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1

Measurement Corner Mass, Moles and Avogadro's Number  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses and clarifies the confusion arising from the use of the terms "mass,""volume,""matter,""mole," and "Avogadro's number." Suggests three laboratory activities concerning mass, volume, and number of particles in a given volume. (CS)

Todd, Robert M.

1977-01-01

2

Ternary logic in lepton mass quantum numbers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Koide's prediction (1) of the tau mass may be formulated as a c ondition on the three eigenvalues of a quantum Fourier series, using simple parameters, and similar triplets have been found for hadron masses (2). Since one assumes that these parameters arise from quantum gravity, one would like to remove these linear maps from the context of ordinary Hilbert

Marni D. Sheppeard

3

Mass number dependence of nuclear pairing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large scale Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (HFB) calculations with the finite-range Gogny force D1S have been performed in order to extract the corresponding theoretical average mass dependence of the nuclear gap values. Good agreement with experimental data from the three-point filter $\\Delta^{(3)}$(N) with N odd has been found for both the neutron and proton gaps. The study confirms earlier findings [W. Satula, J. Dobaczewski, and W. Nazarewicz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81 3599 (1998)] that the mass dependence of the gap is much weaker than the so far accepted 12/$\\sqrtA$ MeV law.

Hilaire, S.; Berger, J.-F.; Girod, M.; Satula, W.; Schuck, P.

2002-04-01

4

Maximum stellar mass versus cluster membership number revisited  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have made a new compilation of observations of maximum stellar mass versus cluster membership number from the literature, which we analyse for consistency with the predictions of a simple random drawing hypothesis for stellar mass selection in clusters. Previously, Weidner and Kroupa have suggested that the maximum stellar mass is lower, in low-mass clusters, than would be expected on the basis of random drawing, and have pointed out that this could have important implications for steepening the integrated galactic initial mass function (IGIMF) at high masses. Our compilation demonstrates how the observed distribution in the plane of maximum stellar mass versus membership number is affected by the method of target selection; in particular, rather low n clusters with large maximum stellar masses are abundant in observational data sets that specifically seek clusters in the environs of high-mass stars. Although we do not consider our compilation to be either complete or unbiased, we discuss the method by which such data should be statistically analysed. Our very provisional conclusion is that the data are not indicating any striking deviation from the expectations of random drawing.

Maschberger, Th.; Clarke, C. J.

2008-12-01

5

Floods of July 23-26, 2010, in the Little Maquoketa River and Maquoketa River Basins, Northeast Iowa.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Minor flooding occurred July 23, 2010, in the Little Maquoketa River Basin and major flooding occurred July 23-26, 2010, in the Maquoketa River Basin in northeast Iowa following severe thunderstorm activity over the region during July 22-24. A breach of t...

D. A. Eash

2011-01-01

6

Neutrino masses in lepton number violating mSUGRA  

SciTech Connect

In SUSY models which violate R-parity, there exist trilinear lepton number violating (LNV) operators which can lead to neutrino masses. If these operators are defined at the unification scale, the renormalization group flow becomes important and generally leads to one neutrino mass much heavier than the others. We study, in a minimal supergravity (mSUGRA) set-up with two trilinear LNV operators and three charged lepton mixing angles, numerically how these parameters may be arranged to be compatible with neutrino oscillation data, and discuss some phenomenological observations.

Kom, Steve C. H. [DAMTP, Centre for Mathematical Sciences, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom)

2008-11-23

7

Phytoremediation of hazardous wastes. Technical report, 23--26 July 1995  

SciTech Connect

A new and innovative approach to phytoremediation (the use of plants to degrade hazardous contaminants) was developed. The new approach to phytoremediation involves rigorous pathway analyses, mass balance determinations, and identification of specific enzymes that break down trinitrotoluene (TNT), other explosives (RDX and HMX), nitrobenzene, and chlorinated solvents (e.g., TCE and PCE) (EPA 1994). As a good example, TNT is completely and rapidly degraded by nitroreductase and laccase enzymes. The aromatic ring is broken and the carbon in the ring fragments is incorporated into new plant fiber, as part of the natural lignification process. Half lives for TNT degradation approach 1 hr or less under ideal laboratory conditions. Continuous-flow pilot studies indicate that scale up residence times in created wetlands may be two to three times longer than in laboratory batch studies. The use of created wetlands and land farming techniques guided by rigorous field biochemistry and ecology promises to be a vital part of a newly evolving field, ecological engineering.

McCutcheon, S.C.; Wolfe, N.L.; Carreria, L.H.; Ou, T.

1995-07-26

8

Pathbreaking Strategies in the Global Fight Against Sex Trafficking: Prevention, Protection, Prosecution. Conference Recommendations. Held on February 23-26, 2003 in Washington, DC.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Department of State, in partnership with the non-governmental War Against Trafficking Alliance, hosted a conference on Pathbreaking Strategies in the Global Fight Against Sex Trafficking from February 23-26, 2003. The conference was designed to recogn...

2003-01-01

9

Global energy gradients and size in colonial organisms: Worker mass and worker number in ant colonies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Body mass shapes processes from cell metabolism to community dynamics. Little is known, however, about how the average body mass of individuals varies among ecological communities. Ants alter colony mass by independently changing worker mass and\\/or worker number. In a survey of 49 ecosystems from tundra to tropical rainforest, average worker mass and worker number were uncorrelated (rs = 0.2,

Michael Kaspari

2005-01-01

10

Apparatus Drawings Project. Report Number 7. Versatile Mass Spectrometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

An extremely versatile mass spectrometer, suitable for an undergraduate laboratory and simple enough to be constructed by an average departmental shop, is described. The data obtained when using the potassium isotopes K41 and K39 indicate an instrument resolving power of 75. The auxiliary equipment required is conventional and inexpensive. The apparatus structure and construction techniques are described in detail.

Robert G. Marcley

1960-01-01

11

Determination of mass attenuation coefficients, effective atomic numbers, effective electron numbers and kermas for Earth and Martian soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Total mass attenuation coefficients, effective atomic numbers, effective electron numbers and kerma values for Earth and Martian soils are calculated in the energy range from 1 keV to 100 GeV. The values of mass attenuation and absorption coefficients used in calculations are taken from the WinXCOM program and correct data base. Contributions of different scatterings on the total mass attenuation coefficients of the soils are presented. In addition, the obtained results for Martian soils are compared with the results for Earth soils. The similarities of Earth and Martian soils are also investigated.

Un, A.; Sahin, Y.

2012-10-01

12

Lepton number violating mSUGRA and neutrino masses  

Microsoft Academic Search

We perform a quantitative study of neutrino phenomenology in the framework of minimal supergravity (mSUGRA) with grand unified theory (GUT)-scale tri-linear lepton number violation. We show that only two non-zero GUT scale lepton number violating parameters and three charged lepton mixing angles are sufficient to account for current neutrino oscillation data. This allows collider studies to be performed in a

B. C. Allanach; C. H. Kom

2008-01-01

13

Lepton number violating mSUGRA and neutrino masses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We perform a quantitative study of neutrino phenomenology in the framework of minimal supergravity (mSUGRA) with grand unified theory (GUT)-scale tri-linear lepton number violation. We show that only two non-zero GUT scale lepton number violating parameters and three charged lepton mixing angles are sufficient to account for current neutrino oscillation data. This allows collider studies to be performed in a manageable parameter space. We discuss some phenomenological consequences of the models, including tuning issues.

Allanach, B. C.; Kom, C. H.

2008-04-01

14

Proceedings: 1987 Joint Symposium on Stationary Source Combustion NOx Control. Held in New Orleans, Louisiana on March 23-26, 1987. Volume 1,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The two-volume proceedings document the 1987 Joint (EPA and EPRI) Symposium on Stationary Combustion NOx Control, held March 23-26, 1987 in New Orleans, LA. The 49 presentations covered: low NOx combustion developments (e.g., reburning and burner design m...

B. B. Emmel

1988-01-01

15

PROCEEDINGS: 1987 JOINT SYMPOSIUM ON STATIONARY SOURCE COMBUSTION NOX CONTROL. HELD IN NEW ORLEANS, LOUISIANA ON MARCH 23-26, 1987. VOLUME 1  

EPA Science Inventory

The two-volume proceedings document the 1987 Joint (EPA and EPRI) Symposium on Stationary Combustion NOx Control, held March 23-26, 1987 in New Orleans, LA. The 49 presentations covered: low NOx combustion developments (e.g., reburning and burner design modifications); coal-, oil...

16

PROCEEDINGS: 1987 JOINT SYMPOSIUM ON STATIONARY SOURCE COMBUSTION NOX CONTROL. HELD IN NEW ORLEANS, LOUISIANA ON MARCH 23-26, 1987  

EPA Science Inventory

The two-volume proceedings document the 1987 Joint (EPA and EPRI) Symposium on Stationary Combustion NOx Control, held March 23-26, 1987 in New Orleans, LA. The 49 presentations covered: low NOx combustion developments (e.g., reburning and burner design modifications); coal-, oil...

17

Seasonal variations of number size distributions and mass concentrations of atmospheric particles in Beijing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Particle number and mass concentrations were measured in Beijing during the winter and summer periods in 2003, together with some other parameters including black carbon (BC) and meteorological conditions. Particle mass concentrations exhibited low seasonality, and the ratio of PM2.5/PM10 in winter was higher than that in summer. Particle number size distribution (PSD) was characterized by four modes and exhibited low seasonality. BC was well correlated with the number and mass concentrations of accumulation and coarse particles, indicating these size particles are related to anthropogenic activities. Particle mass and number concentrations (except ultra-fine and nucleation particles) followed well the trends of BC concentration for the majority of the day, indicating that most particles were associated with primary emissions. The diurnal number distributions of accumulation and coarse mode particles were characterized by two peaks.

Yu, Jianhua; Guinot, Benjamin; Yu, Tong; Wang, Xin; Liu, Wenqing

2005-06-01

18

Source and Health Implication of Diurnal Atmospheric PM Mass and Number Concentrations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Exposure to atmospheric PM has been known to be associated with adverse health effects, decreased heart-rate variability, and respiratory and cardiopulmonary related morbidity and mortality. New evidence suggests that physical characteristics (mass, size, number, surface area, and morphology) of particles are strongly associated with mortality and morbidity through acute exposure. In particular, as reported in the literature, fine or ultrafine particles are more toxic than coarse particles on an equivalent mass basis while particles of less than 30 nm or greater than 2.5 um in diameter deposit more effectively (approximately 80 percent) in lung versus approximately 18 percent for particles in the range of 100 nm and 1 um. In addition, positive association has been observed between day to day variation in PM2.5 and hospital admissions, mortality and particle surface area, or particle number concentration and oxidative stress-induced DNA damage. This presentation shows the results of a study characterizing the physical properties of PM in El Paso, Texas. Diurnal PM mass concentration peaks previously observed at several other cities along the U.S.-Mexico border and elsewhere in the world were observed in El Paso. The hourly PM particle count varied from less than 10,000 particles/cm3 to greater than 80,000 particles/cm3 during the diurnal PM mass peaks. The total number of PM particles peaked in the morning and in the evening while the mode of the particle size changed from 20 nm to 50 nm, indicating different PM sources may be responsible for the mass and number concentrations and agglomeration of particles in the atmosphere during the day may possibly plays a role. A multivariate regression analysis was performed to correlate the PM mass and number concentrations to environmental variables. Real- time wind statistics were used in conjunction with traffic data at a nearby highway for identifying sources of the PM mass and number concentration peaks. Evaluation of the diurnal variation of PM physical properties and a recent study on PM mass and mortality implies that particle number may be a better environmental indicator for mortality than PM2.5 mass. This publication was made possible by grant number 1 S11 ES013339-01A1 from the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), NIH. Its contents are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official views of the NIEHS, NIH.

Li, W.; Olvera, H. A.; Garcia, J. H.; Pingitore, N. E.

2007-12-01

19

Supergravity can reconcile dark matter with lepton number violating neutrino masses  

SciTech Connect

Supersymmetry offers a cold dark matter candidate, provided that lepton number is not violated by an odd number of units. On the other hand, lepton number violation by even (two) units gives us an attractive mechanism of neutrino mass generation. Here we offer an explanation of this, in a supergravity framework underlying a supersymmetric scenario, the essential feature being particles carrying lepton numbers, which interact only gravitationally with all other known particles. It is shown that one can have the right amount of {delta}L=2 effect giving rise to neutrino masses, whereas the lifetime for {delta}L=1 decays of the lightest supersymmetric particle can be prolonged beyond the present age of the Universe.

Mukhopadhyaya, Biswarup; Srikanth, Raghavendra [Harish-Chandra Research Institute, Chhatnag Road, Jhusi, Allahabad - 211 019 (India); SenGupta, Soumitra [Department of Theoretical Physics, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Kolkata - 700 032 (India)

2007-10-01

20

Proximate Constraints on the Evolution of Egg Size, Number, and Total Clutch Mass in Lizards  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proximate constraints on egg size, number, and total clutch mass in side-blotched lizards were examined by experimentally reducing average clutch size from 4.6 eggs to one, two, and three eggs. Eggs from experimentally altered clutches were larger than those from controls, reflecting the trade-off between egg size and number. Moreover, the increased frequency of females with oviducally bound eggs or

Barry Sinervo; Paul Licht

1991-01-01

21

Atmospheric particle number size distribution in central Europe: Statistical relations to air masses and meteorology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atmospheric particle number size distributions determined over 1.5 years at a central European site were statistically analyzed in terms of their relation to time of day, season, meteorology, and synoptic-scale air masses. All size distributions were decomposed into lognormal particle modes corresponding to the accumulation, Aitken, aged nucleation, and nucleation modes. The concentration of nucleation mode particles (30 nm) lacked

Wolfram Birmili; Alfred Wiedensohler; Jost Heintzenberg; Katrin Lehmann

2001-01-01

22

Undetected Higgs decays and neutrino masses in gauge mediated, lepton number violating models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss SUSY models in which renormalizable lepton number violating couplings hide the decay of the Higgs through h??10?10 followed by ?10??jj or ?10???jj and also explain neutrino masses. This mechanism can be made compatible with gauge mediated SUSY breaking.

Banks, T.; Carpenter, L. M.; Fortin, J.-F.

2008-09-01

23

Measurement of atomic number and mass attenuation coefficient in magnesium ferrite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pure magnesium ferrite sample was prepared by standard ceramic technique and characterized by X-ray diffraction method. XRD pattern revealed that the sample possess single-phase cubic spinel structure. The linear attenuation coefficient (mu), mass attenuation coefficient (mu\\/rho), total atomic cross-section (sigma_{tot}), total electronic cross-section (sigma_{ele}) and the effective atomic number (Z_{eff}) were calculated for pure magnesium ferrite (MgFe_{2}O_{4}). The values of

R. H. Kadam; S. T. Alone; G. K. Bichile; K. M. Jadhav

2007-01-01

24

Fine scale modeling of wintertime aerosol mass, number, and size distributions in central California  

Microsoft Academic Search

In light of nonattainment of PM2.5 in central California, the CMAQ-MADRID 1 model is applied to simulate PM2.5 mass, number, and size distributions observed during the California Regional PM10\\/PM2.5 Air Quality Study (CRPAQS) winter episode of 25–31 December 2000. The simulations with 12 and 24 size sections at a horizontal grid resolution of 4 km reproduce well the 24 h

Yang Zhang; Ping Liu; Xiao-Huan Liu; Betty Pun; Christian Seigneur; Mark Z. Jacobson; Wen-Xing Wang

2010-01-01

25

Biomass burning aerosol emissions from vegetation fires: particle number and mass emission factors and size distributions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aerosol emissions from vegetation fires have a large impact on air quality and climate. In this study, we use published experimental data and different fitting procedures to derive dynamic particle number and mass emission factors (EFPN, EFPM) related to the fuel type, burning conditions and the mass of dry fuel burned, as well as characteristic CO-referenced emission ratios (PN/CO, PM/CO). Moreover, we explore and characterize the variability of the particle size distribution of fresh smoke, which is typically dominated by a lognormal accumulation mode with count median diameter around 120 nm (depending on age, fuel and combustion efficiency), and its effect on the relationship between particle number and mass emission factors. For the particle number emission factor of vegetation fires, we found no dependence on fuel type and obtained the following parameterization as a function of modified combustion efficiency (MCE): EFPN=34×1015×(1-MCE) kg-1±1015 kg-1 with regard to dry fuel mass (d.m.). For the fine particle mass emission factors (EFPM) we obtained (86-85×MCE) g kg-1±3 g kg-1 as an average for all investigated fires; (93-90×MCE) g kg-1±4 g kg-1 for forest; (67-65×MCE) g kg-1±2 g kg-1 for savanna; (63-62×MCE) g kg-1±1 g kg-1 for grass. For the PN/CO emission ratio we obtained an average of (34±16) cm-3 ppb-1 exhibiting no systematic dependence on fuel type or combustion efficiency. The average PM/CO emission ratios were (0.09±0.04) g g-1 for all investigated fires; (0.13±0.05) g g-1 for forest; (0.08±0.03) g g-1 for savanna; and (0.07±0.03) g g-1 for grass. The results are consistent with each other, given that particles from forest fires are on average larger than those from savanna and grass fires. This assumption and the above parameterizations represent the current state of knowledge, but they are based on a rather limited amount of experimental data which should be complemented by further measurements. Nevertheless, the presented parameterizations appear sufficiently robust for exploring the influence of vegetation fires on aerosol particle number and mass concentrations in regional and global model studies.

Janhäll, S.; Andreae, M. O.; Pöschl, U.

2010-02-01

26

Effective atomic numbers and mass attenuation coefficients of some thermoluminescent dosimetric compounds for total photon interaction  

SciTech Connect

Effective atomic numbers for total gamma-ray interaction with some selected thermoluminescent dosimetric compounds such as barium acetate, barium sulfate, calcium carbonate, calcium sulfate, calcium sulfate dihydrate, cadmium sulfate (anhydrous), cadmium sulfate, strontium sulfate, and lithium fluoride have been calculated in the 1-keV to 20-MeV energy region. Experimental mass attenuation coefficients and effective atomic numbers for these compounds at selected photon energies of 26.3, 33.2, 59.54, and 661.6 keV have been obtained from good geometry transmission measurements and compared with theoretical values. The effect of absorption edge on effective atomic numbers and its variation with energy, and nonvalidity of the Bragg`s mixture rule at incident photon energies closer to the absorption edges of constituent elements of compounds are discussed.

Shivaramu; Amutha, R.; Ramprasath, V. [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India). Safety Research and Health Physics Group

1999-05-01

27

Aerosol formation from high-velocity uranium drops: Comparison of number and mass distributions. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of an experimental study of the aerosol produced by the combustion of high-velocity molten-uranium droplets produced by the simultaneous heating and electromagnetic launch of uranium wires. These tests are intended to simulate the reduction of high-velocity fragments into aerosol in high-explosive detonations or reactor accidents involving nuclear materials. As reported earlier, the resulting aerosol consists mainly of web-like chain agglomerates. A condensation nucleus counter was used to investigate the decay of the total particle concentration due to coagulation and losses. Number size distributions based on mobility equivalent diameter obtained soon after launch with a Differential Mobility Particle Sizer showed lognormal distributions with an initial count median diameter (CMD) of 0.3 {mu}m and a geometric standard deviation, {sigma}{sub g} of about 2; the CMD was found to increase and {sigma}{sub g} decrease with time due to coagulation. Mass size distributions based on aerodynamic diameter were obtained for the first time with a Microorifice Uniform Deposit Impactor, which showed lognormal distributions with mass median aerodynamic diameters of about 0.5 {mu}m and an aerodynamic geometric standard deviation of about 2. Approximate methods for converting between number and mass distributions and between mobility and aerodynamic equivalent diameters are presented.

Rader, D.J.; Benson, D.A.

1995-05-01

28

Evidence for the Possible Existence of a Long-Lived Superheavy Nucleus with Atomic Mass Number a = 292 and Atomic Number Z ? 122 IN Natural Th  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evidence for the possible existence of a superheavy nucleus with atomic mass number A = 292 and abundance of about 1×10-12 relative to 232Th has been found in a study of natural Th using inductively coupled plasma-sector field mass spectrometry. The measured mass is different from any species with molecular mass of 292, but it matches the predictions for the mass of an isotope with atomic number Z = 122 or a nearby element. Its deduced half-life of t1/2 ? 108 y suggests that a long-lived isomeric state exists in this isotope. The possibility that it might belong to a new class of long-lived high spin super- and hyperdeformed isomeric states is discussed.

Marinov, A.; Rodushkin, I.; Kolb, D.; Pape, A.; Kashiv, Y.; Brandt, R.; Gentry, R. V.; Miller, H. W.

29

Measurement of atomic number and mass attenuation coefficient in magnesium ferrite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pure magnesium ferrite sample was prepared by standard ceramic technique and characterized by X-ray diffraction method. XRD pattern revealed that the sample possess single-phase cubic spinel structure. The linear attenuation coefficient (?), mass attenuation coefficient (?/?), total atomic cross-section (?_{tot}), total electronic cross-section (?_{ele}) and the effective atomic number (Z_{eff}) were calculated for pure magnesium ferrite (MgFe_{2}O_{4}). The values of ?-ray mass attenuation coefficient were obtained using a NaI energy selective scintillation counter with radioactive ?-ray sources having energy 0.36, 0.511, 0.662, 1.17 and 1.28 MeV. The experimentally obtained values of ?/? and Z_{eff} agreed fairly well with those obtained theoretically.

Kadam, R. H.; Alone, S. T.; Bichile, G. K.; Jadhav, K. M.

2007-05-01

30

Measurement of atomic number and mass attenuation coefficient in magnesium ferrite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pure magnesium ferrite sample was prepared by standard ceramic technique and characterized by X-ray diffraction method. XRD\\u000a pattern revealed that the sample possess single-phase cubic spinel structure. The linear attenuation coefficient (µ), mass attenuation coefficient (µ\\/?), total atomic cross-section (?\\u000a tot), total electronic cross-section (?\\u000a ele) and the effective atomic number (Z\\u000a eff) were calculated for pure magnesium ferrite (MgFe2O4).

R H Kadam; S T Alone; G K Bichile; K M Jadhav

2007-01-01

31

The Expected Number of Background Disease Events during Mass Immunization in China.  

PubMed

It is critical to distinguish events that are temporarily associated with, but not caused by, vaccination from those caused by vaccination during mass immunization. We performed a literature search in China National Knowledge Infrastructure and Pubmed databases. The number of coincident events was calculated based on its incidence rate and periods after receipt of a dose of hypothesized vaccine. We included background incidences of Guillain-Barré syndrome, anaphylaxis, seizure, sudden adult death syndrome, sudden cardiac death, spontaneous abortion, and preterm labour or delivery. In a cohort of 10 million individuals, 7.71 cases of Guillain-Barré syndrome would be expected to occur within six weeks of vaccination as coincident background cases. Even for rare events, a large number of events can be expected in a short period because of the large population targeted for immunization. These findings may encourage health authorities to screen the safety of vaccines against unpredictable pathogens. PMID:23977153

Wang, Youxin; Wu, Lijuan; Yu, Xinwei; Zhao, Feifei; Russell, Alyce; Song, Manshu; Wang, Wei

2013-08-20

32

COSMOLOGICAL CONSTRAINTS FROM GALAXY CLUSTERING AND THE MASS-TO-NUMBER RATIO OF GALAXY CLUSTERS  

SciTech Connect

We place constraints on the average density ({Omega}{sub m}) and clustering amplitude ({sigma}{sub 8}) of matter using a combination of two measurements from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey: the galaxy two-point correlation function, w{sub p} (r{sub p} ), and the mass-to-galaxy-number ratio within galaxy clusters, M/N, analogous to cluster M/L ratios. Our w{sub p} (r{sub p} ) measurements are obtained from DR7 while the sample of clusters is the maxBCG sample, with cluster masses derived from weak gravitational lensing. We construct nonlinear galaxy bias models using the Halo Occupation Distribution (HOD) to fit both w{sub p} (r{sub p} ) and M/N for different cosmological parameters. HOD models that match the same two-point clustering predict different numbers of galaxies in massive halos when {Omega}{sub m} or {sigma}{sub 8} is varied, thereby breaking the degeneracy between cosmology and bias. We demonstrate that this technique yields constraints that are consistent and competitive with current results from cluster abundance studies, without the use of abundance information. Using w{sub p} (r{sub p} ) and M/N alone, we find {Omega}{sup 0.5}{sub m}{sigma}{sub 8} = 0.465 {+-} 0.026, with individual constraints of {Omega}{sub m} = 0.29 {+-} 0.03 and {sigma}{sub 8} = 0.85 {+-} 0.06. Combined with current cosmic microwave background data, these constraints are {Omega}{sub m} = 0.290 {+-} 0.016 and {sigma}{sub 8} = 0.826 {+-} 0.020. All errors are 1{sigma}. The systematic uncertainties that the M/N technique are most sensitive to are the amplitude of the bias function of dark matter halos and the possibility of redshift evolution between the SDSS Main sample and the maxBCG cluster sample. Our derived constraints are insensitive to the current level of uncertainties in the halo mass function and in the mass-richness relation of clusters and its scatter, making the M/N technique complementary to cluster abundances as a method for constraining cosmology with future galaxy surveys.

Tinker, Jeremy L.; Blanton, Michael R. [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Department of Physics, New York University, New York, NY 10013 (United States); Sheldon, Erin S. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Wechsler, Risa H. [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Physics Department, and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Becker, Matthew R.; Rozo, Eduardo [Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Zu, Ying; Weinberg, David H. [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Zehavi, Idit [Department of Astronomy and CERCA, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Busha, Michael T. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics, University of Zurich, CH-8057 Zurich (Switzerland); Koester, Benjamin P. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 6037 (United States)

2012-01-20

33

Studies on mass attenuation coefficient, effective atomic number and electron density of some thermoluminescent dosimetric compounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mass attenuation coefficient, ?m , effective atomic number, Zeff, and effective electron density, Nel, were determined experimentally and theoretically for some thermoluminescent dosimetric (TLD) compounds such as MgSO4, CdSO4, Al2O3, Mg2SiO4, ZnSO4, CaSO4, CaF2, NaSO4, Na4P2O7, Ca5F(PO4)3, SiO2, CaCO3 and BaSO4 at 8.04, 8.91, 13.37, 14.97, 17.44, 19.63, 22.10, 24.90, 30.82, 32.06, 35.40, 36.39, 37.26, 43.74, 44.48, 50.38, 51.70, 53.16, 80.99, 276.40, 302.85, 356.01, 383.85 and 661.66 keV photon energies by using an HPGe detector with a resolution of 182 eV at 5.9 keV. The theoretical mass attenuation coefficients were estimated using mixture rule. The calculated values were compared with the experimental values for all compounds. Good agreement has been observed between experimental and theoretical values within experimental uncertainties.

Önder, P.; Tur?ucu, A.; Demir, D.; Gürol, A.

2012-12-01

34

Heterogeneous heat-mass transfer and effective thermal conductivity of pores in ceramic materials at arbitrary knudsen numbers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Approximate expressions are obtained for mass flux and thermal conductivity component in a temperature gradient field in a plane slit. A number of examples are used to demonstrate the significant contribution of heat-mass transfer in the transitional regime to thermal conductivity of refractory materials.

E. Ya. Litovskii; F. S. Kaplan; A. V. Klimovich

1981-01-01

35

Provisioning Mass by Females of the Maritime Earwig, Anisolabis maritima, is not Adjusted Based on the Number of Young  

PubMed Central

The amount of parental provisioning is thought to reflect the need of offspring. This hypothesis was tested in the case of provisioning food mass to young with controlled clutch size using the maritime earwig, Anisolabis maritima Bonelli (Dermaptera: Anisolabididae). The female provisioned a constant mass of food to the young irrespective of the number of nymphs and the distance of food carrying. In addition, the survival rate of young did not change with adjusted clutch size. This study showed that A. maritima females appear to provide food mass to their nymphs independent of their number.

Suzuki, Seizi

2011-01-01

36

Mass attenuation coefficients, effective atomic numbers and effective electron densities for some polymers.  

PubMed

In this study, the total mass attenuation coefficients (?(m)) for some homo- and hetero-chain polymers, namely polyamide-6 (PA-6), poly-methyl methacrylate (PMMA), low-density polyethylene (LDPE), polypropylene (PP) and polystyrene (PS) were measured at 59.5, 511, 661.6, 1173.2, 1274.5 and 1332.5 keV photon energies. The samples were separately irradiated with (241)Am, (22)Na, (137)Cs and (60)Co (638 kBq) radioactive gamma sources. The measurements were made by performing transmission experiments with a 2?×2? NaI(Tl) scintillation detector having an energy resolution of 7 % at 662 keV gamma ray from the decay of (137)Cs. The effective atomic numbers (Z(eff)) and the effective electron densities (N(eff)) were determined experimentally and theoretically using the obtained ?(m) values for the investigated samples. Furthermore, Z(eff) and N(eff) of each polymer were computed for total photon interaction cross-sections using theoretical data over a wide energy region from 1 keV to 10 MeV. The experimental values of the selected polymers were found to be in good agreement with the theoretical values. PMID:22645382

Kucuk, Nil; Cakir, Merve; Isitman, Nihat Ali

2012-05-29

37

Cuban Mass Media: Organization, Control and Functions. Journalism Monographs Number Seventy-Eight.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The mass media as interdependent parts of a larger social system both control and are controlled by other subsystems. The various combinations of control, in turn, determine the functions the media system will serve. In the 1960's, the Cuban mass media underwent frequent change that reflected the volatility of the revolutionary process. Today,…

Nichols, John Spicer

38

Annual Enrollment Report Number of Students Studying Journalism and Mass Communication at All-time High.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Finds that journalism and mass communication programs appear to be entering another period of rapid enrollment growth, swept up by overall increases in enrollments at United States universities. Finds that only about four in ten of the journalism and mass communication programs report enrollments by race, suggesting many administrators are not…

Becker, Lee B.; Vlad, Tudor; Huh, Jisu; Prine, Joelle

2001-01-01

39

Inclusive B-meson production at the LHC in the general-mass variable-flavor-number scheme  

SciTech Connect

We calculate the next-to-leading-order cross section for the inclusive production of B mesons in pp collisions in the general-mass variable-flavor-number scheme, an approach that takes into account the finite mass of the b quarks. We use realistic evolved nonperturbative fragmentation functions obtained from fits to e{sup +}e{sup -} data and compare our results for the transverse-momentum and rapidity distributions at a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV with recent data from the CMS Collaboration at the CERN LHC. We find good agreement, in particular, at large values of p{sub T}.

Kniehl, B. A.; Kramer, G. [II. Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Hamburg, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg (Germany); Schienbein, I. [Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie, Universite Joseph Fourier Grenoble 1, CNRS/IN2P3, Institut National Polytechnique de Grenoble, 53 avenue des Martyrs, F-38026 Grenoble (France); Spiesberger, H. [Institut fuer Physik, Johannes-Gutenberg-Universitaet, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz (Germany)

2011-11-01

40

Management of Clinically Inapparent Adrenal Mass. Evidence Report/Technology Assessment Number 56.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Evidence Report, which was requested by the NIH Office of Medical Applications Research for a State-of-the-Science Conference in early 2002, addresses several important topics including: (1) the causes and prevalence of inapparent adrenal masses iden...

B. Kupelnick D. DeVine E. Balk J. Lau J. P. A. Ioannidis K. Miller M. Rothberg P. Chew

2002-01-01

41

Annual Enrollment Report: Growth in Number of Students Studying Journalism and Mass Communication Slows.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Provides the key findings of the 2001 Annual Survey of Journalism and Mass Communication Enrollments. Shows that undergraduate enrollments continued to grow while graduate enrollments declined. Discusses degrees granted and race, ethnicity, and gender factors. (PM)|

Becker, Lee B.; Vlad, Tudor; Huh, Jisu; Daniels, George L.

2002-01-01

42

Recall of Massed and Distributed Items as a Function of the Number of Different Learning Cues.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

One of the most consistent recent findings is that recall and recognition of items occurring two or more times within a single trial is higher following a distributed-practice schedule (DP) than following a massed-practice schedule (MP). The reported expe...

J. J. Shaughnessy J. Zimmerman B. J. Underwood

1973-01-01

43

Countering Weapons of Mass Destruction: Looking Back, Looking Ahead (Occasional Paper, Number 7).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This occasional paper from the Center for the Study of Weapons of Mass Destruction examines the evolution of U.S. perceptions of the WMD threat and major responses to that threat from the Clinton administration through the first few months of the Obama ad...

J. J. Caves P. I. Bernstein W. S. Carus

2009-01-01

44

Phenomenology of the neutrino-mass-giving Higgs triplet and the low-energy seesaw violation of lepton number  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Small realistic Majorana neutrino masses can be generated via a Higgs triplet (?++,?+,?0) without having energy scales larger than M*=O(1) TeV in the theory. The large effective mass scale /? in the well-known seesaw neutrino-mass operator ?-1(LL??) is naturally obtained with ?~M*2/?, where /? is a small scale of lepton-number violation. In theories with large extra dimensions, the smallness of /? is naturally obtained by the mechanism of ``shining'' if the number of extra dimensions /n>=3. We study here the Higgs phenomenology of this model, where the spontaneous violation of lepton number is treated as an external source from extra dimensions. The observable decays ?++-- >li+lj+ will determine directly the magnitudes of the /{ij} elements of the neutrino mass matrix. The decays ?+-->W+J0 and ?0-->ZJ0, where J0 is the massless Goldstone boson (Majoron), are also possible, but of special importance is the decay ?0-->J0J0 which provides stringent constraints on the allowed parameter space of this model. Based on the current neutrino data, we also predict observable rates of /?-/e conversion in nuclei.

Ma, Ernest; Raidal, Martti; Sarkar, Utpal

2001-11-01

45

The number of information bits related to the minimum quantum and gravitational masses in a vacuum dominated universe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wesson obtained a limit on quantum and gravitational mass in the universe by combining the cosmological constant ?, Planck's constant ?, the speed of light c, and also the gravitational constant G. The corresponding masses are 2.0×10-62 kg and 2.3×1054 kg respectively, and in general can be obtained with the help of a generic dimensional analysis, or from an analysis where the cosmological constant appears in a four dimensional space-time and as a result of a higher dimensional reduction. In this paper our goal is to establish a relation for both quantum and gravitational mass as function of the information number bit N. For this reason, we first derive an expression for the cosmological constant as a function of information bit, since both masses depend on it, and then various resulting relations are explored, in relation to information number of bits N. Fractional information bits imply no information extraction is possible. We see, that the order of magnitude of the various parameters as well as their ratios involve the large number 10122, that is produced naturally from the fundamental parameters of modern cosmology. Finally, we propose that in a complete quantum gravity theory the idea of information the might have to be included, with the quantum bits of information ( q-bits) as one of its fundamental parameters, resulting thus to a more complete understanding of the universe, its laws, and its evolution.

Haranas, Ioannis; Gkigkitzis, Ioannis

2013-07-01

46

Influence of mileage accumulation on the particle mass and number emissions of two gasoline direct injection vehicles.  

PubMed

Gasoline direct injection (GDI) is a new engine technology intended to improve fuel economy and greenhouse gas emissions as required by recently enacted legislative and environmental regulations. The development of this technology must also ensure that these vehicles meet new LEV III and Tier 3 emissions standards as they phase in between 2017 and 2021. The aim of the present paper is to examine, at least for a small set, how the PM emissions from GDI vehicles change over their lifetime. The paper reports particle mass and number emissions of two GDI vehicles as a function of mileage up to 150K miles. These vehicles exhibit PM emissions that are near or below the upcoming 3 mg/mi FTP and 10 mg/mi US06 mass standards with little, if any, deterioration over 150K miles. Particle number emissions roughly follow the previously observed 2 × 10(12) particles/mg correlation between solid particle number and PM mass. They remained between the interim and final EU stage 6 solid particle count standard for gasoline vehicles throughout the mileage accumulation study. These examples demonstrate feasibility to meet near-term 3 mg/mi and interim EU solid particle number standards, but continued development is needed to ensure that this continues as further fuel economy improvements are made. PMID:24040936

Maricq, M Matti; Szente, Joseph J; Adams, Jack; Tennison, Paul; Rumpsa, Todd

2013-10-02

47

A comparative study of the number and mass of fine particles emitted with diesel fuel and marine gas oil (MGO)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current investigation reports on diesel particulate matter emissions, with special interest in fine particles from the combustion of two base fuels. The base fuels selected were diesel fuel and marine gas oil (MGO). The experiments were conducted with a four-stroke, six-cylinder, direct injection diesel engine. The results showed that the fine particle number emissions measured by both SMPS and ELPI were higher with MGO compared to diesel fuel. It was observed that the fine particle number emissions with the two base fuels were quantitatively different but qualitatively similar. The gravimetric (mass basis) measurement also showed higher total particulate matter (TPM) emissions with the MGO. The smoke emissions, which were part of TPM, were also higher for the MGO. No significant changes in the mass flow rate of fuel and the brake-specific fuel consumption (BSFC) were observed between the two base fuels.

Nabi, Md. Nurun; Brown, Richard J.; Ristovski, Zoran; Hustad, Johan Einar

2012-09-01

48

CPT and lepton number violation in the neutrino sector: Modified mass matrix and oscillation due to gravity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the consequences of CPT and lepton number violation in the neutrino sector. For CPT violation we take gravity with which neutrino and antineutrino couple differently. Gravity mixes neutrino and antineutrino in an unequal ratio to give two mass eigenstates. Lepton number violation interaction together with CPT violation gives rise to neutrino-antineutrino oscillation. Subsequently, we study the neutrino flavor mixing and oscillation under the influence of gravity. It is found that gravity changes flavor oscillation significantly which influences the relative abundance of different flavors in present universe. We show that the neutrinoless double beta decay rate is modified due to the presence of gravity—the origin of CPT violation, as the mass of the flavor state is modified.

Sinha, Monika; Mukhopadhyay, Banibrata

2008-01-01

49

Double-? transformations in isobaric triplets with mass numbers A=124, 130, and 136  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Q values of double-electron capture in 124Xe, 130Ba, and 136Ce and double-beta decay of 124Sn and 130Te have been determined with the Penning-trap mass spectrometer SHIPTRAP with a few hundred eV uncertainty. These nuclides are members of three isobaric triplets with common daughter nuclides. The main goal of this work was to investigate the existence of the resonant enhancement of the neutrinoless double-electron-capture rates in 124Xe and 130Ba in order to assess their suitability for the search for neutrinoless double-electron capture. Based on our results, in neither of these cases is the resonance condition fulfilled.

Nesterenko, D. A.; Blaum, K.; Block, M.; Droese, C.; Eliseev, S.; Herfurth, F.; Minaya Ramirez, E.; Novikov, Yu. N.; Schweikhard, L.; Shabaev, V. M.; Smirnov, M. V.; Tupitsyn, I. I.; Zuber, K.; Zubova, N. A.

2012-10-01

50

Indoor and outdoor PM mass and number concentrations at schools in the Athens area.  

PubMed

Simultaneous indoor and outdoor PM10 and PM2.5 concentration measurements were conducted in seven primary schools in the Athens area. Both gravimetric samplers and continuous monitors were used. Filters were subsequently analyzed for anion species. Moreover ultrafine particles number concentration was monitored continuously indoors and outdoors. Mean 8-hr PM10 concentration was measured equal to 229 +/- 182 microg/m3 indoors and 166 +/- 133 microg/m3 outdoors. The respective PM2.5 concentrations were 82 +/- 56 microg/m3 indoors and 56 +/- 26 microg/m3 outdoors. Ultrafine particles 8-h mean number concentration was measured equal to 24,000 +/- 17,900 particles/cm3 indoors and 32,000 +/- 14,200 particles/cm3 outdoors. PM10 outdoor concentrations exhibited a greater spatial variability than the corresponding PM2.5 ones. I/O ratios were close or above 1.00 for PM10 and PM2.5 and smaller than 1.00 for ultrafine particles. Very high I/O ratios were observed when intense activities took place. The initial results of the chemical analysis showed that SO4(-2) accounts for the 6.6 +/- 3.5% of the PM10 and NO3(1) for the 3.1 +/- 1.4%.The corresponding results for PM2.5 are 12.0 +/- 7.7% for SO4(-2) and 3.1 +/- 1.9% for NO3-. PM2.5 SO4(-2) indoor concentrations were highly correlated with outdoor ones and the regression line had the largest slope and a very low intercept, indicative of no indoor sources of fine particulate SO4(-2). The results of the statistical analysis of indoor and outdoor concentration data support the use of SO4(-2) as a proper surrogate for indoor PM of outdoor origin. PMID:17458512

Diapouli, E; Chaloulakou, A; Mihalopoulos, N; Spyrellis, N

2007-04-26

51

Endwall boundary layer, cylinder diameter, Reynoldsd number, and surface injection effects on local mass transfer from a cylinder in crossflow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A naphthalene sublimation technique is used to determine the circumferential and longitudinal variations of mass transfer from a smooth circular cylinder in a crossflow of air. The study is divided into two parts. In the first part, the effects of cylinder diameter and endwall boundary layer on the approaching flow are investigated for a cylinder Reynolds number of 10,000-80,000. High transfer coefficients are detected near the base of the cylinder, and enhancement of the mass transfer over values obtained where the flow is two-dimensional is seen up to a distance of 3.5 cylinder diameters from the tunnel wall. It is shown that the spanwise extent of the strip near the cylinder base where high coefficients are observed is proportional to the cylinder diameter. Mass transfer values near the endwall increase rapidly with Reynolds number; they also depend on the ratio of cylinder length to diameter (the aspect ratio) and the ratio of mainstream boundary layer displacement thickness to cylinder diameter.

Karni, J.

52

Interaction cross sections and radii of the mass number A=17 isobar (17N, 17F, and 17Ne)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interaction cross sections of mass number A=17 isobar (717N10, 917F8, and 1017Ne7) have been measured at around 700 MeV/nucleon. Effective root-mean-square (RMS) radii of the nucleon distribution of these nuclei have been deduced using Glauber-model calculation. A strong isospin dependence of the radii has been observed in the A=17 isobar, which shows an increase of the radii on the proton rich side from 17F to 17Ne. The radius of 17Ne is also found to be larger than that of its mirror nucleus 17N. The increase of the radius in 17Ne suggests its anomalous structure. One of the possibilities is that an inversion of the s and d orbitals occurs in this nucleus. The role of the centrifugal barrier in the formation of a halo is also discussed.

Ozawa, A.; Kobayashi, T.; Sato, H.; Hirata, D.; Tanihata, I.; Yamakawa, O.; Omata, K.; Sugimoto, K.; Olson, D.; Christie, W.; Wieman, H.

1994-08-01

53

Measurement of total acid number (TAN) and TAN boiling point distribution in petroleum products by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

We report a new method for rapid measurement of total acid number (TAN) and TAN boiling point (BP) distribution for petroleum crude and products. The technology is based on negative ion electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) for selective ionization of petroleum acid and quantification of acid structures and molecular weight distributions. A chip-based nanoelectrospray system enables microscale (<200 mg) and higher throughput (20 samples/h) measurement. Naphthenic acid structures were assigned based on nominal masses of a set of predefined acid structures. Stearic acid is used as an internal standard to calibrate ESI-MS response factors for quantification purposes. With the use of structure-property correlations, boiling point distributions of TAN values can be calculated from the composition. The rapid measurement of TAN BP distributions by ESI is demonstrated for a series of high-TAN crudes and distillation cuts. TAN values determined by the technique agree well with those by the titration method. The distributed properties compare favorably with those measured by distillation and measurement of TAN of corresponding cuts. PMID:18179248

Qian, Kuangnan; Edwards, Kathleen E; Dechert, Gary J; Jaffe, Stephen B; Green, Larry A; Olmstead, William N

2008-01-08

54

Mass  

SciTech Connect

In the classical physics we inherited from Isaac Newton, mass does not arise, it simply is. The mass of a classical object is the sum of the masses of its parts. Albert Einstein showed that the mass of a body is a measure of its energy content, inviting us to consider the origins of mass. The protons we accelerate at Fermilab are prime examples of Einsteinian matter: nearly all of their mass arises from stored energy. Missing mass led to the discovery of the noble gases, and a new form of missing mass leads us to the notion of dark matter. Starting with a brief guided tour of the meanings of mass, the colloquium will explore the multiple origins of mass. We will see how far we have come toward understanding mass, and survey the issues that guide our research today.

Quigg, Chris (Fermilab)

2007-12-05

55

The influence of the Henry number on the conjugate mass transfer from a sphere: II – mass transfer accompanied by a first-order chemical reaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conjugate mass transfer between a sphere and a surrounding fluid flow in the presence of an isothermal, first-order irreversible\\u000a chemical reaction occurring either in the continuous or in the dispersed phase has been analysed. Two sphere models, the sphere\\u000a with rigid interface and the sphere with mobile interface and internal circulation, have been studied. Creeping flow is assumed.\\u000a The mass

Gh. Juncu

2002-01-01

56

Determination of mass attenuation coefficients, effective atomic and electron numbers, mean free paths and kermas for PbO, barite and some boron ores  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The total mass attenuation coefficients, ?m, for PbO, barite, colemanite, tincal and ulexite were determined at 80.1, 302.9, 356.0, 661.7 and 1250.0 keV photon energies by using NaI (Tl) scintillation detector. Effective atomic number, Zeff, effective electron number, Neff, total atomic cross-section, ?t, total electronic cross-section, ?e, mean free path, mfp, and kerma relative to air were determined experimentally and theoretically. The theoretical mass attenuation coefficients were estimated using mixture rule. The calculated values were compared with the experimental values for all samples.

Un, A.; Sahin, Y.

2011-07-01

57

GENERAL: Normally-Ordered Time Evolution Operator for Mass-Varying Harmonic Oscillator and Wigner Function of Squeezed Number State  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For investigating dynamic evolution of a mass-varying harmonic oscillator we constitute a ket-bra integration operator in coherent state representation and then perform this integral by virtue of the technique of integration within an ordered product of operators. The normally ordered time evolution operator is thus obtained. We then derive the Wigner function of u(t)|nrangle, where |nrangle is a Fock state, which exhibits a generalized squeezing, the squeezing effect is related to the varying mass with time.

Tang, Xu-Bing; Xu, Xue-Fen; Fan, Hong-Yi

2010-07-01

58

Mass Media in the Developing Countries; A Unesco Report to the United Nations. Reports and Papers on Mass Communication, Number 33.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|There is statistical evidence to show that the expansion of a nation's economy is paralleled by the expansion of its media. Almost 70 per cent of the world's population, spread over 100 countries, does not have basic mass information facilities. These areas are always underdeveloped and lack facilities for formal education. It is a principle of…

United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

59

USE OF THE ANALYTICAL-AND-NUMERICAL-COMBINED METHOD IN THE FREE VIBRATION ANALYSIS OF A RECTANGULAR PLATE WITH ANY NUMBER OF POINT MASSES AND TRANSLATIONAL SPRINGS  

Microsoft Academic Search

By means of the analytical-and-numerical-combined method (ANCM), the natural frequencies and the corresponding mode shapes of a uniform rectangular flat plate carrying any number of point masses and translational springs are determined. The boundary (supported) conditions of the plate and the magnitudes and locations of the concentrated elements are arbitrary. First, the closed form solution of the natural frequencies and

J.-S. Wu; S.-S. Luo

1997-01-01

60

A comparative investigation of ultrafine particle number and mass emissions from a fleet of on-road diesel and CNG buses.  

PubMed

Particle number, particle mass, and CO2 concentrations were measured on the curb of a busy urban busway used entirely by a mix of diesel and CNG operated buses. With the passage of each bus, the ratio of particle number concentration and particle mass concentration to CO2 concentration in the diluted exhaust plume were used as measures of the particle number and mass emission factors, respectively. With all buses accelerating pastthe monitoring point, the results showed that the median particle mass emission from CNG buses was less than 9% of that from diesel buses. However, the median particle number emission from CNG buses was 6 times higher than the diesel buses, and the particles from the CNG buses were mainly in the nanoparticle size range. Using a thermodenuder to remove the volatile material from the sampled emissions showed that the majority of particles from the CNG buses, but not from the diesel buses, were volatile. Approximately, 82% of the particles from the CNG buses and 38% from the diesel buses were removed by heating the emissions to 300 degrees C. PMID:18800557

Jayaratne, E R; He, C; Ristovski, Z D; Morawska, L; Johnson, G R

2008-09-01

61

ANALYSIS OF RESPIRATORY DEPOSITION OF INHALED PARTICLES FOR DIFFERENT DOSE METRICS: COMPARISON OF NUMBER, SURFACE AREA AND MASS DOSE OF TYPICAL AMBIENT BI-MODAL AEROSOLS  

EPA Science Inventory

ANALYSIS OF RESPIRATORY DEPOSITION OF INHALED PARTICLES FOR DIFFERENT DOSE METRICS: COMPARISON OF NUMBER, SURFACE AREA AND MASS DOSE OF TYPICAL AMBIENT BI-MODAL AEROSOLS. Chong S. Kim, SC. Hu*, PA Jaques*, US EPA, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, ...

62

Daily Mortality and Fine and Ultrafine Particles in Erfurt, Germany. Part I: Role of Particle Number and Particle Mass.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Epidemiologic studies have shown an association between airborne particles and mortality data, but uncertainty persists as to which aspects of the particle mixture are the driving force underlying observed associations. Further, only a small number of stu...

H. E. Wichmann C. Spix T. Tuch G. Wolke A. Peters J. Heinrich W. G. Kreyling J. Heyder

2000-01-01

63

Long-term measurements of particle number size distributions and the relationships with air mass history and source apportionment in the summer of Beijing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A series of long-term and temporary measurements were conducted to study the improvement of air quality in Beijing during Olympic Games period (8-24 August 2008). To evaluate actions taken to improve the air quality, comparisons of particle number and volume size distributions of August 2008 and 2004-2007 were performed. The total particle number and volume concentrations were 14 000 cm-3 and 37 ?m3 cm-3 in August of 2008, respectively. These were reductions of 41% and 35% compared with the mean values of August 2004-2007. A cluster analysis on air mass history and source apportionment were performed, exploring reasons of the reduction of particle concentrations. Back trajectories were classified into five major clusters. Air mass from south direction are always associated with pollution events during the summertime of Beijing. In August 2008, the frequency of air mass arriving from south has been twice higher compared to the average of the previous years, these southerly air masses did however not result in elevated particle volume concentrations in Beijing. This result implied that the air mass history was not the key factor, explaining reduced particle number and volume concentrations during the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games. Four factors were found influencing particle concentrations using a Positive matrix factorization (PMF) model. They were identified to local and remote traffic emissions, combustion sources as well as secondary transformation. The reductions of the four sources were calculated to 47%, 44%, 43% and 30%, respectively. The significant reductions of particle number and volume concentrations may attribute to actions taken, focusing on primary emissions, especially related to the traffic and combustion sources.

Wang, Z. B.; Hu, M.; Wu, Z. J.; Yue, D. L.; He, L. Y.; Huang, X. F.; Liu, X. G.; Wiedensohler, A.

2013-02-01

64

Formation of residual nuclei with medium mass number in the reaction of protons with separated tin isotopes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanism of formation of residual nuclei in the mass region 42?A?81 in the reactions of protons with separated tin isotopes at three protons energies 0.66, 1.0 and 8.1 GeV was investigated. The absolute cross-sections of the residual nuclei were compared with the theoretical ones calculated by the standard cascade-evaporation and the intranuclear cascad plus statistical multifragmentation models (INC+SMM). It

V. Aleksandryan; J. Adam; A. Balabekyan; A. S. Danagulyan; V. G. Kalinnikov; G. Musulmanbekov; V. K. Rodionov; V. I. Stegailov; J. Frana

2000-01-01

65

The Number Density and Mass Density of Star-forming and Quiescent Galaxies at 0.4 <= z <= 2.2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the buildup of the bimodal galaxy population using the NEWFIRM Medium-Band Survey, which provides excellent redshifts and well-sampled spectral energy distributions of ?27, 000 galaxies with K < 22.8 at 0.4 < z < 2.2. We first show that star-forming galaxies and quiescent galaxies can be robustly separated with a two-color criterion over this entire redshift range. We then study the evolution of the number density and mass density of quiescent and star-forming galaxies, extending the results of the COMBO-17, DEEP2, and other surveys to z = 2.2. The mass density of quiescent galaxies with M >~ 3 × 1010 M sun increases by a factor of ~10 from z ~ 2 to the present day, whereas the mass density in star-forming galaxies is flat or decreases over the same time period. Modest mass growth by a factor of ~2 of individual quiescent galaxies can explain roughly half of the strong density evolution at masses >1011 M sun, due to the steepness of the exponential tail of the mass function. The rest of the density evolution of massive, quiescent galaxies is likely due to transformation (e.g., quenching) of the massive star-forming population, a conclusion which is consistent with the density evolution we observe for the star-forming galaxies themselves, which is flat or decreasing with cosmic time. Modest mass growth does not explain the evolution of less massive quiescent galaxies (~1010.5 M sun), which show a similarly steep increase in their number densities. The less massive quiescent galaxies are therefore continuously formed by transforming galaxies from the star-forming population.

Brammer, Gabriel B.; Whitaker, K. E.; van Dokkum, P. G.; Marchesini, D.; Franx, M.; Kriek, M.; Labbé, I.; Lee, K.-S.; Muzzin, A.; Quadri, R. F.; Rudnick, G.; Williams, R.

2011-09-01

66

The droplet number moments approach to spray modelling: The development of heat and mass transfer sub-models  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past most poly-disperse spray models have been based on either discretising the liquid flow field into groups of equally sized droplets, as in the discrete droplet model (DDM) in which parcels of drops are tracked in space in a Lagrangian framework, or by solving separate Eulerian conservation equations for a number of size ranges. Both of these approaches

J. C. Beck; A. P. Watkins

2003-01-01

67

Near-Infrared Properties of Moderate-Redshift Galaxy Clusters. II. Halo Occupation Number, Mass-to-Light Ratios, and ?m  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using K-band imaging for 15 of the Canadian Network for Observational Cosmology (CNOC1) clusters we examine the near-infrared properties of moderate-redshift (0.19number of K-band selected cluster galaxies within R500 (the halo occupation number, HON) is well correlated with the cluster dynamical mass (M 500) and X-ray temperature (TX); however, the intrinsic scatter in these scaling relations is 37% and 46%, respectively. Comparison with clusters in the local universe shows that the HON-M500 relation does not evolve significantly between z=0 and z~0.3. This suggests that if dark matter halos are disrupted or undergo significant tidal stripping in high-density regions as seen in numerical simulations, the stellar mass within the halos is tightly bound, and not removed during the process. The total K-band cluster light (L200,K) and K-band-selected richness (parameterized by Bgc,K) are also correlated with both the cluster TX and M200. The total (intrinsic) scatter in the L200,K-M200 and Bgc,K-M200 relations are 43% (31%) and 35% (18%), respectively, and indicates that for massive clusters both L200,K and Bgc,K can predict M200 with accuracy similar to that of TX, LX, or optical richness (Bgc). Examination of the mass-to-light ratios of the clusters shows that similarly to local clusters, the K-band mass-to-light ratio is an increasing function of halo mass. Using the K-band mass-to-light ratios of the clusters, we apply the Oort technique and find ?m,0=0.22+/-0.02, which agrees well with recent combined concordance cosmology parameters, but, similarly to previous cluster studies, is on the low-density end of preferred values.

Muzzin, Adam; Yee, H. K. C.; Hall, Patrick B.; Lin, H.

2007-07-01

68

Number Size Distribution, Mass Concentration, and Particle Composition of PM1, PM2.5, and PM10 in Bag Filling Areas of Carbon Black Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Number size characteristics and PM10 mass concentrations of particles emitted during the packaging of various kinds of carbon blacks were measured continuously in the bag filling areas of three carbon black plants and concurrently at ambient comparison sites. PM10, PM2.5, and PM1 dust fractions were also determined in the bag filling areas. The filter samples were then analyzed for elemental

T. A. J. Kuhlbusch; S. Neumann; H. Fissan

2004-01-01

69

Long-term measurements of particle number size distributions and the relationships with air mass history and source apportionment in the summer of Beijing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A series of long-term and temporary measurements were conducted to study the improvement of air quality in Beijing during the Olympic Games period (8-24 August 2008). To evaluate actions taken to improve the air quality, comparisons of particle number and volume size distributions of August 2008 and 2004-2007 were performed. The total particle number and volume concentrations were 14 000 cm-3 and 37 ?m-3 cm-3 in August of 2008, respectively. These were reductions of 41% and 35% compared with mean values of August 2004-2007. A cluster analysis on air mass history and source apportionment were performed, exploring reasons for the reduction of particle concentrations. Back trajectories were classified into five major clusters. Air masses from the south direction are always associated with pollution events during the summertime in Beijing. In August 2008, the frequency of air mass arriving from the south was 1.3 times higher compared to the average of the previous years, which however did not result in elevated particle volume concentrations in Beijing. Therefore, the reduced particle number and volume concentrations during the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games cannot be only explained by meteorological conditions. Four factors were found influencing particle concentrations using a positive matrix factorization (PMF) model. They were identified as local and remote traffic emissions, combustion sources as well as secondary transformation. The reductions of the four sources were calculated to 47%, 44%, 43% and 30%, respectively. The significant reductions of particle number and volume concentrations may attribute to actions taken, focusing on primary emissions, especially related to the traffic and combustion sources.

Wang, Z. B.; Hu, M.; Wu, Z. J.; Yue, D. L.; He, L. Y.; Huang, X. F.; Liu, X. G.; Wiedensohler, A.

2013-10-01

70

Bottom-flavored hadrons from top-quark decay at next-to-leading order in the general-mass variable-flavor-number scheme  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the scaled-energy (xB) distribution of bottom-flavored hadrons (B) inclusively produced in top-quark decays at next-to-leading order (NLO) in the general-mass variable-flavor-number scheme endowed with realistic, nonperturbative fragmentation functions that are obtained through a global fit to e+e- data from CERN LEP1 and SLAC SLC exploiting their universality and scaling violations. Specifically, we study the effects of gluon fragmentation and finite bottom-quark and B-hadron masses. We find the NLO corrections to be significant. Gluon fragmentation leads to an appreciable reduction in the partial decay width at low values of xB. Hadron masses are responsible for the low-xB threshold, while the bottom-quark mass is of minor importance. Neglecting the latter, we also study the doubly differential distribution d2?/(dxBdcos?) of the partial width of the decay t?bW+?B?+??+X, where ? is the decay angle of the charged lepton in the W-boson rest frame.

Kniehl, Bernd A.; Kramer, Gustav; Moosavi Nejad, Seyed M.

2012-09-01

71

Studies on mass attenuation coefficient, effective atomic number and electron density of some amino acids in the energy range 0.122-1.330 MeV  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The total mass attenuation coefficients of some amino acids, such as Glycine (C2H5NO2), DL-Alanine (C3H7NO2), Proline (C5H9NO2), L-Leucine (C6H13NO2 ), L-Arginine (C6H14N4O2) and L-Arginine Monohydrochloride (C6H15ClN4O2), were measured at 122, 356, 511, 662, 1170, 1275 and 1330 keV photon energies using a well-collimated narrow beam good geometry set-up. The gamma rays were detected using NaI (Tl) scintillation detection system with a resolution of 10.2% at 662 keV. The attenuation coefficient data were then used to obtain the effective atomic numbers (Zeff) and effective electron densities (Neff) of amino acids. It was observed that the effective atomic number (Zeff) and effective electron densities (Neff) tend to be almost constant as a function of gamma-ray energy. The results show that, the experimental values of mass attenuation coefficients, effective atomic numbers and effective electron densities are in good agreement with the theoretical values with less than 1% error.

Pawar, Pravina P.; Bichile, Govind K.

2013-11-01

72

An Experimental Modeling and Investigation of Change in Cold Mass Fraction and Nozzle Numbers on Performance of Counter Flow Vortex Tube  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experimental investigation has been performed to realize thorough behavior of a vortex tube system. The vortex tube is a simple device operating as a refrigerating unit without any moving parts. It consists of a principal tube, to which a high pressure gas stream enters tangentially where it splits into two streams: one hot and one cold temperature streams. This paper discusses the experimental investigation of vortex tube performance as it relates to cold mass fraction, and nozzle number. Four different orifices, each with three, four, five and six nozzles respectively, were manufactured and used during the test. The experiments have been conducted with each one of those orifices stated above, and the performance of the vortex tube has been tested with air at inlet pressure of 5 bar and the cold mass fractions of 0.5-0.72.

Mohanty, S. S.; Ray, D. K.

2012-06-01

73

Near-Infrared Properties of Moderate-Redshift Galaxy Clusters: Halo Occupation Number, Mass-to-Light Ratios and Omega(M)  

SciTech Connect

Using K-band imaging for 15 of the Canadian Network for Observational Cosmology (CNOC1) clusters we examine the near-infrared properties of moderate-redshift (0.19 < z < 0.55) galaxy clusters. We find that the number of K-band selected cluster galaxies within R{sub 500} (the Halo Occupation Number, HON) is well-correlated with the cluster dynamical mass (M{sub 500}) and X-ray Temperature (T{sub x}); however, the intrinsic scatter in these scaling relations is 37% and 46% respectively. Comparison with clusters in the local universe shows that the HON-M{sub 500} relation does not evolve significantly between z = 0 and z {approx} 0.3. This suggests that if dark matter halos are disrupted or undergo significant tidal-stripping in high-density regions as seen in numerical simulations, the stellar mass within the halos is tightly bound, and not removed during the process. The total K-band cluster light (L{sub 200},K) and K-band selected richness (parameterized by B{sub gc,K}) are also correlated with both the cluster T{sub x} and M{sub 200}. The total (intrinsic) scatter in the L{sub 200,K}-M{sub 200} and B{sub gc,K}-M{sub 200} relations are 43%(31%) and 35%(18%) respectively and indicates that for massive clusters both L{sub 200,K} and B{sub gc,K} can predict M{sub 200} with similar accuracy as T{sub x}, L{sub x} or optical richness (B{sub gc}). Examination of the mass-to-light ratios of the clusters shows that similar to local clusters, the K-band mass-to-light ratio is an increasing function of halo mass. Using the K-band mass-to-light ratios of the clusters, we apply the Oort technique and find {Omega}{sub m,0} = 0.22 {+-} 0.02, which agrees well with recent combined concordance cosmology parameters, but, similar to previous cluster studies, is on the low-density end of preferred values.

Muzzin, Adam; Yee, H.K.C.; /Toronto U., Astron. Dept.; Hall, Patrick B.; /York U., Canada; Lin, Huan; /Fermilab

2007-03-01

74

Accomodational dependence of the heat- and mass-transfer processes in a multiatomic gas in a capillary with arbitrary knudsen numbers  

SciTech Connect

Processes of heat and mass transfer of a multiatomic gas in a cylindrical capillary due to the longitudinal pressure and temperature gradients are considered, with arbitrary Knudsen numbers. The problem is solved on the basis of a linearized kinetic equation with a model collisional term taking account of the excitation of rotational and vibrational degrees of freedom of the molecules. The contributions of internal degrees of freedom of the molecules to the thermal fluxes are analyzed. The dependence of these fluxes on the character of the interaction between the molecules and the channel surface is considered.

Chermyaninov, I.V.; Chernyak, V.G.; Fomyagin, G.A.

1986-05-01

75

Extension to Higher Mass Numbers of an Improved Knockout-Ablation-Coalescence Model for Secondary Neutron and Light Ion Production in Cosmic Ray Interactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Purpose: An analytical knockout-ablation-coalescence model capable of making quantitative predictions of the neutron spectra from high-energy nucleon-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions is being developed for use in space radiation protection studies. The FORTRAN computer code that implements this model is called UBERNSPEC. The knockout or abrasion stage of the model is based on Glauber multiple scattering theory. The ablation part of the model uses the classical evaporation model of Weisskopf-Ewing. In earlier work, the knockout-ablation model has been extended to incorporate important coalescence effects into the formalism. Recently, alpha coalescence has been incorporated, and the ability to predict light ion spectra with the coalescence model added. The earlier versions were limited to nuclei with mass numbers less than 69. In this work, the UBERNSPEC code has been extended to make predictions of secondary neutrons and light ion production from the interactions of heavy charged particles with higher mass numbers (as large as 238). The predictions are compared with published measurements of neutron spectra and light ion energy for a variety of collision pairs. Furthermore, the predicted spectra from this work are compared with the predictions from the recently-developed heavy ion event generator incorporated in the Monte Carlo radiation transport code HETC-HEDS.

Indi Sriprisan, Sirikul; Townsend, Lawrence; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Miller, Thomas M.

76

B mesons from top-quark decay in the presence of the charged Higgs boson in the zero-mass variable-flavor-number scheme  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the energy spectrum of the inclusive bottom-flavored mesons in top-quark decay into a charged-Higgs boson and a massless bottom quark at next-to-leading order (NLO) in the two-Higgs-doublet model. To extract the result we work in the Zero-Mass Variable-Flavor-Number scheme (ZM-VFNs) using realistic nonperturbative fragmentation functions obtained through a global fit to e+e- data from CERN LEP1 and SLAC SLC on the Z-boson resonance. We study both the contribution of the bottom quark fragmentation and the gluon fragmentation to produce the bottom-flavored meson (B-Meson). We find that the contribution of the gluon leads to an appreciable reduction in decay rate at low values of the B-meson energy. It means the NLO corrections are significant.

Moosavi Nejad, S. Mohammad

2012-03-01

77

Estimation of size-resolved ambient particle density based on the measurement of aerosol number, mass, and chemical size distributions in the winter in Beijing.  

PubMed

Simultaneous measurements of aerosol size, distribution of number, mass, and chemical compositions were conducted in the winter of 2007 in Beijing using a Twin Differential Mobility Particle Sizer and a Micro Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor. Both material density and effective density of ambient particles were estimated to be 1.61 ± 0.13 g cm(-3) and 1.62 ± 0.38 g cm(-3) for PM(1.8) and 1.73 ± 0.14 g cm(-3) and 1.67 ± 0.37 g cm(-3) for PM(10). Effective density decreased in the nighttime, indicating the primary particles emission from coal burning influenced the density of ambient particles. Size-resolved material density and effective density showed that both values increased with diameter from about 1.5 g cm(-3) at the size of 0.1 ?m to above 2.0 g cm(-3) in the coarse mode. Material density was significantly higher for particles between 0.56 and 1.8 ?m during clean episodes. Dynamic Shape Factors varied within the range of 0.95-1.13 and decreased with particle size, indicating that coagulation and atmospheric aging processes may change the shape of particles. PMID:22458861

Hu, Min; Peng, Jianfei; Sun, Kang; Yue, Dingli; Guo, Song; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Wu, Zhijun

2012-08-30

78

Three years of aerosol mass, black carbon and particle number concentrations at Montsec (southern~Pyrenees, 1570 m a.s.l.)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Time variation of mass particulate matter (PM1 and PM1-10), black carbon (BC) and particle number (N) concentrations at the high altitude site of Montsec (MSC) in the southern Pyrenees was interpreted for the period 2010-2012. The MSC site registered higher PM10 (12 ?g m-3) and N > 7 nm (2209 # cm-3) concentrations than those measured at other high altitude sites in central Europe (PM10: 3-9 ?g m-3 and N: 634-2070 # cm-3). By contrast, BC concentrations at MSC (0.2 ?g m-3) were equal or even lower than those measured at these European sites (0.2-0.4 ?g m-3). These differences were attributed to the lower influence of anthropogenic emissions and to the higher relevance of Saharan dust transport and new particle formation (NPF) processes at MSC. The different time variation of PM and BC concentrations compared with that of N suggests that these aerosol parameters were governed by diverse factors at MSC. Both PM and BC concentrations showed marked differences for different meteorological scenarios, with enhanced concentrations under North African outbreaks (PM1-10: 13 ?g m-3, PM1: 8 ?g m-3 and BC: 0.3 ?g m-3) and low concentrations when Atlantic advections occurred (PM1-10: 5 ?g m-3, PM1: 4 ?g m-3 and BC: 0.1 ?g m-3). Because of the contrasting origin of the air masses in the warmer seasons (spring and summer) and in the colder seasons (autumn and winter), PM and BC concentrations showed a marked increase in summer, with a secondary maximum in early spring, and were at their lowest during winter. The maximum in the warmer seasons was attributed to long-range transport processes which mask the breezes and regional transport breaking the daily cycles of these pollutants. By contrast, PM and BC concentrations showed clear diurnal cycles with maxima at midday in the colder seasons. A statistically significant weekly variation was also obtained for the BC concentrations, displaying a progressive increase from Tuesday to Saturday, followed by a significant decrease on Sunday and Monday. N concentrations depended more on local meteorological variables such as solar radiation than on the air mass origin. Therefore, the highest concentrations of N were associated with summer regional episodes (N > 3 nm: 4461 # cm-3 and N > 7 nm: 3021 # cm-3) and the lowest concentrations were related to winter regional scenarios (N > 3 nm: 2496 # cm-3 and N > 7 nm: 1073 # cm-3). This dependence on solar radiation also accounted for the marked diurnal cycle of N concentrations throughout the year with a peak at midday and for the absence of a weekly pattern. Measurements carried out at MSC enabled us to characterize the tropospheric background aerosols in the Western Mediterranean Basin (WMB). Our results highlight the importance of the NPF processes in southern Europe, reveal much lower anthropogenic emissions than in central Europe, and underline the contribution of natural long-range transport such as Saharan dust.

Ripoll, A.; Pey, J.; Minguillón, M. C.; Pérez, N.; Pandolfi, M.; Querol, X.; Alastuey, A.

2013-10-01

79

AEJMC: 75 Years in the Making--A History of Organizing for Journalism and Mass Communication Education in the United States. Journalism Monographs Number 104.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Commissioned by the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (AEJMC), this monograph presents the highlights of the history of organized efforts to improve education for journalism in the United States and to stimulate studies in the field of mass communication. Following brief biographies of the AEJMC founding fathers,…

Emery, Edwin; McKerns, Joseph P.

1987-01-01

80

A NEW APPROACH FOR DETERMINING THE NATURAL FREQUENCIES AND MODE SHAPES OF A UNIFORM BEAM CARRYING ANY NUMBER OF SPRUNG MASSES  

Microsoft Academic Search

In theory, one may obtain five equations from each attaching point of a spring–mass system and two boundary–equations from each end of the uniform beam. Hence, for a uniform beam carryingnspring–mass systems, simultaneous equations of the form [B]{C}=0] will be obtained. The solutions of ?B?=0(where ?·? represents a determinant) give the natural frequencies of the “constrained” beam and the substitution

J.-S. Wu; H.-M. Chou

1999-01-01

81

Dependences of the Pion Yields in the pi exp - +A Implies pi exp +- +X, p+A Implies pi exp + +X Inclusive Reactions at 162 Deg on the Energy and Mass Number A.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Dependences of the pion yields in the pi exp - +A implies pi exp +- +X and p+A implies pi exp + +X inclusive reactions at 162 deg on the mass number A and the incident particle momentum psub(o) have been measured at 1.5 <= psub(o) <= 8.5 GeV/C. Carbon, co...

N. A. Burgov M. K. Vlasov L. S. Vorob'ev

1978-01-01

82

Number Track  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students can use this interactive Flash applet to practice ordering whole numbers within 20. The applet displays a track and number tiles, which the user drags to create the correct sequence of numbers 1 through 20. Users may choose from four levels: place 5 missing numbers, place 10 numbers, arrange all 20 numbers, or create your own challenge.

Bunker, Dan

2010-01-01

83

Number Models  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are given a worksheet with a representation of a number in base-ten blocks. Students are asked to write the number with numerals and determine how the number changes, when blocks are added and taken away.

Sherdan, Danielle

2010-07-26

84

Evaluation of electrospray ionisation liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry for rational determination of a number of neuroleptics and their major metabolites in human body fluids and tissues  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of liquid chromatography–triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC–MS–MS) with positive electrospray ionisation (ESI) for the determination of selected drugs in human tissues and body fluids such as blood, urine and hair is described. The possibility to screen for and quantify the 19 most commonly prescribed neuroleptics on the Swedish market and determine the presence of their major metabolites within

M Josefsson; R Kronstrand; J Andersson; M Roman

2003-01-01

85

Some thoughts on the muon-catalyzed fusion process for antimatter propulsion and for the production of high A mass numbers antinuclei  

SciTech Connect

The muon-catalyzed fusion process has a very valuable role for antiproton science and technology. Several schemes of propulsion energy enhancement of the antiproton-fueled propulsion using the muon-catalyzed fusion are discussed. Production of high A mass antinuclei by the muon-catalyzed fusion using the clustered antihydrogen molecule and quark-gluon plasma formation by annihilation of the produced high A antimatter with regular nuclei are discussed. 22 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Takahashi, Hiroshi

1987-01-01

86

Divergent Selection for Heat Loss in Mice: II. Correlated Responses in Feed Intake, Body Mass, Body Composition, and Number Born Through Fifteen Generations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Divergent selection for heat loss (kcal•kg-.75•d-1) , measured in 9- to 11-wk-old male mice, was conducted for 15 generations. Selection for high (MH) and low (ML) heat loss and unselected control (MC) occurred in each of three replicates for a total of nine unique lines. Feed intake in males was measured during Generations 9 through 15. Body mass at commencement

Merlyn K. Nielsen; B. A. Freking; L. D. Jones; S. M. Nelson; T. L. Vorderstrasse; B. A. Hussey

1997-01-01

87

Observations of different core water cluster ions Y-(H2O)n (Y = O2, HOx, NOx, COx) and magic number in atmospheric pressure negative corona discharge mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Reliable mass spectrometry data from large water clusters Y(-)(H(2)O)(n) with various negative core ions Y(-) such as O(2)(-), HO(-), HO(2)(-), NO(2)(-), NO(3)(-), NO(3)(-)(HNO(3))(2), CO(3)(-) and HCO(4)(-) have been obtained using atmospheric pressure negative corona discharge mass spectrometry. All the core Y(-) ions observed were ionic species that play a central role in tropospheric ion chemistry. These mass spectra exhibited discontinuities in ion peak intensity at certain size clusters Y(-)(H(2)O)(m) indicating specific thermochemical stability. Thus, Y(-)(H(2)O)(m) may correspond to the magic number or first hydrated shell in the cluster series Y(-)(H(2)O)(n). The high intensity discontinuity at HO(-)(H(2)O)(3) observed was the first mass spectrometric evidence for the specific stability of HO(-)(H(2)O)(3) as the first hydrated shell which Eigen postulated in 1964. The negative ion water clusters Y(-)(H(2)O)(n) observed in the mass spectra are most likely to be formed via core ion formation in the ambient discharge area (760 torr) and the growth of water clusters by adiabatic expansion in the vacuum region of the mass spectrometers (?1 torr). The detailed mechanism of the formation of the different core water cluster ions Y(-)(H(2)O)(n) is described. PMID:21184434

Sekimoto, Kanako; Takayama, Mitsuo

2011-01-01

88

Number Factory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive game develops fluency and flexibility with whole number operations. In each round the player is given 4 single-digit whole numbers, presented in the context of a factory. The player uses each number exactly once with the interactive calculator to arrive as close as possible to a given target number.

Doorman, Michiel

2003-01-01

89

Number Sense  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this online math game from Cyberchase, learners play against Hacker in a place value game. The goal is to make a number bigger than the one created by Hacker's number machine. Learners select the numbers in the order in which they want them to go into their machine. The challenge is to either make a number larger than the one on Hacker's machine or realize that it's impossible to make a number bigger than Hacker's, no matter what the combination.

Wnet.org

2011-01-01

90

Acquired Drive Strength as a Joint Function of Ucs Intensity and Number of Cs-Ucs Pairings: The Effect of Massed and Distributed Cs-Ucs Pairings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The empirical law relating acquired drive strength, as measured by the latency of a hurdle-jump response, to UCS intensity and number of CS-UCS pairings was investigated. The effect on acquired drive strength of varying the intervals between successive CS-UCS pairings was also investigated. Ss were 150 male albino rats, 125–160 days old. The apparatus was the classically conditioned fear apparatus.

Melvin L. Goldstein

1976-01-01

91

NUMBER SENSE  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will practice counting to 100, making numbers with base ten blocks and practicing ordinal numbers! Math is FUN! Lets have fun practicing counting to 100 ! Click when you are ready!Counting Now that you have practiced counting to 100, lets use the base ten blocks to make the number that is on the screen. Click when you are ready!Working with Base Ten Blocks We have now practiced counting and making numbers, lets ...

Simpson, Ms.

2007-10-27

92

Leftist Numbers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The leftist number system consists of numbers with decimal digits arranged in strings to the left, instead of to the right. This system fails to be a field only because it contains zerodivisors. The same construction with prime base yields the p-adic numbers.|

Rich, Andrew

2008-01-01

93

Number Time  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article features Number Time, a site developed by the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) for young mathematics learners, located at www.bbc.co.uk/schools/numbertime. The site uses interactive animation to help children in pre-K through grade 2 understand and practice number basics. Users will find online games, videos that tell number

Herrera, Terese A.

2004-01-01

94

Number theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Number theory, an abstract branch of mathematics that deals with relationships between whole numbers, has provided highly useful answers to numerous real-world problems. The author briefly reviews earlier uses of number theory and then examines recent applications to music, cryptography, and error-correction codes

M. R. Schroeder

1989-01-01

95

Number Factory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive Java applet promotes number sense, estimation, and provides practice with order of operations. The player's goal is to make a numerical expression using the four given numbers and the four basic operations with the result being the target number (or as close as they can get to it). The student can also use brackets in their calculation.

Doorman, Michiel

2012-01-07

96

Superharmonic numbers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Let tau(n) denote the number of positive divisors of a natural number n>1 and let sigma(n) denote their sum. Then n is superharmonic if sigma(n)mid n^ktau(n) for some positive integer k . We deduce numerous properties of superharmonic numbers and show in particular that the set of all superharmonic numbers is the first nontrivial example that has been given of an infinite set that contains all perfect numbers but for which it is difficult to determine whether there is an odd member.

Cohen, Graeme L.

2009-03-01

97

Number Balance  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This open-ended interactive Flash applet helps students develop operation and number sense, facility with number facts, and understanding of equations. Users designate single-digit whole numbers or integers and operations on both sides of an equation and test for balance. Users can enter numbers by using the keyboard or arrow buttons or by dragging number tiles. Each element can be hidden and a seesaw may be toggled on/off. Teachers may use this applet to lead instruction, or students may use it independently to perform specific investigations or explore freely. Supplementary documents include Objectives, containing teaching suggestions, and a student recording sheet.

Bunker, Dan

2005-01-01

98

Mass, quark-number, and sqrt sNN dependence of the second andfourth flow harmonics in ultra-relativistic nucleus-nucleuscollisions  

SciTech Connect

We present STAR measurements of the azimuthal anisotropyparameter v_2 for pions, kaons, protons, Lambda, bar Lambda, Xi+bar Xi,and \\Omega + bar Omega, along with v_4 for pions, kaons, protons, andLambda + bar Lambda at mid-rapidity for Au+Au collisions at sqrt sNN=62.4and 200 GeV. The v_2(p_T) values for all hadron species at 62.4 GeV aresimilar to those observed in 130 and 200 GeV collisions. For observedkinematic ranges, v_2 values at 62.4, 130, and 200 GeV are as little as10 percent-15 percent larger than those in Pb+Pb collisions at sqrt s NN=17.3 GeV. At intermediate transverse momentum (p_T from 1.5-5 GeV/c),the 62.4 GeV v_2(p_T) and v_4(p_T) values are consistent with thequark-number scaling first observed at 200 GeV. A four-particle cumulantanalysis is used to assess the non-flow contributions to pions andprotons and some indications are found for a smaller non-flowcontribution to protons than pions. Baryon v_2 is larger than anti-baryonv_2 at 62.4 and 200 GeV perhaps indicating either that the initialspatial net-baryon distribution is anisotropic, that the mechanismleading to transport of baryon number from beam- to mid-rapidity enhancesv_2, or that anti-baryon and baryon annihilation is larger in thein-plane direction.

Abelev, B.I.; Adams, J.; Aggarwal, M.M.; Ahammed, Z.; Amonett,J.; Anderson, B.D.; Anderson, M.; Arkhipkin, D.; Averichev, G.S.; Bai,Y.; Balewski, J.; Barannikova, O.; Barnby, L.S.; Baudot, J.; Bekele, S.; Belaga, V.V.; Bellingeri-Laurikainen, A.; Bellwied, R.; Benedosso, F.; Bhardwaj, S.; Bhasin, A.; Bhati, A.K.; Bichsel, H.; Bielcik, J.; Bielcikova, J.; Bland, L.C.; Blyth, S.-L.; Bonner, B.E.; Botje, M.; Bouchet, J.; Brandin, A.V.; Bravar, A.; Bystersky, M.; Cadman, R.V.; Cai,X.Z.; Caines, H.; Calderon de la Barca Sanchez, M.; Castillo, J.; Catu,O.; Cebra, D.; Chajecki, Z.; Chaloupka, P.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chen,H.F.; Chen, J.H.; Cheng, J.; Cherney, M.; Chikanian, A.; Christie, W.; Coffin, J.P.; Cormier, T.M.; Cosentino, M.R.; Cramer, J.G.; Crawford,H.J.; Das, D.; Das, S.; Daugherity, M.; de Moura, M.M.; Dedovich, T.G.; DePhillips, M.; Derevschikov, A.A.; Didenko, L.; Dietel, T.; Djawotho,P.; Dogra, S.M.; Dong, W.J.; Dong, X.; Draper, J.E.; Du, F.; Dunin, V.B.; Dunlop, J.C.; Dutta Mazumdar, M.R.; Eckardt, V.; Edwards, W.R.; Efimov,L.G.; Emelianov, V.; Engelage, J.; Eppley, G.; Erazmus, B.; Estienne, M.; Fachini, P.; Fatemi, R.; Fedorisin, J.; Filimonov, K.; Filip, P.; Finch,E.; Fine, V.; Fisyak, Y.; Fu, J.; Gagliardi, C.A.; Gaillard, L.; Ganti,M.S.; Ghazikhanian, V.; Ghosh, P.; Gonzalez, J.S.; Gorbunov, Y.G.; Gos,H.; Grebenyuk, O.; Grosnick, D.; Guertin, S.M.; Guimaraes, K.S.F.F.; Guo,Y.; Gupta, N.; Gutierrez, T.D.; Haag, B.; Hallman, T.J.; Hamed, A.; Harris, J.W.; He, W.; Heinz, M.; Henry, T.W.; Hepplemann, S.; Hippolyte,B.; Hirsch, A.; Hjort, E.; Hoffman, A.M.; Hoffmann, G.W.; Horner, M.J.; Huang, H.Z.; Huang, S.L.; Hughes, E.W.; Humanic, T.J.; Igo, G.; Jacobs,P.; Jacobs, W.W.; Jakl, P.; Jia, F.; Jiang, H.; Jones, P.G.; Judd, E.G.; Kabana, S.; Kang, K.; Kapitan, J.; Kaplan, M.; Keane, D.; Kechechyan, A.; Khodyrev, V.Yu.; Kim, B.C.; Kiryluk, J.; Kisiel, A.; Kislov, E.M.; Klein,S.R.; Kocoloski, A.; Koetke, D.D.; et al.

2007-01-06

99

Mass, quark-number, and sNN dependence of the second and fourth flow harmonics in ultrarelativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present STAR measurements of the azimuthal anisotropy parameter v2 for pions, kaons, protons, ?,?¯,?+?¯, and ?+?¯, along with v4 for pions, kaons, protons, and ?+?¯ at midrapidity for Au+Au collisions at sNN=62.4 and 200 GeV. The v2(pT) values for all hadron species at 62.4 GeV are similar to those observed in 130 and 200 GeV collisions. For observed kinematic ranges, v2 values at 62.4, 130, and 200 GeV are as little as 10 15% larger than those in Pb+Pb collisions at sNN=17.3 GeV. At intermediate transverse momentum (pT from 1.5 5 GeV/c), the 62.4 GeV v2(pT) and v4(pT) values are consistent with the quark-number scaling first observed at 200 GeV. A four-particle cumulant analysis is used to assess the nonflow contributions to pions and protons and some indications are found for a smaller nonflow contribution to protons than pions. Baryon v2 is larger than antibaryon v2 at 62.4 and 200 GeV, perhaps indicating either that the initial spatial net-baryon distribution is anisotropic, that the mechanism leading to transport of baryon number from beam- to midrapidity enhances v2 or that antibaryon and baryon annihilation is larger in the in-plane direction.

Abelev, B. I.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Ahammed, Z.; Anderson, B. D.; Arkhipkin, D.; Averichev, G. S.; Bai, Y.; Balewski, J.; Barannikova, O.; Barnby, L. S.; Baudot, J.; Baumgart, S.; Bekele, S.; Belaga, V. V.; Bellingeri-Laurikainen, A.; Bellwied, R.; Benedosso, F.; Betts, R. R.; Bhardwaj, S.; Bhasin, A.; Bhati, A. K.; Bichsel, H.; Bielcik, J.; Bielcikova, J.; Bland, L. C.; Blyth, S.-L.; Bombara, M.; Bonner, B. E.; Botje, M.; Bouchet, J.; Brandin, A. V.; Bravar, A.; Burton, T. P.; Bystersky, M.; Cadman, R. V.; Cai, X. Z.; Caines, H.; Sánchez, M. Calderón De La Barca; Callner, J.; Castillo, J.; Catu, O.; Cebra, D.; Chajecki, Z.; Chaloupka, P.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chen, H. F.; Chen, J. H.; Cheng, J.; Cherney, M.; Chikanian, A.; Christie, W.; Chung, S. U.; Coffin, J. P.; Cormier, T. M.; Cosentino, M. R.; Cramer, J. G.; Crawford, H. J.; Das, D.; Das, S.; Dash, S.; Daugherity, M.; Moura, M. M. De; Dedovich, T. G.; Dephillips, M.; Derevschikov, A. A.; Didenko, L.; Dietel, T.; Djawotho, P.; Dogra, S. M.; Dong, X.; Drachenberg, J. L.; Draper, J. E.; Du, F.; Dunin, V. B.; Dunlop, J. C.; Mazumdar, M. R. Dutta; Eckardt, V.; Edwards, W. R.; Efimov, L. G.; Emelianov, V.; Engelage, J.; Eppley, G.; Erazmus, B.; Estienne, M.; Fachini, P.; Fatemi, R.; Fedorisin, J.; Filimonov, K.; Filip, P.; Finch, E.; Fine, V.; Fisyak, Y.; Fu, J.; Gagliardi, C. A.; Gaillard, L.; Ganti, M. S.; Garcia-Solis, E.; Ghazikhanian, V.; Ghosh, P.; Gorbunov, Y. G.; Gos, H.; Grebenyuk, O.; Grosnick, D.; Guertin, S. M.; Guimaraes, K. S. F. F.; Gupta, N.; Haag, B.; Hallman, T. J.; Hamed, A.; Harris, J. W.; He, W.; Heinz, M.; Henry, T. W.; Hepplemann, S.; Hippolyte, B.; Hirsch, A.; Hjort, E.; Hoffman, A. M.; Hoffmann, G. W.; Hofman, D.; Hollis, R.; Horner, M. J.; Huang, H. Z.; Huang, S. L.; Hughes, E. W.; Humanic, T. J.; Igo, G.; Iordanova, A.; Jacobs, P.; Jacobs, W. W.; Jakl, P.; Jia, F.; Jones, P. G.; Judd, E. G.; Kabana, S.; Kang, K.; Kapitan, J.; Kaplan, M.; Keane, D.; Kechechyan, A.; Kettler, D.; Khodyrev, V. Yu.; Kim, B. C.; Kiryluk, J.; Kisiel, A.; Kislov, E. M.; Klein, S. R.; Knospe, A. G.; Kocoloski, A.; Koetke, D. D.; Kollegger, T.; Kopytine, M.; Kotchenda, L.; Kouchpil, V.; Kowalik, K. L.; Kravtsov, P.; Kravtsov, V. I.; Krueger, K.; Kuhn, C.; Kulikov, A. I.; Kumar, A.; Kurnadi, P.; Kuznetsov, A. A.; Lamont, M. A. C.; Landgraf, J. M.; Lange, S.; Lapointe, S.; Laue, F.; Lauret, J.; Lebedev, A.; Lednicky, R.; Lee, C.-H.; Lehocka, S.; Levine, M. J.; Li, C.; Li, Q.; Li, Y.; Lin, G.; Lin, X.; Lindenbaum, S. J.; Lisa, M. A.; Liu, F.; Liu, H.; Liu, J.; Liu, L.; Liu, Z.; Ljubicic, T.; Llope, W. J.; Long, H.; Longacre, R. S.; Love, W. A.; Lu, Y.; Ludlam, T.; Lynn, D.; Ma, G. L.; Ma, J. G.; Ma, Y. G.; Magestro, D.; Mahapatra, D. P.; Majka, R.; Mangotra, L. K.; Manweiler, R.; Margetis, S.; Markert, C.; Martin, L.; Matis, H. S.; Matulenko, Yu. A.; McClain, C. J.; McShane, T. S.; Melnick, Yu.; Meschanin, A.; Millane, J.; Miller, M. L.; Minaev, N. G.; Mioduszewski, S.; Mironov, C.; Mischke, A.; Mishra, D. K.; Mitchell, J.; Mohanty, B.; Molnar, L.; Moore, C. F.; Morozov, D. A.; Munhoz, M. G.; Nandi, B. K.; Nattrass, C.; Nayak, T. K.; Nelson, J. M.; Nepali, C.; Netrakanti, P. K.; Nogach, L. V.; Nurushev, S. B.; Odyniec, G.; Ogawa, A.; Okorokov, V.; Oldenburg, M.; Olson, D.; Pachr, M.; Pal, S. K.; Panebratsev, Y.; Pavlinov, A. I.; Pawlak, T.; Peitzmann, T.; Perevoztchikov, V.; Perkins, C.; Peryt, W.; Phatak, S. C.; Planinic, M.; Pluta, J.; Poljak, N.; Porile, N.; Porter, J.; Poskanzer, A. M.; Potekhin, M.; Potrebenikova, E.; Potukuchi, B. V. K. S.; Prindle, D.; Pruneau, C.; Putschke, J.; Qattan, I. A.; Rakness, G.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Ray, R. L.; Razin, S. V.; Reinnarth, J.; Relyea, D.; Ridiger, A.; Ritter, H. G.; Roberts, J. B.; Rogachevskiy, O. V.; Romero, J. L.; Rose, A.; Roy, C.; Ruan, L.; Russcher, M. J.; Sahoo, R.; Sakuma, T.; Salur, S.; Sandweiss, J.; Sarsour, M.; Sazhin, P. S.; Schambach, J.; Scharenberg, R. P.; Schmitz, N.; Schweda, K.; Seger, J.; Selyuzhenkov, I.; Seyboth, P.; Shabetai, A.; Shahaliev, E.; Shao, M.; Sharma, M.; Shen, W. Q.; Shimanskiy, S. S.; Sichtermann, E. P.; Simon, F.; Singaraju, R. N.; Smirnov, N.; Snellings, R.; Sorensen, P.; Sowinski, J.; Speltz, J.; Spinka, H. M.; Srivastava, B.; Stadnik, A.; Stanislaus, T. D. S.; Staszak, D.; Stock, R.; Stolpovsky, A.; Strikhanov, M.; Stringfellow, B.; Suaide, A. A. P.; Suarez, M. C.; Subba, N. L.; Sugarbaker, E.; Sumbera, M.; Sun, Z.; Surrow, B.; Swanger, M.; Symons, T. J. M.; Toledo, A. Szanto De; Takahashi, J.; Tang, A. H.; Tarnowsky, T.; Thomas, J. H.; Timmins, A. R.; Timoshenko, S.; Tokarev, M.; Trainor, T. A.; Trentalange, S.; Tribble, R. E.; Tsai, O. D.; Ulery, J.; Ullrich, T.; Underwood, D. G.; Buren, G. Van; Kolk, N. Van Der; Leeuwen, M. Van

2007-05-01

100

Number Patterns  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Java applet allows users to practice recognizing patterns with integers and completing a sequence of numbers by adding or subtracting a common difference. The user is given the first five terms of a number pattern and asked to complete the pattern with the next two numbers. There is a check answer button for feedback and a new pattern button for additional practice. Instructions for users and teacher information are available through links at the top of the page.

2005-09-30

101

Number Grid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With this interactive Flash applet, intended for use with a projector or interactive white board, teachers can help students understand place value and the structure of our number system. Shapes can be placed on the 100 chart; students use number patterns to determine which numbers are hidden under the shapes. By choosing Hide or Highlight and then selecting specific rows or columns to hide or highlight, the teacher can adjust the challenge level or bring attention to parts of the chart.

2012-01-01

102

Number Cruncher  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this online puzzle game, learners need to choose a path from a starting number to a goal number. Along the path are simple operations (e.g. add 1, subtract 2, multiply by 2) to change the current number to a new number. This is a good challenge for young learners. When learners set up a free account at Kinetic City, they can answer bonus questions at the end of the activity as a quick assessment. As a larger assessment, learners can complete the Bug Blaster game after they've completed several activities.

Science, American A.

2009-01-01

103

Number Grids and Number Triangles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Practice counting, counting by tens, place value, and fact families by entering your answers into the blank boxes; click the big blue and green buttons to check your work. Each of the five levels of Number Grid activities displays a section of a matrix containing a set of of consecutive whole numbers. A move from one number to the next within a row corresponds to a change of one; a move from one number to the next within a column refers to a change of ten. The three levels of Number Triangle activities provide practice with fact families and inverse relationships through flash cards. An addition/subtraction Number Triangle has two addends and a sum; a multiplication/division Number Triangle has two factors and a product.

Brown, Quincy; Fetter, Annie

2006-08-01

104

Number Watch  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

John Brignell, Professor Emeritus from the Department of Electronics & Computer Science at the University of Southampton, is the author of this informal website "devoted to the monitoring of the misleading numbers that rain down on us via the media." Brignell says he aims to "nail" a few of the "Single Issue Fanatics (SIFs), politicians, bureaucrats, quasi-scientists (junk, pseudo- or just bad)," who use misleading numbers to write catchy articles or who try to keep numbers away from public notice. Since April 2000, he has been posting a "number of the month" as well as a "number for the year," which offer his commentary on media usage of misleading numbers and explanations for why the numbers are misleading. He also posts book reviews and an extensive list of online resources on statistics and statistics education. The FAQ section includes answers to some interesting questions, such as "Is there such a thing as average global temperature?" and some more basic questions such as "What is the Normal Distribution and what is so normal about it?" The Bits and Pieces section includes a variety of short articles on statistics and his definitions for some terms he uses on the website. Visitors are also invited to join the discussion forum (complete with a few advertisements) and view comments by others who want to discuss "wrong numbers in science, politics and the media." A few comments sent to Brignell and his responses are also posted online. This site is also reviewed in the February 11, 2005_NSDL MET Report_.

105

Contrast in air pollution components between major streets and background locations: Particulate matter mass, black carbon, elemental composition, nitrogen oxide and ultrafine particle number  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Policies to reduce outdoor air pollution concentrations are often assessed on the basis of the regulated pollutants. Whether these are the most appropriate components to assess the potential health benefits is questionable, as other health-relevant pollutants may be more strongly related to traffic. The aim of this study is to compare the contrast in concentration between major roads and (sub)urban background for a large range of pollutants and to analyze the magnitude of the measured difference in the street - background for major streets with different street configurations. Measurements of PM 10, PM 2.5, particle number concentrations (PNC), black carbon (BC), elemental composition of PM 10 and PM 2.5 and NO x were conducted simultaneously in eight major streets and nine (sub)urban background locations in the Netherlands. Measurements were done six times for a week during a six month period in 2008. High contrasts between busy streets and background locations in the same city were found for chromium, copper and iron (factor 2-3). These elements were especially present in the coarse fraction of PM. In addition, high contrasts were found for BC and NO x (factor 1.8), typically indicators of direct combustion emissions. The contrast for PNC was similar to BC. NO 2 contrast was lower (factor 1.5). The largest contrast was found for two street canyons and two streets with buildings at one side of the street only. The contrast between busy streets and urban background in NO 2 was less than the contrast found for BC, PNC and elements indicative of non-exhaust emissions, adding evidence that NO 2 is not representing (current) traffic well. The study supports a substantial role for non-exhaust emissions including brake- and tyre wear and road dust in addition to direct combustion emissions. Significant underestimation of disease burden may occur when relying too much on the regulated components.

Boogaard, Hanna; Kos, Gerard P. A.; Weijers, Ernie P.; Janssen, Nicole A. H.; Fischer, Paul H.; van der Zee, Saskia C.; de Hartog, Jeroen J.; Hoek, Gerard

2011-01-01

106

Complex Numbers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Written by Tony R. Kuphaldt and Jason Starck, this chapter of All About Circuit's second volume on Alternating Current describes complex numbers: "In order to successfully analyze AC circuits, we need to work with mathematical objects and techniques capable of representing these multi-dimensional quantities. Here is where we need to abandon scalar numbers for something better suited: complex numbers." In addition to the introduction and credits to contributors, the chapter has seven sections: Vectors and AC waveforms, Simple vector addition, Complex vector addition, Polar and rectangular notation, Complex number arithmetic, More on AC "polarity," and Some examples with AC circuits. Each section has clear illustrations and a concise, bulleted review of what was covered at the end.

Kuphaldt, Tony R.

2008-07-15

107

Number Patterns  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are given a worksheet and asked to identify and extend the growing or repeating numerical patterns. Students develop their own number pattern and create a model showing the pattern and the next three stages of the pattern.

Cornwell, Susan

2010-07-22

108

Number Fun  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We will work on number sense. Play a fun counting game. IXL Counting Review Help Curious George count chicks! Count Your Chickens! Help Sagwa count the fish. Counting Fish Rescue the octopi by counting! Octopus Count Play the five frame games! Five Frame Game ...

Hoffmann, Mrs.

2011-08-05

109

Number Patterns  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, learners are challenged to discover the relationship among six numbers. The objective of this activity is to engage learners in a problem-solving situation in which they practice aspects of the process of science. Learners can use an included Science Flowchart to chart their scientific experience. This lesson serves as a good introduction to the nature of scientific inquiry.

Scotchmoor, Judy

2010-01-01

110

Numbers Sense  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports on work undertaken by schools as part of Qualifications and Curriculum Authority's (QCA's) "Engaging mathematics for all learners" project. The goal was to use in the classroom, materials and approaches from a Royal Institution (Ri) Year 10 master-class, "Number Sense", which was inspired by examples from Michael Blastland and…

Kathotia, Vinay

2009-01-01

111

Number Cruncher  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Similar to the original "Function Machine" but lists input and output in a table and will not let the user attempt to guess the rule without having at least two data points. Number Cruncher is one of the Interactivate assessment explorers.

112

Number Sense!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Perform operations with whole numbers, simple fractions, and decimals. 1. Begin your work at the Comparing Fractions website. Complete 10 problems. 2. When you are finished Comparing Fractions, I\\'m sure you will hunger for more! Click on the website, Who Wants Pizza? These activities are sure to fill your brain with nutritious information. 3. Explore Egyptian ...

Painter, Ms.

2006-10-27

113

Number Pairs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With this interactive Flash applet students make use of complements of 10 to develop fluency with addition within 100. Users "repair" a water slide by selecting pairs of numbers that add to 20 in the first round, and then to 100. In successive rounds they may choose to practice with any multiple of 10 from 30 to 90.

Bunker, Dan

2010-01-01

114

Bead Numbers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page links to an interactive Flash abacus that helps develop and reinforce pupils' understanding of place value. [Click "Start the Activity" to begin.] The abacus has three pegs (representing units, tens and hundreds) onto which users drop beads. The activity has two areas: a "free" (unstructured) area where pupils can represent 3-digit numbers, and a "computer questions" area that presents six challenging tasks to carry out. The page includes notes for teachers and pupils.

Netmedia

2011-01-01

115

Value Numbering  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Value numbering is a compiler-based program analysis method that allows redundant computations to be removed. This paper compares hash-based approaches derived from the classic local algorithm1 with partitioning approaches based on the work of Alpern, Wegman, and Zadeck2. Historically, the hash-based algorithm has been applied to single basic blocks or extended basic blocks. We have improved the technique to

Preston Briggs; Keith D. Cooper; L. Taylor Simpson

1997-01-01

116

Fermat Numbers and Mersenne Numbers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An IBM 7090 computer program, and results of testing Mersenne numbers M sub p = (2 raised to the power p) - 1 with p prime, p < 5000, have been described by Hurwitz. This paper describes modifications made to his program, and further computational results...

J. L. Selfridge A. Hurwitz

1968-01-01

117

Avogadro Number and Mole: A Royal Confusion.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|There is a great deal of confusion in physics and chemistry textbooks, dictionaries, manuals, and handbooks about the definition of Avogadro's number and the term "mole." Avogadro's number is defined simply as the number of atomic mass units in one gram. Mole is defined as the mass of one Avogadro number of identical items. (Author/PR)|

Emiliani, Cesare

1991-01-01

118

Recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST) administration to creep-fed beef calves increases muscle mass but does not affect satellite cell number or concentration of myosin light chain-1f mRNA.  

PubMed

Our objective in this study was to determine the effect of recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST) on indices of muscle development in creep-fed beef calves. Crossbred steer calves were assigned to one of two treatment groups: control (sham-injected; n = 12) or rbST-treated (.09 mg x kg(-1) x d(-1); n = 12). Calves were injected every 14 d starting at d 28 of age and were weaned at 205 d of age. Supplemental creep feed was supplied free access to all calves to compensate for an expected increased protein and energy requirement in calves given rbST. Biopsy (d 100) and slaughter (d 206) samples of semitendinosus muscle were evaluated for satellite cell, myofiber nuclei numbers, and myosin light chain (MLC-1f) mRNA quantification. Myofiber nuclei and satellite cell numbers per 100 myofibers and MLC-1f mRNA:rRNA ratios at 100 and 206 d of age were not different (P > .10) between control and rbST-treated calves. Total gain, ADG, quality grade, femur length, percentage kidney, pelvic, and heart fat, dressing percentage, plasma IGF-I, and plasma urea nitrogen concentrations did not differ (P > .10) between control and rbST-treated calves. However, rbST-treated calves had larger longissimus muscle areas (P < .03), less marbling (P < .001), higher carcass conformation scores (P < .04), greater mass of separated muscle (P < .03), more ground meat (P < .01), and heavier carcass weights (P < .05) than control calves. Thus, rbST treatment increased muscle characteristics while nuclei number and MLC-1f mRNA concentrations remained the same, implying that the additional muscle growth was in a normal fashion. PMID:9621943

Vann, R C; Althen, T G; Smith, W K; Veenhuizen, J J; Smith, S B

1998-05-01

119

The combination of inhibitors of FGF/MEK/Erk and GSK3? signaling increases the number of OCT3/4- and NANOG-positive cells in the human inner cell mass, but does not improve stem cell derivation.  

PubMed

In embryonic stem cell culture, small molecules can be used to alter key signaling pathways to promote self-renewal and inhibit differentiation. In mice, small-molecule inhibition of both the FGF/MEK/Erk and the GSK3? pathways during preimplantation development suppresses hypoblast formation, and this results in more pluripotent cells of the inner cell mass (ICM). In this study, we evaluated the effects of different small-molecule inhibitors of the FGF/MEK/Erk and GSK3? pathway on embryo preimplantation development, early lineage segregation, and subsequent embryonic stem cell derivation in the humans. We did not observe any effect on blastocyst formation, but small-molecule inhibition did affect the number of OCT3/4- and NANOG-positive cells in the human ICM. We found that combined inhibition of the FGF/MEK/Erk and GSK3? pathways by PD0325901 and CHIR99021, respectively, resulted in ICMs containing significantly more OCT3/4-positive cells. Inhibition of FGF/MEK/Erk alone as well as in combination with inhibition of GSK3? significantly increased the number of NANOG-positive cells in blastocysts possessing good-quality ICMs. Secondly, we verified the influence of this increased pluripotency after 2i culture on the efficiency of stem cell derivation. Similar human embryonic stem cell (hESC) derivation rates were observed after 2i compared to control conditions, resulting in 2 control hESC lines and 1 hESC line from an embryo cultured in 2i conditions. In conclusion, we demonstrated that FGF/MEK/Erk and GSK3? signaling increases the number of OCT3/4- and NANOG-positive cells in the human ICM, but does not improve stem cell derivation. PMID:22784186

Van der Jeught, Margot; O'Leary, Thomas; Ghimire, Sabitri; Lierman, Sylvie; Duggal, Galbha; Versieren, Karen; Deforce, Dieter; Chuva de Sousa Lopes, Susana; Heindryckx, Björn; De Sutter, Petra

2012-08-06

120

Neutrino mass  

SciTech Connect

Neutrinos play a dominant role in both particle physics, astrophysics, and cosmology. In the our present understanding of the strong, weak, and electromagnetic forces, the group structure of the Standard Model is SU(3){sub C} {circle_times} SU(2){sub L} {circle_times} U(I){sub EM}. In the Weinberg-Salam-Glashow Standard Electroweak Model, left-handed neutrinos sit in a doublet, while right-handed neutrinos are in a singlet, and therefore do not interact with the other known particles. Also in this model, the neutrinos are intrinsically massless. However, while the W-S-G model provides an amazingly accurate picture of our present cold Universe, It has a number of deficits. The Standard Model does not explain the origin of the group structure, It does not reduce the number of coupling constants required, nor does it offer any prediction for the physical masses of the particles. Thus, it is generally assumed that the Standard Model is but a subset of some larger gauge theory. A wide variety of Grand Unified field Theories (GUTs), Super Symmetric Models (SUSY), and Superstring models have been proposed as the model for this larger structure. In general, these models predict nonzero neutrino masses and contain mechanisms that provide for lepton-number violation. Thus, a variety of new phenomena are predicted, including finite neutrino masses and the possibility that neutrinos can oscillate from one type to another. This report looks at the possibility of detecting neutrino vat mass.

Bowles, T.J.

1993-04-01

121

Neutrino mass  

SciTech Connect

Neutrinos play a dominant role in both particle physics, astrophysics, and cosmology. In the our present understanding of the strong, weak, and electromagnetic forces, the group structure of the Standard Model is SU(3)[sub C] [circle times] SU(2)[sub L] [circle times] U(I)[sub EM]. In the Weinberg-Salam-Glashow Standard Electroweak Model, left-handed neutrinos sit in a doublet, while right-handed neutrinos are in a singlet, and therefore do not interact with the other known particles. Also in this model, the neutrinos are intrinsically massless. However, while the W-S-G model provides an amazingly accurate picture of our present cold Universe, It has a number of deficits. The Standard Model does not explain the origin of the group structure, It does not reduce the number of coupling constants required, nor does it offer any prediction for the physical masses of the particles. Thus, it is generally assumed that the Standard Model is but a subset of some larger gauge theory. A wide variety of Grand Unified field Theories (GUTs), Super Symmetric Models (SUSY), and Superstring models have been proposed as the model for this larger structure. In general, these models predict nonzero neutrino masses and contain mechanisms that provide for lepton-number violation. Thus, a variety of new phenomena are predicted, including finite neutrino masses and the possibility that neutrinos can oscillate from one type to another. This report looks at the possibility of detecting neutrino vat mass.

Bowles, T.J.

1993-01-01

122

Paint by Number  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Only in America, one might say, would artistic self-expression be so successfully mass produced, commodified, and regimented. Nevertheless, in a brave attempt at recuperation, the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of American History offers this new Website on the popular 1950s' hobby of painting by number from the perspective of "the artists and entrepreneurs who created the popular paint kits, the cultural critics who reviled them, and the hobbyists who happily completed them and hung them in their homes." Taking a decidedly cultural studies approach, the Website stresses the pleasures derived from the activity as well as the modifications to the kits made by many participants. It also places the phenomenon in the context of the culture of the 1950s, particularly its expansion of leisure time. There are plenty of images here of the creation of the numbers kits as well as representations of the finished product. A bibliography and a bulletin board for posting reminiscences about painting by number are also provided. The authors claim the hobby, which pretty much died out in the 1960s, had the "peculiarly American virtue" of inviting people "who never held a brush before to enter a world of art and creativity." The editors invite our readers to be the judge of that.

2001-01-01

123

High Mode Number VIV Experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a A simple equation is presented which provides the maximum achievable mode number for a flexible cylinder, towed by the top\\u000a end with a weight at the bottom end. The maximum achievable mode number, while towing in still water, is shown to depend primarily\\u000a on mass ratio, length to diameter ratio and the maximum allowable angle of departure from vertical at

J. Kim Vandiver; Ayden Marcollo

124

Space Congress, 28th, Cocoa Beach, FL, Apr. 23-26, 1991, Proceedings  

SciTech Connect

The present conference on aerospace developments and issues encompasses interstellar and space-exploration initiatives, commercial space development, science payloads, space shuttle derivatives, space education, and Space Station activities. Specific issues addressed include magnetic shielding for interplanetary spacecraft, a launch-site comparison between the earth, moon, and Mars, the Spacehab approach, commercial infrastructure participation in the Space Station Freedom (SSF), the science uses of tethered satellites in low planetary orbits, and enabling life-sciences research on the SSF. Also addressed are simulations of shuttle and derivative-vehicle processing, daily operations that support the Global Positioning System, the utilization of common pressured modules on the SSF, the development of ground- and space-based laser systems, the crisis in human capital, and the automated servicing of scientific payloads aboard orbiting laboratories.

Not Available

1991-01-01

125

The KLL and KLM Auger spectra of 3 d transition metals, Z = 23–26  

Microsoft Academic Search

High resolution (1.0–1.6 eV) X-ray excited KLL and KLM Auger spectra and the respective Auger parameters of V, Cr, Mn and Fe, obtained from thin metallic layers, are reported. The corresponding experimental (Auger) transition energies (the first high resolution experimental data except for Mn) and relative Auger intensities are compared with data obtained earlier following electron capture in the decay

A. Némethy; L. Kövér; I. Cserny; D. Varga; P. B. Barna

1996-01-01

126

Lepton family number violation  

SciTech Connect

At present there is evidence from neutrino oscillation searches that the neutrinos are in fact massive particles and that they mix. If confirmed, this would imply that the conservation of LFN is not exact. Lepton family number violation (LFNV) has been searched for with impressive sensitivities in many processes involving charged leptons. The present experimental limits on some of them (those which the author shall consider here) are shown in Table 1. These stringent limits are not inconsistent with the neutrino oscillation results since, given the experimental bounds on the masses of the known neutrinos and the neutrino mass squared differences required by the oscillation results, the effects of LFNV from neutrino mixing would be too small to be seen elsewhere (see Section 2). The purpose of experiments searching for LFNV involving the charged leptons is to probe the existence of other sources of LFNV. Such sources are present in many extensions of the SM. In this lecture the author shall discuss some of the possibilities, focusing on processes that require muon beams. Other LFNV processes, such as the decays of the kaons and of the {tau}, provide complementary information. In the next Section he shall consider some sources of LFNV that do not require an extension of the gauge group of the SM (the added leptons or Higgs bosons may of course originate from models with extended gauge groups). In Section 3 he discusses LFNV in left-right symmetric models. In Section 4 he considers LFNV in supersymmetric models, first in R-parity conserving supersymmetric grand unified models, and then in the minimal supersymmetric standard model with R-parity violation. The last section is a brief summary of the author`s conclusions.

Herczeg, P.

1999-03-01

127

Number Sense Series: Developing Early Number Sense  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The author of this one-page article discusses early number sense and how it develops. She provides research background and suggests teaching strategies that promote early number sense, including instructions for simple games using dot cards. The article includes a list of references and a link to a follow-up article, "A Sense of 'ten' and Place Value" (cataloged separately).

Way, Jenni

2005-10-01

128

Number Square Puzzle: 10 Missing Numbers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity for the interactive white board (free access with registration) allows the learner to explore the patterns in the hundreds chart and notice the relationships between the numbers in the horizontal and vertical puzzles. Users drag and drop the individual numbers back in their correct places in the blank 10 X 10 grid.

2012-07-19

129

Kindergarten Number Sense  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Let\\'s learn about numbers! How many Fish? Count the Fish Let\\'s count! How many... Matching is fun! Match the number How well do I really know these numbers? Getting to know the numbers Counting the kids Kids on the bus We love Ants! Count the ants Flying into the univerise of numbers Rocket ...

Estes, Mrs.

2007-11-02

130

Number and Operations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The study of numbers and operations is the cornerstone of the mathematics curriculum. Learning what numbers mean, how they may be represented, relationships among them, and computations with them is central to developing number sense.

K-12 Outreach,

131

Multiplication Series: Number Arrays  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This one-page article describes and illustrates how arrays can be used to represent many number concepts, including building multiplication facts, commutativity, parity (odd/even), and exploring factors, prime numbers, and square numbers.

2002-10-01

132

Breakup of an oxygen nucleus to light fragments of mass number in the range A ? 4 in 16O p interactions at a momentum of 3.25 GeV/ c per nucleon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New experimental data on the correlations of the yields of 4He and 2H nuclei in semi-inclusive reactions involving by the production of 3He and 3H mirror nuclei in 16O p collisions at a momentum of 3.25 GeV/ c per nucleon are presented. The mean multiplicities of protons and neutrons appearing as fragments are found to be independent of the number of associated deuterons, this indicating that a considerable part of these fragments originate from the breakup of the alpha-particle clusters forming the oxygen nucleus.

Olimov, K.; Glagolev, V. V.; Gulamov, K. G.; Kurbanov, A.; Lutpullaev, S. L.; Olimov, A. K.; Petrov, V. I.; Yuldashev, A. A.

2012-04-01

133

[Specific features of the numbers and structure of the population of Proteocephalus longicollis (Zeder 1800) (Cestoda: Proteocephalidea)--a mass parasite of whitefish Coregonus lavaretus L. under conditions of technogenic pollution of the water body].  

PubMed

The numbers, age structure, and morphological variation of the cestode Proteocephalus longicollis from whitefish of a natural water body (Kamennoe Lake) and those of Kostomuksha Lake polluted with wastes of the mining industry (Northern Karelia) have been studied. In the polluted water body, a high infestation of whitefish and domination of larval stages in the structure of the parasite population have been established. It is shown that under conditions of pollution, only one of the variations ofscolex signs dominates in the structure of phenotypic diversity. The size indices of cestodes are reliably smaller as compared with cestodes from the natural water body. The data obtained indicate that technogenic pollution determines a decrease in the intrapopulation diversity of P. longiocollis, and a decrease in the values of morphometric characters indicates inhibition of the morphophysiological state of individuals. PMID:22988762

Anikeeva, L V; Ieshko, E P; Il'mast, N V; Lebedeva, D I; Kuchko, Ia A

134

Sum-Difference Numbers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Starting with an interesting number game sometimes used by school teachers to demonstrate the factorization of integers, "sum-difference numbers" are defined. A positive integer n is a "sum-difference number" if there exist positive integers "x, y, w, z" such that n = xy = wz and x ? y = w + z. This paper characterizes all sum-difference numbers

Shi, Yixun

2010-01-01

135

Children's psychology of number  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is about the method by which young children learn the nature of number. By arguments in the language of the primitives, in the history of number, and in the modern approaches to teaching number concepts, we establish that numbers are understood by most people to be qualitative, rather than quantitative. Accordingly, we employ this idea to conduct real

Tong Monbill; Chiu Souyung

1983-01-01

136

Numbers and Operations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Numbers, Matching and Addition Let\\'s count How many chicks are there? Great! Now lets try Number Match Let\\'s try Seahorse Counting Now Concentrate on Concentration Number Match Addition Practice Quick Adding and Robot Addition Make the number with Base 10 ...

Williams, Mrs.

2008-04-03

137

Operations on fuzzy numbers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fuzzy number is a fuzzy subset of the real line whose highest membership values are clustered around a given real number called the mean value ; the membership function is monotonia on both sides of this mean value. In this paper, the usual algebraic operations on real numbers are extended to fuzzy numbers by the use of a fuzzification

DIDIER DUBOIS; HENRI PRADE

1978-01-01

138

The Kaprekar Numbers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The (decimal) n-Kaprekar numbers are defined and are shown to be in one-one correspondence with the unitary divisors of 10^n - 1. In particular, this establishes the correctness of an algorithm for generating the Kaprekar numbers proposed by Charosh in 1981. The even perfect numbers are shown to be Kaprekar numbers in the binary base.

Iannucci, Douglas E.

2000-01-01

139

Guess The Number  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Flash applet is an interactive version of the classic game that develops number sense and strategic thinking. The computer generates a random secret number. The user makes guesses, taking advantage of the higher or lower clues provided, until the number is discovered. The goal is to find the secret number with as few attempts as possible. Three levels allow the user to adjust the range of possible numbers: up to 100, 500, or 1000.

Bunker, Dan

2010-01-01

140

Dividing Rational Numbers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will use rational numbers (i.e. multi-digit, decimals, and fractions) in order to complete a variety of division problems. State of Utah Core Curriculum: Standard 1 Objective 6 Demonstrate proficiency with the four operations, with positive rational numbers, and with addition and subtraction of integers. a. Multiply and divide a multi-digit number by a two-digit number, including decimals. b. Add, subtract, multiply, and divide fractions and mixed numbers. c. Add and subtract integers. Attachments Decimal ...

Nielsen, Ms.

2008-09-02

141

PET: [number sign]1 is number one  

SciTech Connect

Subsidized in the beginning by bottle deposits, now spurred by the ability of curbside recycling to collect more than soda bottles, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) recycling has made great strides in the last 10 years. Its growth rate and increased market demand are the envy of many other materials. Appropriate, if not deliberately, this number-one resin is listed under the Society for the Plastics Industry's resin identification code as [number sign]1. Unlike most recyclables, the market demand for recycled PET is greater than the supply. As a result, demand not supply, is fueling the increase in PET recycling.

Miller, C.

1994-09-01

142

THE NEW ELEMENT CALIFORNIUM (ATOMIC NUMBER 98)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Definite identification has been made of an isotope of the element with atomic number 98 through the irradiation of Cm²² with about 35-Mev helium ions in the Berkeley Crocker Laboratory 60-inch cyclotron. The isotope which has been identified has an observed half-life of about 45 minutes and is thought to have the mass number 244. The observed mode of decay

S. G. Thompson; A. Ghiorso; G. T. Seaborg

1950-01-01

143

Number Sense Made Simple Using Number Patterns  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article highlights investigating intriguing number patterns utilising an emerging technology called the Square Tool. Mathematics teachers of grades K-12 will find the Square Tool useful in making connections and bridging the gap from the concrete to the abstract. Pattern recognition helps students discover various mathematical concepts. With…

Su, Hui Fang Huang; Marinas, Carol; Furner, Joseph

2011-01-01

144

Narrow it Down: Numbers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners will ask yes-no questions to identify a secret number (similar to Twenty Questions). Combine logic and numbers in this game for all ages. One person chooses a secret number and announces the range in which it falls, for instance: âIâm thinking of a number between 1 and 50.â Other players ask yes or no questions to identify the number. The player who identifies the secret number wins. This game is easy to adapt to different ages: young children can ask and reason about âmore thanâ and âless thanâ (Is it less than 7? Is there a 1 in the 10âs place)? and older ones can ask about multiples, factors, or number relationships (Is it a multiple of 3? Is it a square number?). Available as a web page and downloadable pdf.

Terc

2010-01-01

145

Place Value Number Line  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With this interactive applet students can develop their understanding of place value and the relative position and magnitude of numbers in the base-10 number system. Users drag given numbers to their position on a number line, zooming in and out to increase precision. They can select from six levels of difficulty (Tens, Hundreds, Thousands, Millions, Billions, Decimals) and from 1 to 3 dots. There are three modes: Explore, Practice, Test.

1999-01-01

146

The Numbered Forest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes the activity of numbering trees in which students number trees or find the numbered trees and observe other features according to class time. This activity aims to increase student tracking, mapping, and writing skills and integrate them with math skills. Suggests follow up activities that focus on reading, writing, and language skills.…

Kissner, Emily

2000-01-01

147

Discovery: Prime Numbers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Prime numbers are important as the building blocks for the set of all natural numbers, because prime factorisation is an important and useful property of all natural numbers. Students can discover them by using the method known as the Sieve of Eratosthenes, named after the Greek geographer and astronomer who lived from c. 276-194 BC. Eratosthenes…

de Mestre, Neville

2008-01-01

148

Random Number Generation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The process of creating numbers that simulate randomness on a computer is known as pseudorandom number generation. The "pseudo" in pseudo random refers to the fact that if you use a rule to generate a number, it is by definition not random, though it may appear so, and be close enough to random for all practical purposes.

Joiner, David; The Shodor Education Foundation, Inc.

149

Law of Large Numbers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The controls on this applet let you change the number of trials, the probability of success in each trial, and toggle between viewing either the difference between the number of successes and the expected number of successes, or the difference between the percentage of successes and the probability of success in each trial.

Stark, Philip B.

2009-10-26

150

Theory of Numbers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This course provides an introduction to number theory, including topics such as prime numbers, congruences, quadratic reciprocity, diophantine equations, irrational numbers, continued fractions and elliptic curves. The materials include lecture notes, exams and assignments with solutions. MIT presents OpenCourseWare as free educational material online. No registration or enrollment is required to use the materials.

Olsson, Martin

2010-12-27

151

Sign Language Number Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sign language number recognition system lays down foundation for handshape recognition which addresses real and current problems in signing in the deaf community and leads to practical applications. The input for the sign language number recognition system is 5000 Filipino sign language number video file with 640 x 480 pixels frame size and 15 frame\\/second. The color-coded gloves uses less

Iwan Njoto Sandjaja; Nelson Marcos

2009-01-01

152

Are numbers gendered?  

PubMed

We examined the possibility that nonsocial, highly generic concepts are gendered. Specifically, we investigated the gender connotations of Arabic numerals. Across several experiments, we show that the number 1 and other odd numbers are associated with masculinity, whereas the number 2 and other even numbers are associated with femininity, in ways that influence judgments of stimuli arbitrarily paired with numerical cues; specifically, babies' faces and foreign names were more likely to be judged as "male" when paired with odd versus even numbers. The power of logically irrelevant numerical stimuli to connote masculinity or femininity reflects the pervasiveness of gender as a social scaffolding for generating understandings of abstract concepts. PMID:21767039

Wilkie, James E B; Bodenhausen, Galen V

2011-07-18

153

Convoluted convolved Fibonacci numbers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The convolved Fibonacci numbers F_j^(r) are defined by\\u000a (1-z-z^2)^{-r}=\\\\sum_{j>=0}F_{j+1}^(r)z^j. In this note some related numbers\\u000athat can be expressed in terms of convolved Fibonacci numbers are considered.\\u000aThese numbers appear in the numerical evaluation of a certain number\\u000atheoretical constant.\\u000a This note is a case study of the transform {1\\/n}\\\\sum_{d|n}mu(d)f(z^d)^{n\\/d},\\u000awith f any formal series and mu the Moebius function),

Pieter Moree

2003-01-01

154

Estimating large numbers.  

PubMed

Despite their importance in public discourse, numbers in the range of 1 million to 1 trillion are notoriously difficult to understand. We examine magnitude estimation by adult Americans when placing large numbers on a number line and when qualitatively evaluating descriptions of imaginary geopolitical scenarios. Prior theoretical conceptions predict a log-to-linear shift: People will either place numbers linearly or will place numbers according to a compressive logarithmic or power-shaped function (Barth & Paladino, ; Siegler & Opfer, ). While about half of people did estimate numbers linearly over this range, nearly all the remaining participants placed 1 million approximately halfway between 1 thousand and 1 billion, but placed numbers linearly across each half, as though they believed that the number words "thousand, million, billion, trillion" constitute a uniformly spaced count list. Participants in this group also tended to be optimistic in evaluations of largely ineffective political strategies, relative to linear number-line placers. The results indicate that the surface structure of number words can heavily influence processes for dealing with numbers in this range, and it can amplify the possibility that analogous surface regularities are partially responsible for parallel phenomena in children. In addition, these results have direct implications for lawmakers and scientists hoping to communicate effectively with the public. PMID:23819823

Landy, David; Silbert, Noah; Goldin, Aleah

2013-03-05

155

Satisfying customer preferences via mass customization and mass production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two operational formats namely mass customization and mass production can be implemented to satisfy customer preference-based demand. The mass customization system consists of two stages: the initial build-to-stock phase and the final customize-to-order phase. The mass production system has a single stage: building products with pre-determined specifications to stock. In each case, the company makes decisions on the number of

Kai Jiang; Hau L. Lee; Ralf W. Seifert

2006-01-01

156

High-resolution mass spectrometric study of pure helium droplets, and droplets doped with krypton  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mass spectra of doped and undoped helium droplets are presented. The high resolution of the time-of-flight spectrometer ( m/ ?m ? 5000) makes it possible to fully resolve small helium cluster ions from impurities and to unambiguously identify abundance anomalies in the size distribution of He n +. The yield of He4 + shows the well-known enhancement relative to other small cluster ions when the expansion changes from sub- to supercritical, provided the electron energy exceeds a value of 40 ± 1 eV, the threshold for formation of electronically excited ions. Upon doping with krypton, pure Kr n + cluster ions containing up to 41 Kr atoms are observed. The spectra exhibit abundance anomalies at 13, 16, 19, 22 & 23, 26 and 29, in agreement with spectra obtained by ionization of bare krypton clusters that are formed in neat supersonic beams. Mixed clusters He m Kr+ indicate closure of a solvation shell at m = 12.

Schöbel, H.; Bartl, P.; Leidlmair, C.; Denifl, S.; Echt, O.; Märk, T. D.; Scheier, P.

2011-07-01

157

The cosmological mass function  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reviews the cosmological mass function from a theoretical point of view, starting from the seminal paper of Press and Shechter to the latest developments, and discusses some improvements on mass-function models in the literature. The numerical mass function given by Yahagi et al. YNY is compared with the theoretical mass function obtained in the present paper by means of an excursionset model and an improved version of the barrier shape obtained by Del Popolo and Gambera [30], which implicitly takes account of the total angularmomentum acquired by the proto-structure during its evolution and of a non-zero cosmological constant. The mass function obtained in the present paper is in better agreement with the simulations of Del Popolo than other previous models. The mass function considered provides as good a fit to the simulation results as the function proposed in Del Popolo, but, in contrast to this latter function, was derived from a sound theoretical basis. The evolution of the mass function is calculated in a ?CDM model, and the results compared with those of Reed et al. [94], who used a high resolution ?CDM numerical simulation to calculate the mass function of dark matter haloes down to the scale of dwarf galaxies and back to a redshift of fifteen. The mass function obtained in the present paper gives similar predictions as the Sheth-Tormen (ST) mass function, but does not overpredict the number of extremely rare objects. The results confirm previous findings that the simulated halo mass function can be described solely by the variance of the mass distribution, and thus has no explicit redshift dependence. It is show that a PS-like approach together with the ellipsoidal model introduced in Del Popolo provides a better description of the theoretical mass function.

Del Popolo, A.; Yesilyurt, I. S.

2007-09-01

158

Digital Squarer System for Positive Mass Identification on the ARL Ion Microprobe Mass Analyser.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The original analogue squarer for mass scale linearisation in the Ion Microprobe Mass Analyser (IMMA) has been replaced by a programmable digital squarer system which permits reliable mass number identification throughout the tested range 1 to 240. The di...

K. N. Woods L. D. V. Grant E. D. Rawsthorne H. J. Strydom W. H. Gries

1984-01-01

159

Negative Numbers and Antimatter Particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dirac's equation states that an electron implies the existence of an antielectron with the same mass (more generally same arithmetic properties) and opposite charge (more generally opposite algebraic properties). Subsequent observation of antielectron validated this concept. This statement can be extended to all matter particles; observation of antiproton, antineutron, antideuton … is in complete agreement with this view. Recently antihypertriton was observed and 38 atoms of antihydrogen were trapped. This opens the path for use in precise testing of nature's fundamental symmetries. The symmetric properties of a matter particle and its mirror antimatter particle seem to be well established. Interactions operate on matter particles and antimatter particles as well. Conservation of matter parallels addition operating on positive and negative numbers. Without antimatter particles, interactions of the Standard Model (electromagnetism, strong interaction and weak interaction) cannot have the structure of group. Antimatter particles are characterized by negative baryonic number A or/and negative leptonic number L. Materialization and annihilation obey conservation of A and L (associated to all known interactions), explaining why from pure energy (A = 0, L = 0) one can only obtain a pair of matter particle antimatter particle — electron antielectron, proton and antiproton — via materialization where the mass of a pair of particle antiparticle gives back to pure energy with annihilation. These two mechanisms cannot change the difference in the number of matter particles and antimatter particles. Thus from pure energy only a perfectly symmetric (in number) universe could be generated as proposed by Dirac but observation showed that our universe is not symmetric, it is a matter universe which is nevertheless neutral. Fall of reflection symmetries shattered the prejudice that there is no way to define in an absolute way right and left or matter and antimatter. Experimental observation of CP violation aroused a great hope for explaining why our universe is not exactly matter antimatter symmetric. Sakharov stated that without the violation of baryonic number, it is not possible to obtain from pure energy a universe made of only matter. The fact that our universe is asymmetric (in number) but perfectly neutral, points toward the existence of a hypothetic interaction violating A and L but conserving all charges. This Matter Creation (MC) interaction creating either a pair of matter particles or antimatter particles (instead of a pair of particle antiparticle) would have a charge BAL = (A-L) and a neutral messenger Z*. Even if CP is conserved, MC would allow the creation of a number of matter particles not exactly equal to the number of antimatter particles. Our universe would then correspond to the remaining excess when all matter antimatter pairs have disappeared. Observation of matter nonconservation processes would be of great interest to falsify this speculation. In a plan with A and L as axes, pure energy is represented by the origin (A = 0, L = 0). A symmetric universe is also represented by (A = 0, L = 0) meaning that there are exactly the same number of baryons and antibaryons, and the same number of leptons and antileptons. Our present matter universe is instead represented by a point of the diagonal with A = L = present A value. This value is tiny relative to the number of gammas resulting from the annihilation of matter-antimatter particles.

Tsan, Ung Chan

160

Mass Murder  

Microsoft Academic Search

How do we think about mass murder? While the principle of responsibility provides an effective mechanism for the repression of mass murder (notably through Article 25 ICCSt.), analysis of the ‘acting out’ of mass murder by perpetrators requires a criminological perspective. Analysis of criminogenic processes, and of genocidal logic, helps us go some way in understanding how perpetrators ‘act out’

O. Sara Liwerant

2007-01-01

161

Fun With Numbers!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Today we are going to play some games that will teach us Number Place Value and Number Words. First, use the Blocks to match the numbers that are given to you. You can either use a 3 column, a 2 column, or a 1 column problem. Do five of these problems. Play Catch a Ten. To play this game, you must count the blocks that you are picking up for the bear. ...

Holmgren, Ms.

2006-10-27

162

Biggest Number Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this game, learners build a multi-digit number by rolling dice and deciding which place value box to place each number. This requires strategy and planning as they must consider what they may roll in the future and which boxes are still open. Learners can compete to make the largest or smallest numbers during each round of play. Educators can use this game to introduce and/or practice strategy, risk, and place value.

Houston, Children'S M.

2013-05-15

163

Complex Numbers and Trigonometry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Complex numbers have applications in many applied sciences. This online text begins with an introduction to trigonometry, which serves as a starting point for additional discussion about complex numbers (also known as imaginary numbers). The drawings and figures are the only notable downside to this excellent resource, because many of them are somewhat crude; however, they are still fairly easy to follow. The book can be read online or downloaded for offline viewing.

Hillman, Abraham P.; Alexanderson, Gerald L.; Newton, Mervin E.

164

Prime Numbers Video  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This 4-minute video introduces the definition of a prime number and illustrates it through a discussion of factors and composite numbers. It makes use of the definition to explain why 1 is not a prime and ends with a question for the viewer to ponder.

2010-01-01

165

Distance Domination Numbers of  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distance ?-domination number ??(G) of a strongly connected digraph G is the minimum number ? for which there is a set DV (G) with cardinality ? such that any vertex v \\/ 2 D can be reached within distance ? from some vertex in D. In this paper, we establish a lower bound and an upper bound for ??

Tian Fang; Xu Junming

166

Numbers as Shapes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity students are asked to relate the numbers 1- 20 to rectangular shapes. Learners use unit squares or cubes to sort numbers by their 'shapes,' either squares, rectangles or sticks (rectangles of unit width). Ideas for implementation, extension and support are included.

2011-08-01

167

Numbers, taxonomy, and judgment  

Microsoft Academic Search

From the earliest times man has endowed numbers with magical properties. We all know that misfortunes come in threes, that the seventh son of a seventh son has remarkable gifts, and that it is unlucky to sit down thirteen at table. Even in more erudite spheres the tendency is discernible: how else can we explain the interest in perfect numbers,

W. T. Williams

1967-01-01

168

The Fibonacci Numbers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|After a brief historical account of Leonardo Pisano Fibonacci, some basic results concerning the Fibonacci numbers are developed and proved, and entertaining examples are described. Connections are made between the Fibonacci numbers and the Golden Ratio, biological nature, and other combinatorics examples. (MDH)|

Onstad, Torgeir

1991-01-01

169

Beyond the number domain  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a world without numbers, we would be unable to build a skyscraper, hold a national election, plan a wed- ding or pay for a chicken at the market. The numerical symbols used in all these behaviors build on the approxi- mate number system (ANS) which represents the num- ber of discrete objects or events as a continuous mental magnitude.

Jessica F. Cantlon; Michael L. Platt; Elizabeth M. Brannon

2008-01-01

170

Subdivision Froude Number.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A Froude number that is applicable to subdivisions of a cross section is developed assuming one-dimensional flow. The subdivision Froude number is shown to be an accurate index of the flow regime in subdivisions of a cross section. An imaginary Froude num...

D. H. Schoellhamer J. C. Peters B. E. Larock

1985-01-01

171

Mass media, mass culture, mass man?  

Microsoft Academic Search

CULTURE FOR THE MILLIONS? MASS MEDIA IN MODERN SOCIETY. Edited by Norman Jacobs, Introduction by Paul F. Lazarsfeld. Princeton, N. J.: D. Van Nostrand, 1961; pp. xxv+200. $4.95.MEDIA FOR THE MILLIONS: THE PROCESS OF MASS COMMUNICATION. By Robert C. O'Hara, Foreword by Harold B. Allen. New York: Random House, 1961; pp. xviii+421. $5.00.FREEDOM AND COMMUNICATIONS. By Dan Lacy, Foreword by

Edward Stasheff

1962-01-01

172

MAA NumberADay  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How much can you really learn from one number a day? Quite a bit actually, and this fun feature from the Mathematical Association of America (MAA) may prove to be rather addictive. Posted daily since September 2008, the MAA posts a number (for example, the number 11,185,272) and then offers a selection of that number's properties. Visitors to the site can click on some of the external links, look over the weblog archive, and also subscribe to their RSS feed. First-time visitors may wish to start by looking at the number 1529 (September 12, 2008), which happens to be the numerical address of MAA headquarters in Washington, D.C.

173

Multiplicative conservation of baryon number and baryogenesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the canonical seesaw mechanism of neutrino mass, lepton number is only multiplicatively conserved, which enables the important phenomenon of leptogenesis to occur, as an attractive explanation of the present baryon asymmetry of the Universe. A parallel possibility, hitherto unrecognized, also holds for baryon number and baryogenesis. This new idea is shown to be naturally realized in the context of a known supersymmetric string-inspired extension of the Standard Model, based on E particle content, and having an extra U1 gauge symmetry. Within this framework, two-loop radiative neutrino masses are also possible, together with a new form of very long-lived matter.

Ma, Ernest

2008-03-01

174

Introduction to Negative Numbers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan based on a Cyberchase activity, first addresses a common misconception: starting measurement from 1 instead of 0. Then, it introduces negative numbers by extending a number line beyond 0 in the negative (left) direction. It is motivated by the Cyber Squadâs mission to find the captured Cyberchase Council on a particular floor of a tall building as seen in two quicktime videos: âImportance of the Origin" and "Inventing Negative Numbers" (each are cataloged separately). In addition to the learning activity, other support materials are included: handouts, assessments and answer keys.

Wnet.org

2006-01-01

175

The Numbers Game.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a simple activity that explores and reveals the principles of significant figures and scientific notation using a 500 gram bag of unpopped popcorn. Students must devise a method for determining the number of kernels in the bag. (DDR)

Lustick, David

1997-01-01

176

The magical Fibonacci number  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fibonacci numbers are explained, and some of the many manifestations of the Fibonacci series in nature are described. These range from the so-called golden spiral to the Penrose tiling patterns that describe the structure of quasicrystals

D. R. Mack

1990-01-01

177

Fibonacci's Forgotten Number  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Fibonacci's forgotten number is the sexagesimal number 1;22,7,42,33,4,40, which he described in 1225 as an approximation to the real root of x[superscript 3] + 2x[superscript 2] + 10x - 20. In decimal notation, this is 1.36880810785...and it is correct to nine decimal digits. Fibonacci did not reveal his method. How did he do it? There is also a…

Brown, Ezra; Brunson, Cornelius

2008-01-01

178

SeanNumbers-Ofala  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page contains links to a video and several downloadable pdf files documenting the discussions of a third grade class investigating even and odd numbers. Included are a 10-minute Blue Stream video segment in which students discuss a classmate's suggestion that the number 6 could be even or odd, a document providing background information on the investigation that led to the discussion, a transcript of the video, and the teacher's journal entry reflecting on the discussion and its implications.

2010-02-01

179

Art by Numbers  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The number, object and subject of paintings, sculptures, drawings, video, films, photographs and installations have revealed\\u000a an aesthetic potential that had remained latent and unexpressed up until the first decades of the last century. For a long\\u000a time, the number in figurative arts was only the result of a transitive counting, an answer to the question “How many?” Virtues,\\u000a planets,

Mel Bochner; Roman Opalka

180

Neutrino mass  

SciTech Connect

The existence of a finite neutrino mass would have important consequences in particle physics, astrophysics, and cosmology. Experimental sensitivities have continued to be pushed down without any confirmed evidence for a finite neutrino mass. Yet there are several observations of discrepancies between theoretical predictions and observations which might be possible indications of a finite neutrino mass. Thus, extensive theoretical and experimental work is underway to resolve these issues.

Bowles, T.J.

1994-04-01

181

Mass Wasting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Mass Wasting is a course handout designed to initiate discussion on the factors involved in mass wasting (eg. creep, solifluction, falls, slides, and flows) and the methods used to prevent mass wasting. Definitions are given for key terms such as angle of repose and lahars. Photographs illustrate the effects of rockslides and slumps. Links are provided to the online Physical Geology resources at Georgia Perimeter College.

Gore, Pamela

1998-11-28

182

New element californium (atomic number 98)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Definite identification has been made of an isotope of the element with atomic number 98 through the irradiation of Cm(242) with about 35-MeV helium ions in the Berkeley Crocker Laboratory 60-inch cyclotron. The isotope which has been identified has an observed half-life of about 45 minutes and is thought to have the mass number 244. The observed mode of decay

S. G. Thompson; A. Ghiroso; G. T. Seaborg

1950-01-01

183

The New Element Californium (Atomic Number 98)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Definite identification has been made of an isotope of the element with atomic number 98 through the irradiation of Cm242 with about 35-Mev helium ions in the Berkeley Crocker Laboratory 60-inch cyclotron. The isotope which has been identified has an observed half-life of about 45 min. and is thought to have the mass number 244. The observed mode of decay

S. G. Thompson; A. Ghiorso; G. T. Seaborg

1950-01-01

184

Relativistic theory of tidal Love numbers  

SciTech Connect

In Newtonian gravitational theory, a tidal Love number relates the mass multipole moment created by tidal forces on a spherical body to the applied tidal field. The Love number is dimensionless, and it encodes information about the body's internal structure. We present a relativistic theory of Love numbers, which applies to compact bodies with strong internal gravities; the theory extends and completes a recent work by Flanagan and Hinderer, which revealed that the tidal Love number of a neutron star can be measured by Earth-based gravitational-wave detectors. We consider a spherical body deformed by an external tidal field, and provide precise and meaningful definitions for electric-type and magnetic-type Love numbers; and these are computed for polytropic equations of state. The theory applies to black holes as well, and we find that the relativistic Love numbers of a nonrotating black hole are all zero.

Binnington, Taylor; Poisson, Eric [Department of Physics, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, N1G 2W1 (Canada) and Department of Physics, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, N1G 2W1 (Canada) and Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 3H8 (Canada)

2009-10-15

185

Report number codes  

SciTech Connect

This publication lists all report number codes processed by the Office of Scientific and Technical Information. The report codes are substantially based on the American National Standards Institute, Standard Technical Report Number (STRN)-Format and Creation Z39.23-1983. The Standard Technical Report Number (STRN) provides one of the primary methods of identifying a specific technical report. The STRN consists of two parts: The report code and the sequential number. The report code identifies the issuing organization, a specific program, or a type of document. The sequential number, which is assigned in sequence by each report issuing entity, is not included in this publication. Part I of this compilation is alphabetized by report codes followed by issuing installations. Part II lists the issuing organization followed by the assigned report code(s). In both Parts I and II, the names of issuing organizations appear for the most part in the form used at the time the reports were issued. However, for some of the more prolific installations which have had name changes, all entries have been merged under the current name.

Nelson, R.N. (ed.)

1985-05-01

186

Hydrodynamic mass  

SciTech Connect

Many structural components contain, or are submerged in, a fluid. The fluid moving with a vibrating structure has an important effect on the dynamics of the structure, particularly on its natural frequencies. The effect of the fluid on natural frequencies can be accounted for using the hydrodynamic mass associated with the structure. This paper provides formulas, graphs, and computer programs for calculating hydrodynamic mass.

Chung, H.; Chen, S.S.

1984-01-01

187

Quark masses  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review the current information about the eigenvalues of the quark mass matrix. The theoretical problems involved in a determination of the running masses mu, md, ms, mc and mb from experiment are discussed with the aim of getting reliable numerical values equipped with error bars that represent a conservative estimate of remaining uncertainties.

J. Gasser; H. Leutwyler

1982-01-01

188

Third Grade Number Actiivities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page provides examples of Third Grade Number (Operations and Algebraic Thinking, Number and Operations in Base Ten, and Number Operations-Fractions) activities aligned with the Common Core State Standards. A CCSS standard is stated and the possible activities are listed below and linked. All activities are suitable for use in Math Centers, small group or whole class settings and are designed to elicit a range of responses and provide opportunities for students to communicate their reasoning and mathematical thinking. Instructions for each task are typed in large print and written in child-friendly language to enable students to work on activities independently after a brief introduction to the task. All files listed are in PDF format.

Godwin, Nicola

2012-01-01

189

Positive About Negative Numbers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article is devoted to the mathematical topic of negative numbers and provides a series of primary resources designed to familiarize children with the notion of counting on either side of a central point. The article presents that the activities listed should be played sequentially to build precursory ideas in understanding negative numbers. All the games discussed in the article are linked on the page and have been cataloged separately: Incy Wincy Spider, Tug of War, Swimming Pool, Tug Harder, First Connect Three and lastly Sea Level.

Woodham, Liz

2011-01-01

190

Number Systems for Computers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Understanding number systems, especially Binary and Hexadecimal, is important to comprehending how computers function. It all begins with the magic circle we call ZERO. Work through the exercises in the order listed to gain some background in number systems and what makes it possible for computers to work. The magic of ZeroPlace Value Place Value Fun!Place Value Fun! One if by land, Two if by sea.The Binary System And then there were sixteen....hexadecimal Hexadecimal Headquarters Mr Booth s Computer Systems Class Student Learning Domain ...

Mrbooth

2007-09-19

191

Poissonian copy numbers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Why do quantitative biologists sometimes claim that mRNA copy numbers are Poisson distributed in simple models of gene transcription? The first video segment addresses this question under the simplifying assumption that mRNA degradation occurs after a well-defined, deterministic lifetime, and the second segment illustrates the same basic concept for the more realistic situation in which degradation is stochastic.

Liao, David

192

Stability in Numbers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this Illuminations lesson, students apply their knowledge of addition equations to investigate the equivalence of two numeric expressions using the "Pan Balance-Numbers" applet (cataloged separately). An instructional plan, questions for the students, assessment options, extensions, and teacher reflections are given for the lesson as well as links to the applet and a student activity sheet(word format).

Keller, Gary M.

2011-01-01

193

Number2.com  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Free online SAT, ACT, and GRE test preparation courses. Register for tutorials and practice sessions that dynamically adapt to performance, providing customized feedback for every response and monitoring overall student progress in the coaching system. Number2.com also offers a vocabulary builder, question of the day, and word of the day; and links to financial aid, college application, and career planning resources.

2007-11-26

194

Houses with Height Numbers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This applet allows students to freely build shapes by stacking cubes and "explore the relation between a building (house) consisting of cubes and the height numbers representing the height of the different parts of the building." This exercise helps students visualize and understand the concepts of volume and three-dimensional, measurable space.

Boon, Peter; Van Den Brink, Jan

2004-01-01

195

Fibonacci numbers and words  

Microsoft Academic Search

Let ? be the golden ratio (?5 + 1)\\/2, fn the nth Fibonacci finite word and f the Fibonacci infinite word. Let r be a rational number greater than (2 + ?)\\/2 and u a nondashempty word. If ur is a factor of f, then there exists n ? 1 such that u is a conjugate of fn and, moreover,

Giuseppe Pirillo

1997-01-01

196

Why Delannoy numbers?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is not a research paper, but a little note on the history of combinatorics: We present here a tentative short biography of Henri De- lannoy, and a survey of his most notable works. This answers to the question raised in the title, as these works are related to lattice paths enumeration, to the so-called Delannoy numbers, and were

Cyril Banderier; Sylviane R. Schwer

2004-01-01

197

Electroweak baryon number violation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electroweak baryon number violation may play a crucial role for the creation\\u000aof the matter-antimatter asymmetry in the early universe. In this talk, we\\u000areview the basic mechanism, which relies on the behavior of chiral fermions in\\u000anontrivial Yang-Mills gauge field backgrounds.

FRANS R. KLINKHAMER

2002-01-01

198

Electroweak baryon number violation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electroweak baryon number violation may play a crucial role for the creation of the matter-antimatter asymmetry in the early universe. In this talk, we review the basic mechanism, which relies on the behavior of chiral fermions in nontrivial Yang-Mills gauge field backgrounds.

F. R. Klinkhamer

2002-01-01

199

The Net by Numbers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The expansion of the commercial Internet has encouraged the interpretation of the Internet and its uses as a potential marketing medium. Examines statistical and demographic information about the Internet including number of Internet hosts and World Wide Web servers, and estimates of Internet users; and raises questions about definitions and…

McMurdo, George

1996-01-01

200

Sunspot Number Variations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity students find the patterns that emerge when sunspot numbers are plotted over a period of time. Students learn about sunspot variations and the solar cycle, and are able to predict future solar minimums and solar maximums. The required sunspot charts can be downloaded along with the student worksheets.

Meier, Beverly

201

Making the Numbers? \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much recent work in strategy and popular discussion suggests that an excessive focus on “managing the numbers” --delivering quarterly earnings at the expense of longer term investments--makes it difficult for firms to make the investments necessary to build competitive advantage. “Short termism” has been blamed for everything from the decline of the US automobile industry to the low penetration of

Nelson P. Repenning; Rebecca M. Henderson

2010-01-01

202

PIA update: Correlation analyses of mass spectra  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The PIA instrument aboard the Giotto spacecraft (a time of flight spectrometer) has been presented elsewhere. The mass spectra used in this analysis were decoded and mass numbers assigned according to the presence of carbon and silver, using the global values for these elements in their spectral absence. The results presented here were obtained using a frequency of occurrence based on analysis which correlated how often mass numbers appear in the mass spectra and which mass numbers tend to occur together in the same spectra; no amplitude information is utilized. The data are presented as plots of mass vs coincident mass for different subsets of the PIA data set, with both axes having units of atomic mass. Frequency contours are plotted at approximately five percent contour intervals, relative to the maximum AMU occurrence in that plot. The plots presented are symmetrical about the matrix diagonal, i.e., every mass is coincident with itself in a given spectra.

Mason, L. W.; Clark, B. C.

1988-09-01

203

By the numbers.  

PubMed

Any statement about the ability of the specialty to meet the future demand for orthodontic care based merely on a ratio of the projected number of orthodontists to the projected population is an oversimplification. Still, some inferences can be drawn from the data presented in this article. To be as prudent as possible, we will limit the scope of the discussion to the next 10 years. 1. It seems likely that the annual number of orthodontic graduates will remain about the same. 2. Considering the slow increase in the average age of orthodontists, the death rate will increase slightly, but not significantly. 3. The average annual number of retirees will be somewhere between 125 (the current rate) and 359 (the maximum projected by the JCO Retirement Survey). 4. The above assumptions would leave no less than 7,500 practicing orthodontists in the United States in 10 years. 5. The number of children age 9-17 will increase by 5-10%. In a worst-case scenario, could 7,500 orthodontists meet the orthodontic demand 10 years from now? The 1997 JCO Orthodontic Practice Study reported the annual median number of case starts to be 180. Multiplied by 9,000 orthodontists, that would equal 1,620,000 case starts. If we project a 10% increase in demand, there could be 1,782,000 case starts 10 years from now--an average of 238 starts per year for 7,500 orthodontists. Respondents to the Practice Studies have consistently indicated that they could handle 50 additional case starts with no increase in staff or facilities, which would mean current orthodontists could accommodate an average of 230 case starts. Moreover, orthodontic productivity is likely to increase due to delegation and improved technology. In conclusion, even if the sharp increase in the number of annual retirements anticipated in the JCO Retirement Survey turns out to be correct, it seems unlikely that it will affect the ability of the specialty to accomplish its mission in the foreseeable future. PMID:10535001

Gottlieb, E L

1999-05-01

204

Quantized relativistic mass energy equation  

Microsoft Academic Search

By introducing a new unit of energy, I have been able to quan tize the relativistic mass energy equation using an integer mass num ber and an integer velocity number that are discrete, additive components of the total system energy. Derived from a unique foundational model that uses a single inertial frame of reference, the quantized equations produce identical results

B D Nelson

205

Ion Suppression in Mass Spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Mass spectrometry (MS) is being intro- duced into a large number of clinical laboratories. It provides specificity because of its ability to monitor selected mass ions, sensitivity because of the enhanced signal-to-noise ratio, and speed because it can help avoid the need for intensive sample cleanup and long analysis times. However, MS is not without problems related to interference,

Thomas M. Annesley

206

Mass media and public policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

If more informed voters receive favorable policies, then mass media should influence policy because it provides most of the information people use in voting. This paper uses a simple model to analyze the effect of mass media provision of news on a number of policy issues: redistribution, the size of the government sector, rents and corruption, the effectiveness of lobby

David Strömberg

2001-01-01

207

CT number definition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The accuracy of CT number plots has been found lacking in several medical applications. This is of concern since the ability to compare and evaluate results on a reproducible and standard basis is essential to long term development. Apart from the technical limitations arising from the CT scanner and the data treatment, there are fundamental issues with the definition of the Hounsfield number, namely the absence of a standard photon energy and the need to specify the attenuation mechanism for standard measurements. This paper presents calculations to demonstrate the shortcomings of the present definition with a brief discussion. The remedy is straightforward, but probably of long duration as it would require an international agreement.

Bryant, J. A.; Drage, N. A.; Richmond, S.

2012-04-01

208

Scrotal Masses  

MedlinePLUS

... testicles and related structures that produce, store and transport sperm and male sex hormones. Scrotal masses may ... above and behind the testicle that stores and transports sperm Swelling in the scrotum Redness of the ...

209

Mass Deacidification.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reviews methods being developed for mass deacidification of books to prevent deterioration of paper. The use of diethyl zinc, liquified gas, and morpholine, and the advantages, disadvantages, and cost of each are considered. A 26-item bibliography is included. (JD)|

Harris, Carolyn

1979-01-01

210

Beware the numbers game.  

PubMed

Attention in England has turned again to the issue of staffing levels. As we report ( page 7 ), government adviser Don Berwick last month published the latest report calling on providers to make sure there are enough staff to deliver care. Professor Berwick falls short of recommending minimum staffing levels, as some had hoped, but he does demand 'appropriate numbers' to ensure services are safe. PMID:23980768

2013-09-01

211

Number patterns in Nature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fibonacci phyllotaxis is one of many examples that demonstrate the relationship of biological growth patterns with the golden mean and self-similar symmetry, also observed in scale–rotational crystal growth. An equivalent relationship of natural-number patterns with the structure and periodicity of atomic matter is demonstrated. A generalized, closed periodic law that reveals the hidden symmetry in the periodicity of atomic matter

Jan C. A. Boeyens

2003-01-01

212

Separation numbers of trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Let G be a graph on n vertices. Given a bijection f : V (G) ! {1,2,...,n}, let |f| = min{|f(u) f(v)| : uv 2 E(G)}. The separation number s(G) (also known as antibandwidth (1, 7)) of G is then max{|f|} over all such bijections f of G. We study the case when G is a forest, obtaining the following

Tao Jiang; Zevi Miller; Dan Pritikin

2009-01-01

213

Hypergraph Ramsey numbers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ramsey number r_k(s,n) is the minimum N such that every red-blue coloring of the k -tuples of an N -element set contains a red set of size s or a blue set of size n , where a set is called red (blue) if all k -tuples from this set are red (blue). In this paper we obtain new

David Conlon; Jacob Fox; Benny Sudakov

2010-01-01

214

All About Numbers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this 14-min video British teacher Rosalind Caren demonstrates group activities designed to develop number sense, fluency with addition and subtraction fact families, and reasoning skills. Caren exhibits effective questioning techniques and routines. Headteacher/math coordinator Kate Frood describes the guiding principles and expectations of teaching at the school. Following a class observation Frood provides constructive feedback to Caren and her teaching assistants.

2012-01-01

215

Prime Number Races  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a survey article on prime number races. Chebyshev noticed in the first half of the nineteenth century that for any given value of x, there always seem to be more primes of the form 4n+3 less than x then there are of the form 4n+1. Similar observations have been made with primes of the form 3n+2 and 3n+1,

Andrew Granville; Greg Martin

2004-01-01

216

On Circuits and Numbers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract We establish new, yet intimate relationships between the 2adic integers Z from arithmetics and digital circuits, finite and infinite, from electronics. (a) Rational numbers,with an odd denominator,correspond to output only synchronous,circuits. (b) Bit-wise 2ading mappings,correspond to combinational circuits. (c) On-line functions, N Z : ( ) ( ) (mod ) correspond to synchronous,circuits. (d) Continuous functions Z Z, correspond

Jean E. Vuillemin

1994-01-01

217

Inertial Mass  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The inertial balance is one device that can help students to quantify the quality of inertia--a body's resistance to a change in movement--in more generally understood terms of mass. In this hands-on activity, students use the inertial balance to develop a more quantitative idea of what mass means in an inertial sense. The activity also helps students refine their ability to use numerical data and line graphs as a tool for making predictions.

King, Kenneth P.

2007-12-01

218

Mass action  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the first part of this video, we derive the law of mass action from one example of a picture of molecular collisions. For this course, we use the "law of mass action" to refer to an idea that chemical reaction kinetic rates can be expressed using products of the abundances of reactants raised to exponents. Studying cooperativity and Hill functions in the second part of the video allows us to investigate a simple example of bistability in the third video segment.

Liao, David

219

Air Masses  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students will examine the physical characteristics of several types of air masses (bodies of air that resemble the characteristics of the land surfaces beneath them). By analyzing maps of air temperature and of dewpoint temperature (prepared by the teacher), they will discover that air masses can be identified and defined by their temperature and moisture content. Student worksheets and links to the necessary maps are provided.

220

The Mass Distribution of Stellar-mass Black Holes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We perform a Bayesian analysis of the mass distribution of stellar-mass black holes using the observed masses of 15 low-mass X-ray binary systems undergoing Roche lobe overflow and 5 high-mass, wind-fed X-ray binary systems. Using Markov Chain Monte Carlo calculations, we model the mass distribution both parametrically—as a power law, exponential, Gaussian, combination of two Gaussians, or log-normal distribution—and non-parametrically—as histograms with varying numbers of bins. We provide confidence bounds on the shape of the mass distribution in the context of each model and compare the models with each other by calculating their relative Bayesian evidence as supported by the measurements, taking into account the number of degrees of freedom of each model. The mass distribution of the low-mass systems is best fit by a power law, while the distribution of the combined sample is best fit by the exponential model. This difference indicates that the low-mass subsample is not consistent with being drawn from the distribution of the combined population. We examine the existence of a "gap" between the most massive neutron stars and the least massive black holes by considering the value, M 1%, of the 1% quantile from each black hole mass distribution as the lower bound of black hole masses. Our analysis generates posterior distributions for M 1%; the best model (the power law) fitted to the low-mass systems has a distribution of lower bounds with M 1%>4.3 M sun with 90% confidence, while the best model (the exponential) fitted to all 20 systems has M 1%>4.5 M sun with 90% confidence. We conclude that our sample of black hole masses provides strong evidence of a gap between the maximum neutron star mass and the lower bound on black hole masses. Our results on the low-mass sample are in qualitative agreement with those of Ozel et al., although our broad model selection analysis more reliably reveals the best-fit quantitative description of the underlying mass distribution. The results on the combined sample of low- and high-mass systems are in qualitative agreement with Fryer & Kalogera, although the presence of a mass gap remains theoretically unexplained.

Farr, Will M.; Sravan, Niharika; Cantrell, Andrew; Kreidberg, Laura; Bailyn, Charles D.; Mandel, Ilya; Kalogera, Vicky

2011-11-01

221

THE MASS DISTRIBUTION OF STELLAR-MASS BLACK HOLES  

SciTech Connect

We perform a Bayesian analysis of the mass distribution of stellar-mass black holes using the observed masses of 15 low-mass X-ray binary systems undergoing Roche lobe overflow and 5 high-mass, wind-fed X-ray binary systems. Using Markov Chain Monte Carlo calculations, we model the mass distribution both parametrically-as a power law, exponential, Gaussian, combination of two Gaussians, or log-normal distribution-and non-parametrically-as histograms with varying numbers of bins. We provide confidence bounds on the shape of the mass distribution in the context of each model and compare the models with each other by calculating their relative Bayesian evidence as supported by the measurements, taking into account the number of degrees of freedom of each model. The mass distribution of the low-mass systems is best fit by a power law, while the distribution of the combined sample is best fit by the exponential model. This difference indicates that the low-mass subsample is not consistent with being drawn from the distribution of the combined population. We examine the existence of a 'gap' between the most massive neutron stars and the least massive black holes by considering the value, M{sub 1%}, of the 1% quantile from each black hole mass distribution as the lower bound of black hole masses. Our analysis generates posterior distributions for M{sub 1%}; the best model (the power law) fitted to the low-mass systems has a distribution of lower bounds with M{sub 1%}>4.3 M{sub sun} with 90% confidence, while the best model (the exponential) fitted to all 20 systems has M{sub 1%}>4.5 M{sub sun} with 90% confidence. We conclude that our sample of black hole masses provides strong evidence of a gap between the maximum neutron star mass and the lower bound on black hole masses. Our results on the low-mass sample are in qualitative agreement with those of Ozel et al., although our broad model selection analysis more reliably reveals the best-fit quantitative description of the underlying mass distribution. The results on the combined sample of low- and high-mass systems are in qualitative agreement with Fryer and Kalogera, although the presence of a mass gap remains theoretically unexplained.

Farr, Will M.; Sravan, Niharika; Kalogera, Vicky [Northwestern University Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics, 2145 Sheridan Rd., Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Cantrell, Andrew; Kreidberg, Laura; Bailyn, Charles D. [Department of Astrophysics, Yale University, P. O. Box 208101, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Mandel, Ilya, E-mail: w-farr@northwestern.edu, E-mail: niharika.sravan@gmail.com, E-mail: vicky@northwestern.edu, E-mail: andrew.cantrell@yale.edu, E-mail: laura.kreidberg@yale.edu, E-mail: charles.bailyn@yale.edu, E-mail: ilyamandel@chgk.info [Kavli Institute, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

2011-11-10

222

The radiative Reynolds number  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The radiative Reynolds number (RRN) is defined as a parameter characterizing the stability of low-temperature current-carrying plasma in high-current radiating discharges (such as are used for the pumping of high-power lasers). The RRN approach is used to examine the stability of plasmas and other objects in fields of intrinsic thermal emission; processes in MHD converters, gas lasers, and the cosmic plasma are examined. It is shown that in all cases where the RRN is sufficiently large the overheating instability (such as occurs in the solar photosphere) arises and the plasma becomes turbulent.

Rozanov, V. B.; Rukhadze, A. A.

223

History of Prime Numbers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The School of Mathematics and Statistics at the University of St Andrews, Scotland has developed an extensive collection of articles on the history of mathematics (See also NSDL Scout Report for Math, Engineering, and Technology, June 4, 2004). This article, written by J J O'Connor and E F Robertson, reviews the history of Prime Numbers. The article includes hyperlinks to topics addressed further in other sections of the website. For example, from this website visitors can also find articles on Pythagoras and Euclid.

224

By the Numbers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners describe objects in a room using only numbers and shapes. They can measure the object (like a desk) and make a list of facts about it (e.g. 21 inches tall, 42 inches wide, 3 different colors). Then other learners try to identify the objects described. When learners set up a free account at Kinetic City, they can answer bonus questions at the end of the activity as a quick assessment. As a larger assessment, learners can complete the Bug Blaster game after they've completed several activities.

Science, American A.

2009-01-01

225

Instrumentation for mass spectrometry: 1997  

SciTech Connect

All mass spectrometry experiments involve the manipulation of material, an interface with the mass spectrometer, ionization, ion manipulation/analysis, detection and data collection/reduction. Each of these elements involve instrumentation. The wide range of species now amenable to mass spectrometry and the diverse areas of physical science in which it plays a role have led to a seemingly unlimited array of instrumental combinations. However, only a limited number of mass analyzers, and their combinations, dominate. The dominant analyzers include time-of-flight, Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance, the Paul trap, the mass filter, and the sector mass spectrometer. Why there are so few (or so many, depending upon one`s point of view) can be understood upon consideration of a set of mass analyzer figures of merit. These include mass resolution, mass accuracy, mass range, dynamic range, abundance sensitivity, precision, efficiency, speed, MS{sup n} capability, compatibility with the ionizer, cost, and size. The most appropriate form of mass spectrometry is determined by the priorities of the particular measurement placed on the various mass analyzer characteristics and the relative strengths of the analyzers in meeting the requirements. Each of the analyzer types has a unique set of figures of merit that makes it optimally suited for particular applications. This paper discusses these figures of merit, provides data illustrating recent developments for each analyzer type, and gives the figures of merit of each type of analyzer as they stand in 1997. 101 refs., 24 figs.

McLuckey, S.A.

1997-08-01

226

Evaluation of Fine Particle Number Concentrations in CMAQ  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model is widely used in air quality management and scientific investigation. Numerous studies have been conducted investigating how well CMAQ simulates fine particle mass concentrations, but relatively few studies have addressed how well CMAQ simulates fine particle number distribution. Accurate simulation of particle number concentrations is important because particle number and surface area concentrations

Sun-Kyoung Park; Amit Marmur; Seoung Bum Kim; Di Tian; Yongtao Hu; Peter H. McMurry; Armistead G. Russell

2006-01-01

227

Lepton number violating new physics and neutrinoless double beta decay  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neutrinoless double beta decay (0???) is a very promising experimental test for lepton number violation. Moreover, a strong connection between this decay and the phenomenon of neutrino masses exists. We will discuss the relation between 0??? and Majorana neutrino masses established by the Schechter-Valle theorem in a quantitative way and find that only a negligibly tiny Majorana mass contribution is guaranteed. Additionally, we will discuss lepton number violation and lepton flavor violation in the colored seesaw scenario. This model generates neutrino masses at the one-loop level, and it provides a direct and an indirect contribution to 0???, both of which may be the dominant one.

Duerr, Michael

2013-04-01

228

Mass Extinction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This set of multimedia resources, produced for the NOVA television broadcast 'Mass Extinction', explains mass extinctions in general, and in particular the extinction event that occurred at the end of the Permian period, in which more than 90 percent of all marine species died out. An interactive feature presents some of the theories about what caused this event, and lets users vote for the one they consider most likely. There is also a video clip from the broadcast, an audio clip of an interview with a researcher who is using high-precision dating techniques to understand the time scale of the Permian extinction, and an ask-the expert feature in which a scientist from the Smithsonian Institution answers questions about the Permian and other mass extinctions. Other links access a teacher's guide, additional reading materials, and a transcript of the broadcast.

2011-05-13

229

Mass customization: providing custom products and services with mass production efficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mass customization is designed to deliver highly customized products with mass production efficiency. While discussed in the literature for more than a decade, mass customization has only recently been introduced to a large extent. Using a number of case examples from the automotive, sports equip- ment, and credit card industry, we will discuss in this paper how mass customization supports

Frank Piller

230

Mass Wasting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains 12 questions on the topic of mass wasting, which covers mudslides, lahars, landslides and more. This is part of the Principles of Earth Science course at the University of South Dakota. Users submit their answers and are provided immediate feedback.

Heaton, Timothy

231

Quark Masses  

SciTech Connect

In my talk, I reviewed some basic aspects of quark masses: what do they mean, how can they be determined, what is our present knowledge on them. The talk was addressed to non specialists in the field, and so is this write up.

Gasser, Juerg [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Bern, Sidlerstrasse 5, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland)

2005-10-26

232

MOIRCS Deep Survey. I: DRG Number Counts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We used very deep near-infrared imaging data taken with the Multi-Object InfraRed Camera and Spectrograph (MOIRCS) on the Subaru Telescope to investigate the number counts of Distant Red Galaxies (DRGs). We observed a 4' × 7' field in the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey-North (GOODS-N), and our data reached J=24.6 and K=23.2 (5?, Vega magnitude). The surface density of DRGs selected by J - K > 2.3 is 2.35 ± 0.31 arcmin-2 at K < 22 and 3.54 ± 0.38 arcmin-2 at K < 23, respectively. These values are consistent with those in the GOODS-South and FIRES. Our deep and wide data suggest that the number counts of DRGs turn over at K ˜ 22, and the surface density of the faint DRGs with K > 22 is smaller than that expected from the number counts at the brighter magnitude. The result indicates that while there are many bright galaxies at 2 < z < 4 with the relatively old stellar population and/or heavy dust extinction, the number of faint galaxies with a similar red color is relatively small. Different behavior patterns of the number counts of the DRGs and bluer galaxies with 2 < zphot < 4 at K > 22 suggest that the mass-dependent color distribution, where most of the low-mass galaxies are blue, while more massive galaxies tend to have redder colors, had already been established at that epoch.

Kajisawa, Masaru; Konishi, Masahiro; Suzuki, Ryuji; Tokoku, Chihiro; Uchimoto, Yuka; Katsuno; Yoshikawa, Tomohiro; Akiyama, Masayuki; Ichikawa, Takashi; Ouchi, Masami; Omata, Koji; Tanaka, Ichi; Nishimura, Tetsuo; Yamada, Toru

2006-12-01

233

q Numbers of quantum groups, Fibonacci numbers, and orthogonal polynomials  

Microsoft Academic Search

We obtain algebraic relations (identities) for q-numbers that do not contain q\\u000a ?-factors. We derive a formula that expresses any q-number [x] in terms of the q-number [2]. We establish the relationship between the q-numbers [n] and the Fibonacci numbers, Chebyshev polynomials, and other special functions. The sums of combinations of q-numbers, in particular, the sums of their powers, are

I. I. Kachurik

1998-01-01

234

7 and Happy Numbers - Numberphile  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this 1.5-minute video, mathematician Dr Ria Symonds describes a characteristic of numbers such as 7, which after repeated squaring of digits and summing of the squares, result in the number 1, the first natural number. This introduction invites an investigation to find other "happy" numbers, and to find out what happens to "sad" numbers.

Symonds, Ria

2012-02-10

235

ALIA 2000. Capitalising on Knowledge: The Information Profession in the 21st Century (Canberra, Australia, October 23-26, 2000).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This proceeding of the Australian Library and Information Association (ALIA) 2000 conference contains 64 papers presented at the main conference and 12 papers presented at the fringe conference. Topics covered include: the 21st century information environment; user perspectives of the future of the Internet; the user interface; public libraries…

Australian Library and Information Association, Deakin.

236

Grace and Courtesy: A Human Responsibility. AMI/USA Conference (Oak Brook, Illinois, July 23-26, 1998).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This conference proceedings compile presentations from a 1998 meeting of the American Montessori International of the United States, focusing on the importance of grace and courtesy in children's lives and in Montessori education. The papers presented are: (1) "Grace--The Felicity of Being" (Renilde Montessori); (2) "A Montessori Community for…

American Montessori International of the United States, Inc., Rochester, NY.

237

A report from the endocrine society's 94th annual meeting & expo (June 23-26 - Houston, Texas, USA).  

PubMed

At temperatures above 100 degrees Fahrenheit, but chilly air conditioning inside the George R. Brown convention center, Houston was the endocrine capital of America during June 2012, with the ENDO EXPO 2012 meeting calling attendees from all the states and abroad. Endocrinology is a highly varied specialty, ranging from hormonal disturbances of the pituitary (and in fact acromegaly and Cushing's syndrome were among the stars of this year's meeting therapy-wise) to diabetes, female hormonal disorders and endocrine-mediated malignancies, to mention only a few. New and investigational treatments for these conditions are summarized in the following report, based on the oral and poster presentations during the meeting. PMID:23032802

Rabasseda, X

2012-09-01

238

Mass Spectrometry for the Masses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A simple, qualitative experiment is developed for implementation, where the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) plays an important role, into the laboratory curriculum of a chemistry course designed for nonscience majors. This laboratory experiment is well suited for the students as it helps them to determine the validity of their…

Persinger, Jared D.; Hoops, Geoffrey, C.; Samide, Michael J.

2004-01-01

239

Mass Moments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Mass Moments is not a website dedicated to celebrating public rebellions, uprisings, or other such activities of the masses, but rather it was created to serve as an electronic almanac of Massachusetts history. Started on January 1, 2005, the site serves as a repository of brief Âmoments in the stateÂs history, such as vignettes that tell the story of WorcesterÂs first airport or Frederick DouglassÂs first appearance before a white audience. Visitors can play each moment, or just read the script. Historic photographs and/or other documents, as well as a nice selection of sources for additional information accompany each script. Visitors can also search all of the previous moments by subject or geographic region, and in keeping with the times, they can also receive each new moment by RSS feed or podcast.

240

Space Elevator Ribbon Mass and Taper Ratio  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assumptions about tensile strength and density aect the space elevator ribbon taper ratio, and therefore its mass. We examine the technical trade-os between material properties and total mass of a modern space elevator ribbon, and the economic trade-os between ribbon mass, the number of rocket launches required to loft the initial ribbon, and the time required to build the ribbon

Tom Nugent

241

Wizard's Number (0-100)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive Flash applet helps students develop number sense and basic number concepts. Players attempt to guess the wizard's number by clicking on dragons to get clues related to the number of digits, a more/less comparison with a benchmark, rounding, how far it is to the next ten, comparison of tens and units, and parity. Clicking on the wizard opens a keypad on which to type the secret number. A version covering numbers 0-1000 is cataloged separately.

2011-01-01

242

Mass Sensor  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this CRADA was to use Honeywell's experience in low temperature cofire ceramics and traditional ceramics to assemble a relatively low-cost, mass-producible miniature mass analyzer. The specific design, given to us by Mass Sensors, LLC, was used to test for helium. The direct benefit for the participant was to have a prototype unit assembled for the purpose of proof of concept and the ability to secure venture capital investors. From that, the company would begin producing their own product for sale. The consumer/taxpayer benefits come from the wide variety of industries that can utilize this technology to improve quality of life. Medical industry can use this technology to improve diagnostic ability; manufacturing industry can use it for improved air, water, and soil monitoring to minimize pollution; and the law enforcement community can use this technology for identification of substances. These are just a few examples of the benefit of this technology. The benefits to DOE were in the area of process improvement for cofire and ceramic materials. From this project we demonstrated nonlinear thickfilm fine lines and spaces that were 5-mil wide with 5-mil spaces; determined height-to diameter-ratios for punched and filled via holes; demonstrated the ability to punch and fill 5-mil microvias; developed and demonstrated the capability to laser cut difficult geometries in 40-mil ceramic; developed and demonstrated coupling LTCC with standard alumina and achieving hermetic seals; developed and demonstrated three-dimensional electronic packaging concepts; and demonstrated printing variable resistors within 1% of the nominal value and within a tightly defined ratio. The capability of this device makes it invaluable for many industries. The device could be used to monitor air samples around manufacturing plants. It also could be used for monitoring automobile exhaust, for doing blood gas analysis, for sampling gases being emitted by volcanoes, for studying activities of insects, and many other things. The ultimate goal was to build two iterations of the mass sensor. However, due to technical difficulties, only one iteration of the device was manufactured. Initial work to optimize the ion source and build a small ion pump was not successful. Consequently, the ion pump was not incorporated into the analyzer design. Mass Sensors, LLC, is still testing the analyzers that were assembled.

Adams, B.E.

2001-01-18

243

Number Games, Magnitude Representation, and Basic Number Skills in Preschoolers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effect of 3 intervention board games (linear number, linear color, and nonlinear number) on young children's (mean age = 3.8 years) counting abilities, number naming, magnitude comprehension, accuracy in number-to-position estimation tasks, and best-fit numerical magnitude representations was examined. Pre- and posttest performance was…

Whyte, Jemma Catherine; Bull, Rebecca

2008-01-01

244

Parts per Million Mass Accuracy on an Orbitrap Mass Spectrometer via Lock Mass Injection into a C-trap  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mass accuracy is a key parameter of mass spectrometric performance. TOF instruments can reach low parts per million, and FT-ICR instruments are capable of even greater accuracy provided ion numbers are well con- trolled. Here we demonstrate sub-ppm mass accuracy on a linear ion trap coupled via a radio frequency-only stor- age trap (C-trap) to the orbitrap mass spectrometer (LTQ

Jesper V. Olsen; Lyris M. F. de Godoy; Guoqing Li; Boris Macek; Peter Mortensen; Reinhold Pesch; Alexander Makarov; Oliver Lange; Stevan Horning; Matthias Mann

2005-01-01

245

MASS SPECTROMETRY  

DOEpatents

method is described for operating a mass spectrometer to improve its resolution qualities and to extend its period of use substantially between cleanings. In this method, a small amount of a beta emitting gas such as hydrogen titride or carbon-14 methane is added to the sample being supplied to the spectrometer for investigation. The additive establishes leakage paths on the surface of the non-conducting film accumulating within the vacuum chamber of the spectrometer, thereby reducing the effect of an accumulated static charge on the electrostatic and magnetic fields established within the instrument. (AEC)

Friedman, L.

1962-01-01

246

PERFECT NUMBERS: AN ELEMENTARY INTRODUCTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

This serves as an elementary introduction to the history and the- ory surrounding even perfect numbers. One would be hard put to find a set of whole numbers with a more fascinating history and more elegant properties surrounded by greater depths of mystery—and more totally useless—than the perfect numbers. —Martin Gardner (2) The number 6 is unique in that 6

JOHN VOIGHT

247

Number Forms in the Brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mental images of number lines, Galton's ''number forms'' (NF), are a useful way of investigating the relation between number and space. Here we report the first neuroimaging study of number-form synesthesia, investigating 10 synesthetes with NFs going from left to right compared with matched controls. Neuroimaging with functional magnetic resonance imaging re- vealed no difference in brain activation during a

Joey Tang; Jamie Ward; Brian Butterworth

2008-01-01

248

New Enhanced Chaotic Number Generators  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce new families of enhanced chaotic number generators in order to compute very fast long series of pseudorandom numbers. The key feature of these generators being the use of chaotic numbers themselves for sampling chaotic subsequence of chaotic numbers in order to hide the generating function. We explore numerically the properties of these new families and underline their very

René Lozi

2007-01-01

249

Divisibility - Prime and Composite Numbers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learn how to tell if a number is divisible by 2, 3, 5, 6, 9, or 10. Learn about prime and composite numbers This is a PowerPoint teaching Divisibility rules PowerPoint on Divisibility Have fun practicing divisibility! Divisibility Rules Practice Prime Factorization with this Factor Tree. Factor Tree You can be a Prime Number Cop while you play this game. Catch those prime numbers! Number Cop ...

Harris, Mrs.

2007-11-05

250

A Study of Hyperperfect Numbers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A number n is k-hyperperfect for some integer k if n = 1 + k s(n), where s(n) is the sum of the proper divisors of n. The 1-hyperperfect numbers are the familiar perfect numbers. This paper presents some theorems, conjectures and tables concerning hyperperfect numbers. All hyperperfect numbers less than 1011 have been computed. Evidence is presented suggesting that a published conjecture is false.

McCranie, Judson S.

2000-01-01

251

Secular love and tidal numbers of synchronously orbiting satellites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The secular Love and the secular tidal numbers have been computed for eight synchronously orbiting satellites in the solar system for which the triaxiality parameters and satellite-centric gravitational constant are available. Excepting Deimos the total mass of which should be first refined, the secular Love and tidal numbers are rather close to unity, as a rule. That is why, the

M. Bursa

1988-01-01

252

Critical number of flavors in QED  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate that in unquenched quantum electrodynamics (QED), chiral symmetry breaking ceases to exist above a critical number of fermion flavors Nf. This is a necessary and sufficient consequence of the fact that there exists a critical value of electromagnetic coupling ? beyond which dynamical mass generation gets triggered. We employ a multiplicatively renormalizable photon propagator involving leading logarithms to all orders in ? to illustrate this. We study the flavor and coupling dependence of the dynamically generated mass analytically as well as numerically. We also derive the scaling laws for the dynamical mass as a function of ? and Nf. Up to a multiplicative constant, these scaling laws are related through (?,?c)?(1/Nf,1/Nfc). Calculation of the mass anomalous dimension ?m shows that it is always greater than its value in the quenched case. We also evaluate the ? function. The criticality plane is drawn in the (?,Nf) phase space which clearly depicts how larger Nf is required to restore chiral symmetry for an increasing interaction strength.

Bashir, A.; Calcaneo-Roldan, C.; Gutiérrez-Guerrero, L. X.; Tejeda-Yeomans, M. E.

2011-02-01

253

Numbers to the people: regulation, ownership and local number portability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Local number portability (LNP) is a key factor in the promotion of local call competition in telecommunications. By allowing a consumer to retain their number when moving between local telephone providers, LNP reduces customers’ switching costs and makes it easier for new providers to compete for customers. But regulators face a number of important choices when implementing LNP — what

Joshua S. Gans; Stephen P. King; Graeme Woodbridge

2001-01-01

254

Toddlers' Spontaneous Attention to Number and Verbal Number Quantification  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|"S"pontaneous "a"ttention to "n"umber (SAN) is the tendency to notice the relatively abstract attribute of number despite the presence of other attributes. According to nativists, an innate concept of one to three directs young children's attention to these "intuitive numbers" in everyday situations--even before they acquire language. According…

Li, Xia

2009-01-01

255

The iodine number and the unsaturation number of fats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  In order to determine the degree of unsaturation of fats and to study the kinetics of their hydrogenation, it is proposed\\u000a to use instead of the iodine number an index which is called the unsaturation number and shows the total number of double\\u000a bonds in 100 molecules of fatty acids.

A. I. Glushenkova; A. L. Markman

1970-01-01

256

Know Your Blood Sugar Numbers  

MedlinePLUS

... Numbers If you have diabetes, keeping your blood glucose (sugar) numbers in your target range can help you ... a lab test that measures your average blood glucose level over the last 2 to 3 months. ...

257

Three Cubes in One Number  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Separate a three-digit number into its component digits. After raising each digit to the third power and computing the sum of the cubes, determine how often the original number reappears. Modular arithmetic is used to reduce the number of potential solutions to a more manageable quantity. (Contains 4 tables.)|

Jue, Brian

2010-01-01

258

Natural Numbers in Transclassic Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The reason why natural numbers follow the unilinear sequence prescribed by the Peano axioms is that these axioms presuppose that natural numbers are mapped unto the classic two-valued system of logic. If the same numbers are mapped unto transclassic syste...

G. Gunther

1970-01-01

259

PLURIDICTA, Numbers 28-35.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The eight titles in this document include the following: "Comprehension and Input Processing as Useful Terms in the Field of SLA" (number 28) (Teresa Cadierno); "On the Role of Instruction in SLA: Research Results and Theoretical Explanations" (number 29) (Teresa Cadierno); "Can Writing Be Taught" (number 30) (Stuart Greene); "Academic Listening"…

Wagner, Johannes, Ed.

1998-01-01

260

DOMATIC NUMBER OF GRAPH PRODUCTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A partition of V (G), all of whose classes are dominating sets in G, is called a domatic partition of G. The maximum number of classes of a domatic partition of G is called the domatic number of G. The concept of a domatic number was introduced in (1). More interesting results on domatically full graphs, domatically critical, domatically cocritical

Monika Kijewska; Maria Kwasnik

2002-01-01

261

PLURIDICTA, Numbers 28-35.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The eight titles in this document include the following: "Comprehension and Input Processing as Useful Terms in the Field of SLA" (number 28) (Teresa Cadierno); "On the Role of Instruction in SLA: Research Results and Theoretical Explanations" (number 29) (Teresa Cadierno); "Can Writing Be Taught" (number 30) (Stuart Greene); "Academic Listening"…

Wagner, Johannes, Ed.

1998-01-01

262

Do you know your numbers?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Let\\'s make sure we can recognize our numbers 0-10! Watch them swim by and Count the Fish! Let\\'s catch some fish in our very own Fishing Mission! A number is missing! Can you help Find the Missing Number? ...

Stringfield, Miss

2008-11-17

263

Magic Numbers for Sphere Packings: Experimental Verification in Free Xenon Clusters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The existence of magic numbers for atomic microclusters has been found experimentally for the first time. The magic numbers n* manifest themselves in the mass spectra of free xenon clusters, nucleated in the gas phase. The observed numbers n*=13, 55, and 147 coincide with the numbers of spheres required for complete-shell icosahedra. The appearance of further magic numbers (19, 25,

O. Echt; K. Sattler; E. Recknagel

1981-01-01

264

WMAPping out Neutrino Masses  

SciTech Connect

Recent data from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) place important bounds on the neutrino sector. The precise determination of the baryon number in the universe puts a strong constraint on the number of relativistic species during Big-Bang Nucleosynthesis. WMAP data, when combined with the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey (2dFGRS), also directly constrain the absolute mass scale of neutrinos. These results conflict with a neutrino oscillation interpretation of the result from the Liquid Scintillator Neutrino Detector (LSND) over the entire favored mixing region. We also note that the Heidelberg--Moscow evidence for neutrinoless double beta decay is only consistent with the WMAP+2dFGRS data for the largest values of the nuclear matrix element.

Pierce, Aaron T

2003-02-18

265

WMAPping out neutrino masses  

SciTech Connect

Recent data from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) place important bounds on the neutrino sector. The precise determination of the baryon number in the universe puts a strong constraint on the number of relativistic species during Big-Bang Nucleosynthesis. WMAP data, when combined with the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey (2dFGRS), also directly constrain the absolute mass scale of neutrinos. These results impinge upon a neutrino oscillation interpretation of the result from the Liquid Scintillator Neutrino Detector (LSND).We also note that the Heidelberg-Moscow evidence for neutrinoless double beta decay is only consistent with the WMAP+2dFGRS data for the largest values of the nuclear matrix element.

Pierce, Aaron; Murayama, Hitoshi

2003-10-28

266

Investigations in Number, Data, and Space  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Investigations is a complete K-5 mathematics curriculum, developed at TERC in Cambridge, Mass. It is designed to help all children understand the fundamental ideas of number and operations, geometry, data, measurement, and early algebra. The curriculum has four major goals: to offer students meaningful mathematical problems; emphasize depth in mathematical thinking; communicate mathematics content and pedagogy to teachers; and expand the pool of mathematically literate students. This site includes descriptions of the units in each grade, K through 5; ordering information; and information on professional-development workshops designed to facilitate introduction of this curriculum.

Terc

267

Perfect, Amicable and Sociable Numbers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These friendly sounding numbers are defined by their divisibility and sums. A perfect number is a number whose positive divisors (except for itself) sum to itself; an amicable number is a pair of numbers each of which equals the sum of the other's aliquot parts; and the members of aliquot cycles of length greater than two are often called sociable numbers. This page, housed at (but not officially affiliated with) the Institute for Materials Science at the University of Connecticut, defines and describes perfect, amicable, and sociable numbers and introduces aliquot sequences. The text has links to a bibliography and to numeric tables. This site might be interesting to college-level mathematics students or anyone into mathematical puzzles.

268

Quantum random number generator using photon-number path entanglement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report an experimental implementation of quantum random number generator based on the photon-number-path entangled state. The photon-number-path entangled state is prepared by means of two-photon Hong-Ou-Mandel quantum interference at a beam splitter. The randomness in our scheme is of truly quantum mechanical origin as it comes from the projection measurement of the entangled two-photon state. The generated bit sequences satisfy the standard randomness test.

Kwon, Osung; Cho, Young-Wook; Kim, Yoon-Ho

2010-08-01

269

Modeling low Reynolds number microgravity combustion problems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The limit of low Reynolds number and low gravity allows a novel approximation to be developed for the equations of combustion theory. When the velocity field is separated into solenoidal and irrotational parts it is possible to show that the former is negligible to the lowest order in Reynolds number. Hence, the computation of the velocity field from the Navier Stokes equations may be replaced by the simpler task of solving Poissons equation for the irrotational field. This irrotational field is then substituted into the convective terms in energy and species equations, enabling solutions to be found for scalar quantities like the temperature and species mass fractions. The procedure is illustrated by examining two problems; the flow of air past a sphere blowing a light gas like helium, and combustion of volatiles blown from a porous sphere in an oxidizing crossfiow.

Baum, Howard R.

270

Nonequilibrium hadronization and constituent quark number scaling  

SciTech Connect

The constituent quark number scaling of elliptic flow is studied in a nonequilibrium hadronization and freeze-out model with rapid dynamical transition from ideal, deconfined, and chirally symmetric quark-gluon plasma, to final noninteracting hadrons. In this transition a bag model of constituent quarks is considered, where the quarks gain constituent quark mass while the background bag field breaks up and vanishes. The constituent quarks then recombine into simplified hadron states, while chemical, thermal, and flow equilibrium break down one after the other. In this scenario the resulting temperatures and flow velocities of baryons and mesons are different. Using a simplified few source model of the elliptic flow, we are able to reproduce the constituent quark number scaling, with assumptions on the details of the nonequilibrium processes.

Zschocke, Sven [TU Dresden, Institut fuer Planetare Geodaesie, Lohrmann-Observatorium, D-01062 Dresden (Germany); Horvat, Szabolcs [Department of Physics and Technology, University of Bergen, Allegaten 55, N-5007 Bergen (Norway); Faculty of Physics, Babes-Bolyai University, Kogalniceanu str 1, 400084 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Mishustin, Igor N. [Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies (FIAS), D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Russian Research Center, Kurchatov Institute, 123182 Moscow (Russian Federation); Csernai, Laszlo P. [Department of Physics and Technology, University of Bergen, Allegaten 55, N-5007 Bergen (Norway); Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies (FIAS), D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); MTA-KFKI Research Institute for Particle Physics and Nuclear Physics, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary)

2011-04-15

271

On the origin of neutrino masses  

SciTech Connect

We discuss the simplest mechanisms for generating neutrino masses at tree level and one loop level. We find a significant number of new possibilities where one can generate neutrino masses at the one-loop level by adding only two new types of representations. These models have renormalizable interactions that automatically conserve baryon number. Adding to the minimal standard model a scalar color octet with quantum numbers, (8,2,1/2), and a fermionic color octet in the fundamental or adjoint representation of SU(2), one can generate neutrino masses in agreement with experiment. Signals at the LHC and constraints from flavor violation are briefly discussed.

Fileviez Perez, Pavel [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Department of Physics, 1150 University Avenue, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Wise, Mark B. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California, 91125 (United States)

2009-09-01

272

Open Mass Spectrometry Search Algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large numbers of MS\\/MS peptide spectra generated in proteomics experiments require efficient, sensitive and specific algorithms for peptide identification. In the Open Mass Spectrometry Search Algorithm [OMSSA], specificity is calculated by a classic probability score using an explicit model for matching experimental spectra to sequences. At default thresholds, OMSSA matches more spectra from a standard protein cocktail than a comparable

Lewis Y. Geer; Sanford P. Markey; Jeffrey A. Kowalak; Lukas Wagner; Ming Xu; Dawn M. Maynard; Xiaoyu Yang; Wenyao Shi; Stephen H. Bryant

2004-01-01

273

Catalan Numbers, the Hankel Transform, and Fibonacci Numbers  

Microsoft Academic Search

We prove that the Hankel transformation of a sequence whose elements are the sums of two adjacent Catalan numbers is a subsequence of the Fibonacci numbers. This is done by finding the explicit form for the coefficients in the three-term recurrence relation that the corresponding orthogonal polynomials satisfy.

Aleksandar Cvetkovic; Predrag Rajkovic; Milos Ivkovic

2002-01-01

274

Finite Prandtl number 2-D convection at high Rayleigh numbers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Finite Prandtl number thermal convection is important to the dynamics of planetary bodies in the solar system. For example, the complex geology on the surface of the Jovian moon Europa is caused by a convecting, brine-rich global ocean that deforms the overlying icy “lithosphere”. We have conducted a systematic study on the variations of the convection style, as Prandtl numbers

Catherine A. Hier Majumder; David A. Yuen; Erik O. Sevre; John M. Boggs; Stephen Y. Bergeron

2002-01-01

275

On gauged Baryon and Lepton numbers  

SciTech Connect

The observation that Baryon number and Lepton number are conserved in nature provides strong motivation for associating gauge symmetries to these conserved numbers. This endeavor requires that the gauge group of electroweak interactions be extended from SU(2){sub L} X U(1){sub Y} to SU(2){sub L} X U(1){sub R} X U(1){sub Lepton} where U(1){sub R} couples only to the right-handed quarks and leptons. If it furthur postulated that right-handed currents exist on par with the left-handed ones, then the full electroweak symmetry is SU(2){sub L} X SU(2){sub R} X U(1){sub Baryon} X U(1){sub Lepton}. The SU(2){sub L} X SU(2){sub R} X U(1){sub Baryon} X U(1){sub Lepton} model is described in some detail. The triangle anomalies of the three families of quarks and leptons in the model are cancelled invoking leptoquark matter which is new fermionic matter that carries baryon as well as lepton numbers. In addition to the standard neutral boson (Z {degree}), the theory predicts two neutral gauge bosons with mass lower bounds of 120 GeV and 210 GeV which makes these particles prospective candidates for production at LEP, the TEVATRON and the SSC.

Rajpoot, S.

1990-01-01

276

Chaotic Nonlinear Prime Number Function  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dynamical systems in nature, such as heartbeat patterns, DNA sequence pattern, prime number distribution, etc., exhibit nonlinear (chaotic) space-time fluctuations and exact quantification of the fluctuation pattern for predictability purposes has not yet been achieved [1]. In this paper a chaotic-nonlinear prime number function P(s) is developed, from which prime numbers are generated and decoded while composite numbers are encoded over time following the Euler product methodology, which works on sequences progressively culled from multiples of the preceding primes. By relating this P(s) to a virtually closed 2D number line manifold, it is possible to represent the evolving in time of nonlinear (chaotic) systems to a final value where the system becomes stable, becomes linear. This nonlinear prime number function is proposed as a chaotic model system able to describe chaotic systems.

Mateos, Luis A.

2011-06-01

277

Multiplying Fractions and Mixed Numbers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is designed to reinforce skills associated with multiplying fractions and mixed numbers and allow students to visualize the effects of multiplying by a fraction or mixed number. Students review the concepts of fractions and mixed numbers and how to multiply them, and use an interactive applet to visualize what happens to a whole number when it is multiplied by a fraction or mixed number. Students then answer questions from the Multiplying Fractions Worksheet (Flesch-Kincaid reading level = 5.3) to encourage them to look closely at the patterns created. As independent practice, students complete the Multiplying Mixed Numbers Worksheet (Flesch-Kincaid reading level = 5.7). A teacher/student discussion outline and instructions for leading guided practice are included.

2008-01-01

278

Number Line Bars--Fractions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students use these virtual fraction bars to model fractional addition, subtraction, multiplication (of fractions by whole numbers), and division on a number line. Students can create bars in positive or negative fractional lengths; align, stack, or remove bars; and change the number line marks in increments between 1/2 and 1/15. Applet instructions and teaching ideas are included in the links at the top of the page.

2005-01-01

279

Familial sinistrals avoid exact numbers.  

PubMed

We report data from an internet questionnaire of sixty number trivia. Participants were asked for the number of cups in their house, the number of cities they know and 58 other quantities. We compare the answers of familial sinistrals--individuals who are left-handed themselves or have a left-handed close blood-relative--with those of pure familial dextrals--right-handed individuals who reported only having right-handed close blood-relatives. We show that familial sinistrals use rounder numbers than pure familial dextrals in the survey responses. Round numbers in the decimal system are those that are multiples of powers of 10 or of half or a quarter of a power of 10. Roundness is a gradient concept, e.g. 100 is rounder than 50 or 200. We show that very round number like 100 and 1000 are used with 25% greater likelihood by familial sinistrals than by pure familial dextrals, while pure familial dextrals are more likely to use less round numbers such as 25, 60, and 200. We then use Sigurd's (1988, Language in Society) index of the roundness of a number and report that familial sinistrals' responses are significantly rounder on average than those of pure familial dextrals. To explain the difference, we propose that the cognitive effort of using exact numbers is greater for the familial sinistral group because their language and number systems tend to be more distributed over both hemispheres of the brain. Our data support the view that exact and approximate quantities are processed by two separate cognitive systems. Specifically, our behavioral data corroborates the view that the evolutionarily older, approximate number system is present in both hemispheres of the brain, while the exact number system tends to be localized in only one hemisphere. PMID:23544052

Sauerland, Uli; Gotzner, Nicole

2013-03-27

280

Higher-order Fibonacci numbers  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider a generalization of Fibonacci numbers that was motivated by the relationship of the HosoyaZ topological index to the Fibonacci numbers. In the case of the linear chain structures the new higher order Fibonacci numbershFn are directly related to the higher order Hosoya-typeZ numbers. We investigate the limitsFn\\/Fn-1 and the corresponding equations, the roots of which allow one to

Milan Randi?; Daniel A. Morales; Oswaldo Araujo

1996-01-01

281

PCF Extended with Real Numbers  

Microsoft Academic Search

We extend the programming language PCF with a type for (total and partial)real numbers. By a partial real number we mean an element of a cpo of intervals,whose subspace of maximal elements (single-point intervals) is homeomorphic tothe Euclidean real line. We show that partial real numbers can be considered as"continuous words". Concatenation of continuous words corresponds to refinementof partial information.

Martín Hötzel Escardó

1996-01-01

282

Schmidt number for quantum operations  

SciTech Connect

To understand how entangled states behave under local quantum operations is an open problem in quantum-information theory. The Jamiolkowski isomorphism provides a natural way to study this problem in terms of quantum states. We introduce the Schmidt number for quantum operations by this duality and clarify how the Schmidt number of a quantum state changes under a local quantum operation. Some characterizations of quantum operations with Schmidt number k are also provided.

Huang Siendong [Department of Applied Mathematics, National Dong Hwa University, Hualien 974, Taiwan (China)

2006-05-15

283

Familial Sinistrals Avoid Exact Numbers  

PubMed Central

We report data from an internet questionnaire of sixty number trivia. Participants were asked for the number of cups in their house, the number of cities they know and 58 other quantities. We compare the answers of familial sinistrals – individuals who are left-handed themselves or have a left-handed close blood-relative – with those of pure familial dextrals – right-handed individuals who reported only having right-handed close blood-relatives. We show that familial sinistrals use rounder numbers than pure familial dextrals in the survey responses. Round numbers in the decimal system are those that are multiples of powers of 10 or of half or a quarter of a power of 10. Roundness is a gradient concept, e.g. 100 is rounder than 50 or 200. We show that very round number like 100 and 1000 are used with 25% greater likelihood by familial sinistrals than by pure familial dextrals, while pure familial dextrals are more likely to use less round numbers such as 25, 60, and 200. We then use Sigurd’s (1988, Language in Society) index of the roundness of a number and report that familial sinistrals’ responses are significantly rounder on average than those of pure familial dextrals. To explain the difference, we propose that the cognitive effort of using exact numbers is greater for the familial sinistral group because their language and number systems tend to be more distributed over both hemispheres of the brain. Our data support the view that exact and approximate quantities are processed by two separate cognitive systems. Specifically, our behavioral data corroborates the view that the evolutionarily older, approximate number system is present in both hemispheres of the brain, while the exact number system tends to be localized in only one hemisphere.

Sauerland, Uli; Gotzner, Nicole

2013-01-01

284

Power Series of Fuzzy Numbers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following Talo and Ba?ar [Determination of the duals of classical sets of sequences of fuzzy numbers and related matrix transformations, Comput. Math. Appl. 58(2009), 717-733], we essentially deal with the power series of fuzzy numbers with real or fuzzy coefficients. We consider the different cases of power series of fuzzy numbers to be convergent and give the theorem on the term by term differentiation of power series of fuzzy numbers. Finally, we present a result on the Taylor expansion of a fuzzy valued function.

Kadak, U?ur; Ba?ar, Feyzi

2010-11-01

285

Measuring Distance of Fuzzy Numbers by Trapezoidal Fuzzy Numbers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fuzzy numbers and more generally linguistic values are approximate assessments, given by experts and accepted by decision-makers when obtaining value that is more accurate is impossible or unnecessary. Distance between two fuzzy numbers plays an important role in linguistic decision-making. It is reasonable to define a fuzzy distance between fuzzy objects. To achieve this aim, the researcher presents a new distance measure for fuzzy numbers by means of improved centroid distance method. The metric properties are also studied. The advantage is the calculation of the proposed method is far simple than previous approaches.

Hajjari, Tayebeh

2010-11-01

286

Cosmic Numbers and Quantum Theory.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The cosmic numbers are considered, with emphasis on the relation N approx.= rho sup 2 . (Here N is the number of nucleons in the universe, and rho, its radius in atomic units). This relation is interpreted in terms of a quantum-mechanical model. (Atominde...

J. Tarski

1985-01-01

287

Toddlers' Spontaneous Attention to Number  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Hannula and Lehtinen (2001, 2005) defined spontaneous focusing on numerosity (SFON) as the tendency to notice the relatively abstract attribute of number despite the presence of other attributes. According to nativists, an innate concept of one to three directs young children's attention to these "intuitive numbers" in everyday situations--even…

Baroody, Arthur J.; Li, Xia; Lai, Meng-lung

2008-01-01

288

Toddlers' Spontaneous Attention to Number  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hannula and Lehtinen (2001, 2005) defined spontaneous focusing on numerosity (SFON) as the tendency to notice the relatively abstract attribute of number despite the presence of other attributes. According to nativists, an innate concept of one to three directs young children's attention to these "intuitive numbers" in everyday situations--even…

Baroody, Arthur J.; Li, Xia; Lai, Meng-lung

2008-01-01

289

Rational Numbers and Proportional Reasoning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this workshop session, elementary and middle school teachers look at ways to interpret, model and work with rational numbers and to explore the basics of proportional reasoning. These ideas are investigated through interactive applets, problem sets, and a video of teachers solving one of the problems. This is session 8 of Learning Math: Number and Operations, a free online course.

Findell, Carol R.

2007-12-12

290

On Counting the Rational Numbers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, we show how to construct a function from the set N of natural numbers that explicitly counts the set Q[superscript +] of all positive rational numbers using a very intuitive approach. The function has the appeal of Cantor's function and it has the advantage that any high school student can understand the main idea at a glance…

Almada, Carlos

2010-01-01

291

Understanding Rational Numbers and Proportions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The three activities in this investigation center on situations involving rational numbers and proportions that students encounter at a bakery. These activities involve several important concepts of rational numbers and proportions, including partitioning a unit into equal parts, the quotient interpretation of fractions, the area model of fractions, determining fractional parts of a unit not cut into equal-sized pieces, and equivalence.

Illuminations, Nctm

2000-01-01

292

Color by Numbers: Image Representation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Computers store drawings, photographs, and other pictures using only numbers. Through this activity, learners decode numbers to create pictures using the same process that computers use. They can then create and code their own pictures for other learners to decode. This lesson includes three activities (1 introductory and 2 worksheet) and background information.

Technology, National C.

2012-12-13

293

On Counting the Rational Numbers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this study, we show how to construct a function from the set N of natural numbers that explicitly counts the set Q[superscript +] of all positive rational numbers using a very intuitive approach. The function has the appeal of Cantor's function and it has the advantage that any high school student can understand the main idea at a glance…

Almada, Carlos

2010-01-01

294

Quick Images: Visualizing Number Combinations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this 6-minute video kindergarten teacher Stephanie Latimer describes and models techniques for developing children's number sense and visual recognition of number combinations. After quickly displaying groups of objects on a ten frame, she asks her students to describe the ways that they see the objects grouped. The resource includes reflection questions for viewers and a transcript of the video (doc).

2012-01-01

295

Investigating the Randomness of Numbers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The use of random numbers is pervasive in today's world. Random numbers have practical applications in such far-flung arenas as computer simulations, cryptography, gambling, the legal system, statistical sampling, and even the war on terrorism. Evaluating the randomness of extremely large samples is a complex, intricate process. However, the…

Pendleton, Kenn L.

2009-01-01

296

Spontaneous Number Representation in Mosquitofish  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|While there is convincing evidence that preverbal human infants and non-human primates can spontaneously represent number, considerable debate surrounds the possibility that such capacity is also present in other animals. Fish show a remarkable ability to discriminate between different numbers of social companions. Previous work has demonstrated…

Dadda, Marco; Piffer, Laura; Agrillo, Christian; Bisazza, Angelo

2009-01-01

297

Efficient Generation of Prime Numbers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The generation of prime numbers underlies the use of most public-key schemes, essentially as a major primitive needed for the cre- ation of key pairs or as a computation stage appearing during various cryptographic setups. Surprisingly, despite decades of intense mathemat- ical studies on primality testing and an observed progressive intensi- cation of cryptographic usages, prime number generation algorithms remain

Marc Joye; Pascal Paillier; Serge Vaudenay

2000-01-01

298

Lepton number violation in theories with a large number of standard model copies  

SciTech Connect

We examine lepton number violation (LNV) in theories with a saturated black hole bound on a large number of species. Such theories have been advocated recently as a possible solution to the hierarchy problem and an explanation of the smallness of neutrino masses. On the other hand, the violation of the lepton number can be a potential phenomenological problem of this N-copy extension of the standard model as due to the low quantum gravity scale black holes may induce TeV scale LNV operators generating unacceptably large rates of LNV processes. We show, however, that this issue can be avoided by introducing a spontaneously broken U{sub 1(B-L)}. Then, due to the existence of a specific compensation mechanism between contributions of different Majorana neutrino states, LNV processes in the standard model copy become extremely suppressed with rates far beyond experimental reach.

Kovalenko, Sergey; Schmidt, Ivan [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria and Centro Cientifico-Tecnologico de Valparaiso, Casilla 110-V, Valparaiso, Valparaiso (Chile); Paes, Heinrich [Fakultaet fuer Physik, Technische Universitaet Dortmund, D-44221, Dortmund (Germany)

2011-03-01

299

Mass definition, mass measurement and recommendations  

SciTech Connect

Mass measurements may be greatly enhanced by an understanding of the operation of balances, the effects of buoyancy, practices encountered in weighing and the impacts and meanings of revelant mass standards. Beginning with the basic forces acting on weights, the equations brought to equality in balances are developed. These give explanation of the weighing process and an appreciation for some balance characteristics. The requirements of relevant mass standards are also reviewed. Recommendations are made for operation of practical mass calibration. An appendix is attached which gives computation examples using apparent mass'' and also gives a method for determining the density of mass artifacts or unknown materials. 2 tabs.

Braudaway, D.W.

1990-09-01

300

Liquid-fuel burning with nonunitary Lewis number  

SciTech Connect

An analysis is presented for liquid-fuel vaporization and burning with nonunitary Lewis number (i.e., nonsimilar heat and mass diffusion) in a general geometrical situation, e.g., a dense spray. Variable transport properties are considered and only Stefan flow is allowed. The analysis builds on the approach of Imaoka and Sirignano for unitary Lewis number. Fickian diffusion with differing diffusivities for each species is considered. It is shown that the problem can conveniently be separated, using a mass-flux potential function, into a one-dimensional problem for the quasi-steady, gas-phase scalar properties and a three-dimensional problem for the mass-flux potential, which satisfies Laplace's equation. This allows some previous calculations of the potential function for unitary Lewis number to be used for the potential-function solution. The scalar properties are shown to be functions of the mass-flux potential only. It is demonstrated that a mass-flux-weighted sensible specific enthalpy is more natural and convenient than the traditional mass-weighted value. This modification results in a new definition of the Lewis number. A generalization of the classical Spalding heat transfer number is presented. The theory predicts scalar gas-phase profiles, flame position, and vaporization rates. Quantitative results are presented for special cases where the Lewis number is piecewise constant. The thin-flame temperature and the effective latent heat of vaporization can be determined as functions of the liquid-surface temperature via solution of nonlinear algebraic equations; these values do not depend on the specific configuration and therefore have some universality. (author)

Sirignano, William A. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697-3975 (United States)

2007-02-15

301

Learning Math: Number and Operations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video- and web-based course K-8 teachers examine the three main categories in the Number and Operations strand of Principles and Standards of School Mathematics (NCTM): understanding numbers, representations, relationships, and number systems; the meanings of operations and relationships among those operations; and reasonable estimation and fluent computation. The course covers the real number system, place value, the behavior of zero and infinity, meanings and models of basic operations, percentages, modeling operations with fractions, and basic number theory topics (factors, multiples, divisibility tests). The course consists of 10 approximately 2.5 hour sessions, each with video programming, problem-solving activities, and interactive activities and demonstrations on the web. Participants can work through the sessions on their own, in a study group, or as part of a facilitated, face-to-face, graduate-level course for credit.

2012-01-01

302

Effective atomic numbers for materials of dosimetric interest  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Effective atomic numbers (Zeff) for different materials of dosimetric interest have been calculated for total photon interaction in the energy region 1 keV-20 MeV. The calculations are made using the mass attenuation coefficients data from Tables of X-ray Mass Attenuation Coefficients and Mass Energy-absorption Coefficients 1 keV to 20 MeV for elements Z = 1 to 92 and 48 Additional Substances of Dosimetric Interest, J. H. Hubbell and S. M. Seltzer (Hubbell and Seltzer, 1995), NISTIR-5632. The variation of Zeff value with energy is discussed.

Kumar, T. Kiran; Reddy, K. Venkata

1997-12-01

303

Number line compression and the illusory perception of random numbers.  

PubMed

Developmental studies indicate that children initially possess a compressed intuition of numerical distances, in which larger numbers are less discriminable than small ones. Education then "linearizes" this responding until by about age eight, children become able to map symbolic numerals onto a linear spatial scale. However, this illusion of compression of symbolic numerals may still exist in a dormant form in human adults and may be observed in appropriate experimental contexts. To investigate this issue, we asked adult participants to rate whether a random sequence of numbers contained too many small numbers or too many large ones. Participants exhibited a large bias, judging as random a geometric series that actually oversampled small numbers, consistent with a compression of large numbers. This illusion resisted training on a number-space mapping task, even though performance was linear on this task. While the illusion was moderately reduced by explicit exposure to linear sequences, responding was still significantly compressed. Thus, the illusion of compression is robust in this task, but linear and compressed responding can be exhibited in the same participants depending on the experimental context. PMID:20382625

Viarouge, Arnaud; Hubbard, Edward M; Dehaene, Stanislas; Sackur, Jérôme

2010-01-01

304

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for B-12 (Boron)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume A `Nuclei with Z = 1 - 54' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms'. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope B-12 (Boron, atomic number Z = 5, mass number A = 12).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

305

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Zr-85 (Zirconium)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume A `Nuclei with Z = 1 - 54' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms'. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Zr-85 (Zirconium, atomic number Z = 40, mass number A = 85).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

306

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for I-131 (Iodine)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume A `Nuclei with Z = 1 - 54' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms'. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope I-131 (Iodine, atomic number Z = 53, mass number A = 131).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

307

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Mg-20 (Magnesium)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume A `Nuclei with Z = 1 - 54' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms'. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Mg-20 (Magnesium, atomic number Z = 12, mass number A = 20).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

308

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Zr-93 (Zirconium)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume A `Nuclei with Z = 1 - 54' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms'. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Zr-93 (Zirconium, atomic number Z = 40, mass number A = 93).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

309

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Be-7 (Beryllium)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume A `Nuclei with Z = 1 - 54' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms'. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Be-7 (Beryllium, atomic number Z = 4, mass number A = 7).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

310

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Ne-21 (Neon)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume A `Nuclei with Z = 1 - 54' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms'. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Ne-21 (Neon, atomic number Z = 10, mass number A = 21).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

311

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Te-127 (Tellurium)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume A `Nuclei with Z = 1 - 54' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms'. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Te-127 (Tellurium, atomic number Z = 52, mass number A = 127).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

312

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Tc-99 (Technetium)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume A `Nuclei with Z = 1 - 54' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms'. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Tc-99 (Technetium, atomic number Z = 43, mass number A = 99).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

313

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for F-18 (Fluorine)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume A `Nuclei with Z = 1 - 54' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms'. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope F-18 (Fluorine, atomic number Z = 9, mass number A = 18).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

314

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Sc-54 (Scandium)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume A `Nuclei with Z = 1 - 54' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms'. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Sc-54 (Scandium, atomic number Z = 21, mass number A = 54).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

315

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Sn-118 (Tin)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume A `Nuclei with Z = 1 - 54' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms'. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Sn-118 (Tin, atomic number Z = 50, mass number A = 118).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

316

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Cl-65 (Chlorine)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume A `Nuclei with Z = 1 - 54' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms'. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Cl-65 (Chlorine, atomic number Z = 17, mass number A = 65).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

317

Mass Media and Fear of Crime  

Microsoft Academic Search

Charges that the mass media create unwarranted levels of fear of crime are almost as old as the media themselves. Researchers entered the fray in large numbers in the 1960s, documenting the effects of television, newspapers, and movies onperceptions of crime and fear of criminal victimization. Recent developments in mass media, such as the rise in popularity of crime reenactment

Linda Heath; Kevin Gilbert

1996-01-01

318

Mass Media and the Fear of Crime.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Provides an overview of the research on mass media effects on perceptions of crime danger, personal fear of crime, and reactions to crime risk. Discovers that mass media effects involve a number of variables and moderators. These include audience characteristics, degree and type of coverage, and location. (MJP)|

Heath, Linda; Gilbert, Kevin

1996-01-01

319

Mass Media and Communication. Second, Revised Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This revised and enlarged second edition contains sections focusing on a number of mass media: newspapers, the American magazine, motion pictures, broadcasting media, and book publishing. Other section topics include the structure and development of mass communication, public opinion, international communication, the motivation of assent, the…

Steinberg, Charles S., Ed.

320

Mass Media and Communication. Second, Revised Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This revised and enlarged second edition contains sections focusing on a number of mass media: newspapers, the American magazine, motion pictures, broadcasting media, and book publishing. Other section topics include the structure and development of mass communication, public opinion, international communication, the motivation of assent, the…

Steinberg, Charles S., Ed.

321

Graspable Objects Shape Number Processing  

PubMed Central

The field of numerical cognition represents an interesting case for action-based theories of cognition, since number is a special kind of abstract concept. Several studies have shown that within the parietal lobes adjacent neural regions code numerical magnitude and grasping-related information. This anatomical proximity between brain areas involved in number and sensorimotor processes may account for interactions between numerical magnitude and action. In particular, recent studies have demonstrated a causal role of action perception on numerical magnitude processing. If objects are represented in terms of actions (affordances), the causal role of action on number processing should extend to the case of objects affordances. This study investigates the relationship between numbers and objects affordances in two experiments, without (Experiment 1) or with (Experiment 2) the requirement of an action (i.e., participants were asked to hold an object in their hands during the task). The task consisted in repeating aloud the odd or even digit within a pair depending on the type of the preceding or following object. Order of presentation (object–number vs. number–object), Object type (graspable vs. ungraspable), Object size (small vs. large), and Numerical magnitude (small vs. large) were manipulated for each experiment. Experiment 1 showed a facilitation – in terms of quicker responses – for graspable over ungraspable objects preceded by numbers, and an effect of numerical magnitude after the presentation of graspable objects. Experiment 2 demonstrated that the action execution enhanced overall the sensitivity to numerical magnitude, and that at the same time it interfered with the effects of objects affordances on number processing. Overall, these findings demonstrate that numbers and graspable objects are strongly interrelated, supporting the view that abstract concepts may be grounded in the motor experience.

Ranzini, Mariagrazia; Lugli, Luisa; Anelli, Filomena; Carbone, Rossella; Nicoletti, Roberto; Borghi, Anna M.

2011-01-01

322

Graspable objects shape number processing.  

PubMed

The field of numerical cognition represents an interesting case for action-based theories of cognition, since number is a special kind of abstract concept. Several studies have shown that within the parietal lobes adjacent neural regions code numerical magnitude and grasping-related information. This anatomical proximity between brain areas involved in number and sensorimotor processes may account for interactions between numerical magnitude and action. In particular, recent studies have demonstrated a causal role of action perception on numerical magnitude processing. If objects are represented in terms of actions (affordances), the causal role of action on number processing should extend to the case of objects affordances. This study investigates the relationship between numbers and objects affordances in two experiments, without (Experiment 1) or with (Experiment 2) the requirement of an action (i.e., participants were asked to hold an object in their hands during the task). The task consisted in repeating aloud the odd or even digit within a pair depending on the type of the preceding or following object. Order of presentation (object-number vs. number-object), Object type (graspable vs. ungraspable), Object size (small vs. large), and Numerical magnitude (small vs. large) were manipulated for each experiment. Experiment 1 showed a facilitation - in terms of quicker responses - for graspable over ungraspable objects preceded by numbers, and an effect of numerical magnitude after the presentation of graspable objects. Experiment 2 demonstrated that the action execution enhanced overall the sensitivity to numerical magnitude, and that at the same time it interfered with the effects of objects affordances on number processing. Overall, these findings demonstrate that numbers and graspable objects are strongly interrelated, supporting the view that abstract concepts may be grounded in the motor experience. PMID:22164141

Ranzini, Mariagrazia; Lugli, Luisa; Anelli, Filomena; Carbone, Rossella; Nicoletti, Roberto; Borghi, Anna M

2011-12-06

323

Lensing degeneracies and mass substructure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The inversion of gravitational lens systems is hindered by the fact that multiple mass distributions are often equally compatible with the observed properties of the images. Besides using clear examples to illustrate the effect of the so-called monopole and mass-sheet degeneracies, this paper introduces the most general form of said mass-sheet degeneracy. While the well-known version of this degeneracy rescales a single source plane, this generalization allows any number of sources to be rescaled. Furthermore, it shows how it is possible to rescale each of those sources with a different scalefactor. Apart from illustrating that the mass-sheet degeneracy is not broken by the presence of multiple sources at different redshifts, it will become apparent that the newly constructed mass distribution necessarily alters the existing mass density precisely at the locations of the images in the lens system, and that this change in mass density is linked to the factors with which the sources were rescaled. Combined with the fact that the monopole degeneracy introduces a large amount of uncertainty about the density in between the images, this means that both degeneracies are in fact closely related to substructure in the mass distribution. An example of a simulated lensing situation based on an elliptical version of a Navarro-Frenk-White profile explicitly shows that such degeneracies are not easily broken by observational constraints, even when multiple sources are present. Instead, the fact that each lens inversion method makes certain assumptions, implicit or explicit, about the smoothness of the mass distribution means that in practice the degeneracies are broken in an artificial manner rather than by observed properties of the lens system.

Liesenborgs, J.; De Rijcke, S.

2012-09-01

324

Using Cumulative Number Densities to Compare Galaxies across Cosmic Time  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Comparing galaxies across redshifts at fixed cumulative number density is a popular way to estimate the evolution of specific galaxy populations. This method ignores scatter in mass accretion histories and galaxy-galaxy mergers, which can lead to errors when comparing galaxies over large redshift ranges (?z > 1). We use abundance matching in the ?CDM paradigm to estimate the median change in cumulative number density with redshift and provide a simple fit (+0.16 dex per unit ?z) for progenitors of z = 0 galaxies. We find that galaxy descendants do not evolve in the same way as galaxy progenitors, largely due to scatter in mass accretion histories. We also provide estimates for the 1? range of cumulative number densities corresponding to galaxy progenitors and descendants. Finally, we discuss some limits on cumulative number density comparisons, which arise due to difficulties measuring physical quantities (e.g., stellar mass) consistently across redshifts. A public tool to calculate cumulative number density evolution for galaxies, as well as approximate halo masses, is available online.

Behroozi, Peter S.; Marchesini, Danilo; Wechsler, Risa H.; Muzzin, Adam; Papovich, Casey; Stefanon, Mauro

2013-11-01

325

Objective Calibration of Sunspot Numbers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Waldmeier [1971] found a very tight relationship between the F10.7 solar radio flux and the sunspot number and suggested using the flux for an objective calibration of the sunspot number. He suggested that if this relationship changed later on, the sunspot number should be re-calibrated, assuming that the calibration must have drifted with time. I repeat his analysis using data up to the present and it is, indeed, clear that the relationship has changed significantly. This could be due to a drift of the calibration or to a secular change in the visibility of sunspots, or both.

Svalgaard, L.

2010-12-01

326

Improved mass accuracy for tandem mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the emergence of top-down proteomics, the ability to achieve high mass measurement accuracy on tandem MS\\/MS data will\\u000a be beneficial for protein identification and characterization. (FT-ICR) Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometers\\u000a are the ideal instruments to perform these experiments with their ability to provide high resolution and mass accuracy. A\\u000a major limitation to mass measurement accuracy in

Nathan K. Kaiser; Gordon A. Anderson; James E. Bruce

2005-01-01

327

Low-Reynolds-number swimming at pycnoclines  

PubMed Central

Microorganisms play pivotal functions in the trophic dynamics and biogeochemistry of aquatic ecosystems. Their concentrations and activities often peak at localized hotspots, an important example of which are pycnoclines, where water density increases sharply with depth due to gradients in temperature or salinity. At pycnoclines organisms are exposed to different environmental conditions compared to the bulk water column, including reduced turbulence, slow mass transfer, and high particle and predator concentrations. Here we show that, at an even more fundamental level, the density stratification itself can affect microbial ecology at pycnoclines, by quenching the flow signature, increasing the energetic expenditure, and stifling the nutrient uptake of motile organisms. We demonstrate this through numerical simulations of an archetypal low-Reynolds-number swimmer, the “squirmer.” We identify the Richardson number—the ratio of buoyancy forces to viscous forces—as the fundamental parameter that quantifies the effects of stratification. These results demonstrate an unexpected effect of buoyancy on low-Reynolds-number swimming, potentially affecting a broad range of abundant organisms living at pycnoclines in oceans and lakes.

Doostmohammadi, Amin; Stocker, Roman; Ardekani, Arezoo M.

2012-01-01

328

Generating mass without Higgs fields  

SciTech Connect

In the Weinberg-Salam model, as in the various grand unification, models, Higgs fields were introduced to endow particles with mass in a gauge-invariant way. These Higgs fields seem to be undesirable features of the theory, for they bring with them a large number of arbitrary parameters. Most likely, they are phenomenological order parameters not unlike the Ginsberg-Landau order parameter in superconductivity. I shall describe some work done, in collaboration with my graduate student Roberto Mendel that attempts to generate masses spontaneously, without Higgs fields. (AIP)

Huang, K.

1981-05-01

329

Mass of the H Dibaryon  

SciTech Connect

Recent lattice QCD calculations have reported evidence for the existence of a bound state with strangeness -2 and baryon number 2 at quark masses somewhat higher than the physical values. By developing a description of the dependence of this binding energy on the up, down and strange quark masses that allows a controlled chiral extrapolation, we explore the hypothesis that this state is to be identified with the H dibaryon. Taking as input the recent results of the HAL and NPLQCD Collaborations, we show that the H dibaryon is likely to be unbound by 13{+-}14 MeV at the physical point.

Shanahan, P. E.; Thomas, A. W.; Young, R. D. [CSSM and CoEPP, School of Chemistry and Physics, University of Adelaide, Adelaide SA 5005 (Australia)

2011-08-26

330

Muon Number Violating Rare Decays.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The experimental status of rare decays that violate muon number conservation is summarized, giving upper limits of their branching ratios with 90% confidence. All of the muon experiments share several common elements. They aim to identify the process soug...

M. D. Cooper

1985-01-01

331

Fibonacci Numbers and the Spreadsheet.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Described is a classroom activity incorporating a computer spreadsheet to study number patterns generated by the Fibonacci sequence. Included are examples and suggestions for the use of the spreadsheet in other recursive relationships. (JJK)|

Verderber, Nadine L.

1991-01-01

332

Trapezoidal approximations of fuzzy numbers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of the trapezoidal approximation of fuzzy numbers is discussed. A set of criteria for approximation operators is formulated. These constraints can be used for direct operator derivation. A new nearest trapezoidal approximation operator preserving expected interval is suggested.

Przemyslaw Grzegorzewski; Edyta Mrówka

2005-01-01

333

What Is a Prime Number?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This blog page explains prime and composite numbers. It contains a music video about primes and additional pages with an activity, vocabulary, and links to an online game and a Sieve of Eratosthenes applet (both cataloged separately).

2011-04-11

334

Small Differences Between Prime Numbers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Let p_n denote the nth prime number. The present investigation relates to the existence of relatively small values of pn+1-p_n when n is large, and establishes more precise results than those previously known.

E. Bombieri; H. Davenport

1966-01-01

335

Pre-Assigned Application number  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

... If requesting for an ANDA, please include the following: Note: ANDA pre-assigned numbers expire after 60 days. Reference ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/developmentapprovalprocess/formssubmissionrequirements

336

Integral Presentations of Catalan Numbers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We compute in three different ways the same definite parametric integral. By-products are the derivation of a combinatorial identity and two integral presentations of Catalan numbers. One of them leads to a presentation using the [gamma] function.

Dana-Picard, Thierry

2010-01-01

337

Baryon number violating nuclear decay  

Microsoft Academic Search

The expressions for baryon number violating nuclear partial decay widths are derived from the interactions as predicted by\\u000a grand unified theories. Theory predicts that the baryon number violating proton decay inside the nucleus is hindered relative\\u000a to the free proton decay rate. In the case of closed shell nuclei, the meson spin-isospin dependence of the partial width\\u000a is the same

C S Warke

1984-01-01

338

Neural Addition and Fibonacci Numbers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an intriguing relation between neural networks having as weights the Fibonacci numbers and the Addition of (two) binary numbers. The practical application of interest is that such ‘Fibonacci’ networks are VLSI-optimal with respect\\u000a to the area of the circuit. We shortly present the state-of-the-art, and detail a class of multilayer solutions for Addition. For this class we

Valeriu Beiu

1999-01-01

339

Copy number variation and mutation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Until very recently, the standard model of DNA included two genes for each trait. This dated model has given way to a model that includes copies of some genes well in excess of the canonical two. Copy number variations in the human genome play critical roles in causing or aggravating a number of syndromes and diseases while providing increased resistance to others. We explore the role of mutation, crossover, inversion, and reproduction in determining copy number variations in a numerical simulation of a population. The numerical model consists of a population of individuals, where each individual is represented by a single strand of DNA with the same number of genes. Each gene is initially assigned to one of two traits. Fitness of the individual is determined by the two most fit genes for trait one, and trait two genetic material is treated as a reservoir of junk DNA. After a sufficient number of generations, during which the genetic distribution is allowed to reach a steady-state, the mean numberof genes per trait and the copy number variation are recorded. Here, we focus on the role of mutation and compare simulation results to theory.

Clark, Brian; Weidner, Jacob; Wabick, Kevin

2009-11-01

340

Scale of fermion mass generation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unitarity of longitudinal weak vector boson scattering implies an upper bound on the scale of electroweak symmetry breaking, ?EWSB?(8?)v~1 TeV. Appelquist and Chanowitz [Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2405 (1987)] have derived an analogous upper bound on the scale of fermion mass generation, proportional to v2/mf, by considering the scattering of same-helicity fermions into pairs of longitudinal weak vector bosons in a theory without a standard Higgs boson. We show that there is no upper bound, beyond that on the scale of electroweak symmetry breaking, in such a theory. This result is obtained by considering the same process, but with a large number of longitudinal weak vector bosons in the final state. We further argue that there is no scale of (Dirac) fermion mass generation in the standard model. In contrast, there is an upper bound on the scale of Majorana-neutrino mass generation, given by ?Maj?4?v2/m?. In general, the upper bound on the scale of fermion mass generation depends on the dimensionality of the interaction responsible for generating the fermion mass. We explore the scale of fermion mass generation in a variety of excursions from the standard model: models with fermions in nonstandard representations, a theory with higher-dimension interactions, a two-Higgs-doublet model, and models without a Higgs boson.

Maltoni, F.; Niczyporuk, J. M.; Willenbrock, S.

2002-02-01

341

i-mass  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a site with information for and about mass spectrometry. It features news and articles related to mass spectrometry, gleans important updates from scientific journals on mass spectroscopy, and provides conference and career links.

I-Mass.com

2003-10-10

342

Improved Mass Accuracy for Tandem Mass Spectrometry  

SciTech Connect

With the emergence of top-down proteomics, the ability to achieve high mass measurement accuracy on tandem MS/MS data will be beneficial for protein identification and characterization. (FT-ICR) Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometers are the ideal instruments to perform these experiments with their ability to provide high resolution and mass accuracy. A major limitation to mass measurement accuracy in FT-ICR instruments arises from the occurrence of space charge effects. These space charge effects shift the cyclotron frequency of the ions, which compromises the mass measurement accuracy. While several methods have been developed that correct these space charge effects, they have limitations when applied to MS/MS experiments. It has already been shown that additional information inherent in electrospray spectra can be used for improved mass measurement accuracy with the use of a computer algorithm called DeCAL (deconvolution of Coulombic affected linearity). This paper highlights a new application of the strategy for improved mass accuracy in tandem mass analysis. The results show a significant improvement in mass measurement accuracy on complex electron capture dissociation spectra of proteins. We also demonstrate how the improvement in mass accuracy can increase the confidence in protein identification from the fragment masses of proteins acquired in MS/MS experiments.

Kaiser, Nathan K.; Anderson, Gordon A.; Bruce, James E.

2005-04-01

343

Finite Prandtl Number 2-D Convection at High Rayleigh Number  

Microsoft Academic Search

Finite Prandtl number thermal convection is important to the dynamics of planetary bodies in the solar system. For example, the complex geology on the surface of the Jovian moon Europa is caused by a convecting, brine-rich global ocean that deforms the overlying icy \\

Catherine Hier Majumder; David A. Yuen; Erik O. Sevre; John M. Boggs; Stephen Y. Bergeron

344

Experimental Determination of Ramsey Numbers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ramsey theory is a highly active research area in mathematics that studies the emergence of order in large disordered structures. Ramsey numbers mark the threshold at which order first appears and are extremely difficult to calculate due to their explosive rate of growth. Recently, an algorithm that can be implemented using adiabatic quantum evolution has been proposed that calculates the two-color Ramsey numbers R(m,n). Here we present results of an experimental implementation of this algorithm and show that it correctly determines the Ramsey numbers R(3,3) and R(m,2) for 4?m?8. The R(8,2) computation used 84 qubits of which 28 were computational qubits. This computation is the largest experimental implementation of a scientifically meaningful adiabatic evolution algorithm that has been done to date.

Bian, Zhengbing; Chudak, Fabian; Macready, William G.; Clark, Lane; Gaitan, Frank

2013-09-01

345

Nanoplasmonics of prime number arrays.  

PubMed

In this paper, we investigate the plasmonic near-field localization and the far-field scattering properties of non-periodic arrays of Ag nanoparticles generated by prime number sequences in two spatial dimensions. In particular, we demonstrate that the engineering of plasmonic arrays with large spectral flatness and particle density is necessary to achieve a high density of electromagnetic hot spots over a broader frequency range and a larger area compared to strongly coupled periodic and quasi-periodic structures. Finally, we study the far-field scattering properties of prime number arrays illuminated by plane waves and we discuss their angular scattering properties. The study of prime number arrays of metal nanoparticles provides a novel strategy to achieve broadband enhancement and localization of plasmonic fields for the engineering of nanoscale nano-antenna arrays and active plasmonic structures. PMID:20052140

Forestiere, Carlo; Walsh, Gary F; Miano, Giovanni; Dal Negro, Luca

2009-12-21

346

Experimental determination of ramsey numbers.  

PubMed

Ramsey theory is a highly active research area in mathematics that studies the emergence of order in large disordered structures. Ramsey numbers mark the threshold at which order first appears and are extremely difficult to calculate due to their explosive rate of growth. Recently, an algorithm that can be implemented using adiabatic quantum evolution has been proposed that calculates the two-color Ramsey numbers R(m,n). Here we present results of an experimental implementation of this algorithm and show that it correctly determines the Ramsey numbers R(3,3) and R(m,2) for 4?m?8. The R(8,2) computation used 84 qubits of which 28 were computational qubits. This computation is the largest experimental implementation of a scientifically meaningful adiabatic evolution algorithm that has been done to date. PMID:24116761

Bian, Zhengbing; Chudak, Fabian; Macready, William G; Clark, Lane; Gaitan, Frank

2013-09-25

347

Metrics for comparing plasma mass filters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-throughput mass separation of nuclear waste may be useful for optimal storage, disposal, or environmental remediation. The most dangerous part of nuclear waste is the fission product, which produces most of the heat and medium-term radiation. Plasmas are well-suited to separating nuclear waste because they can separate many different species in a single step. A number of plasma devices have been designed for such mass separation, but there has been no standardized comparison between these devices. We define a standard metric, the separative power per unit volume, and derive it for three different plasma mass filters: the plasma centrifuge, Ohkawa filter, and the magnetic centrifugal mass filter.

Fetterman, Abraham J.; Fisch, Nathaniel J.

2011-10-01

348

Metrics For Comparing Plasma Mass Filters  

SciTech Connect

High-throughput mass separation of nuclear waste may be useful for optimal storage, disposal, or environmental remediation. The most dangerous part of nuclear waste is the fission product, which produces most of the heat and medium-term radiation. Plasmas are well-suited to separating nuclear waste because they can separate many different species in a single step. A number of plasma devices have been designed for such mass separation, but there has been no standardized comparison between these devices. We define a standard metric, the separative power per unit volume, and derive it for three different plasma mass filters: the plasma centrifuge, Ohkawa filter, and the magnetic centrifugal mass filter. __________________________________________________

Abraham J. Fetterman and Nathaniel J. Fisch

2012-08-15

349

Metrics for comparing plasma mass filters  

SciTech Connect

High-throughput mass separation of nuclear waste may be useful for optimal storage, disposal, or environmental remediation. The most dangerous part of nuclear waste is the fission product, which produces most of the heat and medium-term radiation. Plasmas are well-suited to separating nuclear waste because they can separate many different species in a single step. A number of plasma devices have been designed for such mass separation, but there has been no standardized comparison between these devices. We define a standard metric, the separative power per unit volume, and derive it for three different plasma mass filters: the plasma centrifuge, Ohkawa filter, and the magnetic centrifugal mass filter.

Fetterman, Abraham J.; Fisch, Nathaniel J. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States)

2011-10-15

350

Shotgun Lipidomics on High Resolution Mass Spectrometers  

PubMed Central

Despite their compositional complexity, lipidomes comprise a large number of isobaric species that cannot be distinguished by conventional low resolution mass spectrometry and therefore in-depth MS/MS analysis was required for their accurate quantification. Here we argue that the progress in high resolution mass spectrometry is changing the concept of lipidome characterization. Because exact masses of isobaric species belonging to different lipid classes are not necessarily identical, they can now be distinguished and directly quantified in total lipid extracts. By streamlining and simplifying the molecular characterization of lipidomes, high resolution mass spectrometry has developed into a generic tool for cell biology and molecular medicine.

Schwudke, Dominik; Schuhmann, Kai; Herzog, Ronny; Bornstein, Stefan R.; Shevchenko, Andrej

2011-01-01

351

Correlation Between the Effective Neutrino Number and Curvature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cosmological data seems to favor models with more than three neutrinos. This talk focuses on recent discussion regarding additional sterile neutrinos and neutrino mass constraints in cosmology. We present a theoretical argument for correlation between the number of effective neutrinos and the curvature of the universe, which is confirmed by statistical analysis.

Smith, Aaron

2011-10-01

352

Effective Atomic Numbers for Fe Mn Alloy Using Transmission Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effective atomic numbers (Zeff) and effective electron density (Ne) for Fe-Mn alloy with different Mn contents are calculated using the mass attenuation coefficients ?/? obtained via XCOM in the photon energy range of 1 keV-1 GeV. The results are compared with the values measured at the photon energy of 662, 1170 and 1332 keV.

Iskender, Akkurt

2007-10-01

353

Calibrating Cosmological Chronometers: White Dwarf Masses via Astrometry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In an effort to increase the number of accurate dynamical masses for white dwarfs (WDs), we have begun an initiative using Hubble Space Telescope's Fine Guidance Sensors (FGS) to resolve suspected binary WDs. With the increasing number of WD trigonometric...

E. P. Nelan H. C. Harris J. P. Subasavage T. J. Henry W. Jao

2009-01-01

354

1.OA Equality Number Sentences  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: Compare the number of circles in each box. If they are equal, write a number sentence. For example: 4+3=5+1+1 If they are not equal, write "not equal."...

355

2.NBT Largest Number Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: Dona had cards with the numbers 0 to 9 written on them. She flipped over three of them. Her teacher said: If those three numbers are the digits in anot...

356

7.EE Guess My Number  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: Laila tells Julius to pick a number between one and ten. �Add three to your number and multiply the sum by five,� she tells him. Next she says, �Now ta...

357

Euler's number, a first introduction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the first video segment, we introduce Euler's number by considering the problem of interest compounded continuously. After we obtain the power-series representation for exp(x), we explore its properties, in the next four video segments, to convince ourselves that exp(x) is literally an exponential function, meaning a number, approximately 2.71828, taken to the power x. In the final two segments, we present the natural logarithm and demonstrate that it is the anti-derivative of 1/x.

Liao, David

358

Count the Dots: Binary Numbers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Data in computers is stored and transmitted as a series of zeros and ones. Learners explore how to represent numbers using just these two symbols, through a binary system of cards. When the card's dots are showing, its value is 1 and the dots are counted. When the card's dots are not showing, its value is 0 and the dots are not counted. Learners model binary counting to discover patterns and represent numbers. This activity includes three worksheet activities (1 introductory and 2 extensions) for learners to complete and background information for the instructor.

Technology, National C.

2012-12-13

359

Learning math: Number and operations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online workshop for elementary and middle school teachers covers the real number system, place value, the behavior of zero and infinity, the meanings and models of basic operations, percentages, and modeling operations with fractions, often with the aid of concrete, physical models that enhance understanding. It also examines basic number theory topics, such as factors and multiples, as well as divisibility tests. Each of its ten sessions contains video programming, problem-solving activities provided online and in a print guide, and interactive activities and demonstrations on the Web.

Findell, Carol R.

2007-12-12

360

A Lagrangian Porous Media Mass Transport Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mathematical simulation of advective dispersive contaminant transport in groundwater involving large Péclet numbers is subject to numerical difficulties. For most numerical models the computational cost and computer core requirements escalate as the Péclet number increases. A two-dimensional Galerkin finite element model for flow and Lagrangian mass transport in porous media has been developed to alleviate numerical and computational difficulties.

N. R. Thomson; J. F. Sykes; W. C. Lennox

1984-01-01

361

An Entrance Region Mass Transfer Experiment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper describes an experiment designed to reveal the consequences of the development of a concentration boundary layer. The rate of a mass transfer limited electrochemical reaction is measured and used to obtain the dependence of average Sherwood number on Reynolds number and entrance length. (Author/BB)|

Youngquist, G. R.

1979-01-01

362

Project Solo; Newsletter Number Eleven.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An experimental 9th grade computer science syllabus is proposed. The syllabus would include the technical information needed for controlling and programing the computer in a number of modes and would preview some of the areas covered in the high school curriculum. A sample module of a topic not normally taught in high school--distance and…

Pittsburgh Univ., PA. Project Solo.

363

The Number of Discriminable Colours  

Microsoft Academic Search

ALTHOUGH a calculation of the approximate number of discriminable colours must depend upon the individual concerned, `normal' persons may be expected to furnish data which agree to the correct order of magnitude. The method used here involves the choice of an arbitrary colour solid, the well-known Titchener-Ebbhighaus double pyramid, to which available experimental data are applied with simplifying assumptions, in

George B. Welch

1937-01-01

364

Hemispheric lateralization of number comparison  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to clarify the respective contribution of the right and left posterior parietal cortex (PPC) to number comparison, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was used to disrupt PPC processing in subjects instructed to determine whether a digit was smaller or larger than 5. Single pulse TMS was applied over the PPC, either unilaterally or bilaterally, 150, 200, or 250 ms

Michael Andres; Xavier Seron; Etienne Olivier

2005-01-01

365

Solar System Number-Crunching.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Defines terrestrial and Jovian planets and provides directions to obtain planetary data from the National Space Science Data Center Web sites. Provides "number-crunching" activities for the terrestrial planets using Texas Instruments TI-83 graphing calculators: computing volumetric mean radius and volume, density, ellipticity, speed, surface…

Albrecht, Bob; Firedrake, George

1997-01-01

366

Generalized Fibonacci Numbers and Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper relates to the methods for data encoding and the reading of coded information represented by colored (including monochrome\\/black, gray) symbols (bars, triangles, circles, or other symbols). It also introduces new algorithms for generating secure, reliable, and high capacity color barcodes by using so called weighted n-dimensional random Fibonacci number based representations of data. The representation, symbols, and

Sarkis Agaian

2009-01-01

367

Estimating Number of Narcotic Addicts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study was undertaken because there was an obvious need for an estimation of the number of narcotic abusers for the United States and for major subdivisions. The method used was an old one known variously as the capture-recapture, or dilution technique...

J. A. Greenwood

1974-01-01

368

Yupno Number System and Counting  

Microsoft Academic Search

The starting point of this study is the apparent contradiction between the existence in Yupno (Papua New Guinea) culture of an elaborate number system and the lack of importance attributed to counting in everyday life. The study is designed to answer two questions: To what extent is the model described by the socially most prestigious expert shared by other Yupno

Jürg Wassmann; Pierre R. Dasen

1994-01-01

369

Oxidation Numbers and Their Limitations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reviews a method for determining oxidation numbers in covalent compounds and balancing mixed organic-inorganic or purely organic systems. Points out ambiguities presented when adjacent atoms have small or zero electronegativity differences. Presents other limitations that arise when using electronegativity values. (CW)|

Woolf, A. A.

1988-01-01

370

Materiales. Numbers 21-23.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These three journals of contemporary cultural, historical, and social interest contain activities designed to enhance the awareness of students of Spanish as a foreign language regarding the entire panorama of daily life in Spain. Number 21 focuses on the role of modern Spanish women; their career status; female authors; and the changing place of…

Materiales, 1997

1997-01-01

371

Human subtelomeric copy number variations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Copy number variation is a defining characteristic of human subtelomeres. Human subtelomeric segmental duplication regions (‘Subtelomeric Repeats’) comprise about 25% of the most distal 500 kb and 80% of the most distal 100 kb in human DNA. Huge allelic disparities seen in subtelomeric DNA sequence content and organization are postulated to have an impact on the dosage of transcripts embedded

H. Riethman

2008-01-01

372

Prandtl number of toroidal plasmas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Theory of the L-mode confinement in toroidal plasmas is developed. The Prandtl number, the ratio between the ion viscosity and the thermal conductivity is obtained for the anomalous transport process which is caused by the self-sustained turbulence in the...

K. Itoh S. Itoh A. Fukuyama M. Yagi M. Azumi

1993-01-01

373

Adjuncts Build Strength in Numbers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|When professors in positions that offer no chance of earning tenure begin to stack the faculty, campus dynamics start to change. Growing numbers of adjuncts make themselves more visible. They push for roles in governance, better pay and working conditions, and recognition for work well done. And they do so at institutions where tenured faculty,…

June, Audrey Williams

2012-01-01

374

Fibonacci numbers and trigonometric identities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Webb & Parberry proved in 1969 a startling trigonometric iden- tity involving Fibonacci numbers. This identity has remained isolated up to now, despite the amount of work on related polynomials. We provide a wide generalization of this identity together with what we believe (and hope!) to be its proper understanding.

N. Garnier; O. Ramare

2006-01-01

375

Questioning Zero and Negative Numbers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

After experiencing a Developing Mathematical Ideas (DMI) class on the construction of algebraic concepts surrounding zero and negative numbers, the author conducted an interview with a first grader to determine the youngster's existing level of understanding about these topics. Uncovering young students' existing understanding can provide focus…

Wilcox, Virginia B.

2008-01-01

376

Time to Make the Numbers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In order to inspire her students to work in mixed media, the author chose to highlight the art of Jasper Johns and Robert Indiana, both of whom used numbers and letters as a main focus in their art. In this article, the author describes a mixed-media printmaking project. (Contains 2 online resources.)|

Surrena, Michelle

2011-01-01

377

Not Just a Number Anymore  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In the Essex, Cincinnati retirement center where they both worked as nurses, Holly Doherty and Michele Schavoir often heard aides complain about one longtime resident in particular. The patient kicks and screams and nurses can not stand to be around her. After a year of playing detective, Doherty found a number of the patient's relatives in…

Henderson, Nancy

2008-01-01

378

Whole Number Subtraction -- An Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document is intended as a resource for persons using, designing, or evaluating instructional materials in whole number subtraction. Its purpose is to provide conceptual machinery: (1) for describing/specifying subtraction tests and exercises and (2) for formulating related questions and conjectures. It is mainly a logical analysis subject to…

Gilpin, John B.

379

20 CFR 404.1220 - Identification numbers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...special identification number to each political subdivision...Notice of Identifying Number,â to inform the State of the special identification number(s). The special number...paid prior to 1987, the employer shall show the...

2013-04-01

380

Mass spectrometric immunoassay  

SciTech Connect

Rapid mass spectrometric immunoassay methods for detecting and/or quantifying antibody and antigen analytes utilizing affinity capture to isolate the analytes and internal reference species (for quantification) followed by mass spectrometric analysis of the isolated analyte/internal reference species. Quantification is obtained by normalizing and calibrating obtained mass spectrum against the mass spectrum obtained for an antibody/antigen of known concentration.

Nelson, Randall W (Phoenix, AZ); Williams, Peter (Phoenix, AZ); Krone, Jennifer Reeve (Granbury, TX)

2007-12-04

381

Mass of the Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners use basic measurements of the Earth and pieces of rock and iron to estimate the mass of the Earth. Learners will calculate mass, volume, and density, convert units, and employ the water displacement method. To calculate an even more accurate estimate of the mass of the Earth, this resource includes optional instructions on how to measure the iron core mass.

Muller, Eric

2010-01-01

382

Mass spectrometric immunoassay  

DOEpatents

Rapid mass spectrometric immunoassay methods for detecting and/or quantifying antibody and antigen analytes utilizing affinity capture to isolate the analytes and internal reference species (for quantification) followed by mass spectrometric analysis of the isolated analyte/internal reference species. Quantification is obtained by normalizing and calibrating obtained mass spectrum against the mass spectrum obtained for an antibody/antigen of known concentration.

Nelson, Randall W; Williams, Peter; Krone, Jennifer Reeve

2013-07-16

383

Gluino and Photino Masses.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Possible mechanisms for gluino and photino masses generation are investigated. It is shown that nonzero gluino mass produces photino mass and vice versa. The only way to satisfy experimental limit of the gluino mass Msub(lambdasub(g)) > 3-5 GeV is to give...

M. I. Vysotsky

1982-01-01

384

Mammographic Mass Detection Using a Mass Template  

PubMed Central

Objective The purpose of this study was to develop a new method for automated mass detection in digital mammographic images using templates. Materials and Methods Masses were detected using a two steps process. First, the pixels in the mammogram images were scanned in 8 directions, and regions of interest (ROI) were identified using various thresholds. Then, a mass template was used to categorize the ROI as true masses or non-masses based on their morphologies. Each pixel of a ROI was scanned with a mass template to determine whether there was a shape (part of a ROI) similar to the mass in the template. The similarity was controlled using two thresholds. If a shape was detected, then the coordinates of the shape were recorded as part of a true mass. To test the system's efficiency, we applied this process to 52 mammogram images from the Mammographic Image Analysis Society (MIAS) database. Results Three hundred and thirty-two ROI were identified using the ROI specification methods. These ROI were classified using three templates whose diameters were 10, 20 and 30 pixels. The results of this experiment showed that using the templates with these diameters achieved sensitivities of 93%, 90% and 81% with 1.3, 0.7 and 0.33 false positives per image respectively. Conclusion These results indicate that the detection performance of this template based algorithm is satisfactory, and may improve the performance of computer-aided analysis of mammographic images and early diagnosis of mammographic masses.

Osman, Onur; Camurcu, A.Yilmaz

2005-01-01

385

Site Specific Control of Seed-Numbers per Unit Area for Grain Drills  

Microsoft Academic Search

With present day grain drills the number of plants per unit area is controlled via the seed-mass per unit area in kg\\/ha. This method causes substantial deviations from the target. Instead of the seed-mass the seed-numbers should be controlled. This can be attained by recording the number of seeds passing through the seed tube. A method is presented which includes

Hermann J. Heege; Benedikt Feldhaus

386

Psychosocial considerations for mass decontamination.  

PubMed

Mass exposure to explosions, infectious agents, foodborne illnesses, chemicals or radiological materials may require mass decontamination that have critical psychosocial implications for the public and for both traditional and non-traditional responders in terms of impact and of response. Five main issues are common to mass decontamination events: (i) perception, (ii) somatisation, (iii) media role and communication, (iv) information sharing, (v) behavioural guidance and (vi) organisational issues. Empirical evidence is drawn from a number of cases, including Chernobyl; Goiania, Brazil; the sarin gas attack in Tokyo; the anthrax attacks in the USA; Three Mile Island; and by features of the 2003 severe acute respiratory syndrome pandemic. In this paper, a common platform for mass casualty management is explored and suggestions for mass interventions are proposed across the complete event timeline, from pre-event threat and warning stages through to the impact and reconstruction phases. Implication for responders, healthcare and emergency infrastructure, public behaviour, screening processes, risk communication and media management are described. PMID:20924122

Lemyre, Louise; Johnson, Colleen; Corneil, Wayne

2010-10-05

387

The mass spectrum of interstellar clouds  

SciTech Connect

The abundances of diffuse clouds and molecular clouds in the inner Galaxy and at the solar circle are compared. Using results of recent low-latitude 21 cm absorption studies, the number of diffuse clouds per kiloparsec along the line of sight is derived as a function of the cloud column density, under two assumptions relating cloud densities and temperatures. The density of clouds is derived as a function of cloud mass. The results are consistent with a single, continuous mass spectrum for interstellar clouds from less than 1 solar mass to 1,000,000 solar masses, with perhaps a change of slope at masses where the atomic and molecular mass fractions are roughly equal. 36 refs.

Dickey, J.M.; Garwood, R.W. (Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis (USA); Pittsburgh Univ., PA (USA))

1989-06-01

388

Cosmic Rays and Sunspot Numbers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity students analyze and compare two or more graphs to determine if there is a correlation between sunspot number and the variation of cosmic ray flux. They discover that cosmic rays are very energetic particles, mostly protons and electrons, that enter the solar system from the depths of interstellar space and that although the Earth's magnetic field partially shields us from these particles, so too does the much more extended solar wind with its own magnetic field. This is a three-part lesson in which students will construct line graphs displaying the cosmic ray flux and sunspot numbers for a period of time, and then determine if there is a correlation. In order to compare these two sets of data, students will need to scale the data in order to visualize the results. Teacher and student notes for the graphing calculator are included.

Higley, Susan

389

Number-phase uncertainty relations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The minimization problem of finding the number-phase minimum uncertainty states (MUS) is considered and its solutions are found either numerically or, under some special conditions, analytically. The phase uncertainty measure is based on the Bandilla-Paul dispersion. The problem is treated (i) in a finite-dimensional Hilbert space and (ii) for a countably infinite-dimensional Hilbert space (i.e. the standard quantum harmonic oscillator),

T. Opatrny

1995-01-01

390

Determination of the Schmidt number  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optimized, necessary, and sufficient conditions for the identification of the Schmidt number will be derived in terms of general Hermitian operators. These conditions apply to arbitrary mixed quantum states. The optimization procedure delivers equations similar to the eigenvalue problem of an operator. The properties of the solution of these equations will be studied. We solve these equations for classes of operators. The solutions will be applied to phase randomized two-mode squeezed-vacuum states in continuous variable systems.

Sperling, J.; Vogel, W.

2011-04-01

391

Ultrafilters and combinatorial number theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our concern is with two areas of mathematics and a, possibly surprising, intimate connection between them. One is the branch\\u000a of combinatorial number theory which deals with the ability, given a finite partition of ?, to find sums or products of certain\\u000a descriptions lying in one cell of that partition. The other is the branch of set theoretic topology dealing

Neil Hindman; Los Amgeles

392

Algorithms in algebraic number theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we discuss the basic problems of algorithmic algebraic number\\u000atheory. The emphasis is on aspects that are of interest from a purely\\u000amathematical point of view, and practical issues are largely disregarded. We\\u000adescribe what has been done and, more importantly, what remains to be done in\\u000athe area. We hope to show that the study of

Hendrik W. Lenstra Jr.

1992-01-01

393

Fibonacci numbers and orthogonal polynomials  

Microsoft Academic Search

We prove that the sequence $(1\\/F_{n+2})_{n\\\\ge 0}$ of reciprocals of the Fibonacci numbers is a moment sequence of a certain discrete probability, and we identify the orthogonal polynomials as little $q$-Jacobi polynomials with $q=(1-\\\\sqrt{5})\\/(1+\\\\sqrt{5})$. We prove that the corresponding kernel polynomials have integer coefficients, and from this we deduce that the inverse of the corresponding Hankel matrices $(1\\/F_{i+j+2})$ have integer

Christian Berg

2006-01-01

394

Determination of the Schmidt number  

SciTech Connect

Optimized, necessary, and sufficient conditions for the identification of the Schmidt number will be derived in terms of general Hermitian operators. These conditions apply to arbitrary mixed quantum states. The optimization procedure delivers equations similar to the eigenvalue problem of an operator. The properties of the solution of these equations will be studied. We solve these equations for classes of operators. The solutions will be applied to phase randomized two-mode squeezed-vacuum states in continuous variable systems.

Sperling, J.; Vogel, W. [Arbeitsgruppe Quantenoptik, Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Rostock, D-18051 Rostock (Germany)

2011-04-15

395

Recalibration of Zurich Sunspot Number  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three independent datasets support the finding that a discontinuous change of 20% was introduced in the Zurich Sunspot Number, Rz, when Max Waldmeier took over the production of Rz in 1946. The range of the diurnal variation of the geomagnetic field (the East-component) is controlled by the EUV-induced conductivity of the day-side ionosphere and indicates a 23% increase of Rz from 1946 on. The Greenwich Sunspot Areas (and the Group Sunspot Number derived from the Greenwich data since 1874) indicate a 17.5% increase of Rz. A CaII K-line index derived from recently digitized Mount Wilson Observatory spectroheliograms (since 1915) indicates a 21% increase in Rz. Friedli [2005] notes that "The new observer-team in Zurich was thus relatively inexperienced and Waldmeier himself feared that his scale factor could vary". We suggest that his fear was not unfounded and that the Zurich Sunspot Number be increased by 20% before 1946 to match the modern record.

Svalgaard, Leif; Bertello, L.

2009-05-01

396

A Pseudo-Random Number Generator Based on Normal Numbers  

SciTech Connect

In a recent paper, Richard Crandall and the present author established that each of a certain class of explicitly given real constants, uncountably infinite in number, is b-normal, for an integer that appears in the formula defining the constant. A b-normal constant is one where every string of m digits appears in the base-b expansion of the constant with limiting frequency b{sup -m}. This paper shows how this result can be used to fashion an efficient and effective pseudo-random number generator, which generates successive strings of binary digits from one of the constants in this class. The resulting generator, which tests slightly faster than a conventional linear congruential generator, avoids difficulties with large power-of-two data access strides that may occur when using conventional generators. It is also well suited for parallel processing--each processor can quickly and independently compute its starting value, with the collective sequence generated by all processors being the same as that generated by a single processor.

Bailey, David H.

2004-12-31

397

Fall Speeds and Masses of Solid Precipitation Particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements have been made of the fall speeds and masses of a large number of different types of solid precipitation particles. Particular attention is paid to the effects of riming and aggregation on the fall speeds and masses. Empirical expressions are given for the relationships between fall speeds and maximum dimensions and between masses and maximum dimensions for the particles

John D. Locatelli; Peter V. Hobbs

1974-01-01

398

Effective atomic numbers and electron density of dosimetric material  

PubMed Central

A novel method for determination of mass attenuation coefficient of x-rays employing NaI (Tl) detector system and radioactive sources is described.in this paper. A rigid geometry arrangement and gating of the spectrometer at FWHM position and selection of absorber foils are all done following detailed investigation, to minimize the effect of small angle scattering and multiple scattering on the mass attenuation coefficient, ?/?, value. Firstly, for standardization purposes the mass attenuation coefficients of elemental foils such as Aluminum, Copper, Molybdenum, Tantalum and Lead are measured and then, this method is utilized for dosimetric interested material (sulfates). The experimental mass attenuation coefficient values are compared with the theoretical values to find good agreement between the theory and experiment within one to two per cent. The effective atomic numbers of the biological substitute material are calculated by sum rule and from the graph. The electron density of dosimetric material is calculated using the effective atomic number. The study has discussed in detail the attenuation coefficient, effective atomic number and electron density of dosimetric material/biological substitutes.

Kaginelli, S. B.; Rajeshwari, T.; Sharanabasappa; Kerur, B. R.; Kumar, Anil S.

2009-01-01

399

Steadily Increasing Control: The Professionalization of Mass Death  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent mass death incidents in Japan and Haiti have again focused attention on the challenge of dealing with large numbers of dead. Focusing on mass death incidents involving large numbers of Canadian victims, including the Titanic, Halifax explosion, Air India bombing and the 2004 Tsunami, the paper researches incidents dating back to the beginning of the 20th Century. By examining

Christopher Stoney; Joseph Scanlon; Kirsten Kramar; Tanya Peckmann; Ian Brown; Cynthia Lynn Cormier; Coen van Haastert

2011-01-01

400

Sperm competition, sperm numbers and sperm quality in muroid rodents.  

PubMed

Sperm competition favors increases in relative testes mass and production efficiency, and changes in sperm phenotype that result in faster swimming speeds. However, little is known about its effects on traits that contribute to determine the quality of a whole ejaculate (i.e., proportion of motile, viable, morphologically normal and acrosome intact sperm) and that are key determinants of fertilization success. Two competing hypotheses lead to alternative predictions: (a) sperm quantity and quality traits co-evolve under sperm competition because they play complementary roles in determining ejaculate's competitive ability, or (b) energetic constraints force trade-offs between traits depending on their relevance in providing a competitive advantage. We examined relationships between sperm competition levels, sperm quantity, and traits that determine ejaculate quality, in a comparative study of 18 rodent species using phylogenetically controlled analyses. Total sperm numbers were positively correlated to proportions of normal sperm, acrosome integrity and motile sperm; the latter three were also significantly related among themselves, suggesting no trade-offs between traits. In addition, testes mass corrected for body mass (i.e., relative testes mass), showed a strong association with sperm numbers, and positive significant associations with all sperm traits that determine ejaculate quality with the exception of live sperm. An "overall sperm quality" parameter obtained by principal component analysis (which explained 85% of the variance) was more strongly associated with relative testes mass than any individual quality trait. Overall sperm quality was as strongly associated with relative testes mass as sperm numbers. Thus, sperm quality traits improve under sperm competition in an integrated manner suggesting that a combination of all traits is what makes ejaculates more competitive. In evolutionary terms this implies that a complex network of genetic and developmental pathways underlying processes of sperm formation, maturation, transport in the female reproductive tract, and preparation for fertilization must all evolve in concert. PMID:21464956

Gómez Montoto, Laura; Magaña, Concepción; Tourmente, Maximiliano; Martín-Coello, Juan; Crespo, Cristina; Luque-Larena, Juan José; Gomendio, Montserrat; Roldan, Eduardo R S

2011-03-25

401

The Number of Tectonic Plates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The number of tectonic plates on Earth described in the literature has expanded greatly since the early days of plate tectonics, when only a dozen or so plates were considered in global models of present day plate motions. Recently, with new techniques of more accurate earthquake epicenter locations, modern ways of measuring ocean bathymetry using swath mapping, the use of space based geodetic techniques &c, there has been a huge growth in the number of plates thought to exist. Bird (2003) proposed 52 plates, many of which were delineated on the basis of earthquake locations. Because of the pattern of areas of these plates, he suggested that there should be more small plates than he could identify. In this paper, I gather together publications that have proposed additional plates and discuss the new area arrangement which has been produced by the addition of these 23 new plates to Bird's catalogue. In addition I have measured the areas of the very small plates along the San Andreas fault identified by Bird and Rosenstock (1984) and added these 17 plates to the list as well as five plates proposed by Meade and Hager (2005). Sorting the plates by size allows us to investigate how size varies as a function of order. There are several changes of slope in the log-log plots of plate number (largest to smallest) against plate linear dimension. One set of relatively small plates shows a negative slope of -2.5, the same slope that has been found by modelling studies of two-dimensional structures such as rifted margins as well as three dimensional fragmentation models. Plates were characterized by what types of boundary they had. On looking at boundary type as a function of plate order, there seems to be no obvious pattern apart from what has been caused by non-uniform study of Earth's plate tectonic boundaries.

Harrison, C. G.

2011-12-01

402

8.NS Identifying Rational Numbers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: Decide whether each of the following numbers is rational or irrational. If it is rational, explain how you know. $0.33\\overline{3}$ $\\sqrt{4}$ $\\sqrt{2...

403

Propulsion at low Reynolds number  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the propulsion of two model swimmers at low Reynolds number. Inspired by Purcell's model, we propose a very simple one-dimensional swimmer consisting of three spheres that are connected by two arms whose lengths can change between two values. The proposed swimmer can swim with a special type of motion, which breaks the time-reversal symmetry. We also show that an ellipsoidal membrane with tangential travelling wave on it can also propel itself in the direction preferred by the travelling wave. This system resembles the realistic biological animals like Paramecium.

Najafi, Ali; Golestanian, Ramin

2005-04-01

404

Surface characteristics of sweet cherry fruit: stomata-number, distribution, functionality and surface wetting  

Microsoft Academic Search

The number, distribution, size, and function of stomata and wettability of the sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) fruit surface were investigated. The number of stomata per fruit differed significantly among sweet cherry cultivars, ranging from 143±26 per fruit in ‘Adriana’ to 2124±142 per fruit in ‘Hedelfinger’. The number of stomata per fruit was not affected by fruit mass (‘Burlat’). For

Stefanie Peschel; Marco Beyer; Moritz Knoche

2003-01-01

405

High Rayleigh number porous convection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Convective flow in porous media undergoes a transition around Rayleigh number Ra = 1300, from predominantly large-scale (quasi-) periodic rolls to vigorous columnar exchange flow driven by unsteady plume formation in boundary layers. The dynamics of these structures determine the flux of heat or solute through the system, as described by the Nusselt number Nu. This is of particular interest for understanding how convection affects the rate of dissolution of sequestered CO2 in a saline aquifer. High resolution 2D numerical simulations of porous media Rayleigh-Benard convection are presented, which show that, for 2000

Hewitt, Duncan; Lister, John; Neufeld, Jerome

2011-11-01

406

Survey of lepton number violation via effective operators  

SciTech Connect

We survey 129 lepton number violating effective operators, consistent with the minimal standard model gauge group and particle content, of mass dimension up to and including 11. Upon requiring that each one radiatively generates the observed neutrino masses, we extract an associated characteristic cutoff energy scale which we use to calculate other observable manifestations of these operators for a number of current and future experimental probes, concentrating on lepton number violating phenomena. These include searches for neutrinoless double-beta decay and rare meson, lepton, and gauge boson decays. We also consider searches at hadron/lepton collider facilities in anticipation of the CERN LHC and the future ILC. We find that some operators are already disfavored by current data, while more are ripe to be probed by next-generation experiments. We also find that our current understanding of lepton mixing disfavors a subset of higher dimensional operators. While neutrinoless double-beta decay is the most promising signature of lepton number violation for the majority of operators, a handful is best probed by other means. We argue that a combination of constraints from various independent experimental sources will help to pinpoint the ''correct'' model of neutrino mass, or at least aid in narrowing down the set of possibilities.

Gouvea, Andre de; Jenkins, James [Northwestern University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States)

2008-01-01

407

The origin of mass  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The quark-lepton mass problem and the ideas of mass protection are reviewed. The hierarchy problem and suggestions for its resolution, including Little Higgs models, are discussed. The Multiple Point Principle (MPP) is introduced and used within the Standard Model (SM) to predict the top quark and Higgs particle masses. Mass matrix ansätze are considered; in particular we discuss the lightest family mass generation model, in which all the quark mixing angles are successfully expressed in terms of simple expressions involving quark mass ratios. It is argued that an underlying chiral flavour symmetry is responsible for the hierarchical texture of the fermion mass matrices. The phenomenology of neutrino mass matrices is briefly discussed.

Froggatt*, C. D.

2003-01-01

408

Digital Imaging Mass Spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods to visualize the two-dimensional (2D) distribution of molecules by mass spectrometric imaging evolve rapidly and yield\\u000a novel applications in biology, medicine, and material surface sciences. Most mass spectrometric imagers acquire high mass\\u000a resolution spectra spot-by-spot and thereby scan the object’s surface. Thus, imaging is slow and image reconstruction remains\\u000a cumbersome. Here we describe an imaging mass spectrometer that exploits

Casimir Bamberger; Uwe Renz; Andreas Bamberger

2011-01-01

409

Update of the Hagedorn mass spectrum  

SciTech Connect

We present an update of the Hagedorn hypothesis of the exponential growth of the number of hadronic resonances with mass. We use the newest available experimental data for the nonstrange mesons and baryons, as well as fill in some missing states according to the observation that the high-lying states form chiral multiplets. The results show, especially for the case of the mesons, that the Hagedorn growth continues with the increasing mass, with the new states lining up along the exponential growth.

Broniowski, Wojciech [H. Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, PL-31342 Cracow (Poland); Florkowski, Wojciech [H. Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, PL-31342 Cracow (Poland); Institute of Physics, Swietokrzyska Academy, ul. Swietokrzyska 15, PL-25406 Kielce (Poland); Glozman, Leonid Ya. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Graz, Universitaetsplatz 5, A-8010 Graz (Austria)

2004-12-01

410

Nucleon Effective Mass in Cold Dense Matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the effective mass of nucleon from chiral perturbation theory in the finite chemical potential. By including in the chiral Lagrangian a chemical potential conjugating to the baryon number density, the calculation of integration over meson momentum has to face complex plain which gives the chemical potential dependence of nucleon mass in dense matter. The results indicate that the interaction between nucleons is attractive at first and then repulsive as the chemical potential increases.

Wang, Qing-Wu; Li, Xiao-Ya; Lü, Xiao-Fu

411

Theories of fermion masses  

SciTech Connect

We present grand unified theories in which the quark masses and mixing angles are calculated in terms of the lepton masses through simple group theory. The theories contain no small Yukawa couplings. A favored value of the top quark mass is 35 GeV.

Bagger, J.; Dimopoulos, S.; Georgi, H.; Raby, S.

1984-05-01

412

Peak bone mass  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peak bone mass, which can be defined as the amount of bony tissue present at the end of the skeletal maturation, is an important determinant of osteoporotic fracture risk.Measurement of bone mass development. The bone mass of a given part of the skeleton is directly dependent upon both its volume or size and the density of the mineralized tissue contained

J.-Ph. Bonjour; G. Theintz; F. Law; D. Slosman; R. Rizzoli

1994-01-01

413

On Defining Mass  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Though central to any pedagogical development of physics, the concept of mass is still not well understood. Properly defining mass has proven to be far more daunting than contemporary textbooks would have us believe. And yet today the origin of mass is one of the most aggressively pursued areas of research in all of physics. Much of the…

Hecht, Eugene

2011-01-01

414

Electrohydrodynamic mass spectrometry  

SciTech Connect

A review of the principles, development, and status of electrohydrodynamic mass spectrometry, with 111 references, is presented. Areas discussed include: Electrospray; Electrohydrodynamic ion emission; Electrohydrodynamic ionization mass spectrometry; Electrohydrodynamic mass spectrometry of organic compounds; The role of solvation; Emission stability; Comparison with field desorption; Liquid chromatography interfaces; Polymer molecular-weight distributions; Solution chemistry; Sampling efficiencies.

Cook, K.D.

1986-01-01

415

Center of Mass 3  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lab is an inquiry activity if it is done before the discussion of how center of mass and balance are related. However, students should have an idea of what center of mass is before they start the lab. Students should see that when the center of mass

Horton, Michael

2009-05-30

416

Elbow mass flow meter  

DOEpatents

Elbow mass flow meter. The present invention includes a combination of an elbow pressure drop generator and a shunt-type mass flow sensor for providing an output which gives the mass flow rate of a gas that is nearly independent of the density of the gas. For air, the output is also approximately independent of humidity.

McFarland, Andrew R. (College Station, TX); Rodgers, John C. (Santa Fe, NM); Ortiz, Carlos A. (Bryan, TX); Nelson, David C. (Santa Fe, NM)

1994-01-01

417

Competition among mass media  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates how mass media provide information to readers or viewers who have diverse interests. The problem of a mass medium comes from the fact that there is a constraint on how much information can be delivered. It is shown that the mass medium optimally provides information that is somewhat useful to all agents, but not perfect to anybody

Maksymilian Kwiek

2010-01-01

418

Theories of Fermion Masses.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We present grand unified theories in which the quark masses and mixing angles are calculated in terms of the lepton masses through simple group theory. The theories contain no small Yukawa couplings. A favored value of the top quark mass is 35 GeV. (ERA c...

J. Bagger S. Dimopoulos H. Georgi S. Raby

1984-01-01

419

Derivation of contributions of sulfate and carbonaceous aerosols to cloud condensation nuclei from mass size distributions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have estimated the contributions of mass concentrations of major aerosol species (sulfate, carbonaceous material, and sea salt) to cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) number concen- trations from simultaneous measurements of aerosol number size distributions, impactor-derived mass size distributions of aerosol species, and CCN number concentrations (measured at 0.5% supersaturation). Our approach involves the derivation of number size distributions from the

C. A. Rivera-Carpio; C. E. Corrigan; T. Novakov; J. E. Penner; C. F. Rogers; J. C. Chow

1996-01-01

420

Graviton mass or cosmological constant?  

SciTech Connect

To describe a massive graviton in 4D Minkowski space-time one introduces a quadratic term in the Lagrangian. This term, however, can lead to a readjustment or instability of the background instead of describing a massive graviton on flat space. We show that for all local 4D Lorentz-invariant mass terms Minkowski space is unstable. The instability can develop in a time scale that is many orders of magnitude shorter than the inverse graviton mass. We start with the Pauli-Fierz (PF) term that is the only local mass term with no ghosts in the linearized approximation. We show that nonlinear completions of the PF Lagrangian give rise to instability of Minkowski space. We continue with the mass terms that are not of a PF type. Although these models are known to have ghosts in the linearized approximations, nonlinear interactions can lead to background change in which the ghosts are eliminated. In the latter case, however, the graviton perturbations on the new background are not massive. We argue that a consistent theory of a massive graviton on flat space can be formulated in theories with extra dimensions. They require an infinite number of fields or nonlocal description from a 4D point of view.

Gabadadze, Gregory; Gruzinov, Andrei [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Department of Physics, New York University, New York, New York, 10003 (United States)

2005-12-15

421

Atomic mass measurements for neutrino mass  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As usually understood, observation of neutrinoless double-beta-decay implies that neutrinos are their own antiparticles (Majorana particles), while measurements of the decay rate, or limits on the rate, provide information on absolute neutrino mass. Large-scale neutrinoless double-beta-decay detectors, proposed or under development, such as EXO, CUORE, GERDA, MAJORANA, etc. should be sensitive to a linear combination of neutrino masses, the ``effective Majorana mass of the electron neutrino'', below 0.1 eV/c^2. The signature of neutrinoless double-beta decay is a sharp peak in the total electron-energy spectrum at the Q-value of the decay -- the mass-energy difference between the parent and daughter atoms. Using one or two multiply-charged ions in a Penning trap, we have now measured the atomic masses of ^136Xe, ^130Te, ^130Xe, ^76Ge, ^76Se to a fractional precision of 2 x 10-10 or better, corresponding to Q-values with uncertainties below 25 eV. This is more than sufficient precision for the proposed large-scale experiments. Progress on mass measurements of ^74Ge and ^74Se, relevant to resonance-enhanced neutrinoless double-electron capture in ^74Se, will also be reported.

Redshaw, Matthew; Mount, Brianna; Myers, Edmund

2009-05-01

422

Constrained thermal denaturation of DNA under fixed linking number  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A DNA molecule with freely fluctuating ends undergoes a sharp thermal denaturation transition upon heating. However, in circular DNA chains and some experimental setups that manipulate single DNA molecules, the total number of turns (linking number) is constant at all times. The consequences of this additional topological invariant on the melting behaviour are nontrivial. Below, we investigate the melting characteristics of a homogeneous DNA where the linking number along the melting curve is preserved by supercoil formation in duplex portions. We obtain the mass fraction and the number of loops and supercoils below and above the melting temperature. We also argue that a macroscopic loop appears at T c and calculate its size as a function of temperature.

Bar, Amir; Kabakç?o?lu, Alkan; Mukamel, David

2012-06-01

423

Harmonic resolution as a holographic quantum number  

SciTech Connect

The Bekenstein bound takes the holographic principle into the realm of flat space, promising new insights on the relation of non-gravitational physics to quantum gravity. This makes it important to obtain a precise formulation of the bound. Conventionally, one specifies two macroscopic quantities, mass and spatial width, which cannot be simultaneously diagonalized. Thus, the counting of compatible states is not sharply defined. The resolution of this and other formal difficulties leads naturally to a definition in terms of discretized light-cone quantization. In this form, the area difference specified in the covariant bound converts to a single quantum number, the harmonic resolution K. The Bekenstein bound then states that the Fock space sector with K units of longitudinal momentum contains no more than exp(2 pi^2 K) independent discrete states. This conjecture can be tested unambiguously for a given Lagrangian, and it appears to hold true for realistic field theories, including models arising from string compactifications. For large K, it makes contact with more conventional but less well-defined formulations.

Bousso, Raphael

2004-01-31

424

Imaging of breast masses.  

PubMed

The American College of Radiology Breast Imaging and Reporting Data System (ACR BI-RADS) defines a mass as a space-occupying lesion seen in at least two projections. This article focuses on the management of breast masses with mammography and ultrasonography. Recommended work-up pathways are modified for nonpalpable masses, palpable masses in women over the age of 30, and palpable masses in women under the age of 30. The suggested protocols are based on scientific peer-reviewed literature whenever possible, but when evidence based studies are not available, the author relies on expert opinion. PMID:10943270

Bassett, L W

2000-07-01

425

Antarctic ice mass changes observed with GOCE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of the GOCE mission is to map the Earth's mean gravity field with unprecedented accuracy down to spatial scales of 80 km. We will show that in addition Antarctic ice mass changes can be observed with the GOCE gravity gradient data. In particular the ice mass loss in the West Antartic can be resolved at spatial scales of 100 km or better, with a temporal resolution of approximately 4 months. We address the effect of modelling errors in Glacial Isostatic Adjustment and Dynamic Ocean Topography. Furthermore, we will estimate the mass loss rate and compare the GOCE results with GRACE inferred numbers.

Bouman, Johannes; Fuchs, Martin; Lieb, Verena; Schmidt, Michael; Schrama, Ernst; Visser, Pieter; van der Wal, Wouter

2013-04-01

426

Leptogenesis with lepton-number-violating Dirac neutrinos  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dirac neutrinos with lepton-number-violating interactions can give rise to a new leptogenesis mechanism. In its simplest renormalizable realization, based on a gauged B-L symmetry spontaneously broken by four units, the decay of a new scalar creates an asymmetry in the right-handed neutrinos. A neutrinophilic two-Higgs-doublet model converts this asymmetry to the baryons, provides a natural explanation of the small neutrino masses, and can lead to an effective number of relativistic degrees of freedom of Neff?3.29 due to the entropy-suppressed contribution of the right-handed neutrinos.

Heeck, Julian

2013-10-01

427

Probing the primordial power spectrum with cluster number counts  

SciTech Connect

We investigate how well galaxy cluster number counts can constrain the primordial power spectrum. Measurements of the primary anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background may be limited, by the presence of foregrounds from secondary sources, to probing the primordial power spectrum at wave numbers less than about 0.30h Mpc{sup -1}. We break up the primordial power spectrum into a number of nodes and interpolate linearly between each node. This allows us to show that cluster number counts could then extend the constraints on the form of the primordial power spectrum up to wave numbers of about 0.45h Mpc{sup -1}. We estimate combinations of constraints from PLANCK and SPT primary cosmic microwave background and their respective Sunyaev-Zeldovich surveys. We find that their constraining ability is limited by uncertainties in the mass-scaling relations. We also estimate the constraint from clusters detected from a SNAP-like gravitational lensing survey. As there is an unambiguous and simple relationship between the filtered shear of the lensing survey and the cluster mass, it may be possible to obtain much tighter constraints on the primordial power spectrum in this case.

Chantavat, Teeraparb; Gordon, Christopher; Silk, Joseph [Department of Astrophysics, University of Oxford, DWB, Keble Road, Oxford, OX1 3RH (United Kingdom)

2009-04-15

428

Digital Imaging Mass Spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Methods to visualize the two-dimensional (2D) distribution of molecules by mass spectrometric imaging evolve rapidly and yield novel applications in biology, medicine, and material surface sciences. Most mass spectrometric imagers acquire high mass resolution spectra spot-by-spot and thereby scan the object's surface. Thus, imaging is slow and image reconstruction remains cumbersome. Here we describe an imaging mass spectrometer that exploits the true imaging capabilities by ion optical means for the time of flight mass separation. The mass spectrometer is equipped with the ASIC Timepix chip as an array detector to acquire the position, mass, and intensity of ions that are imaged by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) directly from the target sample onto the detector. This imaging mass spectrometer has a spatial resolving power at the specimen of (84 ± 35) ?m with a mass resolution of 45 and locates atoms or organic compounds on a surface area up to ~2 cm2. Extended laser spots of ~5 mm2 on structured specimens allows parallel imaging of selected masses. The digital imaging mass spectrometer proves high hit-multiplicity, straightforward image reconstruction, and potential for high-speed readout at 4 kHz or more. This device demonstrates a simple way of true image acquisition like a digital photographic camera. The technology may enable a fast analysis of biomolecular samples in near future.

Bamberger, Casimir; Renz, Uwe; Bamberger, Andreas

2011-06-01

429

Fourier Transform Mass Spectrometry  

PubMed Central

This article provides an introduction to Fourier transform-based mass spectrometry. The key performance characteristics of Fourier transform-based mass spectrometry, mass accuracy and resolution, are presented in the view of how they impact the interpretation of measurements in proteomic applications. The theory and principles of operation of two types of mass analyzer, Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance and Orbitrap, are described. Major benefits as well as limitations of Fourier transform-based mass spectrometry technology are discussed in the context of practical sample analysis, and illustrated with examples included as figures in this text and in the accompanying slide set. Comparisons highlighting the performance differences between the two mass analyzers are made where deemed useful in assisting the user with choosing the most appropriate technology for an application. Recent developments of these high-performing mass spectrometers are mentioned to provide a future outlook.

Scigelova, Michaela; Hornshaw, Martin; Giannakopulos, Anastassios; Makarov, Alexander

2011-01-01

430

Access to emergency number services.  

PubMed

Access to emergency services is mandated by Title II of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). The Department of Justice oversees the accessibility of public safety answering points (PSAPs), popularly called 9-1-1 centers. The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) has at least two roles in emergency number access: (1) as regulator of the ADA's Title IV on telecommunications access, and (2) as regulator of communications companies with regard to support of and interconnection with PSAPs. The rules of both agencies contributed significantly to the improvement during the 1990s of access to 9-1-1 for people who are deaf, hard of hearing, or speech disabled. However, as new technologies for text wireless communications and relay services have moved quickly to Internet protocol (IP)-based technologies over the past 5-8 years, the use of traditional wireline telephones and text telephones among deaf, hard of hearing, and speech-disabled people has declined. PSAPs cannot be contacted via the newer forms of telecommunications, such as e-mail, instant messaging, and IP-based forms of relay services, including video relay services. The gap between the technology supported by policy and the technologies currently being used by deaf and hard of hearing people has become a serious problem that is difficult to solve because of the separate jurisdictions of the two agencies, the need for coordination within the FCC, technological challenges, and funding issues. In this article, the key policy and technology challenges will be analyzed and recommendations made for short-and long-term solutions to this dilemma. PMID:18751576

Harkins, Judith E; Strauss, Karen Peltz

2008-01-01

431

The Evolution of the Number Density of Compact Galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We compare the number density of compact (small size) massive galaxies at low and high redshift using our Padova Millennium Galaxy and Group Catalogue (PM2GC) at z = 0.03-0.11 and the CANDELS results from Barro et al. at z = 1-2. The number density of local compact galaxies with luminosity weighted (LW) ages compatible with being already passive at high redshift is compared with the density of compact passive galaxies observed at high-z. Our results place an upper limit of a factor ~2 on the evolution of the number density and are inconsistent with a significant size evolution for most of the compact galaxies observed at high-z. Instead, the evolution may be significant (up to a factor five) for the most extreme, ultracompact galaxies. Considering all compact galaxies, regardless of LW age and star formation activity, a minority of local compact galaxies (<=1/3) might have formed at z < 1. Finally, we show that the secular decrease of the galaxy stellar mass due to simple stellar evolution may in some cases be a non-negligible factor in the context of the evolution of the mass-size relation, and we caution that passive evolution in mass should be taken into account when comparing samples at different redshifts.

Poggianti, B. M.; Moretti, A.; Calvi, R.; D'Onofrio, M.; Valentinuzzi, T.; Fritz, J.; Renzini, A.

2013-11-01

432

Ranking fuzzy numbers by preference ratio  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a ranking method for fuzzy numbers. In this method a preference function is defined by which fuzzy numbers are measured point by point and at each point the most preferred number is identified. Then, these numbers are ranked on the basis of their preference ratio. Therefore, fuzzy numbers are compared relatively and not necessarily one is preferred absolutely

Mohammad Modarres; Soheil Sadi-nezhad

2001-01-01

433

[Mass screening for uterine cancer].  

PubMed

Begun in the latter half of the sixties, mass screening for uterine cancer received a fresh impetus with the implementation in February of 1983 of the Health of the Aged Act. Under the latter law, a certain number of problems were also encountered, since autonomous municipalities were newly involved. This report is a description of the Pap test under the new screening system and methods of the uterine cancer mass screening approach or the screening system advanced by Japan Society of obstetrics & gynecology, committee on uterine cancer screening. It covers the primary screening, the secondary screening and detailed screening, their roles and manner in which they are implemented in terms of the local situation. Also, the points deserving the greatest care up through the detailed screening are presented. The importance in particular of the results of the Pap test at the stage of the primary screening, the histological findings, and the reliable transaction of the specimens therefrom, are emphasized. For the mass screening for uterine cancer to result in lower cancer mortality, it is necessary that there be at least 30% of the women aged 30 and over who reside in a given district submitting to the mass screening judging from the results garnered both at home and abroad. The measures needed to reach this goal are introduced. The steps conventionally employed to attain this objective of a higher proportion of women being examined, as well as the mass media propaganda, have their limits. The role of the committees for supervising administration of the screening must be amplified as a concrete means to implement the Health of the Aged Act; the role of the municipalities, which support this realization, must be stressed, the importance of administration policy in the form of periodical examinations, examinations focused on the women of certain ages and the plans for testing with due balance in responsibility between mobile and stationary facility examinations, must be upgraded. Communications with the local medical association and related organizations is also crucial. PMID:4073921

Tenjin, Y

1985-12-01

434

Initiating hydrogen infrastructures: preliminary analysis of a sufficient number of initial hydrogen stations in the US  

Microsoft Academic Search

While fuel cell vehicles are being prepared for limited production by 2003 or 2005, it is unclear what type of fueling infrastructure will support these vehicles when true mass production begins. If a significant number of mass-produced fuel cell vehicles are to carry hydrogen onboard, an extensive hydrogen refueling system must be initiated before the general public will feel comfortable

Marc W. Melaina

2003-01-01

435

Integrals of fuzzy-number-valued functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using the representation theorem of fuzzy numbers, we give an alternative approach for the integrals of fuzzy-number-valued functions, and for the Radon-Nikodym theorem of the fuzzy-number-valued measures.

Yun Kyong Kim; Byung Moon Ghil

1997-01-01

436

Trapezoidal approximations of fuzzy numbers - revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fuzzy number approximation by trapezoidal fuzzy numbers which preserve expected interval is discussed. The previously proposed approximation operator is improved so as to always produce a well formed trapezoidal fuzzy number.

Przemyslaw Grzegorzewski; Edyta Mrówka

2007-01-01

437

Environmental Mass Spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Environmental mass spectrometry is an important branch of science because it provides many of the data that underlie policy decisions that can directly influence the health of people and ecosystems. Environmental mass spectrometry is currently undergoing rapid development. Among the most relevant directions are a significant broadening of the lists of formally targeted compounds; a parallel interest in nontarget chemicals; an increase in the reliability of analyses involving accurate mass measurements, tandem mass spectrometry, and isotopically labeled standards; and a shift toward faster high-throughput analysis, with minimal sample preparation, involving various approaches, including ambient ionization techniques and miniature instruments. A real revolution in analytical chemistry could be triggered with the appearance of robust, simple, and sensitive portable mass spectrometers that can utilize ambient ionization techniques. If the cost of such instruments is reduced to a reasonable level, mass spectrometers could become valuable household devices.

Lebedev, Albert T.

2013-06-01

438

Main sequence mass loss  

SciTech Connect

It has been hypothesized that variable stars may experience mass loss, driven, at least in part, by oscillations. The class of stars we are discussing here are the delta Scuti variables. These are variable stars with masses between about 1.2 and 2.25 M/sub theta/, lying on or very near the main sequence. According to this theory, high rotation rates enhance the rate of mass loss, so main sequence stars born in this mass range would have a range of mass loss rates, depending on their initial rotation velocity and the amplitude of the oscillations. The stars would evolve rapidly down the main sequence until (at about 1.25 M/sub theta/) a surface convection zone began to form. The presence of this convective region would slow the rotation, perhaps allowing magnetic braking to occur, and thus sharply reduce the mass loss rate. 7 refs.

Brunish, W.M.; Guzik, J.A.; Willson, L.A.; Bowen, G.

1987-01-01

439

Environmental mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Environmental mass spectrometry is an important branch of science because it provides many of the data that underlie policy decisions that can directly influence the health of people and ecosystems. Environmental mass spectrometry is currently undergoing rapid development. Among the most relevant directions are a significant broadening of the lists of formally targeted compounds; a parallel interest in nontarget chemicals; an increase in the reliability of analyses involving accurate mass measurements, tandem mass spectrometry, and isotopically labeled standards; and a shift toward faster high-throughput analysis, with minimal sample preparation, involving various approaches, including ambient ionization techniques and miniature instruments. A real revolution in analytical chemistry could be triggered with the appearance of robust, simple, and sensitive portable mass spectrometers that can utilize ambient ionization techniques. If the cost of such instruments is reduced to a reasonable level, mass spectrometers could become valuable household devices. PMID:23527549

Lebedev, Albert T

2013-02-28

440

Top quark mass measurements  

SciTech Connect

The top quark, with its extraordinarily large mass (nearly that of a gold atom), plays a significant role in the phenomenology of EWSB in the Standard Model. In particular, the top quark mass when combined with the W mass constrains the mass of the as yet unobserved Higgs boson. Thus, a precise determination of the mass of the top quark is a principal goal of the CDF and D0 experiments. With the data collected thus far in Runs 1 and 2 of the Tevatron, CDF and D0 have measured the top quark mass in both the lepton+jets and dilepton decay channels using a variety of complementary experimental techniques. The author presents an overview of the most recent of the measurements.

Hill, Christopher S.; /UC, Santa Barbara

2004-12-01

441

Mass sensitivity studies for an inductively driven railgun  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Those areas which result in substantial system mass reductions for an HPG (homopolar generator) driven EML (electromagnetic launcher) are identified. Sensitivity studies are performed by varying launch mass, peak acceleration, launcher efficiency, inductance gradient, injection velocity, barrel mass per unit length, fuel tankage and pump estimates, and component energy and power densities. Two major contributors to the system mass are the allowed number of shots per barrel versus the number required for the mission, and the barrel length. The effects of component performance parameters, such as friction coefficient, injection velocity, ablation coefficient, rail resistivity, armature voltage, peak acceleration, and inductance gradient on these two areas, are addressed.

Scanlon, J. J., III; Young, A. F.

1991-01-01

442

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for La-172 (Lanthanum)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope La-172 (Lanthanum, atomic number Z = 57, mass number A = 172).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

443

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for La-162 (Lanthanum)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope La-162 (Lanthanum, atomic number Z = 57, mass number A = 162).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

444

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for La-177 (Lanthanum)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope La-177 (Lanthanum, atomic number Z = 57, mass number A = 177).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

445

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for La-187 (Lanthanum)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope La-187 (Lanthanum, atomic number Z = 57, mass number A = 187).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

446

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for La-198 (Lanthanum)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope La-198 (Lanthanum, atomic number Z = 57, mass number A = 198).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

447

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for La-179 (Lanthanum)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope La-179 (Lanthanum, atomic number Z = 57, mass number A = 179).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

448

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for La-160 (Lanthanum)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope La-160 (Lanthanum, atomic number Z = 57, mass number A = 160).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

449

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for La-184 (Lanthanum)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope La-184 (Lanthanum, atomic number Z = 57, mass number A = 184).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

450

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for La-169 (Lanthanum)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope La-169 (Lanthanum, atomic number Z = 57, mass number A = 169).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

451

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for La-199 (Lanthanum)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope La-199 (Lanthanum, atomic number Z = 57, mass number A = 199).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

452

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for La-204 (Lanthanum)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope La-204 (Lanthanum, atomic number Z = 57, mass number A = 204).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

453

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for La-183 (Lanthanum)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope La-183 (Lanthanum, atomic number Z = 57, mass number A = 183).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

454

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for La-150 (Lanthanum)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope La-150 (Lanthanum, atomic number Z = 57, mass number A = 150).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

455

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for La-193 (Lanthanum)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope La-193 (Lanthanum, atomic number Z = 57, mass number A = 193).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

456

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for La-188 (Lanthanum)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope La-188 (Lanthanum, atomic number Z = 57, mass number A = 188).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

457

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for La-167 (Lanthanum)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope La-167 (Lanthanum, atomic number Z = 57, mass number A = 167).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

458

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for La-159 (Lanthanum)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope La-159 (Lanthanum, atomic number Z = 57, mass number A = 159).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

459

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for La-181 (Lanthanum)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope La-181 (Lanthanum, atomic number Z = 57, mass number A = 181).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

460

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for La-196 (Lanthanum)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope La-196 (Lanthanum, atomic number Z = 57, mass number A = 196).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

461

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for La-165 (Lanthanum)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope La-165 (Lanthanum, atomic number Z = 57, mass number A = 165).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

462

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for La-178 (Lanthanum)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope La-178 (Lanthanum, atomic number Z = 57, mass number A = 178).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

463

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for La-205 (Lanthanum)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope La-205 (Lanthanum, atomic number Z = 57, mass number A = 205).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

464

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for La-195 (Lanthanum)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope La-195 (Lanthanum, atomic number Z = 57, mass number A = 195).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

465

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for La-200 (Lanthanum)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope La-200 (Lanthanum, atomic number Z = 57, mass number A = 200).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

466

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for La-174 (Lanthanum)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope La-174 (Lanthanum, atomic number Z = 57, mass number A = 174).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

467

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for La-153 (Lanthanum)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope La-153 (Lanthanum, atomic number Z = 57, mass number A = 153).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

468

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for La-168 (Lanthanum)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope La-168 (Lanthanum, atomic number Z = 57, mass number A = 168).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

469

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for La-186 (Lanthanum)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope La-186 (Lanthanum, atomic number Z = 57, mass number A = 186).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

470

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for La-197 (Lanthanum)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope La-197 (Lanthanum, atomic number Z = 57, mass number A = 197).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

471

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for La-171 (Lanthanum)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope La-171 (Lanthanum, atomic number Z = 57, mass number A = 171).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

472

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for La-202 (Lanthanum)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope La-202 (Lanthanum, atomic number Z = 57, mass number A = 202).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

473

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for La-161 (Lanthanum)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope La-161 (Lanthanum, atomic number Z = 57, mass number A = 161).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

474

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for La-175 (Lanthanum)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope La-175 (Lanthanum, atomic number Z = 57, mass number A = 175).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

475

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for La-180 (Lanthanum)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope La-180 (Lanthanum, atomic number Z = 57, mass number A = 180).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

476

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for La-203 (Lanthanum)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope La-203 (Lanthanum, atomic number Z = 57, mass number A = 203).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

477

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for La-182 (Lanthanum)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope La-182 (Lanthanum, atomic number Z = 57, mass number A = 182).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

478

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for La-190 (Lanthanum)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope La-190 (Lanthanum, atomic number Z = 57, mass number A = 190).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

479

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for La-192 (Lanthanum)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope La-192 (Lanthanum, atomic number Z = 57, mass number A = 192).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

480

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for La-154 (Lanthanum)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope La-154 (Lanthanum, atomic number Z = 57, mass number A = 154).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

481

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for La-201 (Lanthanum)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope La-201 (Lanthanum, atomic number Z = 57, mass number A = 201).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

482

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for La-155 (Lanthanum)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope La-155 (Lanthanum, atomic number Z = 57, mass number A = 155).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

483

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for La-170 (Lanthanum)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope La-170 (Lanthanum, atomic number Z = 57, mass number A = 170).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

484

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for La-189 (Lanthanum)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope La-189 (Lanthanum, atomic number Z = 57, mass number A = 189).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

485

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for La-151 (Lanthanum)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope La-151 (Lanthanum, atomic number Z = 57, mass number A = 151).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

486

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for La-191 (Lanthanum)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope La-191 (Lanthanum, atomic number Z = 57, mass number A = 191).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

487

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for La-157 (Lanthanum)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope La-157 (Lanthanum, atomic number Z = 57, mass number A = 157).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

488

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for La-163 (Lanthanum)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope La-163 (Lanthanum, atomic number Z = 57, mass number A = 163).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

489

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for La-156 (Lanthanum)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope La-156 (Lanthanum, atomic number Z = 57, mass number A = 156).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

490

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for La-152 (Lanthanum)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope La-152 (Lanthanum, atomic number Z = 57, mass number A = 152).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

491

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for La-164 (Lanthanum)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope La-164 (Lanthanum, atomic number Z = 57, mass number A = 164).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

492

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for La-176 (Lanthanum)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope La-176 (Lanthanum, atomic number Z = 57, mass number A = 176).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

493

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for La-194 (Lanthanum)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope La-194 (Lanthanum, atomic number Z = 57, mass number A = 194).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

494

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for La-185 (Lanthanum)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope La-185 (Lanthanum, atomic number Z = 57, mass number A = 185).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

495

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for La-158 (Lanthanum)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope La-158 (Lanthanum, atomic number Z = 57, mass number A = 158).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

496

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for La-173 (Lanthanum)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope La-173 (Lanthanum, atomic number Z = 57, mass number A = 173).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

497

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for La-166 (Lanthanum)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope La-166 (Lanthanum, atomic number Z = 57, mass number A = 166).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

498

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Fr-288 (Francium)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Fr-288 (Francium, atomic number Z = 87, mass number A = 288).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

499

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Fr-252 (Francium)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Fr-252 (Francium, atomic number Z = 87, mass number A = 252).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

500

Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Fr-278 (Francium)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Fr-278 (Francium, atomic number Z = 87, mass number A = 278).

Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.