure for constructing these discs is outlined. Blue-winged teal (Anas discors) with 5/8-inch discs, and canvasback (Aythya valisineria) and redhead (A. americana) with 3/4-inch discs can be individually identified up to 50 and 80 yards, respectively, with a gunstock-mounted, 20-power spotting scope. The particular value of these markers is their durability, the number of combinations possible, and the apparent absence of behavioral or mortality influence among such species as the blue-winged teal.

Bartonek, J. C.; Dane, C. W.

1964-01-01

327

Atomic Masses in the Heavy Mass Region  

Microsoft Academic Search

A six-inch double-focusing mass spectrometer has been employed to determine 61 mass doublets in the region of gadolinium to gold. The present results and other Minnesota mass data have been combined with nuclear reaction, beta-decay, and alpha-decay energies in order to construct a mass table for more than 200 stable and radioactive isotopes in the region from samarium to radon.

V. B. Bhanot; W. H. Johnson; A. O. Nier

1960-01-01

328

USING CUMULATIVE NUMBER DENSITIES TO COMPARE GALAXIES ACROSS COSMIC TIME  

SciTech Connect

Comparing galaxies across redshifts at fixed cumulative number density is a popular way to estimate the evolution of specific galaxy populations. This method ignores scatter in mass accretion histories and galaxy-galaxy mergers, which can lead to errors when comparing galaxies over large redshift ranges (?z > 1). We use abundance matching in the ?CDM paradigm to estimate the median change in cumulative number density with redshift and provide a simple fit (+0.16 dex per unit ?z) for progenitors of z = 0 galaxies. We find that galaxy descendants do not evolve in the same way as galaxy progenitors, largely due to scatter in mass accretion histories. We also provide estimates for the 1? range of cumulative number densities corresponding to galaxy progenitors and descendants. Finally, we discuss some limits on cumulative number density comparisons, which arise due to difficulties measuring physical quantities (e.g., stellar mass) consistently across redshifts. A public tool to calculate cumulative number density evolution for galaxies, as well as approximate halo masses, is available online.

Behroozi, Peter S.; Wechsler, Risa H. [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)] [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Marchesini, Danilo [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tufts University, Medford, MA 02155 (United States)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tufts University, Medford, MA 02155 (United States); Muzzin, Adam [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands)] [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Papovich, Casey [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Stefanon, Mauro [Physics and Astronomy Department, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States)] [Physics and Astronomy Department, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States)

2013-11-01

329

Poison control center - emergency number  

MedlinePLUS

... ANYWHERE IN THE UNITED STATES This national hotline number will let you talk to experts in poisoning. This is a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers in the United States use this national ...

330

4th Grade Number Activities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page provides examples of 4th Grade Number (Operations and Algebraic Thinking, Number and Operations in Base Ten, and Number Operations-Fractions) activities aligned with the Common Core State Standards. A CCSS standard is stated and the possible activities are listed below and linked. All activities are suitable for use in Math Centers, small group or whole class settings and are designed to elicit a range of responses and provide opportunities for students to communicate their reasoning and mathematical thinking. Instructions for each task are typed in large print and written in child-friendly language to enable students to work on activities independently after a brief introduction to the task. All files for the 4th Grade Number Activities listed are in PDF format.

Godwin, Nicola

2012-01-01

331

5th Grade Number Activities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page provides examples of 5th Grade Number (Operations and Algebraic Thinking, Number and Operations in Base Ten, and Number Operations-Fractions) activities aligned with the Common Core State Standards. A CCSS standard is stated and the possible activities are listed below and linked. All activities are suitable for use in Math Centers, small group or whole class settings and are designed to elicit a range of responses and provide opportunities for students to communicate their reasoning and mathematical thinking. Instructions for each task are typed in large print and written in child-friendly language to enable students to work on activities independently after a brief introduction to the task. All files for the 5th Grade Number Activities listed are in PDF format.

Godwin, Nicola

2012-01-01

332

Integral Presentations of Catalan Numbers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We compute in three different ways the same definite parametric integral. By-products are the derivation of a combinatorial identity and two integral presentations of Catalan numbers. One of them leads to a presentation using the [gamma] function.

Dana-Picard, Thierry

2010-01-01

333

Critical Marangoni Number (TEXUS 5).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Technological Experiments Under Microgravity (TEXUS) 5 experiment to determine the transition from steady to oscillatory Marangoni flow in a floating zone corresponding to a critical Marangoni number is summarized. A cylindrical sample of NaNO3 (diame...

D. Schwabe A. Scharmann

1991-01-01

334

Microcomputer Unit: Generating Random Numbers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an activity, suitable for students in grades 6-12, on generating random numbers. Objectives, equipment needed, list of prerequisite experiences, instructional strategies, and ready-to-copy student worksheets are included. (JN)

Haigh, William E.

1986-01-01

335

Building Numbers Up to 10  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"Students will: Construct groups of 0 to 10 objects Identify and write the numerals 0 to 10 Record the number of objects in groups of size 0 to 10" (from NCTM Illuminations) Lesson one of a six lesson unit.

Nctm, Grace M.

2012-01-17

336

Number Theory (MathPages)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site includes materials on a variety of topics relating to general number theory. Each link provides a short example that would provide helpful supplemental materials in mathematics education. The lessons vary from simple algebra to more advanced topics.

Brown, Kevin

2011-01-07

337

The number of neutrino species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors review the methods used before the operation of the high energy Stanford and CERN e+e- colliders to determine the number of neutrino species Nnu, or an upper limit on this number, within the framework of the Standard Model of light stable neutrinos interacting according to the SU(2)×U(1) universal couplings. The astrophysical limit based on the neutrino burst from

Daniel Denegri; Bernard Sadoulet; Michel Spiro

1990-01-01

338

Why are airport runways numbered?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Figure This! activity provides students an opportunity to apply their knowledge of angles and compass directions to solve a problem in the context of airport runways. The introduction calls students' attention to the numbers assigned to both ends of runways. Students are asked to find a missing runway number. The activity includes links to a solution hint, the solution, related math questions, and additional resources.

2012-01-01

339

Digital random-number generator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For binary digit array of N bits, use N noise sources to feed N nonlinear operators; each flip-flop in digit array is set by nonlinear operator to reflect whether amplitude of generator which feeds it is above or below mean value of generated noise. Fixed-point uniform distribution random number generation method can also be used to generate random numbers with other than uniform distribution.

Brocker, D. H.

1973-01-01

340

Copy number variation and mutation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Until very recently, the standard model of DNA included two genes for each trait. This dated model has given way to a model that includes copies of some genes well in excess of the canonical two. Copy number variations in the human genome play critical roles in causing or aggravating a number of syndromes and diseases while providing increased resistance to others. We explore the role of mutation, crossover, inversion, and reproduction in determining copy number variations in a numerical simulation of a population. The numerical model consists of a population of individuals, where each individual is represented by a single strand of DNA with the same number of genes. Each gene is initially assigned to one of two traits. Fitness of the individual is determined by the two most fit genes for trait one, and trait two genetic material is treated as a reservoir of junk DNA. After a sufficient number of generations, during which the genetic distribution is allowed to reach a steady-state, the mean numberof genes per trait and the copy number variation are recorded. Here, we focus on the role of mutation and compare simulation results to theory.

Clark, Brian; Weidner, Jacob; Wabick, Kevin

2009-11-01

341

Neutrino Mass MSW Oscillations & Seesaw Mechanism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the Hugs 2002 student seminar sessions, I treat a number of topical issues in neutrino physics: the phenomenology of the MSW mechanism; a brief discussion of global analysis of atmospheric and solar neutrinos; Dirac and Majorana neutrino masses and the Seesaw mechanism as an explanation for the smallness of the neutrino mass. MSW model assumes that neutrinos are created in flavor eigenstates without any definite mass but they evolve in mass eigenstates with definite mass. Latest experiments confirms the neutrino oscillations. Considering MSW oscillations in calculations provides an acceptable solution for measured neutrino flux deficiency in solar and atmospheric neutrinos. Neutrinos do not have mass in the standard model. Experimentally, it is known that neutrino mass is exceedingly small, if not zero. The seesaw mechanism predicts left handed light neutrinos with right handed heavy partners.

Yüksel, Hasan

2004-03-01

342

High Reynolds number wind--tunnel flow with inertial particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have designed and built a facility capable of tracking inertial particles with variable Stokes number (0.1 <= St <= 10) in high Reynolds number (100 <= Re_lambda <= 1000) wind--tunnel flow. A homogeneous water droplet field (150 particles\\/cm^3; mass loading 10-4 -10-3) is introduced into the flow behind the turbulence-generating (active) grid. A high speed CMOS camera travels at

Armann Gylfason; Zellman Warhaft

2004-01-01

343

Ultra High Mass Range Mass Spectrometer System  

DOEpatents

Applicant's present invention comprises mass spectrometer systems that operate in a mass range from 1 to 10.sup.16 DA. The mass spectrometer system comprising an inlet system comprising an aerodynamic lens system, a reverse jet being a gas flux generated in an annulus moving in a reverse direction and a multipole ion guide; a digital ion trap; and a thermal vaporization/ionization detector system. Applicant's present invention further comprises a quadrupole mass spectrometer system comprising an inlet system having a quadrupole mass filter and a thermal vaporization/ionization detector system. Applicant's present invention further comprises an inlet system for use with a mass spectrometer system, a method for slowing energetic particles using an inlet system. Applicant's present invention also comprises a detector device and a method for detecting high mass charged particles.

Reilly, Peter T. A. [Knoxville, TN

2005-12-06

344

Are Number Gestures Easier than Number Words for Preschoolers?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some researchers have argued that children's earliest symbols are based on their sensorimotor experience and that arbitrary symbol-referent mapping poses a challenge for them. If so, exposure to iconic symbols (such as one-finger-for-one-object manual gestures) might help children in a difficult domain such as number. We assessed 44 preschoolers'…

Nicoladis, Elena; Pika, Simone; Marentette, Paula

2010-01-01

345

Number Meaning and Number Grammar in English and Spanish  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Grammatical agreement makes different demands on speakers of different languages. Being widespread in the languages of the world, the features of agreement systems offer valuable tests of how language affects deep-seated domains of human cognition and categorization. Number agreement is one such domain, with intriguing evidence that typological…

Bock, Kathryn; Carreiras, Manuel; Meseguer, Enrique

2012-01-01

346

Low magnetic Prandtl number dynamos  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dynamo amplification by velocity fields in conducting fluids can be highly varied. Here [1] we study dynamos numerically in one of the most efficient flows found for exciting dynamo fields at low magnetic Reynolds numbers: ``Roberts flow,'' in which the large scales are driven helically in 3D periodic boundary conditions. Three qualitatively distinct regimes are identified, depending upon mechanical Reynolds number: steady-state laminar flow, mildly unstable periodic hydrodynamic flow, and fully turbulent hydrodynamic flow. A critical magnetic Reynolds number for dynamo amplification can be identified in all three regimes, and it plateaus as the inverse magnetic Prandtl number increases (paralleling earlier results for the ``Taylor-Green vortex'' flow). It is over five times higher in the turbulent velocity field regime than it is for the time-averaged flow for that turbulent velocity field. Explorations are carried out both in the linear (``kinematic dynamo'') and nonlinear regimes of incompressible MHD. Periodic boundary conditions appear as an undesirable limitation and we are attempting to dispense with them by a spectral method in which the fields are expanded in Chandrasekhar-Kendall spherical eigenfunctions of the curl. [1] P.D. Mininni and D.C. Montgomery, ``Low magnetic Prandtl number dynamos with helical forcing,'' submitted to Phys. Rev. E (2005). Arxiv: physics/0505192.

Montgomery, David; Mininni, Pablo

2005-11-01

347

Concurrent Prime Number Test Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Concurrent Prime Number Test Model uses the trial division algorithm to decide if a number is prime.  The prime division algorithm is inefficient and we use it here only to test the EJS implementation of the Parallel Region Element in EJS.  A parallel region executes independent code in threads that execute simultaneously on a multi-core processor.  The screen capture shows that the total execution time for four computations on a quad-core processor is only one millisecond longer than the execution time for the longest single computation.  This linear speedup is close to the theoretical maximum. The Concurrent Prime Number Test Model was created using the Easy Java Simulations (EJS) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the model's jar file will run the simulation if Java is installed.

Christian, Wolfgang

2012-01-19

348

Experimental determination of Ramsey numbers.  

PubMed

Ramsey theory is a highly active research area in mathematics that studies the emergence of order in large disordered structures. Ramsey numbers mark the threshold at which order first appears and are extremely difficult to calculate due to their explosive rate of growth. Recently, an algorithm that can be implemented using adiabatic quantum evolution has been proposed that calculates the two-color Ramsey numbers R(m,n). Here we present results of an experimental implementation of this algorithm and show that it correctly determines the Ramsey numbers R(3,3) and R(m,2) for 4?m?8. The R(8,2) computation used 84 qubits of which 28 were computational qubits. This computation is the largest experimental implementation of a scientifically meaningful adiabatic evolution algorithm that has been done to date. PMID:24116761

Bian, Zhengbing; Chudak, Fabian; Macready, William G; Clark, Lane; Gaitan, Frank

2013-09-27

349

Mass distribution in the asteroid belt  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dependence of the cumulative number of numbered asteroids (up to 3720) on their absolute magnitude is investigated. The differential mass index k is derived from these relations for fainter asteroids. A steeper slope (2.2 < k < 2.4) is found in the four most populous asteroid familes (Flora, Koronis, Eos and Themis) and a flatter slope (1.3 < k

Jozef Klacka

1992-01-01

350

An Entrance Region Mass Transfer Experiment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes an experiment designed to reveal the consequences of the development of a concentration boundary layer. The rate of a mass transfer limited electrochemical reaction is measured and used to obtain the dependence of average Sherwood number on Reynolds number and entrance length. (Author/BB)

Youngquist, G. R.

1979-01-01

351

Mass Extinctions, Comet Impacts, and the Galaxy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hypothesis relating mass extinctions of life on Earth to impacts of comets whose flux is partly modulated by the dynamics of the Milky Way contains a number of postulates that can be tested by geologic evidence and statistical analyses. In an increasing number of cases, geologic evidence for impact (widespread impact debris and\\/or large impact craters) is found at

M. R. Rampino; R. B. Stothers

1998-01-01

352

Leptogenesis with an almost conserved lepton number  

SciTech Connect

Seesaw models with a slightly broken lepton number symmetry can explain small neutrino masses, and allow for low-scale leptogenesis. We make a thorough analysis of leptogenesis within the simplest model with two right-handed (RH) neutrinos (or with N{sub 3} decoupled). We obtain a semianalytical formula for the final asymmetry in both supersymmetric and nonsupersymmetric cases with a simple dependence on each parameter. The low-energy parameters factorize from the high-energy ones, and the high-energy phase must be nonzero. The role of the low-energy phases is carefully studied. Moreover, we find that the breaking parameter in the Yukawa coupling matrix must be relatively large, {epsilon}{sub h} > or approx. 10{sup -3} for normal and 10{sup -2} for inverted hierarchy. Therefore, leptogenesis in our simple model is incompatible with RH neutrino signals at future colliders or sizable lepton-flavor violation. The other breaking parameter, {epsilon}{sub M}, which appears in the RH neutrino mass matrix, can be much smaller, and actually needs to be so in order to have low-scale leptogenesis.

Asaka, Takehiko [Department of Physics, Niigata University, 950-2181 Niigata (Japan); Blanchet, Steve [Maryland Center for Fundamental Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)

2008-12-15

353

2.NBT Largest Number Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: Dona had cards with the numbers 0 to 9 written on them. She flipped over three of them. Her teacher said: If those three numbers are the digits in anot...

354

Chromosome numbers in Compositae. XVIII.  

PubMed

Chromosome numbers and other cytogenetic data were determined from microsporocytes in 316 collections including 13 tribes of Compositae, mostly from Africa, Australia, Mexico, Central America, and South America. First reports are provided for 66 species and the genera Cassinia (2n ? 14(II)), Feldstonia (2n = 11(II)), Gochnatia (2n ? 23(II)), and Pseudoconyza (n = 10). In addition, new chromosome numbers are established at the generic level in Acourtia, Calea, Craspedia, Gnaphalium, Helipterum, Liabum, Leucheria, Smallanthus, Trixis, and Viguiera and at the specific level in 13 additional species. PMID:10406724

Carr, G D; King, R M; Powell, A M; Robinson, H

1999-07-01

355

Biotechnology at low Reynolds numbers.  

PubMed Central

The shrinking of liquid handling systems to the micron and submicron size range entails moving into the area of small Reynolds numbers. The fluid dynamics in this regime are very different from the macroscale. We present an intuitive explanation of how the different physics of small Reynolds numbers flow, along with microscopic sizes, can influence device design, and give examples from our own work using fluid flow in microfabricated devices designed for biological processing. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13

Brody, J P; Yager, P; Goldstein, R E; Austin, R H

1996-01-01

356

1.OA Equality Number Sentences  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: Compare the number of circles in each box. If they are equal, write a number sentence. For example: 4+3=5+1+1 If they are not equal, write "not equal."...

357

Metrics for comparing plasma mass filters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-throughput mass separation of nuclear waste may be useful for optimal storage, disposal, or environmental remediation. The most dangerous part of nuclear waste is the fission product, which produces most of the heat and medium-term radiation. Plasmas are well-suited to separating nuclear waste because they can separate many different species in a single step. A number of plasma devices have been designed for such mass separation, but there has been no standardized comparison between these devices. We define a standard metric, the separative power per unit volume, and derive it for three different plasma mass filters: the plasma centrifuge, Ohkawa filter, and the magnetic centrifugal mass filter.

Fetterman, Abraham J.; Fisch, Nathaniel J.

2011-10-01

358

Metrics For Comparing Plasma Mass Filters  

SciTech Connect

High-throughput mass separation of nuclear waste may be useful for optimal storage, disposal, or environmental remediation. The most dangerous part of nuclear waste is the fission product, which produces most of the heat and medium-term radiation. Plasmas are well-suited to separating nuclear waste because they can separate many different species in a single step. A number of plasma devices have been designed for such mass separation, but there has been no standardized comparison between these devices. We define a standard metric, the separative power per unit volume, and derive it for three different plasma mass filters: the plasma centrifuge, Ohkawa filter, and the magnetic centrifugal mass filter. __________________________________________________

Abraham J. Fetterman and Nathaniel J. Fisch

2012-08-15

359

Storage and retrieval of mass spectral information  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Computer handling of mass spectra serves two main purposes: the interpretation of the occasional, problematic mass spectrum, and the identification of the large number of spectra generated in the gas-chromatographic-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) analysis of complex natural and synthetic mixtures. Methods available fall into the three categories of library search, artificial intelligence, and learning machine. Optional procedures for coding, abbreviating and filtering a library of spectra minimize time and storage requirements. Newer techniques make increasing use of probability and information theory in accessing files of mass spectral information.

Hohn, M. E.; Humberston, M. J.; Eglinton, G.

1977-01-01

360

Metrics for comparing plasma mass filters  

SciTech Connect

High-throughput mass separation of nuclear waste may be useful for optimal storage, disposal, or environmental remediation. The most dangerous part of nuclear waste is the fission product, which produces most of the heat and medium-term radiation. Plasmas are well-suited to separating nuclear waste because they can separate many different species in a single step. A number of plasma devices have been designed for such mass separation, but there has been no standardized comparison between these devices. We define a standard metric, the separative power per unit volume, and derive it for three different plasma mass filters: the plasma centrifuge, Ohkawa filter, and the magnetic centrifugal mass filter.

Fetterman, Abraham J.; Fisch, Nathaniel J. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States)

2011-10-15

361

Heritabilities and Minimum Gene Number Estimates of Carrot Carotenoids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Broad sense heritabilities and gene numbers were estimated for the production of total carotenoids and the major component carotenoids of carrot storage roots: phytoene, ?-carotene, ?-carotene, ?-carotene, and lycopene. Two crosses with different backgrounds were evaluated: orange B493 × white QAL and orange Brasilia × dark orange HCM. The HCM (high carotene mass selection), Brasilia and B493 parents had both

Carlos Antonio Fernandes Santos; Philipp W. Simon

2006-01-01

362

Effective carbon number molecular weight carbon number Pressure Temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method based on the effective carbon number (ECN) has been developed for the prediction of the vapor pressures of carboxylic acids over a range of temperatures. Good representation of the vapor pressures is obtained in the range 1 kPa to HOkPa with an overall average absolute deviation of 2.26%for 31 carboxylic acids which included saturated as well as unsaturated

RUPERT DlSOUZA; AMYN S. TEJA

1987-01-01

363

Are prime numbers regularly ordered?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The form of the prime number distribution function has withstood the efforts of all the mathematicians that have considered it. Here we address this problem with the tools of chaotic dynamics and find that, from a physical point of view, this distribution function is chaotic.

Gamba, Z.; Hernando, J.; Romanelli, L.

1990-04-01

364

Residual number processing in dyscalculia.  

PubMed

Developmental dyscalculia - a congenital learning disability in understanding numerical concepts - is typically associated with parietal lobe abnormality. However, people with dyscalculia often retain some residual numerical abilities, reported in studies that otherwise focused on abnormalities in the dyscalculic brain. Here we took a different perspective by focusing on brain regions that support residual number processing in dyscalculia. All participants accurately performed semantic and categorical colour-decision tasks with numerical and non-numerical stimuli, with adults with dyscalculia performing slower than controls in the number semantic tasks only. Structural imaging showed less grey-matter volume in the right parietal cortex in people with dyscalculia relative to controls. Functional MRI showed that accurate number semantic judgements were maintained by parietal and inferior frontal activations that were common to adults with dyscalculia and controls, with higher activation for participants with dyscalculia than controls in the right superior frontal cortex and the left inferior frontal sulcus. Enhanced activation in these frontal areas was driven by people with dyscalculia who made faster rather than slower numerical decisions; however, activation could not be accounted for by response times per se, because it was greater for fast relative to slow dyscalculics but not greater for fast controls relative to slow dyscalculics. In conclusion, our results reveal two frontal brain regions that support efficient number processing in dyscalculia. PMID:24266008

Cappelletti, Marinella; Price, Cathy J

2013-01-01

365

Residual number processing in dyscalculia?  

PubMed Central

Developmental dyscalculia – a congenital learning disability in understanding numerical concepts – is typically associated with parietal lobe abnormality. However, people with dyscalculia often retain some residual numerical abilities, reported in studies that otherwise focused on abnormalities in the dyscalculic brain. Here we took a different perspective by focusing on brain regions that support residual number processing in dyscalculia. All participants accurately performed semantic and categorical colour-decision tasks with numerical and non-numerical stimuli, with adults with dyscalculia performing slower than controls in the number semantic tasks only. Structural imaging showed less grey-matter volume in the right parietal cortex in people with dyscalculia relative to controls. Functional MRI showed that accurate number semantic judgements were maintained by parietal and inferior frontal activations that were common to adults with dyscalculia and controls, with higher activation for participants with dyscalculia than controls in the right superior frontal cortex and the left inferior frontal sulcus. Enhanced activation in these frontal areas was driven by people with dyscalculia who made faster rather than slower numerical decisions; however, activation could not be accounted for by response times per se, because it was greater for fast relative to slow dyscalculics but not greater for fast controls relative to slow dyscalculics. In conclusion, our results reveal two frontal brain regions that support efficient number processing in dyscalculia.

Cappelletti, Marinella; Price, Cathy J.

2013-01-01

366

Adjuncts Build Strength in Numbers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When professors in positions that offer no chance of earning tenure begin to stack the faculty, campus dynamics start to change. Growing numbers of adjuncts make themselves more visible. They push for roles in governance, better pay and working conditions, and recognition for work well done. And they do so at institutions where tenured faculty,…

June, Audrey Williams

2012-01-01

367

Number Program for Primary Schoolers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The arithmetic portion of the Developing Mathematical Processes (DMP) program, as it applies to children of ages 5 to 8, is described in some detail. The terminal objective of the number program of the primary segment of DMP is the ability of the child to correctly write, read and validate mathematical sentences of the form A = B plus or minus X.…

Moser, James M.

368

Automatic Number Plate Recognition System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automatic recognition of car license plate number became a very important in our daily life because of the unlimited increase of cars and transportation systems which make it impossible to be fully managed and monitored by humans, examples are so many like traffic monitoring, tracking stolen cars, managing parking toll, red-light violation enforcement, border and customs checkpoints. Yet it's a

Amr Badr; Mohamed Mahmoud Abd El-Wahab; Ahmed M. Thabet

2011-01-01

369

Measuring the approximate number system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent theories in numerical cognition propose the existence of an approximate number system (ANS) that supports the representation and processing of quantity information without symbols. It has been claimed that this system is present in infants, children, and adults, that it supports learning of symbolic mathematics, and that correctly harnessing the system during tuition will lead to educational benefits. Various

Camilla Gilmore; Nina Attridge; Matthew Inglis

2011-01-01

370

Materiales. Numbers 21-23.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These three journals of contemporary cultural, historical, and social interest contain activities designed to enhance the awareness of students of Spanish as a foreign language regarding the entire panorama of daily life in Spain. Number 21 focuses on the role of modern Spanish women; their career status; female authors; and the changing place of…

Materiales, 1997

1997-01-01

371

Statistical Treatment of Nominal Numbers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An attempt is made to find an answer to Lord's parable of the football numbers by demonstrating that he ignored the well known principle that a measurement operation should be consistent over allowable transformations of scale. An example is given to demo...

D. R. Harris

1971-01-01

372

Parallel controlled conspiracy number search  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tree search algorithms play an important role in many applications in the field of artificial intelligence. When playing board games like chess etc., computers use game tree search algorithms to evaluate a position. In this paper, we present a procedure that we call Parallel Controlled Conspiracy Number Search (Parallel CCNS). Shortly, we describe the principles of the sequential CCNS algorithm,

Ulf Lorenz

2001-01-01

373

Prandtl number of toroidal plasmas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Theory of the L-mode confinement in toroidal plasmas is developed. The Prandtl number, the ratio between the ion viscosity and the thermal conductivity is obtained for the anomalous transport process which is caused by the self-sustained turbulence in the...

K. Itoh S. Itoh A. Fukuyama M. Yagi M. Azumi

1993-01-01

374

Solar System Number-Crunching.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Defines terrestrial and Jovian planets and provides directions to obtain planetary data from the National Space Science Data Center Web sites. Provides "number-crunching" activities for the terrestrial planets using Texas Instruments TI-83 graphing calculators: computing volumetric mean radius and volume, density, ellipticity, speed, surface…

Albrecht, Bob; Firedrake, George

1997-01-01

375

Gummy vs. Gum (Number Pattern)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"In this lesson, students use gummy bears and sticks of gum to discover a number pattern and write an equation that describes it. This lesson should be conducted after students have worked with patterns and one- and two-step equations." from the Beacon Learning Center.

Center, Beacon L.

2009-10-13

376

Materiales. Numbers 17-20.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four booklets present articles on Spanish language and culture aimed at teachers of Spanish in the United States for student use in their classes. Number 17, "Los Jovenes Espanoles" (Spanish Youth), includes articles on Spanish youth sports, music, gangs, thoughts, and t-shirt slogans: (1) "Young Spanish Athletes"; (2) "Youth Music"; (3) "Urban…

Materiales, 1995

1995-01-01

377

Number Sentences, Equations and Inequalities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet, one of a series, has been developed for the project, A Program for Mathematically Underdeveloped Pupils. A project team, including inservice teachers, is being used to write and develop the materials for this program. The materials developed in this booklet include (1) number expressions, (2) symbols and ideas, (3) open equations,…

Foley, Jack L.

378

Behavioral Science Memorandum Number 10.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Behavioral Science Memorandum Number 10 was the initial venture into annotating selected books, articles, and monographs for the guidance of busy instructors responsible for teacher education. The responses to the annotated bibliographies have been positive. Apparently some sort of handbook for learning through guided discovery is a possible means…

McGuire, Carson

379

Oxidation Numbers and Their Limitations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews a method for determining oxidation numbers in covalent compounds and balancing mixed organic-inorganic or purely organic systems. Points out ambiguities presented when adjacent atoms have small or zero electronegativity differences. Presents other limitations that arise when using electronegativity values. (CW)

Woolf, A. A.

1988-01-01

380

Low magnetic Prandtl number dynamos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dynamo amplification by velocity fields in conducting fluids can be highly varied. Here [1] we study dynamos numerically in one of the most efficient flows found for exciting dynamo fields at low magnetic Reynolds numbers: ``Roberts flow,'' in which the large scales are driven helically in 3D periodic boundary conditions. Three qualitatively distinct regimes are identified, depending upon mechanical Reynolds

David Montgomery; Pablo Mininni

2005-01-01

381

Time to Make the Numbers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to inspire her students to work in mixed media, the author chose to highlight the art of Jasper Johns and Robert Indiana, both of whom used numbers and letters as a main focus in their art. In this article, the author describes a mixed-media printmaking project. (Contains 2 online resources.)

Surrena, Michelle

2011-01-01

382

Number Crunching: A Sheep's Tale  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author talks about an allegorical tale which he has written as a message for teachers of mathematics. The story is about Gordon, who led a flock of small sheep. Gordon was a mathematics genius; however, his flock criticized his teaching of numbers and his boring lectures. His furry-god-farmer advised him to share his…

Sam, Chris Lam

2005-01-01

383

What very small numbers mean  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents a theoretical and experimental framework for assessing the biases associated with the interpretation of numbers. This framework consists of having participants convert between different representations of quantities. These representations should include both variations in numerical labels that symbolize quantities and variations in displays in which quantity is inherent. Five experiments assessed how people convert between relative frequencies,

Dale J. Cohen; Jennifer M. Ferrell; Nathan Johnson

2002-01-01

384

Parasites in algae mass culture  

PubMed Central

Parasites are now known to be ubiquitous across biological systems and can play an important role in modulating algal populations. However, there is a lack of extensive information on their role in artificial ecosystems such as algal production ponds and photobioreactors. Parasites have been implicated in the demise of algal blooms. Because individual mass culture systems often tend to be unialgal and a select few algal species are in wide scale application, there is an increased potential for parasites to have a devastating effect on commercial scale monoculture. As commercial algal production continues to expand with a widening variety of applications, including biofuel, food and pharmaceuticals, the parasites associated with algae will become of greater interest and potential economic impact. A number of important algal parasites have been identified in algal mass culture systems in the last few years and this number is sure to grow as the number of commercial algae ventures increases. Here, we review the research that has identified and characterized parasites infecting mass cultivated algae, the techniques being proposed and or developed to control them, and the potential impact of parasites on the future of the algal biomass industry.

Carney, Laura T.; Lane, Todd W.

2014-01-01

385

Parasites in algae mass culture.  

PubMed

Parasites are now known to be ubiquitous across biological systems and can play an important role in modulating algal populations. However, there is a lack of extensive information on their role in artificial ecosystems such as algal production ponds and photobioreactors. Parasites have been implicated in the demise of algal blooms. Because individual mass culture systems often tend to be unialgal and a select few algal species are in wide scale application, there is an increased potential for parasites to have a devastating effect on commercial scale monoculture. As commercial algal production continues to expand with a widening variety of applications, including biofuel, food and pharmaceuticals, the parasites associated with algae will become of greater interest and potential economic impact. A number of important algal parasites have been identified in algal mass culture systems in the last few years and this number is sure to grow as the number of commercial algae ventures increases. Here, we review the research that has identified and characterized parasites infecting mass cultivated algae, the techniques being proposed and or developed to control them, and the potential impact of parasites on the future of the algal biomass industry. PMID:24936200

Carney, Laura T; Lane, Todd W

2014-01-01

386

FOREWORD: Special issue on mass  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This special issue is intended to present a review of mass standards, mass determination and the efforts to replace the international prototype of the kilogram by a new definition of the kilogram based on a fundamental constant of physics. Mass is a quantity that is familiar to everybody primarily for its importance in commerce. It is not only one of the traditional quantities of metrology but also of science in general. The unit of mass has always been based on a material object and, since 1889, on the international prototype of the kilogram. The mass of any standard weight is derived from this prototype by a cascade of comparison measurements using balances. The sources of uncertainty of the mass of a standard depend upon the circumstances of the weighing process and the long-term instabilities of the intermediate standards. The international prototype—its mass is one kilogram by definition—may also suffer from instabilities or drifts in time, but until now it has not been possible to check this by comparison with a fundamental constant in physics. Repeated verifications of some 40 or so national prototypes of the members of the Metre Convention have shown significant drifts with an average of about 50 µg within 100 years, a fact that casts doubt on the stability of the international prototype itself. Experiments have been underway for about 30 years on linking fundamental constants such as the Avogadro constant or, correspondingly, the atomic mass unit and Planck's constant to the kilogram. Relative uncertainties of the order of 10-7 have been reached today, still one order of magnitude too large for monitoring the stability of the international prototype or for a new definition. The first article of this special issue gives information on the international and the national prototypes of the kilogram, its material, manufacture, cleaning procedures, stability investigations and the periodic verifications of national prototypes. The next article describes methods for determining the mass of multiples and submultiples of the kilogram. In practice, mass standards in the range from one milligram up to several thousands of kilograms are used for the mass determination of commercial objects or for the calibration of weighing instruments. The determination of the mass of multiples and submultiples of the kilogram is a procedure that links such mass standards to the kilogram by a number of—mostly redundant—weighing processes and mathematical procedures that result in the values and the uncertainties of the standards involved. The reproducibility of E-class weights is the topic of the next article. Classification of weights is defined in an international recommendation for legal metrology and is carried over into the national regulations of most countries. E-class weights are at the highest level in this context. Reproducibility is related to the instability of mass standards within some time interval. Corresponding observations and discussions of the results are reported. As already mentioned, weighing is an important source of the uncertainty of a mass standard. The requirements on weighing in legal metrology are discussed in the following article. It refers to the project of a new international recommendation for weights (revised OIML R 111) that describes procedures for mass determination and for testing the properties of weights according to the stated requirements for the different classes. The instability of mass standards is mostly due to surface contamination. A review of the stability of platinum-iridium and stainless-steel standards and their surface contamination is presented in the next article. It gives a comprehensive overview of published data and investigations on this topic. Magnetic weights interact with the magnetic field generated by a balance. A change in the balance indication is the consequence if certain limits are exceeded. Magnetic properties of weights, their measurements and magnetic interactions between weights and balances constitute the theme of the next article. After an introduction to

Gläser, Michael

2003-12-01

387

Thermal desorption mass spectrometer for mass metrology.  

PubMed

This article presents a device for the study of physisorbed elements on polished surfaces (diameter ?56 mm) of the kind used in mass metrology. The technique is based on mass spectrometry of molecules desorbed after heating under vacuum of the analyzed surface. We describe a first application of the device to study current and future mass standards in order to understand how their surface reactivity depends on storage conditions, cleaning processes, and polishing methods. Surface contamination analysis by thermal desorption mass spectrometry to examine the effect of cleaning on pure iridium is given as an example. PMID:24784663

Silvestri, Z; Azouigui, S; Bouhtiyya, S; Macé, S; Plimmer, M D; Pinot, P; Tayeb-Chandoul, F; Hannachi, R

2014-04-01

388

Mass of the Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners use basic measurements of the Earth and pieces of rock and iron to estimate the mass of the Earth. Learners will calculate mass, volume, and density, convert units, and employ the water displacement method. To calculate an even more accurate estimate of the mass of the Earth, this resource includes optional instructions on how to measure the iron core mass.

Muller, Eric

2010-01-01

389

Mass spectrometric immunoassay  

DOEpatents

Rapid mass spectrometric immunoassay methods for detecting and/or quantifying antibody and antigen analytes utilizing affinity capture to isolate the analytes and internal reference species (for quantification) followed by mass spectrometric analysis of the isolated analyte/internal reference species. Quantification is obtained by normalizing and calibrating obtained mass spectrum against the mass spectrum obtained for an antibody/antigen of known concentration.

Nelson, Randall W (Phoenix, AZ); Williams, Peter (Phoenix, AZ); Krone, Jennifer Reeve (Granbury, TX)

2007-12-04

390

Mass spectrometric immunoassay  

DOEpatents

Rapid mass spectrometric immunoassay methods for detecting and/or quantifying antibody and antigen analytes utilizing affinity capture to isolate the analytes and internal reference species (for quantification) followed by mass spectrometric analysis of the isolated analyte/internal reference species. Quantification is obtained by normalizing and calibrating obtained mass spectrum against the mass spectrum obtained for an antibody/antigen of known concentration.

Nelson, Randall W; Williams, Peter; Krone, Jennifer Reeve

2013-07-16

391

Estimating the Number of Buildings in Germany  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The debate on sustainable development has lead to the view of buildings as flows (mass, energy, money and information) or capitals. In this context buildings are considered as the largest physical, economical, social and cultural capital of a society. In Germany many institutions record different kind of data about buildings. Unfortunately there are just a few basic statistics about the amount of buildings. Collection of data is very complicated, often expensive and the handling of missing data is one of the biggest handicaps. With the exception of data about residential buildings and particularly monuments, it is an unsolved problem to determine the total number of buildings. Thus the main issue of this article is the description of an appropriate estimation procedure. This procedure relies on 12,430 communes and refers to data from the Cadaster of Real Estates and the Federal Office for Building and Regional Planning (BBR). The estimation is based on statistical data from well-known and easily accessible institutions. The number of buildings is estimated for communes with missing data. Using methods from the, so called, Urban Data Mining approach, unsuspected relationships are found in the urban data. These relationships are valuable for the estimation. The quality of the estimation is analyzed by training and test data sets. Information optimization leads to the conclusion that 20% of the communes hold 80% of all buildings. For an improvement of the estimation it is essential to refine the amount and quality of data in the larger communes.

Behnisch, M.; Ultsch, A.

392

i-mass.com  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

i-mass.com is an international mass spectrometry Web resource. It features news and feature articles related to mass spectrometry, gleans important updates from scientific journals, and provides conference and career links. This month's features include a piece about organic molecules hitchhiking aboard a comet, an abstract on using mass spectrometry to image tissue, and program highlights from last month's American Society for Mass Spectrometry (ASMS) conference in Chicago. Researchers and professors in physical chemistry, biochemistry, or any discipline using mass spectrometry should have a look at i-mass.com.

393

Psychosocial considerations for mass decontamination.  

PubMed

Mass exposure to explosions, infectious agents, foodborne illnesses, chemicals or radiological materials may require mass decontamination that have critical psychosocial implications for the public and for both traditional and non-traditional responders in terms of impact and of response. Five main issues are common to mass decontamination events: (i) perception, (ii) somatisation, (iii) media role and communication, (iv) information sharing, (v) behavioural guidance and (vi) organisational issues. Empirical evidence is drawn from a number of cases, including Chernobyl; Goiania, Brazil; the sarin gas attack in Tokyo; the anthrax attacks in the USA; Three Mile Island; and by features of the 2003 severe acute respiratory syndrome pandemic. In this paper, a common platform for mass casualty management is explored and suggestions for mass interventions are proposed across the complete event timeline, from pre-event threat and warning stages through to the impact and reconstruction phases. Implication for responders, healthcare and emergency infrastructure, public behaviour, screening processes, risk communication and media management are described. PMID:20924122

Lemyre, Louise; Johnson, Colleen; Corneil, Wayne

2010-11-01

394

Linear mass actuator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A linear mass actuator includes an upper housing and a lower housing connectable to each other and having a central passageway passing axially through a mass that is linearly movable in the central passageway. Rollers mounted in the upper and lower housings in frictional engagement with the mass translate the mass linearly in the central passageway and drive motors operatively coupled to the roller means, for rotating the rollers and driving the mass axially in the central passageway.

Holloway, Sidney E., III (inventor); Crossley, Edward A., Jr. (inventor); Jones, Irby W. (inventor); Miller, James B. (inventor); Davis, C. Calvin (inventor); Behun, Vaughn D. (inventor); Goodrich, Lewis R., Sr. (inventor)

1992-01-01

395

?-Cell Mass and Turnover in Humans  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE We sought to establish ?-cell mass, ?-cell apoptosis, and ?-cell replication in humans in response to obesity and advanced age. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We examined human autopsy pancreas from 167 nondiabetic individuals 20–102 years of age. The effect of obesity on ?-cell mass was examined in 53 lean and 61 obese subjects, and the effect of aging was examined in 106 lean subjects. RESULTS ?-Cell mass is increased by ?50% with obesity (from 0.8 to 1.2 g). With advanced aging, the exocrine pancreas undergoes atrophy but ?-cell mass is remarkably preserved. There is minimal ?-cell replication or apoptosis in lean humans throughout life with no detectable changes with obesity or advanced age. CONCLUSIONS ?-Cell mass in human obesity increases by ?50% by an increase in ?-cell number, the source of which is unknown. ?-Cell mass is well preserved in humans with advanced aging.

Saisho, Yoshifumi; Butler, Alexandra E.; Manesso, Erica; Elashoff, David; Rizza, Robert A.; Butler, Peter C.

2013-01-01

396

Breakup of an oxygen nucleus to light fragments of mass number in the range A Less-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To 4 in {sup 16}Op interactions at a momentum of 3.25 GeV/c per nucleon  

SciTech Connect

New experimental data on the correlations of the yields of {sup 4}He and {sup 2}H nuclei in semi-inclusive reactions involving by the production of {sup 3}He and {sup 3}H mirror nuclei in {sup 16}Op collisions at a momentum of 3.25 GeV/c per nucleon are presented. The mean multiplicities of protons and neutrons appearing as fragments are found to be independent of the number of associated deuterons, this indicating that a considerable part of these fragments originate from the breakup of the alpha-particle clusters forming the oxygen nucleus.

Olimov, K., E-mail: olimov@uzsci.net [Uzbek Academy of Sciences, Institute for Physics and Technology, Fizika-Solntse Research and Production Association (Uzbekistan); Glagolev, V. V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation); Gulamov, K. G.; Kurbanov, A.; Lutpullaev, S. L.; Olimov, A. K.; Petrov, V. I.; Yuldashev, A. A. [Uzbek Academy of Sciences, Institute for Physics and Technology, Fizika-Solntse Research and Production Association (Uzbekistan)

2012-04-15

397

Fall Speeds and Masses of Solid Precipitation Particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements have been made of the fall speeds and masses of a large number of different types of solid precipitation particles. Particular attention is paid to the effects of riming and aggregation on the fall speeds and masses. Empirical expressions are given for the relationships between fall speeds and maximum dimensions and between masses and maximum dimensions for the particles

John D. Locatelli; Peter V. Hobbs

1974-01-01

398

Effective atomic numbers and electron density of dosimetric material.  

PubMed

A novel method for determination of mass attenuation coefficient of x-rays employing NaI (Tl) detector system and radioactive sources is described.in this paper. A rigid geometry arrangement and gating of the spectrometer at FWHM position and selection of absorber foils are all done following detailed investigation, to minimize the effect of small angle scattering and multiple scattering on the mass attenuation coefficient, mu/rho, value. Firstly, for standardization purposes the mass attenuation coefficients of elemental foils such as Aluminum, Copper, Molybdenum, Tantalum and Lead are measured and then, this method is utilized for dosimetric interested material (sulfates). The experimental mass attenuation coefficient values are compared with the theoretical values to find good agreement between the theory and experiment within one to two per cent. The effective atomic numbers of the biological substitute material are calculated by sum rule and from the graph. The electron density of dosimetric material is calculated using the effective atomic number. The study has discussed in detail the attenuation coefficient, effective atomic number and electron density of dosimetric material/biological substitutes. PMID:20098566

Kaginelli, S B; Rajeshwari, T; Sharanabasappa; Kerur, B R; Kumar, Anil S

2009-07-01

399

The conceptual representation of number.  

PubMed

The experiments reported here investigated the format of plural conceptual representations using a picture-matching paradigm. In Experiment 1, participants read sentences that ended with a singular noun phrase (NP), a two-quantified plural NP, or a plural definite description [The parents handed the child the (two) crayon/s] and then saw a picture of one or multiple referents for the NP. Judgement times to confirm that there was overlap between the pictured object(s) and a noun in the sentence showed an interaction between the NP's number and NP-picture match. For singular NPs and two-quantified NPs, participants were reliably faster to respond "yes" to a picture that had the exact number of objects specified by the NP, but for plural definite descriptions, the effect of the number of pictured items was not reliable. Experiment 2 extended this finding to conceptual plurals. Participants read sentences biased toward either a collective (Together the men carried a box-box is interpreted as singular) or distributed (Each of the men carried a box-box is likely interpreted as plural) reading. Experiment 2 showed the same interaction between NP conceptual plurality and NP-picture match as that in Experiment 1. These results suggest that: (a) our default conceptual representations for plural definite descriptions are no more similar to images of small sets of multiple items than to images of singular items; and (b) the difference between singular and plural conceptual representations is unlikely to be simply the presence or absence of a plural feature. The results are consistent with theories in which plurality is unmarked, such that some plural NPs can refer to singular referents [e.g., Sauerland, U., Anderssen, J., & Yatsushiro, J. (2005). The plural is semantically unmarked. In S. Kepser & M. Reis (Eds.), Linguistic evidence (pp. 413-434). Berlin: de Gruyter]. PMID:24251989

Patson, Nikole D; George, Gerret; Warren, Tessa

2014-07-01

400

High-Mach-number combustion  

SciTech Connect

Recent developments in the mathematical theory of high-Mach-number combustion are presented. The phenomena in this regime are enormously complex and the mechanisms responsible for the variety of physical phenomena are poorly understood. The current advances in the mathematical theory combine asymptotic methods, careful numerics, qualitative modelling, and rigorous proofs for important model problems as well as an interplay with the documented experimental literature. This paper attempts to retain the flavor of these research efforts. Partial contents: The Theory and Structure for Planar Detonation Waves and an Instructive Qualitative Model; Quantitative Asymptotic Modelling of Nonlinear Wave - Kinetic Interactions in Reacting Gases; Instabilities in Detonations and Complex Wave Bifurcations.

Majda

1986-01-01

401

Surface characteristics of sweet cherry fruit: stomata-number, distribution, functionality and surface wetting  

Microsoft Academic Search

The number, distribution, size, and function of stomata and wettability of the sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) fruit surface were investigated. The number of stomata per fruit differed significantly among sweet cherry cultivars, ranging from 143±26 per fruit in ‘Adriana’ to 2124±142 per fruit in ‘Hedelfinger’. The number of stomata per fruit was not affected by fruit mass (‘Burlat’). For

Stefanie Peschel; Marco Beyer; Moritz Knoche

2003-01-01

402

Mass spectrometry of nanodiamonds.  

PubMed

Detonation nanodiamonds (NDs) were studied by time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF MS). The formation of singly charged carbon clusters, C(n) (+), with groups of clusters at n = 1-35, n approximately 160-400 and clusters with n approximately 8000 was observed. On applying either high laser energy or ultrasound, the position and intensity of the maxima change and a new group of clusters at n approximately 70-80 is formed. High carbon clusters consist of an even number of carbons while the percentage of odd-numbered clusters is quite low (< or =5-10%). On increasing the laser energy, the maximum of ionization (at n approximately 200 carbons) is shifted towards the lower m/z values. It is suggested that this is mainly due to the disaggregation of the original NDs. However, the partial destruction of NDs is also possible. The carbon clusters (n approximately 2-35) are partially hydrogenated and the average value of the hydrogenation was 10-30%. Trace impurities in NDs like Li, B, Fe, and others were detected at high laser energy. Several matrices for ionizing NDs were examined and NDs themselves can also be used as a matrix for the ionization of various organic compounds. When NDs were used as a matrix for gold nanoparticles, the formation of various gold carbides Au(m)C(n) was detected and their stoichiometry was determined. It was demonstrated that TOF MS can be used advantageously to analyze NDs, characterize their size distribution, aggregation, presence of trace impurities and surface chemistry. PMID:19280609

Houska, Jan; Panyala, Nagender Reddy; Peña-Méndez, Eladia Maria; Havel, Josef

2009-04-01

403

Constraining thawing and freezing models with cluster number counts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements of the cluster abundance as a function of mass and redshift provide an important cosmological test that probe not only the expansion rate but also the growth of perturbations. In this paper we adopt a scalar field scenario which admits both thawing and freezing solutions from an appropriate choice of the model parameters and derived all relevant expressions to calculate the mass function and the cluster number density. We discuss the ability of cluster observations to distinguish between these scalar field behaviors and the standard ?CDM scenario by considering the eROSITA and SPT cluster surveys.

Chandrachani Devi, N.; Gonzalez, J. E.; Alcaniz, J. S.

2014-06-01

404

Electric solar wind sail mass budget model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electric solar wind sail (E-sail) is a new type of propellantless propulsion system for Solar System transportation, which uses the natural solar wind for producing spacecraft propulsion. This paper discusses a mass breakdown and a performance model for an E-sail spacecraft that hosts a scientific payload of prescribed mass. In particular, the model is able to estimate the total spacecraft mass and its propulsive acceleration as a function of various design parameters such as the tethers number and their length. A number of subsystem masses are calculated assuming existing or near-term E-sail technology. In light of the obtained performance estimates, an E-sail represents a promising propulsion system for a variety of transportation needs in the Solar System.

Janhunen, P.; Quarta, A. A.; Mengali, G.

2012-07-01

405

An Efficient Hardware Random Number Generator  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hardware random number generator is different from a pseudo -random number generator; a pseudo random number generator approximates the assumed behavior of a real hardware random number generator. Simple pseudo random number generators suffices for most applications, however for demanding situations such as the generation of cryptographic keys requires an efficient and a cost effective source of random numbers.

D. C. Ranasinghe; Daihyun Limb; Srinivas Devadas; Behnam Jamali; Zeng Zhu; Peter H. Cole

406

The number of neutrino species  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The authors review the methods used before the operation of the high energy Stanford and CERN e+e- colliders to determine the number of neutrino species N?, or an upper limit on this number, within the framework of the Standard Model of light stable neutrinos interacting according to the SU(2)×U(1) universal couplings. The astrophysical limit based on the neutrino burst from supernova 1987A is discussed first, followed by a discussion of the cosmological constraint based on the observed He/H abundance ratio. Finally, the particle physics methods based on single-photon production in e+e- collisions, on the production of monojets in pp¯ collisions, and on the determination of N? from the ratio of the W-->l?¯ to Z0-->ll¯ partial cross sections in pp¯ collisions are discussed. The various sources of uncertainty and the experimental backgrounds are presented, as well as an idea of what may be expected on this subject in the future. There is a remarkable agreement between the various methods, with central values for N? between 2 and 3 and with upper limits N?<6. Combining all determinations, the authors obtain a central value N?=2.1+0.6-0.4 for mtop=50 GeV/c2 and N?=2.0+0.6-0.4 if mtop>=mW. The results are perfectly compatible with the a priori knowledge that at least three families of neutrinos should exist. The observed consistency between this a priori knowledge, the laboratory determinations of N?, and determinations from SN 1987A and cosmology represent an astounding success for the Standard Model and for the current descriptions of stellar collapse and the Big-Bang primordial nucleosynthesis. These results, however, severely limit the number of additional families. Although the consistency is significantly worse, four families still provide a reasonable fit. In the framework of the Standard Model, a fifth light neutrino is, however, unlikely. A noted added in proof summarizes the results recently obtained at the Fermilab p¯p and the Stanford and CERN e+e- colliders which confirm these conclusions.

Denegri, D.; Sadoulet, B.; Spiro, M.

1990-01-01

407

Mass Transport Effects in Electrohydrodynamic Mass Spectroscopy,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A homologous series of tetraalkylammonium salts was used to characterize the sampling behavior of electrohydrodynamic (EH) mass spectrometry. Relative sampling efficiencies increased with increasing ion size up to the tetrabutlammonium ion for glycerol so...

J. H. Callahan K. Hool J. D. Reynolds K. D. Cook

1987-01-01

408

Indexing the approximate number system.  

PubMed

Much recent research attention has focused on understanding individual differences in the approximate number system, a cognitive system believed to underlie human mathematical competence. To date researchers have used four main indices of ANS acuity, and have typically assumed that they measure similar properties. Here we report a study which questions this assumption. We demonstrate that the numerical ratio effect has poor test-retest reliability and that it does not relate to either Weber fractions or accuracy on nonsymbolic comparison tasks. Furthermore, we show that Weber fractions follow a strongly skewed distribution and that they have lower test-retest reliability than a simple accuracy measure. We conclude by arguing that in the future researchers interested in indexing individual differences in ANS acuity should use accuracy figures, not Weber fractions or numerical ratio effects. PMID:24361686

Inglis, Matthew; Gilmore, Camilla

2014-01-01

409

Mass of Mercury from observations of asteroids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Sun-to-Mercury mass ratio adopted by the International Astronomical Union (6023600 ± 250) was obtained in 1987 by analyzing\\u000a Mariner 10 observations (Anderson et al. 1987) and since then has not been improved. The large number of asteroids in Mercury-approaching\\u000a orbits and the ever-increasing accuracy of their observations allow the mass of Mercury to be estimated by a different method.

Yu. A. Chernetenko

2007-01-01

410

Mass of Mercury from observations of asteroids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Sun-to-Mercury mass ratio adopted by the International Astronomical Union (6023600 ± 250) was obtained in 1987 by analyzing Mariner 10 observations (Anderson et al. 1987) and since then has not been improved. The large number of asteroids in Mercury-approaching orbits and the ever-increasing accuracy of their observations allow the mass of Mercury to be estimated by a different method.

Yu. A. Chernetenko

2007-01-01

411

Update of the Hagedorn mass spectrum  

SciTech Connect

We present an update of the Hagedorn hypothesis of the exponential growth of the number of hadronic resonances with mass. We use the newest available experimental data for the nonstrange mesons and baryons, as well as fill in some missing states according to the observation that the high-lying states form chiral multiplets. The results show, especially for the case of the mesons, that the Hagedorn growth continues with the increasing mass, with the new states lining up along the exponential growth.

Broniowski, Wojciech [H. Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, PL-31342 Cracow (Poland); Florkowski, Wojciech [H. Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, PL-31342 Cracow (Poland); Institute of Physics, Swietokrzyska Academy, ul. Swietokrzyska 15, PL-25406 Kielce (Poland); Glozman, Leonid Ya. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Graz, Universitaetsplatz 5, A-8010 Graz (Austria)

2004-12-01

412

On Defining Mass  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Though central to any pedagogical development of physics, the concept of mass is still not well understood. Properly defining mass has proven to be far more daunting than contemporary textbooks would have us believe. And yet today the origin of mass is one of the most aggressively pursued areas of research in all of physics. Much of the excitement…

Hecht, Eugene

2011-01-01

413

Fourier Transform Mass Spectrometry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the nature of Fourier transform mass spectrometry and its unique combination of high mass resolution, high upper mass limit, and multichannel advantage. Examines its operation, capabilities and limitations, applications (ion storage, ion manipulation, ion chemistry), and future applications and developments. (JN)

Gross, Michael L.; Rempel, Don L.

1984-01-01

414

What is Mass Spectrometry?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from the American Society for Mass Spectrometry includes information about what mass spectometry is and how it is used. It has many useful figures and references to other materials. The material answers questions such as "What is mass spectrometry and what can it do for you?"

Chiu, Chia M.

2012-09-21

415

Elbow mass flow meter  

DOEpatents

Elbow mass flow meter. The present invention includes a combination of an elbow pressure drop generator and a shunt-type mass flow sensor for providing an output which gives the mass flow rate of a gas that is nearly independent of the density of the gas. For air, the output is also approximately independent of humidity.

McFarland, Andrew R. (College Station, TX); Rodgers, John C. (Santa Fe, NM); Ortiz, Carlos A. (Bryan, TX); Nelson, David C. (Santa Fe, NM)

1994-01-01

416

On Gravity and Mass  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motivated mainly by the fact that no charged elementary particles having zero mass have been observed up to now, we investigate the question whether the mass of the elementary particles is connected with their electric charge and whether gravity can be derived from QED. The graviton is considered as a two-photon bound state. A relation between mass and charge of

Athanasios Markou

2009-01-01

417

Design for Mass Customization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mass customization has recently received a significant amount of attention by the business community. However, the engineering approach to produce an increasing variety of customers' requirements without a corresponding increase in cost has not been well developed. In this paper, we propose a design approach to mass customization (DFMC) that is based on the belief that mass customization can be

Mitchell M. Tseng; Jianxin Jiao; M. Eugene Merchant

1996-01-01

418

Constrained thermal denaturation of DNA under fixed linking number  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A DNA molecule with freely fluctuating ends undergoes a sharp thermal denaturation transition upon heating. However, in circular DNA chains and some experimental setups that manipulate single DNA molecules, the total number of turns (linking number) is constant at all times. The consequences of this additional topological invariant on the melting behaviour are nontrivial. Below, we investigate the melting characteristics of a homogeneous DNA where the linking number along the melting curve is preserved by supercoil formation in duplex portions. We obtain the mass fraction and the number of loops and supercoils below and above the melting temperature. We also argue that a macroscopic loop appears at T c and calculate its size as a function of temperature.

Bar, Amir; Kabakç?o?lu, Alkan; Mukamel, David

2012-06-01

419

Mass Spectrometric Radionuclide Analyses  

SciTech Connect

Measurement of ionized atoms by mass spectrometry is an alternative to radiation detection for measuring radioactive isotopes. These systems are large and complex; they require trained operators and extensive maintenance. They began as research systems but have been developed commercially for measuring amounts of radioactive isotopes and their atom ratios to other isotopes. Several types of mass spectrometer systems are in use. This chapter covers the basics of mass spectrometry and surveys the application of these instruments for radionuclide detection and discusses the circumstances under which use of mass spectrometers is advantageous, the type of mass spectrometer used for each purpose, and the conditions of sample preparation, introduction and analysis.

Wacker, John F.; Eiden, Greg C.; Lehn, Scott A.

2006-02-01

420

Error analysis of nuclear mass fits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss the least-squares and linear-regression methods, which are relevant for a reliable determination of good nuclear-mass-model parameter sets and their errors. In this perspective, we define exact and inaccurate models and point out differences in using the standard error analyses for them. As an illustration, we use simple analytic models for nuclear binding energies and study the validity and errors of models’ parameters and uncertainties of its mass predictions. In particular, we show explicitly the influence of mass-number-dependent weights on uncertainties of liquid-drop global parameters.

Toivanen, J.; Dobaczewski, J.; Kortelainen, M.; Mizuyama, K.

2008-09-01

421

Hadron Mass Spectrum from Lattice QCD  

SciTech Connect

Finite temperature lattice simulations of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) are sensitive to the hadronic mass spectrum for temperatures below the 'critical' temperature T{sub c}{approx_equal}160 MeV. We show that a recent precision determination of the QCD trace anomaly shows evidence for the existence of a large number of hadron states beyond those known from experiment. The lattice results are well represented by an exponentially growing mass spectrum up to a temperature T=155 MeV. Using simple parametrizations of the hadron mass spectrum we show how one may estimate the total spectral weight in these yet undermined states.

Majumder, Abhijit [Department of Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Mueller, Berndt [Department of Physics and CTMS, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States)

2010-12-17

422

Spacecraft applications of quadrupole mass spectrometry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Techniques of mass spectrometry are reviewed and the theory of the quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) is discussed. The QMS is shown to have several advantages over older types of mass spectrometers. The QMS has been flown on a large number of rockets and several satellites. More sophisticated versions of the QMS are proposed for future satellites. Special emphasis is placed on problems of contamination which are likely to be encountered on a large and complex satellite like the Advanced Technology Satellite ATS-G. The development of a QMS to detect and forestall such contamination is discussed.

Thekaekara, M. P.

1972-01-01

423

Error analysis of nuclear mass fits  

SciTech Connect

We discuss the least-squares and linear-regression methods, which are relevant for a reliable determination of good nuclear-mass-model parameter sets and their errors. In this perspective, we define exact and inaccurate models and point out differences in using the standard error analyses for them. As an illustration, we use simple analytic models for nuclear binding energies and study the validity and errors of models' parameters and uncertainties of its mass predictions. In particular, we show explicitly the influence of mass-number-dependent weights on uncertainties of liquid-drop global parameters.

Toivanen, J.; Kortelainen, M.; Mizuyama, K. [Department of Physics, University of Jyvaeskylae, P. O. Box 35 (YFL), FI-40014 Finland (Finland); Dobaczewski, J. [Department of Physics, University of Jyvaeskylae, P. O. Box 35 (YFL), FI-40014 Finland (Finland); Institute of Theoretical Physics, University of Warsaw, ul. Hoza 69, PL-00-681 Warsaw (Poland)

2008-09-15

424

Antarctic ice mass changes observed with GOCE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of the GOCE mission is to map the Earth's mean gravity field with unprecedented accuracy down to spatial scales of 80 km. We will show that in addition Antarctic ice mass changes can be observed with the GOCE gravity gradient data. In particular the ice mass loss in the West Antartic can be resolved at spatial scales of 100 km or better, with a temporal resolution of approximately 4 months. We address the effect of modelling errors in Glacial Isostatic Adjustment and Dynamic Ocean Topography. Furthermore, we will estimate the mass loss rate and compare the GOCE results with GRACE inferred numbers.

Bouman, Johannes; Fuchs, Martin; Lieb, Verena; Schmidt, Michael; Schrama, Ernst; Visser, Pieter; van der Wal, Wouter

2013-04-01

425

Digital imaging mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Methods to visualize the two-dimensional (2D) distribution of molecules by mass spectrometric imaging evolve rapidly and yield novel applications in biology, medicine, and material surface sciences. Most mass spectrometric imagers acquire high mass resolution spectra spot-by-spot and thereby scan the object's surface. Thus, imaging is slow and image reconstruction remains cumbersome. Here we describe an imaging mass spectrometer that exploits the true imaging capabilities by ion optical means for the time of flight mass separation. The mass spectrometer is equipped with the ASIC Timepix chip as an array detector to acquire the position, mass, and intensity of ions that are imaged by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) directly from the target sample onto the detector. This imaging mass spectrometer has a spatial resolving power at the specimen of (84?±?35)??m with a mass resolution of 45 and locates atoms or organic compounds on a surface area up to ~2 cm(2). Extended laser spots of ~5 mm(2) on structured specimens allows parallel imaging of selected masses. The digital imaging mass spectrometer proves high hit-multiplicity, straightforward image reconstruction, and potential for high-speed readout at 4 kHz or more. This device demonstrates a simple way of true image acquisition like a digital photographic camera. The technology may enable a fast analysis of biomolecular samples in near future. PMID:21953049

Bamberger, Casimir; Renz, Uwe; Bamberger, Andreas

2011-06-01

426

Copy number variations among silkworms  

PubMed Central

Background Copy number variations (CNVs), which are important source for genetic and phenotypic variation, have been shown to be associated with disease as well as important QTLs, especially in domesticated animals. However, little is known about the CNVs in silkworm. Results In this study, we have constructed the first CNVs map based on genome-wide analysis of CNVs in domesticated silkworm. Using next-generation sequencing as well as quantitative PCR (qPCR), we identified ~319 CNVs in total and almost half of them (~ 49%) were distributed on uncharacterized chromosome. The CNVs covered 10.8 Mb, which is about 2.3% of the entire silkworm genome. Furthermore, approximately 61% of CNVs directly overlapped with SDs in silkworm. The genes in CNVs are mainly related to reproduction, immunity, detoxification and signal recognition, which is consistent with the observations in mammals. Conclusions An initial CNVs map for silkworm has been described in this study. And this map provides new information for genetic variations in silkworm. Furthermore, the silkworm CNVs may play important roles in reproduction, immunity, detoxification and signal recognition. This study provided insight into the evolution of the silkworm genome and an invaluable resource for insect genomics research.

2014-01-01

427

Isotopic Randomness and Omega Number  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While absolute ("true") randomness is perhaps Godel undecidable (undefinable in closed form), in practice it is often measured by the information content needed to describe (explicit or implicit) pattern (e.g., Shannon entropy, S). Like stars on the sky (are they "random" or form "constellations"?), stable isotopes in crystals form patterns. Informational patterning through correlated neutron tunneling (CNT, Berezin, 1992) indicates limitations of traditional statistics based on "democratic" (ergodic) counting of available configurations. Isotopic systems of finite size may be governed by informational attractor with infinite S (of countable or uncountable cardinality, in the sense of Cantor's "alephs"). Furthermore, like "Omega Number" (G.Chaitin), true structure of this S may even be ultimately unknowable. Such "unknowability", however, does not preclude said attractor from pattern-forming capacity. Infinite sets (IS) are not confined to classical probabilities, e.g., IS of all integers can be splitted on IS of ISs, each containing IS of primes and only one composite ("statistical inversion", D.Lewis, 1986). Thus, fact that CNT occupies only tiny (tower exponentially small) fraction of Hilbert space, can be overridden by some nonergodic attractor implicating Aristotelean "final causation". Likewise, correlated radioactive decays imply possibility of strong (laser-like) departures from standard exponential decay law.

Berezin, Alexander A.

2003-03-01

428

Numbers in English and Chinese language use  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cultural connotations of numbers in English and Chinese languages are demonstrated to discuss the grammatical functions of the numbers and their rhetoric usages. For a foreign language learner, it is essential that they know not only the denotation of the numbers, but also the connotation of the numbers. Numbers frequently play an important role in daily communication.

ZHANG Wu-ping

2007-01-01

429

ALPHA, Mass Generation and Quantum Information  

Microsoft Academic Search

The generation of Planck energy 10E19 Gev\\/Planck time during the observable age of the universe (10E60 Planck times) would generate 10E79 Gev. 10E79 Gev approximates the energy of the baryon number, implying an increase of the baryon number by 10E19\\/Planck time. What is the source of energy for this mass generation? The ALPHA implicated as negative entropy in [1] must

Shantilal Goradia

2008-01-01

430

The Numbers Game: A Values Clarification Strategy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

After completing personal identification forms consisting only of numbers (phone number, Social Security number, etc.), students discuss the need for more personal means of identification within society in order for people to feel a useful sense of identity. (AV)

Ognibene, Richard; Winter, Cynthia

1976-01-01

431

In-Vehicle Measurement of Particle Number Concentrations on School Buses Equipped with Diesel Retrofits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many metropolitan school districts worldwide operate bus fleets with older diesel school buses. Emission reduction strategies\\u000a such as the diesel retrofits promise substantial reductions in particulate mass emissions for older diesel engines. Recent\\u000a studies suggest, however, that particle number concentration is a more important factor than particle mass in developing emissions\\u000a standards and predicting adverse health effects. In-vehicle particle number

Davyda M. Hammond; Melinda M. Lalor; Steven L. Jones

2007-01-01

432

Top quark mass measurements  

SciTech Connect

The top quark, with its extraordinarily large mass (nearly that of a gold atom), plays a significant role in the phenomenology of EWSB in the Standard Model. In particular, the top quark mass when combined with the W mass constrains the mass of the as yet unobserved Higgs boson. Thus, a precise determination of the mass of the top quark is a principal goal of the CDF and D0 experiments. With the data collected thus far in Runs 1 and 2 of the Tevatron, CDF and D0 have measured the top quark mass in both the lepton+jets and dilepton decay channels using a variety of complementary experimental techniques. The author presents an overview of the most recent of the measurements.

Hill, Christopher S.; /UC, Santa Barbara

2004-12-01

433

Main sequence mass loss  

SciTech Connect

It has been hypothesized that variable stars may experience mass loss, driven, at least in part, by oscillations. The class of stars we are discussing here are the delta Scuti variables. These are variable stars with masses between about 1.2 and 2.25 M/sub theta/, lying on or very near the main sequence. According to this theory, high rotation rates enhance the rate of mass loss, so main sequence stars born in this mass range would have a range of mass loss rates, depending on their initial rotation velocity and the amplitude of the oscillations. The stars would evolve rapidly down the main sequence until (at about 1.25 M/sub theta/) a surface convection zone began to form. The presence of this convective region would slow the rotation, perhaps allowing magnetic braking to occur, and thus sharply reduce the mass loss rate. 7 refs.

Brunish, W.M.; Guzik, J.A.; Willson, L.A.; Bowen, G.

1987-01-01

434

Environmental Mass Spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Environmental mass spectrometry is an important branch of science because it provides many of the data that underlie policy decisions that can directly influence the health of people and ecosystems. Environmental mass spectrometry is currently undergoing rapid development. Among the most relevant directions are a significant broadening of the lists of formally targeted compounds; a parallel interest in nontarget chemicals; an increase in the reliability of analyses involving accurate mass measurements, tandem mass spectrometry, and isotopically labeled standards; and a shift toward faster high-throughput analysis, with minimal sample preparation, involving various approaches, including ambient ionization techniques and miniature instruments. A real revolution in analytical chemistry could be triggered with the appearance of robust, simple, and sensitive portable mass spectrometers that can utilize ambient ionization techniques. If the cost of such instruments is reduced to a reasonable level, mass spectrometers could become valuable household devices.

Lebedev, Albert T.

2013-06-01

435

Links to Information on Number Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Site provides links to Web sites covering topics about different numbering systems. The site includes links to Arabic, Chinese, Mayan, Roman, Greek, Egyptian, and Babylonian numbering system resources.

Forum, Math; Alejandre, Suzanne

2007-12-12

436

Neutrino Mass Anarchy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

What is the form of the neutrino mass matrix which governs the oscillations of the atmospheric and solar neutrinos? Features of the data have led to a dominant viewpoint where the mass matrix has an ordered, regulated pattern, perhaps dictated by a flavor symmetry. We challenge this viewpoint and demonstrate that the data are well accounted for by a neutrino mass matrix which appears to have random entries.

Hall, Lawrence; Murayama, Hitoshi; Weiner, Neal

2000-03-01

437

JICST Mass Spectral Database  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Japan Information Center of Science and Technology (JICST) has started the on-line service of mass spectral database in March 1987. This database is composed of NBS-NIH-EPA-MSDC Mass Spectral Database and original data compiled by Mass Spectroscopy Society of Japan in cooperation with JICST. The authors outline the database system, data items and search commands. An example of retrieval session is presented.

Onodera, Natsuo; Abe, Atsushi; Atago, Ryuji

438

massconvert: Halo Mass Conversion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

massconvert, written in Fortran, provides driver and fitting routines for converting halo mass definitions from one spherical overdensity to another assuming an NFW density profile. In surveys that probe ever lower cluster masses and temperatures, sample variance is generally comparable to or greater than shot noise and thus cannot be neglected in deriving precision cosmological constraints; massconvert offers an accurate fitting formula for the conversion between different definitions of halo mass.

Hu, Wayne; Kravtsov, Andrey

2014-01-01

439

Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry  

SciTech Connect

This chapter describes research conducted in a few research groups in the 1990s in which RF quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometers were coupled to a powerful atomic ion source, the inductively coupled plasma used in conventional ICP-MS instruments. Major section titles for this chapter are: RF Quadrupole Ion Traps Features of RF Quadrupole Ion Trap Mass Spectrometers Selective Ion Trapping methods Inductively Coupled Plasma Source Ion Trap Mass Spectrometers

Eiden, Greg C.

2005-09-01

440

Energy-mass conversion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How do physicists make new particles? In this page of a particle physics tutorial, students are introduced to the concept of converting kinetic energy to mass. Students read that low-mass particles placed into an accelerator can be smashed together to produce more massive particles through the conversion of energy to mass. They see an example in which two pieces of fruit are accelerated and smashed, and additional types of fruit are produced. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Group, Lawrence B.

2002-01-01

441

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Fr-284 (Francium)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Fr-284 (Francium, atomic number Z = 87, mass number A = 284).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

442

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Fr-275 (Francium)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Fr-275 (Francium, atomic number Z = 87, mass number A = 275).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

443

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Fr-261 (Francium)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Fr-261 (Francium, atomic number Z = 87, mass number A = 261).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

444

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Fr-277 (Francium)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Fr-277 (Francium, atomic number Z = 87, mass number A = 277).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

445

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Fr-268 (Francium)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Fr-268 (Francium, atomic number Z = 87, mass number A = 268).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

446

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Fr-279 (Francium)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Fr-279 (Francium, atomic number Z = 87, mass number A = 279).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

447

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Fr-270 (Francium)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Fr-270 (Francium, atomic number Z = 87, mass number A = 270).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

448

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Fr-287 (Francium)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Fr-287 (Francium, atomic number Z = 87, mass number A = 287).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

449

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Fr-257 (Francium)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Fr-257 (Francium, atomic number Z = 87, mass number A = 257).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

450

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Fr-285 (Francium)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Fr-285 (Francium, atomic number Z = 87, mass number A = 285).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

451

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Fr-254 (Francium)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Fr-254 (Francium, atomic number Z = 87, mass number A = 254).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

452

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Fr-256 (Francium)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Fr-256 (Francium, atomic number Z = 87, mass number A = 256).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

453

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Fr-283 (Francium)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Fr-283 (Francium, atomic number Z = 87, mass number A = 283).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

454

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Fr-286 (Francium)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Fr-286 (Francium, atomic number Z = 87, mass number A = 286).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

455

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Fr-272 (Francium)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Fr-272 (Francium, atomic number Z = 87, mass number A = 272).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

456

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Fr-263 (Francium)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Fr-263 (Francium, atomic number Z = 87, mass number A = 263).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

457

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Fr-259 (Francium)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Fr-259 (Francium, atomic number Z = 87, mass number A = 259).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

458

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Fr-271 (Francium)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Fr-271 (Francium, atomic number Z = 87, mass number A = 271).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

459

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Fr-289 (Francium)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Fr-289 (Francium, atomic number Z = 87, mass number A = 289).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

460

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Fr-251 (Francium)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Fr-251 (Francium, atomic number Z = 87, mass number A = 251).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

461

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Fr-253 (Francium)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Fr-253 (Francium, atomic number Z = 87, mass number A = 253).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

462

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Fr-262 (Francium)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Fr-262 (Francium, atomic number Z = 87, mass number A = 262).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

463

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Fr-273 (Francium)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Fr-273 (Francium, atomic number Z = 87, mass number A = 273).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

464

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Fr-276 (Francium)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Fr-276 (Francium, atomic number Z = 87, mass number A = 276).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

465

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Fr-250 (Francium)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Fr-250 (Francium, atomic number Z = 87, mass number A = 250).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

466

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Fr-265 (Francium)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Fr-265 (Francium, atomic number Z = 87, mass number A = 265).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

467

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Fr-280 (Francium)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Fr-280 (Francium, atomic number Z = 87, mass number A = 280).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

468

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Fr-264 (Francium)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Fr-264 (Francium, atomic number Z = 87, mass number A = 264).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

469

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Fr-260 (Francium)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Fr-260 (Francium, atomic number Z = 87, mass number A = 260).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

470

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Fr-278 (Francium)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Fr-278 (Francium, atomic number Z = 87, mass number A = 278).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

471

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Fr-252 (Francium)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Fr-252 (Francium, atomic number Z = 87, mass number A = 252).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

472

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Fr-282 (Francium)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Fr-282 (Francium, atomic number Z = 87, mass number A = 282).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

473

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Fr-267 (Francium)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Fr-267 (Francium, atomic number Z = 87, mass number A = 267).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

474

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Fr-266 (Francium)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Fr-266 (Francium, atomic number Z = 87, mass number A = 266).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

475

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Fr-288 (Francium)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Fr-288 (Francium, atomic number Z = 87, mass number A = 288).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

476

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Fr-269 (Francium)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Fr-269 (Francium, atomic number Z = 87, mass number A = 269).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

477

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Fr-281 (Francium)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Fr-281 (Francium, atomic number Z = 87, mass number A = 281).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

478

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Fr-274 (Francium)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Fr-274 (Francium, atomic number Z = 87, mass number A = 274).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

479

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Fr-255 (Francium)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Fr-255 (Francium, atomic number Z = 87, mass number A = 255).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

480

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Fr-258 (Francium)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Fr-258 (Francium, atomic number Z = 87, mass number A = 258).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.