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Sample records for mass spectrometry tof-ms

  1. Analysis of Phospholipid Mixtures from Biological Tissues by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption and Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS): A Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eibisch, Mandy; Fuchs, Beate; Schiller, Jurgen; Sub, Rosmarie; Teuber, Kristin

    2011-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption and ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is increasingly used to investigate the phospholipid (PL) compositions of tissues and body fluids, often without previous separation of the total mixture into the individual PL classes. Therefore, the questions of whether all PL classes are detectable…

  2. SFC-APLI-(TOF)MS: Hyphenation of Supercritical Fluid Chromatography to Atmospheric Pressure Laser Ionization Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Klink, Dennis; Schmitz, Oliver Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric-pressure laser ionization mass spectrometry (APLI-MS) is a powerful method for the analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules, which are ionized in a selective and highly sensitive way via resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization. APLI was presented in 2005 and has been hyphenated successfully to chromatographic separation techniques like high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas chromatography (GC). In order to expand the portfolio of chromatographic couplings to APLI, a new hyphenation setup of APLI and supercritical-fluid chromatography (SFC) was constructed and aim of this work. Here, we demonstrate the first hyphenation of SFC and APLI in a simple designed way with respect to different optimization steps to ensure a sensitive analysis. The new setup permits qualitative and quantitative determination of native and also more polar PAH molecules. As a result of the altered ambient characteristics within the source enclosure, the quantification of 1-hydroxypyrene (1-HP) in human urine is possible without prior derivatization. The limit of detection for 1-HP by SFC-APLI-TOF(MS) was found to be 0.5 ?g L(-1), which is lower than the 1-HP concentrations found in exposed persons. PMID:26633261

  3. Rapid Characterization of Microalgae and Microalgae Mixtures Using Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS)

    PubMed Central

    Barbano, Duane; Diaz, Regina; Zhang, Lin; Sandrin, Todd; Gerken, Henri; Dempster, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Current molecular methods to characterize microalgae are time-intensive and expensive. Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) may represent a rapid and economical alternative approach. The objectives of this study were to determine whether MALDI-TOF MS can be used to: 1) differentiate microalgae at the species and strain levels and 2) characterize simple microalgal mixtures. A common protein extraction sample preparation method was used to facilitate rapid mass spectrometry-based analysis of 31 microalgae. Each yielded spectra containing between 6 and 56 peaks in the m/z 2,000 to 20,000 range. The taxonomic resolution of this approach appeared higher than that of 18S rDNA sequence analysis. For example, two strains of Scenedesmus acutus differed only by two 18S rDNA nucleotides, but yielded distinct MALDI-TOF mass spectra. Mixtures of two and three microalgae yielded relatively complex spectra that contained peaks associated with members of each mixture. Interestingly, though, mixture-specific peaks were observed at m/z 11,048 and 11,230. Our results suggest that MALDI-TOF MS affords rapid characterization of individual microalgae and simple microalgal mixtures. PMID:26271045

  4. Optimization of matrix assisted desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) for the characterization of Bacillus and Brevibacillus species

    PubMed Central

    AlMasoud, Najla; Xu, Yun; Nicolaou, Nicoletta; Goodacre, Royston

    2014-01-01

    Over the past few decades there has been an increased interest in using various analytical techniques for detecting and identifying microorganisms. More recently there has been an explosion in the application of matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) for bacterial characterization, and here we optimize this approach in order to generate reproducible MS data from bacteria belonging to the genera Bacillus and Brevibacillus. Unfortunately MALDI-TOF-MS generates large amounts of data and is prone to instrumental drift. To overcome these challenges we have developed a preprocessing pipeline that includes baseline correction, peak alignment followed by peak picking that in combination significantly reduces the dimensionality of the MS spectra and corrects for instrument drift. Following this two different prediction models were used which are based on support vector machines and these generated satisfactory prediction accuracies of approximately 90%. PMID:25086893

  5. A novel cluster of Mycobacterium abscessus complex revealed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS).

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Hiromichi; Yoshida, Shiomi; Yoshida, Atsushi; Okuzumi, Katsuko; Fukusima, Atsuhito; Hishinuma, Akira

    2015-12-01

    Mycobacterium abscessus complex is a rapidly growing mycobacterium consisting of 3 subspecies, M. abscessus, Mycobacterium massiliense, and Mycobacterium bolletii. However, rapid and accurate species identification is difficult. We first evaluated a suitable protocol of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) for distinguishing these subspecies. Then, we studied spectral signals by MALDI-TOF MS in 59 M. abscessus, 42 M. massiliense, and 2 M. bolletii. Among several specific spectral signals, 4 signals clearly differentiate M. massiliense from the other 2 subspecies, M. abscessus and M. bolletii. Moreover, 6 of the 42 M. massiliense isolates showed a spectral pattern similar to M. abscessus. These isolates correspond to the distinctive class of M. massiliense (cluster D) which is closer to M. abscessus by the previous variable number tandem repeat analysis. These results indicate that MALDI-TOF MS is not only useful for the identification of 3 subspecies of M. abscessus complex but also capable of distinguishing clusters of M. massiliense. PMID:26388548

  6. Analysis of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus major clonal lineages by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tingting; Ding, Jinya; Rao, Xiancai; Yu, Jingbo; Chu, Meiling; Ren, Wei; Wang, Lu; Xue, Wencheng

    2015-10-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is an important pathogen associated with nosocomial infections in many countries. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) is one of the genetic typing methods used to type MRSA with a high discriminatory power, however, it is labor-intensive, timely, and costly. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) coupled with ClinProTools is a potential tool to discover biomarker peaks and to generate a classification model based on highly sophisticated mathematical algorithms to discriminate clonal lineages. We investigated the performance of MALDI-TOF MS for discriminating 154 MRSA-ST239, 72 MRSA-ST5, 30 MRSA-ST59, 14 MRSA-ST45, and 20 MRSA-OST (other clonal lineages). Our results indicate that the model construction and validation have good potency to discriminate ST45 from other lineages with a sensitivity and a specificity of both 100%, and a sensitivity of 95.80% and a specificity of 94.62% to identify ST239. For Biotyper classification, the sensitivity and specificity were more than of 90% for ST239, ST59 and ST45, whereas only 81.94% sensitivity for ST5. By single-peak analysis, the peaks m/z 4808 and 9614 can correctly discriminate ST45 a sensitivity and a specificity of both 100%; the peak m/z 6554 can also discriminate ST239 with a sensitivity of 91.9% and a specificity of 85.4%. In conclusion, MALDI-TOF MS coupled with ClinProTools has a high detection performance for MRSA typing with obvious advantages of being rapid, highly accurate, and being a low cost in comparison with MLST. PMID:26253802

  7. Multi-residue analysis method for analysis of pharmaceuticals using liquid chromatography-time of flight/mass spectrometry (LC-TOF/MS) in water sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Qaim, Fouad Fadhil; Abdullah, Md Pauzi; Othman, Mohamed Rozali

    2013-11-01

    In this work, a developed method using solid - phase extraction (SPE) followed by liquid chromatography - time of flight mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-TOF/MS) was developed and validated for quantification and confirmation of eleven pharmaceuticals with different therapeutic classes in water samples, Malaysia. These compounds are caffeine (CAF), prazosin (PRZ), enalapril (ENL), carbamazepine (CBZ), nifedipine (NFD), levonorgestrel (LNG), simvastatin (SMV), hydrochlorothiazide (HYD), gliclazide (GLIC), diclofenac-Na (DIC-Na) and mefenamic acid (MEF). LC was performed on a Dionex Ultimate 3000/LC 09115047 (USA) system. Chromatography was performed on a Thermo Scientific C18 (250 mm × 2.1 mm, i.d.: 5?m) column. Several parameters were optimised such as; mobile phase, gradient elution, collision energy and solvent elution for extraction of compounds from water. The recoveries obtained ranged from 30-148 % in river water. Five pharmaceutical compounds were detected in the surface water samples: caffeine, prazosin, enalpril, diclofenac-Na and mefenamic acid. The developed method is precise and accepted recoveries were got. In addition, this method is suitable to identify and quantify trace concentrations of pharmaceuticals in surface water.

  8. Technical Note: Performance of Chemical Ionization Reaction Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (CIR-TOF-MS) for the measurement of atmospherically significant oxygenated volatile organic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyche, K. P.; Blake, R. S.; Ellis, A. M.; Monks, P. S.; Brauers, T.; Koppmann, R.; Apel, E. C.

    2007-02-01

    The performance of a new chemical ionization reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer (CIR-TOF-MS) utilising the environment chamber SAPHIR (Simulation of Atmospheric Photochemistry In a large Reaction Chamber- Forschungzentrum Jülich, Germany) is described. The work took place as part of the ACCENT (Atmospheric Composition and Change the European NeTwork for excellence) supported oxygenated volatile organic compound (OVOC) measurement intercomparison during January 2005. The experiment entailed the measurement of 14 different atmospherically significant OVOCs at various mixing ratios in the approximate range 10.0-0.6 ppbV. The CIR-TOF-MS operated throughout the exercise with the hydronium ion (H3O+) as the primary chemical ionization (CI) reagent in order to facilitate proton transfer to the analyte OVOCs. The results presented show that the CIR time-of-flight mass spectrometer is capable of detecting a wide range of atmospheric OVOCs at mixing ratios of around 10 ppbV in "real-time" (i.e. detection on the one-minute time scale), with sub-ppbV measurement also achieved following an increase in averaging time to tens of minutes. It is shown that in general OVOC measurement is made with high accuracy and precision, with integration time, mixing ratio and compound dependent values as good as 4-13% and 3-15% respectively. It is demonstrated that CIR-TOF-MS has rapid multi-channel response at the required sensitivity, accuracy and precision for atmospheric OVOC measurement.

  9. The potential of using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma time of flight mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-TOF-MS) in the forensic analysis of micro debris.

    PubMed

    Scadding, Cameron J; Watling, R John; Thomas, Allen G

    2005-08-15

    The majority of crimes result in the generation of some form of physical evidence, which is available for collection by crime scene investigators or police. However, this debris is often limited in amount as modern criminals become more aware of its potential value to forensic scientists. The requirement to obtain robust evidence from increasingly smaller sized samples has required refinement and modification of old analytical techniques and the development of new ones. This paper describes a new method for the analysis of oxy-acetylene debris, left behind at a crime scene, and the establishment of its co-provenance with single particles of equivalent debris found on the clothing of persons of interest (POI). The ability to rapidly determine and match the elemental distribution patterns of debris collected from crime scenes to those recovered from persons of interest is essential in ensuring successful prosecution. Traditionally, relatively large amounts of sample (up to several milligrams) have been required to obtain a reliable elemental fingerprint of this type of material [R.J. Walting , B.F. Lynch, D. Herring, J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 12 (1997) 195]. However, this quantity of material is unlikely to be recovered from a POI. This paper describes the development and application of laser ablation inductively coupled plasma time of flight mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-TOF-MS), as an analytical protocol, which can be applied more appropriately to the analysis of micro-debris than conventional quadrupole based mass spectrometry. The resulting data, for debris as small as 70mum in diameter, was unambiguously matched between a single spherule recovered from a POI and a spherule recovered from the scene of crime, in an analytical procedure taking less than 5min. PMID:18970183

  10. Direct identification of microorganisms from positive blood cultures using the lysis-filtration technique and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS): a multicentre study.

    PubMed

    Farina, Claudio; Arena, Fabio; Casprini, Patrizia; Cichero, Paola; Clementi, Massimo; Cosentino, Marina; Degl'Innocenti, Roberto; Giani, Tommaso; Luzzaro, Francesco; Mattei, Romano; Mauri, Carola; Nardone, Maria; Rossolini, Gian Maria; Serna Ortega, Paula Andrea; Vailati, Francesca

    2015-04-01

    Microbial identification from blood cultures is essential to institute optimal antibiotic therapy and improve survival possibilities. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has been successfully applied to identify bacteria and yeasts from positive blood cultures broths. The aim of this multicentre study was to evaluate the reliability of the lysis-filtration technique associated with MALDI-TOF MS to directly identify microorganisms from 765 positive blood cultures collected in six Italian hospitals. Overall, 675/765 (78.1%) blood isolates were correctly identified at the species level, with significant differences between Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria (92.6%, and 69.8%, respectively). Some difficulties arise in identifying Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, yeasts and anaerobes. The lysis-filtration protocol is a suitable procedure in terms of performance in identifying microorganisms, but it is quite expensive and technically time-consuming since the time of filtration is not regular for all the samples. The application of the MALDI-TOF MS technique to the direct microbial identification from positive blood cultures is a very promising approach, even if more experience must be gained to minimize errors and costs. PMID:25938749

  11. Real-time analysis of aromatics in combustion engine exhaust by resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (REMPI-TOF-MS): a robust tool for chassis dynamometer testing.

    PubMed

    Adam, T W; Clairotte, M; Streibel, T; Elsasser, M; Pommeres, A; Manfredi, U; Carriero, M; Martini, G; Sklorz, M; Krasenbrink, A; Astorga, C; Zimmermann, R

    2012-07-01

    Resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (REMPI-TOF-MS) is a robust method for real-time analysis of monocyclic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in complex emissions. A mobile system has been developed which enables direct analysis on site. In this paper, we utilize a multicomponent calibration scheme based on the analytes' photo-ionisation cross-sections relative to a calibrated species. This allows semi-quantification of a great number of components by only calibrating one compound of choice, here toluene. The cross-sections were determined by injecting nebulised solutions of aromatic compounds into the TOF-MS ion source with the help of a HPLC pump. Then, REMPI-TOF-MS was implemented at various chassis dynamometers and test cells and the exhaust of the following vehicles and engines investigated: a compression ignition light-duty (LD) passenger car, a compression ignition LD van, two spark ignition LD passenger cars, 2 two-stroke mopeds, and a two-stroke engine of a string gas trimmer. The quantitative time profiles of benzene are shown. The results indicate that two-stroke engines are a significant source for toxic and cancerogenic compounds. Air pollution and health effects caused by gardening equipment might still be underestimated. PMID:22644155

  12. Evaluation of the Bruker Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) System for the Identification of Clinically Important Dermatophyte Species.

    PubMed

    Karab?çak, Nilgün; Karatuna, Onur; ?lkit, Macit; Akyar, I??n

    2015-10-01

    Dermatophytes can invade the stratum corneum of the skin and other keratinized tissues and are responsible for a broad diversity of diseases of skin, nails and hair. Although the standard identification of dermatophytoses depends on macroscopic and microscopic characterization of the colonies grown on special media, there are a number of limitations owing to intraspecies morphological variability, atypical morphology or interspecies morphological similarity which entails improvement in the identification methods. Matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is a novel method which proved to be effective for rapid and reliable identification of dermatophytes grown in cultures when compared to conventional methods. We evaluated the performance of Bruker MALDI-TOF MS System (Bruker Daltonics, Germany) for identification of clinically relevant dermatophytes. In order to increase the identification capacity of the system, we created supplemental spectral database entries using ten reference dermatophyte strains (ten species in two genera). The utility of the generated database was then challenged using a total of 126 dermatophytes (115 clinical isolates and 11 additional reference strains). The results were evaluated by both manufacturer-recommended and lowered cutoff scores. MALDI-TOF MS provided correct identification in 122 (96.8 %) and 113 (89.7 %) of the isolates with the lowered scores and using the supplemented database, respectively, versus 65 (51.6 %) and 17 (13.5 %) correct identifications obtained by the unmodified database and recommended scores at the genus and species levels, respectively. Our results support the potential utility of MALDI-TOF MS as a routine tool for accurate and reliable identification of dermatophytes. PMID:25971934

  13. Optimization of experimental and modelling parameters for the differentiation of beverage spoiling yeasts by Matrix-Assisted-Laser-Desorption/Ionization-Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) in response to varying growth conditions.

    PubMed

    Usbeck, Julia C; Kern, Carola C; Vogel, Rudi F; Behr, Jürgen

    2013-12-01

    The growth of spoiling yeasts in beverages results in reduced quality, economic and image losses. Therefore, biochemical and DNA-based identification methods have been developed but are mostly time-consuming and laborious. Matrix-Assisted-Laser-Desorption/Ionization-Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) could deliver discriminative peptide mass fingerprints within minutes and could thus be a rapid and reliable tool for identification and differentiation. However, routine analysis of yeasts by MALDI-TOF MS is yet impaired by low reproducibility and effects of different physiological states of organisms on the reliability of the identification method are still controversial. The aim of this study was to optimize sample preparation and measurement parameterization using three spoilage yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. diastaticus, Wickerhamomyces anomalus and Debaryomyces hansenii). The influence of environmental or physiological parameters including oxygen availability, different nutrients, cell density and growth phase were analysed and revealed small differences in mass fingerprints. Yeasts grown in the presence or absence of oxygen were precisely differentiated along these differences in mass fingerprints and a crude classification of growth phase was possible. Cell concentration did not affect the spectra distinctly, neither qualitatively nor quantitatively, and an influence of available nutrients could not be measured in each case. However, core mass peaks remained constant under all tested conditions enabling reliable identification. PMID:24010620

  14. Gas Chromatography Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (GC-TOF-MS)-Based Metabolomics for Comparison of Caffeinated and Decaffeinated Coffee and Its Implications for Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Kai Lun; Ho, Paul C.

    2014-01-01

    Findings from epidemiology, preclinical and clinical studies indicate that consumption of coffee could have beneficial effects against dementia and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The benefits appear to come from caffeinated coffee, but not decaffeinated coffee or pure caffeine itself. Therefore, the objective of this study was to use metabolomics approach to delineate the discriminant metabolites between caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee, which could have contributed to the observed therapeutic benefits. Gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF-MS)-based metabolomics approach was employed to characterize the metabolic differences between caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee. Orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) showed distinct separation between the two types of coffee (cumulative Q2?=?0.998). A total of 69 discriminant metabolites were identified based on the OPLS-DA model, with 37 and 32 metabolites detected to be higher in caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee, respectively. These metabolites include several benzoate and cinnamate-derived phenolic compounds, organic acids, sugar, fatty acids, and amino acids. Our study successfully established GC-TOF-MS based metabolomics approach as a highly robust tool in discriminant analysis between caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee samples. Discriminant metabolites identified in this study are biologically relevant and provide valuable insights into therapeutic research of coffee against AD. Our data also hint at possible involvement of gut microbial metabolism to enhance therapeutic potential of coffee components, which represents an interesting area for future research. PMID:25098597

  15. Source-Identifying Biomarker Ions between Environmental and Clinical Burkholderia pseudomallei Using Whole-Cell Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS)

    PubMed Central

    Srisanga, Kitima; Roytrakul, Sittiruk; Tungpradabkul, Sumalee

    2014-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei is the causative agent of melioidosis, which is an endemic disease in Northeast Thailand and Northern Australia. Environmental reservoirs, including wet soils and muddy water, serve as the major sources for contributing bacterial infection to both humans and animals. The whole-cell matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (whole-cell MALDI-TOF MS) has recently been applied as a rapid, accurate, and high-throughput tool for clinical diagnosis and microbiological research. In this present study, we employed a whole-cell MALDI-TOF MS approach for assessing its potency in clustering a total of 11 different B. pseudomallei isolates (consisting of 5 environmental and 6 clinical isolates) with respect to their origins and to further investigate the source-identifying biomarker ions belonging to each bacterial group. The cluster analysis demonstrated that six out of eleven isolates were grouped correctly to their sources. Our results revealed a total of ten source-identifying biomarker ions, which exhibited statistically significant differences in peak intensity between average environmental and clinical mass spectra using ClinProTools software. Six out of ten mass ions were assigned as environmental-identifying biomarker ions (EIBIs), including, m/z 4,056, 4,214, 5,814, 7,545, 7,895, and 8,112, whereas the remaining four mass ions were defined as clinical-identifying biomarker ions (CIBIs) consisting of m/z 3,658, 6,322, 7,035, and 7,984. Hence, our findings represented, for the first time, the source-specific biomarkers of environmental and clinical B. pseudomallei. PMID:24914956

  16. Biomarker- and similarity coefficient-based approaches to bacterial mixture characterization using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lin; Smart, Sonja; Sandrin, Todd R

    2015-01-01

    MALDI-TOF MS profiling has been shown to be a rapid and reliable method to characterize pure cultures of bacteria. Currently, there is keen interest in using this technique to identify bacteria in mixtures. Promising results have been reported with two- or three-isolate model systems using biomarker-based approaches. In this work, we applied MALDI-TOF MS-based methods to a more complex model mixture containing six bacteria. We employed: 1) a biomarker-based approach that has previously been shown to be useful in identification of individual bacteria in pure cultures and simple mixtures and 2) a similarity coefficient-based approach that is routinely and nearly exclusively applied to identification of individual bacteria in pure cultures. Both strategies were developed and evaluated using blind-coded mixtures. With regard to the biomarker-based approach, results showed that most peaks in mixture spectra could be assigned to those found in spectra of each component bacterium; however, peaks shared by two isolates as well as peaks that could not be assigned to any individual component isolate were observed. For two-isolate blind-coded samples, bacteria were correctly identified using both similarity coefficient- and biomarker-based strategies, while for blind-coded samples containing more than two isolates, bacteria were more effectively identified using a biomarker-based strategy. PMID:26537565

  17. Direct characterization of polyurethanes and additives by atmospheric solid analysis probe with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ASAP-TOF-MS).

    PubMed

    Lebeau, Diane; Ferry, Muriel

    2015-09-01

    Because of the wide range of formulations, polyurethanes (PURs) are among the most used copolymers. According to their applications, the nature and concentration of the monomers, as well as the additives, are adjusted. As copolymer, this material is difficult to characterize directly by mass spectrometry without sample pretreatment. In this work, atmospheric solid analysis probe mass spectrometry (ASAP-MS) is used to characterize model and commercial PURs with different formulations. Application of a temperature gradient over the ASAP probe allows a soft vaporization of all sample components: additives are detected at lower gas temperature, whereas the polymer is detected at higher gas temperature. Thus, a temporal separation of the molecules as a function of their volatilization and/or degradation temperature is observed. The vaporized products are identified by ASAP thanks to pyrolysis, but also by low energy source fragmentation observed during the analysis. Thus, complete analysis of PURs with only a single time-of-flight (TOF) mass analyzer is realized. The ability of ASAP-MS for differentiation of different chemical structures of PURs (polyester and polyether based PURs) is demonstrated; the main advantage of this technique being that the analysis is performed in one step, directly on the crude polymer. PMID:26229024

  18. Methylobacterium Species Promoting Rice and Barley Growth and Interaction Specificity Revealed with Whole-Cell Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption / Ionization-Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS) Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tani, Akio; Sahin, Nurettin; Fujitani, Yoshiko; Kato, Akiko; Sato, Kazuhiro; Kimbara, Kazuhide

    2015-01-01

    Methylobacterium species frequently inhabit plant surfaces and are able to utilize the methanol emitted from plants as carbon and energy sources. As some of the Methylobacterium species are known to promote plant growth, significant attention has been paid to the mechanism of growth promotion and the specificity of plant–microbe interactions. By screening our Methylobacterium isolate collection for the high growth promotion effect in vitro, we selected some candidates for field and pot growth tests for rice and barley, respectively. We found that inoculation resulted in better ripening of rice seeds, and increased the size of barley grains but not the total yield. In addition, using whole-cell matrix-assister laser desorption/ionization- time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS) analysis, we identified and classified Methylobacterium isolates from Methylobacterium-inoculated rice plants. The inoculated species could not be recovered from the rice plants, and in some cases, the Methylobacterium community structure was affected by the inoculation, but not with predomination of the inoculated species. The isolates from non-inoculated barley of various cultivars grown in the same field fell into just two species. These results suggest that there is a strong selection pressure at the species level of Methylobacterium residing on a given plant species, and that selection of appropriate species that can persist on the plant is important to achieve growth promotion. PMID:26053875

  19. A simple protocol for Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization- time of flight-mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) analysis of lipids and proteins in single microsamples of paintings.

    PubMed

    van der Werf, Inez D; Calvano, Cosima D; Palmisano, Francesco; Sabbatini, Luigia

    2012-03-01

    A simple protocol, based on Bligh-Dyer (BD) extraction followed by MALDI-TOF-MS analysis, for fast identification of paint binders in single microsamples is proposed. For the first time it is demonstrated that the BD method is effective for the simultaneous extraction of lipids and proteins from complex, and atypical matrices, such as pigmented paint layers. The protocol makes use of an alternative denaturing anionic detergent (RapiGest™) in order to improve efficiency of protein digestion and purification step. Detection of various lipid classes, such as triacylglycerols (TAGs) and phospholipids (PLs), and their oxidation by-products was accomplished, whereas proteins could be identified by peptide mass fingerprinting. The effect of pigments on ageing of lipids and proteins was also investigated. Finally, the proposed protocol was successfully applied to the study of a late-15th century Italian panel painting allowing the identification of various proteinaceous and lipid sections in organic binders, such as egg yolk, egg white, animal glue, casein, and drying oil. PMID:22305892

  20. Application of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) in preparation of chitosan oligosaccharides (COS) with degree of polymerization (DP) 5-12 containing well-distributed acetyl groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Mian; Zhu, Xiqiang; Li, Zhiming; Guo, Xueping; Ling, Peixue

    2010-02-01

    COS have many biological activities, and have been widely used as a health food. Molecular size is considered as a key parameter for COS' activities. However, many criteria are used practically, and true qualities of COS from different producers may not be always comparable. This can partly explain the disagreement in COS' functional researches, as resulting in COS, even with astonish effects, have not been further developed as a drug for tumor patients. As anti-tumor activities have been studied based on DP in pharmacological researches, we employed MALDI-TOF-MS to monitor fine structure, including DP, in COS' preparation and comparison. Then one of the COS products was analyzed with the composition of DP 5-12, mainly 7-10. Moreover, that COS' product contains well-distributed acetyl groups, while typical Commercial COS sample nearly contains no acetyl groups. As fresh precise parameters, the DP and the number of acetyl groups matching with special DP can be introduced in COS' further study on structure-activity relationships (SARs) as a new drug.

  1. Complementary Use of LC-ICP-MS and LC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS for Selenium Speciation.

    PubMed

    Anan, Yasumi; Nakajima, Genki; Ogra, Yasumitsu

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrated the complementary use of inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ESI-Q-TOF-MS) for the analysis of Se-containing compounds, such as selenate, selenomethionine (SeMet), and trimethylselenonium ion (TMSe), found in biological samples. The sensitivity of ESI-Q-TOF-MS for Se-containing compounds was strongly dependent on the chemical species. ICP-MS exhibited higher sensitivity than ESI-Q-TOF-MS, and had no species dependency. On the other hand, ESI-Q-TOF-MS enabled easy and robust identification of Se-containing compounds. PMID:26063020

  2. Profile of phenolic compounds of Brazilian virgin olive oils by rapid resolution liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (RRLC-ESI-TOF-MS).

    PubMed

    Ballus, Cristiano Augusto; Quirantes-Piné, Rosa; Bakhouche, Abdelhakim; da Silva, Luiz Fernando de Oliveira; de Oliveira, Adelson Francisco; Coutinho, Enilton Fick; da Croce, Dorli Mario; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Godoy, Helena Teixeira

    2015-03-01

    In recent years, agronomical researchers began to cultivate several olive varieties in different regions of Brazil to produce virgin olive oil (VOO). Because there has been no reported data regarding the phenolic profile of the first Brazilian VOO, the aim of this work was to determine phenolic contents of these samples using rapid-resolution liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry. 25 VOO samples from Arbequina, Koroneiki, Arbosana, Grappolo, Manzanilla, Coratina, Frantoio and MGS Mariense varieties from three different Brazilian states and two crops were analysed. It was possible to quantify 19 phenolic compounds belonging to different classes. The results indicated that Brazilian VOOs have high total phenolic content because the values were comparable with those from high-quality VOOs produced in other countries. VOOs from Coratina, Arbosana and Grappolo presented the highest total phenolic content. These data will be useful in the development and improvement of Brazilian VOO. PMID:25306359

  3. Identification of Low Molecular Weight Glutenin Alleles by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) in Common Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Shahidul; Applebee, Marie; Appels, Rudi; Yan, Yueming; Ma, Wujun

    2015-01-01

    Low molecular weight glutenin subunits (LMW-GS) play an important role in determining dough properties and breadmaking quality. However, resolution of the currently used methodologies for analyzing LMW-GS is rather low which prevents an efficient use of genetic variations associated with these alleles in wheat breeding. The aim of the current study is to evaluate and develop a rapid, simple, and accurate method to differentiate LMW-GS alleles using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. A set of standard single LMW-GS allele lines as well as a suite of well documented wheat cultivars were collected from France, CIMMYT, and Canada. Method development and optimization were focused on protein extraction procedures and MALDI-TOF instrument settings to generate reproducible diagnostic spectrum peak profiles for each of the known wheat LMW-GS allele. Results revealed a total of 48 unique allele combinations among the studied genotypes. Characteristic MALDI-TOF peak patterns were obtained for 17 common LMW-GS alleles, including 5 (b, a or c, d, e, f), 7 (a, b, c, d or i, f, g, h) and 5 (a, b, c, d, f) patterns or alleles for the Glu-A3, Glu-B3, and Glu-D3 loci, respectively. In addition, some reproducible MALDI-TOF peak patterns were also obtained that did not match with any known alleles. The results demonstrated a high resolution and throughput nature of MALDI-TOF technology in analyzing LMW-GS alleles, which is suitable for application in wheat breeding programs in processing a large number of wheat lines with high accuracy in limited time. It also suggested that the variation of LMW-GS alleles is more abundant than what has been defined by the current nomenclature system that is mainly based on SDS-PAGE system. The MALDI-TOF technology is useful to differentiate these variations. An international joint effort may be needed to assign allele symbols to these newly identified alleles and determine their effects on end-product quality attributes. PMID:26407296

  4. Identification of Low Molecular Weight Glutenin Alleles by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) in Common Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Wang, Aili; Liu, Li; Peng, Yanchun; Islam, Shahidul; Applebee, Marie; Appels, Rudi; Yan, Yueming; Ma, Wujun

    2015-01-01

    Low molecular weight glutenin subunits (LMW-GS) play an important role in determining dough properties and breadmaking quality. However, resolution of the currently used methodologies for analyzing LMW-GS is rather low which prevents an efficient use of genetic variations associated with these alleles in wheat breeding. The aim of the current study is to evaluate and develop a rapid, simple, and accurate method to differentiate LMW-GS alleles using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. A set of standard single LMW-GS allele lines as well as a suite of well documented wheat cultivars were collected from France, CIMMYT, and Canada. Method development and optimization were focused on protein extraction procedures and MALDI-TOF instrument settings to generate reproducible diagnostic spectrum peak profiles for each of the known wheat LMW-GS allele. Results revealed a total of 48 unique allele combinations among the studied genotypes. Characteristic MALDI-TOF peak patterns were obtained for 17 common LMW-GS alleles, including 5 (b, a or c, d, e, f), 7 (a, b, c, d or i, f, g, h) and 5 (a, b, c, d, f) patterns or alleles for the Glu-A3, Glu-B3, and Glu-D3 loci, respectively. In addition, some reproducible MALDI-TOF peak patterns were also obtained that did not match with any known alleles. The results demonstrated a high resolution and throughput nature of MALDI-TOF technology in analyzing LMW-GS alleles, which is suitable for application in wheat breeding programs in processing a large number of wheat lines with high accuracy in limited time. It also suggested that the variation of LMW-GS alleles is more abundant than what has been defined by the current nomenclature system that is mainly based on SDS-PAGE system. The MALDI-TOF technology is useful to differentiate these variations. An international joint effort may be needed to assign allele symbols to these newly identified alleles and determine their effects on end-product quality attributes. PMID:26407296

  5. [Which benefits for the clinician to implement MALDI-TOF/MS in the bacteriology laboratory?].

    PubMed

    Riat, A; Cherkaoui, A; Emonet, S; Greub, G; Schrenzel, J

    2014-11-12

    Mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS) is a recent technology especially adapted to identify microbial pathogens. It has rapidly established itself as a must for most medical bacteriology laboratories. Its ease of use and speed of execution typically permit providing pathogen identification one day earlier to the clinicians. MALDI-TOF/MS facilitates identification of filamentous fungi and mycobacteria that require particular lab expertise when using conventional methods. This paper highlights the multiple advantages that MALDI-TOF/MS can bring to the physicians in their practice. PMID:25549376

  6. Quantitative matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Roder, Heinrich; Hunsucker, Stephen W.

    2008-01-01

    This review summarizes the essential characteristics of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF MS), especially as they relate to its applications in quantitative analysis. Approaches to quantification by MALDI-TOF MS are presented and published applications are critically reviewed. PMID:19106161

  7. Progress in proteomics for clinical microbiology: MALDI-TOF MS for microbial species identification and more.

    PubMed

    van Belkum, Alex; Chatellier, Sonia; Girard, Victoria; Pincus, David; Deol, Parampal; Dunne, Wm Michael

    2015-12-01

    Although classical proteomic approaches are still used regularly in routine clinical diagnostic procedures, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF) MS has recently moved into diagnostic microbiology laboratories. MALDI-TOF MS is currently replacing phenotypic microbial identification. Many laboratories now use MALDI-TOF MS for its high efficiency, both from a diagnostic and a cost-per-analysis point of view. The US FDA has now cleared two of the commercially available systems for in vitro diagnostics. This will further spark development of MS applications in antimicrobial susceptibility testing and epidemiology. This review summarizes the state of affairs of MALDI-TOF MS in clinical microbiology; however, this is an active field of research subject to rapid evolution. We emphasize assessment of the clinical relevance and studies focusing on data obtained through comparative analyses of different MALDI-TOF MS instrumentation and multicenter validation studies. The future of MALDI-TOF MS, including antimicrobial susceptibility testing and epidemiological typing, is also highlighted. PMID:26472137

  8. Identification of Dermatophyte Species after Implementation of the In-House MALDI-TOF MS Database

    PubMed Central

    Calderaro, Adriana; Motta, Federica; Montecchini, Sara; Gorrini, Chiara; Piccolo, Giovanna; Piergianni, Maddalena; Buttrini, Mirko; Medici, Maria Cristina; Arcangeletti, Maria Cristina; Chezzi, Carlo; De Conto, Flora

    2014-01-01

    Despite that matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) has become a powerful tool in the clinical microbiology setting, few studies have till now focused on MALDI-TOF MS-based identification of dermatophytes. In this study, we analyze dermatophytes strains isolated from clinical samples by MALDI-TOF MS to supplement the reference database available in our laboratory. Twenty four dermatophytes (13 reference strains and 11 field isolated strains), identified by both conventional and molecular standard procedures, were analyzed by MALDI-TOF MS, and the spectra obtained were used to supplement the available database, limited to a few species. To verify the robustness of the implemented database, 64 clinical isolates other than those used for the implementation were identified by MALDI-TOF MS. The implementation allowed the identification of the species not included in the original database, reinforced the identification of the species already present and correctly identified those within the Trichophyton mentagrophytes complex previously classified as Trichophyton. tonsurans by MALDI-TOF MS. The dendrogram obtained by analyzing the proteic profiles of the different species of dermatophytes reflected their taxonomy, showing moreover, in some cases, a different clusterization between the spectra already present in the database and those newly added. In this study, MALDI-TOF MS proved to be a useful tool suitable for the identification of dermatophytes for diagnostic purpose. PMID:25216335

  9. Performance of mass spectrometric identification of bacteria and yeasts routinely isolated in a clinical microbiology laboratory using MALDI-TOF MS

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Weiping; Xi, Haiyan; Huang, Mei; Wang, Jie; Fan, Ming; Chen, Yong; Shao, Haifeng

    2014-01-01

    Background Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is an emerging technology newly applied to identifying bacterial and yeast strains. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical performance of the VITEK® MS system in the identification of bacteria and yeast strains routinely isolated from clinical samples. Methods We prospectively analyzed routine MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry identification in parallel with conventional phenotypic identification of bacteria and yeasts regardless of phylum or source of isolation. Discordant results were resolved with 16S rDNA or internal transcribed spacer (ITS) gene sequencing. Colonies (a single deposit on a MALDI disposable target without any prior extraction step) were analyzed using the VITEK® MS system. Peptide spectra acquired by the system were compared with the VITEK® MS IVD database Version 2.0, and the identification scores were recorded. Results Of the 1,181 isolates (1,061 bacterial isolates and 120 yeast isolates) analyzed, 99.5% were correctly identified by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry; 95.7% identified to the species level, 3.6% identified to the genus level, and 0.3% identified within a range of species belonging to different genera. Conversely, 0.1% of isolates were misidentified and 0.4% were unidentified, partly because the species were not included in the database. Re-testing using a second deposit provided a successful identification for 0.5% of isolates unidentified with the first deposit. Our results show that the VITEK® MS system has exceptional performance in identifying bacteria and yeast by comparing acquired peptide spectra to those contained in its database. Conclusions MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry is a rapid, accurate, and relatively inexpensive method for bacterial and yeast identification. Our results demonstrate that the VITEK® MS system is a fast and reliable technique, and has the potential to replace conventional phenotypic identification for most bacterial and yeast strains routinely isolated in clinical microbiology laboratories. PMID:24822114

  10. Utility of the MALDI-TOF MS method to identify nontuberculous mycobacteria.

    PubMed

    Kodana, Masahiro; Tarumoto, Norihito; Kawamura, Tohru; Saito, Taeko; Ohno, Hideaki; Maesaki, Shigefumi; Ikebuchi, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    In comparison to the conventional real-time polymerase chain reaction method (PCR method) or the DNA-DNA hybridization method (DDH method), the utility of NTM identification by the matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) method has seldom been reported. In this study, 75 clinical NTM isolates from our hospital between April 2013 and July 2014 were identified and analyzed using PCR, DDH, and MALDI-TOF MS methods, and the results for the MALDI-TOF MS method were compared with the others. Identification at the species level was in agreement for 71 (94.5%) of the 75 isolates. For further details, identification was possible for 23 (95.8%) of 24 Mycobacterium avium, 11 (100%) of 11 Mycobacterium intracellulare, and 1 (50%) of 2 isolates mixed with M. avium and M. intracellulare. Mycobacterium ksansasii, Mycobacterium abscessus, Mycobacterium fortuitum, Mycobacterium gordonae, and Mycobacterium chelonae identified by DDH method were same result by MALDI-TOF MS. Additionally, Mycobacterium mucogenicum, which could not be identified by the DDH method, was identified by the MALDI-TOF MS method. However, two isolates identified as Mycobacterium terrae by DDH method could not be identified by the MALDI-TOF MS method and were determined to be Mycobacterium arupense by 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) sequence analysis. The present findings show that, for rare bacterial species, identification is sometimes not possible, but, in most cases, the results of identification by the MALDI-TOF MS method have a high concordance rate with the results of the PCR and DDH methods. PMID:26603481

  11. Identification of CMY-2-type cephalosporinases in clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae by MALDI-TOF MS.

    PubMed

    Papagiannitsis, C C; Kotsakis, S D; Tuma, Z; Gniadkowski, M; Miriagou, V; Hrabak, J

    2014-05-01

    This study exploited the possibility to detect Citrobacter freundii-derived CMY-2-like cephalosporinases in Enterobacteriaceae clinical isolates using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Periplasmic proteins were prepared using a modified sucrose method and analyzed by MALDI-TOF MS. A ca. 39,850-m/z peak, confirmed to represent a C. freundii-like ?-lactamase by in-gel tryptic digestion followed by MALDI-TOF/TOF MS, was observed only in CMY-producing isolates. We have also shown the potential of the assay to detect ACC- and DHA-like AmpC-type ?-lactamases. PMID:24566177

  12. Identification of CMY-2-Type Cephalosporinases in Clinical Isolates of Enterobacteriaceae by MALDI-TOF MS

    PubMed Central

    Papagiannitsis, C. C.; Kotsakis, S. D.; Tuma, Z.; Gniadkowski, M.; Miriagou, V.

    2014-01-01

    This study exploited the possibility to detect Citrobacter freundii-derived CMY-2-like cephalosporinases in Enterobacteriaceae clinical isolates using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Periplasmic proteins were prepared using a modified sucrose method and analyzed by MALDI-TOF MS. A ca. 39,850-m/z peak, confirmed to represent a C. freundii-like ?-lactamase by in-gel tryptic digestion followed by MALDI-TOF/TOF MS, was observed only in CMY-producing isolates. We have also shown the potential of the assay to detect ACC- and DHA-like AmpC-type ?-lactamases. PMID:24566177

  13. Evaluation of ice-tea quality by DART-TOF/MS.

    PubMed

    Rajchl, Aleš; Prchalová, Jana; Kružík, Vojt?ch; Šev?ík, Rudolf; ?ížková, Helena

    2015-11-01

    DART (Direct Analysis in Real Time) coupled with Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (TOF/MS) has been used for analyses of ice-teas. The article focuses on quality and authenticity of ice-teas as one of the most important tea-based products on the market. Twenty-one samples of ice-teas (black and green) were analysed. Selected compounds of ice-teas were determined: theobromine, caffeine, total phenolic compounds, total soluble solids, total amino acid concentration, preservatives and saccharides were determined. Fingerprints of DART-TOF/MS spectra were used for comprehensive assessment of the ice-tea samples. The DART-TOF/MS method was used for monitoring the following compounds: citric acid, caffeine, saccharides, artificial sweeteners (saccharin, acesulphame K), and preservatives (sorbic and benzoic acid), phosphoric acid and phenolic compounds. The measured data were subjected to a principal components analysis. The HPLC and DART-TOF/MS methods were compared in terms of determination of selected compounds (caffeine, benzoic acid, sorbic acid and saccharides) in the ice-teas. The DART-TOF/MS technique seems to be a suitable method for fast screening, testing quality and authenticity of tea-based products. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26505766

  14. Tropical Greenhouse Measurements of Volatile Organic Compounds Using Switchable Reagent Ion Proton-Transfer-Reaction Time-of-Flight Mass Spectromety (PTR-TOF-MS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veres, P.; Auld, J.; Williams, J.

    2012-04-01

    In this presentation, we will summarize the results of measurements made in an approximately 1300 m3 tropical greenhouse at the Johannes Gutenberg University botanical garden in Mainz Germany conducted over a one month period. The greenhouse is home to a large variety of plant species from hot and humid regions of the world. The greenhouse is also host to several crops such as Cocoa and Cola Nut as well as ornamental plants. A particular focus of the species maintained are those which are considered ant plants, or plants which have an intimate relationship with ants in tropical habitats. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured using a Switchable Reagent Ion Proton-Transfer-Reaction Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (PTR-TOF-MS) using H3O+, NO+, and O2+ ion chemistry. Measurements will be presented both for primary emissions observed in the closed greenhouse atmosphere as well as the oxidation products observed after the introduction of ambient ozone. The high resolving power (5000 m/?m) of the time-of-flight instrument allows for the separation of isobaric species. In particular, both isoprene (68.1170 amu) and furan (68.0740 amu) were observed and separated as primary emissions during this study. The significance of this will be discussed in terms of both atmospheric implications as well as with respect to previous measurements of isoprene obtained using quadrupole PTR-MS where isobaric separation of these compounds is not possible. Additionally observed species (e.g. Methanol, Acetaldehyde, MVK and MEK) will be discussed in detail with respect to their behavior as a function of light, temperature and relative humidity. The overall instrument performance of the PTR-TOF-MS technique using the H3O+, NO+, and O2+ primary ions for the measurement of VOCs will be evaluated.

  15. Detection of Rickettsia spp in Ticks by MALDI-TOF MS

    PubMed Central

    Yssouf, Amina; Almeras, Lionel; Terras, Jérôme; Socolovschi, Cristina; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Background Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has been shown to be an effective tool for the rapid identification of arthropods, including tick vectors of human diseases. Methodology/Principal Findings The objective of the present study was to evaluate the use of MALDI-TOF MS to identify tick species, and to determine the presence of rickettsia pathogens in the infected Ticks. Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Dermacentor marginatus Ticks infected or not by R. conorii conorii or R. slovaca, respectively, were used as experimental models. The MS profiles generated from protein extracts prepared from tick legs exhibited mass peaks that distinguished the infected and uninfected Ticks, and successfully discriminated the Rickettsia spp. A blind test was performed using Ticks that were laboratory-reared, collected in the field or removed from patients and infected or not by Rickettsia spp. A query against our in-lab arthropod MS reference database revealed that the species and infection status of all Ticks were correctly identified at the species and infection status levels. Conclusions/Significance Taken together, the present work demonstrates the utility of MALDI-TOF MS for a dual identification of tick species and intracellular bacteria. Therefore, MALDI-TOF MS is a relevant tool for the accurate detection of Rickettsia spp in Ticks for both field monitoring and entomological diagnosis. The present work offers new perspectives for the monitoring of other vector borne diseases that present public health concerns. PMID:25659152

  16. Top-down proteomic identification of protein biomarkers of food-borne pathogens using MALDI-TOF-TOF-MS/MS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter describes a step-by-step protocol and discussion of top-down proteomic identification of protein biomarkers of food-borne pathogens using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-TOF-MS/MS) and web-based software developed in the Pro...

  17. The potential of combining ion trap/MS/MS and TOF/MS for identification of emerging contaminants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ferrer, I.; Furlong, E.T.; Heine, C.E.; Thurman, E.M.

    2002-01-01

    The use of a method combining ion trap tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) and time of flight mass spectrometry (TOF/MS) for identification of emerging contaminates was discussed. The two tools together complemented each other in sensitivity, fragmentation and accurate mass determination. Liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization/ion-trap tandem mass spectrometry (LC/ESI/MS/MS), in positive ion mode of operation, was used to separate and identify specific compounds. Diagnostic fragment ions were obtained for a polyethyleneglycol(PEG) homolog by ion trap MS/MS, and fragments were measured by TOF/MS. It was observed that the combined method gave an exact mass measurement that differed from the calculated mass.

  18. Identification of metabolites of oridonin in rats with a single run on UPLC-Triple-TOF-MS/MS system based on multiple mass defect filter data acquisition and multiple data processing techniques.

    PubMed

    Tian, Tingting; Jin, Yiran; Ma, Yinghua; Xie, Weiwei; Xu, Huijun; Zhang, Kerong; Zhang, Lantong; Du, Yingfeng

    2015-12-01

    Oridonin (ORI) is an active natural ent-kaurane diterpenoid ingredient originating from well-known traditional Chinese herb medicine and is expected to be pursued as a new anticancer agent. In the present study, a novel and efficient approach was developed for in vivo screening and identification of ORI metabolites using ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with hybrid triple quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Triple-TOF-MS/MS). This analytical strategy was as follows: an effective on-line data acquisition method multiple mass defect filter (MMDF) combined with dynamic background subtraction (DBS), was developed to trace all of potential metabolites of ORI. The MMDF and DBS method could trigger an information dependent acquisition scan, which could give the information of low-level metabolites masked by background noise and endogenous components in complex matrix. Moreover, the sensitive and specific multiple data-mining techniques including extracted ion chromatography, mass defect filtering, product ion filtering and neutral loss filtering were employed to identify the metabolites of ORI. Then, structures for the metabolites were successfully assigned based on accurate masses, the mass fragmentation of ORI and metabolic knowledge. Finally, an important parameter Clog P was used to estimate the retention time of isomers. Based on the proposed strategy, 16 phase I and 2 phase II metabolites were detected in rats after oral administration of ORI. The main biotransformation route of ORI was identified as reduction, oxidation, dehydroxylation and glucuronic acid conjugation. This is the first study of ORI metabolism in vivo. This study not only proposed a practical strategy for rapidly screening and identifying metabolites, but also provided useful information for further study of the pharmacology and mechanism of ORI in vivo. At the same time this methodology can be widely applied for the structural characterization of the metabolites of other ent-kaurane diterpenoid. PMID:26528583

  19. Serum biomarker screening for the diagnosis of early gastric cancer using SELDI-TOF-MS.

    PubMed

    Li, Ping; Zhang, Dianliang; Guo, Chunbao

    2012-06-01

    In this study, we performed a proteomic analysis of sera from stage I gastric cancer patients using surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF-MS) and established a diagnostic model for the early diagnosis of stage I gastric cancer. Serum samples from 169 gastric cancer patients and 83 age- and gender-matched healthy individuals were analyzed by SELDI-TOF-MS ProteinChip array technology. The SELDI-TOF-MS spectral data were analyzed using the Biomarker Wizard™ and Biomarker Patterns™ software to find differential proteins and develop a classification tree for gastric cancer. A total of 34 mass peaks were identified. Six peaks at a mass-to-charge ratio (m/z) of 2873, 3163, 4526, 5762, 6121 and 7778 were used to construct the diagnostic model. The model effectively distinguished gastric cancer samples from control samples, achieving a sensitivity and specificity of 93.49 and 91.57%, respectively. In addition, we identified 3 of the 6 protein peaks at 2873, 6121 and 7778 m/z, which distinguished between stage I and stage II/III/IV gastric cancer. The model had an accuracy of 88.89% for the identification of stage I gastric cancer. In conclusion, the diagnostic model for the detection of serum proteins by SELDI-TOF-MS ProteinChip array technology correctly distinguishes gastric cancer from healthy samples, and has the ability to screen and distinguish between early gastric cancer from advanced gastric cancer. PMID:22427025

  20. Characterization of Dickeya and Pectobacterium species by capillary electrophoretic techniques and MALDI-TOF MS.

    PubMed

    Šalplachta, Ji?í; Kubesová, Anna; Horký, Jaroslav; Matoušková, Hana; Tesa?ová, Marie; Horká, Marie

    2015-10-01

    Dickeya and Pectobacterium species represent an important group of broad-host-range phytopathogens responsible for blackleg and soft rot diseases on numerous plants including many economically important plants. Although these species are commonly detected using cultural, serological, and molecular methods, these methods are sometimes insufficient to classify the bacteria correctly. On that account, this study was undertaken to investigate the feasibility of three individual analytical techniques, capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE), capillary isoelectric focusing (CIEF), and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), for reliable classification of Dickeya and Pectobacterium species. Forty-three strains, representing different Dickeya and Pectobacterium species, namely Dickeya dianthicola, Dickeya dadantii, Dickeya dieffenbachiae, Dickeya chrysanthemi, Dickeya zeae, Dickeya paradisiaca, Dickeya solani, Pectobacterium carotovorum, and Pectobacterium atrosepticum, were selected for this purpose. Furthermore, the selected bacteria included one strain which could not be classified using traditional microbiological methods. Characterization of the bacteria was based on different pI values (CIEF), migration velocities (CZE), or specific mass fingerprints (MALDI-TOF MS) of intact cells. All the examined strains, including the undetermined bacterium, were characterized and classified correctly into respective species. MALDI-TOF MS provided the most reliable results in this respect. PMID:26229029

  1. Assessment of MALDI-TOF MS as Alternative Tool for Streptococcus suis Identification

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Sancho, Marta; Vela, Ana Isabel; García-Seco, Teresa; Gottschalk, Marcelo; Domínguez, Lucas; Fernández-Garayzábal, José Francisco

    2015-01-01

    The accuracy of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) for identifying Streptococcus suis isolates obtained from pigs, wild animals, and humans was evaluated using a PCR-based identification assay as the gold standard. In addition, MALDI-TOF MS was compared with the commercial multi-tests Rapid ID 32 STREP system. From the 129 S. suis isolates included in the study and identified by the molecular method, only 31 isolates (24.03%) had score values ?2.300 and 79 isolates (61.24%) gave score values between 2.299 and 2.000. After updating the currently available S. suis MALDI Biotyper database with the spectra of three additional clinical isolates of serotypes 2, 7, and 9, most isolates had statistically significant higher score values (mean score: 2.65) than those obtained using the original database (mean score: 2.182). Considering the results of the present study, we suggest using a less restrictive threshold score of ?2.000 for reliable species identification of S. suis. According to this cut-off value, a total of 125 S. suis isolates (96.9%) were correctly identified using the updated database. These data indicate an excellent performance of MALDI-TOF MS for the identification of S. suis. PMID:26347858

  2. Assessment of MALDI-TOF MS as Alternative Tool for Streptococcus suis Identification.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Sancho, Marta; Vela, Ana Isabel; García-Seco, Teresa; Gottschalk, Marcelo; Domínguez, Lucas; Fernández-Garayzábal, José Francisco

    2015-01-01

    The accuracy of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) for identifying Streptococcus suis isolates obtained from pigs, wild animals, and humans was evaluated using a PCR-based identification assay as the gold standard. In addition, MALDI-TOF MS was compared with the commercial multi-tests Rapid ID 32 STREP system. From the 129 S. suis isolates included in the study and identified by the molecular method, only 31 isolates (24.03%) had score values ?2.300 and 79 isolates (61.24%) gave score values between 2.299 and 2.000. After updating the currently available S. suis MALDI Biotyper database with the spectra of three additional clinical isolates of serotypes 2, 7, and 9, most isolates had statistically significant higher score values (mean score: 2.65) than those obtained using the original database (mean score: 2.182). Considering the results of the present study, we suggest using a less restrictive threshold score of ?2.000 for reliable species identification of S. suis. According to this cut-off value, a total of 125 S. suis isolates (96.9%) were correctly identified using the updated database. These data indicate an excellent performance of MALDI-TOF MS for the identification of S. suis. PMID:26347858

  3. Rapid detection of carbapenemase activity: benefits and weaknesses of MALDI-TOF MS.

    PubMed

    Mirande, C; Canard, I; Buffet Croix Blanche, S; Charrier, J-P; van Belkum, A; Welker, M; Chatellier, S

    2015-11-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) has been introduced as an identification procedure for bacteria and fungi. The MALDI-TOF MS-based analysis of resistance to ?-lactam antibiotics has been applied to detect hydrolysis of carbapenems by different bacterial strains. However, the detection of enzymatic carbapenem degradation by MALDI-TOF MS lacks well-standardized protocols and several methods and models of interpretation using different calculations of ratio-of-peak intensities have been described in the literature. Here, we used faropenem and ertapenem hydrolysis as model compounds. In an attempt to propose a universal protocol, the hydrolysis was regularly monitored during 24 h using well-characterized bacterial strains producing different types of carbapenemases (KPC, IMP, NDM, VIM, and OXA-48). Variable responses and different timing for detectable hydrolysis, depending on the enzyme produced, were observed. KPC degrades its template antibiotics very quickly (15 min for some KPC producers) compared to other types of enzymes (more than 90 min for other enzymes). Prior bacterial lysis was shown to be of no interest in the modulation or optimization of the hydrolytic kinetics. The adequate detection of carbapenem hydrolysis would, therefore, require several MALDI-TOF MS readouts for the timely detection of rapid hydrolysis without missing slow hydrolysis. This enzymatic constraint limits the implementation of a standard protocol in routine microbiology laboratories. PMID:26337432

  4. Fusobacterium nucleatum Subspecies Identification by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization–Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Shuping; Tian, Baoyu; Wang, Xiaowei; Pincus, David H.; Welker, Martin; Gilhuley, Kathleen; Lu, Xuedong

    2015-01-01

    We explored the use of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) for identification of Fusobacterium nucleatum subspecies. MALDI-TOF MS spectra of five F. nucleatum subspecies (animalis, fusiforme, nucleatum, polymorphum, and vincentii) were analyzed and divided into four distinct clusters, including subsp. animalis, nucleatum, polymorphum, and fusiforme/vincentii. MALDI-TOF MS with the modified SARAMIS database further correctly identified 28 of 34 F. nucleatum clinical isolates to the subspecies level. PMID:25653408

  5. MALDI-TOF MS fingerprinting facilitates rapid discrimination of phylotypes I, II and III of Propionibacterium acnes.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Elisabeth; Urbán, Edit; Becker, Simone; Kostrzewa, Markus; Vörös, Andrea; Hunyadkürti, Judit; Nagy, István

    2013-04-01

    Matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is widely used today for species determination of bacteria and fungi in routine microbiological laboratories, and can also be used for subtyping of bacteria, such as Bacteroides fragilis. Propionibacterium acnes is frequently referred to as an anaerobic skin commensal of relatively low pathogenicity. In addition to its accepted pathogenic role in acne, P. acnes is now emerging as an important opportunistic pathogen in many other clinical situations, including late-stage prosthetic joint infections, osteomyelitis, endocarditis, endophthalmitis, post-neurosurgical infections and possibly prostate cancer. At the population genetic level, P. acnes can be differentiated into a number of distinct phylogroups, known as types IA1, IA2, IB, IC, II and III, which may be associated with different types of infections and clinical conditions. The aim of the present study was to evaluate MS-based typing for resolution of these genetic groups after routine identification by MALDI-TOF MS (Bruker MALDI Biotyper). The software package ClinProTools 2.2 was used to analyze the protein based mass spectra of reference strains belonging to types IA, IB, IC, II and III. Phylogroup-specific peaks and peak shifts were then identified visually. In addition, peak variations between the different types of P. acnes were investigated by using FlexAnalysis 3.3 software (Bruker). A differentiating library was created, which was used to type further 48 clinical isolates of P. acnes. Typing data obtained by MALDI-TOF MS were then compared with the results from Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST). Most of the clinical isolates (n = 19) belonged to the type IA grouping according to MALDI-TOF MS. By MLST, all isolates were identified as type IA1. Twenty-one clinical isolates belonged to the type IB cluster based on both MALDI-TOF MS and MLST typing. Eight clinical isolates were identified as type II strains by both typing methods and all the type III reference strains could be distinguished by the presence of a unique type III-specific peak (7238 Da) by the MALDI-TOF MS. Our study demonstrates that MALDI-TOF MS is a reliable and powerful tool for rapid identification and typing of P. acnes strains from the main genetic divisions of the species. PMID:23485355

  6. Metabolite Fingerprinting of Eugenia jambolana Fruit Pulp Extracts using NMR, HPLC-PDA-MS, GC-MS, MALDI-TOF-MS and ESI-MS/MS Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ram Jee; Gupta, Ramesh C; Bansal, Arvind Kumar; Singh, Inder Pal

    2015-06-01

    Eugenia jambolana, commonly known as 'jamun' or Indian blackberry, is an important source of bioactive compounds. All parts of the plant like stem bark, leaves, flower, fruit pulp and seeds are traditionally used for many diseases. Metabolite profiling in medicinally important plants is critical to resolve the problems associated with standardization and quality control. Metabolite profiling of the fruit pulp of Jamun was performed by NMR, HPLC, MS, GC-MS and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. These hyphenated techniques helped in the identification of 68 chemically-diverse metabolites of the fruit pulp. These include anthocyanins, anthocyanidins, sugars, phenolics and volatile compounds. Five extracts of fruit pulp were prepared i.e. hexane, chloroform, ethylacetate, butanol and aqueous methanolic. Twenty-five metabolites identified and quantified in the n-butanol and aqueous-methanolic extracts of ripe jamun fruit by qNMR. LC-PDA-MS and MALDI-TOF spectrometry helped in deciphering thirty-nine metabolites out of which thirteen were quantified. PMID:26197529

  7. Unsuitability of MALDI-TOF MS to discriminate Acinetobacter baumannii clones under routine experimental conditions

    PubMed Central

    Sousa, Clara; Botelho, João; Grosso, Filipa; Silva, Liliana; Lopes, João; Peixe, Luísa

    2015-01-01

    MALDI-TOF MS (matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry) is now in the forefront for routine bacterial species identification methodologies, being its value for clonality assessment controversial. In this work we evaluated the potential of MALDI-TOF MS for assisting infection control by depicting Acinetobacter baumannii clones. Mass spectra of 58 A. baumannii clinical isolates belonging to the worldwide spread lineages (ST98, ST103, ST208, and ST218) isolated in our country, were obtained and analyzed with several chemometric tools (pseudo gel views, peakfind function, and partial least squares discriminant analysis). The clonal lineages were obtained using the “Oxford” scheme, belonging ST98, ST208, and ST218 to the international clone II and ST103 to an epidemic clonal lineage (SG5). Additionally, mass spectra of a highly diverse international collection of 38 isolates belonging to 22 sequence types (STs) were obtained for further comparisons. Pseudo gel views and direct peak pattern analysis did not allow the discrimination of A. baumannii isolates belonging to ST98, ST103, ST208, or ST218. Moreover, a partial least square discriminant analysis of the mass spectra considering two spectral ranges (2–20 kDa and 4–10 kDa) revealed a poor degree of discrimination with only 64.6 and 65.8% of correct ST assignments, respectively. Also, mass spectra of the international isolates (n = 38, 22STs) revealed a very congruent peak pattern among them as well as among the four lineages included in this work. Despite the increasing interest of MALDI-TOF MS for bacterial typing at different taxonomical levels, we demonstrated, using routine experimental conditions, the unsuitability of this methodology for A. baumannii clonal discrimination. PMID:26042113

  8. Validation of LC–TOF-MS Screening for Drugs, Metabolites, and Collateral Compounds in Forensic Toxicology Specimens

    PubMed Central

    Guale, Fessessework; Shahreza, Shahriar; Walterscheid, Jeffrey P.; Chen, Hsin-Hung; Arndt, Crystal; Kelly, Anna T.; Mozayani, Ashraf

    2013-01-01

    Liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC–TOF-MS) analysis provides an expansive technique for identifying many known and unknown analytes. This study developed a screening method that utilizes automated solid-phase extraction to purify a wide array of analytes involving stimulants, benzodiazepines, opiates, muscle relaxants, hypnotics, antihistamines, antidepressants and newer synthetic “Spice/K2” cannabinoids and cathinone “bath salt” designer drugs. The extract was applied to LC–TOF-MS analysis, implementing a 13 min chromatography gradient with mobile phases of ammonium formate and methanol using positive mode electrospray. Several common drugs and metabolites can share the same mass and chemical formula among unrelated compounds, but they are structurally different. In this method, the LC–TOF-MS was able to resolve many isobaric compounds by accurate mass correlation within 15 ppm mass units and a narrow retention time interval of less than 10 s of separation. Drug recovery yields varied among spiked compounds, but resulted in overall robust area counts to deliver an average match score of 86 when compared to the retention time and mass of authentic standards. In summary, this method represents a rapid, enhanced screen for blood and urine specimens in postmortem, driving under the influence, and drug facilitated sexual assault forensic toxicology casework. PMID:23118149

  9. Determination of Curcuminoids in Curcuma longa Linn. by UPLC/Q-TOF-MS: An Application in Turmeric Cultivation.

    PubMed

    Ashraf, Kamran; Mujeeb, Mohd; Ahmad, Altaf; Ahmad, Niyaz; Amir, Mohd

    2015-09-01

    Cucuma longa Linn. (Fam-Zingiberaceae) is a valued medicinal plant contains curcuminoids (curcumin, demethoxycurcumin and bisdemethoxycurcumin) as major bioactive constituents. Previously reported analytical methods for analysis of curcuminoids were found to suffer from low resolution, lower sensitivity and longer analytical times. In this study, a rapid, sensitive, selective high-throughput ultra high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC/Q-TOF-MS) method was developed and validated for the quantification of curcuminoids with an aim to reduce analysis time and enhance efficiency. UPLC/Q-TOF-MS analysis showed large variation (1.408-5.027% w/w) of curcuminoids among different samples with respect to their occurrence of metabolite and their concentration. The results showed that Erode (south province) contains highest quantity of curcuminoids and concluded to be the superior varieties. The results obtained here could be valuable for devising strategies for cultivating this medicinal plant. PMID:25838167

  10. Mass spectrometry of nanodiamonds.

    PubMed

    Houska, Jan; Panyala, Nagender Reddy; Peña-Méndez, Eladia Maria; Havel, Josef

    2009-04-01

    Detonation nanodiamonds (NDs) were studied by time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF MS). The formation of singly charged carbon clusters, C(n) (+), with groups of clusters at n = 1-35, n approximately 160-400 and clusters with n approximately 8000 was observed. On applying either high laser energy or ultrasound, the position and intensity of the maxima change and a new group of clusters at n approximately 70-80 is formed. High carbon clusters consist of an even number of carbons while the percentage of odd-numbered clusters is quite low (< or =5-10%). On increasing the laser energy, the maximum of ionization (at n approximately 200 carbons) is shifted towards the lower m/z values. It is suggested that this is mainly due to the disaggregation of the original NDs. However, the partial destruction of NDs is also possible. The carbon clusters (n approximately 2-35) are partially hydrogenated and the average value of the hydrogenation was 10-30%. Trace impurities in NDs like Li, B, Fe, and others were detected at high laser energy. Several matrices for ionizing NDs were examined and NDs themselves can also be used as a matrix for the ionization of various organic compounds. When NDs were used as a matrix for gold nanoparticles, the formation of various gold carbides Au(m)C(n) was detected and their stoichiometry was determined. It was demonstrated that TOF MS can be used advantageously to analyze NDs, characterize their size distribution, aggregation, presence of trace impurities and surface chemistry. PMID:19280609

  11. Study on the quality of recombinant proteins using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Guo-Hua; Luo, Guo-An; Sun, Guo-Qing; Cao, Ya-Cheng; Zhu, Mimg-Sheng

    1999-01-01

    AIM: To study the possibility of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) for controlling the quality of recombinant proteins. METHODS: By using MALDI-TOF MS, the molecular weights and purity of recombinant bioactive proteins were analyzed. RESULTS: The molecular weights and purity were obtained in nine recombinant bioactive proteins, including interleukin 2, tumor necrosis factor ?, granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor, interferon ?2b, interferon ?1, erythropoietin, calmodulin and its fragment, and neuronal nitric oxide synthase were obtained. MALDI-TOF MS was also used to assay specific proteins in the mixtures and to characterize the erythropoietin tryptic digests. CONLUSION: The results showed that MALDI-TOF MS can be employed for the effective quality control of recombinant proteins. PMID:11819438

  12. Rapid separation and identification of 54 major constituents in Buyang Huanwu decoction by ultra-fast HPLC system coupled with DAD-TOF/MS.

    PubMed

    Liu, E-Hu; Qi, Lian-Wen; Peng, Yong-Bo; Cheng, Xiao-Lan; Wu, Qian; Li, Ping; Li, Chang-Yin

    2009-08-01

    Buyang Huanwu Decoction (BYHWD), is a well-known traditional Chinese preparation consisting of Radix Astragali, Radix Angelicae Sinensis, Rhizoma Ligustici Chuanxiong, Radix paeoniae Rubra, Flos Carthami, Semen Persicae and Lumbricus. An ultra-fast high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method coupled with diode array detection (DAD) and electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ESI-TOF/MS) has been developed for rapid separation and structural identification of constituents in BYHWD. Using an ultra-fast HPLC system with short columns (4.6 x 50 mm, 1.8 microm), the total analysis time for this complex prescription is less than 30 min. With various fragmentor voltages in TOF/MS, accurate mass measurements (less than 5 ppm error) for molecular ions and characteristic fragment ions could represent reliable identification criteria for these compounds. Fifty-four major constituents from BYHWD sample, including four C-glycosyl quinochalcones, four flavonoid O-glycosides, sixteen isoflavones, six monoterpene glycosides, eight saponins, four organic acids and five amino acids, were identified or tentatively characterized based on their retention times, DAD and TOF/MS data. All the compounds were further assigned in the seven individual crude drugs. In conclusion, the ultra-fast HPLC with DAD-TOF/MS is a highly useful and efficient technique to separate and identify constituents in complex matrices of herbal medicines or preparations. PMID:19353693

  13. Characterization of oligomeric polypropyleneglycol acrylate by GC, SFC and MALDI-TOF-MS.

    PubMed

    Matsunaga, Morikatsu; Matsushima, Yoshiaki; Yokoi, Hiroaki; Ohtani, Hajime; Tsuge, Shin

    2002-03-01

    Polypropyleneglycol acrylate (PGA), one of the typical acrylic oligomers manufactured industrially, was comprehensively characterized by gas chromatography (GC), supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). The homologous series of polypropyleneglycol diacrylate (DA), polypropyleneglycol monoacrylate (MA), and unreacted polypropyleneglycol (PG) were observed as Na adducts in the MALDI-MS spectra of the PGA samples. The relative intensities of these peaks reflect the distributions of the homologues, although their accurate quantification was generally difficult because of change in the ionization efficiency depending on the chemical structure and the molecular weight of the species. On the other hand, the DA and the MA homologues were observed in the chromatograms obtained by SFC in a temperature-programming mode, while the PG homologues were not detected under the given SFC conditions using UV detection. Here, the determination of the degree of polymerization of each component in the chromatograms was accomplished through SFC fractionation for the corresponding peaks, followed again by MALDI-TOF-MS measurement. Furthermore, most of the components in the PGA samples were almost completely separated in the resulting gas chromatograms, and their unequivocal assignments were made also using the retention data on the gas chromatograms of the SFC fractions. As for the quantitative analysis, the relative abundances among DA, MA and PG for lower degrees of polymerization can be easily calculated based on the observed gas chromatograms, whereas the distribution of DA and MA can be estimated from the observed SFC data even for the relatively higher molecular weight fractions, which are generally difficult to determine accurately by GC because of their lower volatility. These results demonstrated that even the complex PGA samples were able to be characterized in detail by using GC, SFC and MALDI-TOF-MS complementarily. PMID:11918185

  14. Development and evaluation of MALDI-TOF MS-based serotyping for Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Nakano, S; Matsumura, Y; Ito, Y; Fujisawa, T; Chang, B; Suga, S; Kato, K; Yunoki, T; Hotta, G; Noguchi, T; Yamamoto, M; Nagao, M; Takakura, S; Ohnishi, M; Ihara, T; Ichiyama, S

    2015-11-01

    Surveillance of Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes is important for the successful implementation of vaccination strategies to prevent the spread of invasive pneumococcal diseases. The standard method of serotyping of pneumococcal isolates is the phenotypic Neufeld test, which is cost- and labor-intensive. Recently, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has been implemented as a rapid, simple and inexpensive method for identifying species. We evaluated the performance of MALDI-TOF MS for serotyping ten major serotypes of S. pneumoniae in Japan (serotypes 3, 6B, 15A, 15C, 19A, 19 F, 23A, 24 F, 35B and 38) using the Biotyper and ClinProTools. After optimizing the settings, we validated their serotyping performance for serotypes 3, 15A and 19A using a separate set of isolates that were not used in the creation of the classification algorithms. A total of 574 isolates of S. pneumoniae collected from Japanese nationwide surveillance studies were included. Of these, 407 isolates belonged to the ten major serotypes. Biotyper and ClinProTools correctly identified 77.9 % and 84.0 %, respectively, of the ten major serotype isolates. The validation analysis included a total of 113 isolates of the serotypes 3, 15A and 19A isolates. Biotyper and ClinProTools correctly identified 85.0 % and 69.9 % of the validation cohort isolates, respectively. MALDI-TOF MS has the potential to discriminate the ten major S. pneumoniae serotypes prevalent in Japan. PMID:26282790

  15. Top-down proteomic identification of furin-cleaved alpha-subunit of Shiga toxin 2 from Escherichia coli O157:H7 using MALDI-TOF-TOF-MS/MS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A method has been developed to identify the alpha-subunit of shiga toxin 2 (alpha-Stx2) from Escherichia coli O157:H7 using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight-time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-TOF-MS/MS) and top-down proteomics using web-based software develo...

  16. Induction and identification of disulfide-intact and disulfide-reduced beta-subunit of Shiga toxin 2 from Escherichia coli O157:H7 using MALDI-TOF-TOF-MS/MS and top-down proteomics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The disulfide-intact and disulfide-reduced beta-subunit of Shiga toxin 2 (beta-Stx2) from Escherichia coli O157:H7 (strain EDL933) has been identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight-time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-TOF-MS/MS) and top-down proteomic an...

  17. Phenotypic detection of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae by use of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry and the Carba NP test.

    PubMed

    Knox, James; Jadhav, Snehal; Sevior, Danielle; Agyekum, Alex; Whipp, Margaret; Waring, Lynette; Iredell, Jonathan; Palombo, Enzo

    2014-11-01

    We compared the diagnostic accuracy of the Carba NP test with that of a straightforward matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) method for detecting carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE). Using PCR as the reference method, both tests demonstrated a sensitivity of 87% and a specificity of 100%. MALDI-TOF MS offers a potential alternative for the rapid detection of CPE in the clinical laboratory setting. PMID:25187633

  18. Phenotypic Detection of Carbapenemase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae by Use of Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization–Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry and the Carba NP Test

    PubMed Central

    Jadhav, Snehal; Sevior, Danielle; Agyekum, Alex; Whipp, Margaret; Waring, Lynette; Iredell, Jonathan; Palombo, Enzo

    2014-01-01

    We compared the diagnostic accuracy of the Carba NP test with that of a straightforward matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) method for detecting carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE). Using PCR as the reference method, both tests demonstrated a sensitivity of 87% and a specificity of 100%. MALDI-TOF MS offers a potential alternative for the rapid detection of CPE in the clinical laboratory setting. PMID:25187633

  19. Efficient Analysis of Non-Polar Environmental Contaminants by MALDI-TOF MS with Graphene as Matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jing; Dong, Xiaoli; Cheng, Jinsheng; Li, Jinghong; Wang, Yinsheng

    2011-07-01

    In this Application Note, we describe, for the first time, the rapid analysis of hydrophobic compounds present in environmental contaminants, which includes polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and estrogen, by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) with the use of graphene as matrix. MALDI-TOF MS with conventional matrix has limitations in analyzing low-polarity compounds owing to their difficulty in ionization. We demonstrate that compared with conventional matrix, graphene displays higher desorption/ionization efficiencies for PAHs, and no fragment ions are observed. The method also holds potential in quantitative analysis. In addition, the ionization signal increases with the increasing number of benzene rings in the PAHs, suggesting that graphene binds to PAHs via ?-? stacking interactions. Furthermore, graphene as adsorbent for solid-phase extraction of coronene from river water sample displays good performance with a detection limit of 10-7 M. This work provides a novel and convenient method for analyzing low-polarity environmental contaminants by MALDI-TOF MS.

  20. Development of a Direct Headspace Collection Method from Arabidopsis Seedlings Using HS-SPME-GC-TOF-MS Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kusano, Miyako; Iizuka, Yumiko; Kobayashi, Makoto; Fukushima, Atsushi; Saito, Kazuki

    2013-01-01

    Plants produce various volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which are thought to be a crucial factor in their interactions with harmful insects, plants and animals. Composition of VOCs may differ when plants are grown under different nutrient conditions, i.e., macronutrient-deficient conditions. However, in plants, relationships between macronutrient assimilation and VOC composition remain unclear. In order to identify the kinds of VOCs that can be emitted when plants are grown under various environmental conditions, we established a conventional method for VOC profiling in Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) involving headspace-solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-TOF-MS). We grew Arabidopsis seedlings in an HS vial to directly perform HS analysis. To maximize the analytical performance of VOCs, we optimized the extraction method and the analytical conditions of HP-SPME-GC-TOF-MS. Using the optimized method, we conducted VOC profiling of Arabidopsis seedlings, which were grown under two different nutrition conditions, nutrition-rich and nutrition-deficient conditions. The VOC profiles clearly showed a distinct pattern with respect to each condition. This study suggests that HS-SPME-GC-TOF-MS analysis has immense potential to detect changes in the levels of VOCs in not only Arabidopsis, but other plants grown under various environmental conditions. PMID:24957989

  1. MALDI-TOF/MS fingerprinting of triacylglycerols (TAGs) in olive oils produced in the Israeli Negev desert.

    PubMed

    Chapagain, Bishnu P; Wiesman, Zeev

    2009-02-25

    Triacylglycerols (TAGs), composed of three esterified fatty acids with an attached glycerol backbone, are the main component of vegetable oil (approximately 95%) and an important source of energy and nutrition for humans, so their compositional analysis merits extensive interest. Intact TAG composition of oil in native form is highly important, rather than the fatty acid profile itself. This paper reports the analysis of the TAG profile of olive oils produced from the six common olive cultivars grown in the Negev desert of Israel (Barnea, Souri, Arbequina, Picual, Leccino, and Koroneiki) together with the content of some additional common oil quality parameters closely associated with TAG composition and integrity. Matrix-assisted laser ionization-desorption time-of-flight/mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS) fingerprintings were employed for TAG profiling. With 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHB), MALDI-TOF/MS was able to fingerprint the intact TAG profiles in olive oils in a fast and easy manner without any derivatization. Triolein (31.53%) was found to be the main intact TAG followed by dioleoyl-palmitoyl (23.06%) and dioleoyl-linoleoyl (14.31%). MALDI-TOF/MS also enabled calculation of the main fatty acids and their compositions in a simple manner from the TAG profiles; the results are found to be very similar to conventional methods determined by GC and HPLC. Average free fatty acids and peroxide value were found to be less than 0.8% and 10 mequiv of O(2)/kg of oil, respectively, in all of the tested oils. Relatively high levels of tocopherols (av = 325 microg/kg) and phytosterols (av = 2375 mg/kg) were found. This study demonstrates MALDI-TOF/MS technology as an easy and fast methodology for TAG and fatty acid profile analysis in olive oils. Additionally, this study also shows the high levels of tocopherols and phytosterols in the olive oils produced from the common cultivars grown in the Israeli Negev desert. PMID:19199592

  2. Identification of Corynebacterium spp. isolated from bovine intramammary infections by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Juliano Leonel; Tomazi, Tiago; Barreiro, Juliana Regina; Braga, Patrícia Aparecida de Campos; Ferreira, Christina Ramires; Araújo Junior, João Pessoa; Eberlin, Marcos Nogueira; dos Santos, Marcos Veiga

    2014-09-17

    Corynebacterium species (spp.) are among the most frequently isolated pathogens associated with subclinical mastitis in dairy cows. However, simple, fast, and reliable methods for the identification of species of the genus Corynebacterium are not currently available. This study aimed to evaluate the usefulness of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization/mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) for identifying Corynebacterium spp. isolated from the mammary glands of dairy cows. Corynebacterium spp. were isolated from milk samples via microbiological culture (n=180) and were analyzed by MALDI-TOF MS and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Using MALDI-TOF MS methodology, 161 Corynebacterium spp. isolates (89.4%) were correctly identified at the species level, whereas 12 isolates (6.7%) were identified at the genus level. Most isolates that were identified at the species level with 16 S rRNA gene sequencing were identified as Corynebacterium bovis (n=156; 86.7%) were also identified as C. bovis with MALDI-TOF MS. Five Corynebacterium spp. isolates (2.8%) were not correctly identified at the species level with MALDI-TOF MS and 2 isolates (1.1%) were considered unidentified because despite having MALDI-TOF MS scores >2, only the genus level was correctly identified. Therefore, MALDI-TOF MS could serve as an alternative method for species-level diagnoses of bovine intramammary infections caused by Corynebacterium spp. PMID:25086477

  3. Identification of Bacteria Using Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kedney, Mollie G.; Strunk, Kevin B.; Giaquinto, Lisa M.; Wagner, Jennifer A.; Pollack, Sidney; Patton, Walter A.

    2007-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS or simply MALDI) has become ubiquitous in the identification and analysis of biomacromolecules. As a technique that allows for the molecular weight determination of otherwise nonvolatile molecules, MALDI has had a profound impact in the molecular…

  4. MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry of Naturally-Occurring Mixtures of Mono- and Di-rhamnolipids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has been developed for high-throughput screening of naturally-occurring mixtures of rhamnolipids from Pseudomonas spp. Mono- and di-rhamnolipids are readily distinguished by characteristic molecular adduct i...

  5. Study of CPP Mechanisms by Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Sagan, Sandrine; Bechara, Chérine; Burlina, Fabienne

    2015-01-01

    Studying the mechanisms of entry of cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) requires reliable methods to measure their cellular uptake efficiency, monitor their metabolic stability, and identify their intracellular localization. We describe here a protocol based on the direct detection of peptides by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), which allows the absolute quantification of the intact internalized species and the analysis of their intracellular degradation. This protocol can be easily applied to the simultaneous quantification of different species, for example mixtures of CPPs. PMID:26202265

  6. Direct detection of the plant pathogens Burkholderia glumae, Burkholderia gladioli pv. gladioli, and Erwinia chrysanthemi pv. zeae in infected rice seedlings using matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kajiwara, Hideyuki

    2016-01-01

    The plant pathogens Burkholderia glumae, Burkholderia gladioli pv. gladioli, and Erwinia chrysanthemi pv. zeae were directly detected in extracts from infected rice seedlings by matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). This method did not require culturing of the pathogens on artificial medium. In the MALDI-TOF MS analysis, peaks originating from bacteria were found in extracts from infected rice seedlings. The spectral peaks showed significantly high scores, in spite of minor differences in spectra. The spectral peaks originating from host plant tissues did not affect this direct MALDI-TOF MS analysis for the rapid identification of plant pathogens. PMID:26319185

  7. Mass spectrometry.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burlingame, A. L.; Johanson, G. A.

    1972-01-01

    Review of the current state of mass spectrometry, indicating its unique importance for advanced scientific research. Mass spectrometry applications in computer techniques, gas chromatography, ion cyclotron resonance, molecular fragmentation and ionization, and isotope labeling are covered. Details are given on mass spectrometry applications in bio-organic chemistry and biomedical research. As the subjects of these applications are indicated alkaloids, carbohydrates, lipids, terpenes, quinones, nucleic acid components, peptides, antibiotics, and human and animal metabolisms. Particular attention is given to the mass spectra of organo-inorganic compounds, inorganic mass spectrometry, surface phenomena such as secondary ion and electron emission, and elemental and isotope analysis. Further topics include mass spectrometry in organic geochemistry, applications in geochronology and cosmochemistry, and organic mass spectrometry.

  8. Determination of biogenic volatile organic compound fluxes from Harvard Forest using PTR-TOF-MS (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKinney, K. A.; Munger, J. W.; Liu, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Forest emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) are the largest source of reactive non-methane hydrocarbons to the atmosphere, yet studies suggest that the understanding of the nature and quantity of emitted compounds remains incomplete. Recent findings have indicated the presence of reactive BVOCs within and above forest canopies that have not been quantified previously. Here we report new measurements of BVOC emissions from and concentrations above Harvard Forest, a mixed forest in the Eastern U.S., from June 8 to September 30, 2012 using Proton Transfer Reaction Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (PTR-TOF-MS). PTR-TOF-MS represents an advance over previous quadrupole-based PTR-MS measurements in that it captures a full, high-resolution (m/?m ca. 4000) mass spectrum on every scan, resulting in positive identification of molecular formulas. In addition, scans are recorded at high time resolution (5 Hz), allowing true (non-disjunct) eddy covariance fluxes to be determined for each mass-to-charge ratio. Concentration and flux measurements were made simultaneously using a high-sensitivity quadrupole PTR-MS, and results from the two techniques are compared. Measured concentrations of most species agree to within 5%. As in past seasons, isoprene is the major BVOC emitted at Harvard Forest, reaching average midday mixing ratios of ca. 4 ppbv, and its emissions are closely tied to local temperature and light levels. Diurnal and seasonal patterns in emissions of isoprene, monoterpenes, methanol, acetone, and MEK are reported and compared with past measurements at the site. In addition, eddy covariance fluxes are calculated for all mass peaks to assess emissions of previously unidentified BVOCs from Harvard Forest.

  9. Analysis of hydraulic fracturing additives by LC/Q-TOF-MS.

    PubMed

    Ferrer, Imma; Thurman, E Michael

    2015-08-01

    The chemical additives used in fracturing fluids can be used as tracers of water contamination caused by hydraulic fracturing operations. For this purpose, a complete chemical characterization is necessary using advanced analytical techniques. Liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC/Q-TOF-MS) was used to identify chemical additives present in flowback and produced waters. Accurate mass measurements of main ions and fragments were used to characterize the major components of fracking fluids. Sodium adducts turned out to be the main molecular adduct ions detected for some additives due to oxygen-rich structures. Among the classes of chemical components analyzed by mass spectrometry include gels (guar gum), biocides (glutaraldehyde and alkyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride), and surfactants (cocamidopropyl dimethylamines, cocamidopropyl hydroxysultaines, and cocamidopropyl derivatives). The capabilities of accurate mass and MS-MS fragmentation are explored for the unequivocal identification of these compounds. A special emphasis is given to the mass spectrometry elucidation approaches used to identify a major class of hydraulic fracturing compounds, surfactants. PMID:26044738

  10. Monitoring of phosphorylated peptides by radioactive assay and matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jeong-Hun; Asai, Daisuke; Toita, Riki; Kawano, Takahito; Murata, Masaharu

    2015-11-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) is frequently used to monitor phosphorylated peptides or protein kinase activities. However, few reports have compared a radioactivity assay with MALDI-TOF-MS analysis. We analyzed the phosphorylation ratios of 23 peptide substrates for G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) with different lengths and numbers of negatively charged amino acids by MALDI-TOF-MS. We then examined the correlations between the phosphorylation ratios determined by MALDI-TOF-MS and the radioactivity levels (counts per minute, CPM) determined using a radioactive assay. Using MALDI-TOF-MS, the phosphorylation ratios were greater in the negative mode than in the positive mode. The phosphorylation ratio measured in the negative mode was strongly correlated with the CPM (r = 0.86). The number of acidic amino acids was related to the phosphorylation of peptide substrates by GRK2 (r = 0.53 and 0.46 for the phosphorylation ratio and CPM, respectively). These results suggest that MALDI-TOF-MS is an alternative to radioactive assays for monitoring phosphorylated peptides. PMID:26077716

  11. Neutral particle mass spectrometry with nanomechanical systems.

    PubMed

    Sage, Eric; Brenac, Ariel; Alava, Thomas; Morel, Robert; Dupré, Cécilia; Hanay, Mehmet Selim; Roukes, Michael L; Duraffourg, Laurent; Masselon, Christophe; Hentz, Sébastien

    2015-01-01

    Current approaches to mass spectrometry (MS) require ionization of the analytes of interest. For high-mass species, the resulting charge state distribution can be complex and difficult to interpret correctly. Here, using a setup comprising both conventional time-of-flight MS (TOF-MS) and nano-electromechanical systems-based MS (NEMS-MS) in situ, we show directly that NEMS-MS analysis is insensitive to charge state: the spectrum consists of a single peak whatever the species' charge state, making it significantly clearer than existing MS analysis. In subsequent tests, all the charged particles are electrostatically removed from the beam, and unlike TOF-MS, NEMS-MS can still measure masses. This demonstrates the possibility to measure mass spectra for neutral particles. Thus, it is possible to envisage MS-based studies of analytes that are incompatible with current ionization techniques and the way is now open for the development of cutting-edge system architectures with unique analytical capability. PMID:25753929

  12. Direct screening of herbal blends for new synthetic cannabinoids by MALDI-TOF MS.

    PubMed

    Gottardo, Rossella; Chiarini, Anna; Dal Prà, Ilaria; Seri, Catia; Rimondo, Claudia; Serpelloni, Giovanni; Armato, Ubaldo; Tagliaro, Franco

    2012-01-01

    Since 2004, a number of herbal blends containing different synthetic compounds mimicking the pharmacological activity of cannabinoids and displaying a high toxicological potential have appeared in the market. Their availability is mainly based on the so-called "e-commerce", being sold as legal alternatives to cannabis and cannabis derivatives. Although highly selective, sensitive, accurate, and quantitative methods based on GC-MS and LC-MS are available, they lack simplicity, rapidity, versatility and throughput, which are required for product monitoring. In this context, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) offers a simple and rapid operation with high throughput. Thus, the aim of the present work was to develop a MALDI-TOF MS method for the rapid qualitative direct analysis of herbal blend preparations for synthetic cannabinoids to be used as front screening of confiscated clandestine preparations. The sample preparation was limited to herbal blend leaves finely grinding in a mortar and loading onto the MALDI plate followed by addition of 2 µl of the matrix/surfactant mixture [?-cyano-4-hydroxy-cinnamic acid/cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB)]. After drying, the sample plate was introduced into the ion source for analysis. MALDI-TOF conditions were as follows: mass spectra were analyzed in the range m/z 150-550 by averaging the data from 50 laser shots and using an accelerating voltage of 20?kV. The described method was successfully applied to the screening of 31 commercial herbal blends, previously analyzed by GC-MS. Among the samples analyzed, 21 contained synthetic cannabinoids (namely JWH-018, JWH-073, JWH-081, JWH-250, JWH-210, JWH-019, and AM-694). All the results were in agreement with GC-MS, which was used as the reference technique. PMID:22282100

  13. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry applied to identifying species of insect-pathogenic fungi from the Metarhizium anisopliae complex

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has proven to be a powerful tool for taxonomic resolution of microorganisms. In this proof-of-concept study, we assessed the effectiveness of this technique to track the current gene sequence-based phylogenet...

  14. A method for quantitative analysis of an anticancer drug in human plasma with CE-ESI-TOF-MS.

    PubMed

    Elhamili, Anisa; Bergquist, Jonas

    2011-06-01

    In this study, the extraction recoveries of an anticancer drug (Imatinib) from human plasma using a common liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) method and a new strong cation exchange (SCX) solid-phase extraction (SPE) column was investigated. The extracts were analyzed with CE coupled on-line to electrospray ionization (ESI) time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS) using a monoquaternarized piperazine compound (M7C4I) for capillary coatings. Clean extracts with high and reproducible extraction recoveries ranging between 85 and 91% with % RSD values of 2.5% (n = 3) were obtained using the SCX-SPE columns. This can be compared with the recoveries obtained with the LLE method ranging between 30 and 35%. The CE-ESI-TOF-MS analysis was performed in <10 min with peak efficiencies up to 4.7 × 10? plates/m and an average % RSD for the repeatability of the migration times of the analytes of 1.9% (n = 3) using acidic buffer and adding 5% ACN to the sample. The calibration curves were linear over the range of 0-1500 ng/mL with correlation coefficient (R² ? 0.997 and % RSD values of 0.5% (n=3). The intra-day and inter-day assay variations were lower than 8%. The presented CE-ESI-TOF-MS method with the use of SCX-SPE columns yielded rapid, efficient and high extraction recoveries together with high sensitivity (LOD 5 ng/mL), selectivity and good linearity. Accordingly, the method can readily be used for accurate determination and therapeutic monitoring of the Imatinib blood levels for more effective patient treatment. In addition, it can be applied for the extraction, quantification and clinical assessments of metabolites of Imatinib and other basic pharmaceutical drug molecules in biological fluids or pharmaceutical dosage forms. PMID:21706500

  15. Experimental evaluation of the measurement of isotope ratios by time of flight mass spectrometry with laser ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vors, E.; Semerok, A.; Wagner, J.-F.

    Time of flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS) in combination with laser ablation (LA) applied for low isotope composition measurements is limited by energy and spatial dispersion of ions, spatial charge density, and some other factors. In order to reduce these factors that make the extraction of the plasma ions difficult, we used a second laser to create ions by non-isotope-selective photoionization of neutral particles. The photoionization was carried out in uranium vapor beam by the third harmonic of a pulsed Nd:YAG laser. This work presents the results of tentative experiments to estimate the characteristics of the LA-TOF-MS method with non-selective photoionization.

  16. Matrix-assisted laser desorption and ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and API 32E for identification of Cronobacter spp.: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Sha; Ratering, Stefan; Schnell, Sylvia; Wacker, Ron

    2011-12-01

    Twenty-two isolates of the family Enterobacteriaceae, with focus on Cronobacter isolated from infant formula and the environment of milk powder plants, were comparatively identified using API 32E (bioMérieux, Marcy l'Etoile, France), 16S rRNA gene sequencing (Accugenix, Newark, USA), and matrix-assisted laser desorption and ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS; Mabritec, Riehen, Switzerland and AnagnosTec, Potsdam, Germany). With API 32E, 22% of the isolates were assigned to species, 64% were assigned to a genus, and 14% could not be discriminated at any taxonomic level. Both 16S rRNA gene sequencing and MALDI-TOF MS assigned 100% of the isolates to species, but the identifications based on MALDI-TOF MS results were more discriminating and unequivocal. Our data indicate that MALDI-TOF MS provides the most rapid and unambiguous identification of Cronobacter and closely related Enterobacteriaceae isolates. PMID:22186062

  17. High Throughput Detection of Tetracycline Residues in Milk Using Graphene or Graphene Oxide as MALDI-TOF MS Matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Junyan; Liu, Yang; Gao, Mingxia; Zhang, Xiangmin

    2012-08-01

    In this work, a new pre-analysis method for tetracyclines (TCs) detection from the milk samples was established. As a good accomplishment for the existing accurate quantification strategies for TCs detection, the new pre-analysis method was demonstrated to be simple, sensitive, fast, cost effective, and high throughput, which would do a great favor to the routine quality pre-analysis of TCs from milk samples. Graphene or graphene oxide was utilized, for the first time, as a duel-platform to enrich and detect the TCs by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). All together, four TCs were chosen as models: tetracycline, oxytetracycline, demeclocycline, and chlortetracycline. Due to the excellent electronic, thermal, and mechanical properties, graphene and graphene oxide were successfully applied as matrices for MALDI-TOF MS with free background inference in low mass range. Meanwhile, graphene or graphene oxide has a large surface area and strong interaction force with the analytes. By taking the advantage of these features, TCs were effectively enriched with the limit of detection (LOD) as low as 2 nM.

  18. Rapid determination of the geographical origin of honey based on protein fingerprinting and barcoding using MALDI TOF MS.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Kliks, Michael M; Qu, Weiyue; Jun, Soojin; Shi, Gongyi; Li, Qing X

    2009-11-11

    The authentication of foods is an important aspect of quality control and food safety. Honey is one of the most natural and most popular foods in the world. A fast and reliable method to determine the geographical origin of honey was developed based on fingerprinting and barcoding of proteins in honey by using matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI TOF MS) and MALDI Biotyper 1.1 software, respectively. The protein mass spectra of 16 honey samples of known Hawaii origin were obtained and peak information was extracted to generate protein fingerprints. This information was transformed into a database library of spectral barcodes that were used for differentiation of the geographical origin of honeys based on pattern matching. The differentiation ability of the database library of barcodes was validated by comparing the results of replicate assays of 5 of the 16 honey samples of known Hawaii origin obtained directly from the producers. Validation results showed that the protein fingerprints of honeys have better comparability with those honeys in the library known to be from the same region than with those of honey samples from other regions. The protein fingerprints were used to differentiate the geographical origins of commercially purchased honey samples with labels indicating that they were produced in different countries and various states of the USA, including Hawaii. The results showed that the MALDI TOF MS Biotyper system can be a rapid, simple and practical method for determining the geographical origin of honeys sold in commerce. PMID:19886676

  19. The MR-TOF-MS isobar separator for the TITAN facility at TRIUMF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jesch, Christian; Dickel, Timo; Plaß, Wolfgang R.; Short, Devin; Ayet San Andres, Samuel; Dilling, Jens; Geissel, Hans; Greiner, Florian; Lang, Johannes; Leach, Kyle G.; Lippert, Wayne; Scheidenberger, Christoph; Yavor, Mikhail I.

    2015-05-01

    At TRIUMF's Ion Trap for Atomic and Nuclear Science (TITAN) a multiple-reflection time-of-flight mass spectrometer (MR-TOF-MS) will extend TITAN's capabilities and facilitate mass measurements and in-trap decay spectroscopy of exotic nuclei that so far have not been possible due to strong isobaric contamination. This MR-TOF-MS will also enable mass measurements of very short-lived nuclides (half-life > 1 ms) that are produced in very low quantities (a few detected ions overall). In order to allow the installation of an MR-TOF-MS in the restricted space on the platform, on which the TITAN facility is located, novel mass spectrometric methods have been developed. Transport, cooling and distribution of the ions inside the device is done using a buffer gas-filled RFQ-based ion beam switchyard. Mass selection is achieved using a dynamic retrapping technique after time-of-flight analysis in an electrostatic isochronous reflector system. Only due to the combination of these novel methods the realization of an MR-TOF-MS based isobar separator at TITAN has become possible. The device has been built, commissioned off-line and is currently under installation at TITAN.

  20. Powerful GC-TOF-MS Techniques for Screening, Identification and Quantification of Halogenated Natural Products

    PubMed Central

    S. Haglund, Peter; Löfstrand, Karin; Siek, Kevin; Asplund, Lillemor

    2013-01-01

    Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC TOFMS) and gas chromatography/high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-HRT) were used to detect and identify halogenated natural products (HNPs) in tissue homogenate, in this case brominated analytes present in a marine snail. Two classes of brominated anthropogenic compounds, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and brominated dibenzofurans, were analyzed for comparison. Following conventional preparation, the sample was analyzed using GC×GC-TOF-MS. Isotope ratio scripts were used to compile a list of putatively brominated analytes from amongst the thousands of features resolved in the two-dimensional chromatogram. The structured nature of the chromatogram was exploited to propose identifications for several classes of brominated compounds, and include additional candidates that fell marginally outside the script tolerances. The sample was subsequently analyzed by GC-HRT. The high-resolution mass spectral data confirmed many formula assignments, facilitated confident assignment of an alternate formula when an original proposal did not hold, and enabled unknown identification. Identified HNPs include hydroxylated and methoxylated PBDE analogs, polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PBDDs) and hydroxyl-PBDDs, permitting the environmental occurrence and fate of such compounds to be studied. PMID:24349937

  1. Partially oxidised organic components in urban aerosol using GCXGC-TOF/MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, J. F.; Webb, P. J.; Lewis, A. C.; Hopkins, J. R.; Smith, S.; Davy, P.

    2004-08-01

    Partially oxidised organic compounds associated with PM2.5 aerosol collected in London, England, have been analysed using direct thermal desorption coupled to comprehensive gas chromatography-time of flight mass spectrometry (GCXGC-TOF/MS). Over 10000 individual organic components were isolated from around 10µg of aerosol material in a single procedure and with no sample pre-treatment. Chemical functionalities observed using this analytical technique ranged from alkanes to poly-oxygenated species. The chemical band structures commonly used in GCXGC for group type identifications overlap for this sample type, and have required mass spectrometry as an additional level of instrument dimensionality. An investigation of oxygenated volatile organic compounds (o-VOC) contained within urban aerosol has been performed and in a typical sample around 130 o-VOCs were identified based on retention behaviour and spectral match. In excess of 100 other oxygenated species were also observed but lack of mass spectral library or pure components prevents positive identification. Many of the carbonyl species observed could be mechanistically linked to gas phase aromatic hydrocarbon oxidation and there is good agreement in terms of speciation between the urban samples analysed here and those degradation products observed in smog chamber experiments of aromatic oxidation. The presence of partially oxidised species such as linear chain aldehydes and ketones and cyclic products such as furanones suggests that species generated early in the oxidative process may undergo gas to particle partitioning despite their relatively high volatility.

  2. A SIMPLE AND RAPID MATRIX-ASSISTED LASER DESORPTION/IONIZATION TIME OF FLIGHT MASS SPECTROMETRY METHOD TO SCREEN FISH PLASMA SAMPLES FOR ESTROGEN-RESPONSIVE BIOMARKERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this study, we describe and evaluate the performance of a simple and rapid mass spectral method for screening fish plasma for estrogen-responsive biomarkers using matrix assisted laster desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) couopled with a short...

  3. Implementation of MALDI-TOF MS technology for the identification of clinical isolates of Mycobacterium spp. in mycobacterial diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Tudó, G; Monté, M R; Vergara, A; López, A; Hurtado, J C; Ferrer-Navarro, M; Vila, J; Gonzalez-Martin, J

    2015-08-01

    A total of 243 clinical isolates of the Mycobacterium genus were studied, 143 and 100 using two protocols (Protocol v2 and Protocol v3, respectively) provided by the manufacturer. The overall correlation of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) with the standard identification methods was 63.8 %. The rate of misidentification was 3.2 %, mainly affecting very close species. In Protocol v2, the correlation was 57.3 %, being greater in solid than in liquid media (71.7 % vs. 44.7 %, p?TOF MS may play a role in identifying mycobacterial species isolated from clinical samples, being faster than sequencing and hybridization-based techniques. PMID:25912272

  4. Polydopamine-coated magnetic nanoparticles for enrichment and direct detection of small molecule pollutants coupled with MALDI-TOF-MS.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yu-rong; Zhang, Xiao-le; Zeng, Tao; Cao, Dong; Zhou, Zhen; Li, Wen-hui; Niu, Hongyun; Cai, Ya-qi

    2013-02-01

    Polydopamine-coated Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticles (Fe(3)O(4)@PDA NPs) were synthesized and applied as matrix for the detection of pollutants by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). The synthesis of Fe(3)O(4)@PDA NPs was accomplished in 30 min by in situ polymerization of dopamine without any toxic reagent. Using Fe(3)O(4)@PDA NPs as matrix of MALDI-TOF, eleven small molecule pollutants (molecular weight from 251.6 to 499.3), including Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), three perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), and seven antibiotics, were successfully detected in either positive or negative reflection mode without background interference. Furthermore, the Fe(3)O(4)@PDA NPs can also enrich trace amounts of hydrophobic target, such as BaP, from solution to nanoparticles surface. Then the Fe(3)O(4)@PDA-BaP can be isolated through magnetic sedimentation step and directly spotted on the stainless steel plate for MALDI measurement. With Fe(3)O(4)@PDA NPs as adsorbent and matrix, we also realized the analysis of BaP in tap water and lake water samples. Thus, a magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE)-MALDI-TOF-MS method was established for the measurement of BaP. PMID:23301525

  5. Combined Method of Immunoaffinity Membrane Within Tubes and MALDI-TOF MS for Capturing and Analyzing Amyloid Beta.

    PubMed

    Shimazaki, Youji; Takatsu, Yoko

    2015-12-01

    Amyloid beta 1-40 peptide was specifically isolated and analyzed from human plasma spiked with amyloid beta using a combined method of biotinylated anti-amyloid beta antibody binding to membrane-immobilized avidin (immunoaffinity membrane) and matrix-assisted laser desorption /ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). A solution of 10 ?L containing 13.6 ng to 2.9 ?g of amyloid beta peptide was examined in this method. After the isolated amyloid beta peptide from the spiked human plasma containing 2.9 ?g of amyloid beta peptide was incubated in the presence of trifluoroacetic acid, fibrillization of the peptides was observed using a thioflavin T assay. Furthermore, an immunoaffinity membrane present on the inner wall of a tube (diameter 2 mm) captured the amyloid beta peptide from the spiked human plasma. Our results indicate that the combination of the immunoaffinity membrane procedure and MALDI-TOF MS can be used to capture and analyze the target antigens such as amyloid beta in micro-spaces. PMID:26384493

  6. Establishing serological classification tree model in rheumatoid arthritis using combination of MALDI-TOF-MS and magnetic beads.

    PubMed

    Yan, Zhang; Chaojun, Hu; Chuiwen, Deng; Xiaomei, Leng; Xin, Zhang; Yongzhe, Li; Fengchun, Zhang

    2015-02-01

    To establish a serological classification tree model for rheumatoid arthritis (RA), protein/peptide profiles of serum were detected by matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) combined with weak cationic exchange (WCX) from Cohort 1, including 65 patients with RA and 41 healthy controls (HC). The samples were randomly divided into a training set and a test set. Twenty-four differentially expressed peaks (P < 0.05) were identified in the training set and 4 of them, namely m/z 3,939, 5,906, 8,146, and 8,569 were chosen to set up our model. This model exhibited a sensitivity of 100.0% and a specificity of 96.0% for differentiating RA patients from HC. The test set reproduced these high levels of sensitivity and specificity, which were 100.0 and 81.2%, respectively. Cohort 2, which include 228 RA patients, was used to further verify the classification efficiency of this model. It came out that 97.4% of them were classified as RA by this model. In conclusion, MALDI-TOF-MS combined with WCX magnetic beads was a powerful method for constructing a classification tree model for RA, and the model we established was useful in recognizing RA. PMID:24292670

  7. Rapid Identification of Protein Biomarkers of E. coli O157:H7 by MALDI-TOF-TOF Mass Spectrometry and Top-Down Proteomics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have identified six protein biomarkers from two strains of E. coli O157:H7 and one non-pathogenic E. coli strain by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) time-of-flight/time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (TOF/TOF-MS/MS) and top-down proteomics. Mature, intact proteins were ext...

  8. Evaluation of automated direct sample introduction with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry for the screening analysis of dioxins of fish oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An automated direct sample introduction technique coupled to comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-time of flight mass spectrometry (DSI-GC×GC/TOF-MS) was applied for the development of a relatively fast and easy analytical screening method for 17 polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzo...

  9. Characterization of Microorganisms by MALDI Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Petersen, Catherine E.; Valentine, Nancy B.; Wahl, Karen L.

    2008-10-02

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) for characterization and analysis of microorganisms, specifically bacteria, is described here as a rapid screening tool. The objective of this technique is not comprehensive protein analysis of a microorganism but rather a rapid screening of the organism and the accessible protein pattern for characterization and distinction. This method is based on the ionization of the readily accessible and easily ionizable portion of the protein profile of an organism that is often characteristic of different bacterial species. The utility of this screening approach is yet to reach its full potential but could be applied to food safety, disease outbreak monitoring in hospitals, culture stock integrity and verification, microbial forensics or homeland security applications.

  10. HPLC-Q-TOF-MS identification of antioxidant and antihypertensive peptides recovered from cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) subproducts.

    PubMed

    García, María Concepción; Endermann, Jochan; González-García, Estefanía; Marina, María Luisa

    2015-02-11

    The processing of fruits, such as cherries, is characterized by generating a lot of waste material such as fruit stones, skins, etc. To contribute to environmental sustainability, it is necessary to recover these residues. Cherry stones contain seeds with a significant amount of proteins that are underused and undervalued. The aim of this work was to extract cherry seed proteins, to evaluate the presence of bioactive peptides, and to identify them by mass spectrometry. The digestion of cherry seed proteins was optimized, and three different enzymes were employed: Alcalase, Thermolysin, and Flavourzyme. Peptide extracts obtained by the digestion of the cherry seed protein isolate with Alcalase and Thermolysin yielded the highest antioxidant and antihypertensive capacities. Ultrafiltration of hydrolysates allowed obtaining fractions with high antioxidant and antihypertensive capabilities. HPLC-Q-TOF-MS together with bioinformatics tools enabled one to identify peptides in these fractions. PMID:25599260

  11. Identification of isomeric dicaffeoylquinic acids from Eleutherococcus senticosus using HPLC-ESI/TOF/MS and 1H-NMR methods.

    PubMed

    Tolonen, Ari; Joutsamo, Topi; Mattlla, Sampo; Kämäräinen, Terttu; Jalonen, Jorma

    2002-01-01

    Liquid chromatography-electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI/TOF/MS) and a novel NMR technique, developed to maximise the sensitivity obtained from the standard NMR spectrometer, have been applied to the identification of the phenolic constituents of Eleutherococcus senticosus. In addition, molecular modelling and dihedral bond angle calculations based on the vicinal 3JHH-coupling constants have been used in the unambiguous assignment of signals in the 1H-NMR spectra. 5'-O-Caffeoylquinic acid and three isomeric compounds, 1',5'-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid, 3',5'-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid and 4',5'-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid, have been isolated and identified from a sample. The isolation and structure determination of the latter two compounds are reported for the first time from this plant. PMID:12494749

  12. Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization–Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry: a Fundamental Shift in the Routine Practice of Clinical Microbiology

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Andrew E.; Kaleta, Erin J.; Arora, Amit

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Within the past decade, clinical microbiology laboratories experienced revolutionary changes in the way in which microorganisms are identified, moving away from slow, traditional microbial identification algorithms toward rapid molecular methods and mass spectrometry (MS). Historically, MS was clinically utilized as a high-complexity method adapted for protein-centered analysis of samples in chemistry and hematology laboratories. Today, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight (MALDI-TOF) MS is adapted for use in microbiology laboratories, where it serves as a paradigm-shifting, rapid, and robust method for accurate microbial identification. Multiple instrument platforms, marketed by well-established manufacturers, are beginning to displace automated phenotypic identification instruments and in some cases genetic sequence-based identification practices. This review summarizes the current position of MALDI-TOF MS in clinical research and in diagnostic clinical microbiology laboratories and serves as a primer to examine the “nuts and bolts” of MALDI-TOF MS, highlighting research associated with sample preparation, spectral analysis, and accuracy. Currently available MALDI-TOF MS hardware and software platforms that support the use of MALDI-TOF with direct and precultured specimens and integration of the technology into the laboratory workflow are also discussed. Finally, this review closes with a prospective view of the future of MALDI-TOF MS in the clinical microbiology laboratory to accelerate diagnosis and microbial identification to improve patient care. PMID:23824373

  13. Parallel microscope-based fluorescence, absorbance and time-of-flight mass spectrometry detection for high performance liquid chromatography and determination of glucosamine in urine.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Bo; Wang, Ling-Ling; Li, Qiong; Nie, Yu-Ting; Cheng, Shuang-Shuang; Zhang, Hui; Sun, Ren-Qiang; Wang, Yu-Jiao; Zhou, Hong-Bin

    2015-11-01

    A parallel microscope-based laser-induced fluorescence (LIF), ultraviolet-visible absorbance (UV) and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS) detection for high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was achieved and used to determine glucosamine in urines. First, a reliable and convenient LIF detection was developed based on an inverted microscope and corresponding modulations. Parallel HPLC-LIF/UV/TOF-MS detection was developed by the combination of preceding Microscope-based LIF detection and HPLC coupled with UV and TOF-MS. The proposed setup, due to its parallel scheme, was free of the influence from photo bleaching in LIF detection. Rhodamine B, glutamic acid and glucosamine have been determined to evaluate its performance. Moreover, the proposed strategy was used to determine the glucosamine in urines, and subsequent results suggested that glucosamine, which was widely used in the prevention of the bone arthritis, was metabolized to urines within 4h. Furthermore, its concentration in urines decreased to 5.4mM at 12h. Efficient glucosamine detection was achieved based on a sensitive quantification (LIF), a universal detection (UV) and structural characterizations (TOF-MS). This application indicated that the proposed strategy was sensitive, universal and versatile, and it was capable of improved analysis, especially for analytes with low concentrations in complex samples, compared with conventional HPLC-UV/TOF-MS. PMID:26452822

  14. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry: an emerging technology for microbial identification and diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Singhal, Neelja; Kumar, Manish; Kanaujia, Pawan K; Virdi, Jugsharan S

    2015-01-01

    Currently microorganisms are best identified using 16S rRNA and 18S rRNA gene sequencing. However, in recent years matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has emerged as a potential tool for microbial identification and diagnosis. During the MALDI-TOF MS process, microbes are identified using either intact cells or cell extracts. The process is rapid, sensitive, and economical in terms of both labor and costs involved. The technology has been readily imbibed by microbiologists who have reported usage of MALDI-TOF MS for a number of purposes like, microbial identification and strain typing, epidemiological studies, detection of biological warfare agents, detection of water- and food-borne pathogens, detection of antibiotic resistance and detection of blood and urinary tract pathogens etc. The limitation of the technology is that identification of new isolates is possible only if the spectral database contains peptide mass fingerprints of the type strains of specific genera/species/subspecies/strains. This review provides an overview of the status and recent applications of mass spectrometry for microbial identification. It also explores the usefulness of this exciting new technology for diagnosis of diseases caused by bacteria, viruses, and fungi. PMID:26300860

  15. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry: an emerging technology for microbial identification and diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Singhal, Neelja; Kumar, Manish; Kanaujia, Pawan K.; Virdi, Jugsharan S.

    2015-01-01

    Currently microorganisms are best identified using 16S rRNA and 18S rRNA gene sequencing. However, in recent years matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has emerged as a potential tool for microbial identification and diagnosis. During the MALDI-TOF MS process, microbes are identified using either intact cells or cell extracts. The process is rapid, sensitive, and economical in terms of both labor and costs involved. The technology has been readily imbibed by microbiologists who have reported usage of MALDI-TOF MS for a number of purposes like, microbial identification and strain typing, epidemiological studies, detection of biological warfare agents, detection of water- and food-borne pathogens, detection of antibiotic resistance and detection of blood and urinary tract pathogens etc. The limitation of the technology is that identification of new isolates is possible only if the spectral database contains peptide mass fingerprints of the type strains of specific genera/species/subspecies/strains. This review provides an overview of the status and recent applications of mass spectrometry for microbial identification. It also explores the usefulness of this exciting new technology for diagnosis of diseases caused by bacteria, viruses, and fungi. PMID:26300860

  16. Weak cation magnetic separation technology and MALDI-TOF-MS in screening serum protein markers in primary type I osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Shi, X L; Li, C W; Liang, B C; He, K H; Li, X Y

    2015-01-01

    We investigated weak cation magnetic separation technology and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) in screening serum protein markers of primary type I osteoporosis. We selected 16 postmenopausal women with osteoporosis and nine postmenopausal women as controls to find a new method for screening biomarkers and establishing a diagnostic model for primary type I osteoporosis. Serum samples were obtained from controls and patients. Serum protein was extracted with the WCX protein chip system; protein fingerprints were examined using MALDI-TOF-MS. The preprocessed and model construction data were handled by the ProteinChip system. The diagnostic models were established using a genetic arithmetic model combined with a support vector machine (SVM). The SVM model with the highest Youden index was selected. Combinations with the highest accuracy in distinguishing different groups of data were selected as potential biomarkers. From the two groups of serum proteins, 123 cumulative MS protein peaks were selected. Significant intensity differences in the protein peaks of 16 postmenopausal women with osteoporosis were screened. The difference in Youden index between the four groups of protein peaks showed that the highest peaks had mass-to-charge ratios of 8909.047, 8690.658, 13745.48, and 15114.52. A diagnosis model was established with these four markers as the candidates, and the model specificity and sensitivity were found to be 100%. Two groups of specimens in the SVM results on the scatterplot were distinguishable. We established a diagnosis model, and provided a new serological method for screening and diagnosis of osteoporosis with high sensitivity and specificity. PMID:26634492

  17. The Construction and Evaluation of Reference Spectra for the Identification of Human Pathogenic Microorganisms by MALDI-TOF MS

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Di; Ye, Changyun; Zhang, Huifang; Kan, Biao; Lu, Jingxing; Xu, Jianguo; Jiang, Xiugao; Zhao, Fei; You, Yuanhai; Yan, Xiaomei; Wang, Duochun; Hu, Yuan; Zhang, Maojun; Zhang, Jianzhong

    2014-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is an emerging technique for the rapid and high-throughput identification of microorganisms. There remains a dearth of studies in which a large number of pathogenic microorganisms from a particular country or region are utilized for systematic analyses. In this study, peptide mass reference spectra (PMRS) were constructed and evaluated from numerous human pathogens (a total of 1019 strains from 94 species), including enteric (46 species), respiratory (21 species), zoonotic (17 species), and nosocomial pathogens (10 species), using a MALDI-TOF MS Biotyper system (MBS). The PMRS for 380 strains of 52 species were new contributions to the original reference database (ORD). Compared with the ORD, the new reference database (NRD) allowed for 28.2% (from 71.5% to 99.7%) and 42.3% (from 51.3% to 93.6%) improvements in identification at the genus and species levels, respectively. Misidentification rates were 91.7% and 57.1% lower with the NRD than with the ORD for genus and species identification, respectively. Eight genera and 25 species were misidentified. For genera and species that are challenging to accurately identify, identification results must be manually determined and adjusted in accordance with the database parameters. Through augmentation, the MBS demonstrated a high identification accuracy and specificity for human pathogenic microorganisms. This study sought to provide theoretical guidance for using PMRS databases in various fields, such as clinical diagnosis and treatment, disease control, quality assurance, and food safety inspection. PMID:25181391

  18. Biogenic volatile organic compound analyses by PTR-TOF-MS: Calibration, humidity effect and reduced electric field dependency.

    PubMed

    Pang, Xiaobing

    2015-06-01

    Green leaf volatiles (GLVs) emitted by plants after stress or damage induction are a major part of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs). Proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometry (PTR-TOF-MS) is a high-resolution and sensitive technique for in situ GLV analyses, while its performance is dramatically influenced by humidity, electric field, etc. In this study the influence of gas humidity and the effect of reduced field (E/N) were examined in addition to measuring calibration curves for the GLVs. Calibration curves measured for seven of the GLVs in dry air were linear, with sensitivities ranging from 5 to 10 ncps/ppbv (normalized counts per second/parts per billion by volume). The sensitivities for most GLV analyses were found to increase by between 20% and 35% when the humidity of the sample gas was raised from 0% to 70% relative humidity (RH) at 21°C, with the exception of (E)-2-hexenol. Product ion branching ratios were also affected by humidity, with the relative abundance of the protonated molecular ions and higher mass fragment ions increasing with humidity. The effect of reduced field (E/N) on the fragmentation of GLVs was examined in the drift tube of the PTR-TOF-MS. The structurally similar GLVs are acutely susceptible to fragmentation following ionization and the fragmentation patterns are highly dependent on E/N. Overall the measured fragmentation patterns contain sufficient information to permit at least partial separation and identification of the isomeric GLVs by looking at differences in their fragmentation patterns at high and low E/N. PMID:26040746

  19. Interference free detection for small molecules: probing the Mn2+-doped effect and cysteine capped effect on the ZnS nanoparticles for coccidiostats and peptide analysis in SALDI-TOF MS.

    PubMed

    Kailasa, Suresh Kumar; Wu, Hui-Fen

    2010-05-01

    For the first time, we report the applications of Mn(2+)-doped ZnS@cysteine nanoparticles (NPs) as matrices for analysis of coccidiostats (lasalocid, monensin, salinomycin and narasin) and peptide mixtures (Met-enk, Leu-enk, HW6 and gramicidin) in surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SALDI-TOF MS). The Mn(2+)-doped ZnS@cysteine NPs have been successfully synthesized in aqueous phase and characterized by SEM, TEM and FT-IR spectroscopy. Comparison with the bare ZnS NPs, ZnS@cysteine NPs and CHCA to serve as matrices, we found that using Mn(2+)-doped ZnS@cysteine NPs as matrices offer better detection sensitivity and less background interferences for small molecule analysis. Current approach has been successfully applied for the analysis of peptide mixtures in urine samples and coccidiostats from egg samples by SALDI-TOF MS. The Mn(2+) ions doped in ZnS@cysteine NPs play a significant role for enhancing the detection sensitivity of analytes in SALDI-TOF MS. We believe that this approach is a promising tool to solve the low mass interference problems in MALDI-MS for complex mixture analysis of peptides and drugs. PMID:20419264

  20. Identification of a Variety of Staphylococcus Species by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry ?

    PubMed Central

    Dubois, Damien; Leyssene, David; Chacornac, Jean Paul; Kostrzewa, Markus; Schmit, Pierre Olivier; Talon, Régine; Bonnet, Richard; Delmas, Julien

    2010-01-01

    Whole-cell fingerprinting by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) in combination with a dedicated bioinformatic software tool (MALDI Biotyper 2.0) was used to identify 152 staphylococcal strains corresponding to 22 staphylococcal species. Spectra of the 152 isolates, previously identified at the species level using a sodA gene-based oligonucleotide array, were analyzed against the main spectra of 3,030 microorganisms. A total of 151 strains out of 152 (99.3%) were correctly identified at the species level; only one strain was identified at the genus level. The MALDI-TOF MS method revealed different clonal lineages of Staphylococcus epidermidis that were of either human or environmental origin, which suggests that the MALDI-TOF MS method could be useful in the profiling of staphylococcal strains. The topology of the dendrogram generated by the MALDI Biotyper 2.0 software from the spectra of 120 Staphylococcus reference strains (representing 36 species) was in general agreement with that inferred from the 16S rRNA gene-based analysis. Our findings indicate that the MALDI-TOF MS technology, associated with a broad-spectrum reference database, is an effective tool for the swift and reliable identification of Staphylococci. PMID:20032251

  1. Combined mass spectrometry-based metabolite profiling of different pigmented rice (Oryza sativa L.) seeds and correlation with antioxidant activities.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ga Ryun; Jung, Eun Sung; Lee, Sarah; Lim, Sun-Hyung; Ha, Sun-Hwa; Lee, Choong Hwan

    2014-01-01

    Nine varieties of pigmented rice (Oryza sativa L.) seeds that were black, red, or white were used to perform metabolite profiling by using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS) and gas chromatography (GC) TOF-MS, to measure antioxidant activities. Clear grouping patterns determined by the color of the rice seeds were identified in principle component analysis (PCA) derived from UPLC-Q-TOF-MS. Cyanidin-3-glucoside, peonidin-3-glucoside, proanthocyanidin dimer, proanthocyanidin trimer, apigenin-6-C-glugosyl-8-C-arabiboside, tricin-O-rhamnoside-O-hexoside, and lipids were identified as significantly different secondary metabolites. In PCA score plots derived from GC-TOF-MS, Jakwangdo (JKD) and Ilpoom (IP) species were discriminated from the other rice seeds by PC1 and PC2. Valine, phenylalanine, adenosine, pyruvate, nicotinic acid, succinic acid, maleic acid, malonic acid, gluconic acid, xylose, fructose, glucose, maltose, and myo-inositol were significantly different primary metabolites in JKD species, while GABA, asparagine, xylitol, and sucrose were significantly distributed in IP species. Analysis of antioxidant activities revealed that black and red rice seeds had higher activity than white rice seeds. Cyanidin-3-glucoside, peonidin-3-glucoside, proanthocyanidin dimers, proanthocyanidin trimers, and catechin were highly correlated with antioxidant activities, and were more plentiful in black and red rice seeds. These results are expected to provide valuable information that could help improve and develop rice-breeding techniques. PMID:25268721

  2. UPLC/Q-TOF MS-Based Metabolomics and qRT-PCR in Enzyme Gene Screening with Key Role in Triterpenoid Saponin Biosynthesis of Polygala tenuifolia

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhenyu; Xu, Xiaoshuang; Peng, Bing; Qin, Xuemei; Du, Guanhua

    2014-01-01

    Background The dried root of Polygala tenuifolia, named Radix Polygalae, is a well-known traditional Chinese medicine. Triterpenoid saponins are some of the most important components of Radix Polygalae extracts and are widely studied because of their valuable pharmacological properties. However, the relationship between gene expression and triterpenoid saponin biosynthesis in P. tenuifolia is unclear. Methodology/Findings In this study, ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (Q-TOF MS)-based metabolomic analysis was performed to identify and quantify the different chemical constituents of the roots, stems, leaves, and seeds of P. tenuifolia. A total of 22 marker compounds (VIP>1) were explored, and significant differences in all 7 triterpenoid saponins among the different tissues were found. We also observed an efficient reference gene GAPDH for different tissues in this plant and determined the expression level of some genes in the triterpenoid saponin biosynthetic pathway. Results showed that MVA pathway has more important functions in the triterpenoid saponin biosynthesis of P. tenuifolia. The expression levels of squalene synthase (SQS), squalene monooxygenase (SQE), and beta-amyrin synthase (?-AS) were highly correlated with the peak area intensity of triterpenoid saponins compared with data from UPLC/Q-TOF MS-based metabolomic analysis. Conclusions/Significance This finding suggested that a combination of UPLC/Q-TOF MS-based metabolomics and gene expression analysis can effectively elucidate the mechanism of triterpenoid saponin biosynthesis and can provide useful information on gene discovery. These findings can serve as a reference for using the overexpression of genes encoding for SQS, SQE, and/or ?-AS to increase the triterpenoid saponin production of P. tenuifolia. PMID:25148032

  3. Chemical derivatization combined with capillary LC or MALDI-TOF MS for trace determination of lipoic acid in cosmetics and integrated protein expression profiling in human keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Chia-Ju; Lin, Ying-Chi; Chen, Yen-Ling; Feng, Chia-Hsien

    2014-12-01

    Lipoic acid (LA) is an essential cofactor in mitochondrial enzymes and an ideal antioxidant in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Capillary liquid chromatography coupled with ultraviolet detection (CapLC-UV) and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) are two environmentally friendly methods for determining LA. In this study, a pre-column microwave-assisted derivatization with 4-bromomethyl-6,7-dimethoxycoumarin enhanced the UV absorbance of LA and was monitored at 345 nm by CapLC-UV. Gradient separation was performed using a reversed-phase C18 column with a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile-0.1% formic acid solution. The ionization of LA was increased, and the LA derivative was detected by MALDI-TOF MS at m/z 683 with an ?-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid matrix. The linear response ranged from 0.1 to 40 ?M with a correlation coefficient of 0.999. The CapLC-UV and MALDI-TOF MS had detection limits of 5 and 4 fmol, respectively. These methods effectively detected LA in dietary supplements and cosmetics. Cellular proteomes of a human keratinocyte cell line (HaCaT) irradiated with UV radiation were also compared with and without LA treatment. The cellular proteomes were identified by nanoultra performance LC with LTQ Orbitrap system after trypsin digestion. Protein identification was performed by simultaneous peptide sequencing and MASCOT search. The analysis revealed changes in several proteins, including CDC42, TPI1, HNRPA2B1, PRDX1, PTGES3 and MYL6. PMID:25159420

  4. Top-down proteomic identification of Shiga toxin 2 subtypes from Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Tandem Time of Flight mass spectrometry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have analyzed 26 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains for Shiga toxin 2 (Stx2) production using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight-time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-TOF-MS/MS) and top-down proteomic analysis. STEC strains were induced to ...

  5. Collagen-based proteinaceous binder-pigment interaction study under UV ageing conditions by MALDI-TOF-MS and principal component analysis.

    PubMed

    Romero-Pastor, Julia; Navas, Natalia; Kuckova, Stepanka; Rodríguez-Navarro, Alejandro; Cardell, Carolina

    2012-03-01

    This study focuses on acquiring information on the degradation process of proteinaceous binders due to ultra violet (UV) radiation and possible interactions owing to the presence of historical mineral pigments. With this aim, three different paint model samples were prepared according to medieval recipes, using rabbit glue as proteinaceus binders. One of these model samples contained only the binder, and the other two were prepared by mixing each of the pigments (cinnabar or azurite) with the binder (glue tempera model samples). The model samples were studied by applying Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to their mass spectra obtained with Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). The complementary use of Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy to study conformational changes of secondary structure of the proteinaceous binder is also proposed. Ageing effects on the model samples after up to 3000?h of UV irradiation were periodically analyzed by the proposed approach. PCA on MS data proved capable of identifying significant changes in the model samples, and the results suggested different aging behavior based on the pigment present. This research represents the first attempt to use this approach (PCA on MALDI-TOF-MS data) in the field of Cultural Heritage and demonstrates the potential benefits in the study of proteinaceous artistic materials for purposes of conservation and restoration. PMID:22431458

  6. Effects of berberine and pomegranate seed oil on plasma phospholipid metabolites associated with risks of type 2 diabetes mellitus by U-HPLC/Q-TOF-MS.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xia; Li, Yan; Wang, Qiu; Li, Weimin; Feng, Yifan

    2015-12-15

    A rapid and reliable ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization/quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (U-HPLC/Q-TOF-MS) has been firstly used to analyze the changes of plasma phospholipids, in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) mice after administration of berberine and pomegranate seed oil (PSO). The separation of plasma phospholipids was carried out on an Acquity U-HPLC BEH C18 column (2.1mm×50mm, 1.7?m, Waters) by linear gradient elution using a mobile phase consisting of 10mM ammonium formate in water and acetonitrile: isopropanol (1:1, v/v) mixed solution added by 0.25% water and 10mM ammonium formate. The method demonstrated a good precision and reproducibility. Linear regression analysis showed a good linearity. And potential biomarkers were discovered based on their mass spectra and chemometrics methods. The results demonstrated that the proposed U-HPLC/Q-TOF-MS method was successfully applied to analyze the dynamic changes of phospholipids components in plasma of T2DM mice after drug treatment and could provide a useful data base for meriting further study in humans and investigating pharmacological actions of drugs. PMID:26590882

  7. Confirmation of fenthion metabolites in oranges by IT-MS and QqTOF-MS.

    PubMed

    Picó, Yolanda; Farré, Marinella; Soler, Carla; Barceló, Damià

    2007-12-15

    Identification of degradation products of the organophophorous pesticide fenthion formed in two orange varieties, Valencia Navel and Navel Late, under field conditions has been assessed using liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry and ion trap mass spectrometry. The structural elucidation of the metabolites was accomplished by the accurate mass measurements provided by the quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer in MS and MS/MS modes. This instrument achieved elemental composition diagnosis for the precursor and product ions with absolute mass error of <5 ppm, which unambiguously establishes the identity of the metabolites even at low concentration. The presence of these compounds was also confirmed by electrospray ionization-ion trap mass spectrometry, performing successive fragmentation steps (MS(n)). Once identified, each molecule was confirmed by comparison with its analytical standard, also used to explore the quantitative capabilities of both mass analyzers. The extraction method was evaluated because it predetermines the metabolites that can be found (e.g., according to their polarity). Recoveries ranged from 70% for fenoxon sulfoxide (the most polar) to 101% for fenthion (the most apolar), which also indicates the method's facility to extract other more polar metabolites if present. Satisfactory linear range (r > 0.99) of more than 2 orders of magnitude was obtained with both analyzers for standards prepared in methanol and in untreated orange extracts. However, the matrix-matched standards showed suppression of the mass signal due to the matrix effect, especially for fenoxon sulfoxide and sulfone. The limits of quantification ranged from 0.005 to 0.015 mg/kg. The QqTOF-MS provided better quantification limits for fenthion and its sulfoxide and sulfone than the IT-MS. The resulting fenthion degration curves in oranges indicated that it was mainly degraded by sunlight photolysis to its sulfoxide and sulfone. However, hydrolysis was also observed by the appearance of fenoxon, fenoxon sulfoxide, and fenoxon sulfone, but always in low concentrations, which can be related to the rain events. PMID:18020315

  8. Development and validation of an in-house database for matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry-based yeast identification using a fast protein extraction procedure.

    PubMed

    De Carolis, Elena; Vella, Antonietta; Vaccaro, Luisa; Torelli, Riccardo; Posteraro, Patrizia; Ricciardi, Walter; Sanguinetti, Maurizio; Posteraro, Brunella

    2014-05-01

    In recent studies evaluating the usefulness of the matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS)-based identification of yeasts for the routine diagnosis of fungal infections, preanalytical sample processing has emerged as a critical step for reliable MALDI-TOF MS outcomes, especially when the Bruker Daltonics Biotyper software was used. In addition, inadequate results often occurred due to discrepancies between the methods used for clinical testing and database construction. Therefore, we created an in-house MALDI-TOF MS library using the spectra from 156 reference and clinical yeast isolates (48 species in 11 genera), which were generated with a fast sample preparation procedure. After a retrospective validation study, our database was evaluated on 4,232 yeasts routinely isolated during a 6-month period and fast prepared for MALDI-TOF MS analysis. Thus, 4,209 (99.5%) of the isolates were successfully identified to the species level (with scores of ?2.0), with 1,676 (39.6%) having scores of >2.3. For the remaining 23 (0.5%) isolates, no reliable identification (with scores of <1.7) was obtained. Interestingly, these isolates were almost always from species uniquely represented or not included in the database. As the MALDI-TOF MS results were, except for 23 isolates, validated without additional phenotypic or molecular tests, our proposed strategy can enhance the rapidity and accuracy of MALDI-TOF MS in identifying medically important yeast species. However, while continuous updating of our database will be necessary to enrich it with more strains/species of new and emerging yeasts, the present in-house MALDI-TOF MS library can be made publicly available for future multicenter studies. PMID:24554755

  9. Derivatization of organophosphorus nerve agent degradation products for gas chromatography with ICPMS and TOF-MS detection.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Douglas D; Caruso, Joseph A

    2007-06-01

    Separation and detection of seven V-type (venomous) and G-type (German) organophosphorus nerve agent degradation products by gas chromatography with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (GC-ICPMS) is described. The nonvolatile alkyl phosphonic acid degradation products of interest included ethyl methylphosphonic acid (EMPA, VX acid), isopropyl methylphosphonic acid (IMPA, GB acid), ethyl hydrogen dimethylamidophosphate sodium salt (EDPA, GA acid), isobutyl hydrogen methylphosphonate (IBMPA, RVX acid), as well as pinacolyl methylphosphonic acid (PMPA), methylphosphonic acid (MPA), and cyclohexyl methylphosphonic acid (CMPA, GF acid). N-(tert-Butyldimethylsilyl)-N-methyltrifluroacetamide with 1% TBDMSCl was utilized to form the volatile TBDMS derivatives of the nerve agent degradation products for separation by GC. Exact mass confirmation of the formation of six of the TBDMS derivatives was obtained by GC-time of flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS). The method developed here allowed for the separation and detection of all seven TBDMS derivatives as well as phosphate in less than ten minutes. Detection limits for the developed method were less than 5 pg with retention times and peak area precisions of less than 0.01 and 6%, respectively. This method was successfully applied to river water and soil matrices. To date this is the first work describing the analysis of chemical warfare agent (CWA) degradation products by GC-ICPMS. PMID:17356819

  10. Establishing Drug Resistance in Microorganisms by Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demirev, Plamen A.; Hagan, Nathan S.; Antoine, Miquel D.; Lin, Jeffrey S.; Feldman, Andrew B.

    2013-08-01

    A rapid method to determine drug resistance in bacteria based on mass spectrometry is presented. In it, a mass spectrum of an intact microorganism grown in drug-containing stable isotope-labeled media is compared with a mass spectrum of the intact microorganism grown in non-labeled media without the drug present. Drug resistance is determined by predicting characteristic mass shifts of one or more microorganism biomarkers using bioinformatics algorithms. Observing such characteristic mass shifts indicates that the microorganism is viable even in the presence of the drug, thus incorporating the isotopic label into characteristic biomarker molecules. The performance of the method is illustrated on the example of intact E. coli, grown in control (unlabeled) and 13C-labeled media, and analyzed by MALDI TOF MS. Algorithms for data analysis are presented as well.

  11. Identification of novel autophagic Radix Polygalae fraction by cell membrane chromatography and UHPLC-(Q)TOF-MS for degradation of neurodegenerative disease proteins

    PubMed Central

    Wu, An-Guo; Kam-Wai Wong, Vincent; Zeng, Wu; Liu, Liang; Yuen-Kwan Law, Betty

    2015-01-01

    With its traditional use in relieving insomnia and anxiety, our previous study has identified onjisaponin B from Radix Polygalae (RP), as a novel autophagic enhancer with potential neuroprotective effects. In current study, we have further identified a novel active fraction from RP, contains 17 major triterpenoid saponins including the onjisaponin B, by the combinational use of cell membrane chromatography (CMC) and ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to (quadrupole) time-of-flight mass spectrometry {UHPLC-(Q)TOF-MS}. By exhibiting more potent autophagic effect in cells, the active fraction enhances the clearance of mutant huntingtin, and reduces protein level and aggregation of ?-synuclein in a higher extent when compared with onjisaponin B. Here, we have reported for the first time the new application of cell-based CMC and UHPLC-(Q)TOF-MS analysis in identifying new autophagy inducers with neuroprotective effects from Chinese medicinal herb. This result has provided novel insights into the possible pharmacological actions of the active components present in the newly identified active fraction of RP, which may help to improve the efficacy of the traditional way of prescribing RP, and also provide new standard for the quality control of decoction of RP or its medicinal products in the future. PMID:26598009

  12. Development of aptamer-conjugated magnetic graphene/gold nanoparticle hybrid nanocomposites for specific enrichment and rapid analysis of thrombin by MALDI-TOF MS.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Ya; Deng, Chunhui; Zhang, Xiangmin

    2014-11-01

    Simple, rapid and sensitive analysis of thrombin (a tumor biomarker) in complex samples is quite clinical relevant and essential for the development of disease diagnosis and pharmacotherapy. Herein, we developed a novel method based on aptamer-conjugated magnetic graphene/gold nanoparticles nanocomposites (MagG@Au) for specific enrichment and rapid analysis of thrombin in biological samples using MALDI-TOF-MS. At first, gold nanoparticles were compactly deposited on PDDA functionalized magnetic graphene through electrostatic interaction. Afterwards, aptamer was easily conjugated to gold nanoparticles via Au-S bond formation. The as-made aptamer-conjugated nanocomposites took advantage of the magnetism of magnetic graphene, the high affinity and specificity of aptamer, facilitating a high-efficient separation and enrichment of thrombin. More importantly, due to the large surface area of the hybrid substrate, the average coverage density of aptamer achieved 0.34 nmol/mg, which enhanced the thrombin binding capacity and the recovery of thrombin in real samples. In turn, the enriched thrombin attributed to the sensitive output of MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry signal, 0.085 ng ?L(-1) (2.36 nM) thrombin could be detected. This proposed method has a relatively wide linear relation ranging from 0.1 ng ?L(-1) to 10 ng ?L(-1), and satisfactory specificity. The proposed high-throughput method based on MALDI-TOF MS is expected to the application in the disease biomarker detection and clinical diagnosis. PMID:25127596

  13. Antioxidant activity of leaf extracts from different Hibiscus sabdariffa accessions and simultaneous determination five major antioxidant compounds by LC-Q-TOF-MS.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jin; Cao, Xianshuang; Jiang, Hao; Qi, Yadong; Chin, Kit L; Yue, Yongde

    2014-01-01

    Hibiscus sabdariffa has gained attention for its antioxidant activity. There are many accessions of H. sabdariffa in the world. However, information on the quantification of antioxidant compounds in different accessions is rather limited. In this paper, a liquid chromatography/quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-Q-TOF-MS) method for simultaneous determination of five antioxidant compounds (neochlorogenic acid, chlorogenic acid, cryptochlorogenic acid, rutin, and isoquercitrin) in H. sabdariffa leaves was developed. The method was validated for linearity, sensitivity, precision, repeatability and accuracy. The validated method has been successfully applied for determination of the five analytes in eight accessions of H. sabdariffa. The eight accessions of H. sabdariffa were evaluated for their antioxidant activities by DPPH free radical scavenging assay. The investigated accessions of H. sabdariffa were rich in rutin and exhibited strong antioxidant activity. The two accessions showing the highest antioxidant activities were from Cuba (No. 2) and Taiwan (No. 5). The results indicated that H. sabdariffa leaves could be considered as a potential antioxidant source for the food industry. The developed LC-Q-TOF-MS method is helpful for quality control of H. sabdariffa. PMID:25525823

  14. HPLC/Q-TOF-MS-Based Identification of Absorbed Constituents and Their Metabolites in Rat Serum and Urine after Oral Administration of Cistanche deserticola Extract.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen-Lan; Sun, Xiang-Ming; Song, Hui; Ding, Jing-Xin; Bai, Jing; Chen, Qiang

    2015-09-01

    As a famous health food in China, Cistanche deserticola (C. deserticola) suggested an estrogenic activity according to our previous study. However, no one clarifies its active material basis to date. To find more potentially active constituents and elucidate metabolic pathways of metabolites, a method to simultaneously analyze multiple absorbed constituents and metabolites from C. deserticola in rat serum and urine was established using high-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC/Q-TOF-MS). Based on HPLC/Q-TOF-MS method, a total of 24 components, involving 9 prototype constituents and 15 metabolites in rat serum and urine samples, were tentatively identified based on retention time, ultraviolet spectrum, MS data, compound fragmentation laws, published literatures, and reference substances. Most of the compounds existed in the form of metabolites. The proposed metabolic pathways of main metabolites were discussed, including methylation, demethylation, hydrolysis, hydroxylation, acetoxylation, glucuronidation, dehydrogenation, sulfation, esterification, and so on. Phenylethanoid glycosides were extensively metabolized and mutually transformed in vivo. This investigation provided valuable information for further study of the active ingredients and action mechanism of C. deserticola. PMID:26243042

  15. Identification of novel autophagic Radix Polygalae fraction by cell membrane chromatography and UHPLC-(Q)TOF-MS for degradation of neurodegenerative disease proteins.

    PubMed

    Wu, An-Guo; Kam-Wai Wong, Vincent; Zeng, Wu; Liu, Liang; Yuen-Kwan Law, Betty

    2015-01-01

    With its traditional use in relieving insomnia and anxiety, our previous study has identified onjisaponin B from Radix Polygalae (RP), as a novel autophagic enhancer with potential neuroprotective effects. In current study, we have further identified a novel active fraction from RP, contains 17 major triterpenoid saponins including the onjisaponin B, by the combinational use of cell membrane chromatography (CMC) and ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to (quadrupole) time-of-flight mass spectrometry {UHPLC-(Q)TOF-MS}. By exhibiting more potent autophagic effect in cells, the active fraction enhances the clearance of mutant huntingtin, and reduces protein level and aggregation of ?-synuclein in a higher extent when compared with onjisaponin B. Here, we have reported for the first time the new application of cell-based CMC and UHPLC-(Q)TOF-MS analysis in identifying new autophagy inducers with neuroprotective effects from Chinese medicinal herb. This result has provided novel insights into the possible pharmacological actions of the active components present in the newly identified active fraction of RP, which may help to improve the efficacy of the traditional way of prescribing RP, and also provide new standard for the quality control of decoction of RP or its medicinal products in the future. PMID:26598009

  16. Comparative investigation of low-molecular-weight fulvic acids of different origin by SEC-Q-TOF-ms: new insights into structure and formation.

    PubMed

    Reemtsma, Thorsten; These, Anja

    2005-05-15

    Size exclusion chromatography (SEC) coupled to electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ESI-Q-TOF-MS) was used to analyze the elemental composition and structure of low-molecular-weight fulvic acid molecules. It is shown that the set of hundreds of individual molecules form a homogeneous and structurally unique class of compounds that can be clearly differentiated from any other class of biogenic matter investigated to date. The molecular composition of low-molecular-weight fulvic acids in isolates of very different origin (surface water, groundwater, peat) is virtually indistinguishable. Significant and characteristic differences are, however, recognized when qualitative information and quantitative information provided by ESI-Q-TOF-MS are linked to each other. The relative frequency of the various molecules in each mixture can differ significantly, with the peat showing higher intensity of the aromatic and less carboxylated molecules of this set, whereas the aquatic fulvic acids show a strong contribution of the molecules with less aromaticity and a higher carboxylate content. The identity of fulvic acid molecules in isolates of different origin implies that no specific source material is required forfulvic acid formation but that they may be formed from different sources by different oxidative processes. PMID:15952353

  17. Strain-level bacterial identification by CeO2-catalyzed MALDI-TOF MS fatty acid analysis and comparison to commercial protein-based methods

    PubMed Central

    Cox, C. R.; Jensen, K. R.; Saichek, N. R.; Voorhees, K. J.

    2015-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has emerged as a rapid approach for clinical bacterial identification. However, current protein-based commercial bacterial ID methods fall short when differentiating closely related species/strains. To address this shortcoming, we employed CeO2-catalyzed fragmentation of lipids to produce fatty acids using the energy inherent to the MALDI laser as a novel alternative to protein profiling. Fatty acid profiles collected from Enterobacteriaceae, Acinetobacter, and Listeria using CeO2-catalyzed metal oxide laser ionization (MOLI MS), processed by principal component analysis, and validated by leave–one-out cross-validation (CV), showed 100% correct classification at the species level and 98% at the strain level. In comparison, protein profile data from the same bacteria yielded 32%, 54% and 67% mean species-level accuracy using two MALDI-TOF MS platforms, respectively. In addition, several pathogens were misidentified by protein profiling as non-pathogens and vice versa. These results suggest novel CeO2-catalyzed lipid fragmentation readily produced (i) taxonomically tractable fatty acid profiles by MOLI MS, (ii) highly accurate bacterial classification and (iii) consistent strain-level ID for bacteria that were routinely misidentified by protein-based methods. PMID:26190224

  18. Characterization of the microheterogeneity of transthyretin in plasma and urine using SELDI-TOF-MS immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Schweigert, Florian J; Wirth, Kerstin; Raila, Jens

    2004-09-01

    BACKGROUND: It has been shown that transthyretin (TTR) exists in different molecular variants. Besides point mutations associated with different diseases such as amyloidosis, other posttranslational modifications occur that might be of diagnostic interest. RESULTS: TTR levels as determined by ELISA in plasma and urine of healthy individuals were 489 +/- 155 microg/ml plasma and 46 +/- 24 ng/g creatinine, respectively. Average levels in urine of pregnant women were 45 +/- 65 microg/g creatinine. The molecular heterogeneity of TTR was analyzed using a high-throughput mass spectrometric immunoassay system. TTR was extracted from plasma or urine onto an antibody-coated (via protein A) affinity chip surface (PS20) using the surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization (SELDI) technique. Subsequently samples were subjected to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS). In healthy individuals, TTR in plasma occurred rather consistently in two variants of 13732 +/- 12 and 13851 +/- 9 Da for the native and S-cysteinylated forms and at a smaller signal of 14043 +/- 17 Da for the S-glutathionylated form. In urine of pregnant women, various signals were observed with a dominant signal at 13736 +/- 10 Da and a varying number of smaller immunoreactive fragments. These fragments are possibly the consequence of metabolism in plasma or kidney. CONCLUSION: This chip-based approach represents a rapid and accurate method to characterize the molecular variants of TTR including protein or peptide fragments which are either related to TTR or have resulted from its catabolism. These molecular variants may be of diagnostic importance as alternative or novel biomarkers due to their predominant relation to the TTR metabolism both in healthy and diseased individuals. PMID:15341658

  19. Characterization of the microheterogeneity of transthyretin in plasma and urine using SELDI-TOF-MS immunoassay

    PubMed Central

    Schweigert, Florian J; Wirth, Kerstin; Raila, Jens

    2004-01-01

    Background It has been shown that transthyretin (TTR) exists in different molecular variants. Besides point mutations associated with different diseases such as amyloidosis, other posttranslational modifications occur that might be of diagnostic interest. Results TTR levels as determined by ELISA in plasma and urine of healthy individuals were 489 ± 155 ?g/ml plasma and 46 ± 24 ng/g creatinine, respectively. Average levels in urine of pregnant women were 45 ± 65 ?g/g creatinine. The molecular heterogeneity of TTR was analyzed using a high-throughput mass spectrometric immunoassay system. TTR was extracted from plasma or urine onto an antibody-coated (via protein A) affinity chip surface (PS20) using the surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization (SELDI) technique. Subsequently samples were subjected to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS). In healthy individuals, TTR in plasma occurred rather consistently in two variants of 13732 ± 12 and 13851 ± 9 Da for the native and S-cysteinylated forms and at a smaller signal of 14043 ± 17 Da for the S-glutathionylated form. In urine of pregnant women, various signals were observed with a dominant signal at 13736 ± 10 Da and a varying number of smaller immunoreactive fragments. These fragments are possibly the consequence of metabolism in plasma or kidney. Conclusion This chip-based approach represents a rapid and accurate method to characterize the molecular variants of TTR including protein or peptide fragments which are either related to TTR or have resulted from its catabolism. These molecular variants may be of diagnostic importance as alternative or novel biomarkers due to their predominant relation to the TTR metabolism both in healthy and diseased individuals. PMID:15341658

  20. Quantification of sterol lipids in plants by quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Wewer, Vera; Dombrink, Isabel; vom Dorp, Katharina; Dörmann, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Glycerolipids, sphingolipids, and sterol lipids constitute the major lipid classes in plants. Sterol lipids are composed of free and conjugated sterols, i.e., sterol esters, sterol glycosides, and acylated sterol glycosides. Sterol lipids play crucial roles during adaption to abiotic stresses and plant-pathogen interactions. Presently, no comprehensive method for sterol lipid quantification in plants is available. We used nanospray ionization quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (Q-TOF MS) to resolve and identify the molecular species of all four sterol lipid classes from Arabidopsis thaliana. Free sterols were derivatized with chlorobetainyl chloride. Sterol esters, sterol glycosides, and acylated sterol glycosides were ionized as ammonium adducts. Quantification of molecular species was achieved in the positive mode after fragmentation in the presence of internal standards. The amounts of sterol lipids quantified by Q-TOF MS/MS were validated by comparison with results obtained with TLC/GC. Quantification of sterol lipids from leaves and roots of phosphate-deprived A. thaliana plants revealed changes in the amounts and molecular species composition. The Q-TOF method is far more sensitive than GC or HPLC. Therefore, Q-TOF MS/MS provides a comprehensive strategy for sterol lipid quantification that can be adapted to other tandem mass spectrometers. PMID:21382968

  1. Liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry characterization of metabolites guided by the METLIN database.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zheng-Jiang; Schultz, Andrew W; Wang, Junhua; Johnson, Caroline H; Yannone, Steven M; Patti, Gary J; Siuzdak, Gary

    2013-03-01

    Untargeted metabolomics provides a comprehensive platform for identifying metabolites whose levels are altered between two or more populations. By using liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-Q-TOF-MS), hundreds to thousands of peaks with a unique m/z ratio and retention time are routinely detected from most biological samples in an untargeted profiling experiment. Each peak, termed a metabolomic feature, can be characterized on the basis of its accurate mass, retention time and tandem mass spectral fragmentation pattern. Here a seven-step protocol is suggested for such a characterization by using the METLIN metabolite database. The protocol starts from untargeted metabolomic LC-Q-TOF-MS data that have been analyzed with the bioinformatics program XCMS, and it describes a strategy for selecting interesting features as well as performing subsequent targeted tandem MS. The seven steps described will require 2-4 h to complete per feature, depending on the compound. PMID:23391889

  2. Rapid identification of haloarchaea and methanoarchaea using the matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Shih, Chao-Jen; Chen, Sheng-Chung; Weng, Chieh-Yin; Lai, Mei-Chin; Yang, Yu-Liang

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to classify certain environmental haloarchaea and methanoarchaea using matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), and to expand the archaeal mass spectral database. A total of 69 archaea were collected including type strains and samples isolated locally from different environments. For extraction of the haloarchaeal total cell peptides/proteins, a simple method of acetonitrile extraction was developed. Cluster analysis conducted with the MALDI-TOF MS data overcame the high divergence in intragenomic 16S rRNA sequences in haloarchaea and clearly distinguished Methanohalophilus mahii from M. portucalensis. Putative biomarkers that can distinguish several particular archaeal genera were also assigned. In conclusion, this study expands the mass spectral database of peptide/protein fingerprints from bacteria and fungi to the archaea domain and provides a rapid identification platform for environmental archaeal samples. PMID:26541644

  3. Rapid identification of haloarchaea and methanoarchaea using the matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Shih, Chao-Jen; Chen, Sheng-Chung; Weng, Chieh-Yin; Lai, Mei-Chin; Yang, Yu-Liang

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to classify certain environmental haloarchaea and methanoarchaea using matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), and to expand the archaeal mass spectral database. A total of 69 archaea were collected including type strains and samples isolated locally from different environments. For extraction of the haloarchaeal total cell peptides/proteins, a simple method of acetonitrile extraction was developed. Cluster analysis conducted with the MALDI-TOF MS data overcame the high divergence in intragenomic 16S rRNA sequences in haloarchaea and clearly distinguished Methanohalophilus mahii from M. portucalensis. Putative biomarkers that can distinguish several particular archaeal genera were also assigned. In conclusion, this study expands the mass spectral database of peptide/protein fingerprints from bacteria and fungi to the archaea domain and provides a rapid identification platform for environmental archaeal samples. PMID:26541644

  4. The power of hyphenated chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry in public health laboratories.

    PubMed

    Ibáñez, María; Portolés, Tania; Rúbies, Antoni; Muñoz, Eva; Muñoz, Gloria; Pineda, Laura; Serrahima, Eulalia; Sancho, Juan V; Centrich, Francesc; Hernández, Félix

    2012-05-30

    Laboratories devoted to the public health field have to face the analysis of a large number of organic contaminants/residues in many different types of samples. Analytical techniques applied in this field are normally focused on quantification of a limited number of analytes. At present, most of these techniques are based on gas chromatography (GC) or liquid chromatography (LC) coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Using these techniques only analyte-specific information is acquired, and many other compounds that might be present in the samples would be ignored. In this paper, we explore the potential of time-of-flight (TOF) MS hyphenated to GC or LC to provide additional information, highly useful in this field. Thus, all positives reported by standard reference targeted LC-MS/MS methods were unequivocally confirmed by LC-QTOF MS. Only 61% of positives reported by targeted GC-MS/MS could be confirmed by GC-TOF MS, which was due to its lower sensitivity as nonconfirmations corresponded to analytes that were present at very low concentrations. In addition, the use of TOF MS allowed searching for additional compounds in large-scope screening methodologies. In this way, different contaminants/residues not included in either LC or GC tandem MS analyses were detected. This was the case of the insecticide thiacloprid, the plant growth regulator paclobutrazol, the fungicide prochloraz, or the UV filter benzophenone, among others. Finally, elucidation of unknowns was another of the possibilities offered by TOF MS thanks to the accurate-mass full-acquisition data available when using this technique. PMID:22578112

  5. Rapid Detection of K1 Hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae by MALDI-TOF MS

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yonglu; Li, Jiaping; Gu, Danxia; Fang, Ying; Chan, Edward W.; Chen, Sheng; Zhang, Rong

    2015-01-01

    Hypervirulent strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae (hvKP) are genetic variants of K. pneumoniae which can cause life-threatening community-acquired infection in healthy individuals. Currently, methods for efficient differentiation between classic K. pneumoniae (cKP) and hvKP strains are not available, often causing delay in diagnosis and treatment of hvKP infections. To address this issue, we devised a Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) approach for rapid identification of K1 hvKP strains. Four standard algorithms, genetic algorithm (GA), support vector machine (SVM), supervised neural network (SNN), and quick classifier (QC), were tested for their power to differentiate between K1 and non-K1 strains, among which SVM was the most reliable algorithm. Analysis of the receiver operating characteristic curves of the interest peaks generated by the SVM model was found to confer highly accurate detection sensitivity and specificity, consistently producing distinguishable profiles for K1 hvKP and non-K1 strains. Of the 43 K. pneumoniae modeling strains tested by this approach, all were correctly identified as K1 hvKP and non-K1 capsule type. Of the 20 non-K1 and 17 K1 hvKP validation isolates, the accuracy of K1 hvKP and non-K1 identification was 94.1 and 90.0%, respectively, according to the SVM model. In summary, the MALDI-TOF MS approach can be applied alongside the conventional genotyping techniques to provide rapid and accurate diagnosis, and hence prompt treatment of infections caused by hvKP.

  6. Characterisation of the aerobic bacterial flora of boid snakes: application of MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Plenz, Bastian; Schmidt, Volker; Grosse-Herrenthey, Anke; Krüger, Monika; Pees, Michael

    2015-03-14

    The aim of this study was to identify aerobic bacterial isolates from the respiratory tract of boids with matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). From 47 boid snakes, swabs from the oral cavity, tracheal wash samples and, in cases in which postmortem examination was performed, pulmonary tissue samples were taken. Each snake was classified as having inflammation of the respiratory tract and/or oral cavity, or without evidence of inflammation based on combination of clinical, cytological and histopathological findings. Samples collected from the respiratory tract and oral cavity were inoculated onto routine media and bacteria were cultured aerobically. All morphologically distinct individual colonies obtained were analysed using MALDI-TOF MS. Unidentified isolates detected in more than three snakes were selected for further 16S rDNA PCR and sequencing. Among all examined isolates (n=243), 49 per cent (n=119) could be sufficiently speciated using MALDI-TOF MS. Molecular biology revealed several bacterial species that have not been previously described in reptiles. With an average of 6.3 different isolates from the respiratory tract and/or oral cavity, boids with inflammatory disease harboured significantly more bacterial species than boids without inflammatory disease (average 2.8 isolates). PMID:25487809

  7. Mass spectrometry for direct identification of biosignatures and microorganisms in Earth analogs of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Descalzo, Laura; García-López, Eva; Maria Moreno, Ana; Alcazar, Alberto; Baquero, Fernando; Cid, Cristina

    2012-11-01

    Rover missions to Mars require portable instruments that use minimal power, require no sample preparation, and provide suitably diagnostic information to an Earth-based exploration team. In exploration of analog environments of Mars it is important to screen rapidly for the presence of biosignatures and microorganisms and especially to identify them accurately. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) has enormously contributed to the understanding of protein chemistry and cell biology. Without this technique proteomics would most likely not be the important discipline it is today. In this study, besides 'true' proteomics, MALDI-TOF-MS was applied for the analysis of microorganisms for their taxonomic characterization from its beginning. An approach was developed for direct analysis of whole bacterial cells without a preceding fractionation or separation by chromatography or electrophoresis on samples of bacteria from an Antarctic glacier. Supported by comprehensive databases, MALDI-TOF-MS-based identification could be widely accepted within only a few years for bacterial differentiation in Mars analogs and could be a technique of election for Mars exploration.

  8. The ongoing revolution of MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry for microbiology reaches tropical Africa.

    PubMed

    Fall, Bécaye; Lo, Cheikh Ibrahima; Samb-Ba, Bissoume; Perrot, Nadine; Diawara, Silman; Gueye, Mamadou Wague; Sow, Kowry; Aubadie-Ladrix, Maxence; Mediannikov, Oleg; Sokhna, Cheikh; Diemé, Yaya; Chatellier, Sonia; Wade, Boubacar; Raoult, Didier; Fenollar, Florence

    2015-03-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) represents a revolution in routine pathogen identification in clinical microbiology laboratories. A MALDI-TOF MS was introduced to tropical Africa in the clinical microbiology laboratory of the Hôpital Principal de Dakar (Senegal) and used for routine pathogen identification. Using MS, 2,429 bacteria and fungi isolated from patients were directly assayed, leading to the identification of 2,082 bacteria (85.7%) and 206 fungi (8.5%) at the species level, 109 bacteria (4.5%) at the genus level, and 16 bacteria (0.75%) at the family level. Sixteen isolates remained unidentified (0.75%). Escherichia coli was the most prevalent species (25.8%) followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (14.8%), Streptococcus agalactiae (6.2%), Acinetobacter baumannii (6.1%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (5.9%), and Staphylococcus aureus (5.9%). MALDI-TOF MS has also enabled the detection of rare bacteria and fungi. MALDI-TOF MS is a powerful tool for the identification of bacterial and fungal species involved in infectious diseases in tropical Africa. PMID:25601995

  9. Identification of Medically Relevant Species of Arthroconidial Yeasts by Use of Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization–Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Kolecka, Anna; Khayhan, Kantarawee; Groenewald, Marizeth; Theelen, Bart; Arabatzis, Michael; Velegraki, Aristea; Kostrzewa, Markus; Mares, Mihai; Taj-Aldeen, Saad J.

    2013-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) was used for an extensive identification study of arthroconidial yeasts, using 85 reference strains from the CBS-KNAW yeast collection and 134 clinical isolates collected from medical centers in Qatar, Greece, and Romania. The test set included 72 strains of ascomycetous yeasts (Galactomyces, Geotrichum, Saprochaete, and Magnusiomyces spp.) and 147 strains of basidiomycetous yeasts (Trichosporon and Guehomyces spp.). With minimal preparation time, MALDI-TOF MS proved to be an excellent diagnostic tool that provided reliable identification of most (98%) of the tested strains to the species level, with good discriminatory power. The majority of strains were correctly identified at the species level with good scores (>2.0) and seven of the tested strains with log score values between 1.7 and 2.0. The MALDI-TOF MS results obtained were consistent with validated internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and/or large subunit (LSU) ribosomal DNA sequencing results. Expanding the mass spectrum database by increasing the number of reference strains for closely related species, including those of nonclinical origin, should enhance the usefulness of MALDI-TOF MS-based diagnostic analysis of these arthroconidial fungi in medical and other laboratories. PMID:23678074

  10. Rapid and reliable discrimination between Shigella species and Escherichia coli using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Paauw, Armand; Jonker, Debby; Roeselers, Guus; Heng, Jonathan M E; Mars-Groenendijk, Roos H; Trip, Hein; Molhoek, E Margo; Jansen, Hugo-Jan; van der Plas, Jan; de Jong, Ad L; Majchrzykiewicz-Koehorst, Joanna A; Speksnijder, Arjen G C L

    2015-01-01

    E. coli-Shigella species are a cryptic group of bacteria in which the Shigella species are distributed within the phylogenetic tree of E. coli. The nomenclature is historically based and the discrimination of these genera developed as a result of the epidemiological need to identify the cause of shigellosis, a severe disease caused by Shigella species. For these reasons, this incorrect classification of shigellae persists to date, and the ability to rapidly characterize E. coli and Shigella species remains highly desirable. Until recently, existing matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) assays used to identify bacteria could not discriminate between E. coli and Shigella species. Here we present a rapid classification method for the E. coli-Shigella phylogroup based on MALDI-TOF MS which is supported by genetic analysis. E. coli and Shigella isolates were collected and genetically characterized by MLVA. A custom reference library for MALDI-TOF MS that represents the genetic diversity of E. coli and Shigella strains was developed. Characterization of E. coli and Shigella species is based on an approach with Biotyper software. Using this reference library it was possible to distinguish between Shigella species and E. coli. Of the 180 isolates tested, 94.4% were correctly classified as E. coli or shigellae. The results of four (2.2%) isolates could not be interpreted and six (3.3%) isolates were classified incorrectly. The custom library extends the existing MALDI-TOF MS method for species determination by enabling rapid and accurate discrimination between Shigella species and E. coli. PMID:25912807

  11. High-performance multiple-reflection time-of-flight mass spectrometers for research with exotic nuclei and for analytical mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plaß, Wolfgang R.; Dickel, Timo; Ayet San Andres, Samuel; Ebert, Jens; Greiner, Florian; Hornung, Christine; Jesch, Christian; Lang, Johannes; Lippert, Wayne; Majoros, Tamas; Short, Devin; Geissel, Hans; Haettner, Emma; Reiter, Moritz P.; Rink, Ann-Kathrin; Scheidenberger, Christoph; Yavor, Mikhail I.

    2015-11-01

    A class of multiple-reflection time-of-flight mass spectrometers (MR-TOF-MSs) has been developed for research with exotic nuclei at present and future accelerator facilities such as GSI and FAIR (Darmstadt), and TRIUMF (Vancouver). They can perform highly accurate mass measurements of exotic nuclei, serve as high-resolution, high-capacity mass separators and be employed as diagnostics devices to monitor the production, separation and manipulation of beams of exotic nuclei. In addition, a mobile high-resolution MR-TOF-MS has been developed for in situ applications in analytical mass spectrometry ranging from environmental research to medicine. Recently, the MR-TOF-MS for GSI and FAIR has been further developed. A novel RF quadrupole-based ion beam switchyard has been developed that allows merging and splitting of ion beams as well as transport of ions into different directions. It efficiently connects a test and reference ion source and an auxiliary detector to the system. Due to an increase in the kinetic energy of the ions in the time-of-flight analyzer of the MR-TOF-MS, a given mass resolving power is now achieved in less than half the time-of-flight. Conversely, depending on the time-of-flight, the mass resolving power has been increased by a factor of more than two.

  12. Chicken, beams, and Campylobacter: rapid differentiation of foodborne bacteria via vibrational spectroscopy and MALDI-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Muhamadali, Howbeer; Weaver, Danielle; Subaihi, Abdu; AlMasoud, Najla; Trivedi, Drupad K; Ellis, David I; Linton, Dennis; Goodacre, Royston

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter species are one of the main causes of food poisoning worldwide. Despite the availability of established culturing and molecular techniques, due to the fastidious nature of these microorganisms, simultaneous detection and species differentiation still remains challenging. This study focused on the differentiation of eleven Campylobacter strains from six species, using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and Raman spectroscopies, together with matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation-time of flight-mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS), as physicochemical approaches for generating biochemical fingerprints. Cluster analysis of data from each of the three analytical approaches provided clear differentiation of each Campylobacter species, which was generally in agreement with a phylogenetic tree based on 16S rRNA gene sequences. Notably, although C. fetus subspecies fetus and venerealis are phylogenetically very closely related, using FT-IR and MALDI-TOF-MS data these subspecies were readily differentiated based on differences in the lipid (2920 and 2851 cm(-1)) and fingerprint regions (1500-500 cm(-1)) of the FT-IR spectra, and the 500-2000 m/z region of the MALDI-TOF-MS data. A finding that was further investigated with targeted lipidomics using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Our results demonstrate that such metabolomics approaches combined with molecular biology techniques may provide critical information and knowledge related to the risk factors, virulence, and understanding of the distribution and transmission routes associated with different strains of foodborne Campylobacter spp. PMID:26523729

  13. Determination of Dicyandiamide in Powdered Milk Using Direct Analysis in Real Time Quadrupole Time-of-Flight Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Liya; Yong, Wei; Liu, Jiahui; Wang, Sai; Chen, Qilong; Guo, Tianyang; Zhang, Jichuan; Tan, Tianwei; Su, Haijia; Dong, Yiyang

    2015-08-01

    The direct analysis in real time (DART) ionization source coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (Q-TOF MS/MS) system has the capability to desorb analytes directly from samples without sample cleanup or chromatographic separation. In this work, a method based on DART/Q-TOF MS/MS has been developed for rapid identification of dicyandiamide (DCD) present in powdered milk. Simple sample extraction procedure employing acetonitrile-water (80:20, v/v) mixture was followed by direct, high-throughput determination of sample extracts spread on a steel mesh of the transmission module by mass spectrometry under ambient conditions. The method has been evaluated for both qualitative and quantitative analysis of DCD in powdered milk. Variables including experimental apparatus, DART gas heater temperature, sample presentation speed, and vacuum pressure were investigated. The quantitative method was validated with respect to linearity, sensitivity, repeatability, precision, and accuracy by using external standards. After optimization of these parameters, a limit of detection (LOD) of 100 ?g kg-1 was obtained for DCD with a linear working range from 100 to 10000 ?g kg-1 and a satisfactory correlation coefficient (R2) of 0.9997. Good recovery (80.08%-106.47%) and repeatability (RSD = 3.0%-5.4%) were achieved for DCD. The DART/Q-TOF MS/MS-based method provides a rapid, efficient, and powerful scheme to analyze DCD in powdered milk with limited sample preparation, thus reducing time and complexity of quality control.

  14. Metabolomic analysis of serum from obese adults with hyperlipemia by UHPLC-Q-TOF MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Liu, Desheng; Li, Yue; Guo, Lei; Cui, Yinghua; Zhang, Xin; Li, Enyou

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity has dramatically increased and poses a major threat to human health. Obesity often accompanies hyperlipemia, which is strongly related to the occurrence and development of obesity-related chronic diseases. Differences in metabolomic profiling of serum between obese (with hyperlipemia) and normal-weight men (n = 30 in each group) were investigated using ultrahigh-pressure liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-TOF MS/MS) and partial least-squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). Obese men showed higher levels of weight, body mass index, fat mass, systolic blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, triglyeride, total cholesterol, insulin, HOMA-IR and high-sensitivity CRP. Obese and normal-weight groups were clearly discriminated from each other on a PLS-DA score plot and nine major metabolites contributing to the discrimination were assigned, including increased 2-octenoylcarnitine, eicosadienoic acid, 12-hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid, 4-hydroxyestrone sulfate, lysoPE[18:1(11Z)/0:0], thromboxane B2 and pyridinoline and decreased vitamin D3 glucosiduronate and 9,10-DHOME. These metabolites were associated with lipid metabolism and obesity-related diseases, and reflected the metabolic differences between normal and obese men, which may be important for future clinical diagnosis, treatment and assessment of the therapeutic effect on obesity-related chronic disease. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26043712

  15. A Sensitive and Effective Proteomic Approach to Identify She-Donkey’s and Goat’s Milk Adulterations by MALDI-TOF MS Fingerprinting

    PubMed Central

    Di Girolamo, Francesco; Masotti, Andrea; Salvatori, Guglielmo; Scapaticci, Margherita; Muraca, Maurizio; Putignani, Lorenza

    2014-01-01

    She-donkey’s milk (DM) and goat’s milk (GM) are commonly used in newborn and infant feeding because they are less allergenic than other milk types. It is, therefore, mandatory to avoid adulteration and contamination by other milk allergens, developing fast and efficient analytical methods to assess the authenticity of these precious nutrients. In this experimental work, a sensitive and robust matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) profiling was designed to assess the genuineness of DM and GM milks. This workflow allows the identification of DM and GM adulteration at levels of 0.5%, thus, representing a sensitive tool for milk adulteration analysis, if compared with other laborious and time-consuming analytical procedures. PMID:25110863

  16. Rapid Screening of Multiclass Syrup Adulterants in Honey by Ultrahigh-Performance Liquid Chromatography/Quadrupole Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Du, Bing; Wu, Liming; Xue, Xiaofeng; Chen, Lanzhen; Li, Yi; Zhao, Jing; Cao, Wei

    2015-07-29

    Honey adulteration with sugar syrups is a widespread problem. Several types of syrups have been used in honey adulteration, and there is no available method that can simultaneously detect all of these adulterants. In this study, we generated a small-scale database containing the specific chromatographic and mass spectrometry information on sugar syrup markers and developed a simple, rapid, and effective ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC/Q-TOF-MS) method for the detection of adulterated honey. Corn syrup, high-fructose corn syrup, inverted syrup, and rice syrup were used as honey adulterants; polysaccharides, difructose anhydrides, and 2-acetylfuran-3-glucopyranoside were used as detection markers. The presence of 10% sugar syrup in honey could be easily detected in <30 min using the developed method. The results revealed that UHPLC/Q-TOF-MS was simple and rapid. PMID:26151590

  17. Ni speciation in tea infusions by monolithic chromatography--ICP-MS and Q-TOF-MS.

    PubMed

    Š?an?ar, Janez; Zuliani, Tea; Žigon, Dušan; Mila?i?, Radmila

    2013-02-01

    For humans, Ni is not considered to be an essential trace element. Its compounds, at levels present in foodstuffs and drinks, are generally considered to be safe for consumption, but for individuals who already suffer from contact allergy to Ni and may be subject to develop systemic reactions from its dietary ingestion, dietary exposure to Ni must be kept under control. Being the second most popular beverage, tea is a potential source of dietary Ni. Present knowledge on its speciation in tea infusions is poor. Therefore, complete speciation analysis, consisting of separation by liquid chromatography using a weak CIM DEAE-1 monolithic column, "on-line" detection by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and "off-line" identification of ligands by hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (Q-TOF MS), was implemented for the first time to study Ni speciation in tea infusions. Total concentrations of Ni in dry leaves of white, green, oolong and black tea (Camellia sinensis) and flowers of herbal chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla) and hibiscus (Hibiscus sabdariffa) tea were determined after microwave digestion by ICP-MS. They lay between 1.21 and 14.4 mg kg(-1). Good agreement between the determined and the certified values of the Ni content in the standard reference material SRM 1573a tomato leaves confirmed the accuracy of the total Ni determination. During the infusion process, up to 85 % of Ni was extracted from tea leaves or flowers. Separation of Ni species was completed in 10 min by applying aqueous linear gradient elution with 0.6 mol L(-1) NH(4)NO(3). Ni was found to be present in the chromatographic fraction in which quinic acid was identified by Q-TOF in all the tea infusions analysed, which had pH values between 5.6 and 6.0. The only exception was the infusion of hibiscus tea with a pH of 2.7, where results of speciation analysis showed that Ni is present in its divalent ionic form. PMID:23232960

  18. A method for the detection of antibiotic resistance markers in clinical strains of Escherichia coli using MALDI mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hart, Philippa J; Wey, Emmanuel; McHugh, Timothy D; Balakrishnan, Indran; Belgacem, Omar

    2015-04-01

    Matrix-assisted laser-desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is one of the most widely used mass spectrometry based approaches for bacterial identification and classification. The relatively simple sample preparation requirements and the speed of analysis which can usually be completed within a few minutes have resulted in the adoption and assimilation of MALDI-TOF MS into the routine diagnostic workflow of Clinical microbiology laboratories worldwide. This study describes the facilitation of bacterial discrimination based on antibiotic resistance markers through the implementation of MALDI-TOF MS. The periplasmic compartment of whole bacterial cells contains several proteins which confer antibiotic resistance in the Enterobacteriaceae. In order to reduce the complexity of the sample to be analysed via MALDI-TOF MS, the periplasm was extracted and subjected to in solution tryptic digestion followed by nano-LC separation. This method, established that peptide sequence biomarkers from several classes of antibiotic resistance proteins could be predicted using protein/peptide database tools such as Mascot. Biomarkers for a CTX-M-1 group extended spectrum ?-lactamase, CMY-2 an Amp-C ?-lactamase, VIM a metallo-?-lactamase, TEM a ?-lactamase and KanR an aminoglycoside modifying enzyme were detected. This allowed for discrimination at a species level and at an almost identical strain level where the only difference between strains was the carriage of a modified antibiotic resistance carrying plasmid. This method also was able to detect some of these biomarkers in clinical strains where multiple resistance mechanisms were present. PMID:25633625

  19. Fast and Accurate Identification of Dermatophytes by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization–Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry: Validation in the Clinical Laboratory

    PubMed Central

    De Bel, A.; l'Ollivier, C.; Ranque, S.; Detandt, M.; Hendrickx, M.

    2014-01-01

    The performance of a matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) workflow using an extensive reference database for dermatophyte identification was evaluated on 176 clinical strains. Using a direct-deposit procedure after 3 incubation days yielded 40% correct identification. Both increasing incubation time and using an extraction procedure resulted in 100% correct identification. PMID:25031434

  20. Mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Burlingame, A.L.; Maltby, D.; Russell, D.H.; Holland, P.T.

    1988-06-15

    This review series has served as a timely means to provide critical discussion of the advances and directions, strengths and weaknesses, and the state of maturity and promise of both new and established strategies and methods in a unifying single source. Widely disparate discoveries, inventions, and purposeful developments are required to enable mass spectrometric based strategies to take hold and make inroads into new types of issues at the molecular level of biological, medical, and chemical sciences. These are interdisciplinary endeavors. Of necessity, they have been selective both in the topics covered and in the contributions included but have endeavored to be sufficiently general so that both the new reader and the expert might readily find further literature and necessary detail. They have attempted to provide a thematic context for each topic. They note that this review series has a cumulative continuity about it, and the previous few Overview sections are still timely.

  1. Development of soft extraction method for structural characterization of boreal forest soil proteins with MALDI-TOF/MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanerva, Sanna; Ketola, Raimo A.; Kitunen, Veikko; Smolander, Aino; Kotiaho, Tapio

    2010-05-01

    Nitrogen (N) is usually the nutrient restricting productivity in boreal forests. Forest soils contain a great amount of nitrogen, but only a small part of it is in mineral form. Most part of soil N is bound in the structures of different organic compounds such as proteins, peptides, amino acids and more stabilized, refractory compounds. Due to the fact that soil organic N has a very important role in soil nutrient cycling and in plant nutrition, there is a need for more detailed knowledge of its chemistry in soil. Conventional methods to extract and analyze soil organic N are usually very destructive for structures of higher molecular weight organic compounds, such as proteins. The aim of this study was to characterize proteins extracted from boreal forest soil by "soft" extraction methods in order to maintain their molecular structure. The organic layer (F) from birch forest floor containing 78% of organic matter was sieved, freeze dried, pulverized, and extracted with a citrate or phosphate buffer (pH 6 or 8). Sequential extraction with the citrate or phosphate buffer and an SDS buffer (pH 6.8), slightly modified from the method of Chen et al. (2009, Proteomics 9: 4970-4973), was also done. Proteins were purified from the soil extract by extraction with buffered phenol and precipitated with methanol + 0.1M ammonium acetate at -20°C. Characterization of proteins was performed with matrix assisted laser desorption ionization - time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS) and the concentration of total proteins was measured using Bradford's method. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) was used as a positive control in the extractions and as a standard protein in Bradford's method. Our results showed that sequential extraction increased the amount of extracted proteins compared to the extractions without the SDS-buffer; however, it must be noted that the use of SDS-buffer very probably increased denaturization of proteins. Purification of proteins from crude soil extracts by phenol extraction was essential prior to measurement of total proteins; there seemed to be a lot of compounds in crude soil extracts that interfere with the analysis of total proteins, causing overestimation in protein concentration. pH of the buffer solution did not seem to be very crucial for the extractability of soil natural proteins, but at the higher pH, the amount of interfering compounds increased. However, the recovery of BSA added was clearly higher at the higher pH. When the protein precipitates were analyzed with MALDI-TOF/MS, a large curve, most likely formed from wide peaks of several compounds, indicate that most of the compounds in the precipitate were <15 kDa or ~20-50 kDa in molecular weight. It seems that in order to identify individual proteins from mass spectra, a separation of compounds with varying molecular weight is needed before the MALDI-TOF/MS analysis. Due to the fact that a relatively high amount of BSA added was not recovered by the extractions and that the intensity of the signals observed in mass spectra was low, it is questionable whether it is possible to extract soil natural proteins effectively from soils containing a high amount of organic matter without destructing the structures of proteins.

  2. Species identification within Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-baumannii complex using MALDI-TOF MS.

    PubMed

    Toh, Benjamin E W; Paterson, David L; Kamolvit, Witchuda; Zowawi, Hosam; Kvaskoff, David; Sidjabat, Hanna; Wailan, Alexander; Peleg, Anton Y; Huber, Charlotte A

    2015-11-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii, one of the more clinically relevant species in the Acinetobacter genus is well known to be multi-drug resistant and associated with bacteremia, urinary tract infection, pneumonia, wound infection and meningitis. However, it cannot be differentiated from closely related species such as Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, Acinetobacter pittii and Acinetobacter nosocomialis by most phenotypic tests and can only be differentiated by specific, time consuming genotypic tests with very limited use in clinical microbiological laboratories. As a result, these species are grouped into the A. calcoaceticus-A. baumannii (Acb) complex. Herein we investigated the mass spectra of 73 Acinetobacter spp., representing ten different species, using an AB SCIEX 5800 MALDI-TOF MS to differentiate members of the Acinetobacter genus, including the species of the Acb complex. RpoB gene sequencing, 16S rRNA sequencing, and gyrB multiplex PCR were also evaluated as orthogonal methods to identify the organisms used in this study. We found that whilst 16S rRNA and rpoB gene sequencing could not differentiate A. pittii or A. calcoaceticus, they can be differentiated using gyrB multiplex PCR and MALDI-TOF MS. All ten Acinetobacter species investigated could be differentiated by their MALDI-TOF mass spectra. PMID:26381662

  3. In cleanroom, sub-ppb real-time monitoring of volatile organic compounds using proton-transfer reaction/time of flight/mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayeck, Nathalie; Maillot, Philippe; Vitrani, Thomas; Pic, Nicolas; Wortham, Henri; Gligorovski, Sasho; Temime-Roussel, Brice; Mizzi, Aurélie; Poulet, Irène

    2014-04-01

    Refractory compounds such as Trimethylsilanol (TMS) and other organic compounds such as propylene glycol methyl ether acetate (PGMEA) used in the photolithography area of microelectronic cleanrooms have irreversible dramatic impact on optical lenses used on photolithography tools. There is a need for real-time, continuous measurements of organic contaminants in representative cleanroom environment especially in lithography zone. Such information is essential to properly evaluate the impact of organic contamination on optical lenses. In this study, a Proton-Transfer Reaction-Time-of-Flight Mass spectrometer (PTR-TOF-MS) was applied for real-time and continuous monitoring of fugitive organic contamination induced by the fabrication process. Three types of measurements were carried out using the PTR-TOF-MS in order to detect the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) next to the tools in the photolithography area and at the upstream and downstream of chemical filters used to purge the air in the cleanroom environment. A validation and verification of the results obtained with PTR-TOF-MS was performed by comparing these results with those obtained with an off-line technique that is Automated Thermal Desorber - Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry (ATD-GC-MS) used as a reference analytical method. The emerged results from the PTR-TOF-MS analysis exhibited the temporal variation of the VOCs levels in the cleanroom environment during the fabrication process. While comparing the results emerging from the two techniques, a good agreement was found between the results obtained with PTR-TOF-MS and those obtained with ATD-GC-MS for the PGMEA, toluene and xylene. Regarding TMS, a significant difference was observed ascribed to the technical performance of both instruments.

  4. Identification and characterization of a new IgE-binding protein in mackerel ( Scomber japonicus) by MALDI-TOF-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bangping; Li, Zhenxing; Zheng, Lina; Liu, Yixuan; Lin, Hong

    2011-03-01

    As fish is one source of the `big eight' food allergens, the prevalence of fish allergy has increased over the past few years. In order to better understand fish allergy, it is necessary to identify fish allergens. Based on the sera from fish-allergenic patients, a 28 kDa protein from local mackerel ( Scomber japonicus), which has not been reported as a fish allergen, was found to be reactive with most of the patients' sera. The 28 kDa protein was analyzed by MALDI-TOF-MS (Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry). Mascot search in NCBI database (Date: 08/07/2010) showed that the top protein matched, i.e. triosephosphate isomerase (TPI) from Xiphophorus maculatus and Poecilia reticulata, had a mowse (molecular weight search) score of 98. In addition, TPI from Epinephelus coioides also matched this mackerel protein with a mowse score of 96. Because TPI is considered as an allergen in other non-fish organisms, such as lychee, wheat, latex, archaeopotamobius ( Archaeopotamobius sibiriensis) and crangon ( Crangon crangon), we consider that it may also be an allergen in mackerel.

  5. NMR and MALDI-TOF MS based characterization of exopolysaccharides in anaerobic microbial aggregates from full-scale reactors.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Gil, Graciela; Thomas, Ludivine; Emwas, Abdul-Hamid; Lens, Piet N L; Saikaly, Pascal E

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic granular sludge is composed of multispecies microbial aggregates embedded in a matrix of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). Here we characterized the chemical fingerprint of the polysaccharide fraction of EPS in anaerobic granules obtained from full-scale reactors treating different types of wastewater. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) signals of the polysaccharide region from the granules were very complex, likely as a result of the diverse microbial population in the granules. Using nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMDS), the (1)H NMR signals of reference polysaccharides (gellan, xanthan, alginate) and those of the anaerobic granules revealed that there were similarities between the polysaccharides extracted from granules and the reference polysaccharide alginate. Further analysis of the exopolysaccharides from anaerobic granules, and reference polysaccharides using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) revealed that exopolysaccharides from two of the anaerobic granular sludges studied exhibited spectra similar to that of alginate. The presence of sequences related to the synthesis of alginate was confirmed in the metagenomes of the granules. Collectively these results suggest that alginate-like exopolysaccharides are constituents of the EPS matrix in anaerobic granular sludge treating different industrial wastewater. This finding expands the engineered environments where alginate has been found as EPS constituent of microbial aggregates. PMID:26391984

  6. Metabolome classification of commercial Hypericum perforatum (St. John's Wort) preparations via UPLC-qTOF-MS and chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Farag, Mohamed A; Wessjohann, Ludger A

    2012-03-01

    The growing interest in the efficacy of phytomedicines and herbal supplements but also the increase in legal requirements for safety and reliable contents of active principles drive the development of analytical methods for the quality control of complex, multicomponent mixtures as found in plant extracts of value for the pharmaceutical industry. Here, we describe an ultra-performance liquid chromatography method (UPLC) coupled with quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (qTOF-MS) measurements for the large scale analysis of H. perforatum plant material and its commercial preparations. Under optimized conditions, we were able to simultaneously quantify and identify 21 metabolites including 4 hyperforins, 3 catechins, 3 naphthodianthrones, 5 flavonoids, 3 fatty acids, and a phenolic acid. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to ensure good analytical rigorousness and define both similarities and differences among Hypericum samples. A selection of batches from 9 commercially available H. perforatum products available on the German and Egyptian markets showed variable quality, particularly in hyperforins and fatty acid content. PCA analysis was able to discriminate between various preparations according to their global composition, including differentiation between various batches from the same supplier. To the best of our knowledge, this study provides the first approach utilizing UPLC-MS-based metabolic fingerprinting to reveal secondary metabolite compositional differences in Hypericum extract. PMID:22271082

  7. NMR and MALDI-TOF MS based characterization of exopolysaccharides in anaerobic microbial aggregates from full-scale reactors

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Gil, Graciela; Thomas, Ludivine; Emwas, Abdul-Hamid; Lens, Piet N. L.; Saikaly, Pascal E.

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic granular sludge is composed of multispecies microbial aggregates embedded in a matrix of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). Here we characterized the chemical fingerprint of the polysaccharide fraction of EPS in anaerobic granules obtained from full-scale reactors treating different types of wastewater. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) signals of the polysaccharide region from the granules were very complex, likely as a result of the diverse microbial population in the granules. Using nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMDS), the 1H NMR signals of reference polysaccharides (gellan, xanthan, alginate) and those of the anaerobic granules revealed that there were similarities between the polysaccharides extracted from granules and the reference polysaccharide alginate. Further analysis of the exopolysaccharides from anaerobic granules, and reference polysaccharides using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) revealed that exopolysaccharides from two of the anaerobic granular sludges studied exhibited spectra similar to that of alginate. The presence of sequences related to the synthesis of alginate was confirmed in the metagenomes of the granules. Collectively these results suggest that alginate-like exopolysaccharides are constituents of the EPS matrix in anaerobic granular sludge treating different industrial wastewater. This finding expands the engineered environments where alginate has been found as EPS constituent of microbial aggregates. PMID:26391984

  8. MALDI-TOF MS analysis of cellodextrins and xylo-oligosaccharides produced by hindgut homogenates of Reticulitermes santonensis.

    PubMed

    Brasseur, Catherine; Bauwens, Julien; Tarayre, Cédric; Mattéotti, Christel; Thonart, Philippe; Destain, Jacqueline; Francis, Frédéric; Haubruge, Eric; Portetelle, Daniel; Vandenbol, Micheline; Focant, Jean-François; De Pauw, Edwin

    2014-01-01

    Hindgut homogenates of the termite Reticulitermes santonensis were incubated with carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), crystalline celluloses or xylan substrates. Hydrolysates were analyzed with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). The method was first set up using acid hydrolysis analysis to characterize non-enzymatic profiles. Commercial enzymes of Trichoderma reesei or T. longibrachiatum were also tested to validate the enzymatic hydrolysis analysis. For CMC hydrolysis, data processing and visual display were optimized to obtain comprehensive profiles and allow rapid comparison and evaluation of enzymatic selectivity, according to the number of substituents of each hydrolysis product. Oligosaccharides with degrees of polymerization (DPs) ranging from three to 12 were measured from CMC and the enzymatic selectivity was demonstrated. Neutral and acidic xylo-oligosaccharides with DPs ranging from three to 11 were measured from xylan substrate. These results are of interest for lignocellulose biomass valorization and demonstrated the potential of termites and their symbiotic microbiota as a source of interesting enzymes for oligosaccharides production. PMID:24731986

  9. Altered expression of serum protein in ginsenoside Re-treated diabetic rats detected by SELDI-TOF MS.

    PubMed

    Cho, William C S; Yip, Tai-Tung; Chung, Wai-Shing; Lee, Sally K W; Leung, Albert W N; Cheng, Christopher H K; Yue, Kevin K M

    2006-11-24

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is now a global health problem, however, its pathogenesis has not yet been fully deciphered. Even though modern medicine has great contribution to the control and treatment of DM, it is still far from success to completely cure the disease. Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer (ginseng) is a well-recognized traditional Chinese medicine for treating DM in Asia. In this study, high throughput proteomic approach has been adopted to investigate the antidiabetic action of 2 weeks' ginsenoside Re (Re, a major component of ginseng) administration to streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Employing surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF MS) and bioinformatics, 432 cluster peaks were detected in the samples, among them 293 potential biomarkers were found to have significant differentiations between the DM and control normal rats. When the Re-treated diabetic rats were compared to the untreated ones, a protein peak was detected to have significant alteration corresponding to Re treatment. This specific protein was found to match with C-reactive protein (CRP) in the protein database, and was subsequently validated by ELISA. This is the first study demonstrated that CRP could be altered by Re treatment, indicating that Re may improve diabetes and its complications by alleviation of inflammation. PMID:16797897

  10. Metabolomics driven analysis of artichoke leaf and its commercial products via UHPLC-q-TOF-MS and chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Farag, Mohamed A; El-Ahmady, Sherweit H; Elian, Fatma S; Wessjohann, Ludger A

    2013-11-01

    The demand to develop efficient and reliable analytical methods for the quality control of herbal medicines and nutraceuticals is on the rise, together with an increase in the legal requirements for safe and consistent levels of active principles. Here, we describe an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography method (UHPLC) coupled with quadrupole high resolution time of flight mass spectrometry (qTOF-MS) analysis for the comprehensive measurement of metabolites from three Cynara scolymus (artichoke) cultivars: American Green Globe, French Hyrious, and Egyptian Baladi. Under optimized conditions, 50 metabolites were simultaneously quantified and identified including: eight caffeic acid derivatives, six saponins, 12 flavonoids and 10 fatty acids. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to define both similarities and differences among the three artichoke leaf cultivars. In addition, batches from seven commercially available artichoke market products were analysed and showed variable quality, particularly in caffeic acid derivatives, flavonoid and fatty acid contents. PCA analysis was able to discriminate between various preparations, including differentiation between various batches from the same supplier. To the best of our knowledge, this study provides the first approach utilizing UHPLC-MS based metabolite fingerprinting to reveal secondary metabolite compositional differences in artichoke leaf extracts. PMID:23902683

  11. Modifications in Rat Plasma Proteome after Remote Ischemic Preconditioning (RIPC) Stimulus: Identification by a SELDI-TOF-MS Approach

    PubMed Central

    Hibert, Pierre; Prunier-Mirebeau, Delphine; Beseme, Olivia; Chwastyniak, Maggy; Tamareille, Sophie

    2014-01-01

    Remote ischemic preconditioning’s (RIPC) ability to render the myocardium resistant to subsequent prolonged ischemia is now clearly established in different species, including humans. Strong evidence suggests that circulating humoral mediators play a key role in signal transduction, but their identities still need to be established. Our study sought to identify potential circulating RIPC mediators using a proteomic approach. Rats were exposed to 10-min limb ischemia followed by 5- (RIPC 5?) or 10-min (RIPC 10?) reperfusion prior to blood sampling. The control group only underwent blood sampling. Plasma samples were isolated for proteomic analysis using surface-enhanced laser desorption and ionization - time of flight - mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF-MS). A total of seven proteins, including haptoglobin and transthyretin, were detected as up- or down-regulated in response to RIPC. These proteins had previously been identified as associated with organ protection, anti-inflammation, and various cellular and molecular responses to ischemia. In conclusion, this study indicates that RIPC results in significant modulations of plasma proteome. PMID:24454915

  12. Enhancement of charge remote fragmentation in protonated peptides by high-energy CID MALDI-TOF-MS using "cold" matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stimson, E.; Truong, O.; Richter, W. J.; Waterfield, M. D.; Burlingame, A. L.

    1997-12-01

    Delayed extraction matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (DE-MALDI-TOF-MS) is employed to evaluate its potential for peptide sequencing using both post-source decay (PSD) and high-energy collision-induced dissociation (CID). This work provides evidence that complete amino-acid sequences may be obtained employing a dual approach including PSD of [M + H]+ ions using a "hot" matrix ([alpha]-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid, CHCA), followed by high-energy CID using "cold" matrices (2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid, DHB; 2,6-dihydroxyacetophenone/di-ammonium hydrogen citrate, DHAP/DAHC). This strategy ensures that PSD results in a rich variety of product ions derived from charge-driven processes that provide gross structural information. High-energy CID (20 keV collision energy range) of low internal energy [M + H]+ ions is then employed to reveal complementary side-chain detail (i.e. Leu/Ile distinction) in a manner highly selective for charge remote fragmentation (CRF), because PSD is largely reduced. As expected from the known behaviour of protonated peptides at 10 keV collision energies, charge fixation at basic sites required for CRF is more pronounced in CID than in PSD. We have obtained spectra for a synthetic peptide that approximate the results and performance of MALDI high-energy CID obtained on sector-based instrumentation (EBE-oa-TOF).

  13. [Rapid identification of six chemical constituents in Guizhi Fuling capsule by DART-Q-TOF-MS].

    PubMed

    Wei, Zhang; Xue, Wang; Yan-jing-ping; Li, Yan-jing; Bi, Yu-an; Wang, Zhen-zhong; Xiao, Wei

    2014-11-01

    In order to establish a rapid method for identifying six constituents in Guizhi Fuling capsule, Q-TOF with DART ion source was used to perform the direct analysis of compounds in Guizhi Fuling capsule. The DART sampler delivery rate was 0.2 mm s(-1). The temperature of helium gas of DART was 450 degrees C. The capillary voltage was kept at 1 000 V. The temperature of the drying gas of Agilent 6538 Q-TOF MS was set at 350 degrees C. The flow rate of the drying gas of MS was set at 3.5 L x min(-1). The MS scan range was m/z 50-1 000. Based on accurate mass measurements and the elemental compositions of the product ions and fragmentation patterns of reference conpounds, six components, amygdalin, paeonol, paeoniflorin, cinnamic acids, gallic acid, benzoic acid were identified rapidly. The method can rapidly identify six chemical constituents in three batch of Guizhi Fuling capsule. The DART-Q-TOF-MS method is simple, rapid and specific and it can be used for rapid identification and characterization of compounds in traditional Chinese medicines. PMID:25775778

  14. Proteomic Profiling and Protein Identification by MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry in Unsequenced Parasitic Nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Millares, Paul; LaCourse, E. James; Perally, Samirah; Ward, Deborah A.; Prescott, Mark C.; Hodgkinson, Jane E.; Brophy, Peter M.; Rees, Huw H.

    2012-01-01

    Lack of genomic sequence data and the relatively high cost of tandem mass spectrometry have hampered proteomic investigations into helminths, such as resolving the mechanism underpinning globally reported anthelmintic resistance. Whilst detailed mechanisms of resistance remain unknown for the majority of drug-parasite interactions, gene mutations and changes in gene and protein expression are proposed key aspects of resistance. Comparative proteomic analysis of drug-resistant and -susceptible nematodes may reveal protein profiles reflecting drug-related phenotypes. Using the gastro-intestinal nematode, Haemonchus contortus as case study, we report the application of freely available expressed sequence tag (EST) datasets to support proteomic studies in unsequenced nematodes. EST datasets were translated to theoretical protein sequences to generate a searchable database. In conjunction with matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS), Peptide Mass Fingerprint (PMF) searching of databases enabled a cost-effective protein identification strategy. The effectiveness of this approach was verified in comparison with MS/MS de novo sequencing with searching of the same EST protein database and subsequent searches of the NCBInr protein database using the Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) to provide protein annotation. Of 100 proteins from 2-DE gel spots, 62 were identified by MALDI-TOF-MS and PMF searching of the EST database. Twenty randomly selected spots were analysed by electrospray MS/MS and MASCOT Ion Searches of the same database. The resulting sequences were subjected to BLAST searches of the NCBI protein database to provide annotation of the proteins and confirm concordance in protein identity from both approaches. Further confirmation of protein identifications from the MS/MS data were obtained by de novo sequencing of peptides, followed by FASTS algorithm searches of the EST putative protein database. This study demonstrates the cost-effective use of available EST databases and inexpensive, accessible MALDI-TOF MS in conjunction with PMF for reliable protein identification in unsequenced organisms. PMID:22479418

  15. PTRwid: A new widget tool for processing PTR-TOF-MS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holzinger, R.

    2015-09-01

    PTRwid is a fast and user friendly tool that has been developed to process data from proton-transfer-reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometers (PTR-TOF-MS) that use HTOF (high-resolution time-of-flight) mass spectrometers from Tofwerk AG (Switzerland). PTRwid is designed for a comprehensive evaluation of whole laboratory or field-based studies. All processing runs autonomously, and entire laboratory or field campaigns can, in principle, be processed with a few mouse clicks. Unique features of PTRwid include (i) an autonomous and accurate mass scale calibration, (ii) the computation of a "unified mass list" that - in addition to a uniform data structure - provides a robust method to determine the precision of attributed peak masses, and (iii) fast data analysis due to well considered choices in data processing.

  16. Use of Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization–Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry for Identification of Molds of the Fusarium Genus

    PubMed Central

    Stubbe, Dirk; De Cremer, Koen; Piérard, Denis; Normand, Anne-Cécile; Piarroux, Renaud; Detandt, Monique; Hendrickx, Marijke

    2014-01-01

    The rates of infection with Fusarium molds are increasing, and a diverse number of Fusarium spp. belonging to different species complexes can cause infection. Conventional species identification in the clinical laboratory is time-consuming and prone to errors. We therefore evaluated whether matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is a useful alternative. The 289 Fusarium strains from the Belgian Coordinated Collections of Microorganisms (BCCM)/Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology Mycology (IHEM) culture collection with validated sequence-based identities and comprising 40 species were used in this study. An identification strategy was developed, applying a standardized MALDI-TOF MS assay and an in-house reference spectrum database. In vitro antifungal testing was performed to assess important differences in susceptibility between clinically relevant species/species complexes. We observed that no incorrect species complex identifications were made by MALDI-TOF MS, and 82.8% of the identifications were correct to the species level. This success rate was increased to 91% by lowering the cutoff for identification. Although the identification of the correct species complex member was not always guaranteed, antifungal susceptibility testing showed that discriminating between Fusarium species complexes can be important for treatment but is not necessarily required between members of a species complex. With this perspective, some Fusarium species complexes with closely related members can be considered as a whole, increasing the success rate of correct identifications to 97%. The application of our user-friendly MALDI-TOF MS identification approach resulted in a dramatic improvement in both time and accuracy compared to identification with the conventional method. A proof of principle of our MALDI-TOF MS approach in the clinical setting using recently isolated Fusarium strains demonstrated its validity. PMID:25411180

  17. Analysis of new synthetic drugs by ion mobility time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Sysoev, Alexey A; Poteshin, Sergey S; Chernyshev, Denis M; Karpov, Alexander V; Tuzkov, Yuriy B; Kyzmin, Vyacheslav V; Sysoev, Alexander A

    2014-01-01

    Characteristic ion mobility mass spectrometry data, reduced mobility, and limits of detection (signal-to-noise ratio = 3) were determined for six synthetic drugs and cocaine by ion mobility time-of-flight mass spectrometry (IM-TOF-MS) with electrospray ionization (ESI) and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI). The studied synthetic illicit drugs recently appeared on the recreational drug market as designer drugs and were methylone, 4-MEC (4'-methylethcathinone), 3,4-MDPV (3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone), JWH-210 [4-ethylnaphthalen-1-yl-(1-pentylindol-3-yl)methanone], JWH-250 [2-(2-methoxyphenyl)-1-(1-pentyl-1H-indol-3-yl)ethanone], and JWH-203 [1-pentyl-3-(2'-chlorophenylacetyl) indole]. Absolute reduced mobilities in nitrogen were 1.35, 1.28, 1.41, 1.30, 1.18, 0.98, 1.09, and 1.07 cm2V(-1)s(-1), for methylone [M-H]+, methylone [M+H]+, 4-MEC [M-H]+, 4-MEC [M+H]+, 3,4-MDPV [M+H]+, JWH-210 [M+H]+, JWH-250 [M+H]+, and JWH-203 [M+H]+, respectively. Selected illicit drugs are easily identified by IM-TOF-MS during a 100s analysis. Relative Limits of detection ranged from 4 to 400 nM are demonstrated for these compounds. Such relative limits of detection correspond to 14 pg to 2 ng absolute limits of detection. Better detection limits are obtained in APCI mode for all the illicit drugs except cocaine. ESI mode was found to be preferable for the IM-TOF-MS detection of cocaine at trace levels. A single sample analysis is completed in an order of magnitude less time than that for conventional liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry approach. The application allows one to consider IM-TOF-MS as a good candidate for a method to determine quickly the recently surfaced designer drugs marketed on the internet as "bath salts," "spice," and "herbal blends". PMID:24895779

  18. Non-visible print set-off of photoinitiators in food packaging: detection by ambient ionisation mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Bentayeb, K; Ackerman, L K; Lord, T; Begley, T H

    2013-01-01

    Direct analysis in real time coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (DART/TOF-MS) was used to detect the non-visible set-off of photoinitiators on the food contact surface of three different packages. The samples were intentionally under-cured to provoke set-off. Twelve commercially available photoinitiators were included in the ink formulations including ?-amino-, morpholino, and ?-hydroxy benzophenones, thioxanthones, aryl-phosphine oxide and three polymeric versions of these. Major colours of the packages' prints were analysed, as well as the specific areas of the inner surface in contact with them. Larger quantities of photoinitiators were detected on the food contact areas in contact with the darker colours of the images. Speed-cure 7005 and 4-phenylbenzophenone were the compounds most susceptible to set-off in each of the samples by DART response. An identification protocol for unknown set-off compounds was tested, resulting in the set-off detection of diethylene glycol ethers, erucamide and acrylates, and confirmed by solvent extraction GC-MS analysis. Finally, DART/TOF-MS was scanned across transects of the food contact side of packages to map the presence of photoinitiators. Higher photoinitiator signals were observed in patterns corresponding to the printed image, suggesting DART/TOF-MS might "image" print set-off. PMID:23421479

  19. [Mass spectrometry in bacteriology].

    PubMed

    Lavigne, Jean-Philippe; Riegel, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Recently, different bacteriological laboratory interventions that decrease reporting time have been developed. These promising new broad-based techniques have merit, based on their ability to identify rapidly many bacteria, organisms difficult to grow or newly emerging strains, as well as their capacity to track disease transmission. Maldi-TOF MS has been proven to be an accurate and reliable method for organism identification including bacteria, yeast, molds, and mycobacteria. It is rapid, with results often 24 hours earlier than traditional methods, and inexpensive. The range of applications of Maldi-TOF MS has been growing constantly, from rapid species identification to labor-intensive proteomic studies of bacterial physiology (bacterial resistance and virulence). The purpose of this review is to present the different solutions commercialized in France, summarize the place of this technology in microbiology lab and to analyze future perspectives in this field. PMID:25582728

  20. Multi-element analysis of milk by ICP-oa-TOF-MS after precipitation of calcium and proteins by oxalic and nitric acid.

    PubMed

    Husáková, Lenka; Urbanová, Iva; Šrámková, Jitka; Kone?ná, Michaela; Bohuslavová, Jana

    2013-03-15

    In this work a simple technique employing oxalic and nitric acid to cow's milk samples prior to analysis by inductively coupled plasma orthogonal acceleration time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ICP-oa-TOF-MS) was introduced. After the precipitation of calcium and proteins via oxalic and nitric acid, respectively, the resulting liquid phase was aspirated with a concentric glass nebulizer for ICP-TOF-MS determination of trace elements. Precipitation of proteins is essential for better separation of solid and liquid phase of modified samples. Separation of calcium as a precipitated non-soluble oxalate enables the elimination of spectral interferences originating from different calcium containing species like (40)Ca(35)Cl(+), (40)Ca(37)Cl(+), (43)Ca(16)O(+), (40)Ca(18)O(+), (44)Ca(16)O(+), (43)Ca(16)O(1)H(+) onto the determination of As, Se, Co and Ni whose assay is more difficult when using conventional quadrupole instruments. High detection capability is further an advantage as the approach enables the analysis without dilution. The methodology may serve, in addition, for a fast and sensitive determination of some other elements. After that, direct, reliable and simultaneous determination of 16 elements (Li, Be, B, V, Cr, Mn, Ni, Co, Ga, As, Se, Mo, Sn, Sb, Cs, Tl) at trace and ultra-trace levels in milk can be performed under optimum instrumental conditions and by using Rh as an internal standard. Accuracy and precision was assessed by measuring NCS ZC73015 milk powder control standard, yielding results in agreement with certified values and RSD <10%. The accuracy was also checked by comparison of the results of the proposed method with those found by a method based on a microwave-assisted digestion of real samples. PMID:23598096

  1. Identification of lipopeptide isoforms by MALDI-TOF-MS/MS based on the simultaneous purification of iturin, fengycin, and surfactin by RP-HPLC.

    PubMed

    Yang, Huan; Li, Xu; Li, Xue; Yu, Huimin; Shen, Zhongyao

    2015-03-01

    A three-stage linear gradient strategy using reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was optimized for rapid, high-quality, and simultaneous purification of the lipopeptide isoforms of iturin, fengycin, and surfactin, which may differ in composition by only a single amino acid and/or the fatty acid residue. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS/MS) was applied to detect the lipopeptides harvested from each reversed-phase HPLC peak. Amino acid analysis based on phenyl isothiocyanate derivatization was further used for confirmation of the amino acid species and molar ratio in a certain HPLC fraction. By this MALDI-TOF-MS/MS coupled with amino acid analysis, it was revealed that iturin at m/z 1,043 consists of a circular Asn-Tyr-Asn-Gln-Pro-Asn-Ser peptide and C14 ?-OH fatty acid. Surfactin homologs from Bacillus subtilis THY-7 at m/z 1,030, 1,044, 1,058, and 1,072 possess a circular Glu-Leu-Leu-Val-Asp-Leu-Leu peptide and the ?-OH fatty acid with a different length (C13-C16). Fengycin species at m/z 1,463 and 1,477 are homologs possessing the circular peptide Glu-Orn-Tyr-Thr-Glu-Ala-Pro-Gln-Tyr-Ile linked to a C16 or C17 ?-OH fatty acid, whereas fengycin at m/z 1,505 contains a Glu-Orn-Tyr-Thr-Glu-Val-Pro-Gln-Tyr-Ile sequence with a Val instead of Ala at position 6. The method developed in this work provided an efficient approach for characterization of diverse lipopeptide isoforms from the iturin, fengycin, and surfactin families. PMID:25662934

  2. Insufficient discriminatory power of MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry for typing of Enterococcus faecium and Staphylococcus aureus isolates.

    PubMed

    Lasch, Peter; Fleige, Carola; Stämmler, Maren; Layer, Franziska; Nübel, Ulrich; Witte, Wolfgang; Werner, Guido

    2014-05-01

    MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is increasingly used as a reliable technique for species identification of bacterial pathogens. In this study we investigated the question of whether MALDI-TOF MS can be used for accurate sub-differentiation of strains and isolates of two important nosocomial pathogens Enterococcus faecium and Staphylococcus aureus. For this purpose, a selection of 112 pre-characterized E. faecium isolates (clonal complexes CC2, CC5, CC9, CC17, CC22, CC25, CC26, CC92 altogether 52 multilocus sequence types) and 59 diverse S. aureus isolates (mostly methicillin resistant; CC5, CC8, CC22, CC30, CC45, CC398) were studied using a combination of MALDI-TOF MS and advanced methods of spectral data analysis. The strategy of MS data evaluation included manual peak inspection on the basis of pseudo gel views, unsupervised hierarchical cluster analysis and supervised artificial neural network (ANN) analysis. We were capable of differentiating patterns of hospital-associated E. faecium isolates (CC17) from other strains of E. faecium with 87% accuracy, but failed to identify lineage-specific biomarker peaks. For S. aureus pattern analyses we were able to confirm a number of signals described in previous studies, but often failed to identify biomarkers that would allow a consistent and reliable identification of phylogenetic lineages, clonal complexes or sequence types. Hence, the discriminatory power of MALDI-TOF MS was found to be insufficient for reliably sub-differentiating E. faecium and S. aureus isolates to the level of distinct clones or clonal complexes, such as assessed by MLST. Further, a comparison between peak patterns of susceptible and resistant isolates did not identify statistically relevant marker peaks linked to glycopeptide resistance determinants (vanA, vanB) in E. faecium, or the methicillin resistance determinant (mecA) in S. aureus. PMID:24614010

  3. MALDI-TOF MS of Trichoderma: A model system for the identification of microfungi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This investigation aimed to assess whether MALDI-TOF MS analysis of proteomics could be applied to the study of Trichoderma, a fungal genus selected because it includes many species and is phylogenetically well defined. We also investigated whether MALDI-TOF MS analysis of proteomics would reveal ap...

  4. BIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS Mass Spectrometry

    E-print Network

    Painter, Kevin

    Single Crystal X-ray Diffractometry Mass Spectrometry Elemental Analysis (CHN) Other Analytical Methods chamber with Near field scanner Superconductor Chamber Microwave Network Analysers OPTICAL DIAGNOSTICS

  5. Rapid, Sensitive, and Specific Escherichia coli H Antigen Typing by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization–Time of Flight-Based Peptide Mass Fingerprinting

    PubMed Central

    Chui, Huixia; Chan, Michael; Hernandez, Drexler; Chong, Patrick; McCorrister, Stuart; Robinson, Alyssia; Walker, Matthew; Peterson, Lorea A. M.; Ratnam, Sam; Haldane, David J. M.; Bekal, Sadjia; Wylie, John; Chui, Linda; Westmacott, Garrett; Xu, Bianli; Drebot, Mike; Nadon, Celine; Knox, J. David

    2015-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has gained popularity in recent years for rapid bacterial identification, mostly at the genus or species level. In this study, a rapid method to identify the Escherichia coli flagellar antigen (H antigen) at the subspecies level was developed using a MALDI-TOF MS platform with high specificity and sensitivity. Flagella were trapped on a filter membrane, and on-filter trypsin digestion was performed. The tryptic digests of each flagellin then were collected and analyzed by MALDI-TOF MS through peptide mass fingerprinting. Sixty-one reference strains containing all 53 H types and 85 clinical strains were tested and compared to serotyping designations. Whole-genome sequencing was used to resolve conflicting results between the two methods. It was found that DHB (2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid) worked better than CHCA (?-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid) as the matrix for MALDI-TOF MS, with higher confidence during protein identification. After method optimization, reference strains representing all 53 E. coli H types were identified correctly by MALDI-TOF MS. A custom E. coli flagellar/H antigen database was crucial for clearly identifying the E. coli H antigens. Of 85 clinical isolates tested by MALDI-TOF MS-H, 75 identified MS-H types (88.2%) matched results obtained from traditional serotyping. Among 10 isolates where the results of MALDI-TOF MS-H and serotyping did not agree, 60% of H types characterized by whole-genome sequencing agreed with those identified by MALDI-TOF MS-H, compared to only 20% by serotyping. This MALDI-TOF MS-H platform can be used for rapid and cost-effective E. coli H antigen identification, especially during E. coli outbreaks. PMID:26019207

  6. Two-step Laser Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry to Elucidate Organic Diversity in Planetary Surface Materials.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Getty, Stephanie A.; Brinckerhoff, William B.; Cornish, Timothy; Li, Xiang; Floyd, Melissa; Arevalo, Ricardo Jr.; Cook, Jamie Elsila; Callahan, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    Laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LD-TOF-MS) holds promise to be a low-mass, compact in situ analytical capability for future landed missions to planetary surfaces. The ability to analyze a solid sample for both mineralogical and preserved organic content with laser ionization could be compelling as part of a scientific mission pay-load that must be prepared for unanticipated discoveries. Targeted missions for this instrument capability include Mars, Europa, Enceladus, and small icy bodies, such as asteroids and comets.

  7. A novel method to differentiate bovine and porcine gelatins in food products: nanoUPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS(E) based data independent acquisition technique to detect marker peptides in gelatin.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Mustafa Tahsin; Kesmen, Zulal; Baykal, Betul; Sagdic, Osman; Kulen, Oktay; Kacar, Omer; Yetim, Hasan; Baykal, Ahmet Tarik

    2013-12-01

    We presented a novel nanoUPLC-MS(E) workflow method that has potential to identify origin of gelatin in some dairy products; yoghurt, cheese and ice cream. In this study, the method was performed in two steps. In the first step, gelatin was extracted from these products before the MS-sample preparation. In the second step, tryptic gelatin peptides were separated and analyzed with ultra-performance liquid chromatography and electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (nanoUPLC-ESI-q-TOF-MS(E)). The novelty of this setup was that it functioned in a data independent acquisition mode and that alternate low and elevated collision energy was applied to acquire precursor and product ion information. This enabled accurate mass acquisition on the peptide level to identify the gelatin peptides. The marker peptides specific for porcine and bovine could be successfully detected in the gelatin added to the dairy products analyzed, revealing that the detection of marker peptides in the digested gelatin samples using nanoUPLC-ESI-q-TOF-MS(E) could be an effective method to differentiate porcine and bovine gelatin in the dairy products. PMID:23870980

  8. Elemental, Isotopic, and Organic Analysis on Mars with Laser TOF-MS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brinckerhoff, W. B.; Cornish, T. J.

    2000-01-01

    The in-depth landed exploration of Mars will require increasingly sophisticated robotic analytical tools for both in situ composition science [1] and reconnaissance for sample return [2]. Beyond dust, rock surfaces, and topsoil, samples must be accessed within rocks and ice, well below surface soil, and possibly in elevated deposit layers. A range of spatial scales will be studied, and for the most information-rich microscopic analyses, samples must be acquired, prepared, and positioned with high precision. In some cases samples must also be brought into a vacuum chamber. After expending such resources, it will be important to apply techniques that provide a wide range of information about the samples. Microscopy, mineralogy, and molecular/organic, elemental, and isotopic analyses are all needed, at a minimum, to begin to address the in situ goals at Mars. These techniques must work as an efficient suite to provide layers of data, each layer helping to determine if further analysis on a given sample is desired. In the spirit of broad-band and efficient data collection, we are developing miniature laser time-of-flight mass spectrometers (TOF-MS) for elemental, isotopic, and molecular/organic microanalysis of unprepared solid samples. Laser TOF-MS uses a pulsed laser to volatilize and ionize material from a small region on the sample. The laser energy and focus can be adjusted for atomic and molecular content, sampling area, and depth. Ions travel through the instrument and are detected at a sequence of times proportional to the square root of their mass-to- charge ratios. Thus, each laser pulse produces a complete mass spectrum (in less than 50 microseconds). These instruments can now be significantly miniaturized (potentially to the size of a soda can) without a loss in performance. This effort is reviewed here with an emphasis on applications to Mars exploration.

  9. The Use of MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry, Ribotyping and Phenotypic Tests to Identify Lactic Acid Bacteria from Fermented Cereal Foods in Abidjan (Côte d’Ivoire)

    PubMed Central

    Soro-Yao, Amenan A; Schumann, Peter; Thonart, Philippe; Djè, Koffi M; Pukall, Rüdiger

    2014-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) protein analysis, automated ribotyping, and phenotypic tests (e.g., cell morphology, gas production from glucose, growth and acid production on homofermemtative-heterofermentative differential (HHD) agar medium, sugar fermentation patterns) were used to identify 23 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from fermented cereal foods available in Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire. Pediococcus acidilactici (56.5%), Lactobacillus fermentum (30.4%), L. salivarius (4.3%), P. pentosaceus (4.3%) and L. plantarum subsp. plantarum (4.3%) were the species and subspecies identified. Protein based identification was confirmed by automated ribotyping for selected isolates and was similar to that provided by the phenotypic characterization. MALDI-TOF MS protein analysis provided a high level of discrimination among the isolates and could be used for the rapid screening of LAB starter cultures. PMID:25279017

  10. Gas Chromatography -Mass Spectrometry

    E-print Network

    Nizkorodov, Sergey

    GCMS - 1 Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry GC-MS ANALYSIS OF ETHANOL AND BENZENE IN GASOLINE Last updated: June 17, 2014 #12;GCMS - 2 Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry GC-MS ANALYSIS). The goal of this experiment is to separate the components in a sample of gasoline using Gas Chromatography

  11. Cardiolipin fingerprinting of leukocytes by MALDI-TOF/MS as a screening tool for Barth syndrome.

    PubMed

    Angelini, Roberto; Lobasso, Simona; Gorgoglione, Ruggiero; Bowron, Ann; Steward, Colin G; Corcelli, Angela

    2015-09-01

    Barth syndrome (BTHS), an X-linked disease associated with cardioskeletal myopathy, neutropenia, and organic aciduria, is characterized by abnormalities of card-iolipin (CL) species in mitochondria. Diagnosis of the disease is often compromised by lack of rapid and widely available diagnostic laboratory tests. The present study describes a new method for BTHS screening based on MALDI-TOF/MS analysis of leukocyte lipids. This generates a "CL fingerprint" and allows quick and simple assay of the relative levels of CL and monolysocardiolipin species in leukocyte total lipid profiles. To validate the method, we used vector algebra to analyze the difference in lipid composition between controls (24 healthy donors) and patients (8 boys affected by BTHS) in the high-mass phospholipid range. The method of lipid analysis described represents an important additional tool for the diagnosis of BTHS and potentially enables therapeutic monitoring of drug targets, which have been shown to ameliorate abnormal CL profiles in cells. PMID:26144817

  12. Accurate characterization of carcinogenic DNA adducts using MALDI tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Charles A.; Chiu, Norman H. L.

    2009-01-01

    Many chemical carcinogens and their in vivo activated metabolites react readily with genomic DNA, and form covalently bound carcinogen-DNA adducts. Clinically, carcinogen-DNA adducts have been linked to various cancer diseases. Among the current methods for DNA adduct analysis, mass spectroscopic method allows the direct measurement of unlabeled DNA adducts. The goal of this study is to explore the use of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS) to determine the identity of carcinogen-DNA adducts. Two of the known carcinogenic DNA adducts, namely N-(2'-deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenyl-imidazo [4,5-b] pyridine (dG-C8-PhIP) and N-(2'-deoxyguanosin-8yl)-4-aminobiphenyl (dG-C8-ABP), were selected as our models. In MALDI-TOF MS measurements, the small matrix ion and its cluster ions did not interfere with the measurements of both selected dG adducts. To achieve a higher accuracy for the characterization of selected dG adducts, 1 keV collision energy in MALDI-TOF/TOF MS/MS was used to measure the adducts. In comparison to other MS/MS techniques with lower collision energies, more extensive precursor ion dissociations were observed. The detection of the corresponding fragment ions allowed the identities of guanine, PhIP or ABP, and the position of adduction to be confirmed. Some of the fragment ions of dG-C8-PhIP have not been reported by other MS/MS techniques.

  13. Identification of schisandrin as a vascular endothelium protective component in YiQiFuMai Powder Injection using HUVECs binding and HPLC-DAD-Q-TOF-MS/MS analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Fang; Tan, Yi-Sha; Chen, Hong-Lin; Yan, Yan; Zhai, Ke-Feng; Li, Da-Peng; Kou, Jun-Ping; Yu, Bo-Yang

    2015-09-01

    YiQiFuMai Powder Injection (YQFM) is a re-developed preparation based on the well-known traditional Chinese medicine formula Sheng-mai-san. It has been widely used for the treatment of cardiovascular disease with definite clinical efficacy in China, but its bioactive molecules remain obscure. In this study, an effective method has been employed as a tool for screening active components in YQFM, using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) extraction and liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (Q-TOF MS/MS). Nine compounds, which could interact with HUVECs, were identified as ginsenosides Rb1, Rc, Rb2, Rd, 20(S)-Rg3, 20(R)-Rg3, Rk1/Rg5 and schisandrin by comparing with reference substances or literature. In vitro assays showed that schisandrin at concentrations of 10-100 ?M protected HUVECs from hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) injury, increased cell viability, nitric oxide (NO) content and decreased lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage, malonaldehyde (MDA) content and ROS generation. Moreover, schisandrin pretreatment inhibited cell apoptosis, as evidenced by inhibiting activation of caspase-3 and increasing the Bcl-2/Bax ratio. These data indicate that HUVECs biospecific extraction coupled with HPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS/MS analysis is a reliable method for screening potential bioactive components from traditional Chinese medicines. Meanwhile, the vascular endothelium protective property of schisandrin might be beneficial for the treatment of cardiovascular disease. PMID:26452526

  14. Simultaneous Determination of Plant Hormones by GC-TOF-MS.

    PubMed

    Vallarino, José G; Osorio, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Phytohormones are key signaling molecules that coordinate plant growth and development through a range of complex interactions. Since the vast majority of plant responses to given stimuli result, amongst other factors, from a crosstalk between hormones, simultaneous analysis of multiple hormones is vital to improve our understanding of these interactions. This chapter describes a sensitive, reliable, and inexpensive method for quantification of multiple phytohormones by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). PMID:26577794

  15. Analyses of macrolide antibiotic residues in eggs, raw milk, and honey using both ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian; Leung, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Two liquid chromatography mass spectrometric techniques, i.e. ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/Q-Tof MS) and high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS), were used for quantification, confirmation or identification of six macrolide antibiotic residues and/or their degradation products in eggs, raw milk, and/or honey. Macrolides were extracted from food samples by acetonitrile or phosphate buffer (0.1 M, pH 8.0), and sample extracts were further cleaned up using solid-phase extraction cartridges. UPLC/Q-Tof data were acquired in Tof MS full scan mode that allowed both quantification and confirmation of macrolides, and identification of their degradation products. LC/MS/MS data acquisition was achieved using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM), i.e. two transitions, to provide a high degree of sensitivity and repeatability. Matrix-matched standard calibration curves with the use of roxithromycin as an internal standard were utilized to achieve the best accuracy of the method. Both techniques demonstrated good quantitative performance in terms of accuracy and repeatability. LC/MS/MS had advantages over UPLC/Q-Tof MS in that its limits of detection were lower and repeatability was somewhat better. UPLC/Q-Tof provided ultimate and unequivocal confirmation of positive findings, and allowed degradation product identification based on accurate mass. The combination of the two techniques can be very beneficial or complementary in routine analysis of macrolide antibiotic residues and their degradation products in food matrices to ensure the safety of food supply. PMID:17768705

  16. Analysis of illicit dietary supplements sold in the Italian market: identification of a sildenafil thioderivative as adulterant using UPLC-TOF/MS and GC/MS.

    PubMed

    Damiano, Fabio; Silva, Claudia; Gregori, Adolfo; Vacondio, Federica; Mor, Marco; Menozzi, Mattia; Di Giorgio, Domenico

    2014-05-01

    Identification of pharmaceutical active ingredients sildenafil and tadalafil and the characterization of a dimethylated thio-derivative of sildenafil, called thioaildenafil or thiodimethylsildenafil, in illicit dietary supplements were described. A multi-residual ultra-performance liquid chromatography-time of flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-TOF/MS) method was developed to screen for the presence of the phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE-5) inhibitors sildenafil, tadalafil, and vardenafil and their analogues thioaildenafil and thiohomosildenafil in powders and pharmaceutical dosage forms. The study was developed in connection with an operation supervised by the Italian Medicines Agency (A.I.F.A.), aimed to monitor dietary supplements in the Italian market. In two of the eleven specimens under investigation, high-resolution mass spectrometry (HR-MS) allowed the identification of the PDE-5 inhibitors sildenafil and tadalafil, while another specimen proved to contain a unapproved dimethylated thioderivative of sildenafil, thioaildenafil or thiodimethylsildenafil, identified for the first time in Italy as adulterant in food supplements. PMID:24796952

  17. Selective Enrichment and MALDI-TOF MS Analysis of Small Molecule Compounds with Vicinal Diols by Boric Acid-Functionalized Graphene Oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jing; Zheng, Xiaoling; Ni, Yanli

    2015-08-01

    In this study, a 4-vinylphenylboronic acid-functionalized graphene oxide (GO) material was prepared via atom-transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) method and applied for the first time as a novel matrix for the selective enrichment and analysis of small-molecule compounds with vicinal diols, which have been the focus of intense research in the field of life science, by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) in positive-ion mode. There are two main factors playing a decisive role in assisting laser D/I process comparing to some traditional matrices: (1) GO provides ?-conjugated system by itself for laser absorption and energy transfer; (2) the modified 4-vinylphenylboronic acid can selectively capture small-molecule compounds with vicinal diols. The results demonstrate that the novel material has distinct advantages over previously reported matrices in enriching and assisting the highly efficient ionization of target molecules for mass spectrometry analysis. This work indicates a new application branch for graphene-based matrices and provides an alternative solution for small-molecules analysis.

  18. Selective Enrichment and MALDI-TOF MS Analysis of Small Molecule Compounds with Vicinal Diols by Boric Acid-Functionalized Graphene Oxide.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Zheng, Xiaoling; Ni, Yanli

    2015-08-01

    In this study, a 4-vinylphenylboronic acid-functionalized graphene oxide (GO) material was prepared via atom-transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) method and applied for the first time as a novel matrix for the selective enrichment and analysis of small-molecule compounds with vicinal diols, which have been the focus of intense research in the field of life science, by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) in positive-ion mode. There are two main factors playing a decisive role in assisting laser D/I process comparing to some traditional matrices: (1) GO provides ?-conjugated system by itself for laser absorption and energy transfer; (2) the modified 4-vinylphenylboronic acid can selectively capture small-molecule compounds with vicinal diols. The results demonstrate that the novel material has distinct advantages over previously reported matrices in enriching and assisting the highly efficient ionization of target molecules for mass spectrometry analysis. This work indicates a new application branch for graphene-based matrices and provides an alternative solution for small-molecules analysis. PMID:25990923

  19. Bacillus subtilis subsp. subtilis CBMDC3f with antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive foodborne pathogenic bacteria: UV-MALDI-TOF MS analysis of its bioactive compounds.

    PubMed

    Torres, M J; Petroselli, G; Daz, M; Erra-Balsells, R; Audisio, M C

    2015-06-01

    In this work a new Bacillus sp. strain, isolated from honey, was characterized phylogenetically. Its antibacterial activity against three relevant foodborne pathogenic bacteria was studied; the main bioactive metabolites were analyzed using ultraviolet matrix assisted laser desorption-ionization mass spectrometry (UV-MALDI MS). Bacillus CBMDC3f was phylogenetically characterized as Bacillus subtilis subsp. subtilis after rRNA analysis of the 16S subunit and the gyrA gene (access codes Genbank JX120508 and JX120516, respectively). Its antibacterial potential was evaluated against Listeria monocytogenes (9 strains), B. cereus (3 strains) and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC29213. Its cell suspension and cell-free supernatant (CFS) exerted significant anti-Listeria and anti-S. aureus activities, while the lipopeptides fraction (LF) also showed anti-B. cereus effect. The UV-MALDI-MS analysis revealed surfactin, iturin and fengycin in the CFS, whereas surfactin predominated in the LF. The CFS from CBMDC3f contained surfactin, iturin and fengycin with four, two and four homologues per family, respectively, whereas four surfactin, one iturin and one fengycin homologues were identified in the LF. For some surfactin homologues, their UV-MALDI-TOF/TOF (MS/MS; Laser Induced Decomposition method, LID) spectra were also obtained. Mass spectrometry analysis contributed with relevant information about the type of lipopeptides that Bacillus strains can synthesize. From our results, surfactin would be the main metabolite responsible for the antibacterial effect. PMID:25820813

  20. Mass Spectrometry as a Powerful Analytical Technique for the Structural Characterization of Synthesized and Natural Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Es-Safi, Nour-Eddine; Essassi, El Mokhtar; Massoui, Mohamed; Banoub, Joseph

    Mass spectrometry is an important tool for the identification and structural elucidation of natural and synthesized compounds. Its high sensitivity and the possibility of coupling liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry detection make it a technique of choice for the investigation of complex mixtures like raw natural extracts. The mass spectrometer is a universal detector that can achieve very high sensitivity and provide information on the molecular mass. More detailed information can be subsequently obtained by resorting to collision-induced dissociation tandem mass spectrometry (CID-MS/MS). In this review, the application of mass spectrometric techniques for the identification of natural and synthetic compounds is presented. The gas-phase fragmentation patterns of a series of four natural flavonoid glycosides, three synthesized benzodiazepines and two synthesized quinoxalinone derivatives were investigated using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and tandem mass spectrometry techniques. Exact accurate masses were measured using a modorate resolution quadrupole orthogonal time-of-flight QqTOF-MS/MS hybrid mass spectrometer instrument. Confirmation of the molecular masses and the chemical structures of the studied compounds were achieved by exploring the gas-phase breakdown routes of the ionized molecules. This was rationalized by conducting low-energy collision CID-MS/MS analyses (product ion- and precursor ion scans) using a conventional quadrupole hexapole-quadrupole (QhQ) tandem mass spectrometer.

  1. Chemical analysis of pharmaceuticals and explosives in fingermarks using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization/time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kaplan-Sandquist, Kimberly; LeBeau, Marc A; Miller, Mark L

    2014-02-01

    Chemical analysis of latent fingermarks, "touch chemistry," has the potential of providing intelligence or forensically relevant information. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI/TOF MS) was used as an analytical platform for obtaining mass spectra and chemical images of target drugs and explosives in fingermark residues following conventional fingerprint development methods and MALDI matrix processing. There were two main purposes of this research: (1) develop effective laboratory methods for detecting drugs and explosives in fingermark residues and (2) determine the feasibility of detecting drugs and explosives after casual contact with pills, powders, and residues. Further, synthetic latent print reference pads were evaluated as mimics of natural fingermark residue to determine if the pads could be used for method development and quality control. The results suggest that artificial amino acid and sebaceous oil residue pads are not suitable to adequately simulate natural fingermark chemistry for MALDI/TOF MS analysis. However, the pads were useful for designing experiments and setting instrumental parameters. Based on the natural fingermark residue experiments, handling whole or broken pills did not transfer sufficient quantities of drugs to allow for definitive detection. Transferring drugs or explosives in the form of powders and residues was successful for preparing analytes for detection after contact with fingers and deposition of fingermark residue. One downfall to handling powders was that the analyte particles were easily spread beyond the original fingermark during development. Analyte particles were confined in the original fingermark when using transfer residues. The MALDI/TOF MS was able to detect procaine, pseudoephedrine, TNT, and RDX from contact residue under laboratory conditions with the integration of conventional fingerprint development methods and MALDI matrix. MALDI/TOF MS is a nondestructive technique which provides chemical information in both the mass spectra and chemical images. PMID:24447453

  2. Improvement of identification of Capnocytophaga canimorsus by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry using enriched database.

    PubMed

    Magnette, Amandine; Huang, Te-Din; Renzi, Francesco; Bogaerts, Pierre; Cornelis, Guy R; Glupczynski, Youri

    2016-01-01

    Capnocytophaga canimorsus and Capnocytophaga cynodegmi can be transmitted from dogs or cats and cause serious human infections. We aimed to evaluate the ability of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) to identify these two Capnocytophaga species. Ninety-four C. canimorsus and 10 C. cynodegmi isolates identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing were analyzed. Using the MALDI BioTyper database, correct identification was achieved for only 16 of 94 (17%) C. canimorsus and all 10 C. cynodegmi strains, according to the manufacturer's log score specifications. Following the establishment of a complementary homemade reference database by addition of 51 C. canimorsus and 8 C. cynodegmi mass spectra, MALDI-TOF MS provided reliable identification to the species level for 100% of the 45 blind-coded Capnocytophaga isolates tested. MALDI-TOF MS can accurately identify C. canimorsus and C. cynodegmi using an enriched database and thus constitutes a valuable diagnostic tool in the clinical laboratory. PMID:26508105

  3. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry analysis of amphipol-trapped membrane proteins.

    PubMed

    Bechara, Chérine; Bolbach, Gérard; Bazzaco, Paola; Sharma, K Shivaji; Durand, Grégory; Popot, Jean-Luc; Zito, Francesca; Sagan, Sandrine

    2012-07-17

    Amphipols (APols) are amphipathic polymers with the ability to substitute detergents to keep membrane proteins (MPs) soluble and functional in aqueous solutions. APols also protect MPs against denaturation. Here, we have examined the ability of APol-trapped MPs to be analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). For that purpose, we have used ionic and nonionic APols and as model proteins (i) the transmembrane domain of Escherichia coli outer membrane protein A, a ?-barrel, eubacterial MP, (ii) Halobacterium salinarum bacteriorhodopsin, an ?-helical archaebacterial MP with a single cofactor, and (iii, iv) two eukaryotic MP complexes comprising multiple subunits and many cofactors, cytochrome b(6)f from the chloroplast of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and cytochrome bc(1) from beef heart mitochondria. We show that these MP/APol complexes can be readily analyzed by MALDI-TOF-MS; most of the subunits and some lipids and cofactors were identified. APols alone, even ionic ones, had no deleterious effects on MS signals and were not detected in mass spectra. Thus, the combination of MP stabilization by APols and MS analyses provides an interesting new approach to investigating supramolecular interactions in biological membranes. PMID:22703540

  4. Implementation of Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry in Routine Clinical Laboratories Improves Identification of Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci and Reveals the Pathogenic Role of Staphylococcus lugdunensis.

    PubMed

    Argemi, Xavier; Riegel, Philippe; Lavigne, Thierry; Lefebvre, Nicolas; Grandpré, Nicolas; Hansmann, Yves; Jaulhac, Benoit; Prévost, Gilles; Schramm, Frédéric

    2015-07-01

    The use of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) for staphylococcal identification is now considered routine in laboratories compared with the conventional phenotypical methods previously used. We verified its microbiological relevance for identifying the main species of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) by randomly selecting 50 isolates. From 1 January 2007 to 31 August 2008, 12,479 staphylococci were isolated with phenotypic methods, of which 4,594 were identified as Staphylococcus aureus and 7,885 were coagulase negative staphylococci. Using MALDI-TOF MS from 1 January 2011 to 31 August 2012, 14,913 staphylococci were identified, with 5,066 as S. aureus and 9,847 as CoNS. MALDI-TOF MS allowed the identification of approximately 85% of the CoNS strains, whereas only 14% of the CoNS strains were identified to the species level with phenotypic methods because they were often considered contaminants. Furthermore, the use of MALDI-TOF MS revealed the occurrence of recently characterized Staphylococcus species, such as S. pettenkoferi, S. condimenti, and S. piscifermentans. Microbiological relevance analysis further revealed that some species displayed a high rate of microbiological significance, i.e., 40% of the S. lugdunensis strains included in the analysis were associated with infection risk. This retrospective microbiological study confirms the role of MALDI-TOF MS in clinical settings for the identification of staphylococci with clinical consequences. The species distribution reveals the occurrence of the recently identified species S. pettenkoferi and putative virulent species, including S. lugdunensis. PMID:25878345

  5. Identification of Gram-Positive Cocci by Use of Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization–Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry: Comparison of Different Preparation Methods and Implementation of a Practical Algorithm for Routine Diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Schulthess, Bettina; Brodner, Katharina; Bloemberg, Guido V.; Zbinden, Reinhard; Böttger, Erik C.

    2013-01-01

    This study compared three sample preparation methods (direct transfer, the direct transfer-formic acid method with on-target formic acid treatment, and ethanol-formic acid extraction) for the identification of Gram-positive cocci with matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). A total of 156 Gram-positive cocci representing the clinically most important genera, Aerococcus, Enterococcus, Staphylococcus, and Streptococcus, as well as more rare genera, such as Gemella and Granulicatella, were analyzed using a Bruker MALDI Biotyper. The rate of correct genus-level identifications was approximately 99% for all three sample preparation methods. The species identification rate was significantly higher for the direct transfer-formic acid method and ethanol-formic acid extraction (both 77.6%) than for direct transfer (64.1%). Using direct transfer-formic acid compared to direct transfer, the total time to result was increased by 22.6%, 16.4%, and 8.5% analyzing 12, 48, and 96 samples per run, respectively. In a subsequent prospective study, 1,619 clinical isolates of Gram-positive cocci were analyzed under routine conditions by MALDI-TOF MS, using the direct transfer-formic acid preparation, and by conventional biochemical methods. For 95.6% of the isolates, a congruence between conventional and MALDI-TOF MS identification was observed. Two major limitations were found using MALDI-TOF MS: the differentiation of members of the Streptococcus mitis group and the identification of Streptococcus dysgalactiae. The Bruker MALDI Biotyper system using the direct transfer-formic acid sample preparation method was shown to be a highly reliable tool for the identification of Gram-positive cocci. We here suggest a practical algorithm for the clinical laboratory combining MALDI-TOF MS with phenotypic and molecular methods. PMID:23554198

  6. MALDI-TOF MS analysis of ribosomal proteins coded in S10 and spc operons rapidly classified the Sphingomonadaceae as alkylphenol polyethoxylate-degrading bacteria from the environment.

    PubMed

    Hotta, Yudai; Sato, Hiroaki; Hosoda, Akifumi; Tamura, Hiroto

    2012-05-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) using ribosomal subunit proteins coded in the S10-spc-alpha operon as biomarkers was applied for the classification of the Sphingomonadaceae from the environment. To construct a ribosomal protein database, S10-spc-alpha operon of type strains of the Sphingomonadaceae and their related alkylphenol polyethoxylate (APEO(n) )-degrading bacteria were sequenced using specific primers designed based on nucleotide sequences of genome-sequenced strains. The observed MALDI mass spectra of intact cells were compared with the theoretical mass of the constructed ribosomal protein database. The nine selected biomarkers coded in the S10-spc-alpha operon, L18, L22, L24, L29, L30, S08, S14, S17, and S19, could successfully distinguish the Sphingopyxis terrae NBRC 15098(T) and APEO(n) -degrading bacteria strain BSN20, despite only one base difference in the 16S rRNA gene sequence. This method, named the S10-GERMS (S10-spc-alpha operon gene-encoded ribosomal protein mass spectrum) method, is a significantly useful tool for bacterial discrimination of the Sphingomonadaceae at the strain level and can detect and monitor the main APEO(n) -degrading bacteria in the environment. PMID:22324315

  7. Detecting monoclonal immunoglobulins in human serum using mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Mills, John R; Barnidge, David R; Murray, David L

    2015-06-15

    Established guidelines from the International Myeloma Working Group recommend diagnostic screening for patients suspected of plasma cell proliferative disease using protein electrophoresis (PEL), free light chain measurements and immunofixation electrophoresis (IFE) of serum and urine in certain cases. Plasma cell proliferative disorders are generally classified as monoclonal gammopathies given most are associated with the excess secretion of a monoclonal immunoglobulin or M-protein. In clinical practice, the M-protein is detected in a patients' serum by the appearance of a distinct protein band migrating within regions typically occupied by immunoglobulins. Given each M-protein is comprised by a sequence of amino acids pre-defined by somatic recombination unique to each clonal plasma cell, the molecular mass of the M-protein can act as a surrogate marker. We established a mass spectrometry based method to assign molecular mass to the immunoglobulin light chain of the M-protein and used this to detect the presence of M-proteins. Our method first enriches serum for immunoglobulins, followed by reduction to separate light chains from heavy chains, followed by microflow LC-ESI-Q-TOF MS. The multiply charged light chain ions are converted to their molecular mass and reconstructed peak area calculations are used for quantification. Using this method, we term "monoclonal immunoglobulin Rapid Accurate Molecular Mass" or miRAMM, the presence of M-proteins can be reliably detected with superior sensitivity compared to current gel-based PEL and IFE techniques. PMID:25916620

  8. Forensic Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, William D.; Jackson, Glen P.

    2015-07-01

    Developments in forensic mass spectrometry tend to follow, rather than lead, the developments in other disciplines. Examples of techniques having forensic potential born independently of forensic applications include ambient ionization, imaging mass spectrometry, isotope ratio mass spectrometry, portable mass spectrometers, and hyphenated chromatography-mass spectrometry instruments, to name a few. Forensic science has the potential to benefit enormously from developments that are funded by other means, if only the infrastructure and personnel existed to adopt, validate, and implement the new technologies into casework. Perhaps one unique area in which forensic science is at the cutting edge is in the area of chemometrics and the determination of likelihood ratios for the evaluation of the weight of evidence. Such statistical techniques have been developed most extensively for ignitable-liquid residue analyses and isotope ratio analysis. This review attempts to capture the trends, motivating forces, and likely impact of developing areas of forensic mass spectrometry, with the caveat that none of this research is likely to have any real impact in the forensic community unless: (a) The instruments developed are turned into robust black boxes with red and green lights for positives and negatives, respectively, or (b) there are PhD graduates in the workforce who can help adopt these sophisticated techniques.

  9. Comparing Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry and Phenotypic and Molecular Methods for Identification of Species within the Streptococcus anginosus Group.

    PubMed

    Arinto-Garcia, Raquel; Pinho, Marcos Daniel; Carriço, João André; Melo-Cristino, José; Ramirez, Mário

    2015-11-01

    The heterogeneity of members of the Streptococcus anginosus group (SAG) has traditionally hampered their correct identification. Recently, the group was subdivided into 6 taxa whose prevalence among human infections is poorly described. We evaluated the accuracy of the Rapid ID32 Strep test, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), and a PCR multiplex method to identify 212 SAG isolates recovered from human infections to the species and subspecies level by using multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) as the gold standard. We also determined the antimicrobial susceptibilities of the isolates. Representatives of all SAG taxa were found among our collection. MALDI-TOF MS and the Rapid ID32 Strep test correctly identified 92% and 68% of the isolates to the species level, respectively, but showed poor performance at the subspecies level, and the latter was responsible for major identification errors. The multiplex PCR method results were in complete agreement with the MLSA identifications but failed to distinguish the subspecies Streptococcus constellatus subsp. pharyngis and S. constellatus subsp. viborgensis. A total of 145 MLSA sequence types were present in our collection, indicating that within each taxon a number of different lineages are capable of causing infection. Significant antibiotic resistance was observed only to tetracycline, erythromycin, and clindamycin and was present in most taxa. MALDI-TOF MS is a reliable method for routine SAG species identification, while the need for identification to the subspecies level is not clearly established. PMID:26354817

  10. Structural analysis of quazepam metabolites in bile by ion trap time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Koji; Goda, Takahiro; Yamaki, Satoshi; Ohno, Youkichi

    2015-11-01

    Quazepam (QZP) is a long-acting benzodiazepine-type hypnotic. We searched for novel QZP metabolites in bile and determined their structures by liquid chromatography-ion trap time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-IT-TOF MS). The metabolites were extracted with ethyl acetate after ?-glucuronidase treatment. First, a single MS spectrum was acquired. Second, MS(n) spectra were acquired for peaks that consisted of ions with the isotope pattern corresponding to molecules bearing one chlorine atom. The novel QZP metabolites found in this study were hydroxyquazepam, hydroxy-methoxyquazepam, hydroxy-oxoquazepam, and hydroxy-methoxy-oxoquazepam, which have the hydroxy and methoxy groups on the fluorophenyl group, and dihydroxy-oxoquazepam and dihydroxy-methoxy-oxoquazepam, which have one hydroxy group at the 3-position of the seven-membered ring and the other hydroxy group and the methoxy group on the fluorophenyl group. We demonstrated that LC-IT-TOF MS was a useful tool for determining the structure of the metabolites. However, the exact locations of the hydroxy and methoxy groups on the fluorophenyl group could not be identified. PMID:26301753

  11. Mass Spectrometry-Based Metabolite Profiling in the Mouse Liver following Exposure to Ultraviolet B Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hye Min; Shon, Jong Cheol; Lee, Mee Youn; Liu, Kwang-Hyeon; Kim, Jeong Kee; Lee, Sang Jun; Lee, Choong Hwan

    2014-01-01

    Although many studies have been performed on the effects of ultraviolet (UV) radiation on the skin, only a limited number of reports have investigated these effects on non-skin tissue. This study aimed to describe the metabolite changes in the liver of hairless mice following chronic exposure to UVB radiation. We did not observe significant macroscopic changes or alterations in hepatic cholesterol and triglyceride levels in the liver of UVB-irradiated mice, compared with those for normal mice. In this study, we detected hepatic metabolite changes by UVB exposure and identified several amino acids, fatty acids, nucleosides, carbohydrates, phospholipids, lysophospholipids, and taurine-conjugated cholic acids as candidate biomarkers in response to UVB radiation in the mouse liver by using various mass spectrometry (MS)-based metabolite profiling including ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight (TOF)-MS, gas chromatography-TOF-MS and nanomate LTQ-MS. Glutamine exhibited the most dramatic change with a 5-fold increase in quantity. The results from altering several types of metabolites suggest that chronic UVB irradiation may impact significantly on major hepatic metabolism processes, despite the fact that the liver is not directly exposed to UVB radiation. MS-based metabolomic approach for determining regulatory hepatic metabolites following UV irradiation will provide a better understanding of the relationship between internal organs and UV light. PMID:25275468

  12. Characterization of honeybee venom by MALDI-TOF and nanoESI-QqTOF mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Matysiak, Jan; Schmelzer, Christian E H; Neubert, Reinhard H H; Kokot, Zenon J

    2011-01-25

    The aim of the study was to comprehensively characterize different honeybee venom samples applying two complementary mass spectrometry methods. 41 honeybee venom samples of different bee strains, country of origin (Poland, Georgia, and Estonia), year and season of the venom collection were analyzed using MALDI-TOF and nanoESI-QqTOF-MS. It was possible to obtain semi-quantitative data for 12 different components in selected honeybee venom samples using MALDI-TOF method without further sophisticated and time consuming sample pretreatment. Statistical analysis (ANOVA) has shown that there are qualitative and quantitative differences in the composition between honeybee venom samples collected over different years. It has also been demonstrated that MALDI-TOF spectra can be used as a "protein fingerprint" of honeybee venom in order to confirm the identity of the product. NanoESI-QqTOF-MS was applied especially for identification purposes. Using this technique 16 peptide sequences were identified, including melittin (12 different breakdown products and precursors), apamine, mast cell degranulating peptide and secapin. Moreover, the significant achievement of this study is the fact that the new peptide (HTGAVLAGV+Amidated (C-term), M(r)=822.53Da) has been discovered in bee venom for the first time. PMID:20850943

  13. OmpU as a biomarker for rapid discrimination between toxigenic and epidemic Vibrio cholerae O1/O139 and non-epidemic Vibrio cholerae in a modified MALDI-TOF MS assay

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cholera is an acute diarrheal disease caused by Vibrio cholerae. Outbreaks are caused by a genetically homogenous group of strains from serogroup O1 or O139 that are able to produce the cholera toxin. Rapid detection and identification of these epidemic strains is essential for an effective response to cholera outbreaks. Results The use of ferulic acid as a matrix in a new MALDI-TOF MS assay increased the measurable mass range of existing MALDI-TOF MS protocols for bacterial identification. The assay enabled rapid discrimination between epidemic V. cholerae O1/O139 strains and other less pathogenic V. cholerae strains. OmpU, an outer membrane protein whose amino acid sequence is highly conserved among epidemic strains of V. cholerae, appeared as a discriminatory marker in the novel MALDI-TOF MS assay. Conclusions The extended mass range of MALDI-TOF MS measurements obtained by using ferulic acid improved the screening for biomarkers in complex protein mixtures. Differences in the mass of abundant homologous proteins due to variation in amino acid sequences can rapidly be examined in multiple samples. Here, a rapid MALDI-TOF MS assay was developed that could discriminate between epidemic O1/O139 strains and other less pathogenic V. cholerae strains based on differences in mass of the OmpU protein. It appeared that the amino acid sequence of OmpU from epidemic V. cholerae O1/O139 strains is unique and highly conserved. PMID:24943244

  14. Measurement of lysine-specific demethylase-1 activity in the nuclear extracts by flow-injection based time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Sakane, Chiharu; Ohta, Hiromichi; Shidoji, Yoshihiro

    2015-03-01

    Lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1/KDM1A), a histone-modifying enzyme, is upregulated in many cancers, especially in neuroblastoma, breast cancer and hepatoma. We have established a simple method to measure LSD1 activity using a synthetic N-terminal 21-mer peptide of histone H3, which is dimethylated at Lys-4 (H3K4me2). After the enzyme reaction, a substrate of H3K4me2 and two demethylated products, H3K4me1 and H3K4me0, were quantitatively determined by flow injection time-of-flight mass spectrometry (FI-TOF/MS). By using recombinant human LSD1, a nonlinear fitting simulation of the data obtained by FI-TOF/MS produced typical consecutive-reaction kinetics. Apparent K m and k cat values of hLSD1 for the first and second demethylation reactions were found to be in the range of reported values. Tranylcypromine was shown to inhibit LSD1 activity with an IC50 of 6.9 µM for the first demethylation reaction and 5.8 µM for the second demethylation reaction. The FI-TOF/MS assay revealed that the endogenous LSD1 activity was higher in the nuclear extracts of SH-SY5Y cells than in HeLa or PC-3 cells, and this is in accordance with the immunoblotting data using an anti-LSD1 antibody. A simple, straightforward FI-TOF/MS assay is described to efficiently measure LSD1 activity in the nuclear extracts of cultured cells. PMID:25759518

  15. Measurement of lysine-specific demethylase-1 activity in the nuclear extracts by flow-injection based time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Sakane, Chiharu; Ohta, Hiromichi; Shidoji, Yoshihiro

    2015-01-01

    Lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1/KDM1A), a histone-modifying enzyme, is upregulated in many cancers, especially in neuroblastoma, breast cancer and hepatoma. We have established a simple method to measure LSD1 activity using a synthetic N-terminal 21-mer peptide of histone H3, which is dimethylated at Lys-4 (H3K4me2). After the enzyme reaction, a substrate of H3K4me2 and two demethylated products, H3K4me1 and H3K4me0, were quantitatively determined by flow injection time-of-flight mass spectrometry (FI-TOF/MS). By using recombinant human LSD1, a nonlinear fitting simulation of the data obtained by FI-TOF/MS produced typical consecutive-reaction kinetics. Apparent Km and kcat values of hLSD1 for the first and second demethylation reactions were found to be in the range of reported values. Tranylcypromine was shown to inhibit LSD1 activity with an IC50 of 6.9 µM for the first demethylation reaction and 5.8 µM for the second demethylation reaction. The FI-TOF/MS assay revealed that the endogenous LSD1 activity was higher in the nuclear extracts of SH-SY5Y cells than in HeLa or PC-3 cells, and this is in accordance with the immunoblotting data using an anti-LSD1 antibody. A simple, straightforward FI-TOF/MS assay is described to efficiently measure LSD1 activity in the nuclear extracts of cultured cells. PMID:25759518

  16. Identification of Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci from Bovine Intramammary Infection by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization–Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Juliano Leonel; Barreiro, Juliana Regina; Braga, Patrícia Aparecida de Campos; Prada e Silva, Luis Felipe; Eberlin, Marcos Nogueira

    2014-01-01

    Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are among the main pathogens causing bovine intramammary infection (IMI) in many countries. However, one of the limitations related to the specific diagnosis of CoNS is the lack of an accurate, rapid, and convenient method that can differentiate the bacterial species comprising this group. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) to accurately identify CoNS species in dairy cow IMI. In addition, the study aimed to determine the frequency of CoNS species causing bovine IMI. A total of 108 bacterial isolates were diagnosed as CoNS by microbiological cultures from two milk samples collected from 21 dairy herds; the first sample was collected at the cow level (i.e., 1,242 composite samples from all quarters), while the second sample was collected at the mammary quarter level (i.e., 1,140 mammary samples collected from 285 cows). After CoNS isolation was confirmed by microbiological culture for both samples, all CoNS isolates (n = 108) were genotypically differentiated by PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of a partial groEL gene sequence and subjected to the MALDI-TOF MS identification procedure. MALDI-TOF MS correctly identified 103 (95.4%) of the CoNS isolates identified by PCR-RFLP at the species level. Eleven CoNS species isolated from bovine IMI were identified by PCR-RFLP, and the most prevalent species was Staphylococcus chromogenes (n = 80; 74.1%). In conclusion, MALDI-TOF MS may be a reliable alternative method for differentiating CoNS species causing bovine IMI. PMID:24622096

  17. Direct Bacterial Identification in Positive Blood Cultures by Use of Two Commercial Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization–Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry Systems

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jonathan H. K.; Ho, Pak-Leung; Kwan, Grace S. W.; She, Kevin K. K.; Siu, Gilman K. H.; Cheng, Vincent C. C.; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2013-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) for the identification of bacteria and fungi was recently introduced in microbiology laboratories. This technology could greatly improve the clinical management of patients and guidance for chemotherapy. In this study, we used a commercial MALDI Sepsityper extraction method to evaluate the performance of two commercial MALDI-TOF MS systems, the Vitek MS IVD (bioMérieux) and the Microflex LT Biotyper (Bruker Daltonics) for direct bacterial identification in positive blood cultures. In 181 monomicrobial cultures, both systems generated genus to species level identifications for >90% of the specimens (Biotyper, 177/181 [97.8%]; Vitek MS IVD, 167/181 [92.3%]). Overall, the Biotyper system generated significantly more accurate identifications than the Vitek MS IVD system (P = 0.016; 177 versus 167 out of 181 specimens). The Biotyper system identified the minority species among polymicrobial blood cultures. We also compared the performance of an in-house extraction method with that of the Sepsityper on both MALDI-TOF MS systems. The in-house method generated more correct identifications at the genus level than the Sepsityper (96.7% versus 93.5%) on the Biotyper system, whereas the two methods exhibited the same performance level (88.0% versus 88.0%) on the Vitek MS IVD system. Our study confirmed the practical advantages of MALDI-TOF MS, and our in-house extraction method reduced the reagent cost to $1 per specimen, with a shorter turnaround time of 3 h, which is highly cost-effective for a diagnostic microbiology service. PMID:23515548

  18. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry and PCR-based rapid diagnosis of Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia.

    PubMed

    Clerc, O; Prod'hom, G; Senn, L; Jaton, K; Zanetti, G; Calandra, T; Greub, G

    2014-04-01

    Effective empirical treatment is of paramount importance to improve the outcome of patients with Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia. We aimed to evaluate a PCR-based rapid diagnosis of methicillin resistance (GeneXpert MRSA) after early detection of S. aureus bacteraemia using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Patients with a first episode of S. aureus bacteraemia identified using MALDI-TOF MS were randomized in a prospective interventional open study between October 2010 and August 2012. In the control group, antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed after MALDI-TOF MS identification on blood culture pellets. In the intervention group, a GeneXpert MRSA was performed after S. aureus identification. The primary outcome was the performance of GeneXpert MRSA directly on blood cultures. We then assessed the impact of early diagnosis of methicillin resistance on the empirical treatment. In all, 197 episodes of S. aureus bacteraemia were included in the study, of which 106 were included in the intervention group. Median time from MALDI-TOF MS identification to GeneXpert MRSA result was 97 min (range 25-250). Detection of methicillin resistance using GeneXpert MRSA had a sensitivity of 99% and a specificity of 100%. There was less unnecessary coverage of MRSA in the intervention group (17.1% versus 29.2%, p 0.09). GeneXpert MRSA was highly reliable in diagnosing methicillin resistance when performed directly on positive blood cultures. This could help to avoid unnecessary prescriptions of anti-MRSA agents and promote the introduction of earlier adequate coverage in unsuspected cases. PMID:23991748

  19. Forced degradation of fingolimod: Effect of co-solvent and characterization of degradation products by UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS and (1)H NMR.

    PubMed

    Patel, Prinesh N; Kalariya, Pradipbhai D; Gananadhamu, S; Srinivas, R

    2015-11-10

    Fingolimod (FGL), an immunomodulator drug for treating multiple sclerosis, was subjected to hydrolysis (acidic, alkaline and neutral), oxidation, photolysis and thermal stress, as per International Conference on Harmonization specified conditions. The drug showed extensive degradation under base hydrolysis, however, it was stable under all other conditions. A total of three degradation products (DPs) were observed. The chromatographic separation of the drug and its degradation products was achieved on a Fortis C18 (100×2.1mm, 1.7?m) column with a mobile phase composed of 0.1% formic acid (Solvent A) and acetonitrile (Solvent B) in gradient mode. All the DPs were identified and characterized by liquid chromatography-quadrupole time of flight-mass spectrometry (LC-Q-TOF-MS) in combination with accurate mass measurements. The major DP was isolated and characterized by Nuclear Magnetic resonance spectroscopy. This is a typical case of degradation where acetonitrile used as co-solvent in stress studies, reacts with FGL in base hydrolytic conditions to produce acetylated DPs. Hence, it can be suggested that acetonitrile is not preferable as a co-solvent for stress degradation of FGL. The developed UHPLC method was validated as per ICH guidelines. PMID:26279369

  20. Ambient ionization mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebedev, A. T.

    2015-07-01

    Ambient ionization mass spectrometry emerged as a new scientific discipline only about ten years ago. A considerable body of information has been reported since that time. Keeping the sensitivity, performance and informativity of classical mass spectrometry methods, the new approach made it possible to eliminate laborious sample preparation procedures and triggered the development of miniaturized instruments to work directly in the field. The review concerns the theoretical foundations and design of ambient ionization methods. Their advantages and drawbacks, as well as prospects for application in chemistry, biology, medicine, environmetal analysis, etc., are discussed. The bibliography includes 194 references.

  1. Nanopore Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, Derek; Bush, Joseph; Mihovilovic, Mirna; Maulbetsch, William; Moon, Wooyoung; Bazemore-Walker, Carthene; Weber, Peter

    2012-02-01

    We describe a concept for single-DNA analysis called nanopore mass spectrometry, which seeks to combine the benefits of nanopores with the speed, sensitivity, and robustness of single base detection by mass spectrometry. The basic idea is to cleave the individual nucleotides from a DNA polymer as they transit a nanopore in sequence, and to identify each one by determining its charge-to-mass ratio in a mass spectrometer. We describe how nanopore mass spectrometry can addresse the challenges faced by other nanopore-based DNA analysis approaches. We also describe the design, construction, and testing of a prototype instrument that interfaces a nanopore ion source with a quadrupole mass filter and a single ion detector. We are using this new instrument to test the key scientific questions bearing on our analysis strategy: 1) Can DNA nucleotides be reliably transferred from their native liquid phase into the vacuum environment of a mass spectrometer? 2) Can nucleotides be detected with near 100% efficiency? 3) Can DNA polymers be controllably cleaved to isolate ionized bases or nucleotides in the mass spectrometer?

  2. Laser Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry for Future In Situ Planetary Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Getty, S. A.; Brinckerhoff, W. B.; Cornish, T.; Ecelberger, S. A.; Li, X.; Floyd, M. A. Merrill; Chanover, N.; Uckert, K.; Voelz, D.; Xiao, X.; Tawalbeh, R.; Glenar, D.; Elsila, J. E.; Callahan, M.

    2012-01-01

    Laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LD-TOF-MS) is a versatile, low-complexity instrument class that holds significant promise for future landed in situ planetary missions that emphasize compositional analysis of surface materials. Here we describe a 5kg-class instrument that is capable of detecting and analyzing a variety of analytes directly from rock or ice samples. Through laboratory studies of a suite of representative samples, we show that detection and analysis of key mineral composition, small organics, and particularly, higher molecular weight organics are well suited to this instrument design. A mass range exceeding 100,000 Da has recently been demonstrated. We describe recent efforts in instrument prototype development and future directions that will enhance our analytical capabilities targeting organic mixtures on primitive and icy bodies. We present results on a series of standards, simulated mixtures, and meteoritic samples.

  3. Analytical mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This 43rd Annual Summer Symposium on Analytical Chemistry was held July 24--27, 1990 at Oak Ridge, TN and contained sessions on the following topics: Fundamentals of Analytical Mass Spectrometry (MS), MS in the National Laboratories, Lasers and Fourier Transform Methods, Future of MS, New Ionization and LC/MS Methods, and an extra session. (WET)

  4. Analytical mass spectrometry. Abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-31

    This 43rd Annual Summer Symposium on Analytical Chemistry was held July 24--27, 1990 at Oak Ridge, TN and contained sessions on the following topics: Fundamentals of Analytical Mass Spectrometry (MS), MS in the National Laboratories, Lasers and Fourier Transform Methods, Future of MS, New Ionization and LC/MS Methods, and an extra session. (WET)

  5. Detection of Large Ions in Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry: Effects of Ion Mass and Acceleration Voltage on Microchannel Plate Detector Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ranran; Li, Qiyao; Smith, Lloyd M.

    2014-08-01

    In time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS), ion detection is typically accomplished by the generation and amplification of secondary electrons produced by ions colliding with a microchannel plate (MCP) detector. Here, the response of an MCP detector as a function of ion mass and acceleration voltage is characterized, for singly charged peptide/protein ions ranging from 1 to 290 kDa in mass, and for acceleration voltages from 5 to 25 kV. A nondestructive inductive charge detector (ICD) employed in parallel with MCP detection provides a reliable reference signal to allow accurate calibration of the MCP response. MCP detection efficiencies were very close to unity for smaller ions at high acceleration voltages (e.g., angiotensin, 1046.5 Da, at 25 kV acceleration voltage), but decreased to ~11% for the largest ions examined (immunoglobulin G (IgG) dimer, 290 kDa) even at the highest acceleration voltage employed (25 kV). The secondary electron yield ? (average number of electrons produced per ion collision) is found to be proportional to mv3.1 (m: ion mass, v: ion velocity) over the entire mass range examined, and inversely proportional to the square root of m in TOF-MS analysis. The results indicate that although MCP detectors indeed offer superlative performance in the detection of smaller peptide/protein species, their performance does fall off substantially for larger proteins, particularly under conditions of low acceleration voltage.

  6. A metabolomic study using HPLC-TOF/MS coupled with ingenuity pathway analysis: Intervention effects of Rhizoma Alismatis on spontaneous hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Chu, Yanjun; Jiang, Haiqiang; Ju, Jianqing; Li, Yunlun; Gong, Lili; Wang, Xiaoming; Yang, Wenqing; Deng, Yue

    2016-01-01

    Rhizoma Alismatis, an important crude herb component in traditional Chinese medicine, has been commonly used for treating hypertension, but its mechanism has not been clarified in level of metabolic. Therefore, in the present work, metabolomics study coupled with ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA) have been performed to explore the potential mechanism in anti-hypertensive effect of Rhizoma Alismatis. Serum samples from SHRs and WKYs were analyzed with the use of high performance liquid chromatography coupled with time of flight mass spectrometry detection (HPLC-TOF/MS) in positive polarity. The obtained data sets were statistically analyzed using univariate and multivariate statistical analyses including the principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) for pattern recognition and selection of significant metabolites. 12 potential biomarkers in rat serum were screened out from HMDB, METLIN and KEGG databases. Furthermore, IPA was introduced and Glycerophospholipid metabolism and Purine metabolism were filtered out as potential target pathways. This metabolomic approach coupled with IPA provided a feasible way to understand the therapeutic mechanism of Rhizoma Alismatis on spontaneous hypertensive rats. PMID:26454337

  7. Isolation and identification of antiplasmodial N-alkylamides from Spilanthes acmella flowers using centrifugal partition chromatography and ESI-IT-TOF-MS.

    PubMed

    Mbeunkui, Flaubert; Grace, Mary H; Lategan, Carmen; Smith, Peter J; Raskin, Ilya; Lila, Mary Ann

    2011-07-01

    The development of new antiplasmodial drugs is of primary importance due to the growing problem of multi-drug resistance of malaria parasites. Spilanthes acmella, a plant traditionally used for the treatment of toothache, was targeted as a lead for its potential antiplasmodial activity. A systematic approach for investigating a suitable centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC) solvent system for N-alkylamides separation was reported. The partition behavior of three N-alkylamides has been studied using several biphasic solvent mixtures in search of an adequate CPC solvent system for this class of compounds. Major N-alkylamides in S. acmella were isolated from a methanolic crude extract of flowers by CPC with the solvent system heptanes-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (3:2:3:2, v/v/v/v). Four N-alkylamides were purified and the structures were illustrated by electrospray ionization-ion trap-time of flight-mass spectrometry (ESI-IT-TOF-MS), ¹H nuclear magnetic resonance (¹H NMR) and ¹³C nuclear magnetic resonance (¹³C NMR). The CPC fractions, which contained natural mixtures of phytochemicals, demonstrated significantly higher antiplasmodial activity compared to corresponding purified N-alkylamides, thus suggesting that interactions between these N-alkylamides may potentiate antiplasmodial bioactivity. PMID:21641879

  8. Permeability Study of Polyphenols Derived from a Phenolic-Enriched Hibiscus sabdariffa Extract by UHPLC-ESI-UHR-Qq-TOF-MS.

    PubMed

    Borrás-Linares, Isabel; Herranz-López, María; Barrajón-Catalán, Enrique; Arráez-Román, David; González-Álvarez, Isabel; Bermejo, Marival; Fernández Gutiérrez, Alberto; Micol, Vicente; Segura-Carretero, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Previous findings on the capacity of Hibiscus sabdariffa (HS) polyphenols to ameliorate metabolic disturbances justify the necessity of studies oriented to find the potential metabolites responsible for such an effect. The present study examined the intestinal epithelial membrane permeability of polyphenols present in a phenolic-enriched Hibiscus sabdariffa extract (PEHS), free and encapsulated, using the Caco-2 cell line. Additionally, selected polyphenols (quercetin, quercetin-3-glucoside, quercetin-3-glucuronide, and N-feruloyltyramine) were also studied in the same absorption model. The powerful analytical platform used ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with ultra-high-resolution quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI-UHR-Qq-TOF-MS), and enabled the characterization of seven new compounds in PEHS. In the permeation study, only a few compounds were able to cross the cell monolayer and the permeability was lower when the extract was in an encapsulated form. Pure compounds showed a moderate absorption in all cases. Nevertheless, these preliminary results may need further research to understand the complete absorption mechanism of Hibiscus polyphenols. PMID:26262611

  9. Characterization of forced degradation products of ketorolac tromethamine using LC/ESI/Q/TOF/MS/MS and in silico toxicity prediction.

    PubMed

    Kalariya, Pradipbhai D; Raju, B; Borkar, Roshan M; Namdev, Deepak; Gananadhamu, S; Nandekar, Prajwal P; Sangamwar, Abhay T; Srinivas, R

    2014-05-01

    Ketorolac, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, was subjected to forced degradation studies as per International Conference on Harmonization guidelines. A simple, rapid, precise, and accurate high-performance liquid chromatography combined with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (LC/ESI/Q/TOF/MS/MS) method has been developed for the identification and structural characterization of stressed degradation products of ketorolac. The drug was found to degrade in hydrolytic (acidic, basic, and neutral), photolytic (acidic, basic, and neutral solution), and thermal conditions, whereas the solid form of the drug was found to be stable under photolytic conditions. The method has shown adequate separation of ketorolac tromethamine and its degradation products on a Grace Smart C-18 (250?mm?×?4.6?mm i.d., 5?µm) column using 20?mM ammonium formate (pH?=?3.2): acetonitrile as a mobile phase in gradient elution mode at a flow rate of 1.0?ml/min. A total of nine degradation products were identified and characterized by LC/ESI/MS/MS. The most probable mechanisms for the formation of degradation products have been proposed on the basis of a comparison of the fragmentation of the [M?+?H](+) ions of ketorolac and its degradation products. In silico toxicity of the drug and degradation products was investigated by using topkat and derek softwares. The method was validated in terms of specificity, linearity, accuracy, precision, and robustness as per International Conference on Harmonization guidelines. PMID:24809899

  10. UHPLC UHD Q-TOF MS/MS analysis of the impact of sulfur fumigation on the chemical profile of Codonopsis Radix (Dangshen).

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiao-qing; Leung, Alexander Kai Man; Chan, Chi Leung; Su, Tao; Li, Wei-dong; Li, Su-mei; Fong, David Wang Fun; Yu, Zhi-Ling

    2014-01-21

    Over recent decades sulfur fumigation has been becoming abused in processing some freshly harvested Chinese medicinal herbs, although it is questioned whether sulfur fumigation can result in changes in efficacy and safety of the herbs. One of the herbs commonly processed by sulfur fumigation is Codonopsis Radix (Dangshen). A report showed that lobetyolin content in sulfur-fumigated Dangshen was lower than in air-dried Dangshen. Whereas there is no investigation designed to compare the chemical profiles of the sulfur-fumigated Dangshen and the air-dried Dangshen. In the present study, a rapid and versatile ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with ultra-high resolution quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC UHD Q-TOF MS/MS) method was developed for comprehensive analysis of the chemical profiles of sulfur-fumigated and air-dried Dangshen samples. Principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) demonstrated that there were significant chemical differences between sulfur-fumigated and air-dried Dangshen samples. Among the changed components, 57 compounds were identified, in which 15 sulfur-containing compounds were detected only in sulfur-fumigated samples. The established methods were successfully applied to discriminate sulfur-fumigated Dangshen among commercial samples. Whether the chemical changes caused by sulfur fumigation affect the clinical efficacy and safety of Dangshen needs to be further investigated. PMID:24286102

  11. Observations on the Inactivation Efficacy of a MALDI-TOF MS Chemical Extraction Method on Bacillus anthracis Vegetative Cells and Spores.

    PubMed

    Weller, Simon A; Stokes, Margaret G M; Lukaszewski, Roman A

    2015-01-01

    A chemical (ethanol; formic acid; acetonitrile) protein extraction method for the preparation of bacterial samples for matrix assisted laser desorption ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) identification was evaluated for its ability to inactivate bacterial species. Initial viability tests (with and without double filtration of the extract through 0.2 ?M filters), indicated that the method could inactivate Escherichia coli MRE 162 and Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 35657, with or without filtration, but that filtration was required to exclude viable, avirulent, Bacillus anthracis UM23CL2 from extracts. Multiple, high stringency, viability experiments were then carried out on entire filtered extracts prepared from virulent B. anthracis Vollum vegetative cells and spores ranging in concentration from 106-108cfu per extract. B. anthracis was recovered in 3/18 vegetative cell extracts and 10/18 spore extracts. From vegetative cell extracts B. anthracis was only recovered from extracts that had undergone prolonged Luria (L)-broth (7 day) and L-agar plate (a further 7 days) incubations. We hypothesise that the recovery of B. anthracis in vegetative cell extracts is due to the escape of individual sub-lethally injured cells. We discuss our results in view of working practises in clinical laboratories and in the context of recent inadvertent releases of viable B. anthracis. PMID:26633884

  12. Simultaneous Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis of Flavonoids from Ultraviolet-B Radiation in Leaves and Roots of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi Using LC-UV-ESI-Q/TOF/MS

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Wen-Ting; Fang, Min-Feng; Liu, Xiao; Yue, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi is one of the most widely used traditional Chinese herbal medicines. It has been used for anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antibacterial activities, and so forth. Long-term enhanced ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation caused more effect on leaves than on roots of the plant. Liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection coupled with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-UV-ESI-Q/TOF/MS) method was applied for simultaneous quantitative and qualitative analysis of flavonoids in leaves and roots of S. baicalensis by enhanced UV-B radiation. Both low-intensity radiation and high-intensity radiation were not significantly increaseing the contents of baicalin, wogonoside, and wogonin in roots. However different intensity of radiation has different effects on several flavonoids in leaves. Both low-intensity radiation and high-intensity radiation had no significant effect on contents of baicalin and tectoridin in leaves; the content of scutellarin was significantly decreased by low-intensity radiation; chrysin was detected in low-intensity radiation and high-intensity radiation, and chrysin content is the highest in low-intensity radiation, but chrysin was not detected in control group. Different changes of different flavonoids under enhanced UV-B radiation indicate that induction on flavonoids is selective by enhanced UV-B radiation. PMID:24757579

  13. Screening and identification of three typical phenylethanoid glycosides metabolites from Cistanches Herba by human intestinal bacteria using UPLC/Q-TOF-MS.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Zhou, Guisheng; Peng, Ying; Tu, Pengfei; Li, Xiaobo

    2016-01-25

    Acteoside, isoacteoside, and 2'-acetylacteoside are three representative phenylethanoid glycosides (PhGs), which are widely distributed in many plants and also known as the active components of Cistanches Herba. However, the extremely low oral bioavailability of acteoside in rats implies that these structural similar components may go through multiple sequential routes of hydrolysis in gastrointestinal tract before they are absorbed into blood. Therefore, the metabolites of these three components and other PhGs from gastrointestinal tract such as echinacoside, are supposed to be the bioactive elements. In this study, we established an approach combining ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/Q-TOF-MS) with MS(E) technology and MetaboLynx™ software for the rapid metabolic profiling of acteoside, isoacteoside, and 2'-acetylacteoside by human intestinal bacteria. As a result, 11 metabolites of acteoside, 7 metabolites of isoacteoside, and 11 metabolites of 2'-acetylacteoside were identified respectively. 8 metabolic pathways including deglycosylation, de-rhamnose, de-hydroxytyrosol, de-caffeoyl, deacetylation, reduction, acetylation, and sulfate conjugation were proposed to involve in the generation of these metabolites. Furthermore, we found that the degraded metabolites hydroxytyrosol (HT) and 3-hydroxyphenylpropionic (3-HPP) were transformed from acteoside, isoacteoside, and 2'-acetylacteoside by human intestinal bacteria and demonstrated similar bioactivities to their precursors. These findings are significant for our understanding of the metabolism of PhGs and the proposed metabolic pathways of bioactive components might be crucial for further pharmacokinetic evaluations of Cistanches Herba. PMID:26551535

  14. Permeability Study of Polyphenols Derived from a Phenolic-Enriched Hibiscus sabdariffa Extract by UHPLC-ESI-UHR-Qq-TOF-MS

    PubMed Central

    Borrás-Linares, Isabel; Herranz-López, María; Barrajón-Catalán, Enrique; Arráez-Román, David; González-Álvarez, Isabel; Bermejo, Marival; Gutiérrez, Alberto Fernández; Micol, Vicente; Segura-Carretero, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Previous findings on the capacity of Hibiscus sabdariffa (HS) polyphenols to ameliorate metabolic disturbances justify the necessity of studies oriented to find the potential metabolites responsible for such an effect. The present study examined the intestinal epithelial membrane permeability of polyphenols present in a phenolic-enriched Hibiscus sabdariffa extract (PEHS), free and encapsulated, using the Caco-2 cell line. Additionally, selected polyphenols (quercetin, quercetin-3-glucoside, quercetin-3-glucuronide, and N-feruloyltyramine) were also studied in the same absorption model. The powerful analytical platform used ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with ultra-high-resolution quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI-UHR-Qq-TOF-MS), and enabled the characterization of seven new compounds in PEHS. In the permeation study, only a few compounds were able to cross the cell monolayer and the permeability was lower when the extract was in an encapsulated form. Pure compounds showed a moderate absorption in all cases. Nevertheless, these preliminary results may need further research to understand the complete absorption mechanism of Hibiscus polyphenols. PMID:26262611

  15. Observations on the Inactivation Efficacy of a MALDI-TOF MS Chemical Extraction Method on Bacillus anthracis Vegetative Cells and Spores

    PubMed Central

    Weller, Simon A.; Stokes, Margaret G. M.; Lukaszewski, Roman A.

    2015-01-01

    A chemical (ethanol; formic acid; acetonitrile) protein extraction method for the preparation of bacterial samples for matrix assisted laser desorption ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) identification was evaluated for its ability to inactivate bacterial species. Initial viability tests (with and without double filtration of the extract through 0.2 ?M filters), indicated that the method could inactivate Escherichia coli MRE 162 and Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 35657, with or without filtration, but that filtration was required to exclude viable, avirulent, Bacillus anthracis UM23CL2 from extracts. Multiple, high stringency, viability experiments were then carried out on entire filtered extracts prepared from virulent B. anthracis Vollum vegetative cells and spores ranging in concentration from 106-108cfu per extract. B. anthracis was recovered in 3/18 vegetative cell extracts and 10/18 spore extracts. From vegetative cell extracts B. anthracis was only recovered from extracts that had undergone prolonged Luria (L)-broth (7 day) and L-agar plate (a further 7 days) incubations. We hypothesise that the recovery of B. anthracis in vegetative cell extracts is due to the escape of individual sub-lethally injured cells. We discuss our results in view of working practises in clinical laboratories and in the context of recent inadvertent releases of viable B. anthracis. PMID:26633884

  16. Application of MALDI-TOF MS for requalification of a Candida clinical isolates culture collection

    PubMed Central

    Lima-Neto, Reginaldo; Santos, Cledir; Lima, Nelson; Sampaio, Paula; Pais, Célia; Neves, Rejane P.

    2014-01-01

    Microbial culture collections underpin biotechnology applications and are important resources for clinical microbiology by supplying reference strains and/or performing microbial identifications as a service. Proteomic profiles by MALDI-TOF MS have been used for Candida spp. identification in clinical laboratories and demonstrated to be a fast and reliable technique for the routine identification of pathogenic yeasts. The main aim of this study was to apply MALDI-TOF MS combined with classical phenotypic and molecular approaches to identify Candida clinical isolates preserved from 1 up to 52 years in a Brazilian culture collection and assess its value for the identification of yeasts preserved in this type of collections. Forty Candida spp. clinical isolates were identified by morphological and biochemical analyses. Identifications were also performed by the new proteomic approach based on MALDI-TOF MS. Results demonstrated 15% discordance when compared with morphological and biochemical analyses. Discordant isolates were analysed by ITS sequencing, which confirmed the MALDI-TOF MS identifications and these strains were renamed in the culture collection catalogue. In conclusion, proteomic profiles by MALDI-TOF MS represents a rapid and reliable method for identifying clinical Candida species preserved in culture collections and may present clear benefits when compared with the performance of existing daily routine methods applied at health centres and hospitals. PMID:25242936

  17. A Side by Side Comparison of Bruker Biotyper and VITEK MS: Utility of MALDI-TOF MS Technology for Microorganism Identification in a Public Health Reference Laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Lévesque, Simon; Dufresne, Philippe J.; Soualhine, Hafid; Domingo, Marc-Christian; Bekal, Sadjia; Lefebvre, Brigitte; Tremblay, Cécile

    2015-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has emerged as a rapid, highly accurate, and cost-effective method for routine identification of a wide range of microorganisms. We carried out a side by side comparative evaluation of the performance of Bruker Biotyper versus VITEK MS for identification of a large and diverse collection of microorganisms. Most difficult and/or unusual microorganisms, as well as commonly encountered microorganisms were selected, including Gram-positive and negative bacteria, mycobacteria, actinomycetes, yeasts and filamentous fungi. Six hundred forty two strains representing 159 genera and 441 species from clinical specimens previously identified at the Laboratoire de santé publique du Québec (LSPQ) by reference methods were retrospectively chosen for the study. They included 254 Gram-positive bacteria, 167 Gram-negative bacteria, 109 mycobacteria and aerobic actinomycetes and 112 yeasts and moulds. MALDI-TOF MS analyses were performed on both systems according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Of the 642 strains tested, the name of the genus and / or species of 572 strains were referenced in the Bruker database while 406 were present in the VITEK MS IVD database. The Biotyper correctly identified 494 (86.4%) of the strains, while the VITEK MS correctly identified 362 (92.3%) of the strains (excluding 14 mycobacteria that were not tested). Of the 70 strains not present in the Bruker database at the species level, the Biotyper correctly identified 10 (14.3%) to the genus level and 2 (2.9%) to the complex/group level. For 52 (74.2%) strains, we obtained no identification, and an incorrect identification was given for 6 (8.6%) strains. Of the 178 strains not present in the VITEK MS IVD database at the species level (excluding 71 untested mycobacteria and actinomycetes), the VITEK MS correctly identified 12 (6.8%) of the strains each to the genus and to the complex/group level. For 97 (54.5%) strains, no identification was given and for 69 (38.7%) strains, an incorrect identification was obtained. Our study demonstrates that both systems gave a high level (above 85%) of correct identification for a wide range of microorganisms. However, VITEK MS gave more misidentification when the microorganism analysed was not present in the database, compared to Bruker Biotyper. This should be taken into account when this technology is used alone for microorganism identification in a public health laboratory, where isolates received are often difficult to identify and/or unusual microorganisms. PMID:26658918

  18. Multiple-reflection time-of-flight mass spectrometry for in situ applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickel, T.; Plaß, W. R.; Lang, J.; Ebert, J.; Geissel, H.; Haettner, E.; Jesch, C.; Lippert, W.; Petrick, M.; Scheidenberger, C.; Yavor, M. I.

    2013-12-01

    Multiple-reflection time-of-flight mass spectrometers (MR-TOF-MS) have recently been installed at different low-energy radioactive ion beam facilities. They are used as isobar separators with high ion capacity and as mass spectrometers with high mass resolving power and accuracy for short-lived nuclei. Furthermore, MR-TOF-MS have a huge potential for applications in other fields, such as chemistry, biology, medicine, space science, and homeland security. The development, commissioning and results of an MR-TOF-MS is presented, which serves as proof-of-principle to show that very high mass resolving powers (?105) can be achieved in a compact device (length ?30 cm). Based on this work, an MR-TOF-MS for in situ application has been designed. For the first time, this device combines very high mass resolving power (>105), mobility, and an atmospheric pressure inlet in one instrument. It will enable in situ measurements without sample preparation at very high mass accuracy. Envisaged applications of this mobile MR-TOF-MS are discussed.

  19. Utilization of Whole-Cell MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry to Differentiate Burkholderia pseudomallei Wild-Type and Constructed Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Jaresitthikunchai, Janthima; Roytrakul, Sittiruk; Tungpradabkul, Sumalee

    2015-01-01

    Whole-cell matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (whole-cell MALDI-TOF MS) has been widely adopted as a useful technology in the identification and typing of microorganisms. This study employed the whole-cell MALDI-TOF MS to identify and differentiate wild-type and mutants containing constructed single gene mutations of Burkholderia pseudomallei, a pathogenic bacterium causing melioidosis disease in both humans and animals. Candidate biomarkers for the B. pseudomallei mutants, including rpoS, ppk, and bpsI isolates, were determined. Taxon-specific and clinical isolate-specific biomarkers of B. pseudomallei were consistently found and conserved across all average mass spectra. Cluster analysis of MALDI spectra of all isolates exhibited separate distribution. A total of twelve potential mass peaks discriminating between wild-type and mutant isolates were identified using ClinProTools analysis. Two peaks (m/z 2721 and 2748 Da) were specific for the rpoS isolate, three (m/z 3150, 3378, and 7994 Da) for ppk, and seven (m/z 3420, 3520, 3587, 3688, 4623, 4708, and 5450 Da) for bpsI. Our findings demonstrated that the rapid, accurate, and reproducible mass profiling technology could have new implications in laboratory-based rapid differentiation of extensive libraries of genetically altered bacteria. PMID:26656930

  20. Comparative study of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy and mass spectrometry for the analysis of cultural heritage materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokkinaki, O.; Mihesan, C.; Velegrakis, M.; Anglos, D.

    2013-07-01

    Analysis by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is compared, on the basis of a hybrid experimental set-up, with laser ablation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LA-TOF-MS) for the characterization of materials relevant to cultural heritage. The present study focuses on the analysis of selected paint materials such as lithopone, a white inorganic pigment, and two synthetic organic paint formulations, lemon yellow and phthalocyanine blue. Optical emission spectra, obtained by LIBS, lead to rapid, straightforward identification of the elemental content of the paint samples while mass spectra yield, additionally to elemental analysis, complementary isotopic analysis and, more importantly, enable detection of molecules and molecular fragments, permitting a more complete structural and compositional characterization of composite materials. Mass spectra were recorded either simultaneously with the optical emission ones, or sequentially. The latter was preferred for materials having significantly lower fluence threshold for desorption/ionization relative to plasma formation resulting to optimum mass resolution and minimal surface damage. In all, the results of this study demonstrate the advantages of instrumentally complementing LIBS with TOF-MS in relation to applications in cultural heritage materials analysis, with exciting prospects when laser ablation sampling can be carried out under ambient atmosphere.

  1. [UPLC-Q-TOF/MS analysis of phospholipids metabolite profiling in plasma of type 2 diabetes mellitus rat].

    PubMed

    Zeng, Ping-yan; Zhang, Yu; Rui, Wen; Wu, Xia; Feng, Yi-fan

    2015-07-01

    This study reported the analysis of plasma phospholipid metabolism of the rats and the pathological biomarkers between the type 2 diabetes model control group (MC) and the normal control group (NC). SD rats were randomly divided into 2 groups: NC and MC. To investigate state of plasma metabolite profiling in normal body, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) model group using UPLC-Q-TOF/MS which was used as analysis tool in this research. The compounds were identified by UPLC-Q-TOF/MS based on MS/MS fragment ions information, element composition in MassLynx 4.1 and the Lipid Maps database. The sign of two groups of samples in specific markers for screening was through a software package in R software (BioMark software). The results show that the pathological markers were mainly phosphatidylcholine (PC) and triglycerides (TG); the 2-acyl PC in the MC group was less more obviously than that in the NC group; high carbon number and high degree of unsaturation of the TG was reduced under the condition of type 2 diabetes. In the state of type 2 diabetes, metabolic changes occurred in rat plasma phospholipids obviously, which had a close relationship with the occurrence and development of T2DM. PMID:26552151

  2. UPLC-ESI-TOF MS-Based Metabolite Profiling of the Antioxidative Food Supplement Garcinia buchananii.

    PubMed

    Stark, Timo D; Lösch, Sofie; Wakamatsu, Junichiro; Balemba, Onesmo B; Frank, Oliver; Hofmann, Thomas

    2015-08-19

    Comparative antioxidative analyses of aqueous ethanolic extracts from leaf, root, and stem of Garcinia buchananii revealed high activity of all three organs. To investigate the metabolite composition of the different parts of G. buchananii, an untargeted metabolomics approach using UPLC-ESI-TOF MS with simultaneous acquisition of low- and high-collision energy mass spectra (MS(e)) was performed. Unsupervised statistics (PCA) highlighted clear differences in the metabolomes of the three organs. OPLS-DA revealed (2R,3S,2?R,3?R)-GB-1, (2R,3S)-morelloflavone, and (2R,3S)-volkensiflavone as the most decisive marker compounds discriminating leaf from root and stem extract. Leaves represent the best source to isolate GB-1, morelloflavone, and volkensiflavone. Root extract is the best organ to isolate xanthones and stem bark extract the best source to isolate (2R,3S,2?R,3?R)-manniflavanone; the identified polyisoprenylated benzophenones are characteristic compounds for the leaf organ. Morelloflavone, volkensiflavone, and garcicowin C were isolated for the first time from G. buchananii, identified via MS, NMR, and CD spectroscopy, and showed in H2O2 scavenging, H/L-TEAC, and H/L-ORAC assays moderate to strong in vitro antioxidative activities. PMID:26226176

  3. Comparison of low molecular weight glutenin subunits identified by SDS-PAGE, 2-DE, MALDI-TOF-MS and PCR in common wheat

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Low-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (LMW-GS) play a crucial role in determining end-use quality of common wheat by influencing the viscoelastic properties of dough. Four different methods - sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE, IEF × SDS-PAGE), matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), were used to characterize the LMW-GS composition in 103 cultivars from 12 countries. Results At the Glu-A3 locus, all seven alleles could be reliably identified by 2-DE and PCR. However, the alleles Glu-A3e and Glu-A3d could not be routinely distinguished from Glu-A3f and Glu-A3g, respectively, based on SDS-PAGE, and the allele Glu-A3a could not be differentiated from Glu-A3c by MALDI-TOF-MS. At the Glu-B3 locus, alleles Glu-B3a, Glu-B3b, Glu-B3c, Glu-B3g, Glu-B3h and Glu-B3j could be clearly identified by all four methods, whereas Glu-B3ab, Glu-B3ac, Glu-B3ad could only be identified by the 2-DE method. At the Glu-D3 locus, allelic identification was problematic for the electrophoresis based methods and PCR. MALDI-TOF-MS has the potential to reliably identify the Glu-D3 alleles. Conclusions PCR is the simplest, most accurate, lowest cost, and therefore recommended method for identification of Glu-A3 and Glu-B3 alleles in breeding programs. A combination of methods was required to identify certain alleles, and would be especially useful when characterizing new alleles. A standard set of 30 cultivars for use in future studies was chosen to represent all LMW-GS allelic variants in the collection. Among them, Chinese Spring, Opata 85, Seri 82 and Pavon 76 were recommended as a core set for use in SDS-PAGE gels. Glu-D3c and Glu-D3e are the same allele. Two new alleles, namely, Glu-D3m in cultivar Darius, and Glu-D3n in Fengmai 27, were identified by 2-DE. Utilization of the suggested standard cultivar set, seed of which is available from the CIMMYT and INRA Clermont-Ferrand germplasm collections, should also promote information sharing in the identification of individual LMW-GS and thus provide useful information for quality improvement in common wheat. PMID:20573275

  4. MASS SPECTROMETRY IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This review covers applications of mass spectrometry to the environmental sciences. From the early applications of mass spectrometry to environmental research in the 1960s and 1970s, mass spectrometry has played an important role in aiding our understanding of environmental poll...

  5. Direct Surface Analysis of Fungal Species by Matrix-assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Valentine, Nancy B. ); Wahl, Jon H. ); Kingsley, Mark T. ); Wahl, Karen L. )

    2001-12-01

    Intact spores and/or hyphae of Aspergillus niger, Rhizopus oryzae, Trichoderma reesei and Phanerochaete chrysosporium are analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). This study investigates various methods of sample preparation and matrices to determine optimum collection and analysis criteria for fungal analysis by MALDI-MS. Fungi are applied to the MALDI sample target as untreated, sonicated, acid/heat treated, or blotted directly from the fungal culture with double-stick tape. Ferulic acid or sinapinic acid matrix solution is layered over the dried samples and analyzed by MALDI-MS. Statistical analysis of the data show that simply using double stick tape to collect and transfer to a MALDI sample plate typically worked as well as the other preparation methods, but requires the least sample handling.

  6. Identification of Weissella species by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Meng-Rui; Tsai, Chia-Jung; Teng, Shih-Hua; Hsueh, Po-Ren

    2015-01-01

    Although some Weissella species play beneficial roles in food fermentation and in probiotic products, others such as Weissella confusa are emerging Gram-positive pathogens in immunocompromised hosts. Weissella species are difficult to identify by conventional biochemical methods and commercial automated systems and are easily misidentified as Lactobacillus and Leuconostoc species. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is increasingly being used for bacterial identification. Little, however, is known about the effectiveness of MALDI-TOF MS in identifying clinical isolates of Weissella to the species level. In this study, we evaluated whether the MALDI-TOF MS Bruker Biotyper system could accurately identify a total of 20 W. confusa and 2 W. cibaria blood isolates that had been confirmed by 16s rRNA sequencing analysis. The MALDI-TOF Biotyper system yielded no reliable identification results based on the current reference spectra for the two species (all score values <1.7). New W. confusa spectra were created by randomly selecting 3 W. confusa isolates and external validation was performed by testing the remaining 17 W. confusa isolates using the new spectra. The new main spectra projection (MSP) yielded reliable score values of >2 for all isolates with the exception of one (score value, 1.963). Our results showed that the MSPs in the current database are not sufficient for correctly identifying W. confusa or W. cibaria. Further studies including more Weissella isolates are warranted to further validate the performance of MALDI-TOF in identifying Weissella species. PMID:26594208

  7. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry fingerprinting: A diagnostic tool to differentiate dematiaceous fungi Stachybotrys chartarum and Stachybotrys chlorohalonata.

    PubMed

    Gruenwald, Maike; Rabenstein, Andreas; Remesch, Markko; Kuever, Jan

    2015-08-01

    Stachybotrys chartarum and Stachybotrys chlorohalonata are two closely related species. Unambiguous identification of these two species is a challenging task if relying solely on morphological criteria and therefore smarter and less labor-intensive approaches are needed. Here we show that even such closely related species of fungi as S. chartarum and S. chlorohalonata are unequivocally discriminated by their highly reproducible MALDI-TOF-MS fingerprints (matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry fingerprints). We examined 19 Stachybotrys and one Aspergillus isolate by MALDI-TOF-MS. All but one isolate produced melanin containing conidia on malt extract agar. Mass spectra were obtained in good quality from the analysis of hyaline and darkly pigmented conidia by circumventing the property of melanin which causes signal suppression. MALDI-TOF fingerprint analysis clearly discriminated not only the two morphologically similar species S. chartarum and S. chlorohalonata from each other but separated them precisely from Stachybotrys bisbyi and Aspergillus versicolor isolates. Furthermore, even S. chartarum chemotypes A and S could be differentiated into two distinct groups by their MALDI-TOF fingerprints. The chemotypes of S. chartarum isolates were identified by trichodiene synthase 5 (tri5) sequences prior to mass spectra analysis. Additionally, species identities of all isolates were verified by their 18S rRNA and tri5 gene sequences. PMID:26036596

  8. MALDI Mass Spectrometry Imaging of Neuronal Cell Cultures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmerman, Tyler A.; Rubakhin, Stanislav S.; Sweedler, Jonathan V.

    2011-05-01

    Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) provides the ability to detect and identify a broad range of analytes and their spatial distributions from a variety of sample types, including tissue sections. Here we describe an approach for probing neuropeptides from sparse cell cultures using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) MSI—at single cell spatial resolution—in both MS and tandem MS modes. Cultures of Aplysia californica neurons are grown on an array of glass beads embedded in a stretchable layer of Parafilm M. As the membrane is stretched, the beads/neurons are separated physically and the separated beads/neurons analyzed via MALDI TOF MS. Compared with direct MS imaging of samples, the stretching procedure enhances analyte extraction and incorporation into the MALDI matrix, with negligible analyte spread between separated beads. MALDI tandem MSI using the stretched imaging approach yields localization maps of both parent and fragment ions from Aplysia pedal peptide, thereby confirming peptide identification. This methodology represents a flexible platform for MSI investigation of a variety of cell cultures, including functioning neuronal networks.

  9. Mass spectrometry with accelerators.

    PubMed

    Litherland, A E; Zhao, X-L; Kieser, W E

    2011-01-01

    As one in a series of articles on Canadian contributions to mass spectrometry, this review begins with an outline of the history of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), noting roles played by researchers at three Canadian AMS laboratories. After a description of the unique features of AMS, three examples, (14)C, (10)Be, and (129)I are given to illustrate the methods. The capabilities of mass spectrometry have been extended by the addition of atomic isobar selection, molecular isobar attenuation, further ion acceleration, followed by ion detection and ion identification at essentially zero dark current or ion flux. This has been accomplished by exploiting the techniques and accelerators of atomic and nuclear physics. In 1939, the first principles of AMS were established using a cyclotron. In 1977 the selection of isobars in the ion source was established when it was shown that the (14)N(-) ion was very unstable, or extremely difficult to create, making a tandem electrostatic accelerator highly suitable for assisting the mass spectrometric measurement of the rare long-lived radioactive isotope (14)C in the environment. This observation, together with the large attenuation of the molecular isobars (13)CH(-) and (12)CH?2(-) during tandem acceleration and the observed very low background contamination from the ion source, was found to facilitate the mass spectrometry of (14)C to at least a level of (14)C/C ~ 6 × 10(-16), the equivalent of a radiocarbon age of 60,000 years. Tandem Accelerator Mass Spectrometry, or AMS, has now made possible the accurate radiocarbon dating of milligram-sized carbon samples by ion counting as well as dating and tracing with many other long-lived radioactive isotopes such as (10)Be, (26)Al, (36)Cl, and (129)I. The difficulty of obtaining large anion currents with low electron affinities and the difficulties of isobar separation, especially for the heavier mass ions, has prompted the use of molecular anions and the search for alternative methods of isobar separation. These techniques are discussed in the latter part of the review. PMID:22031277

  10. Biological Cluster Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Winograd, Nicholas; Garrison, Barbara J.

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews the new physics and new applications of secondary ion mass spectrometry using cluster ion probes. These probes, particularly C60, exhibit enhanced molecular desorption with improved sensitivity owing to the unique nature of the energy-deposition process. In addition, these projectiles are capable of eroding molecular solids while retaining the molecular specificity of mass spectrometry. When the beams are microfocused to a spot on the sample, bioimaging experiments in two and three dimensions are feasible. We describe emerging theoretical models that allow the energy-deposition process to be understood on an atomic and molecular basis. Moreover, experiments on model systems are described that allow protocols for imaging on biological materials to be implemented. Finally, we present recent applications of imaging to biological tissue and single cells to illustrate the future directions of this methodology. PMID:20055679

  11. Chaperonin GroEL a Brucella immunodominant antigen identified using Nanobody and MALDI-TOF-MS technologies.

    PubMed

    Abbady, A Q; Al-Daoude, A; Al-Mariri, A; Zarkawi, M; Muyldermans, S

    2012-05-15

    The deployment of today's antibodies that are able to distinguish Brucella from the closely similar pathogens, such as Yersinia, is still considered a great challenge since both pathogens share identical LPS (lipopolysaccharide) O-ring epitopes. In addition, because of the great impact of Brucella on health and economy in many countries including Syria, much effort is going to the development of next generation vaccines, mainly on the identification of new immunogenic proteins of this pathogen. In this context, Brucella-specific nanobodies (Nbs), camel genetic engineered heavy-chain antibody fragments, could be of great value. Previously, a large Nb library was constructed from a camel immunized with heat-killed Brucella. Phage display panning of this 'immune' library with Brucella total lysate resulted in a remarkable fast enrichment for a Nb referred to as NbBruc02. In the present work, we investigated the main characteristics of this Nb that can efficiently distinguish under well-defined conditions the Brucella from other bacteria including Yersinia. NbBruc02 showed a strong and specific interaction with its antigen within the crude lysate as tested by a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor and it was also able to pull down its cognate antigen from such lysate by immuno-capturing. Using matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS), NbBruc02 specific antigen was identified as chaperonin GroEL, also known as heat shock protein of 60 kDa (HSP-60), which represents a Brucella immunodominant antigen responsible of maintaining proteins folding during stress conditions. Interestingly, the antigen recognition by NbBruc02 was found to be affected by the state of GroEL folding. Thus, the Nb technology applied in the field of infectious diseases, e.g. brucellosis, yields two outcomes: (1) it generates specific binders that can be used for diagnosis, and perhaps treatment, and (2) it identifies the immunogenic candidate antigens for developing vaccines. PMID:22472910

  12. Detection of nitro-organic and peroxide explosives in latent fingermarks by DART- and SALDI-TOF-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Rowell, Frederick; Seviour, John; Lim, Angelina Yimei; Elumbaring-Salazar, Cheryl Grace; Loke, Jason; Ma, Jan

    2012-09-10

    The ability of two mass spectrometric methods, surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometry (SALDI-TOF-MS) and direct analysis in real time (DART-MS), to detect the presence of seven common explosives (six nitro-organic- and one peroxide-type) in spiked latent fingermarks has been examined. It was found that each explosive could be detected with nanogram sensitivity for marks resulting from direct finger contact with a glass probe by DART-MS or onto stainless steel target plates using SALDI-TOF-MS for marks pre-dusted with one type of commercial black magnetic powder. These explosives also could be detected in latent marks lifted from six common surfaces (paper, plastic bag, metal drinks can, wood laminate, adhesive tape and white ceramic tile) whereas no explosive could be detected in equivalent pre-dusted marks on the surface of a commercial lifting tape by the DART-MS method due to high background interference from the tape material. The presence of TNT and Tetryl could be detected in pre-dusted latent fingermarks on a commercial lifting tape for up to 29 days sealed and stored under ambient conditions. PMID:22551694

  13. Analysis of ligase chain reaction products via matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Jurinke, C; van den Boom, D; Jacob, A; Tang, K; Wörl, R; Köster, H

    1996-06-01

    A rapid and accurate detection of ligation products generated in ligase chain reactions (LCR) by using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) is reported. LCR with Pfu DNA ligase was performed with a wild-type template and a template carrying a single point mutation within the Escherichia coli lacI gene as a model system. Starting from about 1 fmol of template DNA the ligation product generated in the positive reactions was analyzed with HPLC and MALDI-TOF-MS, whereby the need of proper sample purification prior to mass spectrometric analysis was demonstrated. A purification procedure with a high potential for automation using streptavidin-coated magnetic particles and ultrafiltration was introduced. Plasmid DNA and short single-stranded oligonucleotides have been used as template. A point mutation could be discriminated from the wild-type template due to the absence or presence of ligation product. This approach allows the rapid-specific detection of template DNA in femtomole amounts and moreover can distinguish between sequence variations in DNA molecules down to point mutations without the need for labeling, gel electrophoresis, membrane transfer, or hybridization procedures. PMID:8660562

  14. Analysis of the metabolic profile of parishin by ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Tang, Chunlan; Wang, Li; Li, Jiejiang; Liu, Xinxin; Cheng, Mengchun; Xiao, Hongbin

    2015-12-01

    Parishin is a dominant active ingredient originating from Gastrodia elata Blume, and has good neuroprotective effects against brain disorders. In the present study, the metabolic profile of parishin by in vitro and in vivo experiments was investigated using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC/Q-TOF MS) combined with an automated MS(E) technique. By comparison with reference compounds, accurate mass measurement, the characteristic fragmentation patterns of the parent drug parishin and gastrodin and relevant bio-transformation knowledge, 14 metabolites (seven hydrolyzates and seven derivatives of gastrodin) were detected and identified in rat plasma and urine after intragastric administration of parishin, including processes of hydrolyzation, oxidation, sulfation and glucuronidation. According to the proposed metabolic pathways of parishin, in vitro hydrolytic experiments and metabolic study of gastrodin in rat plasma, it can be inferred that parishin mainly functions as a prodrug and undergoes hydrolysis before being absorbed into the blood. The hydrolyzate, mainly gastrodin, was involved in further metabolism, which was responsible for pharmacological activities of parishin. In conclusion, this work provides valuable information on parishin metabolism using a rapid and reliable UHPLC/Q-TOF MS method, which could be widely used for the metabolic investigation of natural product. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26010793

  15. Medium-throughput SNP genotyping using mass spectrometry: multiplex SNP genotyping using the iPLEX® Gold assay.

    PubMed

    Millis, Meredith P

    2011-01-01

    Depending on the scope of the research project, categories of single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping experiments range from low to medium to high throughput, with each approach differing widely in cost, platform, and efficiency. Medium-throughput genotyping is generally appropriate for assaying up to 36 markers in 384 individuals and is commonly used for fine-mapping chromosomal regions identified in genome scans. Multiplexing, which allows for simultaneous assessment of multiple SNPs, is an efficient, rapid, and economic way to augment medium-throughput genotyping output and is readily performed using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). In this chapter, we describe a technique for medium-throughput genotyping using the iPLEX® Gold assay available from Sequenom, Inc. (San Diego, CA). This multiplex SNP genotyping platform incorporates locus-specific PCR amplification of genomic DNA, followed by shrimp alkaline phosphatase treatment to inactivate unincorporated nucleotides, single-base primer extension using mass-modified terminators, and MALDI-TOF MS for allele-specific detection. This protocol utilizes proprietary enzymes, software and SpectroCHIP® Arrays that are pre-spotted with a MALDI matrix. PMID:21204027

  16. Comparison of Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization–Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry and Molecular Biology Techniques for Identification of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) Biting Midges in Senegal

    PubMed Central

    Sambou, Masse; Aubadie-Ladrix, Maxence; Fenollar, Florence; Fall, Becaye; Bassene, Hubert; Almeras, Lionel; Sambe-Ba, Bissoume; Perrot, Nadine; Chatellier, Sonia; Faye, Ngor; Parola, Philippe; Wade, Boubacar; Raoult, Didier

    2014-01-01

    Biting midges of the genus Culicoides are implicated as vectors for a wide variety of pathogens. The morphological identification of these arthropods may be difficult because of a lack of detailed investigation of taxonomy for this species in Africa. However, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization?time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) profiling is efficient for arthropod identification at the species level. This study established a spectrum database of Culicoides spp. from Senegal using MALDI-TOF. Identification of Culicoides insects to the species level before mass spectrometry was performed on the basis of morphological characters. MALDI-TOF MS reference spectra were determined for 437 field-caught Culicoides of 10 species. The protein profiles of all tested Culicoides revealed several peaks with mass ranges of 2 to 20 kDa. In a validation study, 72 Culicoides specimens in the target species were correctly identified at the species level with a similarity of 95 to 99.9%. Four Culicoides protein profiles were misidentified. Nevertheless, six SuperSpectra (C. imicola, C. enderleini, C. oxystoma, C. kingi, C. magnus, and C. fulvithorax) were created. Abdomens of midges were used to amplify and sequence a portion of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I gene (COI). The results obtained using the MALDI-TOF MS method were consistent with the morphological identification and similar to the genetic identification. Protein profiling using MALDI-TOF is an efficient approach for the identification of Culicoides spp., and it is economically advantageous for approaches that require detailed and quantitative information of vector species that are collected in field. The database of African Culicoides MS spectra created is the first database in Africa. The COI sequences of five Culicoides species that were previously noncharacterized using molecular methods were deposited in GenBank. PMID:25411169

  17. Comparison of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry and molecular biology techniques for identification of Culicoides (Diptera: ceratopogonidae) biting midges in senegal.

    PubMed

    Sambou, Masse; Aubadie-Ladrix, Maxence; Fenollar, Florence; Fall, Becaye; Bassene, Hubert; Almeras, Lionel; Sambe-Ba, Bissoume; Perrot, Nadine; Chatellier, Sonia; Faye, Ngor; Parola, Philippe; Wade, Boubacar; Raoult, Didier; Mediannikov, Oleg

    2015-02-01

    Biting midges of the genus Culicoides are implicated as vectors for a wide variety of pathogens. The morphological identification of these arthropods may be difficult because of a lack of detailed investigation of taxonomy for this species in Africa. However, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) profiling is efficient for arthropod identification at the species level. This study established a spectrum database of Culicoides spp. from Senegal using MALDI-TOF. Identification of Culicoides insects to the species level before mass spectrometry was performed on the basis of morphological characters. MALDI-TOF MS reference spectra were determined for 437 field-caught Culicoides of 10 species. The protein profiles of all tested Culicoides revealed several peaks with mass ranges of 2 to 20 kDa. In a validation study, 72 Culicoides specimens in the target species were correctly identified at the species level with a similarity of 95 to 99.9%. Four Culicoides protein profiles were misidentified. Nevertheless, six SuperSpectra (C. imicola, C. enderleini, C. oxystoma, C. kingi, C. magnus, and C. fulvithorax) were created. Abdomens of midges were used to amplify and sequence a portion of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I gene (COI). The results obtained using the MALDI-TOF MS method were consistent with the morphological identification and similar to the genetic identification. Protein profiling using MALDI-TOF is an efficient approach for the identification of Culicoides spp., and it is economically advantageous for approaches that require detailed and quantitative information of vector species that are collected in field. The database of African Culicoides MS spectra created is the first database in Africa. The COI sequences of five Culicoides species that were previously noncharacterized using molecular methods were deposited in GenBank. PMID:25411169

  18. "Magic" Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trimpin, Sarah

    2015-10-01

    The systematic study of the temperature and pressure dependence of matrix-assisted ionization (MAI) led us to the discovery of the seemingly impossible, initially explained by some reviewers as either sleight of hand or the misinterpretation by an overzealous young scientist of results reported many years before and having little utility. The "magic" that we were attempting to report was that with matrix assistance, molecules, at least as large as bovine serum albumin (66 kDa), are lifted into the gas phase as multiply charged ions simply by exposure of the matrix:analyte sample to the vacuum of a mass spectrometer. Applied heat, a laser, or voltages are not necessary to achieve charge states and ion abundances only previously observed with electrospray ionization (ESI). The fundamentals of how solid phase volatile or nonvolatile compounds are converted to gas-phase ions without added energy currently involves speculation providing a great opportunity to rethink mechanistic understanding of ionization processes used in mass spectrometry. Improved understanding of the mechanism(s) of these processes and their connection to ESI and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization may provide opportunities to further develop new ionization strategies for traditional and yet unforeseen applications of mass spectrometry. This Critical Insights article covers developments leading to the discovery of a seemingly magic ionization process that is simple to use, fast, sensitive, robust, and can be directly applied to surface characterization using portable or high performance mass spectrometers.

  19. Ellagitannin Composition of Blackberry As Determined by HPLC-ESI-MS and MALDI-TOF-MS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apache blackberries (Rubus sp.) were evaluated by HPLC-MS and MALDI-TOF-MS to identify ellagitannins present in the flesh, torus (receptacle tissue), and seeds. Most ellagitannins were only present or detectable in seed tissues. Ellagitannins identified by HPLC-MS in the seeds included pedunculagi...

  20. Rapid MALDI-TOF MS analysis of bacteriophage major capsid proteins with -mercaptoethanol sample pretreatment

    E-print Network

    Rapid MALDI-TOF MS analysis of bacteriophage major capsid proteins with -mercaptoethanol sample Technology Laboratory; Colorado School of Mines, Golden CO 80401 Introduction: ·Bacteriophage (phage bacteriophage -A1122 (which is utilized for plague detection) were analyzed by combining 100µL of phage solution

  1. Design and synthesis of cleavable biotinylated dideoxynucleotides for DNA sequencing by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Chunmei; Kumar, Shiv; Guo, Jia; Yu, Lin; Guo, Wenjing; Shi, Shundi; Russo, James J; Ju, Jingyue

    2012-08-15

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS)-based methods have been widely explored for DNA sequencing. We report here the design, synthesis, and evaluation of a novel set of chemically cleavable biotinylated dideoxynucleotides, ddNTPs-N?-biotin, for the DNA polymerase extension reaction and its application in DNA sequencing by mass spectrometry (MS). These nucleotide analogs have a biotin moiety attached to the 5 position of the pyrimidines (C and U) or the 7 position of the purines (A and G) via a chemically cleavable azido-based linker, with different length linker arms serving as mass tags that contribute to large mass differences among the nucleotides. We demonstrate that these modified nucleotides are efficiently incorporated by DNA polymerase, and the DNA strand bearing biotinylated nucleotides is captured by streptavidin-coated beads and efficiently released using tris(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine in aqueous solution, which is compatible with DNA and downstream procedures. We performed Sanger sequencing reactions using these nucleotides to generate DNA fragments for MALDI-TOF MS analysis. Both synthetic DNA and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products were accurately decoded, and a read length of approximately 37 bases was achieved using these nucleotides in MS sequencing. PMID:22543091

  2. Mass Spectrometric Analysis of Lipopeptide from Bacillus Strains Isolated from Diverse Geographical Locations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has been applied to characterize lipopeptide biomarkers from 54 different strains of Bacillis from most taxa within the B. subtilis - B. licheniformis clade, isolated from 7 different geographic locations on ...

  3. Dynamically Multiplexed Ion Mobility Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Belov, Mikhail E.; Clowers, Brian H.; Prior, David C.; Danielson, William F.; Liyu, Andrei V.; Petritis, Brianne O.; Smith, Richard D.

    2010-01-01

    Ion Mobility Spectrometry–Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (IMS-TOFMS) has been increasingly used in analysis of complex biological samples. A major challenge is to transform IMS-TOFMS to a high-sensitivity high-throughput platform for e.g. proteomics applications. In this work, we have developed and integrated three advanced technologies, including efficient ion accumulation in the ion funnel trap prior to IMS separation, multiplexing (MP) of ion packet introduction into the IMS drift tube and signal detection with an analog-to-digital converter (ADC), into the IMS-TOFMS system for the high-throughput analysis of highly complex proteolytic digests of e.g. blood plasma. To better address variable sample complexity, we have developed and rigorously evaluated a novel dynamic MP approach that ensures correlation of the analyzer performance with an ion source function, and provides the improved dynamic range and sensitivity throughout the experiment. The MP IMS-TOF MS instrument has been shown to reliably detect peptides at a concentration of 1 nM in the presence of highly complex matrix, as well as to provide a three orders of magnitude dynamic range and a mass measurement accuracy of better than 5 ppm. When matched against human blood plasma database, the detected IMS-TOF features were found to yield ~ 700 unique peptide identifications at a false discovery rate (FDR) of ~ 7.5 %. Accounting for IMS information gave rise to a projected FDR of ~ 4 %. Signal reproducibility was found to be greater than 80 %, while the variations in the number of unique peptide identifications were < 15 %. A single sample analysis was completed in 15 min that constitutes almost an order of magnitude improvement compared to a more conventional LC-MS approach. PMID:18582088

  4. Dynamically Multiplexed Ion Mobility Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Belov, Mikhail E.; Clowers, Brian H.; Prior, David C.; Danielson, William F.; Liyu, Andrei V.; Petritis, Brianne O.; Smith, Richard D.

    2008-08-01

    Ion Mobility Spectrometry–Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (IMS-TOFMS) has been increasingly used in analysis of complex biological samples. A major challenge is to transform IMS-TOFMS to a high-sensitivity high-throughput platform for e.g. proteomics applications. In this work, we have developed and integrated three advanced technologies, enabling (1) efficient ion accumulation in the ion funnel trap prior to IMS separation, (2) multiplexing (MP) of ion packet introduction into the IMS drift tube and (3) signal detection with an analog-to-digital converter (ADC), into the IMS-TOFMS system for the high-throughput analysis of highly complex proteolytic digests of e.g. blood plasma. To better address variable sample complexity, we have additionally developed and rigorously evaluated a new dynamic MP approach that ensures correlation of the analyzer performance with an ion source function, and provides the improved dynamic range and sensitivity. The MP IMS-TOF MS instrument has been shown to reliably detect peptides at a concentration of 1 nM in a highly complex matrix, as well as to provide a four orders of magnitude dynamic range and a mass measurement accuracy of better than 5 ppm. When matched against human blood plasma database, the detected IMS-TOF features yielded ~ 700 unique peptide identifications at a false discovery rate (FDR) of ~ 7.5 %. Accounting for IMS information gave rise to a projected FDR of ~ 4 %. Signal reproducibility was found to be greater than 80 %, while the variations in the number of unique peptide identifications were < 15 %. A single sample analysis was completed in 15 min, corresponding to approximately an order of magnitude improvement compared to a more conventional LC-MS approach.

  5. Optimization of the Preanalytical Steps of Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization–Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry Identification Provides a Flexible and Efficient Tool for Identification of Clinical Yeast Isolates in Medical Laboratories

    PubMed Central

    Goyer, Marianne; Lucchi, Geraldine; Ducoroy, Patrick; Vagner, Odile; Bonnin, Alain

    2012-01-01

    We report here that modifications of the preanalytical steps of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) identification of yeasts, with regard to the original protocol provided by the manufacturers, appear to be efficient for the reliable routine identification of clinical yeast isolates in medical laboratories. Indeed, when one colony was sampled instead of five and the protein extraction protocol was modified, the performance of MALDI-TOF MS was superior to that of the API ID 32C method (discrepancies were confirmed by using molecular identification), allowing the correct identification of 94% of the 335 clinical isolates prospectively tested. We then demonstrated that the time for which the primary cultures were preincubated on CHROMagar did not impact the identification of yeasts by MALDI-TOF MS, since 95.1 and 96.2% of the 183 clinical yeast isolates prospectively tested were correctly identified after 48 and 72 h of preincubation, respectively. PMID:22718939

  6. Impact of rapid identification of Acinetobacter Baumannii via matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry combined with antimicrobial stewardship in patients with pneumonia and/or bacteremia.

    PubMed

    Wenzler, Eric; Goff, Debra A; Mangino, Julie E; Reed, Erica E; Wehr, Allison; Bauer, Karri A

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the clinical and economic outcomes of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) with stewardship intervention in patients with Acinetobacter baumannii (AB) pneumonia and/or bacteremia. 66 patients were included in the pre-intervention group and 53 in the intervention group. The combination of AB identification via MALDI-TOF MS and ID PharmD intervention significantly reduced the median time to effective therapy compared to conventional identification without intervention [77.7 (95% CI: 73.1-84.8) to 36.6 (95% CI: 25.9-50.9) hours (P < 0.0001)]. Rapid organism identification along with ID PharmD intervention was also associated with a 19% increase in clinical cure (15% versus 34%, P = 0.016) and a decreased length of stay during antibiotic therapy (13 [8-18] versus 11 [7-15] days, P = 0.021). No difference in 14-day mortality was observed (20% versus 25%, P = 0.526). Median costs during infection were approximately $6500 less in the intervention group ($49,402 [35,307-86,566] versus $42,872 [26,966-74,506]; P = 0.243). AB identification via MALDI-TOF MS combined with stewardship intervention allows for timely, effective antimicrobial therapy and is associated with increased clinical cure. PMID:26603136

  7. Analysis of volatile organic compounds released from the decay of surrogate human models simulating victims of collapsed buildings by thermal desorption-comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-time of flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Agapiou, A; Zorba, E; Mikedi, K; McGregor, L; Spiliopoulou, C; Statheropoulos, M

    2015-07-01

    Field experiments were devised to mimic the entrapment conditions under the rubble of collapsed buildings aiming to investigate the evolution of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) during the early dead body decomposition stage. Three pig carcasses were placed inside concrete tunnels of a search and rescue (SAR) operational field terrain for simulating the entrapment environment after a building collapse. The experimental campaign employed both laboratory and on-site analytical methods running in parallel. The current work focuses only on the results of the laboratory method using thermal desorption coupled to comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TD-GC×GC-TOF MS). The flow-modulated TD-GC×GC-TOF MS provided enhanced separation of the VOC profile and served as a reference method for the evaluation of the on-site analytical methods in the current experimental campaign. Bespoke software was used to deconvolve the VOC profile to extract as much information as possible into peak lists. In total, 288 unique VOCs were identified (i.e., not found in blank samples). The majority were aliphatics (172), aromatics (25) and nitrogen compounds (19), followed by ketones (17), esters (13), alcohols (12), aldehydes (11), sulfur (9), miscellaneous (8) and acid compounds (2). The TD-GC×GC-TOF MS proved to be a sensitive and powerful system for resolving the chemical puzzle of above-ground "scent of death". PMID:26088782

  8. Identification of Brucella by MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry. Fast and Reliable Identification from Agar Plates and Blood Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Laura; Vega Castaño, Silvia; Sánchez-Juanes, Fernando; González-Cabrero, Sandra; Menegotto, Fabiola; Orduña-Domingo, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    Background MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry (MS) is a reliable method for bacteria identification. Some databases used for this purpose lack reference profiles for Brucella species, which is still an important pathogen in wide areas around the world. We report the creation of profiles for MALDI-TOF Biotyper 2.0 database (Bruker Daltonics, Germany) and their usefulness for identifying brucellae from culture plates and blood cultures. Methodology/Principal Findings We created MALDI Biotyper 2.0 profiles for type strains belonging to B. melitensis biotypes 1, 2 and 3; B. abortus biotypes 1, 2, 5 and 9; B. suis, B. canis, B ceti and B. pinnipedialis. Then, 131 clinical isolates grown on plate cultures were used in triplicate to check identification. Identification at genus level was always correct, although in most cases the three replicates reported different identification at species level. Simulated blood cultures were performed with type strains belonging to the main human pathogenic species (B. melitensis, B. abortus, B. suis and B. canis), and studied by MALDI-TOF MS in triplicate. Identification at genus level was always correct. Conclusions/Significance MALDI-TOF MS is reliable for Brucella identification to the genus level from culture plates and directly from blood culture bottles. PMID:21151913

  9. Evaluating Factor XIII Specificity for Glutamine-Containing Substrates Using a MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry Assay

    PubMed Central

    Doiphode, Prakash G.; Malovichko, Marina V.; Mouapi, Kelly Njine; Maurer, Muriel C.

    2014-01-01

    Activated Factor XIII (FXIIIa) catalyzes the formation of ?-glutamyl-?-lysyl cross-links within the fibrin blood clot network. Although several cross-linking targets have been identified, the characteristic features that define FXIIIa substrate specificity are not well understood. To learn more about how FXIIIa selects its targets, a matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization – time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) based assay was developed that could directly follow the consumption of a glutamine-containing substrate and the formation of a cross-linked product with glycine ethylester. This FXIIIa kinetics assay is no longer reliant on a secondary coupled reaction, on substrate labeling, or on detecting the final deacylation portion of the transglutaminase reaction. With the MALDI-TOF MS assay, glutamine-containing peptides derived from ?2-antiplasmin, S. Aureus fibronectin binding protein A, and thrombin activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor were examined directly. Results suggest that the FXIIIa active site surface responds to changes in substrate residues following the reactive glutamine. The P-1 substrate position is sensitive to charge character and the P-2 and P-3 to the broad FXIIIa substrate specificity pockets. The more distant P-8 to P-11 region serves as a secondary substrate anchoring point. New knowledge on FXIIIa specificity may be used to design better substrates or inhibitors of this transglutaminase. PMID:24751466

  10. Systematic HPLC/ESI-High Resolution-qTOF-MS Methodology for Metabolomic Studies in Nonfluorescent Chlorophyll Catabolites Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Ríos, José Julián; Roca, María; Pérez-Gálvez, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Characterization of nonfluorescent chlorophyll catabolites (NCCs) and dioxobilane-type nonfluorescent chlorophyll catabolite (DNCC) in peel extracts of ripened lemon fruits (Citrus limon L.) was performed by HPLC/ESI-high resolution-qTOF-MS method. Compounds were identified in samples on the basis of measured accurate mass, isotopic pattern, and characteristic fragmentation profile with an implemented software postprocessing routine. Three NCC structures already identified in other vegetal tissues were present in the lemon fruit peels (Cl-NCC1; Cl-NCC2; Cl-NCC4) while a new structure not defined so far was characterized (Cl-NCC3). This catabolite exhibits an exceptional arrangement of the peripheral substituents, allowing concluding that the preferences for the NCC modifications could be a species-related matter. PMID:25741450

  11. Single event mass spectrometry

    DOEpatents

    Conzemius, Robert J. (Ames, IA)

    1990-01-16

    A means and method for single event time of flight mass spectrometry for analysis of specimen materials. The method of the invention includes pulsing an ion source imposing at least one pulsed ion onto the specimen to produce a corresponding emission of at least one electrically charged particle. The emitted particle is then dissociated into a charged ion component and an uncharged neutral component. The ion and neutral components are then detected. The time of flight of the components are recorded and can be used to analyze the predecessor of the components, and therefore the specimen material. When more than one ion particle is emitted from the specimen per single ion impact, the single event time of flight mass spectrometer described here furnis This invention was made with Government support under Contract No. W-7405-ENG82 awarded by the Department of Energy. The Government has certain rights in the invention.

  12. Simultaneous characterization of quaternary alkaloids, 8-oxoprotoberberine alkaloids, and a steroid compound in Coscinium fenestratum by liquid chromatography hybrid ion trap time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Deevanhxay, Phengxay; Suzuki, Makoto; Maeshibu, Nariaki; Li, He; Tanaka, Ken; Hirose, Sachio

    2009-10-15

    Simultaneous characterization of quaternary alkaloids, 8-oxoprotoberberine alkaloids, and a steroid compound in Coscinium fenestratum was successfully performed by liquid chromatography hybrid ion trap time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC/IT-TOF MS). A total of 32 compounds, including 2 benzylisoquinoline alkaloids, 3 aporphine alkaloids, 12 quaternary protoberberine alkaloids, 10 8-oxoprotoberberine alkaloids, 3 tetrahydroprotoberberine alkaloids, and a steroid compound were simultaneously separated and characterized by matching the empirical molecular formulae with those published in literature and the multi-stage mass spectrometry (MS(n)) data obtained using structural information from IT, accurate mass measurement obtained from TOF MS, and HPLC separation. A total of 20 compounds, including 4 novel natural products were identified or tentatively identified for the first time from Coscinium fenestratum. In the positive-ion mode, 8-oxoprotoberberines produced [M+H](+) and [M+Na](+); the fragmentation of 8-oxodihydroprotoberberines produced [M+H-*CH(3)](+*), [M+H-*CH(3)-*CH(3)](+), and [M+H-*CH(3)-*CH(3)-CO](+), while 8-oxotetrahydroprotoberberines generated [M+H-*CH(3)](+*), [M+H-*CH(3)-*CH(3)](+), [M+H-*CH(3)-*H](+), and iminium ions from the cleavage of the protoberberine skeleton. The method can be applied for the analysis of 8-oxoberberine and other alkaloids in Coptis japonica, Phellodendron amurense, and other herbal medicines. PMID:19539442

  13. Comparative proteomics using 2-D gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry as tools to dissect stimulons and regulons in bacteria with sequenced or partially sequenced genomes

    PubMed Central

    Hernández, Magdalena; Martínez-Batallar, Gabriel; Contreras, Sandra; del Carmen Vargas, María; Mora, Jaime

    2005-01-01

    We propose two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and mass spectrometry to define the protein components of regulons and stimulons in bacteria, including those organisms where genome sequencing is still in progress. The basic 2-DE protocol allows high resolution and reproducibility and enables the direct comparison of hundreds or even thousands of proteins simultaneously. To identify proteins that comprise stimulons and regulons, peptide mass fingerprint (PMF) with matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) analysis is the first option and, if results from this tool are insufficient, complementary data obtained with electrospray ionization tandem-MS (ESI-MS/MS) may permit successful protein identification. ESI-MS/MS and MALDI-TOF-MS provide complementary data sets, and so a more comprehensive coverage of a proteome can be obtained using both techniques with the same sample, especially when few sequenced proteins of a particular organism exist or genome sequencing is still in progress. PMID:16145578

  14. Evaluation of the matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry Bruker Biotyper for identification of Penicillium marneffei, Paecilomyces species, Fusarium solani, Rhizopus species, and Pseudallescheria boydii.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying-Sheng; Liu, Yen-Hung; Teng, Shih-Hua; Liao, Chun-Hsing; Hung, Chien-Ching; Sheng, Wang-Huei; Teng, Lee-Jene; Hsueh, Po-Ren

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the performance of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), the MALDI Bruker Biotyper system (microflex LT; Bruker Daltonik GmbH, Bremen, Germany), on the identification of 50 isolates of clinically encountered molds, including Penicillium marneffei (n = 28), Paecilomyces species (n = 12), Fusarium solani (n = 6), Rhizopus species (n = 3), and Pseudallescheria boydii (n = 1). The isolates were identified to species levels by sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions using primers ITS1 and ITS4. None of the 28 genetically well characterized isolates of P. marneffei were identified as P. marneffei by MALDI-TOF MS, because P. marneffei was not present in either Bruker general library (DB 5627) or Bruker filamentous fungi library V1.0. However, the rate of accurate identification as P. marneffei (score value ? 2.000) was 85.7% based on newly created database from one P. marneffei strain (NTUH-3370) by MALDI Biotyper system. Sequencing analysis of these 22 non-P. marneffei isolates of molds revealed seven Paecilomyces variotii, six F. solani, four Paecilomyces lilacinus, and one each of Paecilomyces sinensis, Rhizopus arrhizus, R. oryzae, R. microspores, and P. boydii. Although all the seven P. variotii isolates, four of the six F. solani, two of the four P. lilacinus, and two of the three isolates of Rhizopus species, and the P. boydii isolate had concordant identification results between MALDI-TOF MS and sequencing analysis, the score values of these isolates were all of <1.700. This study indicated that the MALDI Bruker Biotyper is ineffective for identifying P. marneffei and other unusual molds because of the current database limitations. Therefore, it is necessary to continuously update the MALDI-TOF MS databases. PMID:26217315

  15. Evaluation of the matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry Bruker Biotyper for identification of Penicillium marneffei, Paecilomyces species, Fusarium solani, Rhizopus species, and Pseudallescheria boydii

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ying-Sheng; Liu, Yen-Hung; Teng, Shih-Hua; Liao, Chun-Hsing; Hung, Chien-Ching; Sheng, Wang-Huei; Teng, Lee-Jene; Hsueh, Po-Ren

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the performance of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), the MALDI Bruker Biotyper system (microflex LT; Bruker Daltonik GmbH, Bremen, Germany), on the identification of 50 isolates of clinically encountered molds, including Penicillium marneffei (n = 28), Paecilomyces species (n = 12), Fusarium solani (n = 6), Rhizopus species (n = 3), and Pseudallescheria boydii (n = 1). The isolates were identified to species levels by sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions using primers ITS1 and ITS4. None of the 28 genetically well characterized isolates of P. marneffei were identified as P. marneffei by MALDI-TOF MS, because P. marneffei was not present in either Bruker general library (DB 5627) or Bruker filamentous fungi library V1.0. However, the rate of accurate identification as P. marneffei (score value ? 2.000) was 85.7% based on newly created database from one P. marneffei strain (NTUH-3370) by MALDI Biotyper system. Sequencing analysis of these 22 non-P. marneffei isolates of molds revealed seven Paecilomyces variotii, six F. solani, four Paecilomyces lilacinus, and one each of Paecilomyces sinensis, Rhizopus arrhizus, R. oryzae, R. microspores, and P. boydii. Although all the seven P. variotii isolates, four of the six F. solani, two of the four P. lilacinus, and two of the three isolates of Rhizopus species, and the P. boydii isolate had concordant identification results between MALDI-TOF MS and sequencing analysis, the score values of these isolates were all of <1.700. This study indicated that the MALDI Bruker Biotyper is ineffective for identifying P. marneffei and other unusual molds because of the current database limitations. Therefore, it is necessary to continuously update the MALDI-TOF MS databases. PMID:26217315

  16. MALDI-based intact spore mass spectrometry of downy and powdery mildews.

    PubMed

    Chalupová, Jana; Sedlá?ová, Michaela; Helmel, Michaela; Rehulka, Pavel; Marchetti-Deschmann, Martina; Allmaier, Günter; Sebela, Marek

    2012-08-01

    Fast and easy identification of fungal phytopathogens is of great importance in agriculture. In this context, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has emerged as a powerful tool for analyzing microorganisms. This study deals with a methodology for MALDI-TOF MS-based identification of downy and powdery mildews representing obligate biotrophic parasites of crop plants. Experimental approaches for the MS analyses were optimized using Bremia lactucae, cause of lettuce downy mildew, and Oidium neolycopersici, cause of tomato powdery mildew. This involved determining a suitable concentration of spores in the sample, selection of a proper MALDI matrix, looking for the optimal solvent composition, and evaluation of different sample preparation methods. Furthermore, using different MALDI target materials and surfaces (stainless steel vs polymer-based) and applying various conditions for sample exposure to the acidic MALDI matrix system were investigated. The dried droplet method involving solvent evaporation at room temperature was found to be the most suitable for the deposition of spores and MALDI matrix on the target and the subsequent crystallization. The concentration of spore suspension was optimal between 2 and 5?×?10(9) spores per ml. The best peptide/protein profiles (in terms of signal-to-noise ratio and number of peaks) were obtained by combining ferulic and sinapinic acids as a mixed MALDI matrix. A pretreatment of the spore cell wall with hydrolases was successfully introduced prior to MS measurements to obtain more pronounced signals. Finally, a novel procedure was developed for direct mass spectra acquisition from infected plant leaves. PMID:22899506

  17. Comprehensive non-targeted analysis of contaminated groundwater of a former ammunition destruction site using 1H-NMR and HPLC-SPE-NMR/TOF-MS.

    PubMed

    Godejohann, Markus; Heintz, Lea; Daolio, Cristina; Berset, Jean-Daniel; Muff, Daniel

    2009-09-15

    The aim of the present study was to explore the capabilities of the combination of 1H NMR (proton nuclear magnetic resonance) mixture analysis and HPLC-SPE-NMR/TOF-MS (high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to solid-phase extraction and nuclear magnetic resonance and time-of-flight mass spectrometry) for the characterization of xenobiotic contaminants in groundwater samples. As an example, solid-phase extracts of two groundwater samples taken from a former ammunition destruction site in Switzerland were investigated. 1H NMR spectra of postcolumn SPE enriched compounds, together with accurate mass measurements, allowed the structural elucidation of unknowns. This untargeted approach allowed us to identify expected residues of explosives such as 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (2,4,6-TNT), Hexogen (RDX) and Octogen (HMX), degradation products of TNT (1,3,5-trinitrobenzene (1,3,5-TNB), 2-amino-4,6-dinitrotoluene (2-A-4,6-DNT), 3,5-dinitrophenol (3,5-DNP), 3,5-dinitroaniline (3,5-DNA), 2,6-dinitroanthranite, and 2-Hydroxy-4,6-dinitrobenzonitrile), benzoic acid, Bisphenol A (a known endocrine disruptor compound), and some toxicologically relevant additives for propelling charges: Centralite I (1,3-diethyl-1,3-diphenylurea), DPU (N,N-diphenylurethane), N,N-diphenylcarbamate (Acardite II), and N-methyl-N-phenylurethane. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the presence of these additives in environmental samples. Extraction recoveries for Centralite I and DPU have been determined. Contaminants identified by our techniques were quantified based on HPLC-UV (HPLC-ultraviolet detection) and 1H NMR mixture analysis. The concentrations of the contaminants ranged between 0.1 and 48 microg/L assuming 100% recovery for the SPE step. PMID:19806741

  18. Quantitative characterization of tissue globotetraosylceramides in a rat model of polycystic kidney disease by PrimaDrop sample preparation and indirect high-performance thin layer chromatography-matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry with automated data acquisition.

    PubMed

    Ruh, Hermelindis; Sandhoff, Roger; Meyer, Björn; Gretz, Norbert; Hopf, Carsten

    2013-07-01

    Glycosphingolipids (GSL) have been associated with a variety of diseases, including cancer and autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). In contrast to glucosylceramide and gangliosides, alterations in complex neutral GSLs such as globotetraosylceramide (Gb4Cer) have not been investigated in ADPKD yet, and mass spectrometry analysis of Gb4Cer from tissue extracts remains challenging. To this end, we introduce PrimaDrop as an improved and widely applicable sample preparation method for automated matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) analysis of lipid extracts, which promotes homogeneous cocrystallization and enables relative quantification by indirect thin layer chromatography (TLC)-MALDI-time-of-flight (TOF)-MS against an internal bradykinin standard. Application of the method for detailed investigation of Gb4Cer isoforms in kidneys of an ADPKD rat model revealed increased levels of sphingoid base-containing isoforms in cystic kidneys, whereas changes were subtle for Gb4Cer-containing phytosphingoid bases. We furthermore established an absolute LC-ESI-MS/MS quantification method and demonstrate that absolute quantities of Gb4Cer correlate well with relative quantities obtained by indirect TLC-MALDI-TOF-MS. Taken together, our study proposes an effective sample preparation method for automated analysis of lipid extracts and TLC eluates and suggests that indirect high-performace (HP)TLC-MALDI-TOF-MS with automated data acquisition is a viable option for analysis of neutral glycosphingolipids and that Gb4Cer may play a role in the pathogenesis of ADPKD. PMID:23701631

  19. Analysis of complex phthalic acid based polyesters by the combination of size exclusion chromatography and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Pretorius, Nadine O; Rode, Karsten; Simpson, Jaylin M; Pasch, Harald

    2014-01-15

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) was used in conjunction with size exclusion chromatography (SEC) to investigate a model polyester system based on phthalic anhydride-1,2-propylene glycol. The polyesters were synthesized with a 30% molar excess of glycol, with kinetic samples being removed during different intervals of the polyesterification reaction. SEC was used to track the course of the reaction by determining the molecular weight and molecular weight distributions before subsequent off-line coupling with MALDI-TOF MS as a selective detection method to determine the chemical composition, identify the functionality type distributions as well as assist in assigning structural conformations. Mass spectrometry analysis proved to be a highly effective tool to facilitate the identification of the narrowly dispersed fractions obtained from the chromatographic separations as well as serve as a core method to investigate the heterogeneous nature of the bulk kinetic samples. Through the hyphenation of these sophisticated polymer characterization techniques, information on the molecular heterogeneity of the model polyesters, showing a complex variety of possible distributions, was obtained. PMID:24370096

  20. Phylogenetic analysis of microalgae based on highly abundant proteins using mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hae-Won; Roh, Seong Woon; Cho, Kichul; Kim, Kil-Nam; Cha, In-Tae; Yim, Kyung June; Song, Hye Seon; Nam, Young-Do; Oda, Tatsuya; Chung, Young-Ho; Kim, Soo Jung; Choi, Jong-Soon; Kim, Daekyung

    2015-01-01

    The blooms of toxic phototrophic microorganisms, such as microalgae and cyanobacteria, which are typically found in freshwater and marine environments, are becoming more frequent and problematic in aquatic systems. Due to accumulation of toxic algae, harmful algal blooms (HABs) exert negative effects on aquatic systems. Therefore, rapid detection of harmful microalgae is important for monitoring the occurrence of HABs. Mass spectrometry-based methods have become sensitive, specific techniques for the identification and characterization of microorganisms. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) with time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) allows us to measure a unique molecular fingerprint of highly abundant proteins in a microorganism and has been used for the rapid, accurate identification of bacteria and fungi in clinical microbiology. Here, we tested the specificity of MALDI-TOF MS using microalgal strains (Heterocapsa, Alexandrium, Nannochloropsis, Chaetoceros, Chlorella, and Dunaliella spp.). Our research suggested that this method was comparable in terms of the rapid identification of microalgea to conventional methods based on genetic information and morphology. Thus, this efficient mass spectrometry-based technique may have applications in the rapid identification of harmful microorganisms from aquatic environmental samples. PMID:25476355

  1. Methane ice photochemistry and kinetic study using laser desorption time-of-flight mass spectrometry at 20 K.

    PubMed

    Bossa, J-B; Paardekooper, D M; Isokoski, K; Linnartz, H

    2015-07-14

    The ice photochemistry of pure methane (CH4) is studied at 20 K upon VUV irradiation from a microwave discharge H2 flow lamp. Laser Desorption Post-Ionization Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (LDPI TOF-MS) is used for the first time to determine branching ratios of primary reactions leading to CH3, CH2, and CH radicals, typically for fluences as expected in space. This study is based on a stable end-products analysis and the mass spectra are interpreted using an appropriate set of coupled reactions and rate constants. This yields clearly different values from previous gas phase studies. The matrix environment as well as the higher efficiency of reverse reactions in the ice clearly favor CH3 radical formation as the main first generation photoproduct. PMID:26073296

  2. Flow injection mass spectral fingerprints demonstrate chemical differences in rio red grapefruit with respect to year, harvest time, and conventional versus organic farming

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spectral fingerprints were acquired for Ruby Red grapefruit using direct injection-electrospray ionization with time-of-flight and ion trap mass spectrometry (DI-ESI-TOF-MS and DI-ESI-IT-MS). Rio Red grapefruits were harvested 3 times a year (early, mid, and late harvests) in 2005 and 2006 from con...

  3. Mass spectrometry in ionospheric research.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Eldon E

    2007-01-01

    Mass spectrometry played a key role in the development of the understanding of the earth's ionosphere. Of primary importance was its use for in situ atmospheric measurements of the ion and neutral composition of the atmosphere. Mass spectrometry has also played an essential role in the laboratory measurement of critical ionospheric molecular processes. Examples of both are given. PMID:17099890

  4. HPLC-DAD-Q-TOF-MS/MS analysis and HPLC quantitation of chemical constituents in traditional Chinese medicinal formula Ge-Gen Decoction.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yan; Chai, Cheng-Zhi; Wang, Da-Wei; Yue, Xin-Yi; Zhu, Dan-Ni; Yu, Bo-Yang

    2013-06-01

    Ge-Gen Decoction (GGD) is a classical formula of traditional Chinese medicine. It is generally used for treating common cold, fever and influenza in China and South East Asia. In this study, a systematic method was established for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the major constituents in GGD. For qualitative analysis, a method of liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (Q-TOF MS/MS) was developed for identification of multi-constituents. Based on the UV spectra, retention time and MS spectra, sixty compounds in GGD extract were identified or tentatively characterized by comparing with reference substances or literatures. According to the qualitative results, a new quantitative analysis method of GGD was established by HPLC-DAD. Fourteen representative compounds unequivocally identified were chosen as marker components which were derived from five herbs in GGD excluding Zingiberis Rhizoma Recens and Jujubae Fructus. The analytical method was validated through intra- and inter-day precision, repeatability and stability, and the R.S.D. was less than 3.18%, 4.48%, 3.36% and 3.54%, respectively. The LODs and the LOQs for the analytes were less than 1.06 and 3.12?gmL(-1), respectively. The overall recoveries ranged from 94.8% to 105.6%, with the R.S.D. ranging from 0.68% to 3.23%. Then the new method was applied to determine twelve batches of GGD commercial products of three dosage forms. The results indicated that the new approach was applicable in the routine analysis and quality control of GGD products. The study might provide a basis for quality control of GGD, and further study of GGD in vivo. PMID:23584078

  5. N-doped graphene: an alternative carbon-based matrix for highly efficient detection of small molecules by negative ion MALDI-TOF MS.

    PubMed

    Min, Qianhao; Zhang, Xiaoxia; Chen, Xueqin; Li, Siyuan; Zhu, Jun-Jie

    2014-09-16

    Gas-phase N-doped graphene (gNG) was synthesized by a modified thermal annealing method using gaseous melamine as nitrogen source and then for the first time applied as a matrix in negative ion matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) for small molecule analysis. Unlike the complicated adducts produced in positive ion mode, MS spectra obtained on gNG matrix in negative ion mode was only featured by deprotonated molecule ion peaks without matrix interference. By the gNG assisted desorption/ionization (D/I) process, some applications were carried out on a wide range of low-molecular weight (MW) analytes including amino acids, fatty acids, peptides, anabolic androgenic steroids as well as anticancer drugs, with an extraordinary laser desorption/ionization (LDI) efficiency over traditional ?-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (CHCA) and other carbon-based materials in the negative ion detection mode. By comparison of a series of graphene-based matrixes, two main factors of matrix gNG were unveiled to play a decisive role in assisting negative ion D/I process: a well-ordered ?-conjugated system for laser absorption and energy transfer; pyridinic-doped nitrogen species functioning as deprotonation sites for proton capture on negative ionization. The good salt tolerance and high sensitivity allowed further therapeutic monitoring of anticancer drug nilotinib in the spiked human serum, a real case of biology. Signal response was definitely obtained between 1 mM and 1 ?M, meeting the demand of assessing drug level in the patient serum. This work creates a new application branch for nitrogen-doped graphene and provides an alternative solution for small molecule analysis. PMID:25137626

  6. Exploring in vitro, in vivo metabolism of mogroside V and distribution of its metabolites in rats by HPLC-ESI-IT-TOF-MS(n).

    PubMed

    Xu, Feng; Li, Dian-Peng; Huang, Zhen-Cong; Lu, Feng-Lai; Wang, Lei; Huang, Yong-Lin; Wang, Ru-Feng; Liu, Guang-Xue; Shang, Ming-Ying; Cai, Shao-Qing

    2015-11-10

    Mogroside V, a cucurbitane-type saponin, is not only the major bioactive constituent of traditional Chinese medicine Siraitiae Fructus, but also a widely used sweetener. To clarify its biotransformation process and identify its effective forms in vivo, we studied its metabolism in a human intestinal bacteria incubation system, a rat hepatic 9000g supernatant (S9) incubation system, and rats. Meanwhile, the distribution of mogroside V and its metabolites was also reported firstly. Seventy-seven new metabolites, including 52 oxidation products formed by mono- to tetra- hydroxylation/dehydrogenation, were identified with the aid of HPLC in tandem with ESI ion trap (IT) TOF multistage mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-IT-TOF-MS(n)). Specifically, 14 metabolites were identified in human intestinal bacteria incubation system, 4 in hepatic S9 incubation system, 58 in faeces, 29 in urine, 14 in plasma, 34 in heart, 33 in liver, 39 in spleen, 39 in lungs, 42 in kidneys, 45 in stomach, and 51 in small intestine. The metabolic pathways of mogroside V were proposed and the identified metabolic reactions were deglycosylation, hydroxylation, dehydrogenation, isomerization, glucosylation, and methylation. Mogroside V and its metabolites were distributed unevenly in the organs of treated rats. Seven bioactive metabolites of mogroside V were identified, among which mogroside IIE was abundant in heart, liver, spleen and lung, suggesting that it may contribute to the bioactivities of mogroside V. Mogroside V was mainly excreted in urine, whereas its metabolites were mainly excreted in faeces. To our knowledge, this is the first report that a plant constituent can be biotransformed into more than 65 metabolites in vivo. These findings will improve understanding of the in vivo metabolism, distribution, and effective forms of mogroside V and congeneric molecules. PMID:26280925

  7. Probing the 3-D Structure, Dynamics, and Stability of Bacterial Collagenase Collagen Binding Domain (apo- versus holo-) by Limited Proteolysis MALDI-TOF MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sides, Cynthia R.; Liyanage, Rohana; Lay, Jackson O.; Philominathan, Sagaya Theresa Leena; Matsushita, Osamu; Sakon, Joshua

    2012-03-01

    Pairing limited proteolysis and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) to probe clostridial collagenase collagen binding domain (CBD) reveals the solution dynamics and stability of the protein, as these factors are crucial to CBD effectiveness as a drug-delivery vehicle. MS analysis of proteolytic digests indicates initial cleavage sites, thereby specifying the less stable and highly accessible regions of CBD. Modulation of protein structure and stability upon metal binding is shown through MS analysis of calcium-bound and cobalt-bound CBD proteolytic digests. Previously determined X-ray crystal structures illustrate that calcium binding induces secondary structure transformation in the highly mobile N-terminal arm and increases protein stability. MS-based detection of exposed residues confirms protein flexibility, accentuates N-terminal dynamics, and demonstrates increased global protein stability exported by calcium binding. Additionally, apo- and calcium-bound CBD proteolysis sites correlate well with crystallographic B-factors, accessibility, and enzyme specificity. MS-observed cleavage sites with no clear correlations are explained either by crystal contacts of the X-ray crystal structures or by observed differences between Molecules A and B in the X-ray crystal structures. The study newly reveals the absence of the ?A strand and thus the very dynamic N-terminal linker, as corroborated by the solution X-ray scattering results. Cobalt binding has a regional effect on the solution phase stability of CBD, as limited proteolysis data implies the capture of an intermediate-CBD solution structure when cobalt is bound.

  8. A simple algorithm improves mass accuracy to 50-100 ppm for delayed extraction linear MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Hack, Christopher A.; Benner, W. Henry

    2001-10-31

    A simple mathematical technique for improving mass calibration accuracy of linear delayed extraction matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (DE MALDI-TOF MS) spectra is presented. The method involves fitting a parabola to a plot of Dm vs. mass data where Dm is the difference between the theoretical mass of calibrants and the mass obtained from a linear relationship between the square root of m/z and ion time of flight. The quadratic equation that describes the parabola is then used to correct the mass of unknowns by subtracting the deviation predicted by the quadratic equation from measured data. By subtracting the value of the parabola at each mass from the calibrated data, the accuracy of mass data points can be improved by factors of 10 or more. This method produces highly similar results whether or not initial ion velocity is accounted for in the calibration equation; consequently, there is no need to depend on that uncertain parameter when using the quadratic correction. This method can be used to correct the internally calibrated masses of protein digest peaks. The effect of nitrocellulose as a matrix additive is also briefly discussed, and it is shown that using nitrocellulose as an additive to a CHCA matrix does not significantly change initial ion velocity but does change the average position of ions relative to the sample electrode at the instant the extraction voltage is applied.

  9. Assessment of heat treatment of dairy products by MALDI-TOF-MS.

    PubMed

    Meltretter, Jasmin; Birlouez-Aragon, Inès; Becker, Cord-Michael; Pischetsrieder, Monika

    2009-12-01

    The formation of the Amadori product from lactose (protein lactosylation) is a major parameter to evaluate the quality of processed milk. Here, MALDI-TOF-MS was used for the relative quantification of lactose-adducts in heated milk. Milk was heated at a temperature of 70, 80, and 100 degrees C between 0 and 300 min, diluted, and subjected directly to MALDI-TOF-MS. The lactosylation rate of alpha-lactalbumin increased with increasing reaction temperature and time. The results correlated well with established markers for heat treatment of milk (concentration of total soluble protein, soluble alpha-lactalbumin and beta-lactoglobulin at pH 4.6, and fluorescence of advanced Maillard products and soluble tryptophan index; r=0.969-0.997). The method was also applied to examine commercially available dairy products. In severely heated products, protein pre-purification by immobilized metal affinity chromatography improved spectra quality. Relative quantification of protein lactosylation by MALDI-TOF-MS proved to be a very fast and reliable method to monitor early Maillard reaction during milk processing. PMID:19760680

  10. Cationic Xylene Tag for Increasing Sensitivity in Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Poguang; Zhang, Qi; Yao, Yuanyuan; Giese, Roger W.

    2015-06-01

    N-(2-(Bromomethyl)benzyl)-N,N-diethylethanaminium bromide, that we designate as CAX-B (cationic xylyl-bromide), is presented as a derivatization reagent for increasing sensitivity in mass spectrometry. Because of its aryl bromomethyl moiety, CAX-B readily labels compounds having an active hydrogen. In part, a CAX-tagged analyte (CAX-analyte) can be very sensitive especially in a tandem mass spectrometer (both ESI and MALDI). This is because of facile formation of an analyte-characteristic first product ion (as a xylyl-based cation) from favorable loss of triethylamine as a neutral from the precursor ion. This loss is enhanced both by resonance stabilization of the xylyl cation, and by anchimeric assistance from the ortho hetero atom of the attached analyte. High intensity of a first product ion opens up the opportunity for a CAX-analyte to be additionally sensitive when it is prone to a secondary neutral loss from the analyte part. For example, we have derivatized and detected 160 amol of thymidine by CAX-tagging/LC-MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS in this way, where the two neutral losses are triethylamine and deoxyribose. Other analytes detected at the amol level as CAX derivatives (as diluted standards) include estradiol and some nucleobases. The tendency for analytes with multiple active hydrogens to label just once with CAX (an advantage) is illustrated by the conversion of bisphenol A to a single product even when excess CAX-B is present. A family of analogous reagents with a variety of reactivity groups is anticipated as a consequence of replacing the bromine atom of CAX-B with various functional groups.

  11. Cationic Xylene Tag for Increasing Sensitivity in Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Poguang; Zhang, Qi; Yao, Yuanyuan; Giese, Roger W

    2015-10-01

    N-(2-(Bromomethyl)benzyl)-N,N-diethylethanaminium bromide, that we designate as CAX-B (cationic xylyl-bromide), is presented as a derivatization reagent for increasing sensitivity in mass spectrometry. Because of its aryl bromomethyl moiety, CAX-B readily labels compounds having an active hydrogen. In part, a CAX-tagged analyte (CAX-analyte) can be very sensitive especially in a tandem mass spectrometer (both ESI and MALDI). This is because of facile formation of an analyte-characteristic first product ion (as a xylyl-based cation) from favorable loss of triethylamine as a neutral from the precursor ion. This loss is enhanced both by resonance stabilization of the xylyl cation, and by anchimeric assistance from the ortho hetero atom of the attached analyte. High intensity of a first product ion opens up the opportunity for a CAX-analyte to be additionally sensitive when it is prone to a secondary neutral loss from the analyte part. For example, we have derivatized and detected 160 amol of thymidine by CAX-tagging/LC-MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS in this way, where the two neutral losses are triethylamine and deoxyribose. Other analytes detected at the amol level as CAX derivatives (as diluted standards) include estradiol and some nucleobases. The tendency for analytes with multiple active hydrogens to label just once with CAX (an advantage) is illustrated by the conversion of bisphenol A to a single product even when excess CAX-B is present. A family of analogous reagents with a variety of reactivity groups is anticipated as a consequence of replacing the bromine atom of CAX-B with various functional groups. PMID:26115969

  12. Undisturbed and disturbed above canopy ponderosa pine emissions: PTR-TOF-MS measurements and MEGAN 2.1 model results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaser, L.; Karl, T.; Guenther, A.; Graus, M.; Schnitzhofer, R.; Turnipseed, A.; Fischer, L.; Harley, P.; Madronich, M.; Gochis, D.; Keutsch, F. N.; Hansel, A.

    2013-12-01

    We present the first eddy covariance flux measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) using a proton-transfer-reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer (PTR-TOF-MS) above a ponderosa pine forest in Colorado, USA. The high mass resolution of the PTR-TOF-MS enabled the identification of chemical sum formulas. During a 30 day measurement period in August and September 2010, 649 different ion mass peaks were detected in the ambient air mass spectrum (including primary ions and mass calibration compounds). Eddy covariance with the vertical wind speed was calculated for all ion mass peaks. On a typical day, 17 ion mass peaks, including protonated parent compounds, their fragments and isotopes as well as VOC-H+-water clusters, showed a significant flux with daytime average emissions above a reliable flux threshold of 0.1 mg compound m-2 h-1. These ion mass peaks could be assigned to seven compound classes. The main flux contributions during daytime (10:00-18:00 LT) are attributed to the sum of 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol (MBO) and isoprene (50%), methanol (12%), the sum of acetic acid and glycolaldehyde (10%) and the sum of monoterpenes (10%). The total MBO + isoprene flux was composed of 10% isoprene and 90% MBO. There was good agreement between the light- and temperature dependency of the sum of MBO and isoprene observed for this work and those of earlier studies. The above canopy flux measurements of the sum of MBO and isoprene and the sum of monoterpenes were compared to emissions calculated using the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN 2.1). The best agreement between MEGAN 2.1 and measurements was reached using emission factors determined from site-specific leaf cuvette measurements. While the modeled and measured MBO + isoprene fluxes agree well, the emissions of the sum of monoterpenes is underestimated by MEGAN 2.1. This is expected as some factors impacting monoterpene emissions, such as physical damage of needles and branches due to storms, are not included in MEGAN 2.1. After a severe hailstorm event, 22 ion mass peaks (attributed to six compound classes plus some unknown compounds) showed an elevated flux for the two following days. The sum of monoterpene emissions was 4-23 times higher compared to emissions prior to the hailstorm while MBO emissions remained unchanged. The monoterpene emission (in mg compound m-2) during this measurement period is underestimated by 40% if the effect of this disturbance source is not considered.

  13. Undisturbed and disturbed above canopy ponderosa pine emissions: PTR-TOF-MS measurements and MEGAN 2.1 model results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaser, L.; Karl, T.; Guenther, A.; Graus, M.; Schnitzhofer, R.; Turnipseed, A.; Fischer, L.; Harley, P.; Madronich, M.; Gochis, D.; Keutsch, F. N.; Hansel, A.

    2013-06-01

    We present the first eddy covariance flux measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) using a proton-transfer-reaction time-of-flight mass-spectrometer (PTR-TOF-MS) above a ponderosa pine forest in Colorado, USA. The high mass resolution of the PTR-TOF-MS enabled the identification of chemical sum formulas. During a 30 day measurement period in August and September 2010, 649 different ion mass peaks were detected in the ambient air mass spectrum (including primary ions and mass calibration compounds). Eddy covariance with the vertical wind speed was calculated for all ion mass peaks. On a typical day, 17 ion mass peaks including protonated parent compounds, their fragments and isotopes as well as VOC-H+-water clusters showed a significant flux with daytime average emissions above a reliable flux threshold of 0.1 mg compound m-2 h-1. These ion mass peaks could be assigned to seven compound classes. The main flux contributions during daytime (10:00-18:00 LT) are attributed to the sum of 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol (MBO) and isoprene (50%), methanol (12%), the sum of acetic acid and glycolaldehyde (10%) and the sum of monoterpenes (10%). The total MBO + isoprene flux was composed of 10% isoprene and 90% MBO. There was good agreement between the light and temperature dependency of the sum of MBO and isoprene observed for this work and those of earlier studies. The above canopy flux measurements of the sum of MBO and isoprene and the sum of monoterpenes were compared to emissions calculated using the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN 2.1). The best agreement between MEGAN 2.1 and measurements was reached using emission factors determined from site specific leaf cuvette measurements. While the modelled and measured MBO + isoprene fluxes agree well the emissions of the sum of monoterpenes is underestimated by MEGAN 2.1. This is expected as some factors impacting monoterpene emissions, such as physical damage of needles and branches due to storms, are not included in MEGAN 2.1. After a severe hailstorm event, 22 ion mass peaks (attributed to six compound classes plus some unknown compounds) showed an elevated flux for the two following days. The sum of monoterpene emissions was 4-23 times higher compared to emissions prior to the hailstorm while MBO emissions remained unchanged. If one heavy storm occurs at this site every month we calculate that the monthly monoterpene emissions (in mg compound m-2) would be underestimated by 40% if this disturbance source is not considered.

  14. Chemical Analysis of the Chinese Liquor Luzhoulaojiao by Comprehensive Two-Dimensional Gas Chromatography/Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Feng; Yi, Bin; Shen, Caihong; Tao, Fei; Liu, Yumin; Lin, Zhixin; Xu, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Luzhoulaojiao liquor is a type of Chinese liquor that dates back hundreds of years, but whose precise chemical composition remains unknown. This paper describes the screening of the liquor and the identification of its compounds using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC/TOF-MS). Samples were prepared by both liquid-liquid extraction and solid-phase microextraction, which facilitated the detection of thousands of compounds in the liquor, thus demonstrating the superior performance of the proposed method over those reported in previous studies. A total of 320 compounds were common to all 18 types of Luzhoulaojiao liquor studied here, and 13 abundant and potentially bioactive compounds were further quantified. The results indicated that the high-performance method presented here is well suited for the detection and identification of compounds in liquors. This study also contributes to enriching our knowledge of the contents of Chinese liquors. PMID:25857434

  15. Chemical Analysis of the Chinese Liquor Luzhoulaojiao by Comprehensive Two-Dimensional Gas Chromatography/Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Feng; Yi, Bin; Shen, Caihong; Tao, Fei; Liu, Yumin; Lin, Zhixin; Xu, Ping

    2015-04-01

    Luzhoulaojiao liquor is a type of Chinese liquor that dates back hundreds of years, but whose precise chemical composition remains unknown. This paper describes the screening of the liquor and the identification of its compounds using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC/TOF-MS). Samples were prepared by both liquid-liquid extraction and solid-phase microextraction, which facilitated the detection of thousands of compounds in the liquor, thus demonstrating the superior performance of the proposed method over those reported in previous studies. A total of 320 compounds were common to all 18 types of Luzhoulaojiao liquor studied here, and 13 abundant and potentially bioactive compounds were further quantified. The results indicated that the high-performance method presented here is well suited for the detection and identification of compounds in liquors. This study also contributes to enriching our knowledge of the contents of Chinese liquors.

  16. Demonstration of single-flux-quantum readout circuits for time-of-flight mass spectrometry systems using superconducting strip ion detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sano, Kyosuke; Takahashi, Yoshihiro; Yamanashi, Yuki; Yoshikawa, Nobuyuki; Zen, Nobuyuki; Ohkubo, Masataka

    2015-07-01

    We have been developing a superconducting time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS) system that consists of a superconducting strip ion detector (SSID) and a single-flux-quantum (SFQ) time-to-digital converter. In this study, we implement a prototype TOF-MS system using an SSID and an SFQ readout circuit in which output signals from the SSID are read out by the SFQ readout circuit and output to room-temperature electronics. The SFQ readout circuit, which consists of a current discriminator, a Josephson transmission line and an SFQ/dc converter, was fabricated using the AIST Nb standard process (STP2), and installed in a 4.2 K cryostat with a meander-shaped NbN SSID measuring 200 ?m square. The dark count rate for the SSID was measured as increasing exponentially with the increase in the bias current of the SSID by using the SFQ readout circuit. Mass spectrum measurements of biomolecules, Angiotensin I, which has a molecular weight of 1296 Da, were demonstrated by using the matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization method, and a clear corresponding peak was observed in the mass spectrum.

  17. Use of soft and hard ionization techniques for elucidation of unknown compounds by gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Portolés, Tania; Pitarch, Elena; López, Francisco J; Hernández, Félix; Niessen, Wilfried M A

    2011-06-15

    Investigation of trace-level non-target compounds by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) often is a challenging task that requires powerful software tools to detect the unknown components, to obtain the deconvoluted mass spectra, and to interpret the data if no acceptable library match is obtained. In this paper, the complementary use of electron ionization (EI) and chemical ionization (CI) is investigated in combination with GC/time-of-flight (TOF) MS for the elucidation of organic non-target (micro)contaminants in water samples. Based on accurate mass measurement of the molecular and fragment ions from the TOF MS, empirical formulae were calculated. Isotopic patterns, carbon number prediction filter and nitrogen rule were used to reduce the number of possible formulae. The candidate formulae were searched in databases to find possible chemical structures. Selection from possible structure candidates was achieved using information on substructures and observed neutral losses derived from the fragment ions. Four typical examples (bifenazate, boscalid, epoxiconazole, and fenhexamid) are used to illustrate the methodology applied and the various difficulties encountered in this process. Our results indicate that elucidation of unknowns cannot be achieved by following a standardized procedure, as both expertise and creativity are necessary in the process. PMID:21594934

  18. Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Major Triterpenoids in Alismatis Rhizoma by High Performance Liquid Chromatography/Diode-Array Detector/Quadrupole-Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry and Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatography/Triple Quadrupole Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wanli; Huang, Xiaoqiang; Li, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Fangfang; Chen, Sainan; Ye, Miao; Huang, Mingqing; Xu, Wen; Wu, Shuisheng

    2015-01-01

    Alismatis Rhizoma (AMR) is a well-known natural medicine with a long history in Chinese medicine and has been commonly used for treating a wide range of ailments related to dysuria, edema, nephropathy, hyperlipidaemia, diabetes, inflammation as well as tumors in clinical applications. Most beneficial effects of AMR are attributed to the presence of protostane terpenoids, the major active ingredients of Alismatis Rhizoma (AMR). In this study, a systematic high performance liquid chromatography/diode-array detector/quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-Q-TOF MS) and ultra-performance liquid chromatography/triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (UPLC-QqQ MS) method was developed for qualitative and quantitative analyses of the major AMR triterpenoids. First, a total of 25 triterpenoid components, including 24 known compounds and one new compound were identified by comparison with UV spectra, molecular ions and fragmentation behaviors of reference standards or the literature. Second, an efficient method was established for the rapid simultaneous determination of 14 representative triterpenoids by UPLC-QqQ MS. Forty-three batches of AMR were analyzed with linearity (r, 0.9980-0.9999), intra-day precision (RSD, 1.18%-3.79%), inter-day precision (RSD, 1.53%-3.96%), stability (RSD, 1.32%-3.97%), repeatability (RSD, 2.21%-4.25%), and recovery (98.11%-103.8%). These results indicated that new approaches combining HPLC-DAD-Q-TOF MS and UPLC-QqQ MS are applicable in the qualitative and quantitative analysis of AMR. PMID:26263967

  19. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometry profiling of trace constituents of condom lubricants in the presence of biological fluids.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Sandra E; Kim, Sin Young; Kim, Seoung Bum; Schug, Kevin A

    2011-04-15

    The use of condoms in sexual assault cases has become increasingly common due to the heightened awareness of the use of DNA as evidence in criminal investigations. The ability to identify and differentiate the polymers and additives found in lubricant residues can provide investigators leads and insights as to the perpetrator of a sexual assault. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) is ideal for detecting condom lubricants and additives; the instrument is capable of surveying analytes across a wide mass range and is a preferred technique for the analysis of polymers. Three MALDI-TOF-MS methods directed toward the detection and differentiation of condom and personal lubricant residues, as well as their mixtures with biological fluids, were developed and compared: (a) a sample premixed with aqueous matrix; (b) a sample premixed with an ionic liquid matrix; and (c) a layering method that incorporates a cationization reagent. Of the three, the layered method that utilized sodium chloride as a cationization reagent showed the best sensitivity and selectivity. This method allowed for the segregation of the various lubricant formulas into a discrete number of groups. Infrared spectroscopy was used to support and clarify the MALDI data. Principal component analysis was used to further demonstrate the ability of this method to segregate various lubricant types into a limited number of classes. Additionally, lubricant residues could be detected in the presence of biological fluids down to a fraction of a percent. PMID:20832207

  20. Use of time-of-flight mass spectrometry for large screening of organic pollutants in surface waters and soils from a rice production area in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Hernández, F; Portolés, T; Ibáñez, M; Bustos-López, M C; Díaz, R; Botero-Coy, A M; Fuentes, C L; Peñuela, G

    2012-11-15

    The irrigate district of Usosaldaña, an important agricultural area in Colombia mainly devoted to rice crop production, is subjected to an intensive use of pesticides. Monitoring these compounds is necessary to know the impact of phytosanitary products in the different environmental compartments. In this work, surface water and soil samples from different sites of this area have been analyzed by applying an analytical methodology for large screening based on the use of time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF MS) hyphenated to liquid chromatography (LC) and gas chromatography (GC). Several pesticides were detected and unequivocally identified, such as the herbicides atrazine, diuron or clomazone. Some of their main metabolites and/or transformation products (TPs) like deethylatrazine (DEA), deisopropylatrazine (DIA) and 3,4-dichloroaniline were also identified in the samples. Among fungicides, carbendazim, azoxystrobin, propiconazole and epoxiconazole were the most frequently detected. Insecticides such as thiacloprid, or p,p'-DDT metabolites (p,p'-DDD and p,p'-DDE) were also found. Thanks to the accurate-mass full-spectrum acquisition in TOF MS it was feasible to widen the number of compounds to be investigated to other families of contaminants. This allowed the detection of emerging contaminants, such as the antioxidant 3,5-di-tertbutyl-4-hydroxy-toluene (BHT), its metabolite 3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxy-benzaldehyde (BHT-CHO), or the solar filter benzophenone, among others. PMID:23085466

  1. Simultaneous determination of hydrophobicity and dissociation constant for a large set of compounds by gradient reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry technique.

    PubMed

    Kubik, ?ukasz; Struck-Lewicka, Wiktoria; Kaliszan, Roman; Wiczling, Pawe?

    2015-10-16

    Fast and reliable methods for the determination of hydrophobicity and acidity are desired in pre-clinical drug development phases to eliminate compounds with poor pharmacokinetic properties. Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP HPLC) coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (RP HPLC-ESI-TOF-MS) is a convenient technique for that purpose. In this work we determined the chromatographic measure of hydrophobicity (logkw) and dissociation constant (pKa) simultaneously for a large and diverse group of 161 drugs. Retention times were determined by means of RP HPLC-ESI-TOF-MS for a series of pH and organic modifier gradients. We were able to measure retention times for 140 out of 161 (87%) compounds. For those analytes logkw and pKa parameters were calculated and compared with literature and ACD Labs-calculated data. The determined chromatographic measure of hydrophobicity and dissociation constant was closely related to literature and theoretically calculated values. Applied methodology achieved the medium-throughput screening rate of 100 compounds per day and proved to be a simple, fast and reliable approach of assessing important physicochemical properties of drugs. This technique has certain limitations as it is not applicable for very hydrophilic analytes (logP<0.5) and compounds with identical molar masses. PMID:26365909

  2. [[Molecular composition of saturated hydrocarbons in diesels by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    PubMed

    Niu, Luna; Liu, Zelong; Zhou, Jian; Cai, Xinheng; Tian, Songbai

    2014-11-01

    An analytical method for separation and identification of the saturated hydrocarbons in diesels at molecular level by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC x GC-TOF MS)was established. The saturated hydrocarbons were pre-separated from diesel samples by solid phase extraction before GC x GC-TOF MS analysis. More than 1,000 individual compounds (including paraffins, naphthenes and ole- fins) in coker diesel were tentatively identified based on NIST library search, mass spectrum resolution, boiling point distribution law and separation characteristics. Normal paraffins showed great regularity and could be identified easily through the relative position with pristane and phytane. The cyclic alkanes arranged above paraffins with the increasing number of rings. The normal alkyl cyclohexanes and cyclopentanes were well distinguished due to the difference of their polarity. Normal ?-olefins which were often neglected in the past were also identified. With the support of the above-introduced identification, the distribution by structural type and carbon number were presented using peak area normalization. This analytical method was suc- cessfully used to investigate the molecular composition of saturated fractions in different diesel samples. All the results indicated that the molecular compositions of saturates in catalytic cracking diesel and coker diesel were significantly different because of the processing mechanism. This method provided technical support for the characterization of saturated hydrocar- bons in diesels and the investigation of processing mechanism. PMID:25764659

  3. Identification of metabolites of Buyang Huanwu decoction in rat urine using liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wen, Xiao-Dong; Liu, E-Hu; Yang, Jie; Li, Chang-Yin; Gao, Wen; Qi, Lian-Wen; Wang, Chong-Zhi; Yuan, Chun-Su; Li, Ping

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, rapid resolution liquid chromatography was coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (RRLC-Q-TOF-MS) to identify the absorbed components and metabolites in rat urine after oral administration of Buyang Huanwu decoction (BYHWD). After oral administration of BYHWD, urine samples were collected and pretreated by solid phase extraction. The mass measurements were accurate within 5 ppm of error for all the protonated molecules, and subsequent fragment ions offered higher quality structural information for interpretation of the fragmentation pathways of various compounds. A total of 50 compounds were detected in rat urine samples within 20 min, including 12 parent compounds and 38 metabolites. Except for three prototype components (Hydroxysafflor yellow A, Paeoniflorin, and Amygdalin), the metabolites identified mainly came from Radix Astragali, Radix Angelicae Sinensis, and Rhizoma Chuanxiong. The results indicated that glucuronidation and sulfation were the major metabolic pathways of isoflavonoids, while glutathione conjugation, glucuronidation and sulfation were the main metabolic pathways of phthalides. No saponin-related metabolites were detected. The present study provided important structural information on the metabolism of BYHWD. Furthermore, the results of this work have demonstrated the feasibility of the RRLC/ESI-Q-TOF-MS approach for rapid and reliable characterization of metabolites from herbal medicines. PMID:22591804

  4. Base-specific fragmentation of amplified 16S rRNA genes analyzed by mass spectrometry: A tool for rapid bacterial identification

    PubMed Central

    von Wintzingerode, Friedrich; Böcker, Sebastian; Schlötelburg, Cord; Chiu, Norman H. L.; Storm, Niels; Jurinke, Christian; Cantor, Charles R.; Göbel, Ulf B.; van den Boom, Dirk

    2002-01-01

    A rapid approach to the 16S rRNA gene (16S rDNA)-based bacterial identification has been developed that combines uracil-DNA-glycosylase (UDG)-mediated base-specific fragmentation of PCR products with matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). 16S rDNA signature sequences were PCR-amplified from both cultured and as-yet-uncultured bacteria in the presence of dUTP instead of dTTP. These PCR products then were immobilized onto a streptavidin-coated solid support to selectively generate either sense or antisense templates. Single-stranded amplicons were subsequently treated with uracil-DNA-glycosylase to generate T-specific abasic sites and fragmented by alkaline treatment. The resulting fragment patterns were analyzed by MALDI-TOF MS. Mass signals of 16S rDNA fragments were compared with patterns calculated from published 16S rDNA sequences. MS of base-specific fragments of amplified 16S rDNA allows reliable discrimination of sequences differing by only one nucleotide. This approach is fast and has the potential for high-throughput identification as required in clinical, pharmaceutical, or environmental microbiology. In contrast to identification by MS of intact whole bacterial cells, this technique allows for the characterization of both cultured and as-yet-uncultured bacteria. PMID:11983869

  5. Detection of large ions in time-of-flight mass spectrometry: effects of ion mass and acceleration voltage on microchannel plate detector response

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ranran; Li, Qiyao; Smith, Lloyd M.

    2014-01-01

    In time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS), ion detection is typically accomplished by the generation and amplification of secondary electrons produced by ions colliding with a microchannel plate (MCP) detector. Here, the response of an MCP detector as a function of ion mass and acceleration voltage is characterized, for peptide/protein ions ranging from 1 kDa to 290 kDa in mass, and for acceleration voltages from 5 kV to 25 kV. A non-destructive inductive charge detector (ICD) employed in parallel with MCP detection provides a reliable reference signal to allow accurate calibration of the MCP response. MCP detection efficiencies were very close to unity for smaller ions at high acceleration voltages (e.g. angiotensin, 1,046.5 Da, at 25 kV acceleration voltage), but decreased to ~11% for the largest ions examined (Immunoglobulin G (IgG) dimer, 290 kDa) even at the highest acceleration voltage employed (25 kV). The secondary electron yield ? (average number of electrons produced per ion collision) is found to be proportional to mv3.1 (m: ion mass, v: ion velocity) over the entire mass range examined, and inversely proportional to the square root of m in TOF-MS analysis. The results indicate that although MCP detectors indeed offer superlative performance in the detection of smaller peptide/protein species, their performance does fall off substantially for larger proteins, particularly under conditions of low acceleration voltage. PMID:24789774

  6. Mass Spectrometry & Proteomics Services Unit

    E-print Network

    Fletcher, Robin

    Mass Spectrometry & Proteomics Services Unit Peptide and Protein Submission Form Website: http for analysis is dependent on sample complexity. Normally it takes 1-2 days for mass determination, and 3-5 days for protein identification by in-gel digestion and LC MS/MS analysis. 2. Mass spectrometric analysis Operator

  7. Linear electric field mass spectrometry

    DOEpatents

    McComas, David J. (Los Alamos, NM); Nordholt, Jane E. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1992-01-01

    A mass spectrometer and methods for mass spectrometry. The apparatus is compact and of low weight and has a low power requirement, making it suitable for use on a space satellite and as a portable detector for the presence of substances. High mass resolution measurements are made by timing ions moving through a gridless cylindrically symmetric linear electric field.

  8. Linear electric field mass spectrometry

    DOEpatents

    McComas, D.J.; Nordholt, J.E.

    1992-12-01

    A mass spectrometer and methods for mass spectrometry are described. The apparatus is compact and of low weight and has a low power requirement, making it suitable for use on a space satellite and as a portable detector for the presence of substances. High mass resolution measurements are made by timing ions moving through a gridless cylindrically symmetric linear electric field. 8 figs.

  9. Planetary In Situ Sample Analysis with Tandem Two-Step Laser Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brinckerhoff, W. B.; Getty, S. A.; Cornish, T. J.; Ecelberger, S. A.; Li, X.; Merrill Floyd, M. A.; Arevalo, R.; Elsila, J.; Callahan, M. P.

    2012-12-01

    Future surface missions to comets and outer solar system satellites such as Europa, Enceladus, and Titan will benefit strongly from investigations that can detect a wide range of organics in complex sample mixtures and ices, as well as determine the structure of selected molecules, to provide insight into their origin and evolution. At the same time, such missions are likely to be among the most highly constrained in mass and power resources, particularly those flown within the tightly focused Discovery and New Frontiers programs. Techniques requiring minimal or no sample manipulation or preparation may be needed to reduce complexity. Pulsed laser-based mass spectrometry may satisfy such requirements, with total instrument masses potentially less than 5 kg, particularly where analysis of higher-molecular weight, nonvolatile species is a priority objective. Prototype flight-compatible mass spectrometers under active development in our lab are based on direct ultraviolet Nd:YAG laser desorption and ionization (LDI) of solid samples under high vacuum. Prompt ions from a single few ns-duration laser pulse are accelerated into a compact time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOF-MS). Both inorganic species including elements and oxides such as M_xO_y (M = Mg, Al, Cl, Ca, Fe; x, y = 1-4) from the mineral matrix as well as organics with molecular weights up to several kDa are readily detected over a range of laser intensities. To improve our ability to distinguish among peaks and patterns in the often-complex LDI spectra obtained from natural samples, we have recently begun systematically testing several critical instrument enhancements. First, by moving the common voltage bias of the ion flight tube and detector to a common negative potential, we are able to switch between positive and negative ion detection modes with only electrostatic switching. Inter-comparison of cation and anion spectra can provide highly diagnostic information on both inorganic (e.g., Na+ and K+ vs. Cl-) and organic moieties. Second, by focusing a separate "post-ionization" laser pulse just above the sample surface, we can achieve two-step laser mass spectrometry, or L2MS, in the same highly-miniaturized TOF-MS. L2MS enables selective analysis of aromatic organics even in the presence of a complex mineral matrix. Finally, by introducing an ion optical gate in the flight path, we are able to take advantage of the broad focusing capabilities of the "curved field" reflectron at the core of the TOF-MS to achieve pseudo-tandem structural analysis of selected organics. The high-speed gate is used to admit only the molecular ion/s of interest into the reflectron. Diagnostic fragments of the ion/s obtained through metastable decay or active collision-induced dissociation (CID) remain in focus despite having widely variable velocities and masses. As such even molecular isomers with differing fragmentation pathways may be distinguished through a series of pseudo-tandem mass spectra that could be obtained in an automatic process during a mission. The "real-world" benefits of these enhancements are being fully characterized using a set of synthetic and natural standard samples as well as several planetary analogs and meteorites.

  10. Arsenic-containing fatty acids and hydrocarbons in marine oils - determination using reversed-phase HPLC-ICP-MS and HPLC-qTOF-MS.

    PubMed

    Sele, Veronika; Sloth, Jens J; Holmelid, Bjarte; Valdersnes, Stig; Skov, Kasper; Amlund, Heidi

    2014-04-01

    Arsenolipids are the major arsenic species present in marine oils. Several structures of arsenolipids have been elucidated the last 5 years, demonstrating the chemical complexity of this trace element in the marine environment. Several commercial fish oils and marine oils, ranging in total arsenic concentrations from 1.6 to 12.5 mg kg(-1) oil, were analyzed for arsenolipids using reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS). The arsenolipids were quantified using three different arsenic-containing calibration standards; dimethylarsinate (DMA), triphenylarsinoxide (Ph?AsO) and a synthesized arsenic-containing hydrocarbon (AsHC) (dimethylarsinoyl nonadecane; C??H??AsO). The observed variation in signal intensity for arsenic during the gradient elution profile in reversed-phase HPLC was compensated for by determining the time-resolved response factors for the arsenolipids. Isotopes of germanium ((74)Ge) and indium ((115)In) were suited as internal standards for arsenic, and were used for verification of the arsenic signal response factors during the gradient elution. Dimethylarsinate was the most suitable calibration standard for the quantification of arsenolipids, with recoveries between 91% and 104% compared to total arsenic measurements in the same extracts. A range of marine oils was investigated, including oils of several fish species, cod liver and seal, as well as three commercial fish oils. The AsHCs - C??H??AsO, C??H??AsO and C??H??AsO - were identified as the major arsenolipids in the extracts of all oils by HPLC coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (qTOF-MS). Minor amounts of two arsenic-containing fatty acids (AsFAs) (C??H??AsO? and C??H??AsO?) were also detected in the oils. The sum of the AsHCs and the AsFAs determined in the present study accounted for 17-42% of the total arsenic in the oils. PMID:24607114

  11. Lipidomic fingerprint of almonds (Prunus dulcis L. cv Nonpareil) using TiO? nanoparticle based matrix solid-phase dispersion and MALDI-TOF/MS and its potential in geographical origin verification.

    PubMed

    Shen, Qing; Dong, Wei; Yang, Mei; Li, Linqiu; Cheung, Hon-Yeung; Zhang, Zhifeng

    2013-08-14

    A matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) procedure with titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles (NP) as sorbent was developed for the selective extraction of phospholipids from almond samples, and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS) was employed for analysis. A remarkable increase in the signals of phospholipid accompanied by a decrease in those of triacylglycerols and diacylglycerols was observed in the relevant mass spectra. The proposed method was applied to five batches of almonds originating from four geographical areas, whereas principal component analysis (PCA) was utilized to normalize the relative amounts of the identified phospholipid species. The results indicated that the lipidomic fingerprint of almonds was successfully established by the negative ion mode spectrum, and the ratio of m/z 833.6 to 835.6 as well as m/z 821.6 could be introduced as potential markers for the differentiation of the tested almonds with different geographical origins. The whole method is of great promise for selective separation of phospholipids from nonphospholipids, especially the glycerides, and superior in fast screening and characterization of phospholipids in almond samples. PMID:23875804

  12. Mass spectrometry. [in organic chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burlingame, A. L.; Shackleton, C. H. L.; Howe, I.; Chizhov, O. S.

    1978-01-01

    A review of mass spectrometry in organic chemistry is given, dealing with advances in instrumentation and computer techniques, selected topics in gas-phase ion chemistry, and applications in such fields as biomedicine, natural-product studies, and environmental pollution analysis. Innovative techniques and instrumentation are discussed, along with chromatographic-mass spectrometric on-line computer techniques, mass spectral interpretation and management techniques, and such topics in gas-phase ion chemistry as electron-impact ionization and decomposition, photoionization, field ionization and desorption, high-pressure mass spectrometry, ion cyclotron resonance, and isomerization reactions of organic ions. Applications of mass spectrometry are examined with respect to bio-oligomers and their constituents, biomedically important substances, microbiology, environmental organic analysis, and organic geochemistry.

  13. Challenges for Biomarker Discovery in Body Fluids Using SELDI-TOF-MS

    PubMed Central

    De Bock, Muriel; de Seny, Dominique; Meuwis, Marie-Alice; Chapelle, Jean-Paul; Louis, Edouard; Malaise, Michel; Merville, Marie-Paule; Fillet, Marianne

    2010-01-01

    Protein profiling using SELDI-TOF-MS has gained over the past few years an increasing interest in the field of biomarker discovery. The technology presents great potential if some parameters, such as sample handling, SELDI settings, and data analysis, are strictly controlled. Practical considerations to set up a robust and sensitive strategy for biomarker discovery are presented. This paper also reviews biological fluids generally available including a description of their peculiar properties and the preanalytical challenges inherent to sample collection and storage. Finally, some new insights for biomarker identification and validation challenges are provided. PMID:20029632

  14. Misidentification of Aspergillus nomius and Aspergillus tamarii as Aspergillus flavus: Characterization by Internal Transcribed Spacer, ?-Tubulin, and Calmodulin Gene Sequencing, Metabolic Fingerprinting, and Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization–Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Tam, Emily W. T.; Chen, Jonathan H. K.; Lau, Eunice C. L.; Ngan, Antonio H. Y.; Fung, Kitty S. C.; Lee, Kim-Chung; Lam, Ching-Wan; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2014-01-01

    Aspergillus nomius and Aspergillus tamarii are Aspergillus species that phenotypically resemble Aspergillus flavus. In the last decade, a number of case reports have identified A. nomius and A. tamarii as causes of human infections. In this study, using an internal transcribed spacer, ?-tubulin, and calmodulin gene sequencing, only 8 of 11 clinical isolates reported as A. flavus in our clinical microbiology laboratory by phenotypic methods were identified as A. flavus. The other three isolates were A. nomius (n = 2) or A. tamarii (n = 1). The results corresponded with those of metabolic fingerprinting, in which the A. flavus, A. nomius, and A. tamarii strains were separated into three clusters based on ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC MS) analysis. The first two patients with A. nomius infections had invasive aspergillosis and chronic cavitary and fibrosing pulmonary and pleural aspergillosis, respectively, whereas the third patient had A. tamarii colonization of the airway. Identification of the 11 clinical isolates and three reference strains by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) showed that only six of the nine strains of A. flavus were identified correctly. None of the strains of A. nomius and A. tamarii was correctly identified. ?-Tubulin or the calmodulin gene should be the gene target of choice for identifying A. flavus, A. nomius, and A. tamarii. To improve the usefulness of MALDI-TOF MS, the number of strains for each species in MALDI-TOF MS databases should be expanded to cover intraspecies variability. PMID:24452174

  15. Mass Spectrometry-based PhyloProteomics (MSPP): A novel microbial typing Method.

    PubMed

    Zautner, Andreas Erich; Masanta, Wycliffe Omurwa; Weig, Michael; Groß, Uwe; Bader, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    MALDI-TOF-MS of microorganisms, which identifies microbes based on masses of high abundant low molecular weight proteins, is rapidly advancing to become another standard method in clinical routine laboratory diagnostics. Allelic isoforms of these proteins result in varying masses of detectable biomarker ions. These variations give rise to a novel typing method for microorganisms named mass spectrometry-based phyloproteomics (MSPP). The base of MSPP is an amino acid sequence list of allelic isoforms caused by non-synonymous mutations in biomarker genes, which were detectable as mass shifts in an overlay of calibrated MALDI-TOF spectra. Thus, for each isolate a combination of amino acid sequences can be deduced from the scheme of recordable biomarker masses. Performing comparably to laborious multilocus and whole genome sequence typing (wgMLST)-approaches it is feasible to build phyloproteomic dendrograms using hierarchical cluster analysis. MSPP bears a high potential especially for identification of chromosomal localised virulence or antimicrobial resistance factors associated with evolutionary relatedness. In this study the principle of MSPP-typing was demonstrated on a Campylobacter jejuni ssp. jejuni isolate collection and MSPP was compared to MLST. PMID:26303099

  16. New possibilities of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry to analyze barley malt quality. Highly sensitive detection of mycotoxins.

    PubMed

    Blechová, Petra; Havlová, Pavla; Gajdosová, Dagmar; Havel, Josef

    2006-08-01

    The occurrence of mycotoxins in agricultural commodities is a major health concern for livestock, humans, and the environment. Barley and subsequently malt quality is of fundamental importance to obtain good quality beer. Classical methods of analysis often require tedious, laborious, and expensive processes. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) instrumentation enables highly sensitive and fast analysis and/or detection using a very small sample. The possibilities of MALDI-TOF MS for he identification and/or detection of trichothecene mycotoxins (deoxynivalenol (DON) and nivalenol (NIV), respectively) in barley malt were examined, and it was found that almost all classical MALDI matrices failed to ionize the compounds being studied. This detailed study of the ionization conditions and the search for unconventional matrices led to the discovery of suitable MALDI matrices, which enable ionization of trichothecene mycotoxins. These were: fine powdered synthetic diamond, sodium azide, or hydrazine hydrate. It is possible to detect 8.5 x 10(-12) mol (2.5 ng) of deoxynivalenol or 64 x 10(-12) mol (20 ng) of nivalenol in just 1 microL of barley malt extract (equivalent to 600 microg of DON in 1 kg of barley malt). The procedure developed enables fast determination of DON and NIV in barley, malt, or similar products. PMID:16841326

  17. Utilization of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry for structural studies related to biology and disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costello, Catherine E.; Helin, Jari; Ngoka, Lambert C. M.

    1996-04-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), because of its high sensitivity and relatively straightforward requirements for sample preparation, is contributing to the solution of structural problems in biology and to the development of therapeutic approaches through increased understanding of pharmacology and enhanced capabilities for quality control of pharmaceuticals. We are using a reflectron TOF- MS for the determination of molecular weights of individual compounds and the components of mixtures that are naturally occurring or are generated through enzymic digests, and employing the post-source decay mode to elucidate structural details. To maximize the sensitivity and information content of the spectra, varied matrices, derivative, and stepwise degradation procedures are being explored. Present studies include investigations of oligosaccharides, neutral glycolipids, gangliosides, glycoproteins, neuropeptides and proteins. Rules for fragmentation are being developed with model compounds and used for the structural elucidation of unknowns. When adequate sample amounts are available, the results are compared with low- and high-energy collision-induced decomposition spectra obtained with tandem MS in order to provide a data base for the correlation of spectral features and guidance in selection of approaches for scarce biological samples. Current projects include biophysical studies of glycoplipids, glycoproteins and oligosaccharides and investigations of the substance P receptor, transthyretin genetic variants and cisplatin-DNA interactions.

  18. Optimization of the score cutoff value for routine identification of Staphylococcus species by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Han, Huan Wen; Chang, Hsien Chang; Hunag, Ay Huei; Chang, Tsung Chain

    2015-12-01

    Staphylococcus species are important pathogens. We evaluated 2 score cutoffs (2.0 and 1.7) and the replicate number (a single or a duplicate test) on the identification of staphylococci using the Bruker matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). A collection of 440 clinical isolates (11 species) and 144 reference strains (36 species) was evaluated. For clinical isolates using a cutoff of 2.0 and duplicate tests, the rates of species, genus, and unreliable identifications were 93.4%, 5.7%, and 0.9% respectively, while the respective values were 99.3%, 0.2%, and 0.5% when the cutoff was 1.7. The species identification rates were significantly higher (P<0.01) when a cutoff of 1.7 or a duplicate test was used. Similar results were obtained for reference strains. In conclusion, a cutoff of 1.7 and duplicate tests are recommended for identification of staphylococci using MALDI-TOF MS. PMID:26423657

  19. Direct identification of rituximab main isoforms and subunit analysis by online selective comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Stoll, Dwight R; Harmes, David C; Danforth, John; Wagner, Elsa; Guillarme, Davy; Fekete, Szabolcs; Beck, Alain

    2015-08-18

    In this proof-of-concept study, rituximab, which is a reference therapeutic monoclonal antibody (mAb), was characterized through the implementation of online, selective comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography (sLC×LC) coupled with mass spectrometry (MS), using a middle-up approach. In this setup, cation exchange chromatography (CEX) and reverse-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) were used as the first and second separation dimensions, respectively. As illustrated in this work, the combination of these two chromatographic modes allows a direct assignment of the identities of CEX peaks, using data from the TOF/MS detector, because RPLC is directly compatible with MS detection, whereas CEX is not. In addition, the resolving power of CEX is often considered to be limited; therefore, this 2D approach provides an improvement in peak capacity and resolution when high-performance second-dimension separations are used, instead of simply using the second-dimension separation as a desalting step. This was particularly relevant when separating rituximab fragments of medium size (25 kDa), whereas most of the resolution was provided by CEX in the case of intact rituximab samples. The analysis of a commercial rituximab sample shows that online sLC×LC-TOF-MS can be used to rapidly characterize mAb samples, yielding the identification of numerous variants, based on the analysis of intact, partially digested, and digested/reduced mAb samples. PMID:26145446

  20. Application of Whole-Cell Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry for Rapid Identification and Clustering Analysis of Pantoea Species ? †

    PubMed Central

    Rezzonico, Fabio; Vogel, Guido; Duffy, Brion; Tonolla, Mauro

    2010-01-01

    Pantoea agglomerans is an ecologically diverse taxon that includes commercially important plant-beneficial strains and opportunistic clinical isolates. Standard biochemical identification methods in diagnostic laboratories were repeatedly shown to run into false-positive identifications of P. agglomerans, a fact which is also reflected by the high number of 16S rRNA gene sequences in public databases that are incorrectly assigned to this species. More reliable methods for rapid identification are required to ascertain the prevalence of this species in clinical samples and to evaluate the biosafety of beneficial isolates. Whole-cell matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) methods and reference spectra (SuperSpectrum) were developed for accurate identification of P. agglomerans and related bacteria and used to detect differences in the protein profile within variants of the same strain, including a ribosomal point mutation conferring streptomycin resistance. MALDI-TOF MS-based clustering was shown to generally agree with classification based on gyrB sequencing, allowing rapid and reliable identification at the species level. PMID:20453125

  1. Identification of differentially expressed proteins between human esophageal immortalized and carcinomatous cell lines by two-dimensional electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF-mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Xing-Dong; Xu, Li-Yan; Shen, Zhong-Ying; Cai, Wei-Jia; Luo, Jian-Min; Han, Ya-Li; Li, En-Min

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To identify the differentially expressed proteins between the human immortalized esophageal epithelial cell line (SHEE) and the malignant transformed esophageal carcinoma cell line (SHEEC), and to explore new ways for studying esophageal carcinoma associated genes. METHODS: SHEE and SHEEC cell lines were used to separate differentially expressed proteins by two-dimensional electrophoresis. The silver-stained 2-D gels was scanned with EDAS290 digital camera system and analyzed with the PDQuest 6.2 Software. Six spots in which the differentially expressed protein was more obvious were selected and analyzed with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flying mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). RESULTS: There were 107±4.58 and 115±9.91 protein spots observed in SHEE and SHEEC respectively, and the majority of these spots between the two cell lines matched each other (r = 0.772), only a few were expressed differentially. After analyzed by MALDI-TOF-MS and database search for the six differentially expressed proteins, One new protein as well as other five sequence-known proteins including RNPEP-like protein, human rRNA gene upstream sequence binding transcription factor, uracil DNA glycosylase, Annexin A2 and p300/CBP-associated factor were preliminarily identified. CONCLUSION: These differentially expressed proteins might play an importance role during malignant transformation of SHEEC from SHEE. The identification of these proteins may serve as a new way for studying esophageal carcinoma associated genes. PMID:12378614

  2. MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry for Multilocus Sequence Typing of Escherichia coli Reveals Diversity among Isolates Carrying blaCMY-2-Like Genes

    PubMed Central

    Tagg, Kaitlin A.; Ginn, Andrew N.; Partridge, Sally R.; Iredell, Jonathan R.

    2015-01-01

    Effective surveillance and management of pathogenic Escherichia coli relies on robust and reproducible typing methods such as multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Typing of E. coli by MLST enables tracking of pathogenic clones that are known to carry virulence factors or spread resistance, such as the globally-prevalent ST131 lineage. Standard MLST for E. coli requires sequencing of seven alleles, or a whole genome, and can take several days. Here, we have developed and validated a nucleic-acid-based MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry (MS) method for MLST as a rapid alternative to sequencing that requires minimal operator expertise. Identification of alleles was 99.6% concordant with sequencing. We employed MLST by MALDI-TOF MS to investigate diversity among 62 E. coli isolates from Sydney, Australia, carrying a blaCMY-2-like gene on an IncI1 plasmid to determine whether any dominant clonal lineages are associated with the spread of this globally-disseminated resistance gene. Thirty-four known sequence types were identified, including lineages associated with human disease, animal and environmental sources. This suggests that the dissemination of blaCMY-2-like-genes is more complex than the simple spread of successful pathogenic clones. E. coli MLST by MALDI-TOF MS, employed here for the first time, can be utilised as an automated tool for large-scale population analyses or for targeted screening for known high-risk clones in a diagnostic setting. PMID:26588228

  3. A novel method to analyze hepatotoxic components in Polygonum multiflorum using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lin, Longfei; Lin, Hongmei; Zhang, Miao; Ni, Boran; Yin, Xingbin; Qu, Changhai; Ni, Jian

    2015-12-15

    Polygonum multiflorum, called Heshouwu in China, is a traditional Chinese medicine used to treat various diseases. However, the administration of P. multiflorum (PM) and P. multiflorum Praeparata (PMP) causes numerous adverse effects. This study sought to analyze the toxic components of PM using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF/MS), and their hepatotoxicity in L02 human liver cells. Toxicity was evaluated by using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage, and liver enzyme secretion (aspartate aminotransferase [AST] and alanine aminotransferase [ALT]) assays. Furthermore, UPLC-Q-TOF/MS, Progenesis QI, and Makerlynx XS software analyses were used to differentiate extracts and analyze the toxic components. The order of toxicity was P. multiflorum ethanol extract (PME)>P. multiflorum water extract (PMW)>P. multiflorum Praeparata ethanol extract (PMPE)>P. multiflorum Praeparata water extract (PMPW), which was determined by MTT assay, LDH leakage, and liver enzyme secretion levels. The analysis methods suggest that PM toxicity may be associated with anthraquinone, emodin-O-(malonyl)-hex, emodin-O-glc, emodin, emodin-8-O-glc, emodin-O-(acetyl)-hex, and emodin-O-hex-sulphate. The toxic mechanisms of these components require further study. PMID:26135484

  4. MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry Is a Fast and Reliable Platform for Identification and Ecological Studies of Species from Family Rhizobiaceae

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Laura; Sánchez-Juanes, Fernando; García-Fraile, Paula; Rivas, Raúl; Mateos, Pedro F.; Martínez-Molina, Eustoquio; González-Buitrago, José Manuel; Velázquez, Encarna

    2011-01-01

    Family Rhizobiaceae includes fast growing bacteria currently arranged into three genera, Rhizobium, Ensifer and Shinella, that contain pathogenic, symbiotic and saprophytic species. The identification of these species is not possible on the basis of physiological or biochemical traits and should be based on sequencing of several genes. Therefore alternative methods are necessary for rapid and reliable identification of members from family Rhizobiaceae. In this work we evaluated the suitability of Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) for this purpose. Firstly, we evaluated the capability of this methodology to differentiate among species of family Rhizobiaceae including those closely related and then we extended the database of MALDI Biotyper 2.0 including the type strains of 56 species from genera Rhizobium, Ensifer and Shinella. Secondly, we evaluated the identification potential of this methodology by using several strains isolated from different sources previously identified on the basis of their rrs, recA and atpD gene sequences. The 100% of these strains were correctly identified showing that MALDI-TOF MS is an excellent tool for identification of fast growing rhizobia applicable to large populations of isolates in ecological and taxonomic studies. PMID:21655291

  5. Identification of prohibitin 1 as a potential prognostic biomarker in human pancreatic carcinoma using modified aqueous two-phase partition system combined with 2D-MALDI-TOF-TOF-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Ning; Cui, Yazhou; Zhou, Xiaoyan; Li, Tianliang; Han, Jinxiang

    2015-02-01

    Membrane proteins are an important source of potential targets for anticancer drugs or biomarkers for early diagnosis. In this study, we used a modified aqueous two-phase partition system combined with two-dimensional (2D) matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) time of flight (TOF) mass spectrometry (MS, 2D-MALDI-TOF-TOF-MS/MS) analysis to isolate and identify membrane proteins in PANC-1 pancreatic cancer cells. Using this method, we identified 55 proteins, of which 31 (56.4 %) were membrane proteins, which, according to gene ontology annotation, are associated with various cellular processes including cell signal transduction, differentiation, and apoptosis. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that the expression level of one of the identified mitochondria membrane proteins, prohibitin 1 (PHB1), is correlated with pancreatic carcinoma differentiation; PHB1 is expressed at a higher level in normal pancreatic tissue than in well-differentiated carcinoma tissue. Further studies showed that PHB1 plays a proapoptotic role in human pancreatic cancer cells, which suggests that PHB1 has antitumorigenic properties. In conclusion, we have provided a modified method for isolating and identifying membrane proteins and demonstrated that PHB1 may be a promising biomarker for early diagnosis and therapy of pancreatic (and potentially other) cancers. PMID:25344214

  6. Imaging mass spectrometry in microbiology

    PubMed Central

    Watrous, Jeramie D.; Dorrestein, Pieter C.

    2013-01-01

    Mass spectrometry tools which allow for the 2-D visualization of the distribution of trace metals, metabolites, surface lipids, peptides and proteins directly from biological samples without the need for chemical tagging or antibodies are becoming increasingly useful for microbiology applications. These tools, comprised of different imaging mass spectrometry techniques, are ushering in an exciting new era of discovery by allowing for the generation of chemical hypotheses based on of the spatial mapping of atoms and molecules that can correlate to or transcend observed phenotypes. In this review, we explore the wide range of imaging mass spectrometry techniques available to microbiologists and describe their unique applications to microbiology with respect to the types of microbiology samples to be investigated. PMID:21822293

  7. Symposium on accelerator mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    1981-01-01

    The area of accelerator mass spectrometry has expanded considerably over the past few years and established itself as an independent and interdisciplinary research field. Three years have passed since the first meeting was held at Rochester. A Symposium on Accelerator Mass Spectrometry was held at Argonne on May 11-13, 1981. In attendance were 96 scientists of whom 26 were from outside the United States. The present proceedings document the program and excitement of the field. Papers are arranged according to the original program. A few papers not presented at the meeting have been added to complete the information on the status of accelerator mass spectrometry. Individual papers were prepared separately for the data base.

  8. Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS) and Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Shvartsburg, Alexandre A.

    2010-04-20

    In a media of finite viscosity, the Coulomb force of external electric field moves ions with some terminal speed. This dynamics is controlled by “mobility” - a property of the interaction potential between ions and media molecules. This fact has been used to separate and characterize gas-phase ions in various modes of ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) developed since 1970. Commercial IMS devices were introduced in 1980-s for field detection of volatile traces such as explosives and chemical warfare agents. Coupling to soft-ionization sources, mass spectrometry (MS), and chromatographic methods in 1990-s had allowed IMS to handle complex samples, enabling new applications in biological and environmental analyses, nanoscience, and other areas. Since 2003, the introduction of commercial systems by major instrument vendors started bringing the IMS/MS capability to broad user community. The other major development of last decade has been the differential IMS or “field asymmetric waveform IMS” (FAIMS) that employs asymmetric time-dependent electric field to sort ions not by mobility itself, but by the difference between its values in strong and weak electric fields. Coupling of FAIMS to conventional IMS and stacking of conventional IMS stages have enabled two-dimensional separations that dramatically expand the power of ion mobility methods.

  9. Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) profiling of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) infection in sweet orange citrus varietals using thermal desorption gas chromatography time of flight mass spectrometry (TD-GC/TOF-MS)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is a plant pathogen which predominately infects economically important citrus crops such as sweet orange, clementine, lime and grapefruit varietals. Within the last 70 years, an estimated 100 million citrus trees on sour orange rootstock have been destroyed due to CTV inf...

  10. Mass spectrometry for biomarker development

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Chaochao; Liu, Tao; Baker, Erin Shammel; Rodland, Karin D.; Smith, Richard D.

    2015-06-19

    Biomarkers potentially play a crucial role in early disease diagnosis, prognosis and targeted therapy. In the past decade, mass spectrometry based proteomics has become increasingly important in biomarker development due to large advances in technology and associated methods. This chapter mainly focuses on the application of broad (e.g. shotgun) proteomics in biomarker discovery and the utility of targeted proteomics in biomarker verification and validation. A range of mass spectrometry methodologies are discussed emphasizing their efficacy in the different stages in biomarker development, with a particular emphasis on blood biomarker development.

  11. Antioxidant and metabolite profiling of North American and neotropical blueberries using LC-TOF-MS and multivariate analyses.

    PubMed

    Ma, Chunhui; Dastmalchi, Keyvan; Flores, Gema; Wu, Shi-Biao; Pedraza-Peñalosa, Paola; Long, Chunlin; Kennelly, Edward J

    2013-04-10

    There are many neotropical blueberries, and recent studies have shown that some have even stronger antioxidant activity than the well-known edible North American blueberries. Antioxidant marker compounds were predicted by applying multivariate statistics to data from LC-TOF-MS analysis and antioxidant assays of 3 North American blueberry species (Vaccinium corymbosum, Vaccinium angustifolium, and a defined mixture of Vaccinium virgatum with V. corymbosum) and 12 neotropical blueberry species (Anthopterus wardii, Cavendishia grandifolia, Cavendishia isernii, Ceratostema silvicola, Disterigma rimbachii, Macleania coccoloboides, Macleania cordifolia, Macleania rupestris, Satyria boliviana, Sphyrospermum buxifolium, Sphyrospermum cordifolium, and Sphyrospermum ellipticum). Fourteen antioxidant markers were detected, and 12 of these, including 7 anthocyanins, 3 flavonols, 1 hydroxycinnamic acid, and 1 iridoid glycoside, were identified. This application of multivariate analysis to bioactivity and mass data can be used for identification of pharmacologically active natural products and may help to determine which neotropical blueberry species will be prioritized for agricultural development. Also, the compositional differences between North American and neotropical blueberries were determined by chemometric analysis, and 44 marker compounds including 16 anthocyanins, 15 flavonoids, 7 hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives, 5 triterpene glycosides, and 1 iridoid glycoside were identified. PMID:23547798

  12. Detection of drugs in lifted cyanoacrylate-developed latent fingermarks using two laser desorption/ionisation mass spectrometric methods.

    PubMed

    Sundar, Latha; Rowell, Frederick

    2014-02-01

    This paper describes a method for lifting cyanoacrylate (CNA)-developed latent fingermarks from a glass surface and the detection of five drugs in lifted marks from fingers that had been in contact with the drugs, using Surface Assisted Laser Desorption Ionisation Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (SALDI-TOF-MS) or Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionisation TOF-MS (MALDI-TOF-MS). Two drugs of abuse (cocaine and methadone) and three therapeutic drugs (aspirin, paracetamol and caffeine) were used as contact residues. Latent fingermarks spiked with the drugs were subjected to CNA fuming followed by dusting with ARRO SupraNano™ MS black magnetic powder (SALDI-TOF-MS) or 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHB) (MALDI-TOF-MS). The dusted mark was then exposed to solvent vapour before lifting with a commercial fingerprint lifting tape following established procedures. The presence of the drugs was then confirmed by direct analysis on the tape without further processing using SALDI- or MALDI-TOF-MS. The black magnetic fingerprint powder provided visual enhancement of the CNA-fingermark while no visual enhancement was observed for marks dusted with DHB powder. Similar [M + H](+) peaks for all the drug analytes were observed for both methods along with some sodium and potassium adducts for SALDI-MS and some major fragment ions but the SALDI signals were generally more intense. Simple exposure to acetone vapour of the CNA-developed marks enabled their effective transfer onto the tape which was crucial for subsequent MS detection of the analytes. PMID:24319772

  13. Quantitative determination of compounds in tobacco essential oils by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Shukui; Lu, Xin; Dong, Li; Xing, Jun; Su, Xueli; Kong, Hongwei; Xu, Guowang; Wu, Caiying

    2005-09-01

    A quantitative analysis of the individual compounds in tobacco essential oils is performed by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC x GC) combined with flame ionization detector (FID). A time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOF/MS) was coupled to GC x GC for the identification of the resolved peaks. The response of a flame ionization detector to different compound classes was calibrated using multiple internal standards. In total, 172 compounds were identified with good match and 61 compounds with high probability value were reliably quantified. For comparative purposes, the essential oil sample was also quantified by one-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) with multiple internal standards method. The results showed that there was close agreement between the two analysis methods when the peak purity and match quality in one-dimensional GC/MS are high enough. PMID:16130661

  14. Mass spectrometry-based cDNA profiling as a potential tool for human body fluid identification.

    PubMed

    Donfack, Joseph; Wiley, Anissa

    2015-05-01

    Several mRNA markers have been exhaustively evaluated for the identification of human venous blood, saliva, and semen in forensic genetics. As new candidate human body fluid specific markers are discovered, evaluated, and reported in the scientific literature, there is an increasing trend toward determining the ideal markers for cDNA profiling of body fluids of forensic interest. However, it has not been determined which molecular genetics-based technique(s) should be utilized to assess the performance of these markers. In recent years, only a few confirmatory, mRNA/cDNA-based methods have been evaluated for applications in body fluid identification. The most frequently described methods tested to date include quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and capillary electrophoresis (CE). However these methods, in particular qPCR, often favor narrow multiplex PCR due to the availability of a limited number of fluorescent dyes/tags. In an attempt to address this technological constraint, this study explored matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) for human body fluid identification via cDNA profiling of venous blood, saliva, and semen. Using cDNA samples at 20pg input phosphoglycerate kinase 1 (PGK1) amounts, body fluid specific markers for the candidate genes were amplified in their corresponding body fluid (i.e., venous blood, saliva, or semen) and absent in the remaining two (100% specificity). The results of this study provide an initial indication that MALDI-TOF MS is a potential fluorescent dye-free alternative method for body fluid identification in forensic casework. However, the inherent issues of low amounts of mRNA, and the damage caused to mRNA by environmental exposures, extraction processes, and storage conditions are important factors that significantly hinder the implementation of cDNA profiling into forensic casework. PMID:25594487

  15. Characterization of the organic contamination pattern of a hyper-saline ecosystem by rapid screening using gas chromatography coupled to high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Serrano, Roque; Portolés, Tania; Blanes, Miguel A; Hernández, Félix; Navarro, Juan C; Varó, Inmaculada; Amat, Francisco

    2012-09-01

    In this paper, gas chromatography coupled to high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF MS) has been applied to evaluate organic pollution in a hyper-saline aquatic environment. Firstly, a target screening was made for a list of 150 GC-amenable organic micro-contaminants, including PAHs, octyl/nonyl phenols, PCBs, PBDEs, and a notable number of pesticides, such us insecticides (organochlorines, organophosphorus, carbamates and pyrethroids), herbicides (triazines and chloroacetanilides), fungicides and several transformation products. This methodology was applied to brine samples, with a salt content from 112 g/L to saturation, and to samples from Artemia populations (crustacean Anostraca) collected during 1 year from three sampling stations in saltworks bodies sited in the Ebro river delta. Around 50 target contaminants, belong to chemical families included in the list of priority substances within the framework on European water policy. Additionally, a non-target analysis was performed in both types of samples with the objective of investigating the presence of other non-selected organic compounds taking advantage of the potential of GC-TOF MS (high sensitivity in full-spectrum acquisition mode, accurate mass measurements) for searching unknowns. Organophosphorus pesticides were the contaminants more frequently detected in brine samples. Other compounds usually present in urban and industrial wastewaters, like caffeine, methylparaben, butylated-hydroxytoluene and N-butylbenzenesulfonamide were also detected in brines. The herbicide simazine and the insecticide chlorpyrifos were among the contaminants detected in Artemia samples. Results of this work reveal a potential threat to vulnerable populations inhabiting the hyper-saline ecosystem. The valuable contribution of GC-TOF MS in environmental analysis, allowing the rapid screening of a large number of organic contaminants, is also demonstrated in this paper. PMID:22789816

  16. Size Characterization of Colloidal Platinum Nanoparticles by MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Navin, Jason K.; Grass, Michael E.; Somorjai, Gabor A.; Marsh, Anderson L.

    2009-08-15

    In this work, matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) has been utilized to characterize colloidal platinum nanoparticles synthesized in the 1-4 nm size range. The nanoparticles were prepared via a solution-based method in which the size could be controlled by varying reaction conditions, such as the alcohol used as the reductant. Poly(vinylpyrrolidone), or PVP, (MW = 29,000 g/mol) was employed as a capping agent to stabilize the synthesized nanoparticles in solution. A model for determining the size of the metallic nanoparticle core from MALDI-TOF mass spectra has been developed and verified through correlation with particle sizes from transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements. In this model it was assumed that 1.85 nm nanoparticles are capped by one PVP chain, which was verified through experiments performed with capped and uncapped nanoparticles. Larger nanoparticles are capped by either two (2.60 and 2.94 nm) or three (3.69 nm) PVP chains. These findings clearly indicate the usefulness of MALDI-TOF MS as a technique for fully characterizing nanoscale materials in order to elucidate structure-property relationships.

  17. Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, Ryan T.; Marginean, Ioan; Tang, Keqi

    2014-06-13

    Electrospray Ionization (ESI) is a process whereby gas phase ions are created from molecules in solution. As a solution exits a narrow tube in the presence of a strong electric field, an aerosol of charged droplets are is formed that produces gas phase ions as they it desolvates. ESI-MS comprises the creation of ions by ESI and the determination of their mass to charge ratio (m/z) by MS.

  18. MASS SPECTROMETRY-BASED METABOLOMICS

    PubMed Central

    Dettmer, Katja; Aronov, Pavel A.; Hammock, Bruce D.

    2007-01-01

    This review presents an overview of the dynamically developing field of mass spectrometry-based metabolomics. Metabolomics aims at the comprehensive and quantitative analysis of wide arrays of metabolites in biological samples. These numerous analytes have very diverse physico-chemical properties and occur at different abundance levels. Consequently, comprehensive metabolomics investigations are primarily a challenge for analytical chemistry and specifically mass spectrometry has vast potential as a tool for this type of investigation. Metabolomics require special approaches for sample preparation, separation, and mass spectrometric analysis. Current examples of those approaches are described in this review. It primarily focuses on metabolic fingerprinting, a technique that analyzes all detectable analytes in a given sample with subsequent classification of samples and identification of differentially expressed metabolites, which define the sample classes. To perform this complex task, data analysis tools, metabolite libraries, and databases are required. Therefore, recent advances in metabolomics bioinformatics are also discussed. PMID:16921475

  19. Comparison of Different Time of Flight-Mass Spectrometry Modes for Small Molecule Quantitative Analysis.

    PubMed

    Chindarkar, Nandkishor S; Park, Hyung-Doo; Stone, Judith A; Fitzgerald, Robert L

    2015-11-01

    Currently, the use of time of flight (TOF)-mass spectrometry (MS) in quantitative analysis of small molecules is rare. Recently, the quantitative performance of TOF mass analyzers has improved due to the advancements in TOF technology. We evaluated a Q-TOF-MS in different modes, i.e., Q-TOF-full scan (Q-TOF-FS), Q-TOF-enhanced-full scan (Q-TOF-En-FS), MS(E), Q-TOF-targeted (Q-TOF-TGT), Q-TOF-enhanced-targeted (Q-TOF-En-TGT), and compared their quantitative performance against a unit resolution LC-MS-MS (tandem quadrupole) platform. The five modes were investigated for sensitivity, linearity, signal-to-noise ratio, recovery and precision using 11-nor-9-carboxy-?(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-COOH) as a model compound in electrospray ionization (ESI) with negative polarity. Preliminary studies indicated that Q-TOF-FS mode was the least linear and precise; hence, it was eliminated from further investigation. Total imprecision in remaining four modes was <10%. The Q-TOF-En-FS and Q-TOF-En-TGT showed better signal intensity than their respective modes without enhancement. Overall, peak signal intensity was the highest in MS(E) mode, whereas the signal-to-noise ratio was the best in the Q-TOF-En-TGT mode. Relatively, MS(E) and Q-TOF-En-TGT modes were the best overall performers compared with the other modes. Both MS(E) and Q-TOF-En-TGT modes showed excellent precision (coefficient of variation <6%), patient correlation (r > 0.99) and linearity (range, 5-455 ng/mL) for THC-COOH analysis when compared with LC-MS-MS. We also investigated the performance of the same four modes using methamphetamine in positive ESI. Quantitative data obtained by Q-TOF-En-TGT and MS(E), using both positive and negative ESI, suggest that these modes performed better than the other modes. While unit resolution LC-MS-MS remains the optimal technique for quantification, our data showed that Q-TOF-MS can also be used to quantify small molecules in complex biological specimens. PMID:26239972

  20. Suspect screening and target quantification of multi-class pharmaceuticals in surface water based on large-volume injection liquid chromatography and time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Vergeynst, Leendert; Van Langenhove, Herman; Joos, Pieter; Demeestere, Kristof

    2014-04-01

    The ever-growing number of emerging micropollutants such as pharmaceuticals requests rapid and sensitive full-spectrum analytical techniques. Time-of-flight high-resolution mass spectrometry (TOF-HRMS) is a promising alternative for the state-of-the-art tandem mass spectrometry instruments because of its ability to simultaneously screen for a virtually unlimited number of suspect analytes and to perform target quantification. The challenge for such suspect screening is to develop a strategy, which minimizes the false-negative rate without restraining numerous false-positives. At the same time, omitting laborious sample enrichment through large-volume injection ultra-performance liquid chromatography (LVI-UPLC) avoids selective preconcentration. A suspect screening strategy was developed using LVI-UPLC-TOF-MS aiming the detection of 69 multi-class pharmaceuticals in surface water without the a priori availability of analytical standards. As a novel approach, the screening takes into account the signal-intensity-dependent accurate mass error of TOF-MS, hereby restraining 95 % of the measured suspect pharmaceuticals present in surface water. Application on five Belgian river water samples showed the potential of the suspect screening approach, as exemplified by a false-positive rate not higher than 15 % and given that 30 out of 37 restrained suspect compounds were confirmed by the retention time of analytical standards. Subsequently, this paper discusses the validation and applicability of the LVI-UPLC full-spectrum HRMS method for target quantification of the 69 pharmaceuticals in surface water. Analysis of five Belgian river water samples revealed the occurrence of 17 pharmaceuticals in a concentration range of 17 ng L(-1) up to 3.1 ?g L(-1). PMID:24633561

  1. Mass spectrometry of aerospace materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colony, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    Mass spectrometry is used for chemical analysis of aerospace materials and contaminants. Years of analytical aerospace experience have resulted in the development of specialized techniques of sampling and analysis which are required in order to optimize results. This work has resulted in the evolution of a hybrid method of indexing mass spectra which include both the largest peaks and the structurally significant peaks in a concise format. With this system, a library of mass spectra of aerospace materials was assembled, including the materials responsible for 80 to 90 percent of the contamination problems at Goddard Space Flight Center during the past several years.

  2. Alkaloid profiling of the traditional Chinese medicine Rhizoma corydalis using high performance liquid chromatography-tandem quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Mingqian; Liu, Jianxun; Lin, Chengren; Miao, Lan; Lin, Li

    2014-01-01

    Since alkaloids are the major active constituents of Rhizoma corydalis (RC), a convenient and accurate analytical method is needed for their identification and characterization. Here we report a method to profile the alkaloids in RC based on liquid chromatography-tandem quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC–Q-TOF-MS/MS). A total of 16 alkaloids belonging to four different classes were identified by comparison with authentic standards. The fragmentation pathway of each class of alkaloid was clarified and their differences were elucidated. Furthermore, based on an analysis of fragmentation pathways and alkaloid profiling, a rapid and accurate method for the identification of unknown alkaloids in RC is proposed. The method could also be useful for the quality control of RC.

  3. The occurrence of Legionella species other than Legionella pneumophila in clinical and environmental samples in Denmark identified by mip gene sequencing and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Svarrer, C W; Uldum, S A

    2012-10-01

    In Denmark, several laboratories use PCR as a routine diagnostic method for Legionnaires' disease, and almost all PCR-positive samples are investigated by culture. From 1993 to 2010, isolates of Legionella species other than Legionella pneumophila were obtained from respiratory samples from 33 patients, and from 1997 to 2010, 42 isolates of Legionella non-pneumophila species were obtained and saved from water samples from 39 different sites in Denmark. Macrophage infectivity potentiator gene (mip) sequencing was used as a reference method to identify the Legionella non-pneumophila species. Only one of the 75 isolates did not meet the acceptance criterion of a similarity of ?98% to sequences in the database. The species distribution between clinical and environmental isolates varied. For the former, four species were detected, with Legionella bozemanae and Legionella micdadei predominating (both 44%). For the latter, eight species were detected, with Legionella anisa predominating (52%). The distribution among the Danish clinical isolates was different from the general distribution both in Europe and outside Europe, where L. bozemanae and Legionella longbeachae are the most commonly found clinical Legionella non-pneumophila species. The 75 isolates were also investigated by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS): 64 were correctly identified, with a score of ?2.0; eight had a score of <2.0, but only two of these were wrongly identified; and three gave no results with MALDI-TOF MS. Both mip sequencing and MALDI-TOF MS are robust methods for Legionella species identification. PMID:22070605

  4. Assessment of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry based methods for investigating 206 dioxin-like micropollutants in animal-derived food matrices.

    PubMed

    Planche, Christelle; Ratel, Jérémy; Mercier, Frédéric; Blinet, Patrick; Debrauwer, Laurent; Engel, Erwan

    2015-05-01

    This paper evaluates different multiresidue methods based on comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-TOF/MS) to analyze dioxin-related micropollutants in complex food matrices. In a first step, the column sets Rtx-PCB/BPX-50 and Rtx-Dioxin2/BPX-50 were compared in terms of peak shape (width and symmetry) and resolution for the separation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in solvent. A satisfactory separation of 206 dioxin-related micropollutants including the 17 toxic PCDD/Fs was achieved in 75 min with the column set Rtx-Dioxin2/BPX-50. In a second time, the GC×GC-TOF/MS method was spread to the analysis of dioxin-related micropollutants in complex food matrices. An extraction procedure including accelerated solvent extraction (ASE), centrifugal evaporation and gel permeation chromatography (GPC) was optimized. Starting with meat as a model matrix, a micropollutant spiking method was then set up by comparing seven methods in terms of recoveries and reproducibility. The method combining immersion of the meat in a large volume of solvent containing micropollutants followed by homogenization by blender induced recoveries in the acceptable range of 70-130% and satisfactory standard deviations (?10%) for most of the compounds studied. Limits of detection of the GC×GC-TOF/MS method ranged between 50 and 100 pg/g of spiked fresh meat for PCBs and between 65 and 227 pg/g for PCDD/Fs. Potential applications of this method are discussed. PMID:25814331

  5. Advantages of Using Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization–Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry as a Rapid Diagnostic Tool for Identification of Yeasts and Mycobacteria in the Clinical Microbiological Laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jonathan H. K.; Yam, Wing-Cheong; Ngan, Antonio H. Y.; Fung, Ami M. Y.; Woo, Wai-Lan; Yan, Mei-Kum; Choi, Garnet K. Y.; Ho, Pak-Leung; Cheng, Vincent C. C.

    2013-01-01

    Yeast and mycobacteria can cause infections in immunocompromised patients and normal hosts. The rapid identification of these organisms can significantly improve patient care. There has been an increasing number of studies on using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) for rapid yeast and mycobacterial identifications. However, studies on direct comparisons between the Bruker Biotyper and bioMérieux Vitek MS systems for the identification of yeast and mycobacteria have been limited. This study compared the performance of the two systems in their identification of 98 yeast and 102 mycobacteria isolates. Among the 98 yeast isolates, both systems generated species-level identifications in >70% of the specimens, of which Candida albicans was the most commonly cultured species. At a genus-level identification, the Biotyper system identified more isolates than the Vitek MS system for Candida (75/78 [96.2%]versus 68/78 [87.2%], respectively; P = 0.0426) and non-Candida yeasts (18/20 [90.0%]versus 7/20 [35.0%], respectively; P = 0.0008). For mycobacterial identification, the Biotyper system generated reliable identifications for 89 (87.3%) and 64 (62.8%) clinical isolates at the genus and species levels, respectively, from solid culture media, whereas the Vitek MS system did not generate any reliable identification. The MS method differentiated 12/21 clinical species, despite the fact that no differentiation between Mycobacterium abscessus and Mycobacterium chelonae was found by using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. In summary, the MALDI-TOF MS method provides short turnaround times and a standardized working protocol for the identification of yeast and mycobacteria. Our study demonstrates that MALDI-TOF MS is suitable as a first-line test for the identification of yeast and mycobacteria in clinical laboratories. PMID:24048537

  6. ENUMERATION OF CARBOHYDRATE HYDROXYL GROUPS BY SILYLATION AND MATRIX ASSISTED LASER DESORPTION/IONIZATION TIME-OF-FLIGHT MASS SPECTROMETRY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A method for enumerating hydroxyl group in analytes is described and applied to various carbohydrates and polyols. The analytes were derivatized in solution by using trimethylsilylimidazole (TMSI) and the products were analyzed without chromatography in a MALDI-TOF-MS. The mass spectra revealed co...

  7. Gas chromatography/multiphoton ionization/time-of-flight mass spectrometry of polychlorinated biphenyls.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Taiki; Uchimura, Tomohiro; Imasaka, Totaro

    2011-05-23

    A sample mixture of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was measured by gas chromatography/multiphoton ionization/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC/MPI/TOF-MS) using four types of laser sources. When a fourth harmonic emission (266 nm) of a picosecond Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm) was utilized, highly chlorinated PCBs larger than hepta-CBs were not observed. A fifth harmonic emission (213 nm) of the picosecond Nd:YAG laser allowed the measurement of PCBs from di-CBs to octa-CBs, and the limit of detection (LOD) was several pg for each component of PCBs. The LOD for the total amount of PCBs, which was calculated using the protocol provided by the Ministry of the Environment, Japan, was 1000 pg. The signal intensity of the congeners with chlorine atoms at the ortho positions (non-coplanar PCBs) was enhanced by using the fifth harmonic emission. When the fourth harmonic emission remaining after fifth harmonic generation was simultaneously used, the LOD for total PCBs was improved to 667 pg. The PCB sample was also measured using a third harmonic emission (267 nm) of a femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser (800 nm), providing an LOD of 677 pg. Thus, the two-color beam (266/213 nm) of a picosecond Nd:YAG laser had a comparable, or even slightly superior, performance to the more expensive femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser. PMID:21565310

  8. Imaging Mass Spectrometry in Neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Imaging mass spectrometry is an emerging technique of great potential for investigating the chemical architecture in biological matrices. Although the potential for studying neurobiological systems is evident, the relevance of the technique for application in neuroscience is still in its infancy. In the present Review, a principal overview of the different approaches, including matrix assisted laser desorption ionization and secondary ion mass spectrometry, is provided with particular focus on their strengths and limitations for studying different neurochemical species in situ and in vitro. The potential of the various approaches is discussed based on both fundamental and biomedical neuroscience research. This Review aims to serve as a general guide to familiarize the neuroscience community and other biomedical researchers with the technique, highlighting its great potential and suitability for comprehensive and specific chemical imaging. PMID:23530951

  9. A PROTEOMIC (SELDI-TOF-MS) APPROACH TO ESTROGEN AGONIST SCREENING

    EPA Science Inventory

    A small fish model and surface enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI) were used to investigate plasma protein expression as a means to screen chemicals for estrogenic activity. Adult male sheepshead minnows (Cyprinodon variegatus) were place...

  10. Mass spectrometry. [review of techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burlingame, A. L.; Kimble, B. J.; Derrick, P. J.

    1976-01-01

    Advances in mass spectrometry (MS) and its applications over the past decade are reviewed in depth, with annotated literature references. New instrumentation and techniques surveyed include: modulated-beam MS, chromatographic MS on-line computer techniques, digital computer-compatible quadrupole MS, selected ion monitoring (mass fragmentography), and computer-aided management of MS data and interpretation. Areas of application surveyed include: organic MS and electron impact MS, field ionization kinetics, appearance potentials, translational energy release, studies of metastable species, photoionization, calculations of molecular orbitals, chemical kinetics, field desorption MS, high pressure MS, ion cyclotron resonance, biochemistry, medical/clinical chemistry, pharmacology, and environmental chemistry and pollution studies.

  11. [Analysis of the volatile components in Minnan oolong tea by headspace solid phase microextraction coupled with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-time of flight mass spectrometry and the application in its variety identification].

    PubMed

    Cheng, Quan; Yang, Fang; Li, Jie; Lu, Shengyu; Lan, Jinchang; Jiang, Jinbin

    2015-02-01

    A method to analyze the volatile components in Minnan oolong tea was developed based on headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) coupled with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-time of flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-TOF MS). Volatile compounds of 48 oolong tea samples with different qualities and production seasons from five varieties (Tieguanyin, Huangjingui, Benshan, Maoxie and Meizhan) were extracted by HS-SPME and analyzed by GC×GC-TOF MS. More than 2 000 peaks were obtained from each sample, and 51 common compounds were tentatively identified by comparison with the standard mass spectrum databases, retention indices and structure spectra. The projection score of the common compounds obtained from principal component analysis ( PCA) had presented a straightforward classification trend for different oolong tea varieties. In addition, 9 compounds which had significant impact on the classification were selected by stepwise discriminate analysis, and used as variables to establish four discriminated functions by Fisher's discriminate analysis (FDA). The accuracy for the recognition of 48 samples was 97. 9%. The results had demonstrated the feasibility of the method to be used to discriminate the oolong tea varieties. PMID:25989691

  12. Assessing the performance of novel software Strain Solution on automated discrimination of Escherichia coli serotypes and their mixtures using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ojima-Kato, Teruyo; Yamamoto, Naomi; Iijima, Yoshio; Tamura, Hiroto

    2015-12-01

    O157, O26, and O111 are the most important O serogroups of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli worldwide. Recently we reported a strategy for discriminating these serotypes from the others using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) based on the S10-spc-alpha operon gene-encoded ribosomal protein mass spectrum (S10-GERMS) method. To realize the fully automated identification of microorganisms at species- or serotype-level with the concept of S10-GERMS method, novel software named Strain Solution for MALDI-TOF MS was developed. In this study, the Strain Solution was evaluated with a total of 45 E. coli isolates including O26, O91, O103, O111, O115, O121, O128, O145, O157, O159, and untyped serotypes. The Strain Solution could accurately discriminate 92% (11/12) of O157 strains, 100% (13/13) of O26 and O111 strains from the others with three biomarkers in an automated manner. In addition, this software could identify 2 different E. coli strains (K-12 as a non-O157 representative and O157) in mixed samples. The results suggest that Strain Solution will be useful for species- or serotype-level classification of microorganisms in the fields of food safety and diagnostics. PMID:26554940

  13. Fragmentation study of iridoid glycosides and phenylpropanoid glycosides in Radix Scrophulariae by rapid resolution liquid chromatography with diode-array detection and electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qian; Yuan, Quan; Liu, E-Hu; Qi, Lian-Wen; Bi, Zhi-Ming; Li, Ping

    2010-08-01

    Rapid resolution liquid chromatography (RRLC) coupled with diode array detection (DAD) and electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ESI-TOF MS) method was applied to the mass spectral study of a series of naturally occurring iridoid glycosides and phenylpropanoid glycosides in Radix Scrophulariae, which provides higher speed and increased sensitivity without loss of resolution. With dynamic adjustment as the key role of the fragmentor voltage and confirmed with authentic standards, valuable structural information regarding the nature of both the glycoside skeletons was thus obtained. Most compositions were found to possess organic acid moiety such as cinnamoyl, caffeoyl and ferulyol. Besides extensive fragmentation of the carbohydrate moiety, losses of the hydroxyl and glucose residue units showed in the spectra, permitting the exploration of the skeleton and the identity of substituents in the molecule. Ten major iridoid glycosides and 10 phenylpropanoid glycosides were identified or tentatively characterized based on their retention times, UV and TOF MS data. The major fragmentation pathways of PGs in Radix Scrophulariae obtained through the MS data was schemed systematically for the first time, which provides a reference for other PGs derivatives. PMID:20017212

  14. A mass spectrometry primer for mass spectrometry imaging

    PubMed Central

    Rubakhin, Stanislav S.; Sweedler, Jonathan V.

    2011-01-01

    Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI), a rapidly growing subfield of chemical imaging, employs mass spectrometry (MS) technologies to create single- and multi-dimensional localization maps for a variety of atoms and molecules. Complimentary to other imaging approaches, MSI provides high chemical specificity and broad analyte coverage. This powerful analytical toolset is capable of measuring the distribution of many classes of inorganics, metabolites, proteins and pharmaceuticals in chemically and structurally complex biological specimens in vivo, in vitro, and in situ. The MSI approaches highlighted in this Methods in Molecular Biology volume provide flexibility of detection, characterization, and identification of multiple known and unknown analytes. The goal of this chapter is to introduce investigators who may be unfamiliar with MS to the basic principles of the mass spectrometric approaches as used in MSI. In addition to guidelines for choosing the most suitable MSI method for specific investigations, cross-references are provided to the chapters in this volume that describe the appropriate experimental protocols. PMID:20680583

  15. Novel PDD-PDT system based on spectrophotometric real-time fluorescence monitoring and MALDI-TOF-MS analysis of tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Takato O.; Kohno, Eiji; Dodeller, Marc; Sakurai, Takashi; Yamamoto, Seiji; Terakawa, Susumu

    2009-06-01

    In the PDT practice for tumor patients, the dose and irradiation time for the treatment are chosen by experience and not by real need. To establish advanced PDD-PDT model system for patients, we developed a method for monitoring the cell-death based on a spectrophotometric real-time change in fluorescence in HeLa-tumors during Photofrin®-PDT and ALA-PDT. Here, we describe the results of application of the new PDD-PDT system to human tumors. The fluorescence spectra obtained from human tumors were analyzed by the differential spectral analysis. The mass-spectral changes of tumor tissues during PDD-PDT were also examined by MALDI-TOF-MS/MS. The first author's seborrheic keratosis was monitored with this system during the PDD-PDT with a topically applied ALA-ointment. The changes in fluorescence spectrum were successfully detected, and the tumor regressed completely within 5 months. The differential spectral analysis of PDD-PDT-fluorescence monitoring spectra of tumors and isolated mitochondria showed a marked decrease of three peaks in the red region indicative of the PDD (600 - 720 nm), and a transient rise followed by a decline of peaks in the green region indicative of the PDT (450 - 580 nm). The MALDI-TOF-MS analysis of PDD-PDT HeLa-tumors showed a consumption of Photofrin-deuteroporphyrin and ALA-PpIX, and decreases in protein mass in the range of 4,000 - 16,000 Da, m/z 4929, 8564, 10089, 15000, and an increase in m/z 7002 in a Photofrin® PDD-PDT monitoring tumor.

  16. Undisturbed and disturbed above canopy ponderosa pine emissions: PTR-TOF-MS measurements and MEGAN 2.1 model results

    SciTech Connect

    Kaser, L.; Karl, T.; Guenther, Alex B.; Graus, M.; Schnitzhofer, R.; Turnipseed, A.; Fischer, L.; Harley, P.; Madronich, M.; Gochis, David; Keutsch, Frank N.; Hansel, A.

    2013-12-09

    We present the first eddy covariance flux measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) using a proton-transfer-reaction time-of-flight mass-spectrometer (PTR-TOFMS) above a ponderosa pine forest in Colorado, USA. The high mass resolution of the PTR-TOF-MS enabled the identification of chemical sum formulas. During a 30 day measurement period in August and September 2010, 649 different ion mass peaks were detected in the ambient air mass spectrum (including primary ions and mass calibration ompounds). Eddy covariance with the vertical wind speed was calculated for all ion mass peaks. On a typical day, 17 ion mass peaks including protonated parent compounds, their fragments and isotopes as well as VOC-H+-water clusters showed a significant flux with daytime average emissions above a reliable flux threshold of 0.1mgcompoundm?2 h?1. These ion mass peaks could be assigned to seven compound classes. The main flux contributions during daytime (10:00-18:00 LT) are attributed to the sum of 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol (MBO) and isoprene (50 %), methanol (12%), the sum of acetic acid and glycolaldehyde (10%) and the sum of monoterpenes (10 %). The total MBO+isoprene flux was composed of 10% isoprene and 90% MBO. There was good agreement between the light and temperature dependency of the sum of MBO and isoprene observed for this work and those of earlier studies. The above canopy flux measurements of the sum of MBO and isoprene and the sum of 20 monoterpenes were compared to emissions calculated using the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN 2.1). The best agreement between MEGAN 2.1 and measurements was reached using emission factors determined from site specific leaf cuvette measurements. While the modelled and measured MBO+isoprene fluxes agree well the emissions of the sum of monoterpenes is underestimated by MEGAN 2.1. This is expected as some factors impacting monoterpene emissions, such as physical damage of needles and branches due to storms, are not included in MEGAN 2.1.

  17. Histone H4 Acetylation Dynamics Determined by Stable Isotope Labeling with Amino Acids in Cell Culture and Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Su, Xiaodan; Zhang, Liwen; Lucas, David M.; Davis, Melanie E.; Knapp, Amy R.; Green-Church, Kari B.; Marcucci, Guido; Parthun, Mark R.; Byrd, John C.; Freitas, Michael A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes an integrated approach that couples Stable Isotope Labeling with Amino Acids in Cell Culture (SILAC) to Acetic acid-Urea Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (AU-PAGE) and Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) for the quantitation and dynamics of histone H4 acetylation. The 697 acute lymphoblastic cell lines were grown in regular media (Lys-D0) and media in which lysine was substituted with deuterium-labeled lysine (Lys-D4). HDAC activity was inhibited by addition of the HDAC inhibitor depsipeptide to the culture media for different exposure times. Histones were extracted from cells pooled from unlabeled, untreated cells and labeled, treated cells, followed by AU-PAGE separation. Gel bands corresponding to different acetylation states of H4 were excised, in-gel digested with trypsin, and analyzed by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Detailed information was obtained for both the change of histone H4 acetylation specific to N-terminus and global transformation of H4 from one acetylation state to another following treatment with the HDAC inhibitor depsipeptide. The kinetics of H4 acetylation was also assessed. The current study provides quantitative basis for developing potential therapies by using epigenetic regulation and the developed methodology can be applied to quantitation of change for other histone modifications induced by external stimuli. PMID:17286952

  18. Shiga Toxin 2 Subtypes of Enterohemorrhagic E. coli O157:H- E32511 Analyzed by RT-qPCR and Top-Down Proteomics Using MALDI-TOF-TOF-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fagerquist, Clifton K.; Zaragoza, William J.

    2015-05-01

    We have measured the relative abundance of the B-subunits and mRNA transcripts of two Stx2 subtypes present in Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157:H- strain E32511 using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight-time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-TOF-MS/MS) with post source decay (PSD) and real time-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Stx2a and Stx2c in STEC strain E32511 were quantified from the integrated peak area of their singly charged disulfide-intact B-subunit ions at m/z ~7819 and m/z ~7774, respectively. We found that the Stx2a subtype was 21-fold more abundant than the Stx2c subtype. The two amino acid substitutions (16D ? 16 N and 24D ? 24A) that distinguish Stx2a from Stx2c not only result in a mass difference of 45 Da between their respective B-subunits but also result in distinctly different fragmentation channels by MS/MS-PSD because both substitutions involve an aspartic acid (D) residue. Importantly, these two substitutions have also been linked to differences in subtype toxicity. We measured the relative abundances of mRNA transcripts using RT-qPCR and determined that the stx2a transcript is 13-fold more abundant than stx2c transcript. In silico secondary structure analysis of the full mRNA operons of stx2a and stx2c suggest that transcript structural differences may also contribute to a relative increase of Stx2a over Stx2c. In consequence, toxin expression may be under both transcriptional and post-transcriptional control.

  19. Electrophoresis-mass spectrometry probe

    DOEpatents

    Andresen, B.D.; Fought, E.R.

    1987-11-10

    The invention involves a new technique for the separation of complex mixtures of chemicals, which utilizes a unique interface probe for conventional mass spectrometers which allows the electrophoretically separated compounds to be analyzed in real-time by a mass spectrometer. This new chemical analysis interface, which couples electrophoresis with mass spectrometry, allows complex mixtures to be analyzed very rapidly, with much greater specificity, and with greater sensitivity. The interface or probe provides a means whereby large and/or polar molecules in complex mixtures to be completely characterized. The preferred embodiment of the probe utilizes a double capillary tip which allows the probe tip to be continually wetted by the buffer, which provides for increased heat dissipation, and results in a continually operating interface which is more durable and electronically stable than the illustrated single capillary tip probe interface. 8 figs.

  20. Electrophoresis-mass spectrometry probe

    DOEpatents

    Andresen, Brian D. (Pleasanton, CA); Fought, Eric R. (Livermore, CA)

    1987-01-01

    The invention involves a new technique for the separation of complex mixtures of chemicals, which utilizes a unique interface probe for conventional mass spectrometers which allows the electrophoretically separated compounds to be analyzed in real-time by a mass spectrometer. This new chemical analysis interface, which couples electrophoresis with mass spectrometry, allows complex mixtures to be analyzed very rapidly, with much greater specificity, and with greater sensitivity. The interface or probe provides a means whereby large and/or polar molecules in complex mixtures to be completely characterized. The preferred embodiment of the probe utilizes a double capillary tip which allows the probe tip to be continually wetted by the buffer, which provides for increased heat dissipation, and results in a continually operating interface which is more durable and electronically stable than the illustrated single capillary tip probe interface.

  1. Identification and Classification of Rhizobia by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Rui Zong; Zhang, Rong Juan; Wei, Qing; Chen, Wen Feng; Cho, Il Kyu; Chen, Wen Xin; Li, Qing X

    2015-01-01

    Mass spectrometry (MS) has been widely used for specific, sensitive and rapid analysis of proteins and has shown a high potential for bacterial identification and characterization. Type strains of four species of rhizobia and Escherichia coli DH5? were employed as reference bacteria to optimize various parameters for identification and classification of species of rhizobia by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight MS (MALDI TOF MS). The parameters optimized included culture medium states (liquid or solid), bacterial growth phases, colony storage temperature and duration, and protein data processing to enhance the bacterial identification resolution, accuracy and reliability. The medium state had little effects on the mass spectra of protein profiles. A suitable sampling time was between the exponential phase and the stationary phase. Consistent protein mass spectral profiles were observed for E. coli colonies pre-grown for 14 days and rhizobia for 21 days at 4°C or 21°C. A dendrogram of 75 rhizobial strains of 4 genera was constructed based on MALDI TOF mass spectra and the topological patterns agreed well with those in the 16S rDNA phylogenetic tree. The potential of developing a mass spectral database for all rhizobia species was assessed with blind samples. The entire process from sample preparation to accurate identification and classification of species required approximately one hour. PMID:26500417

  2. Blood group genotyping: the power and limitations of the Hemo ID Panel and MassARRAY platform.

    PubMed

    McBean, Rhiannon S; Hyland, Catherine A; Flower, Robert L

    2015-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization, time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), is a sensitive analytical method capable of resolving DNA fragments varying in mass by a single nucleotide. MALDI-TOF MS is applicable to blood group genotyping, as the majority of blood group antigens are encoded by single nucleotide polymorphisms. Blood group genotyping by MALDI-TOF MS can be performed using a panel (Hemo ID Blood Group Genotyping Panel, Agena Bioscience Inc., San Diego, CA) that is a set of genotyping assays that predict the phenotype for 101 antigens from 16 blood group systems. These assays involve three fundamental stages: multiplex target-specific polymerase chain reaction amplification, allele-specific single base primer extension, and MALDI-TOFMS analysis using the MassARRAY system. MALDI-TOF MS-based genotyping has many advantages over alternative methods including high throughput, high multiplex capability, flexibility and adaptability, and the high level of accuracy based on the direct detection method. Currently available platforms for MALDI-TOF MS-based genotyping are not without limitations, including high upfront instrumentation costs and the number of non-automated steps. The Hemo ID Blood Group Genotyping Panel, developed and optimized in a collaboration between the vendor and the Blood Transfusion Service of the Swiss Red Cross in Zurich, Switzerland, is not yet widely utilized, although several laboratories are currently evaluating the MassARRAY system for blood group genotyping. Based on the accuracy and other advantages offered by MALDITOF MS analysis, in the future, this method is likely to become widely adopted for blood group genotyping, in particular, for population screening. PMID:26495893

  3. Detecting trace components in liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry data sets with two-dimensional wavelets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Compton, Duane C.; Snapp, Robert R.

    2007-09-01

    TWiGS (two-dimensional wavelet transform with generalized cross validation and soft thresholding) is a novel algorithm for denoising liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) data for use in "shot-gun" proteomics. Proteomics, the study of all proteins in an organism, is an emerging field that has already proven successful for drug and disease discovery in humans. There are a number of constraints that limit the effectiveness of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) for shot-gun proteomics, where the chemical signals are typically weak, and data sets are computationally large. Most algorithms suffer greatly from a researcher driven bias, making the results irreproducible and unusable by other laboratories. We thus introduce a new algorithm, TWiGS, that removes electrical (additive white) and chemical noise from LC-MS data sets. TWiGS is developed to be a true two-dimensional algorithm, which operates in the time-frequency domain, and minimizes the amount of researcher bias. It is based on the traditional discrete wavelet transform (DWT), which allows for fast and reproducible analysis. The separable two-dimensional DWT decomposition is paired with generalized cross validation and soft thresholding. The Haar, Coiflet-6, Daubechie-4 and the number of decomposition levels are determined based on observed experimental results. Using a synthetic LC-MS data model, TWiGS accurately retains key characteristics of the peaks in both the time and m/z domain, and can detect peaks from noise of the same intensity. TWiGS is applied to angiotensin I and II samples run on a LC-ESI-TOF-MS (liquid-chromatography-electrospray-ionization) to demonstrate its utility for the detection of low-lying peaks obscured by noise.

  4. Biotransformation and metabolic profile of caudatin-2,6-dideoxy-3-O-methy-?-d-cymaropyranoside with human intestinal microflora by liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Peng, Yun-Ru; Ding, Yong-Fang

    2015-11-01

    In our previous studies, caudatin-2,6-dideoxy-3-O-methy-?-d- cymaropyranoside (CDMC) was for the first time isolated from Cynanchum auriculatum Royle ex Wightand and was reported to possess a wide range of biological activities. However, the routes and metabolites of CDMC produced by intestinal bacteria are not well understood. In this study, ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS) technique combined with Metabolynx(TM) software was applied to analyze metabolites of CDMC by human intestinal bacteria. The incubated samples collected for 48 h in an anaerobic incubator and extracted with ethyl acetate were analyzed by UPLC-Q-TOF-MS within 12 min. Eight metabolites were identified based on MS and MS/MS data. The results indicated that hydrolysis, hydrogenation, demethylation and hydroxylation were the major metabolic pathways of CDMC in vitro. Seven strains of bacteria including Bacillus sp. 46, Enterococcus sp. 30 and sp. 45, Escherichia sp. 49A, sp. 64, sp. 68 and sp. 75 were further identified using 16S rRNA gene sequencing owing to their relatively strong metabolic capacity toward CDMC. The present study provides important information about metabolic routes of CDMC and the roles of different intestinal bacteria in the metabolism of CDMC. Moreover, those metabolites might influence the biological effect of CDMC in vivo, which affects the clinical effects of this medicinal plant. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26018801

  5. Solid-phase extraction followed by liquid chromatography-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry to evaluate pharmaceuticals in effluents. A pilot monitoring study.

    PubMed

    Gómez, María José; Malato, Octavio; Ferrer, Imma; Agüera, Ana; Fernández-Alba, Amadeo R

    2007-07-01

    The present work provides a multi-residue analytical method for determining a selection of 20 pharmaceuticals from diverse therapeutical classes in hospital effluent wastewater. The method is based on the simultaneous extraction of the target compounds by solid phase extraction (SPE), followed by liquid chromatography-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (LC-TOF-MS) analysis. Using TOF-MS, accurate mass measurements within 2 ppm error were obtained for most of the pharmaceuticals studied. Empirical formula information can be obtained by this method, allowing the unequivocal identification of the target compounds in the samples. Validation studies showed that LC-TOF-MS analysis is a valuable new tool for identification and quantification of pharmaceuticals in wastewater. Recoveries, using Oasis HLB cartridges at pH 7, were higher than 75% for all pharmaceuticals, except for ranitidine, 4-methylaminoantipyrine (4-MAA), cefotaxime and omeprazole, which needed specific pH conditions for their extraction. Linearity of response over two orders of magnitude was demonstrated (r > 0.99). Matrix effects resulting in suppression of the response were observed. For most of the compounds ion suppression was less than 39%, except for metronidazole, carbamazepine 10,11-epoxide, naproxen and erythromycin, where the signal suppression was 42%, 59%, 46% and 95%, respectively. A simple and effective approach to minimize or avoid matrix interferences was the 1 : 4 dilution of the SPE extracts. Method detection limits (MDLs) and quantification limits (MQLs) ranged between 4-115 ng l(-1) and 14-384 ng l(-1), respectively. The precision of the method, calculated as relative standard deviation (RSD), ranged from 1.1-19.8% and 1.7-21.7% for intra- and inter-day, respectively. The developed analytical method was applied to the analysis of hospital effluent wastewater during a survey study. 18 of the 20 pharmaceuticals studied were detected at concentration levels of microg l(-1), reaching in some cases concentrations over 100 microg l(-1), and in the case of the analgesic and antipyretic dipyrone metabolite, higher than 1000 microg l(-1). PMID:17607393

  6. Surface pretreatment effects on titanium chips for the adhesion of pathogenic bacteria in the MALDI-TOF MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasan, Nazim; Gopal, Judy; Wu, Hui-Fen

    2014-09-01

    The effect of surface pretreatment methodologies on subsequent oxide film formation and their surface properties is reported. The influence of hydrophobicity and hydrophilicity on the attachment/detection of pathogenic bacteria to titanium chip is also investigated. The results show that the Staphylococcus aureus preferred hydrophilic surfaces and also had an affinity for the non-heat treated (control) titanium surfaces. Laser ablation resulted in significant improvement in the attachment of both pathogenic bacteria. The bacteria attached to the modified titanium chips surface were analyzed by MALDI-TOF MS. Thus, this study demonstrates that modifying the surface by various surfaces pretreatment such as heat treatments and laser ablation could lead to selective capture of either Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Staphylococcus aureus by the titanium chips. This study is for direct and effective detection of pathogenic bacteria using MALDI-TOF MS.

  7. Metabolomics using GC-TOF-MS followed by subsequent GC-FID and HILIC-MS/MS analysis revealed significantly altered fatty acid and phospholipid species profiles in plasma of smokers.

    PubMed

    Müller, Daniel C; Degen, Christian; Scherer, Gerhard; Jahreis, Gerhard; Niessner, Reinhard; Scherer, Max

    2014-09-01

    Mass spectrometry is an ideal tool for investigations of the metabolome in human plasma. To investigate the impact of smoking on the human metabolome, we performed an untargeted metabolic fingerprinting using GC-TOF-MS with EDTA-plasma samples from 25 smokers and 25 non-smokers. The observed elevated levels in the monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) in smokers were verified by a targeted analysis using GC-FID, which revealed also significantly alterations in saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids in smokers (p<0.05, Mann-Whitney U test). Since the main fraction of fatty acids in plasma is esterified to phospholipids, we analyzed phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) species composition in the plasma samples of the same subjects. The profiles of 39 PC and 40 PE species were analyzed with a newly developed and validated HILIC-ESI-MS/MS method. We were able to baseline separate the two lipid classes (PC from PE) by maintaining co-elution of individual lipid species of each class. The method shows a linear range from 0.5?M to 2000?M and an inter- and intraday coefficient of variation (CV)<20% across all analytes. Application of the validated method to the plasma samples of smokers and non-smokers, derived from a diet-controlled smoking study, revealed significantly elevated levels of PC and PE species containing MUFAs in smokers. In summary, we could demonstrate that there is a significantly altered total fatty acid profile, with increased MUFAs, in the plasma of smokers compared to non-smokers. Results obtained with the new HILIC-MS/MS method indicate that the altered fatty acid profile is also reflected in the PC and PE profile of smokers. PMID:24630914

  8. A MALDI-TOF MS analysis study of the binding of 4-(N,N-dimethylamino)pyridine to amine-bis(phenolate) chromium(iii) chloride complexes: mechanistic insight into differences in catalytic activity for CO2/epoxide copolymerization.

    PubMed

    Kozak, Christopher M; Woods, April M; Bottaro, Christina S; Devaine-Pressing, Katalin; Ni, Kaijie

    2015-12-01

    Amine-bis(phenolato)chromium(iii) chloride complexes, [CrCl], are capable of catalyzing the copolymerization of cyclohexene oxide with carbon dioxide to give poly(cyclohexane) carbonate. When combined with 4-(N,N-dimethylamino)pyridine (DMAP) these catalyst systems yield low molecular weight polymers with moderately narrow polydispersities. The coordination chemistry of DMAP with five amine-bis(phenolato)chromium(iii) chloride complexes was studied by matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). The amine-bis(phenolato) ligands were varied in the nature of their neutral pendant donor-group and include oxygen-containing tetrahydrofurfuryl and methoxyethyl moieties, or nitrogen-containing N,N-dimethylaminoethyl or 2-pyridyl moieties. The relative abundance of mono and bis(DMAP) adducts, as well as DMAP-free ions is compared under various DMAP?:?Cr complex ratios. The [Cr](+) cations show the ability to bind two DMAP molecules to form six-coordinate complex ions in all cases, except when the pendant group is N,N-dimethylaminoethyl (compound ). Even in the presence of a 4?:?1 ratio of DMAP to Cr, no ions corresponding to [Cr(DMAP)2](+) were observed for the complex containing the tertiary sp(3)-hybridized amino donor in the pendant arm. The difference in DMAP-binding ability of these compounds results in differences in catalytic activity for alternating copolymerization of CO2 and cyclohexene oxide. Kinetic investigations by infrared spectroscopy of compounds and show that polycarbonate formation by is twice as fast as that of compound and that no initiation time is observed. PMID:26388443

  9. Whole-cell MALDI-TOF MS: a new tool to assess the multifaceted activation of macrophages.

    PubMed

    Ouedraogo, Richard; Daumas, Aurélie; Ghigo, Eric; Capo, Christian; Mege, Jean-Louis; Textoris, Julien

    2012-10-22

    Whole-cell MALDI-TOF MS is routinely used to identify bacterial species in clinical samples. This technique has also proven to allow identification of intact mammalian cells, including macrophages. Here, we wondered whether this approach enabled the assessment human macrophages plasticity. The whole-cell MALDI-TOF spectra of macrophages stimulated with IFN-? and IL-4, two inducers of M1 and M2 macrophage polarisation, consisted of peaks ranging from 2 to 12 kDa. The spectra of unstimulated and stimulated macrophages were clearly different. The fingerprints induced by the M1 agonists, IFN-?, TNF, LPS and LPS+IFN-?, and the M2 agonists, IL-4, TGF-?1 and IL-10, were specific and readily identifiable. Thus, whole-cell MALDI-TOF MS was able to characterise M1 and M2 macrophage subtypes. In addition, the fingerprints induced by extracellular (group B Streptococcus, Staphylococcus aureus) or intracellular (BCG, Orientia tsutsugamushi, Coxiella burnetii) bacteria were bacterium-specific. The whole-cell MALDI-TOF MS fingerprints therefore revealed the multifaceted activation of human macrophages. This approach opened a new avenue of studies to assess the immune response in the clinical setting, by monitoring the various activation patterns of immune cells in pathological conditions. PMID:22967923

  10. High-throughput nucleoside phosphate monitoring in mammalian cell fed-batch cultivation using quantitative matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Steinhoff, Robert F; Ivarsson, Marija; Habicher, Tobias; Villiger, Thomas K; Boertz, Jens; Krismer, Jasmin; Fagerer, Stephan R; Soos, Miroslav; Morbidelli, Massimo; Pabst, Martin; Zenobi, Renato

    2015-01-01

    Current methods for monitoring multiple intracellular metabolite levels in parallel are limited in sample throughput capabilities and analyte selectivity. This article presents a novel high-throughput method based on matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS) for monitoring intracellular metabolite levels in fed-batch processes. The MALDI-TOF-MS method presented here is based on a new microarray sample target and allows the detection of nucleoside phosphates and various other metabolites using stable isotope labeled internal standards. With short sample preparation steps and thus high sample throughput capabilities, the method is suitable for monitoring mammalian cell cultures, such as antibody producing hybridoma cell lines in industrial environments. The method is capable of reducing the runtime of standard LC-UV methods to approximately 1 min per sample (including 10 technical replicates). Its performance is exemplarily demonstrated in an 8-day monitoring experiment of independently controlled fed-batches, containing an antibody producing mouse hybridoma cell culture. The monitoring profiles clearly confirmed differences between cultivation conditions. Hypothermia and hyperosmolarity were studied in four bioreactors, where hypothermia was found to have a positive effect on the longevity of the cell culture, whereas hyperosmolarity lead to an arrest of cell proliferation. The results are in good agreement with HPLC-UV cross validation experiments. Subsequent principal component analysis (PCA) clearly separates the different bioreactor conditions based on the measured mass spectral profiles. This method is not limited to any cell line and can be applied as a process analytical tool in biotechnological processes. PMID:25139677

  11. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry to identify contaminants in water: an insight on environmental forensics.

    PubMed

    Masiá, Ana; Campo, Julian; Blasco, Cristina; Picó, Yolanda

    2014-06-01

    Ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QqTOF-MS) acquiring full scan MS data for quantification, and automatic data dependent information product ion spectra (IDA-MS/MS) without any predefinition of the ions by the user was checked for identifying organic contaminants in water samples. The use of a database with more than 2000 compounds achieved high confidence results for a wide number of contaminants based upon retention time, accurate mass, isotopic pattern and MS/MS library searching. More than 20 contaminants, mostly pharmaceuticals, but also mycotoxins and polyphenols were unambiguously identified. Furthermore, the combination of statistical data analysis using principal component analysis (PCA) followed by empirical formula calculation, on-line database searching and MS/MS fragment ion interpretation achieves not only the successful detection of unknown contaminants but also the selection of those relevant to different types of waters. Unknown compounds, such as C??H??O?, were identified in waste water showing the prospects of this technique. A group of 42 currently used pesticides were selected as target compounds to evaluate the quantitative possibilities. Mean recoveries and percentage relative standard deviation (RSD) were 48-79% (4-20% RSD). The limit of detections ranged from 0.02 to 2 ng L(-1), with a validated limit of quantification of 2 ng L(-1) for water after solid-phase (SPE) isolation and concentration. The quantitative data obtained using UHPLC-QqTOF-MS were compared with those obtained using conventional LC-MS/MS with a triple quadrupole (QqQ). PMID:24794942

  12. Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with isotope dilution time-of-flight mass spectrometry for the measurement of dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls in foodstuffs. Comparison with other methods.

    PubMed

    Focant, Jean-François; Eppe, Gauthier; Scippo, Marie-Louise; Massart, Anne-Cécile; Pirard, Catherine; Maghuin-Rogister, Guy; De Pauw, Edwin

    2005-09-01

    A comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC x GC-TOF-MS) experimental setup was tested for the measurement of seven 2,3,7,8-substituted polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), ten 2,3,7,8-substituted polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), four non-ortho-polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), eight mono-ortho-PCBs, and six indicator PCBs (Aroclor 1260) in foodstuff samples. A 40m RTX-500 (0.18mm I.D., 0.10 microm df) was used as the first dimension (1D) and a 1.5 m BPX-50 (0.10mm I.D., 0.10 microm df) as the second dimension (2D). The GC x GC chromatographic separation was completed in 45 min. Quantification was performed using 13C-label isotope dilution (ID). Isotope ratios of the selected quantification ions were checked against theoretical values prior to peak assignment and quantification. The dynamic working range spanned three orders of magnitude. The lowest detectable amount of 2,3,7,8-TCDD was 0.2 pg. Fish, pork, and milk samples were considered. On a congener basis, the GC x GC-ID-TOF-MS method was compared to the reference GC-ID high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) method and to the alternative GC-ID tandem-in-time quadrupole ion storage mass spectrometry (QIST-MS/MS). PCB levels ranged from low picogram (pg) to low nanogram (ng) per gram of sample and data compared very well between the different methods. For all matrices, PCDD/Fs were at a low pg level (0.05-3 pg) on a fresh weight basis. Although congener profiles were accurately described, RSDs of GC x GC-ID-TOF-MS and GC-QIST-MS/MS were much higher than for GC-ID-HRMS, especially for low level pork and milk. On a toxic equivalent (TEQ) basis, all methods, including the dioxin-responsive chemically activated luciferase gene expression (DR-CALUX) assay, produced similar responses. A cost comparison is also presented. PMID:16130655

  13. Classification of Ancient Mammal Individuals Using Dental Pulp MALDI-TOF MS Peptide Profiling

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Thi-Nguyen-Ny; Aboudharam, Gérard; Gardeisen, Armelle; Davoust, Bernard; Bocquet-Appel, Jean-Pierre; Flaudrops, Christophe; Belghazi, Maya; Raoult, Didier; Drancourt, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Background The classification of ancient animal corpses at the species level remains a challenging task for forensic scientists and anthropologists. Severe damage and mixed, tiny pieces originating from several skeletons may render morphological classification virtually impossible. Standard approaches are based on sequencing mitochondrial and nuclear targets. Methodology/Principal Findings We present a method that can accurately classify mammalian species using dental pulp and mass spectrometry peptide profiling. Our work was organized into three successive steps. First, after extracting proteins from the dental pulp collected from 37 modern individuals representing 13 mammalian species, trypsin-digested peptides were used for matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis. The resulting peptide profiles accurately classified every individual at the species level in agreement with parallel cytochrome b gene sequencing gold standard. Second, using a 279–modern spectrum database, we blindly classified 33 of 37 teeth collected in 37 modern individuals (89.1%). Third, we classified 10 of 18 teeth (56%) collected in 15 ancient individuals representing five mammal species including human, from five burial sites dating back 8,500 years. Further comparison with an upgraded database comprising ancient specimen profiles yielded 100% classification in ancient teeth. Peptide sequencing yield 4 and 16 different non-keratin proteins including collagen (alpha-1 type I and alpha-2 type I) in human ancient and modern dental pulp, respectively. Conclusions/Significance Mass spectrometry peptide profiling of the dental pulp is a new approach that can be added to the arsenal of species classification tools for forensics and anthropology as a complementary method to DNA sequencing. The dental pulp is a new source for collagen and other proteins for the species classification of modern and ancient mammal individuals. PMID:21364886

  14. Partially oxidised organic components in urban aerosol using GCXGC-TOF/MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, J.; Webb, P.; Lewis, A.; Hopkins, J.; Smith, S.; Davy, P.

    2004-03-01

    Partially oxidised organic compounds associated with PM2.5 aerosol collected in London, England, have been analysed using direct thermal desorption coupled to comprehensive gas chromatography-time of flight mass spectrometry (GCXGC-OF/MS). Over 10 000 individual organic components were isolated from around 10 ?g of aerosol material in a single procedure and with no sample pre-treatment. Chemical functionalities observed using this analytical technique ranged from alkanes to poly-oxygenated species. The chemical band structures commonly used in GCXGC for group type identifications overlap for this sample type, and have required mass spectrometry as an additional level of instrument dimensionality. An investigation of oxygenated volatile organic compounds (o-VOC) contained within urban aerosol has been performed and in a typical sample around 130 o-VOCs were identified based on retention behaviour and spectral match. In excess of 100 other oxygenated species were also observed but lack of mass spectral library or pure components prevents positive identification. Many of the carbonyl species observed could be mechanistically linked to gas phase aromatic hydrocarbon oxidation and there is good agreement in terms of speciation between the urban samples analysed here and those degradation products observed in smog chamber experiments of aromatic oxidation. The presence of partially oxidised species such as linear chain aldehydes and ketones and cyclic products such as furanones suggests that species generated relatively early in the oxidative process may undergo gas to particle partitioning despite their relatively high volatility.

  15. Counting Molecules by Desorption Ionization and Mass Spectrometry/Mass Spectrometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooks, R. G.; Busch, K. L.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses two newer methods in mass spectrometry and shows how they can increase signal and signal-to-noise ratios, respectively. The first method, desorption ionization (DI), increases sensitivity while the second method, mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (MS/MS), increases specificity. Together, the two methods offer improved analytical…

  16. Globally Optimized Targeted Mass Spectrometry: Reliable Metabolomics Analysis with Broad Coverage.

    PubMed

    Gu, Haiwei; Zhang, Ping; Zhu, Jiangjiang; Raftery, Daniel

    2015-12-15

    Targeted detection is one of the most important methods in mass spectrometry (MS)-based metabolomics; however, its major limitation is the reduced metabolome coverage that results from the limited set of targeted metabolites typically used in the analysis. In this study we describe a new approach, globally optimized targeted (GOT)-MS, that combines many of the advantages of targeted detection and global profiling in metabolomics analysis, including the capability to detect unknowns, broad metabolite coverage, and excellent quantitation. The key step in GOT-MS is a global search of precursor and product ions using a single liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole (LC-QQQ) mass spectrometer. Here, focused on measuring serum metabolites, we obtained 595 precursor ions and 1?890 multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) transitions, under positive and negative ionization modes in the mass range of 60-600 Da. For many of the MRMs/metabolites under investigation, the analytical performance of GOT-MS is better than or at least comparable to that obtained by global profiling using a quadrupole-time-of-flight (Q-TOF) instrument of similar vintage. Using a study of serum metabolites in colorectal cancer (CRC) as a representative example, GOT-MS significantly outperformed a large targeted MS assay containing ?160 biologically important metabolites and provided a complementary approach to traditional global profiling using Q-TOF-MS. GOT-MS thus expands and optimizes the detection capabilities for QQQ-MS through a novel approach and should have the potential to significantly advance both basic and clinical metabolic research. PMID:26579731

  17. Label-free measurement of histone lysine methyltransferases activity by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Guitot, Karine; Scarabelli, Silvia; Drujon, Thierry; Bolbach, Gérard; Amoura, Mehdi; Burlina, Fabienne; Jeltsch, Albert; Sagan, Sandrine; Guianvarc'h, Dominique

    2014-07-01

    Histone lysine methyltransferases (HKMTs) are enzymes that play an essential role in epigenetic regulation. Thus, identification of inhibitors specifically targeting these enzymes represents a challenge for the development of new antitumor therapeutics. Several methods for measuring HKMT activity are already available. Most of them use indirect measurement of the enzymatic reaction through radioactive labeling or antibody-recognized products or coupled enzymatic assays. Mass spectrometry (MS) represents an interesting alternative approach because it allows direct detection and quantification of enzymatic reactions and can be used to determine kinetics and to screen small molecules as potential inhibitors. Application of mass spectrometry to the study of HKMTs has not been fully explored yet. We describe here the development of a simple reliable label-free MALDI-TOF MS-based assay for the detection and quantification of peptide methylation, using SET7/9 as a model enzyme. Importantly, the use of expensive internal standard often required in mass spectrometry quantitative analysis is not necessary in this assay. This MS assay allowed us to determine enzyme kinetic parameters as well as IC50 for a known inhibitor of this enzyme. Furthermore, a comparative study with an antibody-based immunosorbent assay showed that the MS assay is more reliable and suitable for the screening of inhibitors. PMID:24747023

  18. Advances in Chromatography, Mass Spectrometry & Lab Automation

    E-print Network

    Vertes, Akos

    #12;Advances in Chromatography, Mass Spectrometry & Lab Automation 2 Publisher's Note Kevin Davies&EN Media Group 4 Top Ten Chromatography, Mass Spectrometry, and Lab Automation Papers APPLICATION NOTES 10 Detection Of Methylmalonic Acid (MMA) In Plasma Using Hydro- philic Interaction Liquid Chromatography (HILIC

  19. Characterization of TPN729 metabolites in humans using ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yunting; Li, Liang; Deng, Pan; Chen, Xiaoyan; Zhong, Dafang

    2016-01-01

    TPN729 has been reported as a novel phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitor to treat erectile dysfunction, and is currently being tested in clinical trials. In addition to the potent inhibition against PDE5, TPN729 is regarded as a better alternative to provide fewer side effects and better patient compliance. Given the potential therapeutic benefits of TPN729, it is of great importance to elucidate its metabolic characteristics in drug development. This study is the first to investigate the metabolic fate of TPN729 in humans. A rapid and reliable analytical method based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/Q-TOF MS) was established to investigate the metabolic profiles of TPN729 in human plasma, urine, and feces after its oral administration. As a result, a total of 22 metabolites were identified, of which seven were confirmed in comparison with the reference substances. The incubations of the metabolite references in human hepatocytes and aldehyde trapping experiment were further conducted to investigate its metabolic pathways. The results of the present study indicated the extensive metabolism of TPN729 in humans, including oxidative deamination, oxidative ring opening, N-dealkylation, N-oxidation, hydroxylation, dehydrogenation, lactam formation, and glucuronidation. M3 resulting from N-dealkylation was the major circulating substance detected in human plasma. The principal metabolites detected in human feces were products of oxidative deamination and oxidative ring opening. The parent drug was identified as the major component in urine. Taken together, this study provided valuable information on the metabolic fate of TPN729 in humans, and applicable analytical strategies for rapid metabolic elucidation in complex matrix samples through the useful and reliable UPLC/Q-TOF MS technique. PMID:26366939

  20. Reliable and reproducible method for rapid identification of Nocardia species by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Toyokawa, Masahiro; Kimura, Keigo; Nishi, Isao; Sunada, Atsuko; Ueda, Akiko; Sakata, Tomomi; Asari, Seishi

    2013-01-01

    Recently, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has been challenged for the identification of Nocardia species. However, the standard ethanol-formic acid extraction alone is insufficient in allowing the membrane proteins of Nocardia species to be ionized by the matrix. We therefore aimed to establish our new extraction method for the MALDI-TOF MS-based identification of Nocardia species isolates. Our modified extraction procedure is through dissociation in 0.5% Tween-20 followed by bacterial heat-inactivation, mechanical breaking of the cell wall by acid-washed glass beads and protein extraction with formic acid and acetonitrile. As reference methods for species identification, full-length 16S rRNA gene sequencing and some phenotypical tests were used. In a first step, we made our own Nocardia database by analyzing 13 strains (13 different species including N. elegans, N. otitidiscaviarum, N. asiatica, N. abscessus, N. brasiliensis, N. thailandica, N. farcinica, N. nova, N. mikamii, N. cyriacigeorgica, N. asteroids, Nocardiopsis alba, and Micromonospora sp.) and registered to the MALDI BioTyper database. Then we established our database. The analysis of 12 challenge strains using the our database gave a 100% correct identification, including 8 strains identified to the species level and 4 strains to the genus level (N. elegans, N. nova, N. farcinica, Micromonospora sp.) according to the manufacture's log score specifications. In the estimation of reproducibility of our method intended for 4 strains, both within-run and between-run reproducibility were excellent. These data indicates that our method for rapid identification of Nocardia species is with reliability, reproducibility and cost effective. PMID:24800394

  1. In silico and in vitro metabolism studies support identification of designer drugs in human urine by liquid chromatography/quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Tyrkkö, Elli; Pelander, Anna; Ketola, Raimo A; Ojanperä, Ilkka

    2013-08-01

    Human phase I metabolism of four designer drugs, 2-desoxypipradrol (2-DPMP), 3,4-dimethylmethcathinone (3,4-DMMC), ?-pyrrolidinovalerophenone (?-PVP), and methiopropamine (MPA), was studied using in silico and in vitro metabolite prediction. The metabolites were identified in drug abusers’ urine samples using liquid chromatography/quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC/Q-TOF/MS). The aim of the study was to evaluate the ability of the in silico and in vitro methods to generate the main urinary metabolites found in vivo. Meteor 14.0.0 software (Lhasa Limited) was used for in silico metabolite prediction, and in vitro metabolites were produced in human liver microsomes (HLMs). 2-DPMP was metabolized by hydroxylation, dehydrogenation, and oxidation, resulting in six phase I metabolites. Six metabolites were identified for 3,4-DMMC formed via N-demethylation, reduction, hydroxylation, and oxidation reactions. ?-PVP was found to undergo reduction, hydroxylation, dehydrogenation, and oxidation reactions, as well as degradation of the pyrrolidine ring, and seven phase I metabolites were identified. For MPA, the nor-MPA metabolite was detected. Meteor software predicted the main human urinary phase I metabolites of 3,4-DMMC, ?-PVP, and MPA and two of the four main metabolites of 2-DPMP. It assisted in the identification of the previously unreported metabolic reactions for ?-PVP. Eight of the 12 most abundant in vivo phase I metabolites were detected in the in vitro HLM experiments. In vitro tests serve as material for exploitation of in silico data when an authentic urine sample is not available. In silico and in vitro designer drug metabolism studies with LC/Q-TOF/MS produced sufficient metabolic information to support identification of the parent compound in vivo. PMID:23797910

  2. Performances of the Vitek MS Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization–Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry System for Rapid Identification of Bacteria in Routine Clinical Microbiology

    PubMed Central

    Grare, Marion; Prere, Marie-Françoise; Segonds, Christine; Marty, Nicole; Oswald, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Rapid and cost-effective matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS)-based systems will replace conventional phenotypic methods for routine identification of bacteria. We report here the first evaluation of the new MALDI-TOF MS-based Vitek MS system in a large clinical microbiology laboratory. This system uses an original spectrum classifier algorithm and a specific database designed for the identification of clinically relevant species. We have tested 767 routine clinical isolates representative of 50 genera and 124 species. Vitek MS-based identifications were performed by means of a single deposit on a MALDI disposable target without any prior extraction step and compared with reference identifications obtained mainly with the VITEK2 phenotypic system; if the identifications were discordant, molecular techniques provided reference identifications. The Vitek MS system provided 96.2% correct identifications to the species level (86.7%), to the genus level (8.2%), or within a range of species belonging to different genera (1.3%). Conversely, 1.3% of isolates were misidentified and 2.5% were unidentified, partly because the species was not included in the database; a second deposit provided a successful identification for 0.8% of isolates unidentified with the first deposit. The Vitek MS system is a simple, convenient, and accurate method for routine bacterial identification with a single deposit, considering the high bacterial diversity studied and as evidenced by the low prevalence of species without correct identification. In addition to a second deposit in uncommon cases, expanding the spectral database is expected to further enhance performances. PMID:22593596

  3. Desorption electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry: A rapid screening tool for veterinary drug preparations and forensic samples from hormone crime investigations.

    PubMed

    Nielen, M W F; Hooijerink, H; Claassen, F C; van Engelen, M C; van Beek, T A

    2009-04-01

    Hormone and veterinary drug screening and forensics can benefit from the recent developments in desorption electrospray ionisation (DESI) mass spectrometry (MS). In this work the feasibility of DESI application has been studied. Using a linear ion trap or quadrupole time-of-flight (TOF) MS instrument both full-scan and data-dependent collision-induced dissociation MS(n) spectra were acquired in seconds without sample preparation. Preliminary data are presented for the rapid screening of (pro)hormone supplement samples, an illegal steroid cocktail and forensic samples from veterinary drug investigations. The potential of this DESI approach is clearly demonstrated since compounds observed could be independently confirmed by liquid chromatography/TOFMS with accurate mass measurement, and/or proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Specific concerns related to false-positive and false-negative findings due to limitations in quantification and memory-effects are briefly discussed. It is envisaged that DESI will achieve a prominent role in hormone and veterinary drug analysis in the near future. PMID:19286017

  4. A NEW METHOD OF PEAK DETECTION FOR ANALYSIS OF COMPREHENSIVE TWO-DIMENSIONAL GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY MASS SPECTROMETRY DATA*

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seongho; Ouyang, Ming; Jeong, Jaesik; Shen, Changyu; Zhang, Xiang

    2014-01-01

    We develop a novel peak detection algorithm for the analysis of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-TOF MS) data using normal-exponential-Bernoulli (NEB) and mixture probability models. The algorithm first performs baseline correction and denoising simultaneously using the NEB model, which also defines peak regions. Peaks are then picked using a mixture of probability distribution to deal with the co-eluting peaks. Peak merging is further carried out based on the mass spectral similarities among the peaks within the same peak group. The algorithm is evaluated using experimental data to study the effect of different cut-offs of the conditional Bayes factors and the effect of different mixture models including Poisson, truncated Gaussian, Gaussian, Gamma, and exponentially modified Gaussian (EMG) distributions, and the optimal version is introduced using a trial-and-error approach. We then compare the new algorithm with two existing algorithms in terms of compound identification. Data analysis shows that the developed algorithm can detect the peaks with lower false discovery rates than the existing algorithms, and a less complicated peak picking model is a promising alternative to the more complicated and widely used EMG mixture models. PMID:25264474

  5. A NEW METHOD OF PEAK DETECTION FOR ANALYSIS OF COMPREHENSIVE TWO-DIMENSIONAL GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY MASS SPECTROMETRY DATA.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seongho; Ouyang, Ming; Jeong, Jaesik; Shen, Changyu; Zhang, Xiang

    2014-06-01

    We develop a novel peak detection algorithm for the analysis of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-TOF MS) data using normal-exponential-Bernoulli (NEB) and mixture probability models. The algorithm first performs baseline correction and denoising simultaneously using the NEB model, which also defines peak regions. Peaks are then picked using a mixture of probability distribution to deal with the co-eluting peaks. Peak merging is further carried out based on the mass spectral similarities among the peaks within the same peak group. The algorithm is evaluated using experimental data to study the effect of different cut-offs of the conditional Bayes factors and the effect of different mixture models including Poisson, truncated Gaussian, Gaussian, Gamma, and exponentially modified Gaussian (EMG) distributions, and the optimal version is introduced using a trial-and-error approach. We then compare the new algorithm with two existing algorithms in terms of compound identification. Data analysis shows that the developed algorithm can detect the peaks with lower false discovery rates than the existing algorithms, and a less complicated peak picking model is a promising alternative to the more complicated and widely used EMG mixture models. PMID:25264474

  6. Identification of Bacillus strains by MALDI TOF MS using geometric approach.

    PubMed

    Starostin, Konstantin V; Demidov, Evgeny A; Bryanskaya, Alla V; Efimov, Vadim M; Rozanov, Alexey S; Peltek, Sergey E

    2015-01-01

    Microorganism identification by MALDI TOF mass-spectrometry is based on the comparison of the mass spectrum of the studied organism with those of reference strains. It is a rapid and reliable method. However, commercial databases and programs are mostly designed for identification of clinically important strains and can be used only for particular mass spectrometer models. The need for open platforms and reference databases is obvious. In this study we describe a geometric approach for microorganism identification by mass spectra and demonstrate its capabilities by analyzing 24 strains belonging to the Bacillus pumilus group. This method is based on representing mass spectra as points on a multidimensional space, which allows us to use geometric distances to compare the spectra. Delimitation of microorganisms performed by geometric approach correlates well with the results of molecular phylogenetic analysis and clustering using Biotyper 3.1. All three methods used allowed us to reliably divide the strains into two groups corresponding to closely related species, Bacillus pumilus and Bacillus altitudinis. The method developed by us will be implemented in a Web interface designed for using open reference databases for microorganism identification. The data is available at http://www.bionet.nsc.ru/mbl/database/database.html. PMID:26592761

  7. Identification of Bacillus strains by MALDI TOF MS using geometric approach

    PubMed Central

    Starostin, Konstantin V.; Demidov, Evgeny A.; Bryanskaya, Alla V.; Efimov, Vadim M.; Rozanov, Alexey S.; Peltek, Sergey E.

    2015-01-01

    Microorganism identification by MALDI TOF mass-spectrometry is based on the comparison of the mass spectrum of the studied organism with those of reference strains. It is a rapid and reliable method. However, commercial databases and programs are mostly designed for identification of clinically important strains and can be used only for particular mass spectrometer models. The need for open platforms and reference databases is obvious. In this study we describe a geometric approach for microorganism identification by mass spectra and demonstrate its capabilities by analyzing 24 strains belonging to the Bacillus pumilus group. This method is based on representing mass spectra as points on a multidimensional space, which allows us to use geometric distances to compare the spectra. Delimitation of microorganisms performed by geometric approach correlates well with the results of molecular phylogenetic analysis and clustering using Biotyper 3.1. All three methods used allowed us to reliably divide the strains into two groups corresponding to closely related species, Bacillus pumilus and Bacillus altitudinis. The method developed by us will be implemented in a Web interface designed for using open reference databases for microorganism identification. The data is available at http://www.bionet.nsc.ru/mbl/database/database.html. PMID:26592761

  8. Near infrared spectroscopy compared to liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry and capillary electrophoresis as a detection tool for peptide reaction monitoring.

    PubMed

    Petter, Christine H; Heigl, Nico; Bachmann, Stefan; Huck-Pezzei, Verena A C; Najam-Ul-Haq, Muhammad; Bakry, Rania; Bernkop-Schnürch, Andreas; Bonn, Günther K; Huck, Christian W

    2008-05-01

    Peptide interaction is normally monitored by liquid chromatography (LC), liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS), mass spectrometric (MS) methods such as MALDI-TOF/MS or capillary electrophoresis (CE). These analytical techniques need to apply either high pressure or high voltages, which can cause cleavage of newly formed bondages. Therefore, near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) is presented as a rapid alternative to monitor the interaction of glutathione and oxytocin, simulating physiological conditions. Thereby, glutathione can act as a nucleophile with oxytocin forming four new conjugates via a disulphide bondage. Liquid chromatography coupled to UV (LC-UV) and mass spectrometry via an electrospray ionisation interface (LC-ESI-MS) resulted in a 82% and a 78% degradation of oxytocin at pH 3 and a 5% and a 7% degradation at pH 6.5. Capillary electrophoresis employing UV-detection (CE-UV) showed a 44% degradation of oxytocin. LC and CE in addition to the NIRS are found to be authentic tools for quantitative analysis. Nevertheless, NIRS proved to be highly suitable for the detection of newly formed conjugates after separating them on a thin layer chromatography (TLC) plate. The recorded fingerprint in the near infrared region allows for a selective distinct qualitative identification of conjugates without the need for expensive instrumentation such as quadrupole or MALDI-TOF mass spectrometers. The performance of the established NIRS method is compared to LC and CE; its advantages are discussed in detail. PMID:18095054

  9. MALDI-TOF MS for quality control of high protein content sport supplements.

    PubMed

    De Ceglie, Cristina; Calvano, Cosima D; Zambonin, Carlo G

    2015-06-01

    High protein content sport nutritional supplements are found as powder products containing, as ingredients, amino acids and proteins with important nutritional values as milk, soy and egg proteins. An EU Food Supplements Directive (2002) requires that supplements should be safe, both in dosages and in purity. It is important, then, to develop rapid and sensitive methods to be employed for the quality control of these substances. In this work, we apply, for the first time, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-mass spectrometry as a fast, reproducible and sensitive method for the quality control of sport nutritional supplements based on proteins. To this aim, several commercial egg- and/or milk-based powder products have been processed by in gel or in solution digestion and analyzed in comparison to pure standard products. This strategy allowed to assess the reliability of the indications on proteins (as caseins, whey proteins and ovalbumin) declared in the label of several sport nutritional supplements. PMID:25624248

  10. Study on chemical profiles and metabolites of Allii Macrostemonis Bulbus as well as its representative steroidal saponins in rats by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Qin, Zi-Fei; Dai, Yi; Yao, Zhi-Hong; He, Liang-Liang; Wang, Qi-Yi; Geng, Jian-Liang; Chen, Hai-Feng; Yao, Xin-Sheng

    2016-02-01

    Allii Macrostemonis Bulbus (AMB) is increasingly becoming popular as an edible vegetable or traditional folk medicine in East Asia due to its great health and medicinal properties. However, due to a lack of available research, the effective material of AMB still remains unknown. In this study, we applied a strategy utilising ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC/Q-TOF-MS) to investigate chemical profiles of AMB. In addition, metabolite profiles of five representative single steroidal saponins as well as AMB were investigated. Moreover, the metabolic features of saponins in AMB were summarised. After oral administration, the saponins underwent massive phase I and phase II metabolism. Sequential deglycosylation metabolism in rat intestine was the main metabolic pathway of the steroidal saponins, while oxidation, dehydrogenation, glucuronic acid reactions in liver also take part in further modification. These results expand our knowledge about the metabolism of AMB. PMID:26304378

  11. Analysis of the Constituents in "Zhu She Yong Xue Shuan Tong" by Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography with Quadrupole Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry Combined with Preparative High Performance Liquid Chromatography.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin-Lin; Han, Li-Feng; Yu, He-Shui; Sang, Mang-Mang; Liu, Er-Wei; Zhang, Yi; Fang, Shi-Ming; Wang, Tao; Gao, Xiu-Mei

    2015-01-01

    "Zhu She Yong Xue Shuan Tong" lyophilized powder (ZSYXST), consists of a series of saponins extracted from Panax notoginseng, which has been widely used in China for the treatment of strokes. In this study, an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-TOF/MS) combined with preparative high performance liquid chromatography (PHPLC) method was developed to rapidly identify both major and minor saponins in ZSYXST. Some high content components were removed through PHPLC in order to increase the sensitivity of the trace saponins. Then, specific characteristic fragment ions in both positive and negative mode were utilized to determine the types of aglycone, saccharide, as well as the saccharide chain linkages. As a result, 94 saponins, including 20 pairs of isomers and ten new compounds, which could represent higher than 98% components in ZSYXST, were identified or tentatively identified in commercial ZSYXST samples. PMID:26593895

  12. Ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-Time-of-flight high resolution mass spectrometry to quantify acidic drugs in wastewater.

    PubMed

    Becerra-Herrera, Mercedes; Honda, Luis; Richter, Pablo

    2015-12-01

    A novel analytical approach involving an improved rotating-disk sorptive extraction (RDSE) procedure and ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled to an ultraspray electrospray ionization source (UESI) and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF/MS), in trap mode, was developed to identify and quantify four non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (naproxen, ibuprofen, ketoprofen and diclofenac) and two anti-cholesterol drugs (ACDs) (clofibric acid and gemfibrozil) that are widely used and typically found in water samples. The method reduced the amount of both sample and reagents used and also the time required for the whole analysis, resulting in a reliable and green analytical strategy. The analytical eco-scale was calculated, showing that this methodology is an excellent green analysis, increasing its ecological worth. The detection limits (LOD) and precision (%RSD) were lower than 90ng/L and 10%, respectively. Matrix effects and recoveries were studied using samples from the influent of a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). All the compounds exhibited suppression of their signals due to matrix effects, and the recoveries were approximately 100%. The applicability and reliability of this methodology were confirmed through the analysis of influent and effluent samples from a WWTP in Santiago, Chile, obtaining concentrations ranging from 1.1 to 20.5?g/L and from 0.5 to 8.6?g/L, respectively. PMID:26559617

  13. Profiling the metabolism of astragaloside IV by ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole/time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xu-Dong; Wei, Ming-Gang

    2014-01-01

    Astragaloside IV is a compound isolated from the Traditional Chinese Medicine Astragalus membranaceus, that has been reported to have bioactivities against cardiovascular disease and kidney disease. There is limited information on the metabolism of astragaloside IV, which impedes comprehension of its biological actions and pharmacology. In the present study, an ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS)-based approach was developed to profile the metabolites of astragaloside IV in rat plasma, bile, urine and feces samples. Twenty-two major metabolites were detected. The major components found in plasma, bile, urine and feces included the parent chemical and phases I and II metabolites. The major metabolic reactions of astragaloside IV were hydrolysis, glucuronidation, sulfation and dehydrogenation. These results will help to improve understanding the metabolism and reveal the biotransformation profiling of astragaloside IV in vivo. The metabolic information obtained from our study will guide studies into the pharmacological activity and clinical safety of astragaloside IV. PMID:25407723

  14. Imaging of complex sulfatides SM3 and SB1a in mouse kidney using MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Marsching, Christian; Eckhardt, Matthias; Gröne, Hermann-Josef; Sandhoff, Roger; Hopf, Carsten

    2011-07-01

    Sulfatides, a class of acidic glycosphingolipids, are highly expressed in mammalian myelin and in kidney, where they are thought to stabilize neuronal structures and signaling and to influence osmotic stability of renal cells, respectively. Recently, 9-aminoacridine (9-AA) has been introduced as a negative ion matrix that displays high selectivity for low complexity galactosylceramid-I(3)-sulfate sulfatides and that is suitable for quantitative analysis by matrix-assisted desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry (MS). Analyzing acidic fractions of lipid extracts and cryosections from kidneys of wild type and arylsulfatase A-deficient (ASA -/-) mice, we demonstrate that 9-AA also enables sensitive on-target analysis as well as imaging of complex lactosylceramide-II(3)-sulfate and gangliotetraosylceramide-II(3), IV(3) bis-sulfate sulfatides by MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. Utilizing the MALDI imaging MS technique, we show differential localization in mouse kidney of (1) sulfatides with identical ceramide anchors, but different glycan-sulfate head groups but also of (2) sulfatides with identical head groups but with different acyl- or sphingoid base moieties. A comparison of MALDI images of renal sulfatides from control and sulfatide storing arylsulfatase A-deficient (ASA -/-) mice revealed relative expression differences, very likely reflecting differences in sulfatide turnover of the various renal cell types. These results establish MALDI imaging MS with 9-AA matrix as a label-free method for spatially resolved ex vivo investigation of the relative turnover of sulfatides in animal models of human glycosphingolipid storage disease. PMID:21359825

  15. Nanodiamond-based two-step sampling of multiply and singly phosphorylated peptides for MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry analysis.

    PubMed

    Shiau, Kai Jung; Hung, Shain-Un; Lee, Hsiao-Wen; Wu, Chih-Che

    2011-05-01

    Simultaneous detection of multiply and singly phosphorylated peptides using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is challenging because of suppression effects during ionization. In oder to overcome this problem, this study presents a new approach to improve the detection of phosphopeptides by stepwise enrichment using polyarginine-coated (PA-coated) and titanium dioxide-coated (TiO(2)-coated) nanodiamonds for fractionation of multiply and singly phosphorylated peptides prior to on-probe MALDI MS analysis. The feasibility of this approach was demonstrated using synthetic peptides containing different numbers of phosphate groups, tryptic digests of ?-casein, ?-casein, and complex protein mixtures. The high specificity of the approach is shown in its effective enrichment and fractionation of phosphopeptides from the digest of ?-casein and bovine serum albumin at a molar ratio as low as 1 : 1000, which out-performs the commercial Fe(3+)-IMAC and TiO(2) isolation kits. It offers a simple and effective alternative for the fractionation and identification of multiply and singly phosphorylated peptides by MALDI MS and allows for deduction of more information from limited starting materials. PMID:21403954

  16. Identification of serum biomarkers for occupational medicamentosa-like dermatitis induced by trichloroethylene using mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Wen-Xu; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Yanfang; Huang, Peiwu; Yang, Xifei; Ren, Xiaohu; Ye, Jinbo; Huang, Haiyan; Tang, Haiyan; Zhou, Guifeng; Huang, Xinfeng; Zhuang, Zhixiong; Liu, Jianjun

    2013-11-15

    Occupational medicamentosa-like dermatitis induced by trichloroethylene (OMLDT) is an autoimmune disease and it has become a serious occupational health hazard. In the present study, we collected fasting blood samples from patients with OMLDT (n = 18) and healthy volunteers (n = 33) to explore serum peptidome patterns. Peptides in sera were purified using weak cation exchange magnetic beads (MB-WCX), and analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) and ClinProTools bioinformatics software. The intensities of thirty protein/peptide peaks were significantly different between the healthy control and OMLDT patients. A pattern of three peaks (m/z 2106.3, 2134.5, and 3263.67) was selected for supervised neural network (SNN) model building to separate the OMLDT patients from the healthy controls with a sensitivity of 95.5% and a specificity of 73.8%. Furthermore, two peptide peaks of m/z 4091.61 and 4281.69 were identified as fragments of ATP-binding cassette transporter family A member 12 (ABCA12), and cationic trypsinogen (PRRS1), respectively. Our findings not only show that specific proteomic fingerprints in the sera of OMLDT patients can be served as a differentiated tool of OMLDT patients with high sensitivity and high specificity, but also reveal the novel correlation between OMLDT with ABC transports and PRRS1, which will be of potential value for clinical and mechanistic studies of OMLDT. - Highlights: • Identify 30 differential protein/peptide peaks between OMLDT and healthy control • The test sensitivity and test specificity were 95.5% and 73.8%, respectively. • ABCA12 and PRSS1 were identified as potential biomarkers in OMLDT patients.

  17. Plasma Desorption Mass Spectrometry: Coming of Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cotter, Robert J.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the history and development of Plasma Desorption Mass Spectrometry to determine molecular weights and structures of proteins and polymers. Outlines theory, instrumentation, and sample preparation commonly used. Gives several examples of resulting spectra. (ML)

  18. The Use of MALDI-TOF-MS and In Silico Studies for Determination of Antimicrobial Peptides' Affinity to Bacterial Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, Santi M.; Migliolo, Ludovico; Franco, Octavio L.

    2012-11-01

    Several methods have been proposed for determining the binding affinity of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) to bacterial cells. Here the utilization of MALDI-TOF-MS was proposed as a reliable and efficient method for high throughput AMP screening. The major advantage of the technique consists of finding AMPs that are selective and specific to a wide range of Gram-negative and -positive bacteria, providing a simple reliable screening tool to determine the potential candidates for broad spectrum antimicrobial drugs. As a prototype, amp-1 and -2 were used, showing highest activity toward Gram-negative and -positive membranes respectively. In addition, in silico molecular docking studies with both peptides were carried out for the membranes. In silico results indicated that both peptides presented affinity for DPPG and DPPE phospholipids, constructed in order to emulate an in vivo membrane bilayer. As a result, amp-1 showed a higher complementary surface for Gram-negative while amp-2 showed higher affinity to Gram-positive membranes, corroborating MS analyses. In summary, results here obtained suggested that in vitro methodology using MALDI-TOF-MS in addition to theoretical studies may be able to improve AMP screening quality.

  19. Detection of acid and hop shock induced responses in beer spoiling Lactobacillus brevis by MALDI-TOF MS.

    PubMed

    Schurr, Benjamin C; Behr, Jürgen; Vogel, Rudi F

    2015-04-01

    Due to the harsh environment, microorganisms encounter in beer, spoilage bacteria must be able to customise their metabolism and physiology in an order to master various kinds of perturbations. Proteomic approaches have been used to examine differences between various beer spoilage bacteria and between different stress conditions, such as acid and hop (Humulus lupulus) stress. However, these investigations cannot detect changes in low molecular weight (lmw) proteins (<150 amino acids). Therefore, for the first time, we herein present data from a proteomic study of lmw proteins for two Lactobacillus (L.) brevis strains exposed to acid stress or, respectively, two different qualities of hop induced stress. We used MALDI-TOF MS as analytical tool for the detection of lmw stress response proteins due to its high sensitivity and low throughput times. Comparing a hop-sensitive and a hop-tolerant strain, detection of the fatty acid biosynthesis-associated acyl carrier protein varied between different stress conditions and incubation times. The findings coincide with previous studies of our group regarding the fatty acid cell membrane composition of beer spoiling L. brevis. It is demonstrated that MALDI-TOF MS is a fast tool to detect and characterise stress situations in beer spoiling bacteria along the lmw sub-proteome. PMID:25475321

  20. MALDI-TOF-MS analysis of small molecules using modified mesoporous material SBA-15 as assisted matrix.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiuhua; Wu, Xue; Kim, Ji Man; Kim, Sung Soo; Jin, Mingshi; Li, Donghao

    2009-11-01

    Mesoporous silica, SBA-15 was successfully functionalized with quinoline moiety, and was applied as a matrix in the MALDI-TOF-MS analysis of small molecules. The modified SBA-15 material [SBA-15-8-(3-(triethoxysilyl)propoxy) quinoline, SBA-15-8QSi] was obtained by using calcined SBA-15 and 8-hydroxy quinoline. The structure of the functionalized mesoporous material was systemically characterized by TEM, the N(2) adsorption-desorption isotherm technique and FT-IR spectra. Compared with DHB and SBA-15, SBA-15-8QSi demonstrated several advantages in the analysis of small molecules with MALDI-TOF-MS, such as less background interference ions, high homogeneity, and better reproducibility. Based on these results, the various analytical parameters were optimized. The ideal operating conditions were (1) methanol used as the dissolving solvent; (2) sample first dropping method; (3) a ratio between the analyte and the matrix of 3.5:10. Under these optimization conditions, a low detection limit (8 pmol for L-Arginine-HCl) and high reproducibility (< or = 29%) were obtained. This technique was successfully applied to the analysis of various types of small molecules, such as saccharides, amino acids, metabolites, and natural honey. PMID:19762253

  1. Methods for recalibration of mass spectrometry data

    DOEpatents

    Tolmachev, Aleksey V. (Richland, WA); Smith, Richard D. (Richland, WA)

    2009-03-03

    Disclosed are methods for recalibrating mass spectrometry data that provide improvement in both mass accuracy and precision by adjusting for experimental variance in parameters that have a substantial impact on mass measurement accuracy. Optimal coefficients are determined using correlated pairs of mass values compiled by matching sets of measured and putative mass values that minimize overall effective mass error and mass error spread. Coefficients are subsequently used to correct mass values for peaks detected in the measured dataset, providing recalibration thereof. Sub-ppm mass measurement accuracy has been demonstrated on a complex fungal proteome after recalibration, providing improved confidence for peptide identifications.

  2. 16S rRNA gene sequencing, multilocus sequence analysis, and mass spectrometry identification of the proposed new species "Clostridium neonatale".

    PubMed

    Bouvet, Philippe; Ferraris, Laurent; Dauphin, Brunhilde; Popoff, Michel-Robert; Butel, Marie Jose; Aires, Julio

    2014-12-01

    In 2002, an outbreak of necrotizing enterocolitis in a Canadian neonatal intensive care unit was associated with a proposed novel species of Clostridium, "Clostridium neonatale." To date, there are no data about the isolation, identification, or clinical significance of this species. Additionally, C. neonatale has not been formally classified as a new species, rendering its identification challenging. Indeed, the C. neonatale 16S rRNA gene sequence shows high similarity to another Clostridium species involved in neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis, Clostridium butyricum. By performing a polyphasic study combining phylogenetic analysis (16S rRNA gene sequencing and multilocus sequence analysis) and phenotypic characterization with mass spectrometry, we demonstrated that C. neonatale is a new species within the Clostridium genus sensu stricto, for which we propose the name Clostridium neonatale sp. nov. Now that the status of C. neonatale has been clarified, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) can be used for better differential identification of C. neonatale and C. butyricum clinical isolates. This is necessary to precisely define the role and clinical significance of C. neonatale, a species that may have been misidentified and underrepresented during previous neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis studies. PMID:25232167

  3. 16S rRNA Gene Sequencing, Multilocus Sequence Analysis, and Mass Spectrometry Identification of the Proposed New Species “Clostridium neonatale”

    PubMed Central

    Bouvet, Philippe; Ferraris, Laurent; Dauphin, Brunhilde; Popoff, Michel-Robert; Butel, Marie Jose

    2014-01-01

    In 2002, an outbreak of necrotizing enterocolitis in a Canadian neonatal intensive care unit was associated with a proposed novel species of Clostridium, “Clostridium neonatale.” To date, there are no data about the isolation, identification, or clinical significance of this species. Additionally, C. neonatale has not been formally classified as a new species, rendering its identification challenging. Indeed, the C. neonatale 16S rRNA gene sequence shows high similarity to another Clostridium species involved in neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis, Clostridium butyricum. By performing a polyphasic study combining phylogenetic analysis (16S rRNA gene sequencing and multilocus sequence analysis) and phenotypic characterization with mass spectrometry, we demonstrated that C. neonatale is a new species within the Clostridium genus sensu stricto, for which we propose the name Clostridium neonatale sp. nov. Now that the status of C. neonatale has been clarified, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) can be used for better differential identification of C. neonatale and C. butyricum clinical isolates. This is necessary to precisely define the role and clinical significance of C. neonatale, a species that may have been misidentified and underrepresented during previous neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis studies. PMID:25232167

  4. Identification of agr-positive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus harbouring the class A mec complex by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Josten, Michaele; Dischinger, Jasmin; Szekat, Christiane; Reif, Marion; Al-Sabti, Nahed; Sahl, Hans-Georg; Parcina, Marijo; Bekeredjian-Ding, Isabelle; Bierbaum, Gabriele

    2014-11-01

    A small peptide called PSM-mec is encoded on the type II, III and VIII SCCmec cassettes present in the genomes of nosocomial methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains. This peptide is excreted by agr-positive strains, which represent about 89% of the strains of our collection and can be identified by the presence of delta toxin in mass spectrometry. The presence of the peptide in the MALDI-TOF MS spectra of whole cells was proved by a knock-down experiment employing a clone that expressed antisense RNA to psm-mec. Furthermore, evaluation of a collection of clinical agr-positive MRSA and MSSA isolates and type strains showed that, using a detection window of m/z 2411-2419, the PSM-mec is detected by mass spectrometry of whole cells with a sensitivity of 0.95 and a specificity of 1, thereby enabling rapid identification of a subgroup of MRSA with a method that is used during routine identification procedures. PMID:25116838

  5. Proteomic identification of Syzygium cumini seed extracts by MALDI-TOF/MS.

    PubMed

    Binita, Kumari; Kumar, Sanjay; Sharma, Vinay Kumar; Sharma, Veena; Yadav, Savita

    2014-02-01

    Syzygium cumini is traditionally used medicinal plant. The different part of the plant such as bark, leaves, seed and fruits are widely used as an alternative medicine in various diseases. Although the scientific community has a strong interest on S. cumini seed biochemistry focusing on metabolite composition, proteins have not yet been investigated. In the present study, we have applied a proteomic approach to study the proteome of the S. cumini seed using phenol extraction method for protein isolation, which were never analysed before. Fifteen brightly silver stained protein spots were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry after resolving on two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. These proteins have been found to involve in various functions such as antifungal, sulphur metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism, fruit ripening and softening, dormancy breaking and seed germination, hormone signalling, secondary metabolite transport, defence and stress response, nitrogen metabolism, synthesis and stabilization. Amongst the identified protein, lactoferrin was a mammalian origin protein with high nutritious and pharmaceutical value, which was purified by different types of chromatographic techniques and confirmed by western blotting. The antibacterial activity of lactoferrin was assessed by disc diffusion assay. We suggest that the protein constituents of S. cumini may have role in various functions required for plant physiology and its dietary values. PMID:24338207

  6. Mass Spectrometry in the Home and Garden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulliam, Christopher J.; Bain, Ryan M.; Wiley, Joshua S.; Ouyang, Zheng; Cooks, R. Graham

    2015-02-01

    Identification of active components in a variety of chemical products used directly by consumers is described at both trace and bulk levels using mass spectrometry. The combination of external ambient ionization with a portable mass spectrometer capable of tandem mass spectrometry provides high chemical specificity and sensitivity as well as allowing on-site monitoring. These experiments were done using a custom-built portable ion trap mass spectrometer in combination with the ambient ionization methods of paper spray, leaf spray, and low temperature plasma ionization. Bactericides, garden chemicals, air fresheners, and other products were examined. Herbicide applied to suburban lawns was detected in situ on single leaves 5 d after application.

  7. Speciation of manganese binding to biomolecules in pine nuts (Pinus pinea) by two-dimensional liquid chromatography coupled to ultraviolet and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry detectors followed by identification by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Arias-Borrego, Ana; García-Barrera, Tamara; Gómez-Ariza, José L

    2008-10-01

    Advances in analytical methodology for speciation of manganese in pine nuts are presented in this work. The approach is based on the use of orthogonal chromatographic systems, namely size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) of the extracts and strong anion exchange (IEC) of the fractions collected by the first column. In both columns, manganese elution is first monitored by a quadrupole inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) instrument equipped with an octopole reaction cell and an ultraviolet (UV) detector. SEC is performed by using two columns covering the molecular weight range from <10 to 70 kDa that allows an initial screening of the molecular weight of the Mn species. The higher resolution capability of the low molecular weight range column is the reason to use the latter for further experiments. The fraction from SEC-ICP-MS in which Mn is present at highest concentration is submitted to IEC-ICP-MS allowing Mn-citrate and MnCl(2) identification by retention time matching with standards. The concentration of these species is estimated to be 75 and 125 microg kg(-1) (as Mn), respectively, in the pine nuts samples and the presence of Mn-citrate is confirmed by nanoelectrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (nESI-QqTOF-MS). In the same fraction, a third Mn-containing peak is detected in the IEC-UV-ICP-MS chromatogram. This peak corresponds to a protein containing Mn that was later submitted to a tryptic digestion and analyzed by nESI-QqTOF. The MS/MS data of a doubly charged peptide are used to obtain the sequence of the protein with the Mascot search engine. The peak turned out to be isocitrate dehydrogenase, a protein commonly associated with Mn. PMID:18763246

  8. A new approach to untargeted integration of high resolution liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry data.

    PubMed

    van der Kloet, Frans M; Hendriks, Margriet; Hankemeier, Thomas; Reijmers, Theo

    2013-11-01

    Because of its high sensitivity and specificity, hyphenated mass spectrometry has become the predominant method to detect and quantify metabolites present in bio-samples relevant for all sorts of life science studies being executed. In contrast to targeted methods that are dedicated to specific features, global profiling acquisition methods allow new unspecific metabolites to be analyzed. The challenge with these so-called untargeted methods is the proper and automated extraction and integration of features that could be of relevance. We propose a new algorithm that enables untargeted integration of samples that are measured with high resolution liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). In contrast to other approaches limited user interaction is needed allowing also less experienced users to integrate their data. The large amount of single features that are found within a sample is combined to a smaller list of, compound-related, grouped feature-sets representative for that sample. These feature-sets allow for easier interpretation and identification and as important, easier matching over samples. We show that the automatic obtained integration results for a set of known target metabolites match those generated with vendor software but that at least 10 times more feature-sets are extracted as well. We demonstrate our approach using high resolution LC-MS data acquired for 128 samples on a lipidomics platform. The data was also processed in a targeted manner (with a combination of automatic and manual integration) using vendor software for a set of 174 targets. As our untargeted extraction procedure is run per sample and per mass trace the implementation of it is scalable. Because of the generic approach, we envision that this data extraction lipids method will be used in a targeted as well as untargeted analysis of many different kinds of TOF-MS data, even CE- and GC-MS data or MRM. The Matlab package is available for download on request and efforts are directed toward a user-friendly Windows executable. PMID:24139572

  9. The metabolomic profiling of serum in rats exposed to arsenic using UPLC/Q-TOF MS.

    PubMed

    Wang, Cheng; Feng, Rennan; Li, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Yunbo; Kang, Zhen; Zhang, Wei; Sun, Dian-Jun

    2014-09-17

    Chronic arsenicosis induced by excessive arsenic intake can cause damages to multi-organ systems, skin cancer and various internal cancers. However, the key metabolic changes and biomarkers which can reflect these changes remain unclear resulting in a lack of effective prevention and treatments. The aim of this study is to determine the impact of chronic arsenic exposure on the metabolism of organism, and find the metabolites changes by using metabolomic techniques. Thirty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups. The arsenite was administered in water, and the doses were 0, 10, and 50mg/L, respectively. The exposure lasted for 6 months. The endogenous metabolite profile of serum was investigated by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry. Partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) enabled clusters to be visualized. Nine serum principal metabolites contributing to the clusters were identified, which were CPA (18:2(9Z,12Z)/0:0), LysoPC (14:0), LysoPC (18:4 (6Z,9Z,12Z,15Z)), LysoPC (P-18:0), l-palmitoylcarnitine, LysoPC (20:2(11Z,14Z)) in positive ESI mode and deoxygcholylglycine, LysoPE (0:0/20:2(11Z,14Z)), 15(S)-hydroxyeicosatrienoic acid in negative ESI. These changes of metabolites in rats suggested the changed metabolism in rats exposed to arsenic. These findings may further aid diagnose and serve as targets for therapeutic intervention of arsenicosis. PMID:24960056

  10. Mass Spectrometry of Intact Membrane Protein Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Laganowsky, Arthur; Reading, Eamonn; Hopper, Jonathan T.S.; Robinson, Carol V.

    2014-01-01

    Mass spectrometry of intact soluble protein complexes has emerged as a powerful technique to study the stoichiometry, structure-function and dynamics of protein assemblies. Recent developments have extended this technique to the study of membrane protein complexes where it has already revealed subunit stoichiometries and specific phospholipid interactions. Here, we describe a protocol for mass spectrometry of membrane protein complexes. The protocol begins with preparation of the membrane protein complex enabling not only the direct assessment of stoichiometry, delipidation, and quality of the target complex, but also evaluation of the purification strategy. A detailed list of compatible non-ionic detergents is included, along with a protocol for screening detergents to find an optimal one for mass spectrometry, biochemical and structural studies. This protocol also covers the preparation of lipids for protein-lipid binding studies and includes detailed settings for a Q-ToF mass spectrometer after introduction of complexes from gold-coated nanoflow capillaries. PMID:23471109

  11. STRUCTURAL CHARACTERIZATION OF REACTIVE DYES USING SECONDARY ION MASS SPECTROMETRY/TANDEM MASS SPECTROMETRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Reactive Blue 19 (RB 19), its reactive form (RB 19-VS) and its hydrolyzed form, (RB 19-OH) were examined using liquid secondary ion mass spectrometry/tandem mass spectrometry (LSIMS/MS/MS) in the negative-ion mode under low-energy collision conditions (240-300 eV). tructurally ch...

  12. CHARACTERIZATION OF DOXYLAMINE AND PYRILAMINE METABOLITES VIA THERMOSPRAY/MASS SPECTROMETRY AND TANDEM MASS SPECTROMETRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Analysis of doxylamine N-oxide and pyrilamine N-oxide as synthetic standards and biologically derived metabolites by thermospray mass spectrometry (TSP/MS) provided (M + H)+ ions for each metabolite. TSP/tandem mass spectrometry (TSP/MS/MS) of the (M + H)+ ions provided fragment ...

  13. Method development for mass spectrometry based molecular characterization of fossil fuels and biological samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahat, Rajendra K.

    In an analytical (chemical) method development process, the sample preparation step usually determines the throughput and overall success of the analysis. Both targeted and non-targeted methods were developed for the mass spectrometry (MS) based analyses of fossil fuels (coal) and lipidomic analyses of a unique micro-organism, Gemmata obscuriglobus. In the non-targeted coal analysis using GC-MS, a microwave-assisted pressurized sample extraction method was compared with the traditional extraction method, such as Soxhlet. On the other hand, methods were developed to establish a comprehensive lipidomic profile and to confirm the presence of endotoxins (a.k.a. lipopolysaccharides, LPS) in Gemmata.. The performance of pressurized heating techniques employing hot-air oven and microwave irradiation were compared with that of Soxhlet method in terms of percentage extraction efficiency and extracted analyte profiles (via GC-MS). Sub-bituminous (Powder River Range, Wyoming, USA) and bituminous (Fruitland formation, Colorado, USA) coal samples were tested. Overall 30-40% higher extraction efficiencies (by weight) were obtained with a 4 hour hot-air oven and a 20 min microwave-heating extraction in a pressurized container when compared to a 72 hour Soxhlet extraction. The pressurized methods are 25 times more economic in terms of solvent/sample amount used and are 216 times faster in term of time invested for the extraction process. Additionally, same sets of compounds were identified by GC-MS for all the extraction methods used: n-alkanes and diterpanes in the sub-bituminous sample, and n-alkanes and alkyl aromatic compounds in the bituminous coal sample. G. obscuriglobus, a nucleated bacterium, is a micro-organism of high significances from evolutionary, cell and environmental biology standpoints. Although lipidomics is an essential tool in microbiological systematics and chemotaxonomy, complete lipid profile of this bacterium is still lacking. In addition, the presence of LPS and thus outer membrane (OM) in Gemmata is unknown. Global lipidomic analysis of G. obscuriglobus showed fatty acids (FAs) in the range C14 - C22, with octadecanoic and cis-9 hexadecenoic acids (C18:0 and ?c9 C16:1) being the two most abundant FAs. Thirteen different Gram-negative specific 3-hydroxy fatty acids (3-HOFAs) and eukaryote specific sterols (C30; four in number) were identified. Additionally, like a eukaryotic cell, a polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA; tent. ?3 C27:3) has also been discovered. The targeted lipidomic study found a series of novel biomarkers in G. obscuriglobus. Compositional analysis of LPS confirmed eight different 3-HOFAs and a sugar-acid, 2-keto 3-deoxy-D-manno -octulosonic acid (Kdo). These two groups of compounds, being unique to a Gram-negative LPS, confirmed the presence of OM in G. obscuriglobus. Moreover, compositional analyses by GC-MS also confirmed glucosamine and hexose and heptose sugars in the LPS. These compositional information obtained from GC-MS analyses were combined with molecular/structural information collected from Matrix-assisted laser desorption and ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) MS. The MALDI-TOF MS showed a cluster of ions separated by 14 u, from m/z 2017.16 to 2143.28. For the most intense ion at m/z 2087.22, a tentative hexa-acylated lipid A structure has been proposed. Identifications of multiple 3-HOFAs by GC-MS and a cluster of ions in MALDI suggest presence of multiple lipid A species, i.e., heterogeneous lipid A molecule, in G. obscuriglobus..

  14. Effects of anthropogenic emissions on the molecular composition of urban organic aerosols: An ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kourtchev, I.; O'Connor, I. P.; Giorio, C.; Fuller, S. J.; Kristensen, K.; Maenhaut, W.; Wenger, J. C.; Sodeau, J. R.; Glasius, M.; Kalberer, M.

    2014-06-01

    Identification of the organic composition of atmospheric aerosols is necessary to develop effective air pollution mitigation strategies. However, the majority of the organic aerosol mass is poorly characterized and its detailed analysis is a major analytical challenge. In this study, we applied state-of-the-art direct infusion nano-electrospray (nanoESI) ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry (UHRMS) and liquid chromatography ESI Quadrupole Time-of-Flight (Q-TOF) MS for the analysis of the organic fraction of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) collected at an urban location in Cork, Ireland. Comprehensive mass spectral data evaluation methods (e.g., Kendrick Mass Defect and Van Krevelen) were used to identify compound classes and mass distributions of the detected species. Up to 850 elemental formulae were identified in negative mode nanoESI-UHR-MS. Nitrogen and/or sulphur containing organic species contributed up to 40% of the total identified formulae and exhibited strong diurnal variations suggesting the importance of night-time NO3 chemistry at the site. The presence of a large number of oxidised aromatic and nitroaromatic compounds in the samples indicated a strong anthropogenic influence, i.e., from traffic emissions and domestic solid fuel (DSF) burning. Most of the identified biogenic secondary organic aerosol (SOA) compounds are later-generation nitrogen- and sulphur-containing products, indicating that SOA composition is strongly affected by anthropogenic species such as NOx and SO2. Unsaturated and saturated C12-C20 fatty acids were found to be the most abundant homologs with a composition reflecting a primary marine origin. The results of this work demonstrate that the studied site is a very complex environment affected by a variety of anthropogenic activities and natural sources.

  15. Optimization of titanium dioxide and immunoaffinity-based enrichment procedures for tyrosine phosphopeptide using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ming-Chuan; Lee, Yi-Hui; Liao, Pao-Chi

    2015-02-01

    Tyrosine phosphorylation is an important regulator of signaling in cellular pathways, and dysregulated tyrosine phosphorylation causes several diseases. Mass spectrometry has revealed the importance of global phosphoproteomic characterization. Analysis of tyrosine phosphorylation by studying the mass-spectrometry (MS)-determined phosphoproteome remains difficult because of the relatively low abundance of tyrosine phosphoproteins. To effectively evaluate tyrosine-phosphopeptide enrichment and reduce ion suppression from non-phosphorylated peptides in MS analysis, three trypsin-digested BSA peptides and 14 standard phosphopeptides, including six tyrosine phosphopeptides, four serine phosphopeptides, and four threonine phosphopeptides, were subjected to titanium dioxide immunoaffinity-based enrichment and also to combined enrichment using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analyses. The enrichment factors were evaluated to determine the efficiency of each enrichment procedure. Comparison of five optimized enrichment methods, including TiO2-based immunoaffinity purification in Tris and MOPS buffer systems, TiO2-immunoaffinity enrichment, and immunoaffinity-TiO2 enrichment for total tyrosine, serine and threonine phosphopeptides, revealed that the order of the enrichment factors for total tyrosine phosphopeptides is: (i) immunoaffinity-TiO2 (enrichment factor?=?38,244), (ii) TiO2-immunoaffinity (enrichment factor?=?24,987), (iii) TiO2 micro-column (enrichment factor?=?10,305), (iv) immunoaffinity in Tris buffer system (enrichment factor?=?1450), and (v) immunoaffinity in the MOPS buffer system (enrichment factor?=?32). These results reveal that an alternative enrichment scheme before use of a TiO2 micro-column, using immunoaffinity 4G10 and PY99 antibody enrichment under optimized conditions, can provide greater selectivity for tyrosine-phosphopeptide enrichment. PMID:25486920

  16. The application of gas chromatography/atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry to impurity identification in Pharmaceutical Development.

    PubMed

    Bristow, Tony; Harrison, Mark; Sims, Martin

    2010-06-15

    Accurate mass measurement (used to determine elemental formulae) is an essential tool for impurity identification in pharmaceutical development for process understanding. Accurate mass liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) is used widely for these types of analyses; however, there are still many occasions when gas chromatography (GC)/MS is the appropriate technique. Therefore, the provision of robust technology to provide accurate mass GC/MS (and GC/MS/MS) for this type of activity is essential. In this report we describe the optimisation and application of a newly available atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation (APCI) interface to couple GC to time-of-flight (TOF) MS.To fully test the potential of the new interface the APCI source conditions were optimised, using a number of standard compounds, with a variety of structures, as used in synthesis at AstraZeneca. These compounds were subsequently analysed by GC/APCI-TOF MS. This study was carried out to evaluate the range of compounds that are amenable to analysis using this technique. The range of compounds that can be detected and characterised using the technique was found to be extremely broad and include apolar hydrocarbons such as toluene. Both protonated molecules ([M + H](+)) and radical cations (M(+.)) were observed in the mass spectra produced by APCI, along with additional ion signals such as [M + H + O](+).The technique has been successfully applied to the identification of impurities in reaction mixtures from organic synthesis in process development. A typical mass accuracy of 1-2 mm/zunits (m/z 80-500) was achieved allowing the reaction impurities to be identified based on their elemental formulae. These results clearly demonstrate the potential of the technique as a tool for problem solving and process understanding in pharmaceutical development. The reaction mixtures were also analysed by GC/electron ionisation (EI)-MS and GC/chemical ionisation (CI)-MS to understand the capability of GC/APCI-MS relative to these two firmly established techniques. PMID:20486265

  17. Capillary electrophoresis electrospray ionization mass spectrometry interface

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Richard D. (Richland, WA); Severs, Joanne C. (Hayward, CA)

    1999-01-01

    The present invention is an interface between a capillary electrophoresis separation capillary end and an electrospray ionization mass spectrometry emitter capillary end, for transporting an anolyte sample from a capillary electrophoresis separation capillary to a electrospray ionization mass spectrometry emitter capillary. The interface of the present invention has: (a) a charge transfer fitting enclosing both of the capillary electrophoresis capillary end and the electrospray ionization mass spectrometry emitter capillary end; (b) a reservoir containing an electrolyte surrounding the charge transfer fitting; and (c) an electrode immersed into the electrolyte, the electrode closing a capillary electrophoresis circuit and providing charge transfer across the charge transfer fitting while avoiding substantial bulk fluid transfer across the charge transfer fitting. Advantages of the present invention have been demonstrated as effective in providing high sensitivity and efficient analyses.

  18. Sequencing Cyclic Peptides by Multistage Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Mohimani, Hosein; Yang, Yu-Liang; Liu, Wei-Ting; Hsieh, Pei-Wen; Dorrestein, Pieter C.; Pevzner, Pavel A.

    2012-01-01

    Some of the most effective antibiotics (e.g., Vancomycin and Daptomycin) are cyclic peptides produced by non-ribosomal biosynthetic pathways. While hundreds of biomedically important cyclic peptides have been sequenced, the computational techniques for sequencing cyclic peptides are still in their infancy. Previous methods for sequencing peptide antibiotics and other cyclic peptides are based on Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy, and require large amount (miligrams) of purified materials that, for most compounds, are not possible to obtain. Recently, development of mass spectrometry based methods has provided some hope for accurate sequencing of cyclic peptides using picograms of materials. In this paper we develop a method for sequencing of cyclic peptides by multistage mass spectrometry, and show its advantages over single stage mass spectrometry. The method is tested on known and new cyclic peptides from Bacillus brevis, Dianthus superbus and Streptomyces griseus, as well as a new family of cyclic peptides produced by marine bacteria. PMID:21751357

  19. Metabolomic analysis of avocado fruits by GC-APCI-TOF MS: effects of ripening degrees and fruit varieties.

    PubMed

    Hurtado-Fernández, E; Pacchiarotta, T; Mayboroda, O A; Fernández-Gutiérrez, A; Carrasco-Pancorbo, A

    2015-01-01

    In order to investigate avocado fruit ripening, nontargeted GC-APCI-TOF MS metabolic profiling analyses were carried out. Principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) were used to explore the metabolic profiles from fruit samples of 13 varieties at two different ripening degrees. Mannoheptulose; pentadecylfuran; aspartic, malic, stearic, citric and pantothenic acids; mannitol; and ?-sitosterol were some of the metabolites found as more influential for the PLS-DA model. The similarities among genetically related samples (putative mutants of "Hass") and their metabolic differences from the rest of the varieties under study have also been evaluated. The achieved results reveal new insights into avocado fruit composition and metabolite changes, demonstrating therefore the value of metabolomics as a functional genomics tool in characterizing the mechanism of fruit ripening development, a key developmental stage in most economically important fruit crops. PMID:25381615

  20. Technical innovations for the automated identification of gel-separated proteins by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Jahn, Olaf; Hesse, Dörte; Reinelt, Marina; Kratzin, Hartmut D

    2006-09-01

    The combination of gel-based two-dimensional protein separations with protein identification by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) is the workhorse for the large-scale analyses of proteomes. Such high-throughput proteomic approaches require automation of all post-separation steps and the in-gel digest of proteins especially is often the bottleneck in the protein identification workflow. With the objective of reaching the same high performance of manual low-throughput in-gel digest procedures, we have developed a novel stack-type digestion device and implemented it into a commercially available robotic liquid handling system. This modified system is capable of performing in-gel digest, extraction of proteolytic peptides, and subsequent sample preparation for MALDI-MS without any manual intervention, but with a performance at least identical to manual procedures as indicated on the basis of the sequence coverage obtained by peptide mass fingerprinting. For further refinement of the automated protein identification workflow, we have also developed a motor-operated matrix application device to reproducibly obtain homogenous matrix preparation of high quality. This matrix preparation was found to be suitable for the automated acquisition of both peptide mass fingerprint and fragment ion spectra from the same sample spot, a prerequisite for high confidence protein identifications on the basis of peptide mass and sequence information. Due to the implementation of the stack-type digestion device and the motor-operated matrix application device, the entire platform works in a reliable, cost-effective, and sensitive manner, yielding high confidence protein identifications even for samples in the concentration range of as low as 100 fmol protein per gel plug. PMID:16821028

  1. Thermally Accelerated Oxidative Degradation of Quercetin Using Continuous Flow Kinetic Electrospray-Ion Trap-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Jeremy S.; Foss, Frank W.; Schug, Kevin A.

    2013-10-01

    Thermally accelerated oxidative degradation of aqueous quercetin at pH 5.9 and 7.4 was kinetically measured using an in-house built online continuous flow device made of concentric capillary tubes, modified to fit to the inlet of an electrospray ionization-ion trap-time-of-flight-mass spectrometer (ESI-IT-TOF-MS). Time-resolved mass spectral measurements ranging from 2 to 21 min were performed in the negative mode to track intermediate degradation products and to evaluate the degradation rate of the deprotonated quercetin ion, [Q-H]-. Upon heating solutions in the presence of dissolved oxygen, degradation of [Q-H]- was observed and was accelerated by an increase in pH and temperature. Regardless of the condition, the same degradation pathways were observed. Degradation mechanisms and structures were determined using higher order tandem mass spectrometry (up to MS3) and high mass accuracy. The observed degradation mechanisms included oxidation, hydroxylation, and ring-cleavage by nucleophilic attack. A chalcan-trione structure formed by C-ring opening after hydroxylation at C2 was believed to be a precursor for other degradation products, formed by hydroxylation at the C2, C3, and C4 carbons from attack by nucleophilic species. This resulted in A-type and B-type ions after cross-ring cleavage of the C-ring. Based on time of appearance and signal intensity, nucleophilic attack at C3 was the preferred degradation pathway, which generated 2,4,6-trihydroxymandelate and 2,4,6-trihydroxyphenylglyoxylate ions. Overall, 23 quercetin-related ions were observed.

  2. MALDI-TOF-MS Platform for Integrated Proteomic and Peptidomic Profiling of Milk Samples Allows Rapid Detection of Food Adulterations.

    PubMed

    Sassi, Mauro; Arena, Simona; Scaloni, Andrea

    2015-07-15

    Adulteration of ovine, caprine, and buffalo milks with more common bovine material occurs for economic reasons and seasonal availability. Frauds are also associated with the use of powdered milk instead of declared, fresh material. In this context, various analytical methods have been adapted to dairy science applications with the aim to evaluate adulteration of milk samples, although time-consuming, suitable only for speciation or thermal treatment analysis, or useful for a specific fraud type. An integrated MALDI-TOF-MS platform for the combined peptidomic and proteomic profiling of milk samples is here presented, which allows rapid detection of illegal adulterations due to the addition of either nondeclared bovine material to water buffalo, goat, and ovine milks or of powdered bovine milk to the fresh counterpart. Peptide and protein markers of each animal milk were identified after direct analysis of a large number of diluted skimmed and/or enriched diluted skimmed filtrate samples. In parallel, markers of thermal treatment were characterized in different types of commercial milks. Principal components scores of ad hoc prepared species- or thermal treatment-associated adulterated milk samples were subjected to partial least-squares regression, permitting a fast accurate estimate of the fraud extents in test samples at either protein and peptide level. With respect to previous reports on MALDI-TOF-MS protein profiling methodologies for milk speciation, this study extends that approach to the analysis of the thermal treatment and introduces an independent, complementary peptide profiling measurement, which integrates protein data with additional information on peptides, validating final results and ultimately broadening the method applicability. PMID:26098723

  3. Development of analytical method for simultaneous determination of five rodent unique bile acids in rat plasma using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Minato, Kouichi; Suzuki, Masanori; Nagao, Hidenori; Suzuki, Ryota; Ochiai, Hiroyuki

    2015-10-01

    Bile acids (BAs) are crucial for the diagnosis, follow-up, and prognostics of liver injuries and other BA metabolism related diseases. In particular, rodent unique BAs, ?-muricholic acid (?-MCA), ?-MCA, ?-MCA, tauro-?-MCA (?-TMCA), and ?-TMCA, are valuable biomarkers for preclinical drug development. To the best of our knowledge, however, a simple, selective, sensitive, and robust analytical method for ?-MCA and taurine-conjugated MCAs has never been reported. We have developed a simple, selective, and sensitive analytical method for measurement of 16 BAs including the five rodent unique BAs in rat plasma using an ultra-performance liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-TOF-MS) method. Activated charcoal was utilized to prepare BA-free plasma, which served as the surrogate matrix for the preparation of calibration standards and quality control (QC) samples. Results of matrix effects evaluation suggested that the BA-free plasma could be adequate as a surrogate matrix for BAs determination. Three stable isotope labelled internal standards were separated by reverse phase UPLC using gradient elution and were detected by TOF-MS in negative ion mode. The calibration curve was linear for all BAs over a range of 10-25ng/mL to 1000-10,000ng/mL, with overall imprecision below 15% and 20% at lower limit of quantification (LLOQ), respectively. This analytical method was used to determine BA concentrations in more than 300 plasma samples from rats with liver injuries induced using ?-naphthylisocyanate, carbon tetrachloride, or flutamide. The alteration of BA concentrations was most evident for necrosis, and cholestasis hepatotoxins, with more subtle effects by steatosis and idiosyncratic hepatotoxins. In conclusion, we have developed a simple, selective, and sensitive analytical method to measure plasma 16 BAs including 5 rodent unique BAs, ?-MCA, ?-MCA, ?-MCA, ?-TMCA, and ?-TMCA. Our data suggested that ?-TMCA and ?-TMCA could be useful for identification or prediction of liver injuries, a currently unmet need in preclinical toxicity. Our method using TOF-MS is useful to determine BAs in rat plasma and of use in structural analyses of metabolites in early stage of drug development. PMID:26363851

  4. Metabolites software-assisted flavonoid hunting in plants using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Gu, Wan-Yi; Li, Na; Leung, Elaine Lai-Han; Zhou, Hua; Luo, Guo-An; Liu, Liang; Wu, Jian-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Plant secondary metabolism drives the generation of metabolites used for host plant resistance, as biopesticides and botanicals, even for the discovery of new therapeutics for human diseases. Flavonoids are one of the largest and most studied classes of specialized plant metabolites. To quickly identify the potential bioactive flavonoids in herbs, a metabolites software-assisted flavonoid hunting approach was developed, which mainly included three steps: firstly, utilizing commercial metabolite software, a flavonoids database was established based on the biosynthetic pathways; secondly, mass spectral data of components in herbs were acquired by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS); and finally, the acquired LC-MS data were imported into the database and the compounds in the herbs were automatically identified by comparison of their mass spectra with the theoretical values. As a case study, the flavonoids in Smilax glabra were profiled using this approach. As a result, 104 flavonoids including 27 potential new compounds were identified. To our knowledge, this is the first report on profiling the components in the plants utilizing the plant metabolic principles with the assistance of metabolites software. This approach can be extended to the analysis of flavonoids in other plants. PMID:25738538

  5. Small protein biomarkers of culture in Bacillus spores detected using capillary liquid chromatography coupled with matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Wunschel, David S.; Wahl, Jon H.; Willse, Alan R.; Valentine, Nancy B.; Wahl, Karen L.

    2006-10-20

    Capillary liquid chromatography (cLC) coupled with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS) was used to compare small proteins and peptides extracted from Bacillus subtilis spores grown on four different media. A single, efficient protein separation, compatible with MALDI-MS analysis, was employed to reduce competitive ionization between proteins, and thus interrogate more proteins than possible using direct MALDI-MS. The MALDI-MS data files for each fraction are assembled as two dimensional data sets of retention time and mass information. This method of visualizing small protein data required careful attention to background correction as well as mass and retention time variability. The resulting data sets were used to create comparative displays of differences in protein profiles between different spore preparations. Protein differences were found between two different solid media in both phase bright and phase dark conditions. The protein differences between two different liquid media were also examined. As an extension of this method, we have demonstrated that candidate protein biomarkers can be trypsin digested to provide identifying peptide fragment information following the cLC-MALDI experiment. We have demonstrated this method on two markers and utilized acid breakdown information to identify one additional marker for this organism. The resulting method can be used to identify discriminating proteins as potential biomarkers of growth media, which might ultimately be used for source attribution.

  6. Nano-liquid chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry for phenolic profiling: a case study in cranberry syrups.

    PubMed

    Contreras, María del Mar; Arráez-Román, David; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto; Segura-Carretero, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    A new method based on nano-liquid chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (nano-LC-TOF-MS) using lock-mass calibration was developed to facilitate the accurate and routine characterization and quantification of phenolic compounds. Thus, it was applied to study cranberry syrups, in which, using negative ionization mode, a total of nine phenolic compounds were unequivocally identified using standards and 38 tentatively taking into account their retention time, accurate mass (errors<5 ppm) data and isotope pattern, as well as literature. Among them, 13 compounds, belonging to flavonols and iridoids conjugated with phenolic acids, were reported for first time in cranberry or cranberry based-products. The analytical method was also validated using chlorogenic acid, p-coumaric acid, (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin, procyanidin A2, quercetin 3-O-glucoside, quercetin 3-O-rhamnoside, quercetin, and myricetin standards. In this way, the analytical method showed adequate linearity, with R(2) above 0.99, and acceptable values of intra- and inter-day repeatability of the retention time and peak area. The detection limits and quantification were between 1.0-15.6 ng mL(-1) and 2.0-62.5 ng mL(-1), respectively. The method can be extended to characterize phenolic compounds in other food and plant matrices, and as well biological samples. PMID:25476399

  7. IDENTIFICATION OF TWO GLUCURONIDE METABOLITES OF DOXYLAMINE VIA THERMOSPRAY/MASS SPECTROMETRY AND THERMOSPRAY/MASS SPECTROMETRY/MASS SPECTROMETRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Analysis of a high-pressure liquid chromatography fraction containing two urinary glucuronide metabolites of doxylamine by thermospray mass spectrometry (TSP/MS) provided (MH)+ ions for each metabolite. TSP/MS/MS of the (MH)+ ions provided a fragment ion characteristic of these m...

  8. Characterization of Novel Fusaricidins Produced by Paenibacillus polymyxa-M1 Using MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Vater, Joachim; Niu, Ben; Dietel, Kristin; Borriss, Rainer

    2015-09-01

    Paenibacillus polymyxa-M1 is a potent producer of bioactive compounds, such as lipopeptides, polyketides, and lantibiotics of biotechnological and medical interest. Genome sequencing revealed nine gene clusters for nonribosomal biosynthesis of such agents. Here we report on the investigation of the fusaricidins, a complex of cyclic lipopeptides containing 15-guanidino-3-hydroxypentadecanoic acid (GHPD) as fatty acid component by matrix-assisted laser-desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). More than 20 variants of these compounds were detected and characterized in detail. Mass spectrometric sequence analysis was performed by MALDI-LIFT-TOF/TOF fragment analysis. The obtained product ion spectra show a specific processing in the fatty acid part. GHPD is cleaved between the ?- and ß-position yielding two fragments a and b, one bearing the end-standing guanidine group and another one comprising the residual two C-atoms of GHPD with the attached peptide moiety. The complete sequence of all fusaricidins was derived from sets of bn- and yn-ions. The fusaricidin complex can be divided into four lipopeptide families, three of them showing variations of the amino acid in position 3, Val or Ile for the first and Tyr or Phe for families 2 and 3, respectively. A collection of novel fusaricidins was detected differing from those of families 1-3 by an additional residue of 71 Da (family 4). LIFT-TOF/TOF fragment spectra of these species imply that in their peptide moiety, an Ala-residue is attached by an ester bond to the free hydroxyl group of Thr4. More than 10 novel fusaricidins were characterized mass spectrometrically. PMID:26100395

  9. Characterization of Novel Fusaricidins Produced by Paenibacillus polymyxa-M1 Using MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vater, Joachim; Niu, Ben; Dietel, Kristin; Borriss, Rainer

    2015-09-01

    Paenibacillus polymyxa-M1 is a potent producer of bioactive compounds, such as lipopeptides, polyketides, and lantibiotics of biotechnological and medical interest. Genome sequencing revealed nine gene clusters for nonribosomal biosynthesis of such agents. Here we report on the investigation of the fusaricidins, a complex of cyclic lipopeptides containing 15-guanidino-3-hydroxypentadecanoic acid (GHPD) as fatty acid component by matrix-assisted laser-desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). More than 20 variants of these compounds were detected and characterized in detail. Mass spectrometric sequence analysis was performed by MALDI-LIFT-TOF/TOF fragment analysis. The obtained product ion spectra show a specific processing in the fatty acid part. GHPD is cleaved between the ?- and ß-position yielding two fragments a and b, one bearing the end-standing guanidine group and another one comprising the residual two C-atoms of GHPD with the attached peptide moiety. The complete sequence of all fusaricidins was derived from sets of bn- and yn-ions. The fusaricidin complex can be divided into four lipopeptide families, three of them showing variations of the amino acid in position 3, Val or Ile for the first and Tyr or Phe for families 2 and 3, respectively. A collection of novel fusaricidins was detected differing from those of families 1-3 by an additional residue of 71 Da (family 4). LIFT-TOF/TOF fragment spectra of these species imply that in their peptide moiety, an Ala-residue is attached by an ester bond to the free hydroxyl group of Thr4. More than 10 novel fusaricidins were characterized mass spectrometrically.

  10. Nanostructure-initiator mass spectrometry biometrics

    DOEpatents

    Leclerc, Marion; Bowen, Benjamin; Northen, Trent

    2015-09-08

    Several embodiments described herein are drawn to methods of identifying an analyte on a subject's skin, methods of generating a fingerprint, methods of determining a physiological change in a subject, methods of diagnosing health status of a subject, and assay systems for detecting an analyte and generating a fingerprint, by nanostructure-initiator mass spectrometry (NIMS).

  11. Introduction to mass spectrometry-based proteomics.

    PubMed

    Matthiesen, Rune; Bunkenborg, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    Mass spectrometry has been widely applied to study biomolecules and one rapidly developing field is the global analysis of proteins, proteomics. Understanding and handling mass spectrometry data is a multifaceted task that requires many decisions to be made to get the most comprehensive information from an experiment. Later chapters in this book deal in-depth with various aspects of the process and how different tools can be applied to the many analytical challenges. This introductory chapter is intended as a basic introduction to mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics to set the scene for newcomers and give pointers to reference material. There are many applications of mass spectrometry in proteomics and each application is associated with some analytical choices, instrumental limitations and data processing steps that depend on the aim of the study and means of conducting it. Different aspects of the proteome can be explored by choosing the right combination of sample preparation, MS instrumentation and data processing. This chapter gives an outline for some of these commonly used setups and some of the key concepts, many of which are explored in greater depth in later chapters. PMID:23666720

  12. Pyrolysis Mass Spectrometry of Complex Organic Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meuzelaar, Henk L. C.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Illustrates the state of the art in pyrolysis mass spectrometry techniques through applications in: (1) structural determination and quality control of synthetic polymers; (2) quantitative analysis of polymer mixtures; (3) classification and structural characterization of fossil organic matter; and (4) nonsupervised numerical extraction of…

  13. Urinary proteome analysis by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry with magnetic beads for identifying the pathologic presentation of clinical early IgA nephropathy.

    PubMed

    He, Qiang; Shao, Lina; Yu, Jiekai; Ji, Shunxian; Wang, Huiping; Mao, Youying; Chen, Jianghua

    2012-02-01

    IgA nephropathy is the most common type of chronic glomerulonephritis which leads eventually to end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The duration of clinical early stage IgA nephropathy to ESRD varies a lot. The pathologic presentation may have detrimental effect on outcome. But the renal biopsy is a high-risk invasive operation not able to be accepted by all patients. In this study, we tried to find biomarkers in urine as a non-invasive approach to diagnose different pathologic presentations of clinical early stage IgA nephropathy. A total of 56 patients with IgA nephropathy were included in this study, with 23 patients having severe pathologic presentation and the other 33 having mild ones. The control group consisted of 14 normal subjects. The urinary proteomic spectra from those three groups were generated by Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) with weak cationic exchange magnetic beads. The total experiment data was handled by the Zhejiang University ProteinChip Data Analysis System. We found that the urine protein/peptide spectra patterns could be established to distinguish severe IgA nephropathy from the mild IgA nephropathy group and the normal group. Several potential biomarkers were found and the diagnostic system could distinguish between severe IgA nephropathy from the mild IgA nephropathy with a sensitivity of 90.48% and specificity of 96.77%. We conclude that, using MALDI-TOF-MS with magnetic beads to detect urine proteomic patterns shows great potential in identifying early IgA nephropathy with different pathologic prognosis. PMID:22515101

  14. Optimization Of A Mass Spectrometry Process

    SciTech Connect

    Lopes, Jose; Alegria, F. Correa; Redondo, Luis; Barradas, N. P.; Alves, E.; Rocha, Jorge

    2011-06-01

    In this paper we present and discuss a system developed in order to optimize the mass spectrometry process of an ion implanter. The system uses a PC to control and display the mass spectrum. The operator interacts with the I/O board, that interfaces with the computer and the ion implanter by a LabVIEW code. Experimental results are shown and the capabilities of the system are discussed.

  15. Identification of metabolites of Buyang Huanwu Decoction in rat urine using liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Xiao-Dong; Liu, E-Hu; Yang, Jie; Li, Chang-Yin; Gao, Wen; Qi, Lian-Wen; Wang, Chong-Zhi; Yuan, Chun-Su; Li, Ping

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, rapid resolution liquid chromatography was coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (RRLC-Q-TOF-MS) to identify the absorbed components and metabolites in rat urine after oral administration of Buyang Huanwu decoction (BYHWD). After oral administration of BYHWD, urine samples were collected and pretreated by solid phase extraction. The mass measurements were accurate within 5 ppm of error for all the protonated molecules, and subsequent fragment ions offered higher quality structural information for interpretation of the fragmentation pathways of various compounds. A total of 50 compounds were detected in rat urine samples within 20 min, including 12 parent compounds and 38 metabolites. Except for three prototype components (Hydroxysafflor yellow A, Paeoniflorin, and Amygdalin), the metabolites identified mainly came from Radix Astragali, Radix Angelicae Sinensis, and Rhizoma Chuanxiong. The results indicated that glucuronidation and sulfation were the major metabolic pathways of isoflavonoids, while glutathione conjugation, glucuronidation and sulfation were the main metabolic pathways of phthalides. No saponin-related metabolites were detected. The present study provided important structural information on the metabolism of BYHWD. Furthermore, the results of this work have demonstrated the feasibility of the RRLC/ESI-QTOF-MS approach for rapid and reliable characterization of metabolites from herbal medicines. PMID:22591804

  16. Differences in the molecular composition of fulvic acid size fractions detected by size-exclusion chromatography-on line Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR-) mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Reemtsma, Thorsten; These, Anja; Springer, Andreas; Linscheid, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Size-exclusion chromatography was coupled to electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (SEC-FTICR-MS) to separate a fulvic acid isolate into three size fractions and to determine the elemental composition of fulvic acids in these fractions. Molecular formulas of about 3000 ions in the mass range of 200-700 Da were derived, many of which occur in all three fractions and follow the same system of elemental composition. Product ion spectra generated by SEC coupled to quadrupol-time-of-flight-MS (Q-TOF-MS) confirmed that the ions of all three fractions are basically polycarboxylates with hardly any other functional moiety. However, SEC-FTICR-MS revealed that the ions generated from the high molecular weight (HMW) fraction are enriched in carboxyl groups and are more aromatic as compared with the low molecular weight (LMW) fraction. These findings support the idea that the HMW fulvic acids are formed from LMW fulvic acids. The shift in the relative frequency of ions from the LMW to the HMW fraction is in line with different interaction mechanisms: HMW fulvic acids may be aggregates held together by electrostatic interaction of the carboxylate groups via hydrogen bonds or with polyvalent cations or by hydrophobic interaction of their carbon backbone, or consist of LMW fulvic acids covalently bound to each other or to (aliphatic) alcohols. PMID:17640699

  17. Metabolism of ginsenosides Rk? and Rh? from steamed notoginseng in zebrafish by ultraperformance liquid chromatography/quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bin; Wei, Yingjie; Wang, Dandan; Jia, Xiaobin

    2015-08-01

    In this work, the metabolite profiles of ginsenosides Rk3 and Rh4 from steamed notoginseng in zebrafish were qualitatively investigated, and their possible metabolic pathways were subsequently proposed. Metabolites of ginsenosides Rk3 and Rh4 after exposing to zebrafish for 24 h were identified by Ultraperformance Liquid Chromatography/Quadrupole -Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (UPLC-TOF/MS). The separation was performed with a UPLC BEH C18 column using a binary gradient elution of 0.1 % formic acetonitrile -0.1 % formic acid water. The quasi-molecular ions of compounds were detected in negative mode. According to the quasi-molecular ions and MS2 spectra, after comparison with reference standards, molecular mass information and the potential structures about metabolites of ginsenosides Rk3 and Rh4 were obtained. In all, 5 and 6 metabolites of ginsenoside Rk3 and Rh4 including M1(M6), M2(M7), M3-M5 and N1, N2(N7), N3-N6 were identified in zebrafish respectively, which were to our knowledge reported for the first time. The results indicated that ginsenosides Rk3 and Rh4 were metabolized via desugarization, glucuronidation, sulfation, dehydroxylation, and loss of C-17 and C-23 residue pathways in zebrafish. Loss of glucose at position C-6 and glucuronidation at position C-3 or C-6 in zebrafish were considered as the main physiologic processes of ginsenosides Rk3 and Rh4. PMID:25547981

  18. Fast Atom Bombardment Mass Spectrometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rinehart, Kenneth L., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses reactions and characteristics of fast atom bombardment (FAB) mass spectroscopy in which samples are ionized in a condensed state by bombardment with xenon or argon atoms, yielding positive/negative secondary ions. Includes applications of FAB to structural problems and considers future developments using the technique. (Author/JN)

  19. Absorption mode FTICR mass spectrometry imaging.

    PubMed

    Smith, Donald F; Kilgour, David P A; Konijnenburg, Marco; O'Connor, Peter B; Heeren, Ron M A

    2013-12-01

    Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry offers the highest mass resolving power for molecular imaging experiments. This high mass resolving power ensures that closely spaced peaks at the same nominal mass are resolved for proper image generation. Typically higher magnetic fields are used to increase mass resolving power. However, a gain in mass resolving power can also be realized by phase correction of the data for absorption mode display. In addition to mass resolving power, absorption mode offers higher mass accuracy and signal-to-noise ratio over the conventional magnitude mode. Here, we present the first use of absorption mode for Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry imaging. The Autophaser algorithm is used to phase correct each spectrum (pixel) in the image, and then, these parameters are used by the Chameleon work-flow based data processing software to generate absorption mode "Datacubes" for image and spectral viewing. Absorption mode reveals new mass and spatial features that are not resolved in magnitude mode and results in improved selected ion image contrast. PMID:24175640

  20. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry as a critical tool for revealing new properties of snake venom phospholipase A2.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuqing; Zhang, Cuili; Xu, Yue-Fei; Yang, Fan; Sun, Ming-Zhong

    2009-04-01

    Results from high-performance liquid chromatography/nano-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/nESI-MS/MS) coupled to two-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D SDS-PAGE) indicated that the monomer and dimer of phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) coexisted in crude Chinese Agkistrodon blomhoffii Ussurensis snake venom (ABUSV). Then, an acidic PLA(2) with the accurate molecular mass of 13979.6 Da was purified from ABUSV (mo-ABUSV-aPLA(2)). MS/MS-derived peptides from ABUSV-aPLA(2) were compared with other homologous snake venom PLA(2)s, which in turn showed that ABUSV-aPLA(2) is a novel snake venom PLA(2). Meanwhile, the ABUSV-aPLA(2) dimer (di-ABUSV-aPLA(2)) was also obtained. MS/MS analysis identified the same peptides from di-ABUSV-aPLA(2) as from mo-ABUSV-aPLA(2), which indicates that di-ABUSV-aPLA(2) is a homodimer. One Ca(2+) ion is contained per ABUSV-aPLA(2). The Ca(2+) ion is critical for both the hydrolytic activity and the structure of ABUSV-aPLA(2). Pro-Q Emerald and Pro-Q Diamond specific glycoprotein and phosphoprotein staining combined with MS/MS analysis indicated that the ABUSV-aPLA(2) is both a glycoprotein and a phosphoprotein, which to our knowledge is the first such report for a snake venom PLA(2) and thus provides new threads for the study of the functions and structures of snake venom PLA(2)s. One phosphorylation site and the size of the glycan chain are determined by using HPLC/nESI-MS/MS and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) MS. The delicate utilization of ESI-MS can exert tremendous impact on protein sciences. PMID:19283785

  1. MALDI-ISD Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Hemoglobin Variants: a Top-Down Approach to the Characterization of Hemoglobinopathies.

    PubMed

    Théberge, Roger; Dikler, Sergei; Heckendorf, Christian; Chui, David H K; Costello, Catherine E; McComb, Mark E

    2015-08-01

    Hemoglobinopathies are the most common inherited disorders in humans and are thus the target of screening programs worldwide. Over the past decade, mass spectrometry (MS) has gained a more important role as a clinical means to diagnose variants, and a number of approaches have been proposed for characterization. Here we investigate the use of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight MS (MALDI-TOF MS) with sequencing using in-source decay (MALDI-ISD) for the characterization of Hb variants. We explored the effect of matrix selection using super DHB or 1,5-diaminonaphthalene on ISD fragment ion yield and distribution. MALDI-ISD MS of whole blood using super DHB simultaneously provided molecular weights for the alpha and beta chains, as well as extensive fragmentation in the form of sequence defining c-, (z + 2)-, and y-ion series. We observed sequence coverage on the first 70 amino acids positions from the N- and C-termini of the alpha and beta chains in a single experiment. An abundant beta chain N-terminal fragment ion corresponding to ?c34 was determined to be a diagnostic marker ion for Hb S (?6 Glu?Val, sickle cell), Hb C (?6 Glu?Lys), and potentially for Hb E (?26 Glu?Lys). The MALDI-ISD analysis of Hb S and HbSC yielded mass shifts corresponding to the variants, demonstrating the potential for high-throughput screening. Characterization of an alpha chain variant, Hb Westmead (?122 His?Gln), generated fragments that established the location of the variant. This study is the first clinical application of MALDI-ISD MS for the determination and characterization of hemoglobin variants. PMID:26002792

  2. MALDI-ISD Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Hemoglobin Variants: a Top-Down Approach to the Characterization of Hemoglobinopathies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Théberge, Roger; Dikler, Sergei; Heckendorf, Christian; Chui, David H. K.; Costello, Catherine E.; McComb, Mark E.

    2015-08-01

    Hemoglobinopathies are the most common inherited disorders in humans and are thus the target of screening programs worldwide. Over the past decade, mass spectrometry (MS) has gained a more important role as a clinical means to diagnose variants, and a number of approaches have been proposed for characterization. Here we investigate the use of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight MS (MALDI-TOF MS) with sequencing using in-source decay (MALDI-ISD) for the characterization of Hb variants. We explored the effect of matrix selection using super DHB or 1,5-diaminonaphthalene on ISD fragment ion yield and distribution. MALDI-ISD MS of whole blood using super DHB simultaneously provided molecular weights for the alpha and beta chains, as well as extensive fragmentation in the form of sequence defining c-, (z + 2)-, and y-ion series. We observed sequence coverage on the first 70 amino acids positions from the N- and C-termini of the alpha and beta chains in a single experiment. An abundant beta chain N-terminal fragment ion corresponding to ?c34 was determined to be a diagnostic marker ion for Hb S (?6 Glu?Val, sickle cell), Hb C (?6 Glu?Lys), and potentially for Hb E (?26 Glu?Lys). The MALDI-ISD analysis of Hb S and HbSC yielded mass shifts corresponding to the variants, demonstrating the potential for high-throughput screening. Characterization of an alpha chain variant, Hb Westmead (?122 His?Gln), generated fragments that established the location of the variant. This study is the first clinical application of MALDI-ISD MS for the determination and characterization of hemoglobin variants.

  3. Microextraction techniques coupled to liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry for the determination of organic micropollutants in environmental water samples.

    PubMed

    Padrón, Ma Esther Torres; Afonso-Olivares, Cristina; Sosa-Ferrera, Zoraida; Santana-Rodríguez, José Juan

    2014-01-01

    Until recently, sample preparation was carried out using traditional techniques, such as liquid-liquid extraction (LLE), that use large volumes of organic solvents. Solid-phase extraction (SPE) uses much less solvent than LLE, although the volume can still be significant. These preparation methods are expensive, time-consuming and environmentally unfriendly. Recently, a great effort has been made to develop new analytical methodologies able to perform direct analyses using miniaturised equipment, thereby achieving high enrichment factors, minimising solvent consumption and reducing waste. These microextraction techniques improve the performance during sample preparation, particularly in complex water environmental samples, such as wastewaters, surface and ground waters, tap waters, sea and river waters. Liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) and time-of-flight mass spectrometric (TOF/MS) techniques can be used when analysing a broad range of organic micropollutants. Before separating and detecting these compounds in environmental samples, the target analytes must be extracted and pre-concentrated to make them detectable. In this work, we review the most recent applications of microextraction preparation techniques in different water environmental matrices to determine organic micropollutants: solid-phase microextraction SPME, in-tube solid-phase microextraction (IT-SPME), stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) and liquid-phase microextraction (LPME). Several groups of compounds are considered organic micropollutants because these are being released continuously into the environment. Many of these compounds are considered emerging contaminants. These analytes are generally compounds that are not covered by the existing regulations and are now detected more frequently in different environmental compartments. Pharmaceuticals, surfactants, personal care products and other chemicals are considered micropollutants. These compounds must be monitored because, although they are detected in low concentrations, they might be harmful toward ecosystems. PMID:25033059

  4. Pharmacokinetics and metabolism profiles of protostemonine in rat by liquid chromatography combined with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Han, Han; Yang, Li; Ding, Yue; Ji, Guang; Zhang, Tong

    2016-01-01

    A rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for determining protostemonine, a new anti-tussive agent isolated from Radix Stemonae. Separation was performed on a C18 column with mass detection in positive selected reaction monitoring mode at the transitions of m/z 418.2?m/z 320.2 and m/z 416.2?m/z 342.2 for protostemonine and internal standard, respectively. The assay showed good linearity (r>0.998) over the tested concentration range with the lowest limit of quantification of 1.0ng/ml. The intra- and inter-day precisions (RSD, %) were 2.21-9.89% and 3.99-13.19%, respectively; whereas accuracy (RR, %) ranged from 90.35% to 108.32%. The extraction recovery, stability, and matrix effect were demonstrated to be within the acceptable limits. The validated assay was further successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic studies of protostemonine in rat. Protostemonine was rapidly eliminated from plasma following single intravenous administration (2mg/kg) with a t1/2 of 3.06±1.37h. After oral administration (10, 20, and 50mg/kg), protostemonine was rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract with tmax of approximately 1h, and has shown dose-independent pharmacokinetic behaviors. Oral bioavailability of protostemonine was calculated to be 5.87-7.38%. Moreover, a total of 10 metabolites were structurally identified by using UHPLC-Q/TOF-MS method. The proposed metabolic pathways of protostemonine in rat involve demethylation, hydrolysis, and oxygenation. The current study provides informative data for understanding the in vivo disposition of protostemonine, which, in turn, help in interpreting the mechanism of its effectiveness and toxicity. PMID:26397206

  5. Mass spectrometric analysis of cerebrospinal fluid protein for glioma and its clinical application

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jiekai; Shen, Hong; Zhang, Jianmin; Liu, Weiguo; Chen, Zhe; He, Shuda; Zheng, Shu

    2014-01-01

    Aim of the study To establish and evaluate the fingerprint diagnostic models of cerebrospinal protein profile in glioma with surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF-MS) and bioinformatics analysis, in order to seek new tumor markers. Material and methods SELDI-TOF-MS was used to detect the cerebrospinal protein bond to ProteinChip H4. The cerebrospinal protein profiles were obtained and analyzed using the artificial neural network (ANN) method. Fingerprint diagnostic models of cerebrospinal protein profiles for distinguishing glioma from non-brain-tumor, and distinguishing glioma from benign brain tumor, were established. The support vector machine (SVM) algorithm was used for verification of established diagnostic models. The tumor markers were screened. Results In a fingerprint diagnostic model of cerebrospinal protein profiles for distinguishing glioma from non-brain tumor, the sensitivity and specificity of glioma diagnosis were 100% and 91.7%, respectively. Seven candidate tumor markers were obtained. In a fingerprint diagnostic model for distinguishing glioma from benign brain tumor, the sensitivity and specificity of glioma diagnosis were 88.9% and 100%, respectively, and 8 candidate tumor markers were gained. Conclusions The combination of SELDI-TOF-MS and bioinformatics tools is a very effective method for screening and identifying new markers of glioma. The established diagnostic models have provided a new way for clinical diagnosis of glioma, especially for qualitative diagnosis. PMID:24966792

  6. Novel serum protein biomarker panel revealed by mass spectrometry and its prognostic value in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Serum profiling using proteomic techniques has great potential to detect biomarkers that might improve diagnosis and predict outcome for breast cancer patients (BC). This study used surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (SELDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) to identify differentially expressed proteins in sera from BC and healthy volunteers (HV), with the goal of developing a new prognostic biomarker panel. Methods Training set serum samples from 99 BC and 51 HV subjects were applied to four adsorptive chip surfaces (anion-exchange, cation-exchange, hydrophobic, and metal affinity) and analyzed by time-of-flight MS. For validation, 100 independent BC serum samples and 70 HV samples were analyzed similarly. Cluster analysis of protein spectra was performed to identify protein patterns related to BC and HV groups. Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were used to develop a protein panel to distinguish breast cancer sera from healthy sera, and its prognostic potential was evaluated. Results From 51 protein peaks that were significantly up- or downregulated in BC patients by univariate analysis, binary logistic regression yielded five protein peaks that together classified BC and HV with a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) area-under-the-curve value of 0.961. Validation on an independent patient cohort confirmed the five-protein parameter (ROC value 0.939). The five-protein parameter showed positive association with large tumor size (P?=?0.018) and lymph node involvement (P?=?0.016). By matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) MS, immunoprecipitation and western blotting the proteins were identified as a fragment of apolipoprotein H (ApoH), ApoCI, complement C3a, transthyretin, and ApoAI. Kaplan-Meier analysis on 181 subjects after median follow-up of >5 years demonstrated that the panel significantly predicted disease-free survival (P?=?0.005), its efficacy apparently greater in women with estrogen receptor (ER)-negative tumors (n?=?50, P?=?0.003) compared to ER-positive (n?=?131, P?=?0.161), although the influence of ER status needs to be confirmed after longer follow-up. Conclusions Protein mass profiling by MS has revealed five serum proteins which, in combination, can distinguish between serum from women with breast cancer and healthy control subjects with high sensitivity and specificity. The five-protein panel significantly predicts recurrence-free survival in women with ER-negative tumors and may have value in the management of these patients. PMID:24935269

  7. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS)! Seminar 4 (UN)!

    E-print Network

    ?umer, Slobodan

    ! ! Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS)! Seminar 4 (UN)! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Author: Nina Kovacic! ___________________________________________________________________________! ABSTRACT! ! Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) is an analytical experimental technique, used of primary ions, secondary particles are emitted. Few of them are charged ions (secondary ions), which

  8. Linking Mass Spectrometry with Toxicology for Emerging Water Contaminants

    EPA Science Inventory

    This overview presentation will discuss the benefits of combining mass spectrometry with toxicology. These benefits will be described for 3 main areas: (1) Toxicity assays used to test new environmental contaminants previously identified using mass spectrometry, such that furth...

  9. Comprehensive Two-Dimensional Hydrophilic Interaction Chromatography (HILIC) × Reversed-Phase Liquid Chromatography Coupled to High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry (RP-LC-UV-MS) Analysis of Anthocyanins and Derived Pigments in Red Wine.

    PubMed

    Willemse, Chandré M; Stander, Maria A; Vestner, Jochen; Tredoux, Andreas G J; de Villiers, André

    2015-12-15

    Changes in anthocyanin chemistry represent some of the most important transformations involved in red wine aging. However, accurate analysis of the derived pigments, as required to study the evolution of anthocyanins and tannins during aging, is hampered by their extreme structural diversity, low levels, and the fact that many of these compounds have identical mass spectral characteristics. In this context, chromatographic separation is critical. In this contribution, the application of online hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) × reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RP-LC) separation coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (MS) is described for the detailed characterization of anthocyanins and their derived pigments in aged red wine. A systematic approach was followed for the optimization of HILIC × RP-LC separation parameters using a capillary liquid chromatography (LC) system in the first dimension and an ultrahigh-pressure LC system in the second dimension to ensure maximum sensitivity and performance. Ninety four (94) anthocyanin-derived pigments were tentatively identified in one- and six-year-old Pinotage wines using accurate mass and fragmentation information obtained using quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (Q-TOF-MS). Online HILIC × RP-LC-MS was found to offer high-resolution separation, because of the combination of two different separation modes, while the structured elution order observed improved the certainty in compound identification. Therefore, this approach shows promise for the detailed elucidation of the chemical alteration of anthocyanins during wine aging. PMID:26554292

  10. Space Applications of Mass Spectrometry. Chapter 31

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, John H.; Griffin, Timothy P.; Limero, Thomas; Arkin, C. Richard

    2010-01-01

    Mass spectrometers have been involved in essentially all aspects of space exploration. This chapter outlines some of these many uses. Mass spectrometers have not only helped to expand our knowledge and understanding of the world and solar system around us, they have helped to put man safely in space and expand our frontier. Mass spectrometry continues to prove to be a very reliable, robust, and flexible analytical instrument, ensuring that its use will continue to help aid our investigation of the universe and this small planet that we call home.

  11. Mass Spectrometry Imaging under Ambient Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chunping; Dill, Allison L.; Eberlin, Livia S.; Cooks, R. Graham; Ifa, Demian R.

    2012-01-01

    Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) has emerged as an important tool in the last decade and it is beginning to show potential to provide new information in many fields owing to its unique ability to acquire molecularly specific images and to provide multiplexed information, without the need for labeling or staining. In MSI, the chemical identity of molecules present on a surface is investigated as a function of spatial distribution. In addition to now standard methods involving MSI in vacuum, recently developed ambient ionization techniques allow MSI to be performed under atmospheric pressure on untreated samples outside the mass spectrometer. Here we review recent developments and applications of MSI emphasizing the ambient ionization techniques of desorption electrospray ionization (DESI), laser ablation electrospray ionization (LAESI), probe electrospray ionization (PESI), desorption atmospheric pressure photoionization (DAPPI), femtosecond laser desorption ionization (fs-LDI), laser electrospray mass spectrometry (LEMS), infrared laser ablation metastable-induced chemical ionization (IR-LAMICI), liquid microjunction surface sampling probe mass spectrometry (LMJ-SSP MS), nanospray desorption electrospray ionization (nano-DESI), and plasma sources such as the low temperature plasma (LTP) probe and laser ablation coupled to flowing atmospheric-pressure afterglow (LA-FAPA). Included are discussions of some of the features of ambient MSI including the ability to implement chemical reactions with the goal of providing high abundance ions characteristic of specific compounds of interest and the use of tandem mass spectrometry to either map the distribution of targeted molecules with high specificity or to provide additional MS information in the structural identification of compounds. We also describe the role of bioinformatics in acquiring and interpreting the chemical and spatial information obtained through MSI, especially in biological applications for tissue diagnostic purposes. Finally, we discuss the challenges in ambient MSI and include perspectives on the future of the field. PMID:22996621

  12. High-sensitivity mass spectrometry with a tandem accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Henning, W.

    1983-01-01

    The characteristic features of accelerator mass spectrometry are discussed. A short overview is given of the current status of mass spectrometry with high-energy (MeV/nucleon) heavy-ion accelerators. Emphasis is placed on studies with tandem accelerators and on future mass spectrometry of heavier isotopes with the new generation of higher-voltage tandems.

  13. Nuclear applications of inorganic mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    De Laeter, John

    2010-01-01

    There are several basic characteristics of mass spectrometry that are not always fully appreciated by the science community. These characteristics include the distinction between relative and absolute isotope abundances, and the influence of isotope fractionation on the accuracy of isotopic measurements. These characteristics can be illustrated in the field of nuclear physics with reference to the measurement of nuclear parameters, which involve the use of enriched isotopes, and to test models of s-, r-, and p-process nucleosynthesis. The power of isotope-dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) to measure trace elements in primitive meteorites to produce accurate Solar System abundances has been essential to the development of nuclear astrophysics. The variety of mass spectrometric instrumentation used to measure the isotopic composition of elements has sometimes been accompanied by a lack of implementation of basic mass spectrometric protocols which are applicable to all instruments. These metrological protocols are especially important in atomic weight determinations, but must also be carefully observed in cases where the anomalies might be very small, such as in studies of the daughter products of extinct radionuclides to decipher events in the early history of the Solar System. There are occasions in which misleading conclusions have been drawn from isotopic data derived from mass spectrometers where such protocols have been ignored. It is important to choose the mass spectrometer instrument most appropriate to the proposed experiment. The importance of the integrative nature of mass spectrometric measurements has been demonstrated by experiments in which long, double beta decay and geochronological decay half-lives have been measured as an alternative to costly radioactive-counting experiments. This characteristic is also illustrated in the measurement of spontaneous fission yields, which have accumulated over long periods of time. Mass spectrometry is also a valuable tool in the determination of neutron capture cross-section measurements and the application of such determinations in Planetary Science. PMID:19877268

  14. Profiling and characterization of volatile secretions from the European stink bug Graphosoma lineatum (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) by two-dimensional gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Sanda, Miloslav; Zá?ek, Petr; Streinz, Ludvík; Dra?ínský, Martin; Koutek, Bohumír

    2012-01-15

    An efficient method combining the headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) sampling procedure and comprehensive two-dimensional gas-chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC/TOF-MS) was established to study the volatile secretion components of stink bugs (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae). The combined power of this approach is illustrated by the identification of fifty-seven compounds in the secretion of a European stink-bug representative, Graphosoma lineatum. (E)-4-oxohex-2-enal and (E)-dec-2-enal were found to be the major components in the adult bug secretions followed by lower amounts of n-alkenal (C?-C??), n-alkenyl acetate (C?-C??), n-alkane (C??-C??) homologs, dienals and other compounds. More than thirty known compounds have been identified that had not been described before in G. lineatum adults. Of these compounds, (E)-4-oxohex-2-enal is of particular interest, since its isolation and identification, while calling some previous reports into question, clearly demonstrates a potential ability of our approach to yield artifact-free secretion profiles. PMID:22196834

  15. Monitoring of Selected Skin-Borne Volatile Markers of Entrapped Humans by Selective Reagent Ionization Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry in NO+ Mode

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Selective reagent ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry with NO+ as the reagent ion (SRI-TOF-MS (NO+)) was applied for near real-time monitoring of selected skin-borne constituents which are potential markers of human presence. The experimental protocol involved a group of 10 healthy volunteers enclosed in a body plethysmography chamber mimicking the entrapment environment. A total of 12 preselected omnipresent in human scent volatiles were quantitatively monitored. Among them there were six aldehydes (n-propanal, n-hexanal, n-heptanal, n-octanal, n-nonanal, and 2 methyl 2-propenal), four ketones (acetone, 2-butanone, 3-buten-2-one, and 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one), one hydrocarbon (2-methyl 2-pentene), and one terpene (DL-limonene). The observed median emission rates ranged from 0.28 to 44.8 nmol × person–1 × min–1 (16–1530 fmol × cm–2 × min–1). Within the compounds under study, ketones in general and acetone in particular exhibited the highest abundances. The findings of this study provide invaluable information about formation and evolution of a human-specific chemical fingerprint, which could be used for the early location of entrapped victims during urban search and rescue operations (USaR). PMID:24611620

  16. In Vitro and in Vivo Metabolite Profiling of Valnemulin Using Ultraperformance Liquid Chromatography–Quadrupole/Time-of-Flight Hybrid Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Valnemulin, a semisynthetic pleuromutilin derivative related to tiamulin, is broadly used to treat bacterial diseases of animals. Despite its widespread use, metabolism in animals has not yet been fully investigated. To better understand valnemulin biotransformation, in this study, metabolites of valnemulinin in in vitro and in vivo rats, chickens, swines, goats, and cows were identified and elucidated using ultraperformance liquid chromatography–quadrupole/time-of-flight hybrid mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q/TOF-MS). As a result, there were totally 7 metabolites of valnemulin identified in vitro and 75, 61, and 74 metabolites detected in in vivo rats, chickens, and swines, respectively, and the majority of metabolites were reported for the first time. The main metabolic pathways of valnemulin were found to be hydroxylation in the mutilin part (the ring system) and the side chain, oxidization on the sulfur of the side chain to form S-oxides, hydrolysis of the amido bond, and acetylization in the amido of the side chain. In addition, hydroxylation in the mutilin part was proposed to be the primary metabolic route. Furthermore, the results revealed that 2?-hydroxyvalnemulin (V1) and 8?-hydroxyvalnemulin (V2) were the major metabolites for rats and swines and S-oxides (V6) in chickens. PMID:25156794

  17. Development and validation of a generic method for quantification of collagen in food supplement tablets using liquid chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Vatansever, Bilgin; Senal, Merve Oztug; Akgoz, Muslum; Goren, Ahmet C

    2015-03-01

    A generic method for the quantification of type II collagen in protein-based dietary supplements is described. This quantitative analysis was conducted using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-TOF MS). Compared to classical methods with the use of isotope-labeled standards, our method includes, for the first time, the quantification of hydroxyproline using histidine as an internal standard. Separation of the analytes was performed on a Phenomenex Synergi 4 ?m Fusion-RP 80?? column (150?×?2.0 mm, 4.0 ?m) with a mobile phase made of 10 mM ammonium formate in water (A) and 10 mM ammonium formate in methanol (B). The assay was fully validated according to FDA guidelines, and the method exhibited sufficient specificity, accuracy, and precision. Intra- and inter-batch accuracy, determined as a deviation between nominal and measured values, ranged from -4.8 to 9.1% and from 0.9 to 6.4 %, respectively. All analytes (hydroxyproline and histidine) at three concentration levels showed extraction recoveries from 89 to 98 %. The method was successfully applied to protein-based dietary supplements of the pharmaceutical industry. PMID:25585887

  18. Reduction of the jitter of single-flux-quantum time-to-digital converters for time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sano, K.; Muramatsu, Y.; Yamanashi, Y.; Yoshikawa, N.; Zen, N.; Ohkubo, M.

    2014-09-01

    We have been developing a high-resolution superconducting time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS) system, which utilizes a superconducting strip ion detector (SSID) and a single-flux-quantum (SFQ) time-to-digital converter (TDC). The SFQ TDC can measure time intervals between multiple input signals and directly convert them into binary data. In our previous study, 24-bit SFQ TDC with a 3 × 24-bit First-In First-Out (FIFO) buffer was designed and implemented using the AIST Nb standard process 2 (STP2), whose time resolution and dynamic range are 100 ps and 1.6 ms, respectively. In this study we reduce the jitter of the TDC by using two different approaches: one uses an on-chip clock generator with an on-chip low-pass filter for reducing the noise in the bias current, and the other uses a low-jitter external clock source at room temperature. We confirmed that the jitter is reduced to less than 100 ps in the latter approach.

  19. Identification of chemical constituents in two traditional Chinese medicine formulae by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and off-line nuclear magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shufang; Zhu, Yunxiang; Shao, Qing; Wang, Yi; Fan, Xiaohui; Cheng, Yiyu

    2016-01-01

    There have been increasing works on identification of the chemical constituents in traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). However, isomers cannot be distinguished generally only by MS data, and the structures of unknown compounds cannot be confirmed. In this study, semi-preparative LC guided by LC-MS was used to prepare the isomers in microscale followed by off-line NMR analysis to confirm their structures. This approach was applied to identifying the constituents in two TCM formulae, Zhi-Zi-Gan-Cao-Chi-Tang (ZZGCCT) and Zhi-Zi-Bai-Pi-Tang (ZZBPT). A total number of 119 constituents were identified tentatively or unambiguously by LC-IT-MS, LC-Q-TOF-MS, and NMR. Among them, 20 constituents were characterized unambiguously by comparing with the reference substances. In addition, 21 constituents without reference substances were prepared for the following 1D-NMR and/or 2D-NMR analysis, and their structures were unambiguously identified by MS, 1D-NMR, and 2D-NMR. Two triterpenoid glycosides (compounds 134 and 140) and one flavonoid glycoside (compound 62a or 62b) were showed to be novel compounds. Compounds 125 and 129, as well as 62a,b, were epimers. PMID:26397205

  20. Application of surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry technology for the diagnosis of colorectal adenoma.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhong-Yin; Tao, DI-DI; Cao, Ji-Wang; Luo, He-Sheng

    2013-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify a specific biological marker for the diagnosis of colorectal adenomas through the analysis of variations in serum protein profiling in colorectal adenoma patients. The study was conducted at the Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University (Wuhan, China) between September 2011 and May 2012. Surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF-MS) was performed to compare the serum protein profiles of 50 patients with colorectal adenoma and 50 healthy individuals. The obtained protein profiles were analyzed using Biomarker Wizard software. Twenty protein peaks were identified to exhibit differences in average intensity between colorectal adenomas compared with normal controls, including peaks 8,565.84, 8,694.51 and 5,910.50 Da, in which the intensity between the patients and control individuals was significantly different. Two peaks, 8,565.84 and 8,694.51 Da, were observed to be highly expressed in the colorectal adenomas, however, expression was low in the control samples. By contrast, 5,910.50 Da expression was low in the colorectal adenomas and high in the controls. The results of the current study indicate that the three protein peaks may represent specific biomarkers for colorectal adenomas. PMID:23833670

  1. Impact of automation on mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan Victoria; Rockwood, Alan

    2015-10-23

    Mass spectrometry coupled to liquid chromatography (LC-MS and LC-MS/MS) is an analytical technique that has rapidly grown in popularity in clinical practice. In contrast to traditional technology, mass spectrometry is superior in many respects including resolution, specificity, multiplex capability and has the ability to measure analytes in various matrices. Despite these advantages, LC-MS/MS remains high cost, labor intensive and has limited throughput. This specialized technology requires highly trained personnel and therefore has largely been limited to large institutions, academic organizations and reference laboratories. Advances in automation will be paramount to break through this bottleneck and increase its appeal for routine use. This article reviews these challenges, shares perspectives on essential features for LC-MS/MS total automation and proposes a step-wise and incremental approach to achieve total automation through reducing human intervention, increasing throughput and eventually integrating the LC-MS/MS system into the automated clinical laboratory operations. PMID:26341893

  2. A strategy for screening and identifying mycotoxins in herbal medicine using ultra-performance liquid chromatography with tandem quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Fang, Lian-xiang; Xiong, Ai-zhen; Wang, Rui; Ji, Shen; Yang, Li; Wang, Zheng-tao

    2013-09-01

    The objective of this study was to develop an effective strategy for screening and identifying mycotoxins in herbal medicine (HM). Here, Imperatae Rhizoma, a commonly used Chinese herb, was selected as a model HM. A crude drug contaminated with fungi was analyzed by comparing with uncontaminated ones. Ultra-performance LC coupled to tandem quadrupole TOF-MS (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS) with collision energy function was applied to analyze different samples from Imperatae Rhizoma. Then, MarkerLynx(TM) software was employed to screen the excess components in analytes, compared with control samples, and those selected markers were likely to be the metabolites of fungi. Furthermore, each of the accurate masses of the markers obtained from MarkerLynx(TM) was then searched in a mycotoxins/fungal metabolites database established in advance. The molecular formulas with relative mass error between the measured and theoretical mass within 5 ppm were chosen and then applied to MassFragment(TM) analysis for further confirmation of their structures. With the use of this approach, five mycotoxins that have never been reported in HM were identified in contaminated Imperatae Rhizoma. The results demonstrate the potential of UPLC-Q-TOF-MS coupled with the MarkerLynx(TM) software and MassFragment(TM) tool as an efficient and convenient method to screen and identify mycotoxins in herbal materials and aid in the quality control of HM. PMID:23873590

  3. Assessment of green cleaning effectiveness on polychrome surfaces by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and microscopic imaging.

    PubMed

    Hrdlickova Kuckova, Stepanka; Crhova Krizkova, Michaela; Pereira, Catarina Luísa Cortes; Hynek, Radovan; Lavrova, Olga; Busani, Tito; Branco, Luis Cobra; Sandu, Irina Crina Anca

    2014-08-01

    This article proposes an innovative methodology which employs nondestructive techniques to assess the effectiveness of new formulations based on ionic liquids, as alternative solvents for enzymes (proteases), for the removal of proteinaceous materials from painted surfaces during restoration treatments. Ionic liquids (ILs), also known as "designer" solvents, because of their peculiar properties which can be adjusted by selecting different cation-anion combinations, are potentially green solvents due totheir low vapour pressure. In this study, two ionic liquids were selected: IL1 (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([BMIM][BF4 ])) and IL2 (1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ethylsulphate ([EMIM][EtSO4 ])). New formulations were prepared with these ILs and two different proteases (E): one acid (E1-pepsin) and one alkaline (E2-obtained from Aspergillus sojae). These formulations were tested on tempera and oil mock-up samples, prepared in accordance with historically documented recipes, and covered with two different types of protein-based varnishes (egg white and isinglass-fish glue). A noninvasive multiscale imaging methodology was applied before and after the treatment to evaluate the cleaning's effectiveness. Different microscopic techniques-optical microscopy (OM) with visible and fluorescent light, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM)-together with Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) were applied on areas cleaned with the new formulations (IL?+?E) and reference areas cleaned only with the commercial enzyme formulations (gels). MALDI-TOF proved particularly very useful for comparing the diversity and abundance of peptides released by using different enzymatic systems. Microsc. Res. Tech. 77:574-585, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24825619

  4. A mass spectrometry proteomics data management platform.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Vagisha; Eng, Jimmy K; Maccoss, Michael J; Riffle, Michael

    2012-09-01

    Mass spectrometry-based proteomics is increasingly being used in biomedical research. These experiments typically generate a large volume of highly complex data, and the volume and complexity are only increasing with time. There exist many software pipelines for analyzing these data (each typically with its own file formats), and as technology improves, these file formats change and new formats are developed. Files produced from these myriad software programs may accumulate on hard disks or tape drives over time, with older files being rendered progressively more obsolete and unusable with each successive technical advancement and data format change. Although initiatives exist to standardize the file formats used in proteomics, they do not address the core failings of a file-based data management system: (1) files are typically poorly annotated experimentally, (2) files are "organically" distributed across laboratory file systems in an ad hoc manner, (3) files formats become obsolete, and (4) searching the data and comparing and contrasting results across separate experiments is very inefficient (if possible at all). Here we present a relational database architecture and accompanying web application dubbed Mass Spectrometry Data Platform that is designed to address the failings of the file-based mass spectrometry data management approach. The database is designed such that the output of disparate software pipelines may be imported into a core set of unified tables, with these core tables being extended to support data generated by specific pipelines. Because the data are unified, they may be queried, viewed, and compared across multiple experiments using a common web interface. Mass Spectrometry Data Platform is open source and freely available at http://code.google.com/p/msdapl/. PMID:22611296

  5. Monolithic multinozzle emitters for nanoelectrospray mass spectrometry

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Daojing (Daly City, CA); Yang, Peidong (Kensington, CA); Kim, Woong (Seoul, KR); Fan, Rong (Pasadena, CA)

    2011-09-20

    Novel and significantly simplified procedures for fabrication of fully integrated nanoelectrospray emitters have been described. For nanofabricated monolithic multinozzle emitters (NM.sup.2 emitters), a bottom up approach using silicon nanowires on a silicon sliver is used. For microfabricated monolithic multinozzle emitters (M.sup.3 emitters), a top down approach using MEMS techniques on silicon wafers is used. The emitters have performance comparable to that of commercially-available silica capillary emitters for nanoelectrospray mass spectrometry.

  6. Viridans Group Streptococci Clinical Isolates: MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry versus Gene Sequence-Based Identification

    PubMed Central

    Angeletti, Silvia; Dicuonzo, Giordano; Avola, Alessandra; Crea, Francesca; Dedej, Etleva; Vailati, Francesca; Farina, Claudio; De Florio, Lucia

    2015-01-01

    Viridans Group Streptococci (VGS) species-level identification is fundamental for patients management. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization—time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has been used for VGS identification but discrimination within the Mitis group resulted difficult. In this study, VGS identifications with two MALDI-TOF instruments, the Biotyper (Bruker) and the VITEK MS (bioMérieux) have been compared to those derived from tuf, soda and rpoB genes sequencing. VGS isolates were clustered and a dendrogram constructed using the Biotyper 3.0 software (Bruker). RpoB gene sequencing resulted the most sensitive and specific molecular method for S. pneumonia identification and was used as reference method. The sensitivity and the specificity of the VITEK MS in S. pneumonia identification were 100%, while the Biotyper resulted less specific (92.4%). In non pneumococcal VGS strains, the group-level correlation between rpoB and the Biotyper was 100%, while the species-level correlation was 61% after database upgrading (than 37% before upgrading). The group-level correlation between rpoB and the VITEK MS was 100%, while the species-level correlation was 36% and increases at 69% if isolates identified as S. mitis/S. oralis are included. The less accurate performance of the VITEK MS in VGS identification within the Mitis group was due to the inability to discriminate between S. mitis and S. oralis. Conversely, the Biotyper, after the release of the upgraded database, was able to discriminate between the two species. In the dendrogram, VGS strains from the same group were grouped into the same cluster and had a good correspondence with the gene-based clustering reported by other authors, thus confirming the validity of the upgraded version of the database. Data from this study demonstrated that MALDI-TOF technique can represent a rapid and cost saving method for VGS identification even within the Mitis group but improvements of spectra database are still recommended. PMID:25781023

  7. [Sample preparation and bioanalysis in mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Bourgogne, Emmanuel; Wagner, Michel

    2015-01-01

    The quantitative analysis of compounds of clinical interest of low molecular weight (<1000 Da) in biological fluids is currently in most cases performed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Analysis of these compounds in biological fluids (plasma, urine, saliva, hair...) is a difficult task requiring a sample preparation. Sample preparation is a crucial part of chemical/biological analysis and in a sense is considered the bottleneck of the whole analytical process. The main objectives of sample preparation are the removal of potential interferences, analyte preconcentration, and converting (if needed) the analyte into a more suitable form for detection or separation. Without chromatographic separation, endogenous compounds, co-eluted products may affect a quantitative method in mass spectrometry performance. This work focuses on three distinct parts. First, quantitative bioanalysis will be defined, different matrices and sample preparation techniques currently used in bioanalysis by mass spectrometry of/for small molecules of clinical interest in biological fluids. In a second step the goals of sample preparation will be described. Finally, in a third step, sample preparation strategies will be made either directly ("dilute and shoot") or after precipitation. PMID:25582719

  8. Development of an efficient on-chip digestion system for protein analysis using MALDI-TOF MS.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeonghoon; Soper, Steven A; Murray, Kermit K

    2009-12-01

    A solid-phase trypsin microreactor was constructed and operated with electrokinetically-driven flow for the digestion of proteins and coupled off-line with MALDI-TOF MS. The bioreactor was fabricated from poly(methyl methacrylate), PMMA, by hot embossing using a mold master prepared by micro-milling. The solid-phase bioreactor consisted of a 4 cm long, 200 microm wide, and 50 microm deep microfluidic channel that was populated with an array of 50 microm diameter micropost structures with a 50 microm inter-post spacing. The bioreactor was prepared by covalently attaching the proteolytic enzyme, trypsin, to the UV-modified surface of the PMMA microstructures using the appropriate coupling reagents. The performance of the system was evaluated using a set of proteins. The bioreactor provided efficient digestion of cytochrome c at a field strength of 375 V/cm, producing a reaction time of approximately 20 s to produce 97% sequence coverage for protein identification. Bovine serum albumin (BSA), phosphorylase b, and beta-casein were also assessed and the sequence coverages were 46, 63, and 79%, respectively, using the same reactor residence time. Furthermore, Escherichia coli was used as a model to demonstrate the feasibility of fingerprint analysis for intact cells using this solid-phase bioreactor. PMID:19918612

  9. Phytotoxin coronatine enhances heat tolerance via maintaining photosynthetic performance in wheat based on Electrophoresis and TOF-MS analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yuyi; Zhang, Mingcai; Li, Jianmin; Li, Zhaohu; Tian, Xiaoli; Duan, Liusheng

    2015-01-01

    Coronatine (COR) is a phytotoxin produced by Pseudomonas syringae. Its structure is similar to Jasmonates, which play a number of diverse roles in plant defense. Both have the COI1 plant receptor, so coronatine can manipulate plant hormone signaling to access nutrients and counteract defense responses. In addition to the hormone system, coronatine affects plant nitrogenous metabolism and chloroplast ultrastructure. In this study, we first examined a typical nitrogen-losing phenotype, and used the polyacrylamide gel approach to demonstrate soluble total protein patterns in a time-course experiment under different temperature conditions. We then employed dimensional gel electrophoresis technology (2-DE) and MALDI-TOF-MS to sequester and identify the sensitive proteins. We found a total of 27 coronatine sensitive proteins, 22 of which were located in the chloroplast and 6 of which were directly involved in photosynthesis. Finally, we measured levels of chlorophyll and photosynthetic performance to reveal the phenotypic effect of these proteins. Taken together, these results demonstrated that coronatine enhanced heat tolerance by regulating nitrogenous metabolism and chloroplast ultrastructure to maintain photosynthetic performance and reduce yield loss under heat stress. PMID:26347991

  10. Immunoadjuvant activity, toxicity assays, and determination by UPLC/Q-TOF-MS of triterpenic saponins from Chenopodium quinoa seeds.

    PubMed

    Verza, Simone G; Silveira, Fernando; Cibulski, Samuel; Kaiser, Samuel; Ferreira, Fernando; Gosmann, Grace; Roehe, Paulo M; Ortega, George G

    2012-03-28

    The adjuvant activity of Chenopodium quinoa (quinoa) saponins on the humoral and cellular immune responses of mice subcutaneously immunized with ovalbumin (OVA) was evaluated. Two quinoa saponin fractions were obtained, FQ70 and FQ90, and 10 saponins were determined by UPLC/Q-TOF-MS. Mice were immunized subcutaneously with OVA alone or adjuvanted with Quil A (adjuvant control), FQ70, or FQ90. FQ70 and FQ90 significantly enhanced the amount of anti-OVA-specific antibodies in serum (IgG, IgG1, and IgG2b) in immunized mice. The adjuvant effect of FQ70 was significantly greater than that of FQ90. However, delayed type hypersensitivity responses were higher in mice immunized with OVA adjuvanted with FQ90 than mice treated with FQ70. Concanavalin A (Con A)-, lipopolysaccharide-, and OVA-stimulated splenocyte proliferation were measured, and FQ90 significantly enhanced the Con A-induced splenocyte proliferation. The results suggested that the two quinoa saponin fractions enhanced significantly the production of humoral and cellular immune responses to OVA in mice. PMID:22394456

  11. UPLC-DAD/Q-TOF-MS Based Ingredients Identification and Vasorelaxant Effect of Ethanol Extract of Jasmine Flower

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Yongqiang; Ying, Xuhui; Luan, Hairong; Zhao, Zhenying; Lou, Jianshi; Wang, Deli; Li, Hailin; Wu, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Chinese people commonly make jasmine tea for recreation and health care. Actually, its medicinal value needs more exploration. In this study, vasorelaxant effect of ethanol extract of jasmine flower (EEJ) on isolated rat thoracic aorta rings was investigated and [Ca2+] was determined in vascular smooth muscle cells by laser scanning confocal microscope (LSCM). The result of aorta rings showed that EEJ could cause concentration-dependent relaxation of endothelium-intact rings precontracted with phenylephrine or KCl which was attenuated after preincubation of the rings with L-NAME and three different K+ channel inhibitors; however, indomethacin and glibenclamide did not affect the vasodilatation of EEJ. In addition, EEJ could inhibit contraction induced by PE on endothelium-denuded rings in Ca2+-free medium as well as by accumulation of Ca2+ in Ca2+-free medium with high K+. LSCM also showed that EEJ could lower the elevated level of [Ca2+] induced by KCl. These indicate that the vasodilation of EEJ is in part related to causing the release of nitric oxide, activation of K+ channels, inhibition of influx of excalcium, and release of calcium from sarcoplasmic reticulum. A total of 20 main ingredients, were identified in EEJ by UPLC-DAD/Q-TOF-MS. The vasodilation activity should be attributed to the high content of flavonoid glycosides and iridoid glycosides found in EEJ. PMID:25628748

  12. Identification of Proanthocyanidins from Litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) Pulp by LC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS and Their Antioxidant Activity

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Qiang; Luo, Fenglei; Zhao, Xiaoyong; Liu, Yu; Hu, Guibing; Sun, Chongde; Li, Xian; Chen, Kunsong

    2015-01-01

    Content of total proanthocyanidins as well as total phenolics, flavonoids, antioxidant activities were evaluated for litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) pulp of 32 cultivars. One cultivar, Hemaoli, showed the highest total proanthocyanidins and total phenolics, and DPPH or ABTS radical scavenging activities. ESI-MS and NMR analysis of the Hemaoli pulp crude extracts (HPCE) showed that procyandins composed of (epi)catechin unites with degree of polymerization (DP) of 2–6 were dominant proanthocyanidins in HPCE. After the HPCE was fractionated by a Sephadex LH-20 column, 32 procyanidins were identified by LC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS in litchi pulp for the first time. Quantification of individual procyanidin in HPCE indicated that epicatechin, procyanidin B2, procyanidin C1 and A-type procyanidin trimer were the main procyanidins. The radical scavenging activities of different fractions of HPCE as well as six procyanidins standards were evaluated by both DPPH and ABTS assays. HPCE fractions showed similar antioxidant activities with those of Vc and six individual procyanidins, the IC50 of which ranged from 1.88 ± 0.01 to 2.82 ± 0.10 ?g/ml for DPPH assay, and from 1.52 ± 0.17 to 2.71 ± 0.15 ?g/ml for ABTS assay. Such results indicate that litchi cultivars rich in proanthocyanidins are good resources of dietary antioxidants and have the potential to contribute to human health. PMID:25793378

  13. Laser-Cooling-Assisted Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Christian; Schowalter, Steven J.; Chen, Kuang; Sullivan, Scott T.; Hudson, Eric R.

    2014-09-01

    Mass spectrometry is used in a wide range of scientific disciplines including proteomics, pharmaceutics, forensics, and fundamental physics and chemistry. Given this ubiquity, there is a worldwide effort to improve the efficiency and resolution of mass spectrometers. However, the performance of all techniques is ultimately limited by the initial phase-space distribution of the molecules being analyzed. Here, we dramatically reduce the width of this initial phase-space distribution by sympathetically cooling the input molecules with laser-cooled, cotrapped atomic ions, improving both the mass resolution and detection efficiency of a time-of-flight mass spectrometer by over an order of magnitude. Detailed molecular-dynamics simulations verify the technique and aid with evaluating its effectiveness. This technique appears to be applicable to other types of mass spectrometers.

  14. Clinical Performance of a Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry Method for Detection of Certain blaKPC-Containing Plasmids.

    PubMed

    Youn, Jung-Ho; Drake, Steven K; Weingarten, Rebecca A; Frank, Karen M; Dekker, John P; Lau, Anna F

    2016-01-01

    Rapid detection of blaKPC-containing organisms can significantly impact infection control and clinical practices, as well as therapeutic choices. Current molecular and phenotypic methods to detect these organisms, however, require additional testing beyond routine organism identification. In this study, we evaluated the clinical performance of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) to detect pKpQIL_p019 (p019)-an ?11,109-Da protein associated with certain blaKPC-containing plasmids that was previously shown to successfully track a clonal outbreak of blaKPC-pKpQIL-Klebsiella pneumoniae in a proof-of-principle study (A. F. Lau, H. Wang, R. A. Weingarten, S. K. Drake, A. F. Suffredini, M. K. Garfield, Y. Chen, M. Gucek, J. H. Youn, F. Stock, H. Tso, J. DeLeo, J. J. Cimino, K. M. Frank, and J. P. Dekker, J Clin Microbiol 52:2804-2812, 2014, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JCM.00694-14). PCR for the p019 gene was used as the reference method. Here, blind analysis of 140 characterized Enterobacteriaceae isolates using two protein extraction methods (plate extraction and tube extraction) and two peak detection methods (manual and automated) showed sensitivities and specificities ranging from 96% to 100% and from 95% to 100%, respectively (2,520 spectra analyzed). Feasible laboratory implementation methods (plate extraction and automated analysis) demonstrated 96% sensitivity and 99% specificity. All p019-positive isolates (n = 26) contained blaKPC and were carbapenem resistant. Retrospective analysis of an additional 720 clinical Enterobacteriaceae spectra found an ?11,109-Da signal in nine spectra (1.3%), including seven from p019-containing, carbapenem-resistant isolates (positive predictive value [PPV], 78%). Instrument tuning had a significant effect on assay sensitivity, highlighting important factors that must be considered as MALDI-TOF MS moves into applications beyond microbial identification. Using a large blind clinical data set, we have shown that spectra acquired for routine organism identification can also be analyzed automatically in real time at high throughput, at no additional expense to the laboratory, to enable rapid detection of potentially blaKPC-containing carbapenem-resistant isolates, providing early and clinically actionable results. PMID:26338858

  15. Direct ionization methods in mass spectrometry: An overview.

    PubMed

    Klampfl, Christian W; Himmelsbach, Markus

    2015-08-26

    Within this paper a sub-group of ambient ionization mass spectrometry namely direct ionization mass spectrometry techniques are reviewed. They are characterized by the generation of an electrospray directly from the sample investigated. Prominent representatives include paper spray mass spectrometry, tissue spray mass spectrometry, probe electrospray ionization or thin-layer chromatography mass spectrometry. Applications of all major direct ionization techniques within different fields such as biomedical analysis, analysis of natural products, analysis of technical products and food analysis, just to name a few, are discussed and relevant parameters are listed in five Tables. PMID:26347167

  16. JOURNAL OF MASS SPECTROMETRY J. Mass Spectrom. 2008; 43: 10531062

    E-print Network

    Hammock, Bruce D.

    in the chlorine loss (in the ortho, meta, and para positions), the charge for the neutral radical (noncation-(2-chlorophenyl)propenoate by electron ionization mass spectrometry showed the distinct loss of an ortho chlorine exhibited loss of the distinctive chlorine from the 2-position of the phenyl ring. Analogous derivatives

  17. An HPLC/Mass Spectrometry Platform for the Development of Multimodality Contrast Agents and Targeted Therapeutics: Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen Small Molecule Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Humblet, Valerie; Misra, Preeti; Frangioni, John V.

    2009-01-01

    The production of disease-targeted agents requires the covalent conjugation of a targeting molecule with a contrast agent or therapeutic, followed by purification of the product to homogeneity. Typical targeting molecules, such as small molecules and peptides, often have high charge to mass ratios and/or hydrophobicity. Contrast agents and therapeutics themselves are also diverse, and include lanthanide chelates for MRI, 99mTc chelates for SPECT, 90Y chelates for radiotherapy, 18F derivatives for PET, and heptamethine indocyanines for near-infrared fluorescent optical imaging. We have constructed a general-purpose HPLC/mass spectrometry platform capable of purifying virtually any targeted agent for any modality. The analytical sub-system is composed of a single dual-head pump that directs mobile phase to either a hot cell for the purification of radioactive agents or to an ES-TOF MS for the purification of nonradioactive agents. Nonradioactive agents are also monitored during purification by ELSD, absorbance, and fluorescence. The preparative sub-system is composed of columns and procedures that permit rapid scaling from the analytical system. To demonstrate the platform's utility, we describe the preparation of five small molecule derivatives specific for prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA): a gadolinium derivative for MRI, indium, rhenium, and technetium derivatives for SPECT, and a yttrium derivative for radiotherapy. All five compounds are derived from a highly anionic targeting ligand engineered to have a single nucleophile for N-hydroxysuccinimide-based conjugation. We also describe optimized column/mobile phase combinations and mass spectrometry settings for each class of agent, and discuss strategies for purifying molecules with extreme charge and/or hydrophobicity. Taken together, our study should expedite the development of disease-targeted, multimodality diagnostic and therapeutic agents. PMID:17193697

  18. General method for extraction of blueberry anthocyanins and identification using high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-ion trap-time of flight-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Jeremy S; Nguyen, Hien P; Shen, Sijia; Schug, Kevin A

    2009-06-01

    A systematic approach for optimizing the extraction and identification of anthocyanins from blueberries was explored using HPLC-UV and HPLC-ESI-IT-TOF-MS. Sample homogenization effects, extraction solvent selection, type of acid, and amount used in extraction solvent were investigated. A mixture of methanol:water:trifluoroacetic acid (70:30:1, v/v/v) was found to be the best solvent system for blueberry anthocyanin extraction. Differences in total anthocyanin content due to commercial blueberry processing were explored as an application using the optimized extraction technique and HPLC-UV analysis. A methodical system for anthocyanin identification by HPLC-ESI-IT-TOF-MS without the use of standards was also reviewed and applied. Consideration was given to elution order by chromatographic separation with selective detection at 520nm, high mass accuracy m/z values, tandem MS fragmentation, and previously published literature. Overall, 25 anthocyanins from a wild type highbush blueberry were identified and reported. PMID:19414178

  19. Screening and identification of multiple constituents and their metabolites of Fangji Huangqi Tang in rats by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry basing on coupling data processing techniques.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoli; Liu, Xiao; Xu, Xiaoyan; Zhu, Tingting; Shi, Fa; Qin, Kunming; Cai, Baochang

    2015-03-15

    Fangji Huangqi Tang (FHT) is a classical formula widely used in Chinese clinical application. In this paper, a novel and advanced strategy has been developed for the multiple constituent identification of FHT in rats, which was basing on an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography equipped with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS) method combined with dynamic background subtract (DBS) data acquisition and enhance peak list (EPL) data processing techniques. Firstly, a total of 58 potential bioactive compounds including alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, saccharides and terpenoids were detected from FHT. Their chemical structures were identified by comparing the retention time and mass spectrometry data, as well as retrieving the reference literatures. Based on the same instrumental conditions, 33 compounds were found in rat serum after oral administration of FHT. After a considerate comparison with the former chemical identification results of FHT, 33 compounds were found, which turned out to be 8 original compounds of FHT as well as 25 metabolites, including 20 phase I and 5 phase II metabolites. The results indicated that the metabolic reactions included hydroxylation, hydrogenation, demethylation, tarine conjugation and acetylation. This study firstly reported the metabolism description of fangchinoline and tetrandrine in vivo, which could be very useful for further pharmacological and clinical studies of FHT. Meanwhile, it provided a practical strategy for rapid screening and identifying of multiple constituents and their metabolites of complex traditional Chinese medicine in biological matrix. PMID:25656758

  20. Uncoiling collagen: a multidimensional mass spectrometry study.

    PubMed

    Simon, H J; van Agthoven, M A; Lam, P Y; Floris, F; Chiron, L; Delsuc, M-A; Rolando, C; Barrow, M P; O'Connor, P B

    2016-01-01

    Mass spectrometry can be used to determine structural information about ions by activating precursors and analysing the resulting series of fragments. Two-dimensional Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (2D FT-ICR MS) is a technique that correlates the mass-to-charge (m/z) ratio of fragment and precursor ions in a single spectrum. 2D FT-ICR MS records the fragmentation of all ions in a sample without the need for isolation. To analyse specific precursors, horizontal cross-sections of the spectrum (fragment ion scans) are taken, providing an alternative to conventional tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) experiments. In this work, 2D FT-ICR MS has been used to study the tryptic digest of type I collagen, a large protein. Fragment ion scans have been extracted from the 2D FT-ICR MS spectrum for precursor m/z ratios: 951.81, 850.41, 634.34, and 659.34, and 2D FT-ICR MS spectra are compared with a set of 1D MS/MS spectra using different fragmentation methods. The results show that two-dimensional mass spectrometry excells at MS/MS of complex mixtures, simplifying spectra by eliminating contaminant peaks, and aiding the identification of species in the sample. Currently, with desktop computers, 2D FT-ICR MS is limited by data processing power, a limitation which should be alleviated using cluster parallel computing. In order to explore 2D FT-ICR MS for collagen, with reasonable computing time, the resolution in the fragment ion dimension is limited to 256k data points (compared to 4M data points in 1D MS/MS spectra), but the vertical precursor ion dimension has 4096 lines, so the total data set is 1G data points (4 Gbytes). The fragment ion coverage obtained with a blind, unoptimized 2D FT-ICR MS experiment was lower than conventional MS/MS, but MS/MS information is obtained for all ions in the sample regardless of selection and isolation. Finally, although all 2D FT-ICR MS peak assignments were made with the aid of 1D FT-ICR MS data, these results demonstrate the promise of 2D FT-ICR MS as a technique for studying complex protein digest mixtures. PMID:26568361