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Sample records for mass violence perpetrated

  1. Humanitarian responses to mass violence perpetrated against vulnerable populations.

    PubMed Central

    Gellert, G. A.

    1995-01-01

    This multidisciplinary review links three areas of legitimate inquiry for practitioners of medicine and public health. The first is occurrences of mass violence or genocide perpetrated against vulnerable populations, with a focus on the failure of national and international mechanisms to prevent or predict such violence. The second is evolving concepts of national sovereignty and an emerging framework in which the imperative to assist vulnerable populations supersedes a state's right to self determination. The last is how medical, public health, and other systems of surveillance and rapid assessment of mass violence can accelerate public awareness and facilitate structured, consistent political decision making to prevent mass violence and to provide international humanitarian assistance. Images p1000-a PMID:7580643

  2. Multi-perpetrator domestic violence.

    PubMed

    Salter, Michael

    2014-04-01

    A significant proportion of reports of domestic violence against women involve multiple perpetrators. Although the number of perpetrators has been consistently identified as a measure of abuse severity, only a minority of studies of domestic violence examine the role of multiple offenders. Data on multi-perpetrator domestic violence (MDV) is frequently removed from analysis in domestic violence studies, or multi-perpetrator incidents are treated as single-perpetrator incidents. However, the available research links MDV to negative mental and physical health outcomes, intimate partner homicide, homelessness among women, and severe mental illness and suicidality. This article reviews the available prevalence data on MDV and draws together research on the contexts in which MDV takes place. It highlights two groups that are particularly vulnerable to MDV: (1) girls and women partnered to members of gangs and organized crime groups and (2) girls and women in some ethnic minority communities. While discussions of honor in relation to domestic violence are often racialized in Western media, this article highlights the cross-cultural role of masculine honor in collective violence against women in the working class and impoverished communities of majority cultures as well as in migrant and ethnic minority communities. It is clear that such complex forms of violence present a range of challenges for intervention and treatment and the article emphasizes the need for specialized and coordinated modes of investigation, support, and care. PMID:24217092

  3. Violence perpetrated by women who use methamphetamine

    PubMed Central

    HAMILTON, ALISON B.; GOEDERS, NICHOLAS E.

    2015-01-01

    Methamphetamine (meth) is widely recognized as being associated with violence and aggression. This association is found among women and men, with rates of meth-related violence among women possibly being equal to or even exceeding rates among men. This study examined female-perpetrated violence from the phenomenological point of view of 30 women (aged 18–45 years; mean age of 28.5 years) in residential treatment for meth dependence. Of the 30 participants, 80% (n = 24) reported experiencing violence in their lifetimes: 67% (n = 20) had violence perpetrated against them, and 57% (n = 17) had perpetrated violence. Most participants described perpetrating violence when they were ‘coming down’ off of meth (i.e. withdrawing). Five women (29%) attributed their violent behaviors to meth and said they would not have been violent had they not been using meth. In contrast, 10 women (59%) described pre-existing ‘anger issues’ that were ‘enhanced’ by meth. This article describes the timing of meth-related violence, bi-directional violence, men’s responses to female-perpetrated violence, aggression in the context of sexual activities, and violence perpetrated against non-partners. A biopsychosocial theoretical framework is useful to interpret the complex explanations that women provide for their perpetration of violence under the influence of chronic meth use. PMID:26045288

  4. Campaigns targeting perpetrators of intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Cismaru, Magdalena; Lavack, Anne M

    2011-10-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a global public health concern with significant physical, emotional, and economic costs. Persuading IPV perpetrators to change their behavior could play an important role in ending violence. This article reviews and analyzes 16 campaigns targeting IPV perpetrators, created in the United States, Canada, United Kingdom, Australia, and New Zealand. Two well-known models, the Transtheoretical (Stages of Change) model and Protection Motivation theory (PMT), are combined to create the analytical framework. For each stage of change, the most salient PMT variables are outlined, the people found in that stage are described, and the most effective strategies for persuasion are posited. Together, these two models would suggest that future campaigns targeting IPV perpetrators should place a stronger emphasis on the benefits of changing and place a greater focus on increasing perpetrators' confidence that they can abstain from violence. PMID:21908438

  5. Subtyping Male Perpetrators of Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, Katherine A.; Westen, Drew

    2011-01-01

    Domestic violence is a serious problem with far-reaching consequences. This study applies a new methodology to derive subtypes of male perpetrators of intimate partner violence. As part of a larger National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)-funded study, a national sample of randomly selected psychologists and psychiatrists describe 188 adult male…

  6. Biological Correlates of Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Lavinia A.; Sullivan, Eric L.; Rosenbaum, Alan; Wyngarden, Nicole; Umhau, John C.; Miller, Mark W.; Taft, Casey T.

    2013-01-01

    An extensive literature documents biological correlates of general aggression, but there has been less focus on biological correlates of intimate partner violence (IPV). The purpose of this review is to summarize the research literature to date that has reported on biological factors in IPV perpetration. We review the existing literature on four domains of biological processes that have been examined with respect to IPV perpetration, including: head injury and neuropsychology; psychophysiology; neurochemistry, metabolism and endocrinology; and genetics. We critique the literature, discuss the clinical relevance of research findings, and provide some recommendations for future biologically-oriented IPV research. PMID:23393423

  7. A cycle of violence? Examining family-of-origin violence, attitudes, and intimate partner violence perpetration.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Li; Mazerolle, Paul

    2015-03-01

    Exposure to violence in the family-of-origin has consistently been linked to intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration in adulthood. However, whether the transmission of violence across generations is role- and gender-specific still remains unclear. The current study examined the effects of experiencing child abuse and observing parental violence on IPV perpetration among a sample of male arrestees (N = 303). The differential effects of observing violence perpetrated by same-sex (father to mother), opposite-sex (mother to father), and both parents on subsequent IPV perpetration were examined. Logistic regression analyses showed that while observing father-only violence and bidirectional interparental violence was predictive of IPV perpetration, observing mother-only violence and direct experiences of child abuse was not. These findings suggest that the transmission of violence across generations is both role- and gender-specific and highlight the importance of examining unique dimensions of partner violence to assess influences on children. The study further examined whether attitudes justifying wife beating mediate the effect of exposure to violence and subsequent IPV perpetration. Results showed that although attitudes were predictive of perpetration, these attitudes did not mediate the relationship. PMID:24997102

  8. Anger Mediates the Relation between Violence Exposure and Violence Perpetration in Incarcerated Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimonis, Eva R.; Ray, James V.; Branch, Jessica R.; Cauffman, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Youth who are exposed to violence are more likely to perpetrate violence. Incarcerated youth are a special population that is at a significantly greater risk for violent offending because of their relatively greater rates of violence exposure. Two important outcomes of violence exposure that may help explain its link with violence perpetration are…

  9. Portrayal of women as intimate partner domestic violence perpetrators.

    PubMed

    Hester, Marianne

    2012-09-01

    The article explores some of the ways heterosexual women are portrayed as perpetrators of intimate partner domestic violence (IPV) in police domestic violence records in England and is the first study in the United Kingdom to examine the issue of gender and domestic violence perpetrators in any detail and over time. The article is based on a study of 128 IPV cases tracked longitudinally over 6 years, including 32 cases where women were the sole perpetrators and a further 32 cases where women were "dual" perpetrators alongside men. Women were 3 times more likely than men to be arrested when they were construed as the perpetrator. However, Pence and Dasgupta's category of "pathological violence" appeared more useful as an analytical category in the construction of women as "perpetrators" and men as "victims" than the notion of "battering." PMID:22996629

  10. Perpetration of Teen Dating Violence in a Networked Society

    PubMed Central

    Ybarra, Michele L.; Langhinrichsen-Rohling, Jennifer; boyd, danah; Lenhart, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Teen dating violence (TDV) is a serious form of youth violence that youth fairly commonly experience. Although youth extensively use computer-mediated communication (CMC), the epidemiology of CMC-based TDV is largely unknown. This study examined how perpetration of psychological TDV using CMC compares and relates to perpetration using longer-standing modes of communication (LSMC; e.g., face-to-face). Data from the national Growing up with Media study involving adolescents aged 14–19 collected from October 2010 to February 2011 and analyzed May 2012 are reported. Analyses focused on adolescents with a history of dating (n=615). Forty-six percent of youth daters had perpetrated psychological TDV. Of those who perpetrated in the past 12 months, 58% used only LSMC, 17% used only CMC, and 24% used both. Use of both CMC and LSMC was more likely among perpetrators who used CMC than among perpetrators who used LSMC. In addition, communication mode and type of psychological TDV behavior were separately related to frequency of perpetration. Finally, history of sexual intercourse was the only characteristic that discriminated between youth who perpetrated using different communication modes. Results suggest that perpetration of psychological TDV using CMC is prevalent and is an extension of perpetration using LSMC. Prevention should focus on preventing perpetration of LSMC-based TDV as doing so would prevent LSMC as well as CMC-based TDV. PMID:23790358

  11. Perpetration of teen dating violence in a networked society.

    PubMed

    Korchmaros, Josephine D; Ybarra, Michele L; Langhinrichsen-Rohling, Jennifer; Boyd, Danah; Lenhart, Amanda

    2013-08-01

    Teen dating violence (TDV) is a serious form of youth violence that youth fairly commonly experience. Although youth extensively use computer-mediated communication (CMC), the epidemiology of CMC-based TDV is largely unknown. This study examined how perpetration of psychological TDV using CMC compares and relates to perpetration using longer-standing modes of communication (LSMC; e.g., face-to-face). Data from the national Growing up with Media study involving adolescents aged 14-19 collected from October 2010 to February 2011 and analyzed May 2012 are reported. Analyses focused on adolescents with a history of dating (n=615). Forty-six percent of youth daters had perpetrated psychological TDV. Of those who perpetrated in the past 12 months, 58% used only LSMC, 17% used only CMC, and 24% used both. Use of both CMC and LSMC was more likely among perpetrators who used CMC than among perpetrators who used LSMC. In addition, communication mode and type of psychological TDV behavior were separately related to frequency of perpetration. Finally, history of sexual intercourse was the only characteristic that discriminated between youth who perpetrated using different communication modes. Results suggest that perpetration of psychological TDV using CMC is prevalent and is an extension of perpetration using LSMC. Prevention should focus on preventing perpetration of LSMC-based TDV as doing so would prevent LSMC as well as CMC-based TDV. PMID:23790358

  12. Intimate Partner Violence: The Role of the Relationship between Perpetrators and Children Who Witness Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Israel, Emily; Stover, Carla

    2009-01-01

    The issue of the father-child relationship has been greatly ignored in the domestic violence research literature. This study investigated whether intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetrated by biological fathers resulted in higher levels of posttraumatic stress symptoms and behavior problems than violence perpetrated by nonbiological fathers and…

  13. Violence in Childhood, Attitudes about Partner Violence, and Partner Violence Perpetration among Men in Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Huyen Tran; Minh, Tran Hung; Krause, Kathleen H.; Schuler, Sidney Ruth; Anh, Hoang Tu; VanderEnde, Kristin; Kramer, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose We assess the association of men's exposure to violence in childhood--witnessing physical violence against one’s mother and being hit or beaten by a parent or adult relative--with their attitudes about intimate partner violence (IPV) against women. We explore whether men’s perpetration of IPV mediates this relationship and whether men’s attitudes about IPV mediate any relationship of exposure to violence in childhood with perpetration of IPV. Methods 522 married men 18–51 years in Vietnam were interviewed. Multivariate regressions for ordinal and binary responses were estimated to assess these relationships. Results Compared to men experiencing neither form of violence in childhood, men experiencing either or both had higher adjusted odds of reporting more reasons to hit a wife (aORs, 95%CIs: 1.43, 1.03–2.00 and 1.66, 1.05–2.64, respectively). Men’s lifetime perpetration of IPV accounted fully for these associations. Compared to men experiencing neither form of violence in childhood, men experiencing either or both had higher adjusted odds of ever perpetrating IPV (aORs, 95%CIs: 3.28, 2.15–4.99 and 4.56, 2.90–7.17, respectively). Attitudes about IPV modestly attenuated these associations. Conclusion Addressing violence in childhood is needed to change men’s risk of perpetrating IPV and greater subsequent justification of it. PMID:24630242

  14. Normative Misperceptions of Abuse Among Perpetrators of Intimate Partner Violence

    PubMed Central

    Neighbors, Clayton; Walker, Denise D.; Mbilinyi, Lyungai F.; O’Rourke, Allison; Edleson, Jeffrey L.; Zegree, Joan; Roffman, Roger A.

    2012-01-01

    This research was designed to evaluate the applicability of social norms approaches to interventions with male perpetrators of intimate partner violence (IPV). Participants included 124 nonadjudicated IPV perpetrating men recruited from the general population who completed assessment of their own IPV behaviors via telephone interviews and estimated the prevalence of behaviors in other men. Results indicated that IPV perpetrators consistently overestimated the percentage of men who engaged in IPV and that their estimates were associated with violence toward their partner over the past 90 days. Findings provide preliminary support for incorporating social norms approaches into clinical applications. PMID:20200408

  15. Community Violence Perpetration and Victimization Among Adults With Mental Illnesses

    PubMed Central

    Van Dorn, Richard A.; Johnson, Kiersten L.; Grimm, Kevin J.; Douglas, Kevin S.; Swartz, Marvin S.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. In a large heterogeneous sample of adults with mental illnesses, we examined the 6-month prevalence and nature of community violence perpetration and victimization, as well as associations between these outcomes. Methods. Baseline data were pooled from 5 studies of adults with mental illnesses from across the United States (n = 4480); the studies took place from 1992 to 2007. The MacArthur Community Violence Screening Instrument was administered to all participants. Results. Prevalence of perpetration ranged from 11.0% to 43.4% across studies, with approximately one quarter (23.9%) of participants reporting violence. Prevalence of victimization was higher overall (30.9%), ranging from 17.0% to 56.6% across studies. Most violence (63.5%) was perpetrated in residential settings. The prevalence of violence-related physical injury was approximately 1 in 10 overall and 1 in 3 for those involved in violent incidents. There were strong associations between perpetration and victimization. Conclusions. Results provided further evidence that adults with mental illnesses experienced violent outcomes at high rates, and that they were more likely to be victims than perpetrators of community violence. There is a critical need for public health interventions designed to reduce violence in this vulnerable population. PMID:24524530

  16. Exploring Alcohol Policy Approaches to Prevent Sexual Violence Perpetration.

    PubMed

    Lippy, Caroline; DeGue, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Sexual violence continues to be a significant public health problem worldwide with serious consequences for individuals and communities. The implementation of prevention strategies that address risk and protective factors for sexual violence at the community level are important components of a comprehensive approach, but few such strategies have been identified or evaluated. The current review explores one potential opportunity for preventing sexual violence perpetration at the community level: alcohol policy. Alcohol policy has the potential to impact sexual violence perpetration through the direct effects of excessive alcohol consumption on behavior or through the impact of alcohol and alcohol outlets on social organization within communities. Policies affecting alcohol pricing, sale time, outlet density, drinking environment, marketing, and college environment are reviewed to identify existing evidence of impact on rates of sexual violence or related outcomes, including risk factors and related health behaviors. Several policy areas with initial evidence of an association with sexual violence outcomes were identified, including policies affecting alcohol pricing, alcohol outlet density, barroom management, sexist content in alcohol marketing, and policies banning alcohol on campus and in substance-free dorms. We identify other policy areas with evidence of an impact on related outcomes and risk factors that may also hold potential as a preventative approach for sexual violence perpetration. Evidence from the current review suggests that alcohol policy may represent one promising avenue for the prevention of sexual violence perpetration at the community level, but additional research is needed to directly examine effects on sexual violence outcomes. PMID:25403447

  17. Longitudinal relationships between individual and class norms supporting dating violence and perpetration of dating violence.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Katherine A; Sullivan, Terri N; Farrell, Albert D

    2015-03-01

    Dating violence is commonly perpetrated in adolescence, making it imperative to understand risk factors in order to inform prevention efforts. Although individual norms supporting dating violence are strongly related to its perpetration, few studies have examined their longitudinal impact. Moreover, the influence of class norms (i.e., norms for students in the same grade, cohort, and school) supporting dating violence on perpetration has rarely been studied. The current study examined longitudinal relationships between individual and class norms supporting dating violence and perpetration of physical and psychological dating violence. Participants were two cohorts of sixth graders from 37 schools who were in dating relationships at Wave 1 and 6 months later at Wave 2 (N = 2,022; 43% female; 52% African American, 21% Latino/a, 20% White, and 7% other). The analyses used a multilevel approach, with students represented at Level 1 and classes (n = 74) at Level 2. The models tested direct effects of Wave 1 individual and class norms supporting dating violence on subsequent changes in perpetration of dating violence at Wave 2 and the extent to which gender moderated these relationships. The findings indicated that greater individual norms supporting male dating violence predicted greater change in perpetration of physical and psychological dating violence and greater individual norms supporting female dating violence predicted greater change in perpetration of psychological dating violence. Greater class norms supporting male dating violence predicted greater change in perpetration of physical dating violence; whereas greater class norms supporting female dating violence predicted less change in perpetration of physical dating violence. These findings highlight the need to address norms in early adolescence. PMID:25274452

  18. Exposure to family violence and attachment styles as predictors of dating violence perpetration among men and women: a mediational model.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mary; Reese-Weber, Marla; Kahn, Jeffrey H

    2014-01-01

    This study examined a multiple mediator model explaining how sibling perpetration and one's attachment style mediate the relation between parent-to-child victimization and dating violence perpetration. A sample of undergraduate students (n = 392 women, n = 89 men) completed measures of the aforementioned variables on an Internet survey. For men, path analyses found no mediation; parent-to-child victimization had a direct association with dating violence perpetration, no association was found between sibling perpetration and dating violence perpetration, and attachment anxiety, but not attachment avoidance, was positively associated with dating violence perpetration for men. For women, the hypothesized mediation model was supported; parent-to-child victimization had a direct association with dating violence perpetration, and sibling perpetration and attachment anxiety served as mediating variables. Attachment avoidance was not associated with dating violence perpetration for women. Implications for future research and clinical practice are discussed. PMID:24097907

  19. Experiential Avoidance and Male Dating Violence Perpetration: An Initial Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Shorey, Ryan C.; Elmquist, JoAnna; Zucosky, Heather; Febres, Jeniimarie; Brasfield, Hope; Stuart, Gregory L.

    2014-01-01

    Dating violence among college students represents a prevalent and serious problem. An abundance of research has examined risk and protective factors for dating violence, although only recently has research begun to focus on risk and protective factors that could be amenable to change in intervention programs. One potential risk factor for dating violence may be experiential avoidance. Using the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire - II (AAQ-II; Bond et al., 2011), we examined whether experiential avoidance was associated with male perpetrated dating violence after controlling for age, relationship satisfaction, and alcohol use. Within a sample of male college students in a current dating relationship (N = 109) results demonstrated that experiential avoidance was positively associated with psychological, physical, and sexual aggression perpetration, and that it remained associated with psychological and sexual aggression after controlling for age, relationship satisfaction, and alcohol use. The implications of these findings for future research and prevention programs are discussed. PMID:24955326

  20. Axis I Psychopathology and the Perpetration of Intimate Partner Violence

    PubMed Central

    Crane, Cory A.; Hawes, Samuel W.; Devine, Susan; Easton, Caroline J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Initial evidence suggests that individuals with specific psychiatric conditions may perpetrate intimate partner violence (IPV) at greater frequency than non-diagnosed comparison samples. The present investigation examined the relationship between IPV and specific clinical diagnoses. Method The current investigation utilized data provided by 190 (34% female) adult offenders during court-mandated substance use evaluations to investigate the incidence of past-year IPV among samples of dual diagnosed (bipolar, PTSD, and ADHD) clients relative to 3 comparison samples matched on substance use and sociodemographic variables. Results Bipolar and PTSD diagnosed participants were more likely to perpetrate IPV than matched comparison and ADHD participants. Bipolar and PTSD diagnosed participants were equally likely to perpetrate IPV, as were ADHD and matched comparison samples. Conclusions The frequency of IPV perpetration among bipolar and PTSD diagnosed clients may complicate interpersonal and relationship functioning. The development of integrated treatments for IPV and underlying psychopathology are recommended. PMID:23824500

  1. Youth Experiences of Family Violence and Teen Dating Violence Perpetration: Cognitive and Emotional Mediators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jouriles, Ernest N.; McDonald, Renee; Mueller, Victoria; Grych, John H.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a conceptual model of cognitive and emotional processes proposed to mediate the relation between youth exposure to family violence and teen dating violence perpetration. Explicit beliefs about violence, internal knowledge structures, and executive functioning are hypothesized as cognitive mediators, and their potential…

  2. Community Violence, Social Support Networks, Ethnic Group Differences, and Male Perpetration of Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raghavan, Chitra; Rajah, Valli; Gentile, Katie; Collado, Lillian; Kavanagh, Ann Marie

    2009-01-01

    The authors examined how witnessing community violence influenced social support networks and how these networks were associated with male-to-female intimate partner violence (IPV) in ethnically diverse male college students. The authors assessed whether male social support members themselves had perpetrated IPV (male network violence) and whether…

  3. Typologies of Adolescent Dating Violence: Identifying Typologies of Adolescent Dating Violence Perpetration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foshee, Vangie A.; Bauman, Karl E.; Linder, Fletcher; Rice, Jennifer; Wilcher, Rose

    2007-01-01

    Acts scales, the most common way of measuring partner violence, have been criticized for being too simplistic to capture the complexities of partner violence. An alternative measurement approach is to use typologies that consider various aspects of context. In this study, the authors identified typologies of dating violence perpetration by…

  4. Prediction of Violence Perpetration Among High-Risk Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sussman, Steve; Skara, Silvana; Weiner, Michelle D.; Dent, Clyde W.

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To prospectively examine demographic background, personality, perceived environment, and behavior as violence perpetration predictors in emerging adulthood among high-risk adolescents using problem-behavior theory as a conceptual perspective. Methods: Self-report questionnaires were administered 5 years apart to 676 participants.…

  5. Witness of Intimate Partner Violence in Childhood and Perpetration of Intimate Partner Violence in Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Andrea L.; Gilman, Stephen E.; Fitzmaurice, Garrett; Decker, Michele R.; Koenen, Karestan C.

    2011-01-01

    Background At least half a million women are victims of intimate partner violence in the United States annually, resulting in substantial harm. However, the etiology of violence to intimate partners is not well understood. Witnessing such violence in childhood has been proposed as a principal cause of adulthood perpetration, yet it remains unknown whether the association between witnessing intimate partner violence and adulthood perpetration is causal. Method We conducted a propensity-score analysis of intimate partner violence perpetration to determine whether childhood witnessing is associated with perpetration in adulthood, independent of a wide range of potential confounding variables, and therefore might be a causal factor. We used data from 14,564 U.S. men ages 20 and older from the 2004–2005 wave of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Results Nearly 4% of men reported violent behavior toward an intimate partner in the past year. In unadjusted models, we found a strong association between childhood witnessing of intimate partner violence and adulthood perpetration (for witnessing any intimate partner violence, risk ratio [RR] = 2.6 [95% confidence interval = 2.1–3.2]; for witnessing frequent or serious violence, 3.0 [2.3–3.9]). In propensity-score models, the association was substantially attenuated (for witnessing any intimate partner violence, adjusted RR = 1.6 [1.2–2.0]; for witnessing frequent or serious violence, 1.6 [1.2–2.3]). Conclusions Men who witness intimate partner violence in childhood are more likely to commit such acts in adulthood, compared with men who are otherwise similar with respect to a large range of potential confounders. Etiological models of intimate partner violence perpetration should consider a constellation of childhood factors. PMID:20811285

  6. Heavy alcohol use and dating violence perpetration during adolescence: family, peer and neighborhood violence as moderators.

    PubMed

    McNaughton Reyes, Heathe Luz; Foshee, Vangie A; Bauer, Daniel J; Ennett, Susan T

    2012-08-01

    We examined the hypothesis that family, peer and neighborhood violence would moderate relations between heavy alcohol use and adolescent dating violence perpetration such that relations would be stronger for teens in violent contexts. Random coefficients growth models were used to examine the main and interaction effects of heavy alcohol use and four measures of violence (family violence, friend dating violence, friend peer violence and neighborhood violence) on levels of physical dating violence perpetration across grades 8 through 12. The effects of heavy alcohol use on dating violence tended to diminish over time and were stronger in the spring than in the fall semesters. Consistent with hypotheses, across all grades, relations between heavy alcohol use and dating violence were stronger for teens exposed to higher levels of family violence and friend dating violence. However, neither friend peer violence nor neighborhood violence moderated relations between alcohol use and dating violence. Taken together, findings suggest that as adolescents grow older, individual and contextual moderators may play an increasingly important role in explaining individual differences in relations between alcohol use and dating violence. Implications for the design and evaluation of dating abuse prevention programs are discussed. PMID:21494801

  7. Preventing youth violence perpetration among girls.

    PubMed

    Massetti, Greta M; Vivolo, Alana M; Brookmeyer, Kathryn; Degue, Sarah; Holland, Kristin M; Holt, Melissa K; Matjasko, Jennifer L

    2011-10-01

    In the last 10 years, several reviews of research on violence among girls have been conducted. This research helps to determine the extent of girls' use of violence however, it has not been translated into effective prevention programs for girls. This article reviews the research on risk and protective factors associated with violence, with particular attention on factors unique to girls or shared between boys and girls. Individual risk factors for youth violence include hyperactivity/inattention/impulsivity, risk taking/sensation seeking, low academic achievement, exposure to stress and victimization, and early puberty. Parent-child relationships/parental monitoring and supervision, parent criminal and antisocial behavior, and family conflicts and instability have been found to be relationship-level risk factors. Peer risk factors include deviant peer affiliation and gang membership. Risk factors at the community level include economic deprivation; community disorganization; the availability of drugs, alcohol, and firearms; and neighborhood crime. This review also includes a description of program effects for girls within the Model and Promising Blueprints for Violence Prevention Initiative programs. Very few evaluations have examined program effectiveness in preventing violence among girls. More evaluation research is needed to determine if evidence-based programs have positive impact on reducing violence and related risk factors among girls. PMID:21875306

  8. Explaining the link between violence perpetration, victimization and drug use.

    PubMed

    Weiner, Michelle D; Sussman, Steve; Sun, Ping; Dent, Clyde

    2005-07-01

    This study examined relationships between illegal and legal drug use and violence perpetration and victimization as well as possible mediators of these relationships. Subjects were continuation high school students followed prospectively over 5 years. Results indicated that illegal drug use predicted violence and victimization 5 years later and that earlier victimization was also associated with later illegal drug use. A measure intending to tap a psychopharmacological effects system, consistent with its definition in [Goldstein, P. J. (1985). The drugs/violence nexus: A tripartite conceptual framework. Journal of Drug Issues, 15(4), 493-506] tripartite model, was found to mediate the relationships between illegal drug use and victimization and violence. Results suggest that violence and victimization prevention efforts may benefit by addressing the psychopharmacological effects of adolescent illegal drug use. PMID:15925136

  9. Characteristics of female perpetrators and victims of dating violence.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Sarah F; Travea, Laura; Fremouw, William J

    2002-10-01

    Although many researchers have explored the topic of dating violence, limited attention has been paid to female perpetrators. Very little research has examined variables that facilitate aggression for females in dating relationships. In an effort to investigate distinct types of violent behavior, the present study separated females who experience dating violence into three categories (bi-directional aggression, perpetrator-only, and victim-only) and compared them with a control group not previously exposed to interpersonal violence. The purpose of this study was to examine variables that discriminate violent females from non-violent females. Variables that were hypothesized to be associated with aggressive behavior and investigated in the current study were interparental aggression, self-esteem, love attitudes, and alcohol use. Three hundred female college students responded to multiple self-report questionnaires examining psychological correlates of dating violence. Females in the bi-directional aggression group were more likely to have witnessed their father abuse their mother and scored significantly lower on a measure of self-esteem than non-violent controls. Females in the control group demonstrated higher scores on a measure of mature and selfless love style than did the victim or perpetrator-only participants. There were no significant group differences regarding general alcohol consumption. Implications for prevention and intervention are presented and discussed. PMID:12477100

  10. Premigration Exposure to Political Violence and Perpetration of Intimate Partner Violence Among Immigrant Men in Boston

    PubMed Central

    Acevedo-Garcia, Dolores; Hemenway, David; Decker, Michele R.; Raj, Anita; Silverman, Jay G.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We examined associations between premigration political violence exposure and past-year intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration among immigrant men attending community health centers in Boston. Methods. A convenience sample of immigrant men (N = 379; aged 18–35 years), largely from the Caribbean and Cape Verde, who attend community health centers, completed an anonymous, cross-sectional survey on risk and protective factors for male-perpetrated IPV and respondents’ exposure to political violence. Results. One in 5 (20.1%) immigrant men reported that they were exposed to political violence before arrival in the United States. Men reporting political violence exposure were significantly more likely to report IPV perpetration than were men not reporting such exposure (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.84; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.41, 5.74). Significant associations with political violence exposure were observed for both physical (AOR = 2.69; 95% CI = 1.11, 6.54) and sexual (AOR = 2.37; 95% CI = 1.04, 5.44) IPV perpetration. Conclusions. To our knowledge, our findings document for the first time the significant association between premigration political violence exposure and recent IPV perpetration among immigrant men. Additional work is needed to examine underlying mechanisms to inform culturally appropriate programs. PMID:18703450

  11. How Much Does School Matter? An Examination of Adolescent Dating Violence Perpetration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnurr, Melissa P.; Lohman, Brenda J.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was two-fold: (1) to identify how school factors were related to perpetration of dating violence among adolescents; and (2) to assess how these factors may reduce or exacerbate the relationship between parental domestic violence and adolescents' perpetration of dating violence, while accounting for individual and family…

  12. Exposure to violence, typology, and recidivism in a probation sample of domestic violence perpetrators.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Drew R; Cantos, Arthur L; Miller, Steven A

    2016-09-01

    The present study investigated the predictive utility of self-reported domestic violence perpetrators' exposure to violence in their family of origin and patterns related to this exposure through the use of longitudinal analyses on a sample of 228 men on probation in Lake County, Illinois. Differences in typology, recidivism, recidivism frequency, and violent behavior survival patterns in men with a history of domestic violence perpetration and with varying levels of family of origin violence exposure were examined. Findings suggest that those who witnessed interparental violence (either alone, or in combination with experiencing violence) were most likely to be classified as Generally Violent offenders (e.g., perpetrators who direct violence toward their family and others), compared to those who did not report experiencing or witnessing violence. In addition, results also indicate that men who experienced both witnessing interparental violence and receiving physical abuse in childhood were more likely to recidivate more frequently compared to those who did not report experiencing or witnessing violence. No significant findings for typology and recidivism were noted. Clinical and policy/practice implications are discussed. PMID:27521763

  13. Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration by Court-Ordered Men: Distinctions among Subtypes of Physical Violence, Sexual Violence, Psychological Abuse, and Stalking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Jeffrey E.; Walters, Mikel L.; Basile, Kathleen C.

    2012-01-01

    This study continues previous work documenting the structure of violence perpetrated by males against their female intimate partners. It assesses the construct validity of a measurement model depicting associations among eight subtypes of perpetration: moderate physical violence, severe physical violence, forced or coerced sexual violence, sexual…

  14. Worker-to-Worker Violence in Hospitals: Perpetrator Characteristics and Common Dyads.

    PubMed

    Hamblin, Lydia E; Essenmacher, Lynnette; Ager, Joel; Upfal, Mark; Luborsky, Mark; Russell, Jim; Arnetz, Judith

    2016-02-01

    Worker-to-worker (Type III) violence is prevalent in health care settings and has potential adverse consequences for employees and organizations. Little research has examined perpetrator characteristics of this type of violence. The current study is a descriptive examination of the common demographic and work-related characteristics of perpetrators of Type III workplace violence among hospital workers. Analysis was based on documented incidents of Type III violence reported within a large hospital system from 2010 to 2012. Nurses were involved as either the perpetrator or target in the five most common perpetrator-target dyads. Incidence rate ratios revealed that patient care associates and nurses were significantly more likely to be perpetrators than other job titles. By examining characteristics of perpetrators and common worker dyads involved in Type III workplace violence, hospital stakeholders and unit supervisors have a starting point to develop strategies for reducing conflict between workers. PMID:26450899

  15. Turning points for perpetrators of intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Sheehan, Kathleen A; Thakor, Sumaiya; Stewart, Donna E

    2012-01-01

    Understanding why and how perpetrators of intimate partner violence (IPV) change their behavior is an important goal for both policy development and clinical practice. In this study, the authors investigated the concept of "turning points" for perpetrators of IPV by conducting a systematic review of qualitative studies that investigated the factors, situations, and attitudes that facilitated perpetrators' decisions to change their abusive behavior. Two literature databases were searched and six studies were found that met the inclusion criteria for the systematic review. Most included participants from batterer intervention programs (BIPs). The data indicate that community, group, and individual processes all contribute to perpetrators' turning points and behavioral change. These include identifying key incidents that precede change, taking responsibility for past behavior, learning new skills, and developing relationships within and outside of the BIP. By using a qualitative systematic review, the authors were able to generate a more complete understanding of the catalysts for and process of change in these individuals. Further research, combining quantitative and qualitative approaches, will be helpful in the modification of existing BIPs and the development of new interventions to reduce IPV. PMID:22096016

  16. Does Child Abuse and Neglect Increase Risk for Perpetration of Violence Inside and Outside the Home?

    PubMed Central

    Milaniak, Izabela; Widom, Cathy Spatz

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine the extent to which abused and neglected children perpetrate three different types of violence within and outside the home: criminal, child abuse, and intimate partner violence and determine whether childhood maltreatment leads to an increased risk for poly-violence perpetration. Method: Using data from a prospective cohort design study, children (ages 0-11) with documented histories of physical and sexual abuse and/or neglect (n = 676) were matched with children without such histories (n = 520) and assessed in young adulthood (average age 29). Official criminal records in conjunction with self-report data were used to assess violent outcomes. Results: Compared to the control group, individuals with histories of child abuse and/or neglect were significantly more likely to be poly-violence perpetrators, perpetrating violence in all three domains (relative risk = 1.26). All forms of childhood maltreatment (physical and sexual abuse and neglect) significantly predicted poly-violence perpetration. Conclusions: These findings expand the cycle of violence literature by combining the distinct literatures on criminal violence, child abuse, and partner violence to call attention to the phenomenon of poly-violence perpetration by maltreated children. Future research should examine the characteristics of maltreated children who become poly-violence perpetrators and mechanisms that lead to these outcomes. PMID:26191459

  17. Examining explanations for the link between bullying perpetration and physical dating violence perpetration: Do they vary by bullying victimization?

    PubMed

    Foshee, Vangie A; Benefield, Thad S; McNaughton Reyes, Heath Luz; Eastman, Meridith; Vivolo-Kantor, Alana M; Basile, Kathleen C; Ennett, Susan T; Faris, Robert

    2016-01-01

    This short-term longitudinal study examined whether the association between bullying perpetration and later physical dating violence perpetration and mediators of that association (via anger, depression, anxiety, and social status), varied depending on level of bullying victimization. Differences have been noted between those who bully but are not victims of bullying, and those who are both bullies and victims. These differences may influence dating violence risk and the explanations for why bullying leads to dating violence. Data were from dating adolescents in three rural counties who completed self-administered questionnaires in the fall semester of grades 8-10 and again in the spring semester. The sample (N = 2,414) was 44.08% male and 61.31% white. Bullying perpetration in the fall semester predicted physical dating violence perpetration in the spring semester when there was no bullying victimization, but not when there was any bullying victimization. Bullying perpetration was positively associated with anger at all levels of bullying victimization and with social status when there was no or low amounts of victimization; it was negatively associated with social status at high levels of victimization. Bullying victimization was positively associated with anger, depression, and anxiety at all levels of bullying perpetration. Anger mediated the association between bullying perpetration and dating violence, regardless of level of victimization; depression, anxiety, and social status did not mediate the association at any level of bullying victimization. The findings have implications for dating violence prevention efforts and for future research on the link between bullying and dating violence. PMID:26299840

  18. Brief report: Associations between adolescent girls' social-emotional intelligence and violence perpetration.

    PubMed

    Gower, Amy L; Shlafer, Rebecca J; Polan, Julie; McRee, Annie-Laurie; McMorris, Barbara J; Pettingell, Sandra L; Sieving, Renee E

    2014-01-01

    This study examined associations between social-emotional intelligence (SEI) and two measures of violence perpetration (relational aggression and physical violence) in a cross-sectional sample of high-risk adolescent girls (N = 253). We evaluated three aspects of SEI: stress management, intrapersonal, and interpersonal skills. Results of a multiple linear regression model accounting for participants' age, race/ethnicity, and experiences of relational aggression victimization indicated that girls with better stress management skills were less likely to perpetrate relational aggression. A parallel model for perpetration of physical violence showed a similar pattern of results. Study findings suggest that SEI, and stress management skills in particular, may protect adolescent girls - including those who have been victims of violence - from perpetrating relational aggression and physical violence. Interventions that build adolescent girls' social and emotional skills may be an effective strategy for reducing their perpetration of violence. PMID:24331306

  19. How Useful Are Indices of Personality Pathology when Assessing Domestic Violence Perpetrators?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbons, Peter; Collins, Marjorie; Reid, Corinne

    2011-01-01

    There has been considerable debate about profiling personality pathology when assessing and treating male perpetrators of domestic violence (DV). This study used the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI-III) to explore the severity and diversity of male perpetrator personality pathology and response bias in a group of DV perpetrators being…

  20. The Perpetration of School Violence in Taiwan: An Analysis of Gender, Grade Level and School Type

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Ji-Kang; Astor, Ron Avi

    2009-01-01

    Using a nationally representative sample in Taiwan, this study aims to describe the prevalence of perpetration of school violence in Taiwan. The study explores how gender, age and school type relate to students' perpetration of violence in an Asian culture context. The sample included 14,022 students from elementary to high schools in grades 4 to…

  1. Engaging in Violence on American Television: A Comparison of Child, Teen, and Adult Perpetrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Barbara J.; Colvin, Carolyn M.; Smith, Stacy L.

    2002-01-01

    Examines the perpetrators of violence on American television in terms of their chronological age. Compares the amount and nature of violence committed by child and teen characters to that committed by adult characters. Suggests that younger perpetrators are depicted in several ways that pose risks for the child viewer. (SG)

  2. Drug Offers as a Context for Violence Perpetration and Victimization

    PubMed Central

    Helm, Susana; Okamoto, Scott; Kaliades, Alexis; Giroux, Danielle

    2014-01-01

    Objective Drug use has been linked empirically with aggression and violence among youth in national and State of Hawai`i samples. However, the nature of this link and its implications for prevention are unclear. Therefore, this paper explores the intersection of drugs with aggression and violence by using the drug offer context as the unit of analysis. Method Native Hawaiian youth are sampled because substance use rates tend to be higher and onset tends to be earlier than their non-Hawaiian peers. Fourteen sex-specific focus group discussions were held with rural Native Hawaiian middle school students (N=64). Students discussed what they thought they would do in terms of drug refusal strategies in a variety of drug offer contexts. Results While aggression and violence were perceived to be socially inappropriate, students nonetheless felt drug use would be less socially competent. Narrative analyses indicated aggression and violence were perceived to function as potential drug refusal strategies. As proximal drug resistance, aggression and violence perpetration served as an immediate deterrent to the drug offerer, and thus drug use. As distal drug resistance, victimization served as a rationale for avoiding drug using contexts. Conclusions Implications are discussed in terms of prevention policy and practice, specifically in terms of a school-based prevention curriculum. Future research in Hawaiian epistemology and gendered approaches are warranted. PMID:24564559

  3. Male Perpetrators of Intimate Partner Violence and Implicit Attitudes toward Violence: Associations with Treatment Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Eckhardt, Christopher I.; Crane, Cory A.

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined the associations among implicit attitudes toward factors related to intimate partner violence (IPV) and objective, behavioral outcomes of participants legally mandated to attend partner violence interventions. Twenty-six male offenders, adjudicated within the past month on IPV charges, completed three sets of gender and violence themed implicit associations tests (IATs) to evaluate the relationships between implicit evaluations of women and violence and three key outcome measures assessed six months after enrollment in the study: self-reported prior year IPV perpetration, completion of a court-mandated partner abuse program, and criminal reoffending. IAT results indicated that more rapid associations between violence-related words and positive valences, rather than gender evaluations or associations between gender and violence, were associated with greater IPV perpetration during the year prior to involvement in the study as well as with poorer outcomes (i.e., greater treatment non-compliance and criminal recidivism) at the 6-month follow-up. Among explicit measures, only negative partner violence outcome expectancies were marginally associated with treatment compliance. None of the explicit measures predicted previous violence or recidivism. The findings are discussed in the context of reducing violence through promoting implicit cognitive change. PMID:25598562

  4. Media Portrayals of Female Perpetrators of Intimate Partner Violence.

    PubMed

    Carlyle, Kellie E; Scarduzio, Jennifer A; Slater, Michael D

    2014-02-01

    Preventing intimate partner violence (IPV) is a public health priority. An important component of designing prevention programs is developing an understanding of how media portrayals of health issues influence public opinion and policy. To better understand the ways in which media images may be informing our understanding of IPV, this study content analyzed portrayals of IPV in news media articles. Stratified media outlets were used to obtain a representative sample of daily newspapers based on their designated market areas. Researchers created constructed months using weeks from each season across a 2-year period. The first part of the study investigated quantitative differences in the coverage of female and male perpetrators (n = 395) and identified several areas where coverage differed. The second part of the study qualitatively examined coverage of female perpetrators (n = 61) to provide a richer description of such coverage. This study contributes to our understanding of female perpetrators and how these portrayals may contribute to the larger gender symmetry debate surrounding female aggressors. Implications for public health policy and research are discussed. PMID:24505087

  5. Differences in Female and Male Victims and Perpetrators of Partner Violence with Respect to Web Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houry, Debra; Rhodes, Karin V.; Kemball, Robin S.; Click, Lorie; Cerulli, Catherine; McNutt, Louise Anne; Kaslow, Nadine J.

    2008-01-01

    Measurements of intimate partner violence (IPV) based on acts of violence have repeatedly found substantial bilateral violence between intimates. However, the context of this violence is not well defined by acts alone. The objective of this research was to compare differences in women and men within each IPV status category (victim, perpetrator,…

  6. Past Victimizations and Dating Violence Perpetration in Adolescence: The Mediating Role of Emotional Distress and Hostility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boivin, Sophie; Lavoie, Francine; Hebert, Martine; Gagne, Marie-Helene

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to understand the nature of the relationships between three forms of past victimizations (exposure to interparental violence in childhood, sexual harassment by peers since beginning high school, prior experience of dating violence), physical dating violence perpetration by adolescents, and anger-hostility and emotional distress.…

  7. Peer Violence Perpetration among Urban Adolescents: Dispelling the Myth of the Violent Immigrant

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almeida, Joanna; Johnson, Renee M.; McNamara, Mariah; Gupta, Jhumka

    2011-01-01

    Researchers have found an inverse relationship between immigrant status and violence perpetration. Most studies have examined Mexican immigrants, and few have assessed immigration factors other than nativity. Additionally, the majority have focused on the most serious forms of violence despite the fact that moderate violence is more common. Using…

  8. Individual and Family Predictors of the Perpetration of Dating Violence and Victimization in Late Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makin-Byrd, Kerry; Bierman, Karen L.

    2013-01-01

    Teen dating violence is a crime of national concern with approximately one-fourth of adolescents reporting victimization of physical, psychological, or sexual dating violence each year. The present study examined how aggressive family dynamics in both childhood and early adolescence predicted the perpetration of dating violence and victimization…

  9. Measuring Sex Differences in Violence Victimization and Perpetration within Date and Same-Sex Peer Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swahn, Monica H.; Simon, Thomas R.; Arias, Ileana; Bossarte, Robert M.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines sex differences in the patterns of repeated perpetration and victimization of physical violence and psychological aggression within dating relationships and same-sex peer relationships. Data were obtained from the Youth Violence Survey: Linkages among Different Forms of Violence, conducted in 2004, and administered to all…

  10. Male perpetration of teen dating violence: associations with neighborhood violence involvement, gender attitudes, and perceived peer and neighborhood norms.

    PubMed

    Reed, Elizabeth; Silverman, Jay G; Raj, Anita; Decker, Michele R; Miller, Elizabeth

    2011-04-01

    This study aims to examine the link between male perpetration of teen dating violence (TDV) and neighborhood violence, as well as associations with gender attitudes and perceived peer and neighborhood norms related to violence among a sample of urban adolescent boys. Participants of this cross-sectional study (N = 275) were between the ages of 14 and 20 years and recruited from urban community health centers. Crude and adjusted logistic and linear regression models were used to examine TDV perpetration in relation to (a) neighborhood violence involvement, (b) perceptions of peer violence, (c) perceptions of neighborhood violence, and (d) gender attitudes. Slightly more than one in four (28%) boys reported at least one form of TDV perpetration; among boys who have ever had sex, almost half (45%) reported at least one form of TDV perpetration. In logistic and linear regression models adjusted for demographics, boys who reported TDV perpetration were more likely to report involvement in neighborhood violence (odds ratio (OR) = 3.1; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.7-5.5), beliefs that their friends have perpetrated TDV (OR = 2.7; 95%CI = 1.4-5.1), perceptions of violent activity within their neighborhood (OR = 3.0; 95%CI = 1.4-6.3), and greater support of traditional gender norms (β = 3.2, p = 0.002). The findings suggest that efforts are needed to address boys' behaviors related to the perpetration of multiple forms of violence and require explicit efforts to reduce perceived norms of violence perpetration as well as problematic gender attitudes (e.g., increasing support for gender equity) across boys' life contexts. PMID:21311987

  11. Gender Role Attitudes and Male Adolescent Dating Violence Perpetration: Normative Beliefs as Moderators.

    PubMed

    Reyes, H Luz McNaughton; Foshee, Vangie A; Niolon, Phyllis Holditch; Reidy, Dennis E; Hall, Jeffrey E

    2016-02-01

    Commonly used dating violence prevention programs assume that promotion of more egalitarian gender role attitudes will prevent dating violence perpetration. Empirical research examining this assumption, however, is limited and inconsistent. The current study examined the longitudinal association between gender role attitudes and physical dating violence perpetration among adolescent boys (n = 577; 14 % Black, 5 % other race/ethnicity) and examined whether injunctive (i.e., acceptance of dating violence) and descriptive (i.e., beliefs about dating violence prevalence) normative beliefs moderated the association. As expected, the findings suggest that traditional gender role attitudes at T1 were associated with increased risk for dating violence perpetration 18 months later (T2) among boys who reported high, but not low, acceptance of dating violence (injunctive normative beliefs) at T1. Descriptive norms did not moderate the effect of gender role attitudes on dating violence perpetration. The results suggest that injunctive norms and gender role attitudes work synergistically to increase risk for dating violence perpetration among boys; as such, simultaneously targeting both of these constructs may be an effective prevention approach. PMID:25831994

  12. Anger, Hostility, Internalizing Negative Emotions, and Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration: A Meta-Analytic Review

    PubMed Central

    Birkley, Erica; Eckhardt, Christopher I.

    2015-01-01

    Prior reviews have identified elevated trait anger as a risk factor for intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration. Given that 10 years have passed since the last comprehensive review of this literature, we provide an updated meta-analytic review examining associations among anger, hostility, internalizing negative emotions, and IPV for male and female perpetrators. One hundred and five effect sizes from 64 independent samples (61 studies) were included for analysis. IPV perpetration was moderately associated with the constructs of anger, hostility, and internalizing negative emotions. This association appeared stronger for those who perpetrated moderate to severe IPV compared to those who perpetrated low to moderate IPV, and did not vary across perpetrator sex, measurement method, relationship type, or perpetrator population. Implications and limitations of findings were reviewed in the context of theoretical models of IPV, and future directions for empirical and clinical endeavors were proposed. PMID:25752947

  13. Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Police-Reported Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration: A Mixed Methods Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipsky, Sherry; Cristofalo, Meg; Reed, Sarah; Caetano, Raul; Roy-Byrne, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine racial and ethnic disparities in perpetrator and incident characteristics and discrepancies between police charges and reported perpetrator behaviors in police-reported intimate partner violence (IPV). This cross-sectional study used standardized police data and victim narratives of IPV incidents…

  14. Violence witnessing, perpetrating and victimization in medellin, Colombia: a random population survey

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The burden of injury from violence and the costs attributable to violence are extremely high in Colombia. Despite a dramatic decline in homicides over the last ten years, homicide rate in Medellin, Colombia second largest city continues to rank among the highest of cities in Latin America. This study aims to estimate the prevalence and distribution of witnesses, victims and perpetrators of different forms of interpersonal violence in a representative sample of the general population in Medellin in 2007. Methods A face-to-face survey was carried out on a random selected, non-institutionalized population aged 12 to 60 years, with a response rate of 91% yielding 2,095 interview responses. Results We present the rates of prevalence for having been a witness, victim, or perpetrator for different forms of violence standardized using the WHO truncated population pyramid to allow for cross-national comparison. We also present data on verbal aggression, fraud and deception, yelling and heavy pranks, unarmed aggression during last year, and armed threat, other severe threats, robbery, armed physical aggression, and sexual aggression during the lifetime, by age, sex, marital and socioeconomic status, and education. Men reported the highest prevalence of being victims, perpetrators and witnesses in all forms of violence, except for robbery and sexual violence. The number of victims per perpetrator was positively correlated with the severity of the type of violence. The highest victimization proportions over the previous twelve months occurred among minors. Perpetrators are typically young unmarried males from lower socio-economic strata. Conclusions Due to very low proportion of victimization report to authorities, periodic surveys should be included in systems for epidemiological monitoring of violence, not only of victimization but also for perpetrators. Victimization information allows quantifying the magnitude of different forms of violence, while data on

  15. Peer violence perpetration among urban adolescents: Dispelling the myth of the violent immigrant

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Joanna; Johnson, Renee M.; McNamara, Mariah; Gupta, Jhumka

    2011-01-01

    Researchers have found an inverse relationship between immigrant status and violence perpetration. Most studies have examined Mexican immigrants, and few have assessed immigration factors other than nativity. Additionally, the majority have focused on the most serious forms of violence despite the fact that moderate violence is more common. Using data from the 2008 Boston Youth Survey, we generated prevalence estimates of peer violence perpetration across immigration related factors, examined whether risk factors for peer violence differed by these variables, and explored the contribution of risk factors to peer violence perpetration. Recent immigrants had a significantly lower prevalence of peer violence compared to each other generations/time in U.S. group. Known risk factors for violence perpetration varied by generation/time in U.S.: compared to other groups, recent immigrants were less likely to have used substances, and were more likely earn A’s and B’s in school. Recent immigrants had a significantly lower risk of violence perpetration relative to U.S.-born (RR = 0.35, 95% CI: 0.19, 0.62). Adjusting for known risk factors did not attenuate differences in risk. While immigrant youth had a lower risk of peer violence, the protective effect was diminished among immigrants who had resided in the U.S. for >4 years. This pattern demonstrates that negative assimilation occurs within the first generation, not just across generations. Results suggest that perpetration of violence worsens with increased time in the U.S. Research is needed to identify factors that contribute to the acquisition of behaviors such as violence among recently arrived immigrant youth. PMID:21156691

  16. Substance Use as a Longitudinal Predictor of the Perpetration of Teen Dating Violence

    PubMed Central

    Shorey, Ryan C.; Fite, Paula; Stuart, Gregory; Le, Vi Donna

    2013-01-01

    The prevention of teen dating violence is a major public health priority. However, the dearth of longitudinal studies makes it difficult to develop programs that effectively target salient risk factors. Using a school-based sample of ethnically diverse adolescents, this longitudinal study examined whether substance use (alcohol, marijuana, and hard drugs) and exposure to parental violence predicted the perpetration of physical dating violence over time. 1,042 9th and 10th grade high schools students were recruited and assessed in the spring of 2010, and 93% of the original sample completed the 1-year follow-up in the spring of 2011. Participants who had begun dating at the initial assessment and who self-identified as African American (n = 263; 32%), Caucasian (n = 272; 33%), or Hispanic (n = 293; 35%) were included in the current analyses (n = 828; 55% female). Slightly more than half of the adolescents who perpetrated dating violence at baseline reported past year dating violence at follow-up, relative to only 11% of adolescents who did not report perpetrating dating violence at baseline. Structural equation modeling revealed that the use of alcohol and hard drugs at baseline predicted the future perpetration of physical dating violence, even after accounting for the effects of baseline dating violence and exposure to interparental violence. Despite differences in the prevalence of key variables between males and females, the longitudinal associations did not vary by gender. With respect to race, exposure to mother-to-father violence predicted the perpetration of dating violence among Caucasian adolescents. Findings from the current study indicate that targeting substance use, and potentially youth from violent households, may be viable approaches to preventing the perpetration of teen dating violence. PMID:23187699

  17. Peer violence perpetration among urban adolescents: dispelling the myth of the violent immigrant.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Joanna; Johnson, Renee M; McNamara, Mariah; Gupta, Jhumka

    2011-09-01

    Researchers have found an inverse relationship between immigrant status and violence perpetration. Most studies have examined Mexican immigrants, and few have assessed immigration factors other than nativity. Additionally, the majority have focused on the most serious forms of violence despite the fact that moderate violence is more common. Using data from the 2008 Boston Youth Survey, we generated prevalence estimates of peer violence perpetration across immigration related factors, examined whether risk factors for peer violence differed by these variables, and explored the contribution of risk factors to peer violence perpetration. Recent immigrants had a significantly lower prevalence of peer violence compared to each other generations/time in U.S. group. Known risk factors for violence perpetration varied by generation/time in U.S.: compared to other groups, recent immigrants were less likely to have used substances, and were more likely earn A's and B's in school. Recent immigrants had a significantly lower risk of violence perpetration relative to U.S.-born (RR = 0.35, 95% CI: 0.19, 0.62). Adjusting for known risk factors did not attenuate differences in risk. While immigrant youth had a lower risk of peer violence, the protective effect was diminished among immigrants who had resided in the U.S. for >4 years. This pattern demonstrates that negative assimilation occurs within the first generation, not just across generations. Results suggest that perpetration of violence worsens with increased time in the U.S. Research is needed to identify factors that contribute to the acquisition of behaviors such as violence among recently arrived immigrant youth. PMID:21156691

  18. Prevalence rates of male and female sexual violence perpetrators in a national sample of adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ybarra, Michele L; Mitchell, Kimberly J

    2013-12-01

    IMPORTANCE Sexual violence can emerge in adolescence, yet little is known about youth perpetrators-especially those not involved with the criminal justice system. OBJECTIVE To report national estimates of adolescent sexual violence perpetration and details of the perpetrator experience. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Data were collected online in 2010 (wave 4) and 2011 (wave 5) in the national Growing Up With Media study. Participants included 1058 youths aged 14 to 21 years who at baseline read English, lived in the household at least 50% of the time, and had used the Internet in the last 6 months. Recruitment was balanced on youths' biological sex and age. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Forced sexual contact, coercive sex, attempted rape, and completed rape. RESULTS Nearly 1 in 10 youths (9%) reported some type of sexual violence perpetration in their lifetime; 4% (10 females and 39 males) reported attempted or completed rape. Sixteen years old was the mode age of first sexual perpetration (n = 18 [40%]). Perpetrators reported greater exposure to violent X-rated content. Almost all perpetrators (98%) who reported age at first perpetration to be 15 years or younger were male, with similar but attenuated results among those who began at ages 16 or 17 years (90%). It is not until ages 18 or 19 years that males (52%) and females (48%) are relatively equally represented as perpetrators. Perhaps related to age at first perpetration, females were more likely to perpetrate against older victims, and males were more likely to perpetrate against younger victims. Youths who started perpetrating earlier were more likely than older youths to get in trouble with caregivers; youths starting older were more likely to indicate that no one found out about the perpetration. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Sexual violence perpetration appears to emerge earlier for males than females, perhaps suggesting different developmental trajectories. Links between perpetration and violent sexual

  19. FEMALE PERPETRATION OF VIOLENCE IN HETEROSEXUAL INTIMATE RELATIONSHIPS: ADOLESCENCE THROUGH ADULTHOOD

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Jessica Roberts; Ghandour, Reem M.; Kub, Joan E.

    2008-01-01

    This article critically reviews 62 empirical studies that examine the prevalence of female perpetrated intimate partner violence across three distinct populations (adolescents, college students, and adults). All studies were published between 1996 and 2006 and reported prevalence rates of physical, emotional, and/or sexual violence perpetrated by females in heterosexual intimate relationships. The highest rates were found for emotional violence, followed by physical and sexual violence. Prevalence rates varied widely within each population, most likely due to methodological and sampling differences across studies. Few longitudinal studies existed, limiting the extent to which we could identify developmental patterns associated with female perpetrated intimate partner violence. Differences and similarities across populations are highlighted. Methodological difficulties of this area of inquiry as well as implications for practice, policy, and research are discussed. PMID:18936281

  20. A typology of community violence perpetration and victimization among adults with mental illnesses.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Kiersten L; Desmarais, Sarah L; Van Dorn, Richard A; Grimm, Kevin J

    2015-02-01

    The primary objective of this article was to evaluate the overlap between community violence perpetration and victimization in a large, heterogeneous sample of adults with mental illnesses (N = 4,474). We also explored participant characteristics differentiating four categories of perpetration and victimization: non-victim/non-perpetrators, victims only, perpetrators only, and victim-perpetrators. Results indicated that adults with mental illnesses were unlikely to report violent outcomes but, when they did, were more likely to report perpetration and victimization, rather than perpetration alone. In addition, bivariate and multivariable analyses showed that sex, age, race/ethnicity, and primary diagnosis differed across categories. Victim-perpetrators, for example, were more likely to be young, Black, and have a primary diagnosis of bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, substance use disorder, or "other." Altogether, our findings provide evidence for a victim-perpetrator overlap in this population and suggest that preventive measures targeting violence and victimization may be more effective than those with separate strategies for each. PMID:24919996

  1. A Typology of Community Violence Perpetration and Victimization Among Adults With Mental Illnesses

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Kiersten L.; Desmarais, Sarah L.; Van Dorn, Richard A.; Grimm, Kevin J.

    2014-01-01

    The primary objective of this article was to evaluate the overlap between community violence perpetration and victimization in a large, heterogeneous sample of adults with mental illnesses (N = 4,474). We also explored participant characteristics differentiating four categories of perpetration and victimization: non-victim/non-perpetrators, victims only, perpetrators only, and victim–perpetrators. Results indicated that adults with mental illnesses were unlikely to report violent outcomes but, when they did, were more likely to report perpetration and victimization, rather than perpetration alone. In addition, bivariate and multivariable analyses showed that sex, age, race/ethnicity, and primary diagnosis differed across categories. Victim–perpetrators, for example, were more likely to be young, Black, and have a primary diagnosis of bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, substance use disorder, or “other.” Altogether, our findings provide evidence for a victim–perpetrator overlap in this population and suggest that preventive measures targeting violence and victimization may be more effective than those with separate strategies for each. PMID:24919996

  2. [Parental bonds in adolescent perpetrators of sexual violence].

    PubMed

    Lecce, Paola Alessandra; Lafortezza, Elena; Pinto, Floriana; Craig, Francesco; Grattagliano, Ignazio; Carabellese, Felice; Tarricone, Ivana; Margari, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    A deep understanding of the characteristics of sex offenders may serve to improve clinical prevention and treatment programs. Mostly, however, this knowledge can aid in the creation of better re-education and rehabilitation programs as well as criminological treatment. In prison systems outside of Italy, the use of treatment programs specifically designed for sex offenders is commonplace, whereas in Italy, there is only sporadic experimentation in this field which is aimed at evaluating adults. If this is true for adults, it is even more so for the minors who commit this type of crime that gives rise to worry and a great sense of alarm. The aim of this work is to show the preliminary results of an empirical study that explores the mental representations of the parents of minors who commit acts of sexual violence towards other. This study is an ongoing in collaboration with the Juvenile Justice Center (Centro Giustizia Minorile) of the Region of Apulia, whose first data on 10 juvenile perpetrators of such specific crimes are presented here. PMID:21779102

  3. English-Speaking and Spanish-Speaking Domestic Violence Perpetrators: An MMPI-2 Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Ronald L.; Flowers, John V.; Bulnes, Alejandro; Olmsted, Eileen; Carbajal-Madrid, Pedro

    2009-01-01

    The use of assessments to characterize domestic violence perpetrators continues to develop with an emphasis on increasing the effectiveness of domestic violence interventions. The present study examines and compares Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)-2 responses from 41 English-speaking and 48 Spanish-speaking men who were in…

  4. Exposure to Spousal Violence in the Family, Attitudes and Dating Violence Perpetration Among High School Students in Port-au-Prince.

    PubMed

    Gage, Anastasia J

    2016-09-01

    This study examined the associations of exposure to spousal violence in the family and personal and peer attitudes with dating violence (DV) perpetration among high school students in Port-au-Prince, Haiti. Participants were 342 high school students in Grades 10 to 12 who stated that they had ever been on a date. Multiple linear regression methods were used to examine correlates of the scale of DV perpetration. Findings showed that personal acceptance of DV mediated the association between exposure to wife-perpetrated and husband-perpetrated spousal violence in the family and DV perpetration for girls. Boys who were exposed to husband-perpetrated spousal violence in the family had significantly higher levels of psychological DV perpetration than those who were not. Contrary to expectations, exposure to wife-perpetrated spousal violence in the family was negatively associated with psychological and physical/sexual DV perpetration by boys, after controlling for other factors. Overall, perceived peer tolerance of DV was more strongly associated with DV perpetration than personal tolerance of DV, and was the only significant correlate of psychological DV perpetration for girls. Perceived peer attitudes also moderated the association between boys' exposure to spousal violence in the family and DV perpetration. Implications for future research and policy are discussed. PMID:25810092

  5. Number of deployments, relationship satisfaction and perpetration of partner violence among U.S. Navy members.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Michelle L; Stambaugh, Leyla; Milletich, Robert J; Veprinsky, Anna; Snell, Alicia K

    2015-08-01

    The present brief report examined whether number of deployments, relationship satisfaction, and the interaction between number of deployments and relationship satisfaction predicted Navy members' reports of perpetrating physical partner violence. Participants were 80 U.S. Navy members assigned to an Arleigh Burke-class destroyer anticipating an 8-month deployment after Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom. The effect that the number of deployments had on perpetrating physical partner violence diminished as relationship satisfaction increased. Results suggest the importance of designing domestic violence intervention and treatment efforts toward those who report high levels of deployment and low relationship satisfaction. PMID:26053344

  6. Longitudinal Associations Among Bullying, Homophobic Teasing, and Sexual Violence Perpetration Among Middle School Students.

    PubMed

    Espelage, Dorothy L; Basile, Kathleen C; De La Rue, Lisa; Hamburger, Merle E

    2015-09-01

    Bullying perpetration and sexual harassment perpetration among adolescents are major public health issues. However, few studies have addressed the empirical link between being a perpetrator of bullying and subsequent sexual harassment perpetration among early adolescents in the literature. Homophobic teasing has been shown to be common among middle school youth and was tested as a moderator of the link between bullying and sexual harassment perpetration in this 2-year longitudinal study. More specifically, the present study tests the Bully-Sexual Violence Pathway theory, which posits that adolescent bullies who also participate in homophobic name-calling toward peers are more likely to perpetrate sexual harassment over time. Findings from logistical regression analyses (n = 979, 5th-7th graders) reveal an association between bullying in early middle school and sexual harassment in later middle school, and results support the Bully-Sexual Violence Pathway model, with homophobic teasing as a moderator, for boys only. Results suggest that to prevent bully perpetration and its later association with sexual harassment perpetration, prevention programs should address the use of homophobic epithets. PMID:25315484

  7. Longitudinal Associations Among Bullying, Homophobic Teasing, and Sexual Violence Perpetration Among Middle School Students

    PubMed Central

    Espelage, Dorothy L.; Basile, Kathleen C.; De La Rue, Lisa; Hamburger, Merle E.

    2015-01-01

    Bullying perpetration and sexual harassment perpetration among adolescents are major public health issues. However, few studies have addressed the empirical link between being a perpetrator of bullying and subsequent sexual harassment perpetration among early adolescents in the literature. Homophobic teasing has been shown to be common among middle school youth and was tested as a moderator of the link between bullying and sexual harassment perpetration in this 2-year longitudinal study. More specifically, the present study tests the Bully–Sexual Violence Pathway theory, which posits that adolescent bullies who also participate in homophobic name-calling toward peers are more likely to perpetrate sexual harassment over time. Findings from logistical regression analyses (n = 979, 5th–7th graders) reveal an association between bullying in early middle school and sexual harassment in later middle school, and results support the Bully–Sexual Violence Pathway model, with homophobic teasing as a moderator, for boys only. Results suggest that to prevent bully perpetration and its later association with sexual harassment perpetration, prevention programs should address the use of homophobic epithets. PMID:25315484

  8. Beyond Correlates: A Review of Risk and Protective Factors for Adolescent Dating Violence Perpetration

    PubMed Central

    Vagi, Kevin J.; Rothman, Emily; Latzman, Natasha E.; Tharp, Andra Teten; Hall, Diane M.; Breiding, Matthew J.

    2013-01-01

    Dating violence is a serious public health problem. In recent years, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and other entities have made funding available to community based agencies for dating violence prevention. Practitioners who are tasked with developing dating violence prevention strategies should pay particular attention to risk and protective factors for dating violence perpetration that have been established in longitudinal studies. This has been challenging to date because the scientific literature on the etiology of dating violence is somewhat limited, and because there have been no comprehensive reviews of the literature that clearly distinguish correlates of dating violence perpetration from risk or protective factors that have been established through longitudinal research. This is problematic because prevention programs may then target factors that are merely correlated with dating violence perpetration, and have no causal influence, which could potentially limit the effectiveness of the programs. In this article, we review the literature on risk and protective factors for adolescent dating violence perpetration and highlight those factors for which temporal precedence has been established by one or more studies. This review is intended as a guide for researchers and practitioners as they formulate prevention programs. We reviewed articles published between 2000–2010 that reported on adolescent dating violence perpetration using samples from the United States or Canada. In total, 53 risk factors and six protective factors were identified from 20 studies. Next steps for etiological research in adolescent dating violence are discussed, as well as future directions for prevention program developers. PMID:23385616

  9. Importance of Gender and Attitudes about Violence in the Relationship between Exposure to Interparental Violence and the Perpetration of Teen Dating Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temple, Jeff R.; Shorey, Ryan C.; Tortolero, Susan R.; Wolfe, David A.; Stuart, Gregory L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Mounting evidence has demonstrated a link between exposure to family of origin violence and the perpetration of teen dating violence (TDV). However, only recently have mechanisms underlying this relationship been investigated and very few studies have differentiated between exposure to father-to-mother and mother-to-father violence.…

  10. Substance Use Disorders and Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration among Male and Female Offenders

    PubMed Central

    Crane, Cory A.; Oberleitner, Lindsay M.S.; Devine, Susan; Easton, Caroline J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The current investigation sought to examine the direct associations and interactions among individual and concurrent alcohol, cocaine, cannabis, and opioid use diagnoses with the perpetration of intimate partner violence as well as to assess gender differences across these associations within a large forensic sample of male and female offenders. Method Participants (1,290 male and 294 female) completed a court-mandated substance abuse evaluation during which they completed a clinical interview, either endorsing or denying recent physical partner violence perpetration. Specific substance use disorders were diagnosed based primarily upon responses to the clinical interview and were used to predict partner violence perpetration using logistic regression. Results Alcohol and cocaine use disorders were significantly associated with IPV perpetration over the past year. Cannabis and opioid use disorders were not directly associated with IPV. A comorbid alcohol use diagnosis increased the likelihood of IPV perpetration among participants with either a cannabis or a cocaine use disorder while participants with an alcohol use disorder were less likely to be violent if they had also met criteria for a cannabis use disorder. These relationships held across males and females. Conclusions The current findings emphasize the importance of assessing associations between specific substances of abuse in researching and predicting partner violence and suggest that future efforts focus on the development of integrated treatments for co-occurring partner violence and substance use disorders. PMID:27011885

  11. Approaches used by employee assistance programs to address perpetration of intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Walters, Jennifer L Hardison; Pollack, Keshia M; Clinton-Sherrod, Monique; Lindquist, Christine H; McKay, Tasseli; Lasater, Beth M

    2012-01-01

    Employee Assistance Programs (EAPs) are workplace resources available to employees with problems impacting work performance. EAPs are well-positioned to address intimate partner violence (IPV), a major public health problem with workplace impacts. A purposeful sample of 28 EAPs across the United States was surveyed to identify policies and programs to address IPV, including perpetration. Most EAPs did not report having standardized approaches for addressing IPV perpetration. EAPs also described significant barriers to identifying IPV perpetrators, with the majority relying on self-disclosure on the part of the perpetrator when contacting the EAP. These results suggest that many EAPs--even when interacting with employees who present with issues known to correlate with IPV--are missing a potential opportunity to assess and intervene with IPV perpetrators. PMID:22594212

  12. Impact of Adverse Childhood Experiences on Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration among Sri Lankan Men.

    PubMed

    Fonseka, Ruvani W; Minnis, Alexandra M; Gomez, Anu Manchikanti

    2015-01-01

    In Sri Lanka, over one in three women experience intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization in their lifetime, making it a serious public health concern. Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) such as child abuse and neglect, witnessing domestic violence, parental separation, and bullying are also widespread. Studies in Western settings have shown positive associations between ACEs and IPV perpetration in adulthood, but few have examined this relationship in a non-Western context. In the present study, we examined the association of ACEs with IPV perpetration among Sri Lankan men surveyed for the UN Multi-Country Study on Men and Violence in Asia and the Pacific. We found statistically significant positive associations between the number of ACE categories (ACE score) and emotional, financial, physical, and sexual IPV perpetration among Sri Lankan men. We analyzed the contributions of each ACE category and found that childhood abuse was strongly associated with perpetration of IPV in adulthood, with sexual abuse associated with the greatest increase in odds of perpetration (Adjusted odds ratio 2.36; 95% confidence interval: 1.69, 3.30). Witnessing abuse of one's mother was associated with the greatest increase in the odds of perpetrating physical IPV (AOR 1.82; 95% CI: 1.29, 2.58), while lack of a male parental figure was not associated with physical IPV perpetration (AOR 0.76; 95% CI: 0.53, 1.09). These findings support a social learning theory of IPV perpetration, in which children who are exposed to violence learn to perpetrate IPV in adulthood. They also suggest that in Sri Lanka, being raised in a female-headed household does not increase the risk of IPV perpetration in adulthood compared to being raised in a household with a male parental figure. The relationship between being raised in a female-headed household (the number of which increased dramatically during Sri Lanka's recent civil war) and perpetration of IPV warrants further study. Interventions that

  13. Impact of Adverse Childhood Experiences on Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration among Sri Lankan Men

    PubMed Central

    Fonseka, Ruvani W.; Minnis, Alexandra M.; Gomez, Anu Manchikanti

    2015-01-01

    In Sri Lanka, over one in three women experience intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization in their lifetime, making it a serious public health concern. Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) such as child abuse and neglect, witnessing domestic violence, parental separation, and bullying are also widespread. Studies in Western settings have shown positive associations between ACEs and IPV perpetration in adulthood, but few have examined this relationship in a non-Western context. In the present study, we examined the association of ACEs with IPV perpetration among Sri Lankan men surveyed for the UN Multi-Country Study on Men and Violence in Asia and the Pacific. We found statistically significant positive associations between the number of ACE categories (ACE score) and emotional, financial, physical, and sexual IPV perpetration among Sri Lankan men. We analyzed the contributions of each ACE category and found that childhood abuse was strongly associated with perpetration of IPV in adulthood, with sexual abuse associated with the greatest increase in odds of perpetration (Adjusted odds ratio 2.36; 95% confidence interval: 1.69, 3.30). Witnessing abuse of one’s mother was associated with the greatest increase in the odds of perpetrating physical IPV (AOR 1.82; 95% CI: 1.29, 2.58), while lack of a male parental figure was not associated with physical IPV perpetration (AOR 0.76; 95% CI: 0.53, 1.09). These findings support a social learning theory of IPV perpetration, in which children who are exposed to violence learn to perpetrate IPV in adulthood. They also suggest that in Sri Lanka, being raised in a female-headed household does not increase the risk of IPV perpetration in adulthood compared to being raised in a household with a male parental figure. The relationship between being raised in a female-headed household (the number of which increased dramatically during Sri Lanka’s recent civil war) and perpetration of IPV warrants further study. Interventions

  14. A model linking biology, behavior and psychiatric diagnoses in perpetrators of domestic violence.

    PubMed

    George, David T; Phillips, Monte J; Doty, Linda; Umhau, John C; Rawlings, Robert R

    2006-01-01

    Research indicates that perpetrators of domestic violence have abnormalities in central serotonin and testosterone metabolism, an increased sensitivity to anxiogenic stimuli, and an impaired neuro-connection between their cortex and the amygdala. Clinical evaluations show that perpetrators of domestic violence also have a distinguishing set of behaviors and diagnoses related to anxiety, depression, intermittent explosive disorder, and borderline personality disorder. In this paper we propose a model to understand how the biological abnormalities can potentially explain the behaviors and diagnoses exhibited by the perpetrators. Changes in the perpetrator's neurotransmitters lead to a heightened sensitivity to environmental stimuli, anxiety, and conditioned fear. Lack of cortical input to the amygdala impairs the perpetrator's ability to extinguish anxiety and/or conditioned fear and gives rise to either innate behaviors (e.g., fight, flight, and shut down) or learned fear avoidant behaviors designed to avoid anxiety (e.g., alcohol consumption, self-injurious acts, and obsessive behaviors). Linking conditioned fear and fear avoidance to the behaviors and psychiatric diagnoses will serve to change the way the medical community perceives and treats perpetrators of domestic violence. PMID:16580153

  15. Intimate partner violence perpetrators in a forensic psychiatric outpatient setting: criminal history, psychopathology, and victimization.

    PubMed

    Henrichs, Jens; Bogaerts, Stefan; Sijtsema, Jelle; Klerx-van Mierlo, Fanny

    2015-07-01

    This study investigated criminological, psychopathological, and victimological profiles of intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetrators in a sample of 119 Dutch female and male forensic psychiatric outpatients aged 18 to 58 years. In addition, differences in criminological, psychopathological, and victimological factors between IPV perpetrators (n = 61, 51.3%) and non-intimate violence (NIV) perpetrators (n = 58, 48.7%) were examined. All data, including information on demographics, criminal history, history of psychological, sexual, and physical victimization during childhood or adolescence, family history of psychopathology, history of psychopathology in childhood and adolescence, and mental disorders, were derived from archival electronic medical records. Mental disorders were measured using structured psychiatric interviews and final consensus diagnoses were established during weekly case consultations. Both IPV and NIV perpetrators displayed high rates of criminal history, psychopathology, and previous victimization, but the two groups did not differ in these factors with two exceptions. IPV perpetrators were significantly more likely to have higher rates of previous physical victimization and intermittent explosive disorder than NIV perpetrators. The current study suggests that a history of physical victimization and intermittent explosive disorder are specific characteristics of IPV perpetrators in a forensic psychiatric outpatient setting. Future research should focus on mechanisms explaining the association of childhood victimization and IPV and increase our understanding of the role of intermittent explosive disorder in IPV. PMID:25287409

  16. Correlates of intimate partner violence perpetration: results from a National Epidemiologic Survey.

    PubMed

    Okuda, Mayumi; Olfson, Mark; Wang, Shuai; Rubio, Jose M; Xu, Yang; Blanco, Carlos

    2015-02-01

    This study presents data on the association of intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration and rates of psychiatric disorders, and other correlates. Data were drawn from Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC), a nationally representative sample of adults in the United States, 18 years and older, residing in households and group quarters. The sample comprised adults who reported being in a relationship within the past 12 months (N = 25,631). Of these, 1,677 individuals reported perpetrating IPV (4.2% in men, 7.0% in women). Compared to non-IPV perpetrators, IPV perpetrators had greater odds of having any psychiatric disorder, 42.0% and 67.7%, respectively, OR = 2.89, 95% CI [2.51, 3.32]. After adjusting for the effects of nuisance variables, being younger, having an alcohol use disorder, a personality disorder, low levels of social support, and low income were associated with perpetration. Across a wide range of factors, IPV victimization itself had the strongest association with perpetration, AOR = 66.12, 95% CI [55.01, 79.48]. Mental health assessments of IPV perpetrators might offer an opportunity to identify and treat psychiatric disorders and improve the clinical course of conditions that can be affected by ongoing acts of violence. PMID:25624189

  17. The "True" Perpetrators of Violence: The Effects of the Media on Public Perceptions of Youthful Violent Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breland, Alfiee M.

    The focus of this paper is to provide insight into the real questions to be asked and answered regarding the "true" perpetrators of school violence. Specifically, it addresses the topic of recent occurrences of school violence perpetrated by youth, along with the effect of stereotypes on perceptions of potential youth offenders. It also addresses…

  18. The Association between Impulsivity, Trait Anger, and the Perpetration of Intimate Partner and General Violence among Women Arrested for Domestic Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shorey, Ryan C.; Brasfield, Hope; Febres, Jeniimarie; Stuart, Gregory L.

    2011-01-01

    The problem of domestic violence is widespread, with research indicating men and women both perpetrate a substantial amount of aggression. However, aggression perpetrated by women is a relatively understudied area compared to aggression perpetrated by men. Additionally, research is needed to determine the correlates of aggression perpetration…

  19. Individual and interpersonal risk factors for physical intimate partner violence perpetration by biological sex and ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Renner, Lynette M; Whitney, Stephen D; Vasquez, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a public health problem that reaches across age, sex, and ethnicity. In this study, we examined risk factors for physical IPV perpetration among young adult males and females from four ethnic groups. Data were taken from Waves 1-3 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). The sample included 10,141 Wave 3 respondents (ages ranged from 18-27 years old) who reported being in a current romantic relationship. Physical IPV perpetration was reported by 14.10% of White, 23.28% of Black, 18.82% of Latino, and 18.02% of Asian males. Physical IPV perpetration was reported by 19.01% of White, 24.80% of Black, 25.97% of Latina, and 19.21% of Asian females. Following an ecological framework, proximal risk factors at intrapersonal and interpersonal levels were included in the analyses. Despite finding fairly consistent percentage of physical IPV perpetration across sample groups, the risk factors for physical IPV perpetration were rather uncommon across sex and ethnicity. Only 1 factor--psychological IPV perpetration toward a romantic partner--was consistently associated with physical IPV perpetration across all groups. Our findings have implications for tailoring prevention and intervention efforts toward risk factors of physical IPV perpetration that are uniquely associated with biological sex and ethnicity. PMID:25774417

  20. Factors associated with the perpetration of sexual violence among wine-shop patrons in Chennai, India

    PubMed Central

    Go, Vivian F.; Srikrishnan, Aylur K.; Salter, Megan L.; Mehta, Shruti; Johnson, Sethulakshmi C.; Sivaram, Sudha; Davis, Wendy; Solomon, Suniti; Celentano, David D.

    2010-01-01

    With an estimated 2.5 million people living with HIV/AIDS, India has the third highest number of HIV-infected people in the world. Despite reductions in prevalence among the general population, the percentage of all infections occurring among Indian women is continuing to rise. Women s risk of HIV infection from their partner and observed associations between sexual violence and HIV infection in India underscore the importance of understanding determinants of forced sex. A probability survey was conducted from June 2003 to August 2007 in Chennai, India among alcohol venue (“wine shops”) patrons to estimate the prevalence of sexual violence and to identify risk factors associated with perpetrating forced sex. Among 1499 men, 28.5% reported forced sex with at least one partner in the past 3 months. In multivariate analysis, earning income for less than 12 months a year, visiting the wine shop with friends, STD symptoms, perpetration of physical violence, and number of sexual partners were statistically significantly associated with perpetrating forced sex. Men who reported having 3 or more close friends were less likely to perpetrate violence. HIV interventions that facilitate formal groups that foster positive social support and address a range of HIV risk behaviors including sexually and physically abusive behaviors are recommended to reduce sexual violence. PMID:20692757

  1. Teens’ Self-Efficacy to Deal with Dating Violence as Victim, Perpetrator or Bystander

    PubMed Central

    Van Camp, Tinneke; Hébert, Martine; Guidi, Elisa; Lavoie, Francine; Blais, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Multiple studies have demonstrated that adolescent dating violence is highly prevalent and associated with internalizing and externalizing problems. A number of prevention initiatives are being implemented in North-American high schools. Such initiatives do not only aim to raise awareness among potential victims and offenders but also among peer bystanders. Since teenagers mainly reach out to their peers when experiencing adversity, it is important to address adolescents’ efficiency to deal with witnessing dating violence or with friends disclosing dating abuse, in addition to increasing ability to deal with experienced dating violence victimization or perpetration. The aim of this study is to explore adolescents’ self-efficacy to deal with dating violence victimization and perpetration in their relationships and those of their peers. A paper-and-pencil questionnaire was completed by 259 14–18 years olds in Quebec, Canada. The data allows building insight into adolescents’ confidence to reach out for help or to help others in a situation of dating violence victimization and perpetration. We also considered the impact of gender and dating victimization history. Results suggest that dating violence prevention can build on teens’ self-efficacy to deal with dating violence and offer them tools to do so efficiently. PMID:26807554

  2. Importance of Gender and Attitudes about Violence in the Relationship between Exposure to Interparental Violence and the Perpetration of Teen Dating Violence

    PubMed Central

    Shorey, Ryan C.; Tortolero, Susan R.; Wolfe, David A.; Stuart, Gregory L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Mounting evidence has demonstrated a link between exposure to family of origin violence and the perpetration of teen dating violence (TDV). However, only recently have mechanisms underlying this relationship been investigated and very few studies have differentiated between exposure to father-to-mother and mother-to-father violence. Methods The current study used structural equation modeling on a large ethnically diverse school-based sample of male and female adolescents (n = 917) to address these gaps in the literature. Results For adolescent girls, there was an association between exposure to interparental violence (father-to-mother and mother-to-father) and TDV perpetration (physical violence and psychological abuse). For adolescent boys, only an association between mother-to-father violence was related to their TDV perpetration. Further, for both girls and boys, the relationship between mother-to-father violence and perpetration of TDV was fully mediated by attitudes accepting of violence. Conclusion These results suggest that attending to gender and targeting adolescents’ attitudes about violence may be viable approaches to preventing TDV. PMID:23490056

  3. Prevalence and Correlates of Client-Perpetrated Violence against Female Sex Workers in 13 Mexican Cities

    PubMed Central

    Semple, Shirley J.; Stockman, Jamila K.; Pitpitan, Eileen V.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Chavarin, Claudia V.; Mendoza, Doroteo V.; Aarons, Gregory A.; Patterson, Thomas L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Globally, client-perpetrated violence against female sex workers (FSWs) has been associated with multiple health-related harms, including high-risk sexual behavior and increased exposure to HIV/STIs. This study examined correlates of client-perpetrated sexual, physical, and economic violence (e.g., robbery) against FSWs in 13 cities throughout Mexico. Methods FSWs (N = 1,089) who were enrolled in a brief, evidence-based, sexual risk reduction intervention for FSWs (Mujer Segura) were interviewed about their work context, including experiences of violence perpetrated by clients, sexual risk and substance use practices, financial need, and social supports. Three broad categories of factors (sociodemographic, work context, behavioral and social characteristics of FSWs) were examined as correlates of sexual, physical, and economic violence. Results The prevalence of different types of client-perpetrated violence against FSWs in the past 6 months was: sexual (11.7%), physical (11.8%), economic (16.9%), and any violence (22.6%). Greater financial need, self-identification as a street worker, and lower perceived emotional support were independently associated with all three types of violence. Alcohol use before or during sex with clients in the past month was associated with physical and sexual violence. Using drugs before or during sex with clients, injection drug use in the past month, and population size of city were associated with sexual violence only, and FSWs’ alcohol use score (AUDIT-C) was associated with economic violence only. Conclusions Correlates of client-perpetrated violence encompassed sociodemographic, work context, and behavioral and social factors, suggesting that approaches to violence prevention for FSWs must be multi-dimensional. Prevention could involve teaching FSWs strategies for risk avoidance in the workplace (e.g., avoiding use of alcohol with clients), enhancement of FSWs’ community-based supports, development of interventions

  4. Serious Violence Victimization and Perpetration among Youth Living in the Slums of Kampala, Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Swahn, Monica H; Gressard, Lindsay; Palmier, Jane B; Kasirye, Rogers; Lynch, Catherine; Yao, Huang

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Violence among youth is a major public health issue globally. Despite these concerns, youth violence surveillance and prevention research are either scarce or non-existent, particularly in developing regions, such as sub-Saharan Africa. The purpose of this study is to quantitatively determine the prevalence of violence involving weapons in a convenience sample of service-seeking youth in Kampala. Moreover, the study will seek to determine the overlap between violence victimization and perpetration among these youth and the potentially shared risk factors for these experiences. Methods We conducted this study of youth in May and June of 2011 to quantify and describe high-risk behaviors and exposures in a convenience sample (N=457) of urban youth, 14–24 years of age, living on the streets or in the slums and who were participating in a Uganda Youth Development Link drop-in center for disadvantaged street youth. We computed bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses to determine associations between psychosocial factors and violence victimization and perpetration. Results The overall prevalence of reporting violence victimization involving a weapon was 36%, and violence perpetration with a weapon was 19%. In terms of the overlap between victimization and perpetration, 16.6% of youth (11.6% of boys and 24.1% of girls) reported both. In multivariate analyses, parental neglect due to alcohol use (Adj.OR=2.28;95%CI: 1.12—4.62) and sadness (Adj.OR=4.36 ;95%CI: 1.81—10.53) were the statistically significant correlates of victimization only. Reporting hunger (Adj.OR=2.87 ;95%CI:1.30—6.33), any drunkenness (Adj.OR=2.35 ;95%CI:1.12—4.92) and any drug use (Adj.OR=3.02 ;95%CI:1.16—7.82) were significantly associated with both perpetration and victimization. Conclusion The findings underscore the differential experiences associated with victimization and perpetration of violence involving weapons among these vulnerable youth. In particular

  5. Adulthood Stressors, History of Childhood Adversity, and Risk of Perpetration of Intimate Partner Violence

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Andrea L.; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Conron, Kerith J.; Koenen, Karestan C.

    2010-01-01

    Background Over half a million U.S. women and more than 100,000 men are treated for injuries from intimate partner violence (IPV) annually, making IPV perpetration a major public health problem. However, little is known about causes of perpetration across the life course. Purpose This paper examines the role of “stress sensitization,” whereby adult stressors increase risk for IPV perpetration most strongly in people with a history of childhood adversity. Methods The study investigated a possible interaction effect between adulthood stressors and childhood adversities in risk of IPV perpetration, specifically, whether the difference in risk of IPV perpetration associated with past-year stressors varied by history of exposure to childhood adversity. Analyses were conducted in 2010 using de-identified data from 34,653 U.S. adults from the 2004–2005 follow-up wave of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Results There was a significant stress sensitization effect. For men with high-level childhood adversity, past-year stressors were associated with an 8.8% increased risk of perpetrating compared to a 2.3% increased risk among men with low-level adversity. Women with high-level childhood adversity had a 14.3% increased risk compared with a 2.5% increased risk in the low-level adversity group. Conclusions Individuals with recent stressors and histories of childhood adversity are at particularly elevated risk of IPV perpetration; therefore, prevention efforts should target this population. Treatment programs for IPV perpetrators, which have not been effective in reducing risk of perpetrating, may benefit from further investigating the role of stress and stress reactivity in perpetration. PMID:21238860

  6. Psychotic Experiences and Risk of Violence Perpetration and Arrest in the General Population: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Drukker, Marjan; ten Have, Margreet; de Graaf, Ron; van Dorsselaer, Saskia; van Os, Jim

    2016-01-01

    Background In cross-sectional, general population studies, psychotic experiences have been associated with an increased risk of physical violence perpetration and arrest. However, longitudinal research on this topic is lacking. Moreover, it remains unclear whether subjects with psychotic experiences are also at risk of displaying psychological violence. The present study aims to investigate these associations. Method The longitudinal association between baseline psychotic experiences and six-year incidence of violence perpetration and three-year incidence of arrest was studied in a prospective cohort of 6646 general population adults. Logistic regression analyses with varying levels of adjustment were performed in the complete sample and in subsamples stratified by presence or absence of baseline mental disorders. Results The presence of psychotic experiences at baseline increased the risk of physical violence, psychological violence and arrest at follow-up. However, adjustment for dimensional measures of psychopathology and contextual confounders reduced all associations considerably. After adjustment, both clinically validated (OR = 3.59, 95% CI 1.09–11.81) and self-reported hallucinations (OR = 2.83, 95% CI 1.05 7.65) remained significantly associated with physical violence perpetration. Self-reported (OR = 3.06, 95% CI 1.55–6.03) and clinically validated delusions (OR = 3.24, 95% CI 1.47–7.13) were associated with an increased risk of arrest. There was no significant association between psychotic experiences and incident psychological violence in the fully adjusted model. Conclusion Specific psychotic experiences may differentially predict physical violence perpetration and arrest, even after adjustment for demographics, dimensional measures of psychopathology and contextual confounders. However, more longitudinal research with larger sample sizes is required to confirm these findings. PMID:27447190

  7. Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration by Court-Ordered Men: Distinctions and Intersections among Physical Violence, Sexual Violence, Psychological Abuse, and Stalking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basile, Kathleen C.; Hall, Jeffrey E.

    2011-01-01

    This study assessed the construct validity of two different measurement models of male partners' perpetration of physical violence, sexual violence, psychological abuse, and stalking against intimate partners. Data were obtained from a sample of 340 men arrested for physical assault of a female spouse or partner and court ordered into batterer…

  8. Anger, problematic alcohol use, and intimate partner violence victimisation and perpetration

    PubMed Central

    Sprunger, Joel G.; Eckhardt, Christopher I.; Parrott, Dominic J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Anger and problematic alcohol use have been established as individual risk factors for intimate partner violence (IPV) victimisation and perpetration, but it is unknown how these factors convey risk for IPV perpetration for men and women within the context of mutually violent relationships. Hypotheses Anger and problematic alcohol use were hypothesised to mediate the association between IPV victimisation and perpetration for men and women, with direct and indirect influences from partner variables. Methods Heterosexual couples (N = 215) at high-risk for IPV completed questionnaires indexing trait anger, problematic alcohol use and extent of past-year IPV perpetration and victimisation. An actor-partner interdependence modelling (APIM) framework was used to evaluate these cross-sectional data for two hypothesised models and one parsimonious alternative. Results The best-fitting model indicated that IPV victimisation showed the strongest direct effect on physical IPV perpetration for both men and women. For women, but not men, the indirect effect of IPV victimisation on physical IPV perpetration through anger approached significance. For men, but not women, the victimisation–perpetration indirect effect through problematic drinking approached significance. Implications for clinical practice The results suggest that anger and problem drinking patterns play different yet important roles for men and women in mutually violent relationships. PMID:26482016

  9. The Role of Chinese Face in the Perpetration of Dating Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Ko Ling

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the associations between the perpetration of partner violence and two types of face orientation--protective and acquisitive--in Chinese societies. Data from a convenience sample of 3,388 university students from Hong Kong, Shanghai, and Beijing were analyzed. The participants completed the Protective and Acquisitive Face…

  10. The Roles of Victim and Perpetrator Alcohol Use in Intimate Partner Violence Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Martie P.; Kingree, J. B.

    2006-01-01

    Alcohol use increases the risk of intimate partner violence (IPV), yet little research has examined its role in victimization outcomes (e.g., physical injury, police reporting). This study examined the roles of perpetrator and victim incident-specific alcohol use in IPV outcomes. The sample included 501 men and 1,756 women who had experienced an…

  11. New pathways in the evaluation of programmes for men who perpetrate violence against their female partners.

    PubMed

    Wojnicka, Katarzyna; Scambor, Christian; Kraus, Heinrich

    2016-08-01

    Today, evaluation research in the field of intervention programmes for men who perpetrate violence against their female partners still makes a fragmentary impression. Across Europe various evaluation studies have been performed. However, the methodologies applied are too heterogeneous to allow the combination of the results in a meta-analytical way. In this paper we propose a future pathway for organising outcome evaluation studies of domestic violence perpetrator programmes in community settings, so that today's problems in this field can be overcome. In a pragmatic framework that acknowledges the limited pre-conditions for evaluation studies in the area of domestic violence perpetrator programmes as it is today, feasible approaches for outcome evaluation are outlined, with recent developments in the field taken as starting points. The framework for organising future evaluation studies of work with perpetrators of domestic violence is presented together with a strategy to promote this framework. International networks of practitioners and researchers play a central role in this strategy through upskilling the area of practical work, preparing the ground for evaluation research and improving cooperation between practitioners and researchers. This paper is based on the results of the European funded project IMPACT (under the Daphne-III-funding programme of the European Commission). PMID:27175612

  12. Interpersonal Violence in Adolescence: Ecological Correlates of Self-Reported Perpetration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banyard, Victoria L.; Cross, Charlotte; Modecki, Kathryn L.

    2006-01-01

    Although growing attention is being paid to the problem of teen dating violence, to date less is known about perpetrators of victimization. The current article used a subset of 980 adolescents aged 11 to 19 who were surveyed as part of a statewide community service coordinated through Cooperative Extension to survey all youth in target communities…

  13. The Impact of Collective Efficacy on Risks for Adolescents' Perpetration of Dating Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnurr, Melissa P.; Lohman, Brenda J.

    2013-01-01

    Given prevalence rates and negative consequences that adolescents' perpetration of dating violence may have on an individual's well-being and future relationships, it is imperative to explore factors that may increase or reduce its occurrence. Thus, we aimed to identify how multiple contextual risk factors (individual, family, schools, and…

  14. Intimate Partner Violence Perpetrated by College Women within the Context of a History of Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, Kelly N.; Sechrist, Stacy M.; White, Jacquelyn W.; Paradise, Matthew J.

    2005-01-01

    Using a longitudinal design, the current study explored intimate partner violence perpetration among 1,300 college women within the context of one's history of physical and sexual victimization across 4 years of college. Structural equation modeling indicated that sexual victimization does not predict concurrent use of women's intimate partner…

  15. Cross sectional survey of perpetrators, victims, and witnesses of violence in Bogotá, Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Duque, L; Klevens, J; Ramirez, C

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To establish the prevalence and distribution of witnesses, victims, and perpetrators of different types of violence in the general population and the proportion of victims consulting health services or reporting the incident to authorities. Methods: Cross sectional survey of a random sample of 3007 inhabitants between the ages of 15 and 60 in the city of Bogotá, Colombia, in 1997, based on a face to face interview. Results: Age adjusted past year prevalence of witnesses, victims, and perpetrators of physical aggression was 61%, 27%, and 27%, respectively, while lifetime prevalence of witnesses, victims, and perpetrators of assault with a weapon in this population reached 70%, 55%, and 5.8%. Between 11% and 67% of the victims consulted a health service and less than 32% reported the incident to an authority. Those involved in most types of physical violence tended to be young, male, from lower middle social classes, with some degree of secondary education, and single or divorced. Conclusions: Prevalence of witnesses and victims of violence in this sample appears to be high, while perpetrators constitute a small proportion. Violence is not equally distributed throughout the population suggesting the possibility of identifying a population at higher risk for the development of intervention programmes. PMID:12700220

  16. The Peer Context and the Development of the Perpetration of Adolescent Dating Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foshee, Vangie A.; Benefield, Thad S.; Reyes, Heath Luz McNaughton; Ennett, Susan T.; Faris, Robert; Chang, Ling-Yin; Hussong, Andrea; Suchindran, Chirayath M.

    2013-01-01

    The peer context is a central focus in research on adolescent risk behaviors but few studies have investigated the role of the peer context in the perpetration of adolescent dating violence. This longitudinal study examined between-subjects and within-person contemporaneous and lagged effects of peer attributes, measured with social network…

  17. A Telephone Intervention for Substance-Using Adult Male Perpetrators of Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mbilinyi, Lyungai F.; Neighbors, Clayton; Walker, Denise D.; Roffman, Roger A.; Zegree, Joan; Edleson, Jeffrey; O'Rourke, Allison

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To preliminarily evaluate telephone-delivered motivational enhancement therapy (MET) in motivating unadjudicated and nontreatment seeking intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetrators, who also use substances, to self-refer into treatment. Method: 124 adult men were recruited via a multimedia marketing campaign and were randomly assigned…

  18. Who gets blamed for intimate partner violence? The relative contributions of perpetrator sex category, victim confrontation, and observer attitudes.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Cindy; Moore, Todd; Crone, Travis; Defreitas, Stacie Craft; Rhatigan, Deborah

    2012-12-01

    The present study examined the effects of perpetrator sex category, victim confrontation, observer sex category, and observer attitudes on attributions of blame and behavioral stability for partner violence. Data were collected from 728 college-aged students enrolled at 2 universities in the United States. Results demonstrated that males and females attributed less blame and behavioral stability to female perpetrators than male perpetrators, especially if the perpetrator was provoked. Moreover, attitudes toward women and violence were important for predicting attributions, and some of the evidence for observer effects was reduced to nonsignificance once these variables were added to the model. PMID:22628383

  19. The relation between alcohol use and psychological, physical, and sexual dating violence perpetration among male college students.

    PubMed

    Shorey, Ryan C; Brasfield, Hope; Zapor, Heather Zucosky; Zapor, Heather Zuckosky; Febres, Jeniimarie; Stuart, Gregory L

    2015-02-01

    The prevalence of alcohol use and dating violence are shockingly high among male college students, making this a particularly high-risk group for alcohol-related aggression. Expanding upon previous research, the current study examined the relations between three indicators of alcohol use and three types of dating violence among 204 male college students. We also examined whether hazardous drinkers reported more violence perpetration than non-hazardous drinkers. Results demonstrated that alcohol use was related to all types of aggression, and hazardous drinkers are at greater risk of violence perpetration than non-hazardous drinkers. Implications for dating violence prevention programs and future research are discussed. PMID:25540253

  20. Violence against women in sex work and HIV risk implications differ qualitatively by perpetrator

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Physical and sexual violence heighten STI/HIV risk for women in sex work. Against this backdrop, we describe the nature of abuse against women in sex work, and its STI/HIV implications, across perpetrators. Methods Adult women involved in sex work (n = 35) in Baltimore, MD participated in an in-depth interview and brief survey. Results Physical and sexual violence were prevalent, with 43% reporting past-month abuse. Clients were the primary perpetrators; their violence was severe, compromised women’s condom and sexual negotiation, and included forced and coerced anal intercourse. Sex work was a factor in intimate partner violence. Police abuse was largely an exploitation of power imbalances for coerced sex. Conclusions Findings affirm the need to address physical and sexual violence, particularly that perpetrated by clients, as a social determinant of health for women in sex work, as well as a threat to safety and wellbeing, and a contextual barrier to HIV risk reduction. PMID:24060235

  1. Living in the world of the domestic violence perpetrator: negotiating the unreality of coercive control.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Emma

    2010-12-01

    This article considers how survivors of domestic violence negotiate the unreality of the world of the perpetrator to survive and the impact this has on their psychological well-being. Utilizing recent debates about coercive control and a reframing of domestic violence as a liberty crime, this article examines women's accounts of negotiating coercion and control. It presents data collected from oral history narrative interviews with women who have experienced domestic violence, as well as incidents of abuse recounted to the author while working with abused women, and reanalyzes those accounts in light of the theory of coercive control. PMID:21164217

  2. Middle Eastern Adolescents' Perpetration of School Violence against Peers and Teachers: A Cross-Cultural and Ecological Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khoury-Kassabri, Mona; Astor, Ron Avi; Benbenishty, Rami

    2009-01-01

    The current study presents the prevalence of students' reports of perpetration of violence toward peers and teachers among 16,604 7th- through 11th-grade Jewish and Arab students in Israel and examines the individual and school contextual factors that explain students' violence. The study explores how students' reports of violence are influenced…

  3. Longitudinal Mediators of Relations Between Family Violence and Adolescent Dating Aggression Perpetration

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, H. Luz McNaughton; Foshee, Vangie A.; Fortson, Beverly L.; Valle, Linda A.; Breiding, Matthew J.; Merrick, Melissa T.

    2015-01-01

    Few longitudinal studies have examined the pathways through which family violence leads to dating aggression. In the current study the authors used 3 waves of data obtained from 8th- and 9th-grade adolescents (N = 1,965) to examine the hypotheses that the prospective relationship between witnessing family violence and directly experiencing violence and physical dating aggression perpetration is mediated by 3 constructs: (a) normative beliefs about dating aggression (norms), (b) anger dysregulation, and (c) depression. Results from cross-lagged regression models suggest that the relationship between having been hit by an adult and dating aggression is mediated by changes in norms and anger dysregulation, but not depression. No evidence of indirect effects from witnessing family violence to dating aggression was found through any of the proposed mediators. Taken together, the findings suggest that anger dysregulation and normative beliefs are potential targets for dating abuse prevention efforts aimed at youth who have directly experienced violence. PMID:26719602

  4. Traditional Male Ideology and Service System Involvement among Drug-Involved Men Who Perpetrate Intimate Partner Violence: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Elwin; El-Bassel, Nabila; Gilbert, Louisa; O'Connor, Meghan; Seewald, Randy

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the extent to which drug-involved men who perpetrate male-to-female intimate partner violence (IPV) are engaged with various formal service systems as well as whether adherence to traditional male ideologies--thought to drive perpetration of male-to-female IPV--affects help-seeking behavior. This study also…

  5. Correlates of Female-Perpetrated Intimate Partner Violence in Kano, Northern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Amole, Taiwo G; Bello, Shehu; Odoh, Chisom; Aliyu, Muktar H; Iliyasu, Zubairu

    2016-07-01

    Women are by no means the exclusive victims of intimate partner violence (IPV). This study assessed the lifetime prevalence and predictors of female-perpetrated IPV among public servants in Kano, Nigeria. Using a descriptive cross-sectional design and systematic sampling, pre-tested structured self-administered questionnaires were used to assess prevalence, types, and predictors of IPV among 302 married men. The lifetime prevalence of IPV was 66.8% (n = 177; 95% confidence interval [CI] = [60.7, 72.4]). Of surveyed men who have ever experienced violence, 78.0% (n = 138), 81.4% (n = 144), and 16.4% (n = 29) encountered physical assault, psychological aggression, and sexual coercion, respectively. After controlling for confounders, having ≥5 children, adjusted odds ratio (aOR) [95% CI] = 3.93 [1.16, 13.29], p = .027, and childhood experience of violence, aOR [95% CI] = 0.14 [0.05, 0.39], p = .0001, remained significant predictors of female-perpetrated IPV. In conclusion, female-perpetrated IPV is prevalent in northern Nigeria. Addressing IPV will require comprehensive violence prevention measures, including counseling and support for victims and exposed children. PMID:25731930

  6. Individual and Family Predictors of the Perpetration of Dating Violence and Victimization in Late Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Makin-Byrd, Kerry; Bierman, Karen L.

    2012-01-01

    Teen dating violence is a crime of national concern with approximately one-fourth of adolescents reporting victimization of physical, psychological, or sexual dating violence each year. The present study examined how aggressive family dynamics in both childhood and early adolescence predicted the perpetration of dating violence and victimization in late adolescence. Children (n=401, 43% female) were followed from kindergarten entry to the age of 18 years. Early adolescent aggressive-oppositional problems at home and aggressive-oppositional problems at school each made unique predictions to the emergence of dating violence in late adolescence. The results suggest that aggressive family dynamics during childhood and early adolescence influence the development of dating violence primarily by fostering a child’s oppositional-aggressive responding style initially in the home, which is then generalized to other contexts. Although this study is limited by weaknesses detailed in the discussion, the contribution of longitudinal evidence including parent, teacher, and adolescent reports from both boys and girls, a dual-emphasis on the prediction of perpetration and victimization, as well as an analysis of both relations between variables and person-oriented group comparisons combine to make a unique contribution to the growing literature on adolescent partner violence. PMID:22990881

  7. Individual and family predictors of the perpetration of dating violence and victimization in late adolescence.

    PubMed

    Makin-Byrd, Kerry; Bierman, Karen L

    2013-04-01

    Teen dating violence is a crime of national concern with approximately one-fourth of adolescents reporting victimization of physical, psychological, or sexual dating violence each year. The present study examined how aggressive family dynamics in both childhood and early adolescence predicted the perpetration of dating violence and victimization in late adolescence. Children (n = 401, 43 % female) were followed from kindergarten entry to the age of 18 years. Early adolescent aggressive-oppositional problems at home and aggressive-oppositional problems at school each made unique predictions to the emergence of dating violence in late adolescence. The results suggest that aggressive family dynamics during childhood and early adolescence influence the development of dating violence primarily by fostering a child's oppositional-aggressive responding style initially in the home, which is then generalized to other contexts. Although this study is limited by weaknesses detailed in the discussion, the contribution of longitudinal evidence including parent, teacher, and adolescent reports from both boys and girls, a dual-emphasis on the prediction of perpetration and victimization, as well as an analysis of both relations between variables and person-oriented group comparisons combine to make a unique contribution to the growing literature on adolescent partner violence. PMID:22990881

  8. Child Abuse and Neglect and Intimate Partner Violence Victimization and Perpetration: A Prospective Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Widom, Cathy Spatz; Czaja, Sally; Dutton, Mary Ann

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the extent to which abused and neglected children report intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization and perpetration when followed up into middle adulthood. Using data from a prospective cohort design study, children (ages 0–11) with documented histories of physical and sexual abuse and/or neglect (n = 497) were matched with children without such histories (n = 395) and assessed in adulthood (Mage = 39.5). Prevalence, number, and variety of four types of IPV (psychological abuse, physical violence, sexual violence, and injury) were measured. Over 80% of both groups–childhood abuse and neglect (CAN) and controls–reported some form of IPV victimization during the past year (most commonly psychological abuse) and about 75% of both groups reported perpetration of IPV toward their partner. Controlling for age, sex, and race, overall CAN [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.60, 95% CI [1.03, 2.49], physical abuse (AOR = 2.52, 95% CI [1.17, 5.40]), and neglect (AOR = 1.64, 95% CI [1.04, 2.59]) predicted increased risk for being victimized by a partner via physical injury. CAN and neglect also predicted being victimized by a greater number and variety of IPV acts. CAN and control groups did not differ in reports of perpetration of IPV, although neglect predicted greater likelihood of perpetrating physical injury to a partner, compared to controls. Abused/neglected females were more likely to report being injured by their partner, whereas maltreated males did not. This study found that child maltreatment increases risk for the most serious form of IPV involving physical injury. Increased attention should be paid to IPV (victimization and perpetration) in individuals with histories of neglect. PMID:24325940

  9. Mini review: psychosocial stress such as violence against their partners could benefit general immunity in intimate partner violence perpetrators.

    PubMed

    Romero-Martínez, A; Lila, M; Vitoria-Estruch; Moya-Albiol, L

    2014-01-01

    Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) perpetrators use physical and/or psychological abuse to control their partners and achieve a dominant status. As dominance is associated with low disease risk and fast quick illness recovery from an illness, such behaviors may contribute to improving their health at the expense of that of the battered women. Studies with immunological and hormonal parameters have recently revealed that IPV perpetrators present higher general immunocompetence (salivary IgA levels) in response to acute stress, especially during the preparation/anticipation period and when externalizing their anger. Salivary IgA levels have been proved to be increased by hormones, specifically by high testosterone and low cortisol characteristic in IPV perpetrators. Moreover, a high proneness to express anger (defined by high T/C ratio) supposes an increase in self-esteem and mental health. Thus, the use of violence against partners could reinforce their dominant status and, consequently, may serve to indirectly promote IPV perpetrators' immunity. PMID:25585489

  10. Prevalence and correlates of suicidal ideation among court-referred male perpetrators of intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Wolford-Clevenger, Caitlin; Febres, Jeniimarie; Elmquist, JoAnna; Zapor, Heather; Brasfield, Hope; Stuart, Gregory L

    2015-02-01

    Despite the documented association between intimate partner violence perpetration and suicidal ideation, few studies have examined the prevalence and correlates of suicidal ideation in men attending batterer intervention programs. This cross-sectional study examined the prevalence and correlates of suicidal ideation in 294 males court-ordered to a batterer intervention program. Twenty-two percent of the sample reported experiencing suicidal ideation within the 2 weeks prior to entering the batterer intervention program. Multiple linear regression indicated that depression and borderline personality disorder symptoms, but not intimate partner violence perpetration, victimization, or antisocial personality disorder symptoms, accounted for significant variance in suicidal ideation. These results suggest that symptoms of depression and borderline personality disorder observed in males attending batterer intervention programs should warrant thorough suicide risk assessment. Implications of the findings and limitations of the study are discussed. PMID:24979071

  11. Prevalence and Correlates of Suicidal Ideation among Court-Referred Male Perpetrators of Intimate Partner Violence

    PubMed Central

    Wolford-Clevenger, Caitlin; Febres, Jeniimarie; Elmquist, JoAnna; Zapor, Heather; Brasfield, Hope; Stuart, Gregory L.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the documented association between intimate partner violence perpetration and suicidal ideation, few studies have examined the prevalence and correlates of suicidal ideation in men attending batterer intervention programs. This cross-sectional study examined the prevalence and correlates of suicidal ideation in 294 males court-ordered to a batterer intervention program. Twenty-two percent of the sample reported experiencing suicidal ideation within the two weeks prior to entering the batterer intervention program. Multiple linear regression indicated that depression and borderline personality disorder symptoms, but not intimate partner violence perpetration, victimization, or antisocial personality disorder symptoms, accounted for significant variance in suicidal ideation. These results suggest that symptoms of depression and borderline personality disorder observed in males attending batterer intervention programs should warrant thorough suicide risk assessment. Implications of the findings and limitations of the study are discussed. PMID:24979071

  12. [A psychopathological picture of the perpetrator of violence in a family].

    PubMed

    Pilszyk, Anna

    2007-01-01

    Violence is a very frequent subject in contemporary literature. It appears that the reason for this is its spreading and a negative social perception of this phenomenon. The present article provides an analysis of definitions, forms and conditionings of violence, but, most of all, a review of results of the research focused on characteristics of the perpetrator of delinquent actions within the family. In order to summarize, it should be stated that literature on the subject is dominated with a theoretical discourse, based on remarks and experiences of other authors. What is lacking, is a wide spectrum scientific research. The present article constitutes a theoretical basis for a research programme aiming for a detailed description of perpetrators of crimes against the family in a psychosocial, medical and judicial context. It will contribute to a better understanding of the issue and will allow the verification of numerous theoretical opinions on the subject. PMID:18540425

  13. The identification of implicit theories in domestic violence perpetrators.

    PubMed

    Dempsey, Bernadette; Day, Andrew

    2011-05-01

    An understanding of how the beliefs of domestically violent offenders might influence their abusive behavior is central to the development and delivery of any intervention program that aims to reduce the risk of further violence against women and children. This article reports the results of a preliminary investigation into the core beliefs of a sample of domestically violent men. Three major themes emerged from an analysis of the accounts of their violence, which were understood in relation to three implicit theories that participants held about themselves, their relationships, and the world. These are discussed in terms of previous studies of offender cognition, how domestic violence programs might be conceptualized, and their implications for practice. PMID:20305091

  14. [Female perpetrated violence is usually directed against close persons, such as the spouse or child].

    PubMed

    Putkonen, Hanna

    2011-01-01

    Common features for violent Finnish females and males include early underprivileged life and substance abuse. Women may commit mild partner violence as often as men. The female proportion of homicide sentences in Finland has increased during past decades, apparently most significantly influenced by the increased alcohol consumption among women. Partner homicides committed by women are often associated with self-defense aspects. Homicidal situations directed against children are often associated with self-destructive behavior by the perpetrator. PMID:21805895

  15. Self-Reported Childhood Physical Abuse and Perpetration of Intimate Partner Violence: The Moderating Role of Psychopathic Traits

    PubMed Central

    Swogger, Marc T.; Walsh, Zach; Kosson, David S.; Cashman-Brown, Sarah; Caine, Eric D.

    2012-01-01

    Whereas considerable evidence links childhood physical abuse with later perpetration of intimate partner violence (IPV), research to identify moderators of this relationship will increase our understanding of which victims of childhood abuse are at risk for later IPV. The present study examined dimensions of psychopathy as moderators of the relationship between physical abuse in childhood and perpetration of IPV in a sample of criminal offenders. Results indicated that, among individuals with higher levels of impulsive-irresponsible (i.e., Lifestyle) traits of psychopathy, childhood physical abuse was associated with later perpetration of IPV. Findings have implications for the propensity toward IPV perpetration among individuals who have experienced childhood physical abuse. PMID:22984318

  16. Expanding resource theory and feminist-informed theory to explain intimate partner violence perpetration by court-ordered men.

    PubMed

    Basile, Kathleen C; Hall, Jeffrey E; Walters, Mikel L

    2013-07-01

    This study tested resource and feminist-informed theories to explain physical, sexual, psychological, and stalking intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetrated by court-mandated men. Data were obtained from 340 men arrested for physical assault of a partner before their court-ordered treatment. Using path analysis, findings provided partial support for each model. Ineffective arguing and substance-use problems were moderators of resources and perpetration. Dominance mediated early exposures and perpetration in the feminist-informed model. In both models, predictors of stalking were different than those for other types of perpetration. Future studies should replicate this research and determine the utility of combining models. PMID:23955930

  17. Shared Risk Factors for the Perpetration of Physical Dating Violence, Bullying, and Sexual Harassment Among Adolescents Exposed to Domestic Violence.

    PubMed

    Foshee, Vangie A; McNaughton Reyes, H Luz; Chen, May S; Ennett, Susan T; Basile, Kathleen C; DeGue, Sarah; Vivolo-Kantor, Alana M; Moracco, Kathryn E; Bowling, J Michael

    2016-04-01

    The high risk of perpetrating physical dating violence, bullying, and sexual harassment by adolescents exposed to domestic violence points to the need for programs to prevent these types of aggression among this group. This study of adolescents exposed to domestic violence examined whether these forms of aggression share risk factors that could be targeted for change in single programs designed to prevent all three types of aggression. Analyses were conducted on 399 mother victims of domestic violence and their adolescents, recruited through community advertising. The adolescents ranged in age from 12 to 16 years; 64 % were female. Generalized estimating equations was used to control for the covariation among the aggression types when testing for shared risk factors. Approximately 70 % of the adolescents reported perpetrating at least one of the three forms of aggression. In models examining one risk factor at a time, but controlling for demographics, adolescent acceptance of sexual violence, mother-adolescent discord, family conflict, low maternal monitoring, low mother-adolescent closeness, low family cohesion, depressed affect, feelings of anger, and anger reactivity were shared across all three aggression types. In multivariable models, which included all of the risk factors examined and the demographic variables, low maternal monitoring, depressed affect and anger reactivity remained significant shared risk factors. Our findings suggest that programs targeting these risk factors for change have the potential to prevent all three forms of aggression. In multivariable models, poor conflict management skills was a risk for bullying and sexual harassment, but not dating violence; acceptance of dating violence was a risk for dating violence and bullying, but not sexual harassment; and none of the examined risk factors were unique to aggression type. The study's implications for the development of interventions and future research are discussed. PMID:26746242

  18. Direct and indirect effects of neighborhood characteristics on the perpetration of dating violence across adolescence.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ling-Yin; Foshee, Vangie A; Reyes, Heathe Luz McNaughton; Ennett, Susan T; Halpern, Carolyn T

    2015-03-01

    Neighborhood context plays a role in the development of adolescent health risk behaviors, but few studies have investigated the influence of neighborhoods on the perpetration of dating violence. This longitudinal study examined the direct effects of risky neighborhood structural and physical characteristics on trajectories of the perpetration of dating violence, tested whether collective efficacy mediated these relationships, and determined if the effects varied by the sex of the adolescent. Adolescent data are from a multi-wave longitudinal study from grades 8 to 12; neighborhood data were collected from parents' interviews and U.S. Census data. Multilevel growth curve models were conducted with 3,218 students; the sample was 50% male, 41% White, 50% Black, and 9% other race/ethnicity. In models examining risky neighborhood variables one at a time, and controlling for potential individual-level confounders, the sex of the adolescent interacted with economic disadvantage, residential instability, and physical disorder; these risky neighborhood characteristics increased risk for girls' but not boys' perpetrating of dating violence. In full models with all of the risky neighborhood variables, the sex of the adolescent continued to interact with neighborhood economic disadvantage; living in economically disadvantaged neighborhoods increased girls' but not boys' risk for dating violence across all ages. No other risky neighborhood effects were found for boys or girls. Collective efficacy did not mediate the relationships between other neighborhood characteristics and the outcome. These findings suggest that dating violence prevention strategies for girls should consider the contexts in which they live rather than only targeting changes in their individual characteristics. PMID:25262008

  19. Patterns of Dating Violence Perpetration and Victimization in U.S. Young Adult Males and Females.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Rachael A; Renner, Lynette M; Clark, Cari Jo

    2016-09-01

    Dating violence (DV) is frequently reported by young adults in intimate relationships in the United States, but little is known about patterns of DV perpetration and victimization. In this study, we examined sexual and physical violence perpetration and victimization reported by young adults to determine how the violence patterns differ by sex and race/ethnicity. Data from non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black, and Hispanic participants in Wave 3 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health were analyzed. DV was assessed using responses to four questions focused on perpetration and four questions focused on victimization. The information on DV was taken from the most violent relationship reported by participants prior to Wave 3. Latent class analysis was first conducted separately by sex, adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, and financial stress, then by race/ethnicity, adjusting for age and financial stress. Relative model fit was established by comparing Bayesian Information Criteria (BIC), adjusted BIC, entropy, interpretability of latent classes, and certainty of latent class assignment for covariate-adjusted models. The results indicate that patterns of violence differed by sex and for females, by race/ethnicity. A three-class model was the best fit for males. For females, separate four-class models were parsimonious for White, Black, and Hispanic females. Financial stress was a significant predictor of violence classification for males and females and age predicted membership in White and Black female models. Variations in DV patterns by sex and race/ethnicity suggest the need for a more nuanced understanding of differences in DV. PMID:25846756

  20. Girls and Weapons: An International Study of the Perpetration of Violence

    PubMed Central

    Butters, Jennifer E.; Cousineau, Marie-Marthe; Harrison, Lana; Korf, Dirk

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe delinquent girls' weapons preferences where and how often they carried weapons and to identify the most important factors that explained four different weapon-related violent outcomes. A large, high-risk sample of female adolescents consisting of 510 girls aged 14–17 in four cities were interviewed using the same questionnaire and methods. Tabular and logistic regression analyses were applied. Knives emerged as the most frequently reported weapon in all cities. Rates of both lifetime victimization and perpetration of violence with weapons were high in all sites. Starting to carry a weapon as a result of violence was reported by 40% of the girls in Toronto, 28% in Philadelphia, 25% in Amsterdam, and 16% in Montreal. The major predictors of weapon perpetrated violent behaviours included ethnic origin, early onset of delinquent activities, participation in delinquent acts in the past 12 months, gang fighting and carrying a weapon as a result of violence. Site, age and heavy alcohol consumption had a minor impact, and drug use, drug selling, and neighborhood features, none. Despite numerous differences in weapons' prevalence across cities, the logistic regression found that site was only significant in use of an object (Toronto) and not significant in threatening or hurting someone with either a knife or a gun or actually hurting others with a weapon. These findings suggest commonality in serious female violence that extends beyond borders and cultures. PMID:16937086

  1. Posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, intimate partner violence perpetration, and the mediating role of shame processing bias.

    PubMed

    Sippel, Lauren M; Marshall, Amy D

    2011-10-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may produce internal "threats to the self," which generate shame. Shame is theoretically and empirically linked to intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration. We examined relations among PTSD, cognitive processing of shame-relevant information, and IPV perpetration. Forty-seven community participants completed an emotional Stroop task with shame-relevant and neutral words. Stimuli were presented supraliminally (i.e., until vocal response) and subliminally (i.e., below an individualized threshold of conscious awareness). Facilitated color-naming of shame-relevant words (thought to reflect congruence between shame and self-schemas) mediated the relation between PTSD severity and IPV perpetration frequency. Mediation results for subliminal stimuli suggest that biased processing of shame cues may occur preconsciously and potentially catalyze processes (i.e., expectations of rejection in ambiguous situations with one's partner; avoidance that minimizes discomfort and protects self-image) that lead to IPV perpetration. Psychotherapeutic approaches to PTSD and IPV should consider the role of facilitated processing of shame cues. PMID:21641765

  2. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms, Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration, and the Mediating Role of Shame Processing Bias

    PubMed Central

    Sippel, Lauren M.; Marshall, Amy D.

    2011-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may produce internal “threats to the self,” which generate shame. Shame is theoretically and empirically linked to intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration. We examined relations among PTSD, cognitive processing of shame-relevant information, and IPV perpetration. Forty-seven community participants completed an emotional Stroop task with shame-relevant and neutral words. Stimuli were presented supraliminally (i.e., until vocal response) and subliminally (i.e., below an individualized threshold of conscious awareness). Facilitated color-naming of shame-relevant words (thought to reflect congruence between shame and self-schemas) mediated the relation between PTSD severity and IPV perpetration frequency. Mediation results for subliminal stimuli suggest that biased processing of shame cues may occur preconsciously and potentially catalyze processes (i.e., expectations of rejection in ambiguous situations with one's partner; avoidance that minimizes discomfort and protects self-image) that lead to IPV perpetration. Psychotherapeutic approaches to PTSD and IPV should consider the role of facilitated processing of shame cues. PMID:21641765

  3. How useful are indices of personality pathology when assessing domestic violence perpetrators?

    PubMed

    Gibbons, Peter; Collins, Marjorie; Reid, Corinne

    2011-03-01

    There has been considerable debate about profiling personality pathology when assessing and treating male perpetrators of domestic violence (DV). This study used the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI-III) to explore the severity and diversity of male perpetrator personality pathology and response bias in a group of DV perpetrators being assessed for a treatment program (N = 177). We analyzed the sample using the interpretive guidelines of White and Gondolf (2000); 54% of profiles in our sample fell into categories indicative of a personality disorder, and 37% of the total sample provided profiles indicative of severe personality pathology. These percentages were higher than White and Gondolf's findings but lower than some others. There was considerable diversity of personality pathology as well, supporting the contention that there is no one male DV perpetrator profile. Because of debate concerning the manner of responding on self-report instruments, we paid special attention to response biases in our sample. Twenty-six percent of our sample exaggerated (12%) or minimized (14%) their responses. We also found that response biases on the MCMI-III Modifying Indices were related to self-reported severity of psychopathology. This suggests that assessing severity of psychopathology is inadequate without reference to such biases. PMID:21381843

  4. Are immigrants more likely than native-born Americans to perpetrate intimate partner violence?

    PubMed

    Vaughn, Michael G; Salas-Wright, Christopher P; Cooper-Sadlo, Shannon; Maynard, Brandy R; Larson, Matthew

    2015-07-01

    Despite an emerging body of research indicating that immigrants are less likely than native-born Americans to engage in crime and antisocial behavior, less attention has focused specifically on intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration among immigrant populations. We address this gap by using data from Wave II of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) and compare immigrants from Asia, Africa, Europe, and Latin America to native-born Americans with respect to multiple forms of IPV. After controlling for an extensive array of confounds, results indicate that in the aggregate, immigrants are significantly more likely to perpetrate IPV. However, examination of major world regions indicates these results are driven by Latin American immigrants. Immigrants from Asia, Africa, and Europe report a lower prevalence of IPV perpetration than native-born Americans. This study extends prior research on the immigrant paradox and suggests that future studies take into account regional heterogeneity when examining IPV and other forms of violence in immigrant populations. PMID:25217226

  5. A Qualitative Study of Male Veterans' Violence Perpetration and Treatment Preferences.

    PubMed

    Tharp, Andra Teten; Sherman, Michelle; Holland, Kristin; Townsend, Bradford; Bowling, Ursula

    2016-08-01

    Prevention and treatment of intimate partner violence (IPV) has increasingly focused on engaging men; however, very little work has examined how men manage the negative emotions associated with relationship conflict, as well as their preferences for and perceived barriers to treatment. Given the overrepresentation of IPV among men with post-traumatic stress disorder, the perspectives of male veterans with and without post-traumatic stress disorder are critical to informing IPV prevention and treatment within the Veterans Administration (VA) healthcare system. This qualitative study involved interviews with 25 male veterans who reported recent IPV perpetration. Interview themes included coping with emotions associated with violence and preferences and barriers to seeking treatment related to IPV. Results found the participants were interested in receiving IPV treatment at the Veterans Administration, and interviews offered several suggestions for developing or adapting prevention and treatment options for male veterans and their families to take into account violence in their relationships. PMID:27483507

  6. Arrest History and Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration in a Sample of Men and Women Arrested for Domestic Violence

    PubMed Central

    Shorey, Ryan C.; Ninnemann, Andrew; Elmquist, Joanna; Labrecque, Lindsay; Zucosky, Heather; Febres, Jeniimarie; Brasfield, Hope; Temple, Jeff R.; Stuart, Gregory L.

    2014-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a serious and prevalent problem throughout the United States. Currently, individuals arrested for domestic violence are often court mandated to batterer intervention programs (BIPs). However, little is known about the arrest histories of these individuals, especially women. The current study examined the arrest histories of men (n = 303) and women (n = 82) arrested for domestic violence and court-referred to BIPs. Results demonstrated that over 30% of the entire sample had been previously arrested for a non-violent offense, and over 25% of the participants had been previously arrested for a violent offense other than domestic violence. Moreover, men were arrested significantly more frequently for violence-related and non-violent offenses than their female counterparts. In addition, men were more likely than women to have consumed binge-levels of alcohol prior to the offense that led to their most recent arrest and court-referral to a BIP. Lastly, arrest history was positively associated with physical and psychological aggression perpetration against an intimate partner for men only, such that more previous arrests were associated with more frequent aggression. These results provide evidence that many men and women arrested for domestic violence have engaged in a number of diverse criminal acts during their lifetimes, suggesting that BIPs may need to address general criminal behavior. PMID:25379068

  7. A Telephone Intervention for Substance-Using Adult Male Perpetrators of Intimate Partner Violence

    PubMed Central

    Mbilinyi, Lyungai F.; Neighbors, Clayton; Walker, Denise D.; Roffman, Roger A.; Zegree, Joan; Edleson, Jeffrey; O’Rourke, Allison

    2012-01-01

    Objective To preliminarily evaluate telephone-delivered motivational enhancement therapy (MET) in motivating unadjudicated and nontreatment seeking intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetrators, who also use substances, to self-refer into treatment. Method 124 adult men were recruited via a multimedia marketing campaign and were randomly assigned to the intervention (MET) or comparison group following a baseline assessment. Participants in the MET condition received a personalized feedback report on their IPV and substance-use behaviors, consequences, and social norms beliefs. Results Results supported the likely effectiveness of MET in short-term reduction of IPV behavior, increasing motivation for treatment seeking, and changing perceived norms for IPV and substance abuse (SA). Conclusions Applications for brief MET interventions to facilitate voluntary treatment entry among substance-using IPV perpetrators are discussed. PMID:22754270

  8. Child custody and visitation decisions when the father has perpetrated violence against the mother.

    PubMed

    Morrill, Allison C; Dai, Jianyu; Dunn, Samantha; Sung, Iyue; Smith, Kevin

    2005-08-01

    This research evaluated the effectiveness of statutes mandating a presumption against custody to a perpetrator of domestic violence (DV) and judicial education about DV. Across six states, the authors examined 393 custody and/or visitation orders where the father perpetrated DV against the mother and surveyed 60 judges who entered those orders. With the presumption, more orders gave legal and physical custody to the mother and imposed a structured schedule and restrictive conditions on fathers' visits, except where there was also a "friendly parent" provision and a presumption for joint custody. The presumption is effective only as part of a consistent statutory scheme. Although 86% of judges had received DV education, they scored no better in knowledge or attitudes. More of their orders gave mothers sole physical custody, and knowledge was associated with maternal custody, yet fewer structured or restricted fathers' visitation. Quality of DV education is more important than statutory mandate. PMID:16043586

  9. Exposure to Community Violence and Violence Perpetration: The Protective Effects of Family Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorman-Smith, Deborah; Henry, David B.; Tolan, Patrick H.

    2004-01-01

    Although research has found that urban youth are exposed to excessive levels of community violence, few studies have focused on the factors that alter the risk of exposure to violence or the processes through which youth who are exposed to community violence do better or worse. This study investigates the risk of exposure to community violence and…

  10. Cross-gender violence perpetration and victimization among early adolescents and associations with attitudes toward dating conflict.

    PubMed

    Windle, Michael; Mrug, Sylvie

    2009-03-01

    This study examined gender differences in cross-gender violence perpetration and victimization (ranging from mild, e.g., push, to severe, e.g., assault with a knife or gun) and attitudes toward dating conflict, among an urban sample of 601 early adolescents (78% African-American). Comparisons across gender groups for cross-gender (e.g., female-to-male) violence perpetration and victimization indicated higher levels of perpetration for girls and higher levels of victimization for boys. Girls also reported higher levels of verbal and physical violence toward partners with regard to attitudes toward dating conflict. A path model was specified and indicated that cross-gender violence perpetration, harsh parenting, peer deviance, low family income, and neighborhood hazards accounted for significant variation in attitudes toward dating conflict. Findings were discussed regarding the need to identify developmental precursors of dating violence in early adolescence and to focus prevention efforts on components (e.g., social skills, coping strategies) necessary to prevent the onset and escalation of adolescent dating violence. PMID:19636755

  11. The Relationship Between Child Maltreatment and Partner Violence Victimization and Perpetration Among College Students: Focus on Auditory Status and Gender.

    PubMed

    McQuiller Williams, LaVerne; Porter, Judy L

    2015-08-01

    Partner violence is a pervasive public health concern that has received significant attention over the past three decades. Although a number of studies have reported that college students who are Deaf or hard of hearing are at an increased risk of experiencing partner violence compared with their hearing counterparts, little is known about partner violence perpetration among college students who are Deaf or hard of hearing. Furthermore, beyond disability, studies examining partner violence among students with disabilities tend to ignore other potential risk factors that may increase the risk of partner violence as a victim and/or a perpetrator. This exploratory study examines the extent of partner violence among male and female college students by auditory status and the relationship between experiencing and perpetrating partner abuse (i.e., physical abuse and psychological abuse) and child maltreatment (i.e., witnessing abuse and experiencing child physical abuse). The study also examines gender differences in the relationship between child maltreatment and physical and psychological abuse victimization and perpetration. Data were collected from a sample of approximately 680 college students at a northeastern university. Findings indicate that having witnessed interparental abuse as a child was only significant for being an adult victim of physical abuse. Having been a child victim of parental abuse was not significant for any of the abuse measures. Gender was only significant for being an adult victim of physical abuse. Deaf students were significantly more likely to report all abuse measures. Implications and directions for further research are discussed. PMID:25287415

  12. Intimate partner violence perpetrated by young adult women against men in Ukraine: Examining individual, familial, and cultural factors.

    PubMed

    Balabukha, Iryna; Krishnakumar, Ambika; Narine, Lutchmie

    2016-07-01

    We examined the role of financial strain, parent-to-parent violence, parent-to-child violence, emotional distress, and alcohol use in intimate partner violence perpetrated by young adult women against men in Ukraine. The moderating role of acceptability of intimate partner violence and violence-related laws and regulations was also examined. Four hundred and six full-time female university students from four universities in Ukraine participated in the study. We found that emotional distress, parent-to-parent, and parent-to-child violence mediated the link between financial strain and intimate partner violence perpetrated by women on men. However, we found limited support for the moderating role of acceptability of intimate partner violence and violence-related laws and regulations in the relationship between individual and familial factors on intimate partner violence. The findings from this investigation suggest that there is a distinct need for supporting families and individuals in dealing with issues of intimate partner violence directed by women against men in Ukraine. Aggr. Behav. 42:380-393, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26541646

  13. Early maladaptive schemas and personality disorder traits in perpetrators of intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Corral, Carmen; Calvete, Esther

    2014-01-01

    Personality disorders (PDs) are highly prevalent among perpetrators of intimate partner violence (IPV). Schema Therapy proposes a number of early maladaptive schemas (EMSs) that are involved in the development of PDs. This study examined the prevalence of PD traits in a sample of men who committed violence against their partners and the relationship between EMSs domains and PD traits. With this aim, a sample of 119 convicted men completed the Young Schema Questionnaire-Short Form (YSQ-SF; Young & Brown, 1994) and the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI-III; Millon, Millon, & Davis, 1994). The results showed that the most prevalent PD traits were narcissistic (24.6%), obsessive-compulsive (21.9%), and paranoid (17.5%). These PD traits were linked to several EMSs in ways consistent with the Schema Therapy model. Namely, narcissistic PD traits were positively associated with schemas of the impaired limits domain and were negatively associated with the other-directedness domain. The paranoid PD traits were associated with the disconnection and rejection domain and the impaired autonomy and performance domain. Finally, both borderline and antisocial PD traits were associated with the disconnection and rejection domain and the impaired limits domain. These findings suggest that the assessment and modification of EMSs should be a factor to consider for inclusion in the treatment programs for perpetrators of IPV in order to provide comprehensive intervention of this population. PMID:24553172

  14. Does the Alcohol Make Them Do It? Dating Violence Perpetration and Drinking Among Youth

    PubMed Central

    Rothman, Emily F.; McNaughton Reyes, Luz; Johnson, Renee M.; LaValley, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Strong evidence links alcohol use to partner violence perpetration among adults, but the relation between youth alcohol use and dating violence perpetration (DVP) is not as well studied. The authors used meta-analytic procedures to evaluate current knowledge on the association between alcohol use and DVP among youth. The authors reviewed 28 studies published in 1985–2010; most (82%) were cross-sectional. Alcohol use was measured in 3 main ways: 1) frequency or quantity of use, 2) frequency of heavy episodic drinking, or 3) problem use. Collectively, results support the conclusion that higher levels of alcohol use are positively associated with youth DVP. With fixed-effects models, the combined odds ratios for DVP for frequency/quantity, heavy episodic drinking, and problem use were 1.23 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.16, 1.31), 1.47 (95% CI: 1.17, 1.85), and 2.33 (95% CI: 1.94, 2.80), respectively. This association persisted even after accounting for heterogeneity and publication bias. No studies were designed to assess the immediate temporal association between drinking and DVP. Future research should assess whether there are acute or pharmacologic effects of alcohol use on youth DVP. Furthermore, few studies have been hypothesis driven, controlled for potential confounding, or examined potential effect measure modification. Studies designed to investigate the youth alcohol–DVP link specifically, and whether results vary by individuals’ gender, developmental stage, or culture, are needed. PMID:22128086

  15. Risk Factors for Men’s Lifetime Perpetration of Physical Violence against Intimate Partners: Results from the International Men and Gender Equality Survey (IMAGES) in Eight Countries

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, Paul J.; McCleary-Sills, Jennifer; Morton, Matthew; Levtov, Ruti; Heilman, Brian; Barker, Gary

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines men’s lifetime physical intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration across eight low- and middle-income countries to better understand key risk factors that interventions can target in order to promote gender equality and reduce IPV. We use data from men (n = 7806) that were collected as part of the International Men and Gender Equality Survey (IMAGES) in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brazil, Chile, Croatia, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), India, Mexico, and Rwanda. Results show that there is wide variation across countries for lifetime self-reported physical violence perpetration (range: 17% in Mexico to 45% in DRC), men’s support for equal roles for men and women, and acceptability of violence against women. Across the sample, 31% of men report having perpetrated physical violence against a partner in their lifetime. In multivariate analyses examining risk factors for men ever perpetrating physical violence against a partner, witnessing parental violence was the strongest risk factor, reinforcing previous research suggesting the inter-generational transmission of violence. Additionally, having been involved in fights not specifically with an intimate partner, permissive attitudes towards violence against women, having inequitable gender attitudes, and older age were associated with a higher likelihood of ever perpetrating physical IPV. In separate analyses for each country, we found different patterns of risk factors in countries with high perpetration compared to countries with low perpetration. Findings are interpreted to identify key knowledge gaps and directions for future research, public policies, evaluation, and programming. PMID:25734544

  16. Risk factors for men's lifetime perpetration of physical violence against intimate partners: results from the international men and gender equality survey (IMAGES) in eight countries.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Paul J; McCleary-Sills, Jennifer; Morton, Matthew; Levtov, Ruti; Heilman, Brian; Barker, Gary

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines men's lifetime physical intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration across eight low- and middle-income countries to better understand key risk factors that interventions can target in order to promote gender equality and reduce IPV. We use data from men (n = 7806) that were collected as part of the International Men and Gender Equality Survey (IMAGES) in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brazil, Chile, Croatia, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), India, Mexico, and Rwanda. Results show that there is wide variation across countries for lifetime self-reported physical violence perpetration (range: 17% in Mexico to 45% in DRC), men's support for equal roles for men and women, and acceptability of violence against women. Across the sample, 31% of men report having perpetrated physical violence against a partner in their lifetime. In multivariate analyses examining risk factors for men ever perpetrating physical violence against a partner, witnessing parental violence was the strongest risk factor, reinforcing previous research suggesting the inter-generational transmission of violence. Additionally, having been involved in fights not specifically with an intimate partner, permissive attitudes towards violence against women, having inequitable gender attitudes, and older age were associated with a higher likelihood of ever perpetrating physical IPV. In separate analyses for each country, we found different patterns of risk factors in countries with high perpetration compared to countries with low perpetration. Findings are interpreted to identify key knowledge gaps and directions for future research, public policies, evaluation, and programming. PMID:25734544

  17. Sexual Violence Perpetration by Adolescents in Dating versus Same-Sex Peer Relationships: Differences in Associated Risk and Protective Factors

    PubMed Central

    Basile, Kathleen C.; Hamburger, Merle E.; Swahn, Monica H.; Choi, Colleen

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Little is known about the risk and protective factors for youth sexual violence (SV) perpetration across different types of relationships. This study examined factors associated with perpetrating SV against a dating partner and a same-sex peer. Methods: Analyses were based on data from a survey conducted in 2004 with public school boys and girls in grades 7, 9, 11, and 12 (N = 4,131) in a high-risk, urban school district in the United States. SV perpetration was defined broadly to include forcing someone, about the same age and of the same or opposite sex as the respondent, to have sex or to do something sexual that they did not want to do. Analyses examined the associations between risk and protective factors and SV perpetration, adjusting for SV victimization and demographic characteristics. Results: Findings revealed that 2.1% of respondents reported perpetration against a same-sex peer and 3.2% reported perpetration against a date during the past 12 months. Victims of SV for each relationship type were more likely than non-victims to perpetrate SV. A combination of factors across the individual, relationship, and community level were significantly associated with SV perpetration and there were both shared and unique factors across the relationship types. Conclusion: Data suggest that programs to prevent SV perpetration for both relationship types should start when students are young, with particular focus on middle school boys. Prevention efforts should have slightly different foci to address these 2 types of SV perpetration. PMID:23930146

  18. Parent and Peer Predictors of Physical Dating Violence Perpetration in Early Adolescence: Tests of Moderation and Gender Differences

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Shari; Gorman-Smith, Deborah; Sullivan, Terri; Orpinas, Pamela; Simon, Thomas R.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined parenting and peer predictors of physical dating violence perpetration during early adolescence and tested moderation among these predictors and gender. Participants were 2,824 ethnically diverse sixth-grade students with a recent boyfriend/girlfriend who was part of a multisite, longitudinal investigation of the development and prevention of violence among middle school students. Those students who reported having a boyfriend/girlfriend reported significantly more drug use and delinquent activity and were more likely to be male. Twenty-nine percent of youth with a boyfriend/girlfriend reported perpetrating physical aggression against their boyfriend/girlfriend. Parenting and peer variables were significant predictors of physical dating violence. However, gender moderated the association between parenting practices and physical dating violence, with parental monitoring inversely linked to dating violence for boys and parent support for nonaggression inversely linked to dating violence for girls. Parent support for aggression also moderated the association between peer deviancy and reported perpetration. Finally, gender moderated the interaction between peer deviancy and parent support for nonaggressive solutions. PMID:20183640

  19. Cross-Gender Violence Perpetration and Victimization among Early Adolescents and Associations with Attitudes toward Dating Conflict

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Windle, Michael; Mrug, Sylvie

    2009-01-01

    This study examined gender differences in cross-gender violence perpetration and victimization (ranging from mild, e.g., push, to severe, e.g., assault with a knife or gun) and attitudes toward dating conflict, among an urban sample of 601 early adolescents (78% African-American). Comparisons across gender groups for cross-gender (e.g.,…

  20. The Influence of Individual and Partner Characteristics on the Perpetration of Intimate Partner Violence in Young Adult Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrera, Veronica M.; Wiersma, Jacquelyn D.; Cleveland, H. Harrington

    2008-01-01

    This study examines individual and partner characteristics associated with the perpetration of intimate partner violence (IPV) in young adult relationships with opposite sex partners. Using data from Waves 1 and 3 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, this study examined 1,275 young adults' heterosexual romantic relationships.…

  1. Who Gets Blamed for Intimate Partner Violence? The Relative Contributions of Perpetrator Sex Category, Victim Confrontation, and Observer Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Cindy; Moore, Todd; Crone, Travis; DeFreitas, Stacie Craft; Rhatigan, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the effects of perpetrator sex category, victim confrontation, observer sex category, and observer attitudes on attributions of blame and behavioral stability for partner violence. Data were collected from 728 college-aged students enrolled at 2 universities in the United States. Results demonstrated that males and…

  2. The Structure of Male Adolescent Peer Networks and Risk for Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration: Findings from a National Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, Erin A.; Beadnell, Blair

    2010-01-01

    Although peer networks have been implicated as influential in a range of adolescent behaviors, little is known about relationships between peer network structures and risk for intimate partner violence (IPV) among youth. This study is a descriptive analysis of how peer network "types" may be related to subsequent risk for IPV perpetration among…

  3. Relative Importance of Emotional Dysregulation, Hostility, and Impulsiveness in Predicting Intimate Partner Violence Perpetrated by Men in Alcohol Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tharp, Andra Teten; Schumacher, Julie A.; Samper, Rita E.; McLeish, Alison C.; Coffey, Scott F.

    2013-01-01

    The current study employs dominance analysis to assess the relative importance of three constructs--hostility, impulsiveness, and emotional dysregulation (difficulties managing one's emotions when experiencing negative emotion or distress)--in explaining psychological, physical, and sexual intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration by men…

  4. Parent and Peer Predictors of Physical Dating Violence Perpetration in Early Adolescence: Tests of Moderation and Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Shari; Gorman-Smith, Deborah; Sullivan, Terri; Orpinas, Pamela; Simon, Thomas R.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined parenting and peer predictors of physical dating violence perpetration during early adolescence and tested moderation among these predictors and gender. Participants were 2,824 ethnically diverse sixth-grade students with a recent boyfriend/girlfriend who was part of a multisite, longitudinal investigation of the development…

  5. Perpetrator and victim gender patterns for 21 forms of youth victimization in the National Survey of Children's Exposure to Violence.

    PubMed

    Hamby, Sherry; Finkelhor, David; Turner, Heather

    2013-01-01

    Most interest in violence and gender has focused on certain types of victimization such as sex offenses and relational aggression. This study examined gender patterns across numerous forms of youth victimization. The data are from the National Survey of Children's Exposure to Violence (NatSCEV), a nationally representative U.S. sample of 4,549 children ages 1 month to 17 years obtained through a telephone survey of caregivers and youth. For 18 of 21 victimization types, male perpetration was significantly more common than female perpetration. Perpetrator-victim patterns revealed that most forms of physical assault and bullying showed a predominantly male-on-male pattern. All forms of sexual assault, plus kidnapping, showed a predominantly male-on-female pattern. Nonphysical maltreatment showed a mixed pattern, with fairly similar rates across all four gender configurations. Many violence types were more severe when perpetrated by males versus females as indicated by higher injury rates and greater victim fear. Higher order analyses by victimization type indicated, among other findings, that victimization types with more stranger perpetrators had more male perpetrators, victimizations with higher percentages of male-on-female and female-on-male incidents were more likely to be sexual offenses, and higher percentages of female-on-female incidents were associated with verbal victimizations. Results also suggest that males are more likely to aggress in more impersonal contexts compared to females. Gender socialization, physical power, and social power appear to intersect in ways that create gendered patterns of violence. These factors, versus a focus on skills deficits, need more attention in prevention and intervention. PMID:24547672

  6. Cross-sectional prevalence survey of intimate partner violence perpetration and victimization in Canadian military personnel

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Intimate partner violence (IPV) is prevalent and is associated with a broad range of adverse consequences. In military organizations, IPV may have special implications, such as the potential of service-related mental disorders to trigger IPV. However, the Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) have limited data to guide their prevention and control efforts. Methods Self-reported IPV perpetration, victimization, and their correlates were assessed on a cross-sectional survey of a stratified random sample of currently-serving Canadian Regular Forces personnel (N = 2157). The four primary outcomes were perpetration or victimization of any physical and/or sexual or emotional and/or financial IPV over the lifespan of the current relationship. Results Among the 81% of the population in a current relationship, perpetration of any physical and/or sexual IPV was reported in 9%; victimization was reported in 15%. Any emotional and/or financial abuse was reported by 19% (perpetration) and 22% (victimization). Less physically injurious forms of abuse predominated. Logistic regression modelling showed that relationship dissatisfaction was independently associated with all four outcomes (OR range = 2.3 to 3.7). Probable depression was associated with all outcomes except physical and/or sexual IPV victimization (OR range = 2.5 – 2.7). PTSD symptoms were only associated with physical and/or sexual IPV perpetration (OR = 3.2, CI = 1.4 to 7.9). High-risk drinking was associated with emotional and/or financial abuse. Risk of IPV was lowest in those who had recent deployment experience; remote deployment experience (vs. never having deployed) was an independent risk factor for all IPV outcomes (OR range = 2.0 – 3.4). Conclusions IPV affects an important minority of military families; less severe cases predominate. Mental disorders, high-risk drinking, relationship dissatisfaction, and remote deployment were independently associated with abuse outcomes. The

  7. Adverse health outcomes, perpetrator characteristics, and sexual violence victimization among U.S. adult males.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Ekta; Coben, Jeffrey; Bossarte, Robert M

    2010-08-01

    In the United States, an estimated three million men are victims of sexual violence each year, yet the majority of existing studies have evaluated the consequences and characteristics of victimization among women alone. The result has been a gap in the existing literature examining the physical and psychological consequences of sexual assault among men. The main objective of this study was to identify health outcomes, risk behaviors, and perpetrator/victim relationship characteristics among men who have experienced an attempted or completed sexual assault using data from the sexual violence module of the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey. A total of 59,511 male respondents participated in the sexual violence module, and the majority of participants were White (73.7%), between the ages of 35 to 44 years (19.8%), married (69.0%), graduated from college (34.6%), and had an annual household income of more than US$50,000 (49.9%). Stratified multivariate logistic regression models were conducted to test the associations between victimization and health outcomes and risk behaviors controlling for age, marital status, race/ethnicity, income, education, and other potential confounders. Results of these analyses suggest important associations between health and sexual violence victimization. Specifically, men who reported unwanted attempted intercourse and attempted and completed intercourse were more likely to report poor mental health, poor life satisfaction, activity limitations, and lower emotional and social support. The current study extends knowledge of consequences of male sexual violence by considering characteristics of sexual assault and by identifying associations between victimization and a broad range of health indicators. PMID:19940163

  8. The Age-IPV Curve: Changes in Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration during Adolescence and Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Wendi L.; Giordano, Peggy C.; Manning, Wendy D.; Longmore, Monica A.

    2014-01-01

    Research on intimate partner violence (IPV) has evolved over the last decade with increasing interest in how IPV develops over adolescence and young adulthood. Studies examining patterns of IPV over time have generally focused on victimization with less attention to temporal shifts in perpetration. While it is generally assumed that IPV peaks during young adulthood, this has not been empirically verified and documented. Additionally, prior longitudinal analyses of IPV have focused on identifying trajectories and their accompanying risk factors, with less attention given to within-individual change in IPV experiences across and within relationships. Drawing on five waves of data from the Toledo Adolescent Relationships Study (TARS), we examined patterns of the perpetration of IPV among a diverse sample of adolescents and young adults (51.1% female, 63.9% non-Hispanic White, 24.6% non-Hispanic Black, 11.5% Hispanic) spanning the ages of 13–28 years (N = 1,164). Analyses demonstrated that IPV patterns deviate from the age-crime curve, with women’s involvement in IPV increasing, while their involvement in other antisocial behaviors is decreasing. Traditional behavioral and psychological risk factors (delinquency, alcohol and drug use, depressive symptoms) accounted for some of the age variation in IPV for men, but these factors did not account for age variation in IPV among women. Relationship risk factors including frequency of disagreements, trust, jealousy, validation and self-disclosure, however, accounted for substantial portions of the age-IPV perpetration relationship for male and female youth. These findings reinforce recent calls for prevention efforts that focus on the development and maintenance of healthy relationships. PMID:25081024

  9. Structural Pathways between Child Abuse, Poor Mental Health Outcomes and Male-Perpetrated Intimate Partner Violence (IPV)

    PubMed Central

    Machisa, Mercilene T.; Christofides, Nicola; Jewkes, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Background Violent trauma exposures, including child abuse, are risk factors for PTSD and comorbid mental health disorders. Child abuse experiences of men exacerbate adult male-perpetrated intimate partner violence (IPV). The relationship between child abuse, poor mental health and IPV perpetration is complex but research among the general population is lacking. This study describes the relationship and pathways between history of child abuse exposure and male-perpetrated IPV while exploring the potentially mediating effect of poor mental health. Methods We analysed data from a randomly selected, two-stage clustered, cross-sectional household survey conducted with 416 adult men in Gauteng Province of South Africa. We used multinomial regression modelling to identify associated factors and Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) to test the primary hypothesis that poor mental health (defined as abusing alcohol or having PTSD or depressive symptoms) mediates the relationship between child abuse and IPV perpetration. Results Eighty eight percent of men were physically abused, 55% were neglected, 63% were emotionally abused and 20% were sexually abused at least once in their childhood. Twenty four percent of men had PTSD symptoms, 24% had depressive symptoms and 36% binge drank. Fifty six percent of men physically abused and 31% sexually abused partners at least once in their lifetime. Twenty two percent of men had one episode and 40% had repeat episodes of IPV perpetration. PTSD symptomatology risk increased with severity of child trauma and other trauma. PTSD severity increased the risk for binge drinking. Child trauma, other trauma and PTSD symptomatology increased the severity of depressive symptoms. PTSD symptomatology was comorbid with alcohol abuse and depressive symptoms. Child trauma, having worked in the year before the survey, other trauma and PTSD increased the risk of repeat episodes of IPV perpetration. Highly equitable gender attitudes were protective

  10. Implicit attitudes toward violence among male perpetrators of intimate partner violence: a preliminary investigation.

    PubMed

    Eckhardt, Christopher I; Samper, Rita; Suhr, Laura; Holtzworth-Munroe, Amy

    2012-02-01

    Whereas cognitive variables are hypothesized to play an important role in intimate partner violence (IPV) etiology and intervention, cognitive assessment methods have largely targeted offenders' explicit, controlled cognitive processing using paper-and-pencil questionnaires prone to social desirability biases. Using an implicit measure of attitudes (the Implicit Association Test [IAT]), we assessed attitudes toward gender, violence, and the association between gender and violence among 50 men enrolled in an IPV treatment program and a comparison sample of 40 nonviolent (NV) men. Although no group differences were noted on explicit attitudinal measures, men in the IPV group showed more positive implicit attitudes regarding violence, and a more rapid association between women and violence. Among men in treatment for IPV, the attitudes toward violence IAT was significantly correlated with self/partner-reported IPV frequency. In accordance with social information processing models of aggression, these results suggest that aggressogenic attitudes are likely to operate automatically and with little conscious deliberation. As a result, clinicians and researchers must adapt assessment and intervention strategies to capture both implicit and explicit aspects of cognitive processing. PMID:22333320

  11. An Examination of the Gender Inclusiveness of Current Theories of Sexual Violence in Adulthood: Recognizing Male Victims, Female Perpetrators, and Same-Sex Violence.

    PubMed

    Turchik, Jessica A; Hebenstreit, Claire L; Judson, Stephanie S

    2016-04-01

    Although the majority of adulthood sexual violence involves a male perpetrator and a female victim, there is also substantial evidence that members of both genders can be victims and perpetrators of sexual violence. As an alternative to viewing sexual violence within gender-specific terms, we advocate for the use of a gender inclusive conceptualization of sexual aggression that takes into account the factors that contribute to sexual victimization of, and victimization by, both men and women. The goal of the current review is to examine the need and importance of a gender inclusive conceptualization of sexual violence and to discuss how compatible our current theories are with this conceptualization. First, we examine evidence of how a gender-specific conceptualization of sexual violence aids in obscuring assault experiences that are not male to female and how this impacts victims of such violence. We specifically discuss this impact regarding research, law, public awareness, advocacy, and available victim treatment and resources. Next, we provide an overview of a number of major sexual violence theories that are relevant for adult perpetrators and adult victims, including neurobiological and integrated biological theories, evolutionary psychology theory, routine activity theory, feminist theory, social learning and related theories, typology approaches, and integrated theories. We critically examine these theories' applicability to thinking about sexual violence through a gender inclusive lens. Finally, we discuss further directions for research, clinical interventions, and advocacy in this area. Specifically, we encourage sexual violence researchers and clinicians to identify and utilize appropriate theoretical frameworks and to apply these frameworks in ways that incorporate a full range of sexual violence. PMID:25612800

  12. An exploratory analysis of college students' response and reporting behavior regarding intimate partner violence victimization and perpetration among their friends.

    PubMed

    Branch, Kathryn A; Richards, Tara N; Dretsch, Elizabeth C

    2013-12-01

    Over the last several decades, an extensive literature has documented the prevalence of dating violence on college campuses. As a result, initiatives to promote awareness of dating violence on college campuses have proliferated and models of "bystander intervention" have been developed. Bystander intervention asserts that by giving all students information concerning the prevalence and warning signs of dating violence, these individuals will "say something" when they see problem behavior. However, a paucity of empirical research exists concerning whether students actually report their observation of dating violence among their peers. In the present study, a sample of college freshman (n = 275) was surveyed regarding their willingness to report dating violence behaviors among their friends. Findings indicate that a slight majority of respondents report that they would report dating violence victimization among their friends to university officials (54%) and/or law enforcement (56%) while fewer indicated they would report perpetration, 38% and 42%, respectively. Importantly, respondents overwhelmingly report that they would attempt to intervene in the dating violence victimization (87%) and perpetration (84%). Implications of these findings for campus safety initiatives and bystander education models are discussed. PMID:24114762

  13. Symptoms of depression, anxiety, and somatization in female victims and perpetrators of intimate partner violence in Maputo City, Mozambique

    PubMed Central

    Zacarias, Antonio Eugenio; Macassa, Gloria; Soares, Joaquim JF; Svanström, Leif; Antai, Diddy

    2012-01-01

    Background Little knowledge exists in Mozambique and sub-Saharan Africa about the mental health (symptoms of depression, anxiety, and somatization) of women victims and perpetrators of intimate partner violence (IPV) by type of abuse (psychological aggression, physical assault without/with injury, and sexual coercion). This study scrutinizes factors associated with mental health among women victims and perpetrators of IPV over the 12 months prior to the study. Methods and materials Mental health data were analyzed with bivariate and multiple regression methods for 1442 women aged 15–49 years who contacted Forensic Services at Maputo Central Hospital (Maputo City, Mozambique) for IPV victimization between April 1, 2007 and March 31, 2008. Results In bivariate analyses, victims and perpetrators of IPVs scored higher on symptoms of mental health than their unaffected counterparts. Multiple regressions revealed that controlling behaviors, mental health comorbidity, social support, smoking, childhood abuse, sleep difficulties, age, and lack of education were more important in explaining symptoms of mental health than demographics/socioeconomics or life-style factors. Victimization and perpetration across all types of IPV were not associated with symptoms of mental health. Conclusion In our sample, victimization and perpetration were not important factors in explaining mental ill health, contrary to previous findings. More research into the relationship between women’s IPV victimization and perpetration and mental health is warranted as well as the influence of controlling behaviors on mental health. PMID:23071419

  14. NIJ's Program of Domestic Violence Research: collaborative efforts to build knowledge guided by safety for victims and accountability of perpetrators.

    PubMed

    Auchter, Bernard; Backes, Bethany L

    2013-06-01

    The primary focus of the National Institute of Justice's (NIJ's) Violence Against Women (VAW) research and evaluation program has been domestic violence, also called intimate partner violence (IPV). The program has supported over 200 studies that have centered on definition and measurement, victims and perpetrators, children, contexts and consequences of domestic violence, and civil and criminal justice interventions and processes responding to these crimes. Funding approaches in the program have employed grants for research and evaluation, demonstration programs with partner agencies, joint funding of research through interagency agreements, and collaborations with agencies and organizations sharing common objectives. Results have influenced policy and practices, particularly results from those studies conducted by researcher-practitioner collaborations. NIJ's success in the development and progress of this program is attributed to the initial vision that included researchers, practitioners, and policymakers in an ongoing discourse about what is known and needs to be known. The terms domestic violence and IPV are used interchangeably throughout the article. PMID:23996853

  15. Dating violence perpetration and victimization among South Korean college students: a focus on gender and childhood maltreatment.

    PubMed

    Gover, Angela R; Park, MiRang; Tomsich, Elizabeth A; Jennings, Wesley G

    2011-04-01

    Unlike the attention given to intimate partner violence among adolescents and young adults in western societies, dating violence is not currently recognized in South Korea as a social phenomenon in terms of research, prevention, and intervention. Childhood maltreatment has been identified in previous research as a risk factor for violence in a later dating relationship. This study examines the relationship between childhood maltreatment and physical and psychological dating violence perpetration and victimization among 1,399 college students in South Korea, with a specific focus on gender. Poisson regression models and tests of equivalent parameters were conducted to determine whether the observed relationships were invariant across gender. Findings indicated that childhood maltreatment is a consistent predictor of involvement in dating relationships characterized by violence for males and females. The implications of the current research within a cultural context are discussed. PMID:20498382

  16. The Temporal Relationship Between Alcohol, Marijuana, Angry Affect, and Dating Violence Perpetration: A Daily Diary Study With Female College Students

    PubMed Central

    Shorey, Ryan C.; Stuart, Gregory L.; Moore, Todd M.; McNulty, James K.

    2014-01-01

    Although a robust literature documents a positive association between alcohol and intimate partner violence (IPV), there is limited temporal research on this relation. Moreover, the role of marijuana in influencing IPV has been mixed. Thus, the primary aim of the current study was to examine the temporal relationship between alcohol and marijuana use and dating violence perpetration. A secondary aim was to examine whether angry affect moderated the temporal relation between alcohol and marijuana use and IPV perpetration. Participants were college women who had consumed alcohol in the previous month and were in a dating relationship (N = 173). For up to 90 consecutive days, women completed daily surveys that assessed their alcohol use, marijuana use, angry affect (anger, hostility, and irritation), and violence perpetration (psychological and physical). On alcohol use days, marijuana use days, and with increases in angry affect, the odds of psychological aggression increased. Only alcohol use days and increases in angry affect increased the odds of physical aggression. Moreover, the main effects of alcohol and marijuana use on aggression were moderated by angry affect. Alcohol was positively associated with psychological and physical aggression when angry affect was high, but was unrelated to aggression when angry affect was low. Marijuana use was associated with psychological aggression when angry affect was high. Findings advance our understanding of the proximal effect of alcohol and marijuana use on dating violence, including the potential moderating effect of angry affect on this relation. PMID:24274434

  17. Implicit Attitudes toward Violence among Male Perpetrators of Intimate Partner Violence: A Preliminary Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckhardt, Christopher I.; Samper, Rita; Suhr, Laura; Holtzworth-Munroe, Amy

    2012-01-01

    Whereas cognitive variables are hypothesized to play an important role in intimate partner violence (IPV) etiology and intervention, cognitive assessment methods have largely targeted offenders' explicit, controlled cognitive processing using paper-and-pencil questionnaires prone to social desirability biases. Using an implicit measure of…

  18. An examination of the factors related to dating violence perpetration among young men and women and associated theoretical explanations: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Dardis, Christina M; Dixon, Kristiana J; Edwards, Katie M; Turchik, Jessica A

    2015-04-01

    This article provides a review of the literature on dating violence (DV) perpetration, specifically sex similarities and differences in the correlates and predictors of DV perpetration and the utility of current theories to explain young men's and women's DV perpetration. Overall, many of the correlates and predictors of DV perpetration are similar among young men and women (e.g., witnessing interparental violence, experiencing child abuse, alcohol abuse, traditional gender roles, relationship power dynamics). However, young women's perpetration of DV is more strongly related to internalizing symptoms (e.g., depression), trait anger and hostility, and experiencing DV victimization than young men's perpetration, whereas young men's perpetration of DV is more consistently related to lower socioeconomic status and educational attainment, antisocial personality characteristics, and increased relationship length than young women's perpetration. Each theory offers insights into but does not fully account for the correlates and predictors of DV perpetration. Sociocultural theories may be useful in explaining the use of coercive control in relationships, and learning/intergenerational transmission of violence theories may be useful in explaining bidirectional couple violence. Future research should focus on integrative theories, such as in the social-ecological theory, in order to explain various forms of DV. Our understanding of young men's and young women's DV perpetration is limited by cross-sectional research designs, methodological inconsistencies, a lack of sex-specific analytic approaches, and a lack of focus on contextual factors; more multivariate and longitudinal studies are needed. Further, as DV prevention programming is often presented in mixed-sex formats, a critical understanding of sex differences and similarities in DV perpetration could ultimately refine and improve effectiveness of programming efforts aimed at reducing DV. PMID:24415138

  19. Child Maltreatment Victimization and Subsequent Perpetration of Young Adult Intimate Partner Violence: An Exploration of Mediating Factors

    PubMed Central

    Millett, Lina S.; Kohl, Patricia L.; Jonson-Reid, Melissa; Drake, Brett; Petra, Megan

    2013-01-01

    This study examined whether young adults with documented histories of child maltreatment had higher records of documented severe intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration than an income-matched control group. It also examined whether this association was mediated by juvenile violent delinquency, problematic substance use, or mental health problems. Study data came from one state's administrative public sector records of child welfare, juvenile court, mental health, income maintenance, and birth records. The study employed a prospective longitudinal design to follow children for 16 years (N = 5,377). The IPV was measured by police arrests and temporary restraining order petitions. Multiple group path analysis was used to examine mediation hypotheses and determine whether they differed by gender. The study found that IPV perpetration rates were higher among maltreated than control participants and higher in maltreated men than in women. For men, maltreatment had both direct and mediated effects on IPV perpetration through violent delinquency. For women, maltreatment did not directly or indirectly predict IPV perpetration, though low power makes these findings tentative. The study highlights the importance of child maltreatment prevention as a way to reduce violence later in life and suggests that the juvenile justice system may also provide a point of intervention for the maltreated youth. PMID:23633678

  20. Child maltreatment victimization and subsequent perpetration of young adult intimate partner violence: an exploration of mediating factors.

    PubMed

    Millett, Lina S; Kohl, Patricia L; Jonson-Reid, Melissa; Drake, Brett; Petra, Megan

    2013-05-01

    This study examined whether young adults with documented histories of child maltreatment had higher records of documented severe intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration than an income-matched control group. It also examined whether this association was mediated by juvenile violent delinquency, problematic substance use, or mental health problems. Study data came from one state's administrative public sector records of child welfare, juvenile court, mental health, income maintenance, and birth records. The study employed a prospective longitudinal design to follow children for 16 years (N = 5,377). The IPV was measured by police arrests and temporary restraining order petitions. Multiple group path analysis was used to examine mediation hypotheses and determine whether they differed by gender. The study found that IPV perpetration rates were higher among maltreated than control participants and higher in maltreated men than in women. For men, maltreatment had both direct and mediated effects on IPV perpetration through violent delinquency. For women, maltreatment did not directly or indirectly predict IPV perpetration, though low power makes these findings tentative. The study highlights the importance of child maltreatment prevention as a way to reduce violence later in life and suggests that the juvenile justice system may also provide a point of intervention for the maltreated youth. PMID:23633678

  1. Empathy Impairments in Intimate Partner Violence Perpetrators With Antisocial and Borderline Traits: A Key Factor in the Risk of Recidivism.

    PubMed

    Romero-Martínez, Ángel; Lila, Marisol; Moya-Albiol, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Antisocial, borderline, and narcissistic personality traits have been described as characteristics of intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetrators. Furthermore, deficits in cognitive empathy and impairments in emotional decoding processes may at least partially explain conduct disorders and social dysfunction in general. However, previous research has not explored potential associations between empathy deficits and the aforementioned traits or whether they are reflected in recidivism in IPV perpetrators. Accordingly, the main aim of this study was to explore associations between empathy deficits, antisocial, borderline, and narcissistic traits and the risk of recidivism in this population. The sample consisted of 144 IPV perpetrators (mean age = 41 years). High antisocial and borderline personality traits in this sample were associated with a high risk of recidivism, these relationships being moderated by poor empathy skills. Moreover, in IPV perpetrators with both antisocial and borderline personality traits, the risk of recidivism was higher than in those with only one of these traits. In contrast, narcissistic traits were unrelated to the risk of recidivism and impairments in empathy. The results of our study highlight the importance of empathy deficits and may help professionals to develop specific intervention programs focusing on improving empathy skills in antisocial and borderline IPV perpetrators. PMID:26830110

  2. Dating Violence Perpetration and Victimization among US Adolescents: Prevalence, Patterns, and Associations with Health Complaints and Substance Use

    PubMed Central

    Farhat, Tilda; Brooks-Russell, Ashley; Wang, Jing; Barbieri, Brittney; Iannotti, Ronald J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose This research identified conceptually cohesive latent classes of youth dating violence (DV) and examined associations between covariates and classes by gender. Methods A nationally representative sample of 2,203 tenth-grade students completed assessments of physical and verbal DV victimization and perpetration, depressive symptoms, health complaints, and substance use. A Factor Mixture Model was used to identify patterns of DV. Gender differences among classes were examined for depressive symptoms, health complaints, and substance use. Results Prevalence of DV victimization was 35% and perpetration was 31%. A three-class model fit adequately and provided conceptual cohesion: Class 1) non-involved (65%); Class 2) victims/perpetrators of verbal DV (30%); and Class 3) victims/perpetrators of verbal and physical DV (5%). Compared to Class 1 adolescents, those in Classes 2 and 3 were more likely to report depressive symptoms, psychological complaints, and alcohol use. Females in Classes 2 and 3 were also more likely to report physical complaints, cigarette use, and marijuana use. Among females involved in DV, those in Class 3 compared to Class 2 reported more depressive symptoms, physical and psychological complaints, and cigarette and marijuana use. Conclusions The three-class model distinguished involvement in verbal acts from involvement in verbal and physical acts. Adolescents involved in DV had similar probabilities of reporting perpetration and victimization suggesting violence within relationships may be mutual. Involvement in DV was associated with more health issues and concurrent problem behaviors. For females in particular, the increased involvement in DV was associated with other health indicators. PMID:23664626

  3. An ecological model of intimate partner violence perpetration at different levels of severity.

    PubMed

    Smith Slep, Amy M; Foran, Heather M; Heyman, Richard E

    2014-08-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a significant public health concern. This study proposed and tested an ecological model of both general and clinically significant (i.e., injurious or fear-evoking) IPV perpetration (IPVPerp). Risk and promotive factors from multiple ecological levels of influence (i.e., individual, family, workplace, community) were hypothesized to be important in the prediction of IPVPerp. Although clinically significant IPVPerp and general IPVPerp were hypothesized to relate, specific risks for clinically significant IPVPerp were hypothesized. U.S. Air Force active duty members and civilian spouses (N = 34,861 men; 24,331 women) from 82 sites worldwide completed the 2006 Community Assessment, an anonymous online survey assessing IPVPerp along with a variety of potential risk and promotive factors. Final structural equation models for men and women, cross-validated in holdout samples, clearly supported the relevance of an ecological approach to IPVPerp. Factors from all 4 levels were associated with both general IPVPerp and clinically significant IPVPerp, with relatively distal community and workplace factors operating via more proximal individual and family level variables (e.g., relationship satisfaction). The results suggest a variety of both established and novel potential targets for indirectly targeting general and clinically significant IPVPerp by improving risk profiles at the individual, family, workplace, and community levels. PMID:25000132

  4. Men’s and women’s exposure and perpetration of partner violence: an epidemiological study from Sweden

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Over the past 30 years, intimate partner violence (IPV) against women and its health consequences has become a well established research area and is recognized worldwide as a significant public health issue. Studies on IPV directed at men are less explored, however recently women’s use of IPV and men’s victimization is gaining growing attention. Earlier population-based studies performed in Sweden have primarily investigated men’s violence against women, while women’s use of violence and men’s exposure as well as the existence of controlling behaviours have been neglected research areas This explorative study investigated the exposure to and perpetration of intimate partner violence, the use of control behaviours and the associated risk factors among a sample of Swedish men and women. Methods This cross-sectional population-based study included 173 men and 251 women of age 18–65 randomly selected among the Swedish population. A questionnaire based on the revised Conflicts Tactics Scale (CTS2) and the subscale ‘isolating control’ from the Controlling Behaviour Scale (CBS) was used to collect data on violence exposure and perpetration. Regression analyses were used for risk factor assessment. Results More men (11%) than women (8%) reported exposure to physical assault in the past year, while more women reported exposure to sexual coercion. Duration of present relationship ≤ 3 years was identified as a significant risk factor for men’s exposure. Young age, lack of social support and being single, constituted risk factors for women’s exposure. Surprisingly many men (37%) and women (41%) also reported exposure to controlling behaviours. Conclusions In partner violence research, both men’s and women’s exposure should be explored however findings need to be interpreted with caution. This first study in a Swedish sample establishes the basis for future investigations on partner violence and coercive control tactics. PMID:23116238

  5. Template to Perpetrate: An Update on Violence in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Im, David S.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction For the past two decades, researchers have been using various approaches to investigate the relationship, if any, between autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and violence. The need to clarify that relationship was reinforced by the tragic mass shooting at Sandy Hook Elementary School in Newtown, Connecticut, in December 2012 by an individual diagnosed with Asperger’s syndrome. The purpose of this article is (1) to provide an updated review of the literature on the association between ASD and violence, and (2) to examine implications for treating, and for preventing violence by, individuals with ASD. Method A review of all published literature regarding ASD and violence from 1943 to 2014 was conducted using electronic and paper searches. Results Although some case reports have suggested an increased violence risk in individuals with ASD compared to the general population, prevalence studies have provided no conclusive evidence to support this suggestion. Among individuals with ASD, however, generative (e.g., comorbid psychopathology, social-cognition deficits, emotion-regulation problems) and associational (e.g., younger age, Asperger’s syndrome diagnosis, repetitive behavior) risk factors have been identified or proposed for violent behavior. Conclusions While no conclusive evidence indicates that individuals with ASD are more violent than those without ASD, specific generative and associational risk factors may increase violence risk among individuals with ASD. Further research would help to clarify or confirm these findings, suggest potential directions for evaluation, treatment, and prevention, and potentially provide compelling empirical support for forensic testimony regarding defendants with ASD charged with violent crimes. PMID:26735321

  6. The Structure of Male Adolescent Peer Networks and Risk for Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration: Findings from a National Sample

    PubMed Central

    Casey, Erin A.; Beadnell, Blair

    2015-01-01

    Although peer networks have been implicated as influential in a range of adolescent behaviors, little is known about relationships between peer network structures and risk for intimate partner violence (IPV) among youth. This study is a descriptive analysis of how peer network “types” may be related to subsequent risk for IPV perpetration among adolescents using data from 3,030 male respondents to the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Sampled youth were a mean of 16 years of age when surveyed about the nature of their peer networks, and 21.9 when asked to report about IPV perpetration in their adolescent and early adulthood relationships. A latent class analysis of the size, structure, gender composition and delinquency level of friendship groups identified four unique profiles of peer network structures. Men in the group type characterized by small, dense, mostly male peer networks with higher levels of delinquent behavior reported higher rates of subsequent IPV perpetration than men whose adolescent network type was characterized by large, loosely connected groups of less delinquent male and female friends. Other factors known to be antecedents and correlates of IPV perpetration varied in their distribution across the peer group types, suggesting that different configurations of risk for relationship aggression can be found across peer networks. Implications for prevention programming and future research are addressed. PMID:20422351

  7. Centrality of control-seeking in men's intimate partner violence perpetration.

    PubMed

    Whitaker, M Pippin

    2013-10-01

    Two million women and one million men experience rape, stalking, or physical assault by a current or former romantic partner each year in the U.S. Not only do women report twice the incidents, but intimate partner violence (IPV) that women experience is typically more severe. Explanations for IPV gender asymmetry include male dominance attitudes, hostile sexism, and men's control-seeking. There are gaps in our knowledge of how attitudes and control-seeking co-relate to influence IPV. This study demonstrates a mediation analysis to investigate these relationships. Data were from a cross-sectional online survey of male undergraduate students from a public Southeastern university. The survey measured attitudes of male dominance and hostile sexism, desire for control, and IPV perpetration. After including age and academic level in the model, male dominance remained a significant predictor of likelihood of physical IPV (OR = 1.16, p = .004) but not psychological IPV. The addition of control-seeking (physical OR = 1.65, p < .001) mediated the influence of male dominance on the likelihood of physical IPV perpetration (OR = 1.018, p = .753). Hostile sexism was a significant predictor of psychological and physical IPV (psychological IPV OR = 1.31, p < .001; physical IPV OR = 1.54, p < .001), over and above age and academic level. The addition of control-seeking (psychological IPV OR = 1.27, p < .001; physical OR = 1.53, p < .001) partially mediated the influence of hostile sexism on IPV (psychological IPV OR = 1.21, p = .001; physical OR = 1.34, p < .001). Results suggest control-seeking mediates the relationship between male dominance and physical IPV and partially mediates the relationship between hostile sexism and IPV. Practical implications for IPV prevention programs and theoretical implications are discussed. PMID:23400847

  8. A Self-Determination Model of Childhood Exposure, Perceived Prevalence, Justification, and Perpetration of Intimate Partner Violence

    PubMed Central

    Neighbors, Clayton; Walker, Denise D.; Mbilinyi, Lyungai F.; Zegree, Joan; Foster, Dawn W.; Roffman, Roger A.

    2012-01-01

    The present research was designed to evaluate self-determination theory as a framework for integrating factors associated with intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration. The proposed model suggests that childhood exposure to parental violence may influence global motivational orientations which, in turn result in greater cognitive biases (overestimating the prevalence of IPV and justification of IPV) which, in turn, contribute to an individual’s decision to use abusive behavior. Participants included 124 men who had engaged in abusive behavior toward an intimate partner. Results provided reasonable support for the proposed model and stronger support for a revised model suggesting that controlled orientation, rather than autonomy orientation, appears to play a stronger role in the association between childhood exposure to parental violence and cognitive biases associated with abusive behavior. PMID:23526064

  9. Violence experiences among HIV-infected women and perceptions of male perpetrators' roles: a concurrent mixed method study.

    PubMed

    Njie-Carr, Veronica

    2014-01-01

    HIV disproportionately affects women, which propagates the disparities gap. This study was designed to (a) explore the personal, cognitive, and psychosocial factors of intimate partner violence among women with HIV; (b) explore the perceptions of male perpetrators' roles in contributing to violence; and (c) determine the implications for methodological and data source triangulation. A concurrent Mixed Method study design was used, including 30 African American male and female participants. Quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Eleven themes were identified in the qualitative data from the female (n = 15) and 9 themes from the male (n = 15) participant interviews using Giorgi's technique. Data sources and methodological approaches were triangulated with relative convergence in the results. Preliminary data generated from this study could inform gender-based feasibility research studies. These studies could focus on integrating findings from this study in HIV/intimate partner violence prevention interventions and provide clinical support for women. PMID:24503500

  10. Alcohol Abuse Mediates the Association between Baseline T/C Ratio and Anger Expression in Intimate Partner Violence Perpetrators

    PubMed Central

    Romero-Martínez, Ángel; Lila, Marisol; Moya-Albiol, Luis

    2015-01-01

    The imbalance between testosterone (T) and cortisol (C) levels has been proposed as a possible marker of risk for intimate partner violence (IPV). Moreover, it could be related to a high probability of adopting risky behaviors such as alcohol abuse which, in turn, promotes the onset of IPV. This study tested the potential mediating effect of alcohol consumption on the relationship between baseline T/C ratio and anger expression in IPV perpetrators and non-violent controls. Alcohol consumption was higher in the former than controls. A high baseline T/C ratio was only associated with high anger expression in IPV perpetrators, and this association was mediated by high alcohol consumption. Thus, alcohol abuse may act as a catalytic factor in this relationship, high consumption promoting the onset of IPV. These findings contribute to the development of effective treatment and prevention programs, which could introduce the use of biological markers for preventing the onset, development and recidivism of IPV. PMID:25803635

  11. Skin conductance rises in preparation and recovery to psychosocial stress and its relationship with impulsivity and testosterone in intimate partner violence perpetrators.

    PubMed

    Romero-Martínez, A; Lila, M; Williams, R K; González-Bono, E; Moya-Albiol, L

    2013-12-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetrators were categorized into 2 groups using Gottman et al.'s (1995) typology depending on their skin conductance (SC) reactivity to stress. Overall, type I perpetrators tend to show autonomic underarousal, whereas type II perpetrators present a preparatory hyperreactivity to confront stress. Moreover, impulsivity traits and testosterone (T) levels may modulate SC responses to increase the risk of proneness to violence. In this study, SC response to stress was assessed by comparing IPV perpetrators with non-violent controls while performing a modified version of the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). Subjects with a history of IPV demonstrated higher non-specific SC responses during the recovery period than the non-violent controls. Nonetheless, there were no differences between groups in the case of mean SC levels. Furthermore, impulsivity and baseline T levels were associated with higher SC level reactivity during a preparation period only in IPV perpetrators, with both relationships being mediated by anger expression. Our results confirm that the IPV perpetrators correspond physiologically to type II and support the validity of SC as a diagnostic indicator for IPV classification. Our findings contribute to the development of effective treatment and prevention programs that could benefit from the use of biological indicators for analyzing the risk of recidivism in IPV perpetrators. PMID:24140253

  12. Investigating the Role of Child Sexual Abuse in Intimate Partner Violence Victimization and Perpetration in Young Adulthood From a Propensity Score Matching Approach.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Wesley G; Richards, Tara N; Tomsich, Elizabeth; Gover, Angela R

    2015-01-01

    The link between child sexual abuse and adult intimate partner violence surfaces throughout prior research. Nonetheless, methodologies investigating this cycle of violence predominantly involve descriptive, correlational, or traditional regression-based analyses that preclude more definitive statements about the empirical relationship between child sexual abuse and adult partner violence. In recognition of these limitations, the current study presents a quasi-experimental investigation into the relationship between sexual abuse in childhood and physical partner violence victimization and/or perpetration in young adulthood. Propensity score matching analysis of a national data set sampling over 4,000 young adults suggests that experiencing child sexual abuse influences adult intimate partner violence victimization and perpetration. Study implications and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:26340073

  13. Cigarette Smoking among Intimate Partner Violence Perpetrators and Victims: Findings from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Crane, Cory A.; Pilver, Corey E.; Weinberger, Andrea H.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives Cigarette smoking and intimate partner violence (IPV) are preventable, major public health issues that result in severe physical and psychological consequences. The primary aim of the current study was to examine the consistency and strength of the association between these highly variable behaviors using a nationally representative sample. Methods Self-reported IPV perpetration, victimization, and smoking data were collected from 25,515 adults (54% female) through the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Multinomial logistic regression models were constructed to determine the relationships among smoking status (current daily, intermittent, former, and never smoker) and IPV (minor and sever victimization as well as perpetration). Results Results indicated a robust relationship between IPV and smoking among both victims and perpetrators. The odds for current daily and intermittent smoking were significantly elevated among those who reported both minor and severe IPV relative to their non-violent counterparts. Mood and anxiety disorders were significant comorbid conditions in the interpretation of the relationship between severe IPV and smoking. Conclusions The current study provides strong evidence for a robust relationship between IPV and smoking across current smoking patterns, IPV severity levels, and IPV experience patterns. Scientific Significance Findings emphasize the need to better understand the mechanisms by which smoking and IPV are associated and how this interdependence may impact approaches to treatment. Specifically, research is required to assess the efficacy of integrated smoking cessation and IPV treatment or recovery programs over more traditional, exclusive approaches. PMID:25066781

  14. The Effect of Gender and Perpetrator-Victim Role on Mental Health Outcomes and Risk Behaviors Associated With Intimate Partner Violence.

    PubMed

    Ulloa, Emilio C; Hammett, Julia F

    2016-04-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a major public health concern. Previous studies have consistently shown that IPV is tied by to a variety of detrimental consequences for affected individuals, including negative mental health outcomes. However, the differential impact of gender and perpetrator-victim role (i.e., whether an individual is the perpetrator or victim of violence or both) remains largely understudied in the academic literature. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to describe a variety of mental health outcomes and risk behaviors among men and women experiencing no violence, perpetration-only, victimization-only, and bidirectional violence. Data from Waves 3 and 4 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 7,187) were used. Participants provided information on their perpetrator-victim role and on a variety of factors related to mental health (depression, suicidality, alcohol use, illegal drug use, and relationship satisfaction). For all outcomes, prevalence and severity generally tended to be highest among individuals affected by bidirectional IPV and lowest among individuals not affected by any violence (independent of gender). The present findings highlight that IPV and negative mental health outcomes and risk behaviors should be addressed as co-occurring problems in research, prevention, and treatment. In addition, all gender-role combinations should be addressed to better understand and address all potential effects of IPV. According to the present findings, couples affected by bidirectional violence are at particularly high risk of developing mental health disorders. Thus, policy makers and clinicians should predominantly target couples as well as individuals who are not only the victims but also the perpetrators of IPV and pay particular attention to potential signs of mental health distress these individuals might exhibit. PMID:25524265

  15. Alcohol's Role in Sexual Violence Perpetration: Theoretical Explanations, Existing Evidence, and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Abbey, Antonia

    2011-01-01

    Issues There is controversy regarding the extent to which alcohol plays a causal role in sexual assault perpetration. Approach This paper critically reviews the relevant alcohol administration and survey research literature. Key Findings Alcohol administration researchers have randomly assigned male participants to drink conditions prior to exposure to an acquaintance rape scenario. As compared to sober participants, intoxicated participants find the male character's use of force to obtain sex more acceptable and express greater willingness to act in a similar manner. In several studies, these effects are strongest for intoxicated men with hostile attitudes toward women. Survey researchers have asked male participants to describe incidents in which they behaved in a sexually aggressive manner. Men who commit sexual assault when drinking report having traits, attitudes, and experiences similar to those of other perpetrators except in the alcohol domain. Perpetrators who commit sexual assault when drinking tend to drink more than other perpetrators in sexual situations and have stronger expectancies regarding alcohol's effects on sexual behavior. Implications Overall, research suggests that alcohol interacts with personality and aspects of the situation, adding to the risk of perpetration among men already predisposed to engaging in sexual aggression. Conclusions Although there are no simple answers to questions about alcohol's role in sexual assault, research suggests that intoxication may be a more important determinant of when some men commit sexual aggression, rather than who becomes sexually aggressive. PMID:21896070

  16. Beyond Correlates: A Review of Risk and Protective Factors for Adolescent Dating Violence Perpetration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vagi, Kevin J.; Rothman, Emily F.; Latzman, Natasha E.; Tharp, Andra Teten; Hall, Diane M.; Breiding, Matthew J.

    2013-01-01

    Dating violence is a serious public health problem. In recent years, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and other entities have made funding available to community based agencies for dating violence prevention. Practitioners who are tasked with developing dating violence prevention strategies should pay particular attention to…

  17. "The Alcohol Just Pissed Me Off": Views About How Alcohol and Marijuana Influence Adolescent Dating Violence Perpetration, Results of a Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothman, Emily Faith; Linden, Judith A.; Baughman, Allyson L.; Kaczmarsky, Courtney; Thompson, Malindi

    2016-01-01

    This exploratory study was designed to examine the beliefs of youth users of alcohol and marijuana about the connections between their substance use and dating violence perpetration. Eighteen youth (ages 14-20 years old), who were primarily of Black or Hispanic race/ethnicity, participated in in-depth interviews about times when they had…

  18. Dating Violence Perpetration and/or Victimization and Associated Sexual Risk Behaviors among a Sample of Inner-City African American and Hispanic Adolescent Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alleyne-Green, Binta; Coleman-Cowger, Victoria H.; Henry, David B.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the prevalence of physical and psychological dating violence victimization and perpetration reported by inner-city African American and Hispanic adolescent girls as well as associated risky sexual behaviors among this population. Participants in this study were 10th- and 11th-grade female students from seven…

  19. The Rosenzweig Picture-Frustration Study "Extra-Aggression" Score as an Indicator in Cognitive Restructuring Therapy for Male Perpetrators of Domestic Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norman, Michael; Ryan, Lawrence J.

    2008-01-01

    It was hypothesized that male perpetrators of domestic violence in the early stages of a 1-year process of cognitive restructuring therapy would manifest on the Rosenzweig Picture-Frustration Study higher levels of extra-aggressiveness than in later stages of the therapy process. A sample of male batterers in the process of treatment took the…

  20. The Relationship among Exposure to Stressful Life Events, Drug Use, and Violence Perpetration in a Sample of Native Hawaiian, Samoan, and Filipino Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Charlene K.; Hishinuma, Earl S.; Chang, Janice Y.; Nixon, David C.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between stressful life events, drug use, and self-reported violence perpetration among 293 Native Hawaiian, Samoan, and Filipino adolescents. Data were collected using semistructured interviews with students in three high schools in Hawai'i. Stressful life events were delineated into three categories:…

  1. The age-IPV curve: changes in the perpetration of intimate partner violence during adolescence and young adulthood.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Wendi L; Giordano, Peggy C; Manning, Wendy D; Longmore, Monica A

    2015-03-01

    Research on intimate partner violence (IPV) has evolved over the last decade with increasing interest in how IPV develops over adolescence and young adulthood. Studies examining patterns of IPV over time have generally focused on victimization with less attention to temporal shifts in perpetration. While it is generally assumed that IPV peaks during young adulthood, this has not been empirically verified and documented. Additionally, prior longitudinal analyses of IPV have focused on identifying trajectories and their accompanying risk factors, with less attention given to within-individual change in IPV experiences across and within relationships. Drawing on five waves of data from the Toledo Adolescent Relationships Study, we examined patterns of the perpetration of IPV among a diverse sample of adolescents and young adults (51.1% female, 63.9% non-Hispanic White, 24.6% non-Hispanic Black, 11.5% Hispanic) spanning the ages of 13-28 years (N = 1,164). Analyses demonstrated that IPV patterns deviate from the age-crime curve, with women's involvement in IPV increasing, while their involvement in other antisocial behaviors is decreasing. Traditional behavioral and psychological risk factors (delinquency, alcohol and drug use, depressive symptoms) accounted for some of the age variation in IPV for men, but these factors did not account for age variation in IPV among women. Relationship risk factors including frequency of disagreements, trust, jealousy, validation and self-disclosure, however, accounted for substantial portions of the age-IPV perpetration relationship for male and female youth. These findings reinforce recent calls for prevention efforts that focus on the development and maintenance of healthy relationships. PMID:25081024

  2. The Contribution of Childhood Parental Rejection and Early Androgen Exposure to Impairments in Socio-Cognitive Skills in Intimate Partner Violence Perpetrators with High Alcohol Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Romero-Martínez, Ángel; Lila, Marisol; Catalá-Miñana, Alba; Williams, Ryan K.; Moya-Albiol, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol consumption, a larger history of childhood parental rejection, and high prenatal androgen exposure have been linked with facilitation and high risk of recidivism in intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetrators. Participants were distributed into two groups according to their alcohol consumption scores as high (HA) and low (LA). HA presented a higher history of childhood parental rejection, prenatal masculinization (smaller 2D:4D ratio), and violence-related scores than LA IPV perpetrators. Nonetheless, the former showed poor socio-cognitive skills performance (cognitive flexibility, emotional recognition and cognitive empathy). Particularly in HA IPV perpetrators, the history of childhood parental rejection was associated with high hostile sexism and low cognitive empathy. Moreover, a masculinized 2D:4D ratio was associated with high anger expression and low cognitive empathy. Parental rejection during childhood and early androgen exposure are relevant factors for the development of violence and the lack of adequate empathy in adulthood. Furthermore, alcohol abuse plays a key role in the development of socio-cognitive impairments and in the proneness to violence and its recidivism. These findings contribute to new coadjutant violence intervention programs, focused on the rehabilitation of basic executive functions and emotional decoding processes and on the treatment of alcohol dependence. PMID:23965927

  3. The contribution of childhood parental rejection and early androgen exposure to impairments in socio-cognitive skills in intimate partner violence perpetrators with high alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Romero-Martínez, Ángel; Lila, Marisol; Catalá-Miñana, Alba; Williams, Ryan K; Moya-Albiol, Luis

    2013-08-01

    Alcohol consumption, a larger history of childhood parental rejection, and high prenatal androgen exposure have been linked with facilitation and high risk of recidivism in intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetrators. Participants were distributed into two groups according to their alcohol consumption scores as high (HA) and low (LA). HA presented a higher history of childhood parental rejection, prenatal masculinization (smaller 2D:4D ratio), and violence-related scores than LA IPV perpetrators. Nonetheless, the former showed poor socio-cognitive skills performance (cognitive flexibility, emotional recognition and cognitive empathy). Particularly in HA IPV perpetrators, the history of childhood parental rejection was associated with high hostile sexism and low cognitive empathy. Moreover, a masculinized 2D:4D ratio was associated with high anger expression and low cognitive empathy. Parental rejection during childhood and early androgen exposure are relevant factors for the development of violence and the lack of adequate empathy in adulthood. Furthermore, alcohol abuse plays a key role in the development of socio-cognitive impairments and in the proneness to violence and its recidivism. These findings contribute to new coadjutant violence intervention programs, focused on the rehabilitation of basic executive functions and emotional decoding processes and on the treatment of alcohol dependence. PMID:23965927

  4. Students' Personal Traits, Violence Exposure, Family Factors, School Dynamics and the Perpetration of Violence in Taiwanese Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Ji-Kang; Astor, Ron Avi

    2011-01-01

    School violence has become an international problem affecting the well-being of students. To date, few studies have examined how school variables mediate between personal and family factors and school violence in the context of elementary schools in Asian cultures. Using a nationally representative sample of 3122 elementary school students in…

  5. Poor Parenting and Antisocial Behavior among Homeless Young Adults: Links to Dating Violence Perpetration and Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, Kimberly A.; Melander, Lisa A.

    2012-01-01

    Though research has examined risk factors associated with street victimization among homeless young people, little is known about dating violence experiences among this group. Given homeless youths' elevated rates of child maltreatment, it is likely that they are at high risk for dating violence. As such, the current study examined the association…

  6. The Relationship between Victim's/Perpetrator's Alcohol Use and Spousal Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Brenda A.; And Others

    This study examined the relationships between alcohol abuse and spousal violence for 96 women in alcoholism treatment as compared to these comparison groups: 78 women receiving mental health treatment; 98 women receiving services for family violence; 91 women from a random sample of households; and 100 women in a driver education program following…

  7. “Why did it happen?” A review and conceptual framework for research on perpetrators' and victims' explanations for intimate partner violence

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, Andrea; Graham, Kathryn

    2010-01-01

    Although there is an extensive research literature on individual and cultural risk factors for intimate partner violence (IPV), much less is known about the factors that victims and perpetrators of IPV perceive as playing a role in violent events. In part, lack of systematic research on perceived reasons for violence is due to the lack of a clear conceptual model and comprehensive measures of perceived reasons why partner violence occurs. In this paper, we provide a conceptual model for domains of factors influencing IPV and use this model to frame our review of existing research on victims' and perpetrators' explanations for IPV. We discuss differences in explanations for IPV in terms of gender and whether explanations refer to the respondents' own or their partners' use of violence. Our review findings suggest a need for more standardization of measurement and larger representative samples in order to identify more systematically reasons that are perceived by victims and perpetrators to be most the important contributors to IPV. Further research on perceived reasons for IPV also needs to address gender differences as well as differences related to self-partner attributions. PMID:20436933

  8. Race/ethnicity as a predictor of change in working alliance during cognitive behavioral therapy for intimate partner violence perpetrators.

    PubMed

    Walling, Sherry Muterspaugh; Suvak, Michael K; Howard, Jamie M; Taft, Casey T; Murphy, Christopher M

    2012-06-01

    Despite evidence that the working alliance (WA) is an important factor in psychotherapy outcome and that race/ethnicity plays an important role in the processes of therapy, few studies have directly examined associations between WA and race/ethnicity. These relationships may be particularly salient for difficult-to-engage populations, such as men participating in treatment for intimate partner violence. The current study examined WA ratings in a sample of 107 male intimate partner violence perpetrators attending a 16-week cognitive-behavioral group program. Approximately 50% of these participants were Caucasian and 50% were members of a racial/ethnic minority group (African American, Asian American, Hispanic, and American Indian). Growth curve modeling was used to assess changes in both therapist and client WA ratings across four time points during therapy. Findings indicated that there was no mean level of change in therapist WA ratings over time. However, clients' WA ratings demonstrated a reliable, steady increase across sessions. A significant interaction between WA and race/ethnicity emerged such that Caucasian participants reported a significant increase in WA over time, whereas members of racial/ethnic minority group did not report a consistent pattern of change. The interaction between client race/ethnicity and WA was also a significant predictor of treatment outcome at 6-month follow-up. PMID:22181028

  9. Structural Determinants of Client Perpetrated Violence Among Female Sex Workers in Two Mexico-U.S. Border Cities.

    PubMed

    Conners, Erin E; Silverman, Jay G; Ulibarri, Monica; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Staines-Orozco, Hugo; Patterson, Thomas L; Brouwer, Kimberly C

    2016-01-01

    Female sex workers (FSWs) are disproportionately affected by both HIV and gender-based violence, such as that perpetrated by clients (CPV). We used a structural determinants framework to assess correlates of physical or sexual CPV in the past 6 months among FSWs in the Mexico/U.S. border cities of Ciudad Juárez and Tijuana. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis identified individual, client, interpersonal, work environment and macrostructural factors associated with recent CPV. Among 496 FSWs, 5 % experienced recent CPV. Witnessing violence towards other FSWs in one's neighborhood (aOR 5.6, 95 % CI 1.8-17.2), having a majority of foreign (aOR 3.5, 95 % CI 1.4-8.4) or substance using (aOR 4.0, 95 % CI 1.5-10.4) clients, and being a street worker (aOR 3.0, 95 % CI 1.1-7.7) were independently associated with recent CPV. Our findings underscore the vulnerability of FSWs and the need to design policies and interventions addressing macro-level influences on CPV rather than exclusively targeting individual behaviors. PMID:26111732

  10. Dealing with mentally ill domestic violence perpetrators: A therapeutic jurisprudence judicial model.

    PubMed

    Winick, Bruce J; Wiener, Richard; Castro, Anthony; Emmert, Aryn; Georges, Leah S

    2010-01-01

    People suffering from mental illness are increasingly referred to the domestic violence court. Yet the typical diversion programs available, including batterer's intervention programs, are inappropriate for those with serious mental illness. As a result, the Miami-Dade Domestic Violence Court has developed a new approach for dealing with this population that applies mental health court techniques in domestic violence court. This article will describe and discuss this pioneering model. It also will situate this model within the context of other problem-solving courts and discuss how the court uses principles and approaches of therapeutic jurisprudence. The paper presents some preliminary data that describe the social and legal characteristics of 20 defendants in the Domestic Violence Mental Health Court followed over a two year period between 2005 and 2007. PMID:20952067

  11. Two sides of a coin: Perpetrators and survivors perspectives on the triad of alcohol, intimate partner violence and mental health in South India.

    PubMed

    Satyanarayana, Veena A; Hebbani, Sudharshan; Hegde, Sudarshan; Krishnan, Suneeta; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari

    2015-06-01

    The present study explored the intersection among alcohol consumption, gender roles, intimate partner violence (IPV) and mental health from the perspective of heavy drinking men who also perpetrate IPV (perpetrators) and their spouses (survivors). Interpretive phenomenological approach was used, and in-depth interviews were conducted with adult married heavy drinking men who reported to have perpetrated IPV (N=10) and their spouses (N=10). These interviews were audio-recorded, and salient themes were generated using the NVivo software. Findings indicated a deeply embedded association among alcohol consumption, IPV, and mental health, with culturally sanctioned gender norms strongly contributing to this association. There was evidence for anxiety and depression in the survivors and emotional-behavioural and academic difficulties in their children. The study provides valuable insight into the intersecting problems of alcohol and IPV, which independently and together signify an emergent public health problem that can have immense ramifications on mental health of individuals and families. PMID:26001901

  12. Interpersonal youth violence perpetration and victimization in a diverse Asian American and Pacific Islander adolescent sample.

    PubMed

    Hishinuma, Earl S; Chang, Janice Y; Goebert, Deborah A; Helm, Susana; Else, Iwalani R N; Sugimoto-Matsuda, Jeanelle J

    2015-01-01

    This study was the first to examine ethnic, sex, and ethnicity-by-sex differences for under-researched, Asian American and Pacific Islander, adolescent groups on youth violence outcomes other than cyberbullying. This effort included the less researched, emotional violence, and included socioeconomic status (SES) measures as covariates. The sample size from 2 high schools in spring 2007 was 881, using an epidemiologic survey design. The pattern of results was higher rates of violence victimization for ethnic groups, with lower representation in the 2 schools' population, and ethnic groups that more recently moved or immigrated to Hawai'i. For emotional victimization, girls of European American and "other", ethnicities self-reported higher rates than boys. Several implications (e.g., need for ethnically and gender-based approaches) and further research (e.g., ethnocultural identity) are discussed. PMID:25929139

  13. Are the Perpetrators of Violence One and the Same? Exploring the Co-Occurrence of Perpetration of Physical Aggression in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klevens, Joanne; Simon, Thomas R.; Chen, Jieru

    2012-01-01

    Important gaps exist in our understanding of aggressive behavior and the extent to which aggression involves one or more types of victims. This information is critical for determining the utility of integrated approaches for violence prevention versus continuation of independent efforts for reducing community violence, partner violence, and child…

  14. Adverse Health Outcomes, Perpetrator Characteristics, and Sexual Violence Victimization among U.S. Adult Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choudhary, Ekta; Coben, Jeffrey; Bossarte, Robert M.

    2010-01-01

    In the United States, an estimated three million men are victims of sexual violence each year, yet the majority of existing studies have evaluated the consequences and characteristics of victimization among women alone. The result has been a gap in the existing literature examining the physical and psychological consequences of sexual assault…

  15. Substance Use as a Longitudinal Predictor of the Perpetration of Teen Dating Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temple, Jeff R.; Shorey, Ryan C.; Fite, Paula; Stuart, Gregory L.; Le, Vi Donna

    2013-01-01

    The prevention of teen dating violence is a major public health priority. However, the dearth of longitudinal studies makes it difficult to develop programs that effectively target salient risk factors. Using a school-based sample of ethnically diverse adolescents, this longitudinal study examined whether substance use (alcohol, marijuana, and…

  16. High testosterone levels and sensitivity to acute stress in perpetrators of domestic violence with low cognitive flexibility and impairments in their emotional decoding process: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Romero-Martínez, Angel; Lila, Marisol; Sariñana-González, Patricia; González-Bono, Esperanza; Moya-Albiol, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Hormonal and neuropsychological impairment in intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetrators could play a role in domestic violence. For characterizing whether there is a specific psychobiological response to stress, participants who had previously been jailed for IPV and controls were compared for testosterone and cortisol levels, tested for 2D:4D ratio (as an indicator of masculinization), and given several trait questionnaires and neuropsychological tests related to executive functions and theory of mind. After performing the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), IPV perpetrators experienced decreases in salivary testosterone (T) levels, a moderate worsening of mood, slight anxiety, and a salivary cortisol (C) level increase. Moreover, high basal T was related with high levels of anger and anxiety and worse mood. However, that basal mood does not significantly alter T levels in response to stress. Nonetheless, controls experienced smaller changes in T and larger changes in C and psychological mood. With respect to neuropsychological and cognitive empathic features, IPV perpetrators showed poorer executive performance and emotional recognition than controls. In addition, deficits in both neuropsychological domains were positively associated. Regarding emotional empathy, IPV perpetrators showed higher levels of personal distress than controls. The 2D:4D ratio was lower in IPV perpetrators than in controls. Moreover, only in the former a smaller 2D:4D ratio was related to large increases in T in response to stress and poor emotional recognition. Together with social aspects involved in IPV, differences in psychobiological variables and their relationships could play a relevant role in the onset and perpetuation of violent behavior. PMID:23677518

  17. Improvements in Empathy and Cognitive Flexibility after Court-Mandated Intervention Program in Intimate Partner Violence Perpetrators: The Role of Alcohol Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Romero-Martínez, Ángel; Lila, Marisol; Martínez, Manuela; Pedrón-Rico, Vicente; Moya-Albiol, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Research assessing the effectiveness of intervention programs for intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetrators has increased considerably in recent years. However, most of it has been focused on the analysis of psychological domains, neglecting neuropsychological variables and the effects of alcohol consumption on these variables. This study evaluated potential neuropsychological changes (emotional decoding, perspective taking, emotional empathy and cognitive flexibility) and their relationship with alcohol consumption in a mandatory intervention program for IPV perpetrators, as well as how these variables affect the risk of IPV recidivism. The sample was composed of 116 individuals with high alcohol (n = 55; HA) and low alcohol (n = 61; LA) consumption according to self-report screening measures who received treatment in a IPV perpetrator intervention program developed in Valencia (Spain). IPV perpetrators with HA consumption were less accurate in decoding emotional facial signals and adopting others’ perspective, and less cognitively flexible than those with LA consumption before the IPV intervention. Further, the effectiveness of the intervention program was demonstrated, with increases being observed in cognitive empathy (emotional decoding and perspective taking) and in cognitive flexibility. Nevertheless, the HA group showed a smaller improvement in these skills and higher risk of IPV recidivism than the LA group. Moreover, improvement in these skills was related to a lower risk of IPV recidivism. The study provides guidance on the targeting of cognitive domains, which are key factors for reducing IPV recidivism. PMID:27043602

  18. Improvements in Empathy and Cognitive Flexibility after Court-Mandated Intervention Program in Intimate Partner Violence Perpetrators: The Role of Alcohol Abuse.

    PubMed

    Romero-Martínez, Ángel; Lila, Marisol; Martínez, Manuela; Pedrón-Rico, Vicente; Moya-Albiol, Luis

    2016-04-01

    Research assessing the effectiveness of intervention programs for intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetrators has increased considerably in recent years. However, most of it has been focused on the analysis of psychological domains, neglecting neuropsychological variables and the effects of alcohol consumption on these variables. This study evaluated potential neuropsychological changes (emotional decoding, perspective taking, emotional empathy and cognitive flexibility) and their relationship with alcohol consumption in a mandatory intervention program for IPV perpetrators, as well as how these variables affect the risk of IPV recidivism. The sample was composed of 116 individuals with high alcohol (n = 55; HA) and low alcohol (n = 61; LA) consumption according to self-report screening measures who received treatment in a IPV perpetrator intervention program developed in Valencia (Spain). IPV perpetrators with HA consumption were less accurate in decoding emotional facial signals and adopting others' perspective, and less cognitively flexible than those with LA consumption before the IPV intervention. Further, the effectiveness of the intervention program was demonstrated, with increases being observed in cognitive empathy (emotional decoding and perspective taking) and in cognitive flexibility. Nevertheless, the HA group showed a smaller improvement in these skills and higher risk of IPV recidivism than the LA group. Moreover, improvement in these skills was related to a lower risk of IPV recidivism. The study provides guidance on the targeting of cognitive domains, which are key factors for reducing IPV recidivism. PMID:27043602

  19. Cognitive and aggressive reactions of male dating violence perpetrators to anger arousal.

    PubMed

    Eckhardt, Christopher I; Crane, Cory A

    2015-05-01

    In the current study, 20 dating violent and 27 non-violent college males provided verbal articulations and self-report data regarding cognitive biases, change in affect, and aggressive reactions following anger induction through the articulated thoughts in simulated situations paradigm. Violent, relative to non-violent, males articulated more cognitive biases and verbally aggressive statements during provocation. These same relationships did not hold for a retrospective self-report measure. Greater cognitive biases and aggressive articulations reliably distinguished between violent and non-violent males in the current study. Results suggest that assessing cognitive and affective content "in the heat of the moment" may be a more sensitive indicator of dating violence than retrospective self-reports. PMID:25023727

  20. Cognitive and Aggressive Reactions of Male Dating Violence Perpetrators to Anger Arousal

    PubMed Central

    Eckhardt, Christopher I.; Crane, Cory A.

    2014-01-01

    In the current study, 20 dating violent and 27 non-violent college males provided verbal articulations and self-report data regarding cognitive biases, change in affect, and aggressive reactions following anger induction through the articulated thoughts in simulated situations (ATSS) paradigm. Violent, relative to non-violent, males articulated more cognitive biases and verbally aggressive statements during provocation. These same relationships did not hold for a retrospective self-report measure. Greater cognitive biases and aggressive articulations reliably distinguished between violent and non-violent males in the current study. Results suggest that assessing cognitive and affective content “in the heat of the moment” may be a more sensitive indicator of dating violence than retrospective self-reports. PMID:25023727

  1. Triple jeopardy: impact of partner violence perpetration, mental health and substance use on perceived unmet need for mental health care among men

    PubMed Central

    Caetano, Raul; Roy-Byrne, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To examine the relationship between intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration, serious mental illness, and substance use and perceived unmet need for mental health treatment in the past year among men in the general population using the behavioral model for health-care use (Aday and Anderson in Health Serv Res 9:208–220, 1974; Andersen in A behavioral model of families’ use of health services, 1968; Andersen in Med Care 46:647–653, 2008). Methods Non-Hispanic black, Hispanic, and non-Hispanic white males aged 18–49 years and cohabiting with a spouse/partner were included in this analysis of the 2002 National Survey on Drug Use and Health. Adjusted odds ratios (AOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using logistic regression. Results The proportion of men reporting unmet treatment need was greater among IPV perpetrators than nonperpetrators (12.1 vs. 3.4%, respectively). Hazardous drinking, illicit drug use, alcohol and drug abuse/dependence, and SMI were also more common among perpetrators. Perpetrators were twice as likely to report unmet need for treatment after taking predisposing, enabling, and need factors into account (AOR 2.00, CI 1.13–3.55). Alcohol abuse/dependence (AOR 2.96, CI 1.79–4.90), drug abuse/dependence (AOR, 1.79, CI 1.01–3.17), substance abuse treatment (AOR 3.09, CI 1.18–8.09), and SMI (AOR 8.46, CI 5.53–12.94) were independently associated with perceived unmet need for treatment. Conclusions These findings suggest that men who perpetrate IPV are at increased risk of perceived unmet need for mental health care. This study also emphasizes the need to identify substance use disorders and mental health problems among IPV perpetrators identified in health, social service, or criminal justice settings. Further research should address barriers to care specific to men who perpetrate IPV beyond economic factors. PMID:20582398

  2. Recent advances in preventing mass violence.

    PubMed

    Hamburg, David A

    2010-10-01

    Since his presidency of the Carnegie Corporation of New York and co-chairmanship of the Carnegie Commission on Preventing Deadly Conflict, David Hamburg has been actively engaged in projects related to the prevention of genocide and other mass violence. In these remarks to the Association for Research in Nervous and Mental Disease, he describes the significance of preventing mass violence in the 21st century. In particular, he discusses the danger of nuclear and other highly lethal weapons, emphasizing examples of prevention drawn from the Cold War and subsequent period. He delineates practical steps that can be taken to prevent war and genocide, including restraints on weaponry, preventive diplomacy, fostering indigenous democracy, fostering equitable socioeconomic development, education for human survival, and international justice in relation to human rights. Training and support in preventive diplomacy are highlighted as crucially important, particularly in the context of the United Nations, using the novel Mediation Support Unit based out of the Department of Political Affairs as a key example. He concludes that the creation of international centers for the prevention of mass atrocities could provide a crucial resource in preventing mass violence. PMID:20955320

  3. Dating Violence Perpetration and Victimization among South Korean College Students: A Focus on Gender and Childhood Maltreatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gover, Angela R.; Park, MiRang; Tomsich, Elizabeth A.; Jennings, Wesley G.

    2011-01-01

    Unlike the attention given to intimate partner violence among adolescents and young adults in western societies, dating violence is not currently recognized in South Korea as a social phenomenon in terms of research, prevention, and intervention. Childhood maltreatment has been identified in previous research as a risk factor for violence in a…

  4. Sexual orientation and demographic, cultural, and psychological factors associated with the perpetration and victimization of intimate partner violence among Hispanic men.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Guarda, Rosa M; De Santis, Joseph P; Vasquez, Elias P

    2013-02-01

    Hispanics are disproportionately affected by intimate partner violence (IPV). Most of the research describing factors associated with intimate partner violence among Hispanics has focused on Hispanic women or Hispanics in heterosexual relationships. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship among sexual orientation (heterosexual, homosexual, and bisexual), and demographic, cultural, and psychological factors and intimate partner violence among Hispanic men. A cross sectional questionnaire was administered to 160 Hispanic heterosexual men and men who have sex with men. Demographic factors (age, education, and income), acculturation, depressive symptoms, and self-esteem were assessed using standardized instruments. Data was analyzed using ANOVA, and simple and multiple logistical regression. Differences in education, income, and self-esteem were noted across participants identifying as heterosexual, homosexual, and bisexual. Bisexual Hispanic men had almost four times greater odds of reporting the perpetration of IPV than homosexual Hispanic men, even when differences in education, income, and self-esteem were controlled for (AOR = 3.92, 95%CI = 1.11, 14.19). This study suggests the importance of specifically targeting bisexual Hispanic men in IPV research and services. PMID:23369121

  5. A Prospective Analysis of the Relationship between Childhood Sexual Victimization and Perpetration of Dating Violence and Sexual Assault in Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loh, Catherine; Gidycz, Christine A.

    2006-01-01

    The majority of studies evaluating the relationship between childhood sexual assault and subsequent sexual assault perpetration by men have been conducted retrospectively and with incarcerated populations. The present study seeks to improve on previous research by prospectively investigating the relationship between childhood sexual assault and…

  6. Coordinated Community Intervention for Domestic Violence: The Effects of Arrest and Prosecution on Recidivism of Woman Abuse Perpetrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolman, Richard M.; Weisz, Arlene

    1995-01-01

    Reports results of a study on the effectiveness of a coordinated community intervention to reduce domestic violence in DuPage County, IL. Logistic regression analysis indicated that arrest significantly deterred subsequent domestic violence incidents over an 18-month follow-up period, especially with those with a previous history of police…

  7. “I get angry if he’s always drinking and we have no money”: Exploring motivations for male and female perpetrated intimate partner violence in the Philippines

    PubMed Central

    Fehringer, Jessica A.; Hindin, Michelle J.

    2013-01-01

    Our objective was to describe the context of and motivations for female and male perpetrated IPV in Cebu, Philippines using data from in-depth interviews with 19 married women. We found three categories of IPV motivations --self-defense or retaliation, reactivity, and control. Motivations differed by gender, with women acting out of self-defense more often and men acting out of control more often. Effective IPV prevention and treatment programs should take these gender differences into consideration. Moreover, it is important to look at how IPV occurs within relationships and how this may vary by context and gender. While intimate partner violence is a well-known problem for both men and women in developing countries, we know relatively little about the context of violence in these settings. There is research from the U.S. on motivations for and other contextual aspects of female-perpetrated intimate partner violence (IPV) and a handful of studies in lower income countries, the U.S. and Canada on motivations for and contextual aspects of male-perpetrated IPV. To create effective prevention and treatment interventions for both male and female perpetrated IPV in developing countries, it is critical to understand how IPV occurs within relationships in these settings and how this may vary by context and gender. We carried out this study to explore the context of both male and female perpetrated IPV in the Philippines using in-depth interviews with married women. We report here the findings on IPV motives and forms of IPV. PMID:23659284

  8. Mixed-Gender Co-Facilitation in Therapeutic Groups for Men Who Have Perpetrated Intimate Partner Violence: Group Members' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Valerie; Lindsay, Jocelyn; Dallaire, Louis-Francois

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a study that explored the use of mixed-gender co-facilitation in intimate partner violence groups, especially regarding its potential for gender role socialization. Using an interpretive approach, interviews with men from different mixed-gender co-facilitated groups in Canada were analyzed, with a focus on the men's…

  9. Differences in Pupil Characteristics and Motives in Being a Victim, Perpetrator and Witness of Violence in Secondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mooij, Ton

    2011-01-01

    Socially problematic and violent behaviour of pupils in and around schools is undesirable from pedagogical, social and societal perspectives. The motives underlying violence between different social actors in school may help explain and improve this behaviour. The aim is to investigate the relationship patterns between characteristics of secondary…

  10. Conflict resolution patterns and violence perpetration in adolescent couples: A gender-sensitive mixed-methods approach.

    PubMed

    Fernet, Mylène; Hébert, Martine; Paradis, Alison

    2016-06-01

    This study used a sequential two-phase explanatory design. The first phase of this mixed-methods design aimed to explore conflict resolution strategies in adolescent dating couples, and the second phase to document, from both the perspective of the individual and of the couple, dyadic interaction patterns distinguishing youth inflicting dating violence from those who do not. A sample of 39 heterosexual couples (mean age 17.8 years) participated in semi-structured interviews and were observed during a 45 min dyadic interaction. At phase 1, qualitative analysis revealed three main types of conflict resolution strategies: 1) negotiating expectations and individual needs; 2) avoiding conflicts or their resolution; 3) imposing personal needs and rules through the use of violence. At phase 2, we focused on couples with conflictive patterns. Results indicate that couples who inflict violence differ from nonviolent couples by their tendency to experience conflicts when in disagreement and to resort to negative affects as a resolution strategy. In addition, while at an individual level, they show a tendency to withdraw from conflict and to use less positive affect, at a dyadic level they present less symmetry. Results offer important insights for prevention programs. PMID:26999441

  11. Victim blaming and exoneration of the perpetrator in domestic violence: the role of beliefs in a just world and ambivalent sexism.

    PubMed

    Valor-Segura, Inmaculada; Expósito, Francisca; Moya, Miguel

    2011-05-01

    The existence of domestic violence is closely linked to several ideological factors that include sexism and other beliefs about society in general, namely the belief in a just world. In this study, which involved 485 people of both sexes aged between 18 and 70 years, we analyzed the influence of these ideological variables of the perceivers and characteristics of the situation on judgments of a gender aggression--blaming the victim and exonerating the perpetrator. Results showed differences in the reactions of observers depending on the cause that triggered the aggression. Participants blamed the victim and exonerated the aggressor more when no cause of the aggression was mentioned than when a cause was mentioned (the woman wanted to separate, to see an old male friend, or simply to take a trip with her female friends). We also found clear effects of hostile sexism and just world beliefs on the dependent variables. Results showed that the influence of just world beliefs depended on the fact of mention or not a cause for the aggression. PMID:21568177

  12. Relationship Status Acceptance, Alcohol Use and the Perpetration of Verbal Aggression Among Males Mandated to Treatment for Intimate Partner Violence

    PubMed Central

    Crane, Cory A.; Hawes, Samuel W.; Oberleitner, Lindsay M.S.; Mandel, Dolores; Easton, Caroline J.

    2014-01-01

    Forty substance using, male offenders of intimate partner violence completed measures of alcohol use and relationship status acceptance during a pretreatment screening session. They also completed a measure of verbal aggression after each month of a 12 week intervention program. Treatment length, heavy episodic drinking, and relationship status acceptance were used to assess the frequency of verbal aggression at each of the four assessment periods in a repeated measures ANCOVA. Main effects were detected for both alcohol and acceptance variables such that greater verbal aggression was observed among participants with a recent history of heavy episodic drinking and failure to accept the status of the relationship with their female victim. The interaction between time in treatment and relationship status acceptance was significant and showed that participants who accepted their relationship status reported low verbal aggression across measurement occasions while those who did not accept their relationship status reported high initial verbal aggression that decreased over treatment. PMID:23680991

  13. The relationship between severity of violence in the home and dating violence.

    PubMed

    Sims, Eva Nowakowski; Dodd, Virginia J Noland; Tejeda, Manuel J

    2008-01-01

    This study used propositions from the social learning theory to explore the effects of the combined influences of child maltreatment, childhood witness to parental violence, sibling violence, and gender on dating violence perpetration using a modified version of the Conflict Tactics Scale 2 (CTS2). A weighted scoring method was utilized to determine how severity of violence in the home impacts dating violence perpetration. Bivariate correlations and linear regression models indicate significant associations between child maltreatment, sibling violence perpetration, childhood witness to parental violence, gender, and subsequent dating violence perpetration. Multiple regression analyses indicate that for men, history of severe violence victimization (i.e., child maltreatment and childhood witness to parental violence) and severe perpetration (sibling violence) significantly predict dating violence perpetration. PMID:19418773

  14. [Psychological violences].

    PubMed

    Leray, M

    2014-12-01

    Among the various forms of violence inflicted on a child, psychological violence holds a significant place in terms of frequency, diversity and damage done, as serious and pervasive consequences can be observed on the child's development. This article highlights and assesses the psychological consequences provoked by psychological violences perpetrated by parents, teachers or other children in different situations, such as domestic violence, divorce and school bullying. It also gives some indications for intervention and prevention in those situations. PMID:25449447

  15. Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Europe Forum, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Highlighting the issue of violence, this Forum issue contains 12 essays. Titles and authors are: "Passivity in the Face of Violence" (Henri Laborit); "Democratisation without Violence?" (Friedrich Hacker); "Ritualised Violence in Sport" (Christian Bromberger); "Violence in Prisons" (Luige Daga); "Racial Aggression" (Geoffrey Bindman); "Violence in…

  16. Psychosocial Motivations of Hate Crimes Perpetrators: Implications for Educational Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Karen

    This paper discusses three aspects of bias crimes against sexual minorities: (1) perpetration rates among young adults; (2) perpetrators' motivations; and (3) factors that prevent some people from committing hate crimes. In an anonymous survey of 484 students at 6 community colleges: one in 10 respondents admitted physical violence or threats…

  17. Exploring Men's Perpetrator Programs in Small Rural Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jamieson, Shirley; Wendt, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    This paper outlines the findings of an exploratory study conducted in a small rural community in South Australia in 2006. Human service providers, experienced in working with victims and/or perpetrators of domestic violence, were asked about their experiences and perceptions of perpetrator programs in small rural communities. Specifically,…

  18. Violence and mass media: are laws and regulations effective?

    PubMed

    Wulff, Christian

    2007-10-01

    In Germany, there are several laws and legal and administrative regulations restricting presentation and propagation of violence in mass media. They have proven to be partly effective. Whilst control and supervision of public media is feasible, the containment of what is distributed over the internet proves to be very difficult. It is well recognized that laws and regulations can be only one part of protection for children and youngsters; school, kindergarten and above all the parents must be educated and held responsible for creating media competence in children and adolescents. PMID:17890154

  19. An Exploratory Analysis of College Students' Response and Reporting Behavior Regarding Intimate Partner Violence Victimization and Perpetration among Their Friends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branch, Kathryn A.; Richards, Tara N.; Dretsch, Elizabeth C.

    2013-01-01

    Over the last several decades, an extensive literature has documented the prevalence of dating violence on college campuses. As a result, initiatives to promote awareness of dating violence on college campuses have proliferated and models of "bystander intervention" have been developed. Bystander intervention asserts that by giving all…

  20. Parental Exposure to Mass Violence and Child Mental Health: The First Responder and WTC Evacuee Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoven, Christina W.; Duarte, Cristiane S.; Wu, Ping; Doan, Thao; Singh, Navya; Mandell, Donald J.; Bin, Fan; Teichman, Yona; Teichman, Meir; Wicks, Judith; Musa, George; Cohen, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Children's reactions after being exposed to mass violence may be influenced by a spectrum of factors. Relatively unexplored is the extent to which family exposure to mass violence may affect child mental health, even when these children have not been directly exposed. In a representative sample of NYC public school children assessed 6 months after…

  1. A test of explanations for the effect of harsh parenting on the perpetration of dating violence and sexual coercion among college males.

    PubMed

    Simons, Leslie Gordon; Burt, Callie Harbin; Simons, Ronald L

    2008-01-01

    This study uses structural equation modeling (SEM) with a sample of 760 college males to test various hypotheses regarding the avenues whereby harsh corporal punishment and a troubled relationship with parents increase the risk that a boy will grow up to engage in sexual coercion and dating violence. We found that three variables--a general antisocial orientation, sexually permissive attitudes, and believing that violence is a legitimate component of romantic relationships--mediated most of the association between negative parenting and our two outcomes. In addition to this indirect influence, we found that harsh corporal punishment had a direct effect upon dating violence. The findings are discussed with regard to various theoretical perspectives regarding the manner in which family of origin experiences increase the chances that a young man will direct violence toward a romantic partner. PMID:18396582

  2. Forgiveness as a mediator of the intergenerational transmission of violence.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Peter M; Fincham, Frank

    2015-03-01

    Bowen Family Systems Theory and Social Learning Theory served as a framework for examining the potential role of offspring maternal forgiveness in the intergenerational transmission (IGT) of violence. Using 285 emerging adults, we tested the hypotheses that higher accounts of witnessed interpersonal violence perpetrated by either parent would relate to increased reports of dating violence, and that offspring's capacity to forgive mothers for current transgressions would mediate this relationship. Witnessing interpersonal violence perpetrated by either parent significantly related to offspring dating violence perpetration and victimization. In addition, witnessing violence perpetrated by either parent significantly related to offspring dating violence perpetration, via offspring's capacity to forgive. Contrary to expectation, offspring's capacity to forgive mothers did not mediate the link between father-perpetrated violence and dating violence victimization; however, it did serve as mediator in the association between mother-perpetrated violence and offspring dating violence victimization. Overall, the findings suggest that witnessing violence perpetrated by either parent explains a portion of the variance in offspring dating violence indirectly through offspring's capacity to forgive mothers for current transgressions. The present study contributes to previous research on the IGT of violence by identifying forgiveness as a mechanism in which intimate partner violence is transmitted generationally. Implications and future directions are discussed for researchers and clinicians. PMID:25015238

  3. Violent Victimization and Perpetration: Joint and Distinctive Implications for Adolescent Development

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Patricia L.; Nurius, Paula S.; Herting, Jerald R.; Walsh, Elaine; Thompson, Elaine A.

    2010-01-01

    To date few reports have provided direct comparison of psychosocial vulnerability and resources among youth with victimization and perpetration histories. Within a racially diverse, high-risk adolescent sample (n = 849), this study undertakes MANCOVA tests on a multidimensional set of risk and protective factors contrasting youth with histories of 1) neither violent victimization nor perpetration, 2) victimization only , 3) both perpetration only, and 4) both victimization and perpetration. All three violence-affected groups reported elevated risk and diminished protection, with perpetrating victims demonstrating the greatest psychosocial impairment. Detailed contrasts among the youth group profiles provide insights regarding overlapping and distinct developmental etiologies and implications for preventive and remedial intervention. PMID:21289867

  4. Are Male Perpetrators of Intimate Partner Violence Different From Convicted Violent Offenders? Examination of Psychopathic Traits and Life Success in Males From a Community Survey.

    PubMed

    Theobald, Delphine; Farrington, David P; Coid, Jeremy W; Piquero, Alex R

    2016-05-01

    We used data from the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development, a prospective longitudinal survey of more than 400 males in the United Kingdom followed from age 8 to age 48 to investigate intimate partner violence (IPV) and its association with psychopathy. We investigated the differences in psychopathy scores between those men who were convicted of violence, those who were involved in both extra- and intra-familial violence, and those who committed IPV only. We also considered whether these generally violent men had poorer life success overall with regard to their drinking and drug taking, depression, and other mental disorders. Our findings suggest that those men who are violent both within and outside the home (the generally violent men) are distinguished from those who commit violent crimes outside the home and those who are involved in IPV within the home only. The differences appear to be more in degree than in kind. These findings are discussed with a focus on whether specific interventions are required for those who commit IPV or whether early intervention should be focused on violent behavior in general. PMID:25681163

  5. Impact of the spread of mass education on married women's experience with domestic violence.

    PubMed

    Ghimire, Dirgha J; Axinn, William G; Smith-Greenaway, Emily

    2015-11-01

    This paper investigates the association between mass education and married women's experience with domestic violence in rural Nepal. Previous research on domestic violence in South Asian societies emphasizes patriarchal ideology and the widespread subordinate status of women within their communities and families. The recent spread of mass education is likely to shift these gendered dynamics, thereby lowering women's likelihood of experiencing domestic violence. Using data from 1775 currently married women from the Chitwan Valley Family Study in Nepal, we provide a thorough analysis of how the spread of mass education is associated with domestic violence among married women. The results show that women's childhood access to school, their parents' schooling, their own schooling, and their husbands' schooling are each associated with their lower likelihood of experiencing domestic violence. Indeed, husbands' education has a particularly strong, inverse association with women's likelihood of experiencing domestic violence. These associations suggest that the proliferation of mass education will lead to a marked decline in women's experience with domestic violence in Nepal. PMID:26463551

  6. Predictors of violence against children in Tamil families in northern Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Sriskandarajah, Vathsalan; Neuner, Frank; Catani, Claudia

    2015-12-01

    Children living in post-conflict settings are not only at high risk of developing war-related psychopathology but also of experiencing maltreatment within their families. However, little is known about the mechanisms of the relationship between war and family violence. In order to investigate the variables associated with the experience and perpetration of child maltreatment, we conducted a two-generational study with Tamil families in the North of Sri Lanka, a region affected by war and Tsunami. We interviewed children and the corresponding family dyads and triads with 359 children, 122 mothers, and 88 fathers on the basis of standardized questionnaires to assess their exposure to adverse life experiences and mental health symptoms. Using multivariate regression analyses, we found that the strongest predictors for children's report of victimization were children's exposure to mass trauma and child psychopathology. Mothers' experiences of mass trauma, family violence and partner violence were each significantly related to mother-reported maternal perpetration as well as child-reported victimization. Likewise, all types of traumatic events reported by fathers were significantly related to child-reported victimization and father-reported perpetration. Fathers' alcohol use was the strongest predictor of father-reported paternal perpetration. These findings provide further support for the transmission of mass trauma into family violence, and emphasize the role of child psychopathology as well as alcohol consumption in this relationship. PMID:26521032

  7. The Relationship between Violence in the Family of Origin and Dating Violence among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gover, Angela R.; Kaukinen, Catherine; Fox, Kathleen A.

    2008-01-01

    Prior research has established that violence in dating relationships is a serious social problem among adolescents and young adults. Exposure to violence during childhood has been linked to dating violence victimization and perpetration. Also known as the intergenerational transmission of violence, the link between violence during childhood and…

  8. Correlates of Partner Violence for Incarcerated Women and Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Kirsten; Murachver, Tamar

    2007-01-01

    This study examines partner violence within an incarcerated sample of women and men. Specifically, it focused on the relationship between explicit and implicit attitudes to the perpetration and victimization of violence. Findings revealed that violence was bidirectional, with males and females equally likely to report being the perpetrator or…

  9. Costs of Juvenile Violence: Policy Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Ted; Fisher, Deborah A.; Cohen, Mark A.

    2001-01-01

    Investigated the magnitude of juvenile violence in Pennsylvania in terms of victimization and perpetration. Used archival data on violent crimes in Pennsylvania during 1993 to develop cost estimates reflecting the costs incurred by society for both victims and perpetrators. Overall, violence against children and adolescents proved to be a much…

  10. Violence exposure and teen dating violence among African American youth.

    PubMed

    Black, Beverly M; Chido, Lisa M; Preble, Kathleen M; Weisz, Arlene N; Yoon, Jina S; Delaney-Black, Virginia; Kernsmith, Poco; Lewandowski, Linda

    2015-07-01

    This study examines the relationships between exposure to violence in the community, school, and family with dating violence attitudes and behaviors among 175 urban African American youth. Age, gender, state support and experiences with neglect, school violence, and community violence were the most significant predictors of acceptance of dating violence. Experiences with community violence and age were important predictors of dating violence perpetration and victimization. Findings highlight the importance of planning prevention programs that address variables affecting attitudes and behaviors of high-risk youth who have already been exposed to multiple types of violence. PMID:25287413

  11. Survivor Perspectives on IPV Perpetrator Interventions: A Systematic Narrative Review.

    PubMed

    McGinn, Tony; Taylor, Brian; McColgan, Mary; Lagdon, Susan

    2016-07-01

    More effective work with perpetrators of intimate partner violence (IPV) can be built upon a better understanding of how and why they change their behavior. This article presents a systematic narrative review of female IPV survivor perspectives on the changes brought about by IPV perpetrator programs. Fourteen databases and web search engines were searched and 16 articles reporting relevant qualitative findings were identified. Survivors often reported some level of positive change through their partner's engagement with a program, but the sustainability of this change is unclear and there was also some negative feedback. From the survivors' perspective, key barriers to perpetrator change include alcohol dependency, mental health challenges, relationship dynamics, and their family of origin. Mechanisms by which perpetrators are held to account, namely, survivor validation and judicial measures, were seen as central to the change process. Survivors perceived changes in perpetrator behavior (the use of conflict interruption techniques and new communication skills) and changes in perpetrators' belief systems (adopting new perspectives). Changes in belief systems were associated with more complete desistence from violence and would appear more difficult to effect. The review highlights the complexity in this field, which is discussed by the authors with reference to practice, policy, and research. PMID:25964277

  12. Worker-to-Worker Violence in Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Hamblin, Lydia E.; Essenmacher, Lynnette; Ager, Joel; Upfal, Mark; Luborsky, Mark; Russell, Jim; Arnetz, Judith

    2016-01-01

    Worker-to-worker (Type III) violence is prevalent in health care settings and has potential adverse consequences for employees and organizations. Little research has examined perpetrator characteristics of this type of violence. The current study is a descriptive examination of the common demographic and work-related characteristics of perpetrators of Type III workplace violence among hospital workers. Analysis was based on documented incidents of Type III violence reported within a large hospital system from 2010 to 2012. Nurses were involved as either the perpetrator or target in the five most common perpetrator–target dyads. Incidence rate ratios revealed that patient care associates and nurses were significantly more likely to be perpetrators than other job titles. By examining characteristics of perpetrators and common worker dyads involved in Type III workplace violence, hospital stakeholders and unit supervisors have a starting point to develop strategies for reducing conflict between workers. PMID:26450899

  13. Saving Youth from Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hechinger, Fred M.

    1994-01-01

    Nearly one million adolescents between the ages of 12 and 19 are victims of violent crimes each year, and this has been true since at least 1985. Children are becoming involved in violence at ever younger ages, both as victims and as perpetrators. The threat of firearms is the greatest concern in adolescent violence, but no single factor can be…

  14. Psychopathology in Women Arrested for Domestic Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Gregory L.; Moore, Todd M.; Gordon, Kristina Coop; Ramsey, Susan E.; Kahler, Christopher W.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence of psychopathology among women arrested for violence and whether the experience of intimate partner violence (IPV) was associated with Axis I psychopathology. Women who were arrested for domestic violence perpetration and court referred to violence intervention programs (N=103) completed measures of IPV…

  15. Models of Rape Judgment: Attributions Concerning Event, Perpetrator, and Victim.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langley, Travis; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Reviews models developed to identify cognitive mediators of rape judgments. Recent models examine perceptions of perpetrator's violent behavior and of victim's desire for intercourse as mediators of effects of violence levels and victim's behavior upon rape judgments. Sex differences in models suggest that female evaluators may be more likely to…

  16. Lessons Learned and Unanswered Questions About Sexual Assault Perpetration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbey, Antonia

    2005-01-01

    The most important lesson learned about interpersonal violence in the past 20 years is the astonishingly high prevalence of sexual assault in American society. The extensiveness of unreported sexual assault has been repeatedly documented through the use of self-report data from well-constructed surveys of victims and perpetrators. In contrast,…

  17. Treating Female Perpetrators: State Standards for Batterer Intervention Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kernsmith, Poco; Kernsmith, Roger

    2009-01-01

    Although domestic violence has historically been considered primarily a crime perpetrated by men, increasing numbers of women are being arrested and mandated into batterer intervention programs. This study examined existing state policies to explore the degree to which they address the unique needs of women in batterer intervention programs.…

  18. Stressful life events and the perpetration of adolescent dating abuse.

    PubMed

    Chen, May S; Foshee, Vangie A

    2015-03-01

    Theoretical and empirical evidence suggests that stressful life events are associated with the perpetration of intimate partner violence among adults, but little attention has been given to the relationship between stressful life events and adolescent dating abuse, a prevalent form of violence that results in serious and long-lasting consequences. The current study addresses this gap by examining associations between family-, peer-, school-, and health-related stressful life events and the perpetration of both psychological and physical forms of dating abuse in a sample of 1,125 adolescents (54.6% female, 18% Black), and determining whether these associations are moderated by attributes of the family (closeness to parent) and the adolescent (sex and self-esteem). The total number of stressful events and school-related events were positively associated with the perpetration of psychological dating abuse and family-related events were related to the perpetration of psychological dating abuse for boys, but not girls. Closeness to parent buffered the effect of stressful health-related events on the perpetration of physical dating abuse, but exacerbated the effect of stressful family-related events on the perpetration of physical dating abuse. Health-related events were associated with physical perpetration for those with high, but not low self-esteem. Finally, the total number of stressful events and family-related events were related to the perpetration of physical dating abuse by boys, but not by girls. Taken together, these findings suggest that stressful life events play an important role in adolescent dating abuse, and should be taken into consideration when developing adolescent dating abuse prevention programs. PMID:25189287

  19. Risk Factors for Severe Inter-Sibling Violence: A Preliminary Study of a Youth Forensic Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khan, Roxanne; Cooke, David J.

    2008-01-01

    The perpetration of severe inter-sibling violence (SISV) remains a largely unexplored area of family violence. This article describes an investigation of risk factors for intentional SISV perpetration. A sample of 111 young people under the care of the Scottish criminal justice or welfare systems was studied. A SISV perpetration interview schedule…

  20. School Violence in Taiwan: Examining How Western Risk Factors Predict School Violence in an Asian Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Ji-Kang; Astor, Ron Avi

    2010-01-01

    The current study explores whether theorized risk factors in Western countries can be used to predict school violence perpetration in an Asian cultural context. The study examines the associations between risk factors and school violence perpetration in Taiwan. Data were obtained from a nationally representative sample of 14,022 students from…

  1. Effect of physical intimate partner violence on body mass index in low-income adult women.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Marcela de Freitas; Moraes, Claudia Leite de; Reichenheim, Michael Eduardo; Verly Junior, Eliseu; Marques, Emanuele Souza; Salles-Costa, Rosana

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to assess whether physical intimate partner violence affects the nutritional status of adult women with different levels of body mass index (BMI). This was a population-based cross-sectional study with 625 women selected through complex multistage cluster sampling. Information on physical intimate partner violence was obtained with the Revised Conflict Tactics Scales, and nutritional status was measured as BMI (kg/m2). A quantile regression model was used to assess the effect of physical intimate partner violence at all percentiles of BMI distribution. Physical intimate partner violence occurred in 27.6% of the women (95%CI: 20.0; 35.2). Mean BMI was 27.9kg/m2 (95%CI: 27.1; 28.7). The results showed that physical intimate partner violence was negatively associated with BMI between the 25th and 85th percentiles, corresponding to 22.9 and 31.2kg/m2. The findings support previous studies indicating that physical intimate partner violence can reduce BMI in low-income women. PMID:25715300

  2. Perpetration of Physical Assault Against Dating Partners, Peers, and Siblings Among a Locally Representative Sample of High School Students in Boston, Massachusetts

    PubMed Central

    Rothman, Emily F.; Johnson, Renee M.; Azrael, Deborah; Hall, Diane M.; Weinberg, Janice

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To assess the co-occurrence of past-month physical assault of a dating partner and violence against peers and siblings among a locally representative sample of high school students and to explore correlates of dating violence (DV) perpetration. Design Cross-sectional survey design. Setting Twenty-two public high schools in Boston, Massachusetts. Participants A sample of urban high school students (n = 1398) who participated in the Boston Youth Survey, implemented January through April of 2008. Main Outcomes Measures Self-reported physical DV in the month before the survey, defined as pushing, shoving, slapping, hitting, punching, kicking, or choking a dating partner 1 or more times. Results Among the respondents, 18.7%, 41.2%, and 31.2% of students reported past-month perpetration of physical DV, peer violence, and sibling violence, respectively. Among violence perpetrators, the perpetration of DV only was rare (7.9%). Controlling for age and school, the association between sibling violence and DV was strong for boys (adjusted prevalence ratio, 3.81;95% confidence interval, 2.07-6.99) and for girls (1.83; 1.44-2.31), and the association between peer violence and DV perpetration was strong for boys (5.13; 3.15-8.35) and for girls (2.57; 1.87-3.52). Dating violence perpetration was also associated with substance use, knife carrying, delinquency, and exposure to community violence. Conclusions Adolescents who perpetrated physical DV were also likely to have perpetrated peer and/or sibling violence. Dating violence is likely one of many co-occurring adolescent problem behaviors, including sibling and peer violence perpetration, substance use, weapon carrying, and academic problems. PMID:21135340

  3. Preventing Interpersonal Violence among Youth: An Introduction to School, Community, and Mass Media Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeJong, William

    The United States is a violent nation. This report reviews current school, community, and mass media strategies; describes promising programs now in operation; and offers recommendations for how police and other criminal justice professionals can get involved. By introducing the basic concepts and strategies of violence prevention, the report…

  4. Does Narrative Exposure Therapy Reduce PTSD in Survivors of Mass Violence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPherson, Jane

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This review examines the effectiveness of narrative exposure therapy (NET) , a short-term intervention for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in survivors of mass violence and torture, who have often suffered multiple traumas over several years. Methods: Randomized control trials were reviewed if they measured PTSD outcome and were…

  5. Personality and Perpetration: Narcissism Among College Sexual Assault Perpetrators.

    PubMed

    Mouilso, Emily R; Calhoun, Karen S

    2016-09-01

    Theory and research suggest that narcissism plays an important role in perpetration of sexual aggression. As narcissism is a multidimensional construct, our objective was to clarify the relation between perpetration and three aspects of narcissism. College men (N = 234) completed the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI), Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD) subscale of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM Disorders-II (SCID-N) Personality Questionnaire, and Hypersensitive Narcissism Scale (HSNS). Perpetrators had higher scores on NPD traits, which were also associated with frequent perpetration. HSNS scores were only associated with perpetration via alcohol and/or drugs. Only the maladaptive facets of NPI narcissism correlated with perpetration. Narcissism seems to have been understudied in nonincarcerated perpetrators. PMID:26712237

  6. The Cycle of Violence Revisited: Distinguishing Intimate Partner Violence Offenders Only, Victims Only, and Victim-Offenders.

    PubMed

    Richards, Tara N; Tomsich, Elizabeth; Gover, Angela R; Jennings, Wesley G

    2016-01-01

    Using a cycle of violence framework, we investigated experiences with physical intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization, perpetration, and both IPV victimization and perpetration (IPV overlap). Data included the U.S. subsample of college students in the International Dating Violence Study (n = 4,162). Findings indicated that 40% of participants reported lifetime IPV, with 28% reporting membership in the overlap group. Cycle of violence variables including child sexual abuse, witnessing violence inside the home during childhood, and witnessing violence outside the home during childhood were uniquely related to membership in the overlap group. No relationship between cycle of violence variables and IPV victimization only or IPV perpetration only was identified. Results suggested the cycle of violence might predominantly operate among individuals who are both IPV victims and offenders, rather than among individuals experiencing IPV victimization or perpetrate IPV exclusively. PMID:27302305

  7. Mental Health and Mass Violence: Evidence-Based Early Psychological Intervention for Victims/Survivors of Mass Violence. A Workshop To Reach Consensus on Best Practices (Warrenton, Virginia, October 29-November 1, 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Mental Health (DHHS), Bethesda, MD.

    Americans have been exposed to increased levels of mass violence during the past decade. School violence, shootings in the workplace, and terrorist acts both here and abroad--all have affected individuals, families, communities, and our country. This report addresses the urgent need to evaluate the various psychological interventions that are…

  8. Exposure to violence in childhood is associated with higher body mass index in adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Gooding, Holly C.; Milliren, Carly; Austin, S. Bryn; Sheridan, Margaret A.; McLaughlin, Katie A.

    2015-01-01

    To determine whether different types of childhood adversity are associated with body mass index (BMI) in adolescence, we studied 147 adolescents aged 13–17 years, 41% of whom reported exposure to at least one adversity (maltreatment, abuse, peer victimization, or witness to community or domestic violence). We examined associations between adversity type and age- and sex-specific BMI z-scores using linear regression and overweight and obese status using logistic regression. We adjusted for potential socio-demographic, behavioral, and psychological confounders and tested for effect modification by gender. Adolescents with a history of sexual abuse, emotional abuse, or peer victimization did not have significantly different BMI z-scores than those without exposure (p > 0.05 for all comparisons). BMI z-scores were higher in adolescents who had experienced physical abuse (β = 0.50, 95% CI 0.12–0.91) or witnessed domestic violence (β = 0.85, 95% CI 0.30–1.40). Participants who witnessed domestic violence had almost 6 times the odds of being overweight or obese (95% CI: 1.09–30.7), even after adjustment for potential confounders. No gender-by-adversity interactions were found. Exposure to violence in childhood is associated with higher adolescent BMI. This finding highlights the importance of screening for violence in pediatric practice and providing obesity prevention counseling for youth. PMID:26303827

  9. Exposure to violence in childhood is associated with higher body mass index in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Gooding, Holly C; Milliren, Carly; Austin, S Bryn; Sheridan, Margaret A; McLaughlin, Katie A

    2015-12-01

    To determine whether different types of childhood adversity are associated with body mass index (BMI) in adolescence, we studied 147 adolescents aged 13-17 years, 41% of whom reported exposure to at least one adversity (maltreatment, abuse, peer victimization, or witness to community or domestic violence). We examined associations between adversity type and age- and sex-specific BMI z-scores using linear regression and overweight and obese status using logistic regression. We adjusted for potential socio-demographic, behavioral, and psychological confounders and tested for effect modification by gender. Adolescents with a history of sexual abuse, emotional abuse, or peer victimization did not have significantly different BMI z-scores than those without exposure (p>0.05 for all comparisons). BMI z-scores were higher in adolescents who had experienced physical abuse (β=0.50, 95% CI 0.12-0.91) or witnessed domestic violence (β=0.85, 95% CI 0.30-1.40). Participants who witnessed domestic violence had almost 6 times the odds of being overweight or obese (95% CI: 1.09-30.7), even after adjustment for potential confounders. No gender-by-adversity interactions were found. Exposure to violence in childhood is associated with higher adolescent BMI. This finding highlights the importance of screening for violence in pediatric practice and providing obesity prevention counseling for youth. PMID:26303827

  10. Spirits and social reconstruction after mass violence: rethinking transitional justice.

    PubMed

    Baines, Erin

    2010-01-01

    A vibrant debate in the field of transitional justice concerns the relative ability of global, national, and local mechanisms to promote justice after violent conflict. Discussion largely focuses on more formal mechanisms of justice (courts, tribunals, or truth commissions), implying that state institutions and the law are solely responsible for shaping the process of social healing. This article suggests that scholars should take seriously more informal, socio-cultural processes outside the purview of the state, particularly for how they promote social reconstruction at the micro level. Examining the phenomena of spirit possession and ritual cleansing in northern Uganda, I illustrate how such efforts are expressions of injustice and reflect ordinary people’s attempts to seek moral renewal and social repair. This approach is particularly illustrative in cases where ‘intimate enemies’ exist - that is, settings where ordinary people who engaged in violence against one another must live together again. PMID:20827842

  11. Physical intimate partner violence in northern India.

    PubMed

    Ragavan, Maya I; Iyengar, Kirti; Wurtz, Rebecca M

    2014-04-01

    In this article, we examine perceptions about the definition of physical intimate partner violence (IPV) in northern India utilizing feminist perspectives as a framework. We interviewed 56 women and 52 men affiliated with a health services nongovernmental organization in the Udaipur district of Rajasthan. We transcribed, coded, and analyzed the interviews utilizing grounded theory. We found that perceptions regarding physical IPV were associated with both structural and ideological patriarchal beliefs and microlevel constructs such as alcohol use. We discovered multiple types of physical IPV in the study region, including rationalized violence (socially condoned violence perpetrated by a husband against his wife), unjustified violence (socially prohibited violence perpetrated by a husband against his wife), and majboori violence (violence perpetrated by a wife against her husband). Our results add to the breadth of research available about IPV in India and create a framework for future research and IPV prevention initiatives. PMID:24598776

  12. Victim-perpetrator reconciliation.

    PubMed

    Barcus, R A; Bernstein, B G

    1997-10-01

    This document presents a case study describing how therapists collaborated to achieve a victim-perpetrator reconciliation between an uncle who sexually molested his niece more than 30 years earlier when they were 12 and 5 years old, respectively. After an introduction, the document presents the case history, including what occurred between the children, how the female victim eventually sought therapy and sent her uncle an angry letter, and how the uncle immediately responded with contrition. Next, the victim's therapist describes therapeutic issues such as enlisting the help of the victim's support system, uncovering the intergenerational incest present in her family, and helping the victim understand the potential ramifications of her demands for compensation. The perpetrators' therapist then explains his decision to eschew further condemnation of the perpetrator's actions and to support his efforts to achieve healing and reconciliation. Each therapist also discusses how they turned to their own support groups to deal with transference issues and to seek advice. Next, the paper reviews how each therapist helped the clients deal with relevant legal issues arising from the victim's desire for monetary compensation for damages. After consultation with lawyers, the clients were able to arrive at a satisfactory settlement that aided the process of reconciliation. PMID:12322017

  13. Witnessing Interparental Violence and Acceptance of Dating Violence as Predictors for Teen Dating Violence Victimization.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Marie E; Temple, Jeff R; Weston, Rebecca; Le, Vi Donna

    2016-04-01

    We examined the association between witnessing interparental violence, attitudes about dating violence, and physical and psychological teen dating violence (TDV) victimization. Participants were 918 teens with dating experience. Witnessing interparental violence and acceptance of dating violence were significant predictors of TDV victimization. Acceptance of dating violence was also a partial mediator between witnessing interparental violence and TDV victimization. Witnessing mother-to-father violence and acceptance of female-perpetrated violence were the most consistent predictors. TDV programs aiming to prevent victimization could benefit from targeting youth exposed to father-to-mother and mother-to-father violence, targeting attitudes about violence, and tailoring interventions to gender-specific risk factors. PMID:26452379

  14. Violence between Therapy-Seeking Veterans and Their Partners: Prevalence and Characteristics of Nonviolent, Mutually Violent, and One-Sided Violent Couples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teten, Andra L.; Sherman, Michelle D.; Han, Xiaotong

    2009-01-01

    Among male veterans and their female partners seeking therapy for relationship issues, three violence profiles were identified based on self-reports of physical violence: nonviolent, in which neither partner reported perpetrating physical violence (44%); one-sided violent, in which one partner reported perpetrating violence (30%); and mutually…

  15. Adolescents as perpetrators of aggression within the family.

    PubMed

    Kuay, Hue San; Lee, Sarah; Centifanti, Luna C M; Parnis, Abigail C; Mrozik, Jennifer H; Tiffin, Paul A

    2016-01-01

    Although family violence perpetrated by juveniles has been acknowledged as a potentially serious form of violence for over 30years, scientific studies have been limited to examining the incidence and form of home violence. The present study examined the prevalence of family aggression as perpetrated by youths; we examined groups drawn from clinic-referred and forensic samples. Two audits of case files were conducted to systematically document aggression perpetrated by referred youths toward their family members. The purpose of the first audit was fourfold: i) to identify the incidence of the perpetration of family aggression among clinical and forensic samples; ii) to identify whether there were any reports of weapon use during aggressive episodes; iii) to identify the target of family aggression (parents or siblings); and iv) to identify the form of aggression perpetrated (verbal or physical). The second audit aimed to replicate the findings and to show that the results were not due to differences in multiple deprivation indices, clinical diagnosis of disruptive behavior disorders, and placement into alternative care. A sampling strategy was designed to audit the case notes of 25 recent forensic Child and Adolescent Mental Health Service (CAMHS) cases and 25 demographically similar clinic-referred CAMHS cases in the first audit; and 35 forensic cases and 35 demographically similar clinic-referred CAMHS cases in the second audit. Using ordinal chi-square, the forensic sample (audit 1=64%; audit 2=82.9%) had greater instances of family violence than the clinical sample (audit 1=32%; audit 2=28.6%). They were more likely to use a weapon (audit 1=69%; audit 2=65.5%) compared to the clinical sample (audit 1 and 2=0%). Examining only the aggressive groups, there was more perpetration of aggression toward parents (audit 1, forensic=92%, clinical=75%; audit 2, forensic=55.17%, clinical=40%) than toward siblings (audit 1, forensic=43%, clinical=50%; audit 2, forensic=27

  16. Perpetration of intimate partner aggression by men and women in the Philippines: prevalence and associated factors.

    PubMed

    Ansara, Donna L; Hindin, Michelle J

    2009-09-01

    This study uses data from the 2002 Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey to examine the prevalence of and factors associated with intimate partner violence perpetration by husbands and wives in Cebu, Philippines. Multinomial logistic regression was used to identify the factors associated with wife-only, husband-only, and reciprocal perpetration. About 26% of women reported that either they or their partner perpetrated at least one physically aggressive act during the past year, whereas 22% reported sexual coercion by their husband during their relationship. The most common reason cited for hurting the partner was his or her alcohol use, partner nagging, the wife fighting back, and jealousy. In the regression analysis, the wife's alcohol use and violence between the wife's parents were predictors of all three perpetrator groups. The importance of regular church attendance and husband control and dominance varied for the groups. Research and prevention implications are discussed. PMID:18768743

  17. The National Television Violence Study: Key Findings and Recommendations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young Children, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Summarizes findings of the Television Violence Study indicating that the context of much television violence is dangerous to viewers, perpetrators go unpunished in the majority of programs, negative consequences of violence are often ignored, guns feature prominently, and presentation of violence differs greatly across networks and across…

  18. The co-occurrence of physical and cyber dating violence and bullying among teens.

    PubMed

    Yahner, Jennifer; Dank, Meredith; Zweig, Janine M; Lachman, Pamela

    2015-04-01

    This study examined the overlap in teen dating violence and bullying perpetration and victimization, with regard to acts of physical violence, psychological abuse, and-for the first time ever-digitally perpetrated cyber abuse. A total of 5,647 youth (51% female, 74% White) from 10 schools participated in a cross-sectional anonymous survey. Results indicated substantial co-occurrence of all types of teen dating violence and bullying. Youth who perpetrated and/or experienced physical, psychological, and cyber bullying were likely to have also perpetrated/experienced physical and sexual dating violence, and psychological and cyber dating abuse. PMID:25038223

  19. Accountability in Teenage Dating Violence: A Comparative Examination of Adult Domestic Violence and Juvenile Justice Systems Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zosky, Diane L.

    2010-01-01

    Unlike in the adult criminal justice system, where domestic violence policies hold perpetrators accountable for their violence, the juvenile justice system rarely addresses teenage dating violence. Although the adult criminal justice system has pursued policies toward intimate partner violence grounded on a "zero tolerance" ideology, the juvenile…

  20. Sociodemographic characteristics of domestic violence in China: a population case-control study.

    PubMed

    Cao, YuPing; Yang, ShiChang; Wang, GuoQiang; Zhang, YaLin

    2014-03-01

    A population case-control study of domestic violence in China was conducted to examine the relationship between individual- and household-level characteristics and violence perpetration and victimization. Demographic comparisons were conducted between perpetrators and victims (n = 624), perpetrators and matched controls (n = 628), and perpetrator households and control households (n = 620). A multivariate model of demographic risk was tested, integrating individual- and household-level correlates of violence perpetration. Compared with victims, perpetrators were more likely to be older, male, and have lower levels of education. In the final model, violence perpetration was more likely among individuals who earned more income, contributed a lower proportion of the household income, had a family member who was unemployed or lived in households with an authoritarian or independent power structure. PMID:24176988

  1. Perpetrators and context of child sexual abuse in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Mwangi, Mary W; Kellogg, Timothy A; Brookmeyer, Kathryn; Buluma, Robert; Chiang, Laura; Otieno-Nyunya, Boaz; Chesang, Kipruto

    2015-06-01

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) interventions draw from a better understanding of the context of CSA. A survey on violence before age 18 was conducted among respondents aged 13-17 and 18-24 years. Among females (13-17), the key perpetrators of unwanted sexual touching (UST) were friends/classmates (27.0%) and among males, intimate partners (IP) (35.9%). The first incident of UST among females occurred while traveling on foot (33.0%) and among males, in the respondent's home (29.1%). Among females (13-17), the key perpetrators of unwanted attempted sex (UAS) were relatives (28.9%) and among males, friends/classmates (31.0%). Among females, UAS occurred mainly while traveling on foot (42.2%) and among males, in school (40.8%). Among females and males (18-24 years), the main perpetrators of UST were IP (32.1% and 43.9%) and the first incident occurred mainly in school (24.9% and 26.0%), respectively. The main perpetrators of UAS among females and males (18-24 years) were IP (33.3% and 40.6%, respectively). Among females, UAS occurred while traveling on foot (32.7%), and among males, in the respondent's home (38.8%); UAS occurred mostly in the evening (females 60.7%; males 41.4%) or afternoon (females 27.8%; males 37.9%). Among females (18-24 years), the main perpetrators of pressured/forced sex were IP and the first incidents occurred in the perpetrator's home. Prevention interventions need to consider perpetrators and context of CSA to increase their effectiveness. In Kenya, effective CSA prevention interventions that target intimate relationships among young people, the home and school settings are needed. PMID:25882669

  2. Physical and emotional abuse in romantic relationships: motivation for perpetration among college women.

    PubMed

    Leisring, Penny A

    2013-05-01

    Intimate partner violence is extremely common in college samples. To inform prevention and intervention efforts, understanding the motivation for engaging in partner aggression is critically important. The predominant view in the domestic violence field has been that women's use of intimate partner violence occurs in the context of self-defense. However, there has been a dearth of solid evidence to support this claim. The present study explored the motivations for the perpetration of minor and severe physical aggression and for three types of emotional abuse (restrictive engulfment, denigration, and dominance/intimidation) among college women. A detailed definition of self-defense was used and motivations for women who were sole perpetrators of physical violence as well as motivations for women who had been aggressed against in their romantic relationships were examined. Anger, retaliation for emotional hurt, to get partner's attention, jealousy, and stress were all common reasons for perpetrating partner violence among college women. Few women indicated that self-defense was a motive for their abusive behavior. The results suggest that prevention and intervention efforts to reduce partner violence perpetration by women should include anger and stress management. PMID:23262827

  3. The drugs-violence nexus among rural felony probationers.

    PubMed

    Oser, Carrie B; Mooney, Jennifer L; Staton-Tindall, Michele; Leukefeld, Carl G

    2009-08-01

    Little research has focused on the drugs-violence nexus in rural areas. As such, the purpose of this study is to use Goldstein's tripartite conceptual framework to examine the relationship between drugs and violence among felony probationers in rural Appalachian Kentucky (n = 799). Data on demographics, substance use criminal history, and violence were collected between 2001 and 2004 using an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Rural probationers are partitioned into four groups based on lifetime violent victimization/perpetration experiences: (a) neither a perpetrator nor a victim, (b) perpetrator only, (c) victim only, and (d) both a perpetrator and a victim. Chi-square analyses indicate substance use, and criminal history varies across the four groups. Binary logistic regression analyses are used to explore the significant correlates of both perpetration and victimization. Multivariate analyses support both the psychopharmacological model and the economic compulsive models of perpetration and victimization. Further implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:18719220

  4. The Drugs-Violence Nexus among Rural Felony Probationers*

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Jennifer Mooney; Tindall, Michele Staton; Leukefeld, Carl G.

    2009-01-01

    Little research has focused on the drugs-violence nexus in rural areas. As such, the purpose of this study was to use Goldstein’s (1985) tripartite conceptual framework to examine the relationship between drugs and violence among felony probationers in rural Appalachian Kentucky (n=800). Data on demographics, substance use, criminal history, and violence were collected between 2001 and 2004 using an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Rural probationers were partitioned into four groups based on lifetime violent victimization/perpetration experiences: (1) neither a perpetrator nor a victim, (2) perpetrator only, (3) victim only, and (4) both a perpetrator and a victim. Chi-square analyses indicated substance use and criminal history varied across the four groups. Binary logistic regression analyses were used to explore the significant correlates of both perpetration and victimization. Multivariate analyses supported both the psychopharmacological model and the economic compulsive models of perpetration and victimization. Further implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:18719220

  5. Sexual Violence Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, David S.; Guy, Lydia; Perry, Brad; Sniffen, Chad Keoni; Mixson, Stacy Alamo

    2007-01-01

    This article reviews approaches for developing comprehensive strategies that stop violence before initial perpetration occurs. Using feminist theory and public health perspectives as its foundation, the use of educational sessions, community mobilization, social norms, social marketing, and policy work are all explored. (Contains 1 table.)

  6. ADULTHOOD ANIMAL ABUSE AMONG MEN ARRESTED FOR DOMESTIC VIOLENCE

    PubMed Central

    Febres, Jeniimarie; Brasfield, Hope; Shorey, Ryan C.; Elmquist, Joanna; Ninnemann, Andrew; Schonbrun, Yael C.; Temple, Jeff R.; Recupero, Patricia R.; Stuart, Gregory L.

    2014-01-01

    Learning more about intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetrators could aid the development of more effective treatments. The prevalence of adulthood animal abuse (AAA) perpetration and its association with IPV perpetration, antisociality, and alcohol use in 307 men arrested for domestic violence was examined. 41% (n = 125) of the men committed at least one act of animal abuse since the age of 18, in contrast to the 3.0% prevalence rate reported by men in the general population. Controlling for antisociality and alcohol use, AAA showed a trend towards a significant association with physical and severe psychological IPV perpetration. PMID:25324474

  7. Adulthood animal abuse among men arrested for domestic violence.

    PubMed

    Febres, Jeniimarie; Brasfield, Hope; Shorey, Ryan C; Elmquist, Joanna; Ninnemann, Andrew; Schonbrun, Yael C; Temple, Jeff R; Recupero, Patricia R; Stuart, Gregory L

    2014-09-01

    Learning more about intimate partner violence (IPV), perpetrators could aid the development of more effective treatments. The prevalence of adulthood animal abuse (AAA) perpetration and its association with IPV perpetration, antisociality, and alcohol use in 307 men arrested for domestic violence were examined. Forty-one percent (n = 125) of the men committed at least one act of animal abuse since the age of 18, in contrast to the 1.5% prevalence rate reported by men in the general population. Controlling for antisociality and alcohol use, AAA showed a trend toward a significant association with physical and severe psychological IPV perpetration. PMID:25324474

  8. Testing the Cycle of Violence Hypothesis: Child Abuse and Adolescent Dating Violence as Predictors of Intimate Partner Violence in Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez, Anu Manchikanti

    2011-01-01

    Child abuse is an important determinant of future violence perpetration and victimization. Past research examining linkages between child abuse and adult intimate partner violence (IPV) has predominantly focused on married individuals and not considered adolescent dating violence. In the present study, data from three waves of the National…

  9. Differential Predictors of Transient Stress versus Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Evaluating Risk Following Targeted Mass Violence

    PubMed Central

    Miron, Lynsey R.; Orcutt, Holly K.; Kumpula, Mandy J.

    2014-01-01

    Schools have become a common incident site for targeted mass violence, including mass shootings. Although exposure to mass violence can result in significant distress, most individuals are able to fully recover over time, while a minority develop more pervasive pathology, such as PTSD. The present study investigated how several pre- and post-trauma factors predict posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) in both the acute and distal aftermath of a campus mass shooting using a sample with known levels of pre-trauma functioning (N = 573). While the largest proportion of participants evidenced resilience following exposure to the event (46.1%), many reported high rates of PTSS shortly after the shooting (42.1%) and a smaller proportion (11.9%) met criteria for probable PTSD both in the acute and more distal aftermath of the event. While several pre-shooting factors predicted heightened PTSS after the shooting, prior trauma exposure was the only pre-shooting variable shown to significantly differentiate between those who experienced transient versus prolonged distress. Among post-shooting predictors, individuals reporting greater emotion dysregulation and peritraumatic dissociative experiences were over 4 times more likely to have elevated PTSS 8 months post-shooting compared to those reporting less dysregulation and dissociative experiences. Individuals with less exposure to the shooting and greater satisfaction with social support were more likely to recover from acute distress. Results suggest that, while pre-trauma factors may differentiate between those who are resilient in the aftermath of a mass shooting from those who experience heightened distress, several event-level and post-trauma coping factors help distinguish between those who eventually recover and those whose PTSD symptoms persist over time. PMID:25311288

  10. Predatory violence aiming at relief in a case of mass murder: Meloy's criteria for applied forensic practice.

    PubMed

    Declercq, Frédéric; Audenaert, Kurt

    2011-01-01

    Mass murder is the result of the complex interaction of several factors. What seems ubiquitous within mass murder are extreme feelings of anger and revenge. Yet despite these intense affective states, mass murders are, as a rule, not behaviorally impulsive, but rather prepared. The presence of extreme hate and anger evokes an impulsive outburst of rage, whereas planning and premeditation point in the direction of a cognitive, rather unemotional deed. This inconsistency is also reflected in reports of offenders' emotional states during the execution of their crimes: while some mass murderers have been described as calm, focused and emotionless during the events, others have shown signs of hostility, confusion, and distress. Considering mass murder from the perspective of its violence mode might shed some light on its nature and dynamics. With respect to the differentiation between affective and predatory violence, Meloy (1988) developed a model for applied forensic practice. The fully documented case of mass murder discussed in this study contains nine indices of predatory violence and one of affective violence. Furious affects of hate and anger were present but appeared to precede the cold-blooded killings. As a matter of fact, it is argued that the offender carried out the predatory murder in order to alleviate the psychological tension and symptoms generated by these severe ego-dystonic affects. The offender thus didn't seem to strive for narcissistic gratification of omnipotence, but rather seemed to aim to solve a problem. PMID:21748789

  11. Violent Deaths of Iraqi Civilians, 2003–2008: Analysis by Perpetrator, Weapon, Time, and Location

    PubMed Central

    Hicks, Madelyn Hsiao-Rei; Dardagan, Hamit; Guerrero Serdán, Gabriela; Bagnall, Peter M.; Sloboda, John A.; Spagat, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Background Armed violence is a major public health and humanitarian problem in Iraq. In this descriptive statistical analysis we aimed to describe for the first time Iraqi civilian deaths caused by perpetrators of armed violence during the first 5 years of the Iraq war: over time; by weapon used; by region (governorate); and by victim demographics. Methods and Findings We analyzed the Iraq Body Count database of 92,614 Iraqi civilian direct deaths from armed violence occurring from March 20, 2003 through March 19, 2008, of which Unknown perpetrators caused 74% of deaths (n = 68,396), Coalition forces 12% (n = 11,516), and Anti-Coalition forces 11% (n = 9,954). We analyzed the subset of 60,481 civilian deaths from 14,196 short-duration events of lethal violence to link individual civilian deaths to events involving perpetrators and their methods. One-third of civilian violent death was from extrajudicial executions by Unknown perpetrators; quadratic regression shows these deaths progressively and disproportionately increased as deaths from other forms of violence increased across Iraq's governorates. The highest average number of civilians killed per event in which a civilian died were in Unknown perpetrator suicide bombings targeting civilians (19 per lethal event) and Coalition aerial bombings (17 per lethal event). In temporal analysis, numbers of civilian deaths from Coalition air attacks, and woman and child deaths from Coalition forces, peaked during the invasion. We applied a Woman and Child “Dirty War Index” (DWI), measuring the proportion of women and children among civilian deaths of known demographic status, to the 22,066 civilian victims identified as men, women, or children to indicate relatively indiscriminate perpetrator effects. DWI findings suggest the most indiscriminate effects on women and children were from Unknown perpetrators using mortar fire (DWI  = 79) and nonsuicide vehicle bombs (DWI  = 54) and from Coalition air

  12. Exploring taboos: comparing male- and female-perpetrated child sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Peter, Tracey

    2009-07-01

    The objective of this article is to compare male- and female-perpetrated sexual abuse in terms of victim and abuser characteristics, type of abuse, family structure, and worker information. Bivariate tests of significance were performed on the 1998 Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect, which included 308 male and 37 female abusers. Results show a prevalence rate of 10.7% for female-perpetrated sexual abuse. Girls were more likely to be victimized for both male- and female-perpetrated sexual violence and females tended to abuse younger children. The majority of children came from families with lower socioeconomic status although one in five victims of female-perpetrated sexual abuse came from middle-class homes. Referrals to child welfare agencies were more likely to be made by nonprofessionals when females abused. PMID:18701747

  13. Negative family-of-origin experiences: are they associated with perpetrating unwanted pursuit behaviors?

    PubMed

    Langhinrichsen-Rohling, J; Rohling, M

    2000-01-01

    Parental divorce, history of parental relationship separation, perceptions of interparental conflict, and witnessing parental violence were retrospectively assessed in a sample of 213 college students from several regions in the United States, all of whom had suffered an unwanted break-up of an important romantic relationship. This study investigated whether these family-of-origin experiences were associated with perpetrating unwanted pursuit behaviors after the relationship break-up. Results indicated that male participants who had experienced either parental divorce or separation perpetrated more severe unwanted pursuit behavior than males who had not experienced parental divorce or separation or females from either divorced, separated, or intact families. For females, severe unwanted pursuit behavior perpetration was correlated with threatening and intense parental arguments. These findings suggest that a variety of types of negative parental relationship behavior may be risk factors for perpetrating severe unwanted pursuit behaviors. The gender-specificity and implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:11288941

  14. No Safe Place: KIDS COUNT Report on Children and Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hensley, Melissa; And Others

    Recognizing increasing concerns about rising youth-related crime in Missouri, this Kids Count report on children and violence examines the impact of community and family violence on young perpetrators and victims, and explores characteristics of successful programs to prevent or reduce family and community violence in Missouri. Data suggest that…

  15. Perpetration of Intimate Partner Aggression by Men and Women in the Philippines: Prevalence and Associated Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ansara, Donna L.; Hindin, Michelle J.

    2009-01-01

    This study uses data from the 2002 Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey to examine the prevalence of and factors associated with intimate partner violence perpetration by husbands and wives in Cebu, Philippines. Multinomial logistic regression was used to identify the factors associated with wife-only, husband-only, and reciprocal…

  16. Bullying Perpetration and Victimization in Special Education: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Chad A.; Monda-Amaya, Lisa E.; Espelage, Dorothy L.

    2011-01-01

    Bullying perpetration and victimization have become pervasive problems in American schools. Recent research suggests a causal association between prolonged periods of victimization and overt acts of school violence. These findings are germane to students with disabilities in light of evidence suggesting these students are victimized more often…

  17. Predictors of Dating Violence among Chinese Adolescents: The Role of Gender-Role Beliefs and Justification of Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, April Chiung-Tao; Chiu, Marcus Yu-Lung; Gao, Jianxiu

    2012-01-01

    In Chinese societies, violence among adolescent dating partners remains a largely ignored and invisible phenomenon. The goal of this study is to examine the relationships among gender-role beliefs, attitudes justifying dating violence, and the experiences of dating-violence perpetration and victimization among Chinese adolescents. This study has…

  18. Domestic Violence Research: What Have We Learned and Where Do We Go From Here?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stover, Carla Smith

    2005-01-01

    Domestic violence has been an intense area of study in recent decades. Early studies helped with the understanding of the nature of perpetration, the cycle of violence, and the effect of family violence on children. More recently, studies have focused on beginning to evaluate domestic violence interventions and their effects on recidivism. This…

  19. The sustained impact of adolescent violence histories on early adulthood outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Logan-Greene, Patricia; Nurius, Paula S.; Hooven, Carole; Thompson, Elaine A.

    2013-01-01

    A history of victimization and violence perpetration are well-established risk factors that hamper positive development in early adulthood, yet their separate and overlapping effects are rarely examined simultaneously, confounding understanding of their relative impacts. This study follows a diverse sample of at-risk adolescents (N=570) into early adulthood, comparing roles and resources, stress and distress, and maladaptive behaviors for those with a history of no violence, victimization only, perpetration only, and both perpetration and victimization. Results demonstrate four distinctive profiles, although all violence-exposed youth report more problems in the three assessed domains relative to those with no violence histories. Implications for intervention are discussed. PMID:23772203

  20. 'Eventually you just get used to it': an interpretative phenomenological analysis of 10-16 year-old girls' experiences of the transition into temporary accommodation after exposure to domestic violence perpetrated by men against their mothers.

    PubMed

    Bowyer, Laura; Swanston, Jennifer; Vetere, Arlene

    2015-04-01

    Moving suddenly into temporary accommodation with their mothers is a reality for many children who live with domestic violence. The experience of this transition is under-researched despite being considered a unique event for children alongside that of being exposed to domestic violence involving their mothers. This piece of qualitative research aimed to address the following question: 'How do girls aged 10-16 years old experience the transition into temporary accommodation following exposure to domestic violence'? Five girls aged 10-16 years who had moved into either refuge or 'bed and breakfast' accommodation with their mothers were interviewed. Interviews were analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Three master themes emerged: (1) 'Out of their hands: The transition into a whole new world with loss and change', (2) 'The relentlessness of feeling unsafe and uncertain', (3) 'Coping with the transition: At the mercy of their environment and the actions of others'. All themes show how a lack of agency was experienced by the girls throughout the transition. Findings suggest that the environment of temporary accommodation may inhibit the child's capacity to emotionally process the transition. The role of others was central to either facilitating or constraining coping for the girls throughout this transition. PMID:24177144

  1. A Prospective Analysis of Sexual Assault Perpetration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loh, Catherine; Gidycz, Christine; Lobo, Tracy; Luthra, Rohini

    2005-01-01

    This study prospectively evaluated perpetrator risk factors for sexual assault perpetration, including peer influences, beliefs and attitudes about sexuality, alcohol use, and token resistance. Perpetration of sexual assault was evaluated at three time periods: pretest, 3-month follow-up, and 7-month follow-up. Retrospective and prospective…

  2. Longitudinal Associations Between Substance Use and Violence in Adolescence Through Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    LIM, JUNE Y.; LUI, CAMILLIA K.

    2016-01-01

    Substance use and violence are interrelated behaviors during adolescence and early adulthood. Using National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health data, this study examined the longitudinal relationships between (a) alcohol and violence perpetration, (b) marijuana and perpetration, (c) alcohol and victimization, and (d) marijuana and victimization. Cross-lagged structural equation models showed that longitudinal patterns of violence and substance use vary somewhat and that the ways preceding stages of violence and substance use are associated with subsequent violence, and substance use differ by violence, substance type, and transitional stage. Our findings call for primary and secondary prevention strategies targeting early adulthood. PMID:27366116

  3. Cruelty's rewards: the gratifications of perpetrators and spectators.

    PubMed

    Nell, Victor

    2006-06-01

    Cruelty is the deliberate infliction of physical or psychological pain on other living creatures, sometimes indifferently, but often with delight. Though cruelty is an overwhelming presence in the world, there is no neurobiological or psychological explanation for its ubiquity and reward value. This target article attempts to provide such explanations by describing three stages in the development of cruelty. Stage 1 is the development of the predatory adaptation from the Palaeozoic to the ethology of predation in canids, felids, and primates. Stage 2, through palaeontological and anthropological evidence, traces the emergence of the hunting adaptation in the Pliocene, its development in early hominids, and its emotional loading in surviving forager societies. This adaptation provides an explanation for the powerful emotions - high arousal and strong affect - evoked by the pain-blood-death complex. Stage 3 is the emergence of cruelty about 1.5 million years ago as a hominid behavioural repertoire that promoted fitness through the maintenance of personal and social power. The resulting cultural elaborations of cruelty in war, in sacrificial rites, and as entertainment are examined to show the historical and cross-cultural stability of the uses of cruelty for punishment, amusement, and social control. Effective violence prevention must begin with perpetrators, not victims. If the upstream approaches to violence prevention advocated by the public-health model are to be effective, psychologists must be able to provide violence prevention workers with a fine-grained understanding of perpetrator gratifications. This is a distasteful task that will compel researchers to interact with torturers and abusers, and to acknowledge that their gratifications are rooted in a common human past. It is nonetheless an essential step in developing effective strategies for the primary prevention of violence. PMID:17214016

  4. Social norms for intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Witte, Tricia H; Mulla, Mazheruddin M

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated perceived descriptive norms (i.e., perceived prevalence) for intimate partner violence (IPV) among college students. Male and female college students were asked to estimate the prevalence of IPV for same-sex "typical students" on their campus. Perpetrators of IPV made higher estimates than nonperpetrators. Both perpetrators and nonperpetrators overestimated the prevalence of IPV when compared to actual prevalence rates. Findings lend support for using social-norms-based prevention programs on college campuses. PMID:24547674

  5. Prevalence rates of sexual coercion victimization and perpetration among Uganda adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ybarra, Michele L; Bull, Sheana S; Kiwanuka, Julius; Bangsberg, David R; Korchmaros, Josephine

    2012-01-01

    Coercion is consistently reported as a risk factor for HIV in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Because of the gendered nature of previous research, however, little is known about male victims or female perpetrators. To address this gap, we report survey data from 354 sexually experienced secondary school students in Mbarara, Uganda. Findings suggest that females are more likely to report involvement in coercive sex compared to males (66% vs. 56%, respectively). Of those involved, females are most likely to report being a victim-only (40%) and males, perpetrator-victims (32%). Although involvement in violent and coercive sex is gendered, 47% of males report victim experiences and 25% of females report perpetration behavior. Furthermore, about one in ten female and male perpetrators reported using physical force or threats to compel sex. When all potentially influential factors were considered simultaneously, several characteristics seem to differentiate youth by their coercive sex (in) experience. For example, victims are more likely to have lower levels of social support from their families and feel that they have an above average or very strong chance of getting HIV compared to otherwise similar youth with no experience with coercive sex. Perpetrators are more likely to have had an HIV test but use condoms less than half the time or never compared to their otherwise similar, yet uninvolved peers. They also are significantly more likely to report dating violence perpetration. Perpetrator-victims share some similarities with other involved youth, as well as some differences. Findings underscore both the importance of asking all youth, irrespective of biological sex, perpetrator and victimization questions; and also the need for more work to be done to help youth plan for a healthy and wanted first sexual experience. PMID:22299764

  6. [Violence against children].

    PubMed

    Daher, Michel

    2007-01-01

    The Convention of Human Rights defines violence as "all forms of physical or mental violence, injury and abuse, neglect or negligent treatment, maltreatment or exploitation, including sexual abuse". Violence against children cuts across boundaries of geography, race, class, religion and culture. It occurs in homes, schools and streets ; in places of work and entertainment, and in care and detention centers. Perpetrators include parents, family members, teachers, caretakers, law enforcement authorities and other children. Some children are particularly vulnerable because of gender, race, ethnic origin, disability or social status. And no country is immune, whether rich or poor. Although the consequences of violence for children may vary according to its nature and severity, the short- and long-term repercussions are very often grave and damaging. Violence may result in greater susceptibility to lifelong social, emotional, and cognitive impairments and to health-risk behaviors, such as substance abuse and early initiation of sexual behavior. Governments are ultimately responsible for the protection of children. It is therefore up to governments to act now, to fulfill their human rights obligations and other commitments, to ensure the protection of children from all forms of violence. Violence against children is never justifiable. Nor is it inevitable. After providing a global picture of violence against children, we propose recommendations to prevent and respond to this issue. PMID:17966730

  7. A systematic review of probable posttraumatic stress disorder in first responders following man-made mass violence.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Laura C

    2015-09-30

    The current study was a systematic review examining probable posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in first responders following man-made mass violence. A systematic literature search yielded 20 studies that fit the inclusion criteria. The prevalence rates of probable PTSD across all 20 studies ranged from 1.3% to 22.0%. Fifteen of the 20 articles focused on first responders following the September 11th terrorist attacks and many of the studies used the same participant recruitment pools. Overall, the results of the systematic review described here suggest that our understanding of PTSD in first responders following man-made mass violence is based on a very small set of articles that have focused on a few particular events. This paper is meant to serve as a call for additional research and to encourage more breadth in the specific incidents that are examined. PMID:26253760

  8. The Effects of Mass Media Exposure on Acceptance of Violence against Women: A Field Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malamuth, Neil M.; Check, James V. P.

    1981-01-01

    Students (N=271) were subjects in an experiment on the effects of exposure to films that portray sexual violence as having positive consequences. Results indicated that exposure to the films portraying violent sexuality increased male subjects' acceptance of interpersonal violence against women. Females exhibited tendencies in the opposite…

  9. Attitudes about violence and involvement in peer violence among youth: findings from a high-risk community.

    PubMed

    Ali, Bina; Swahn, Monica H; Sterling, Kymberle L

    2011-12-01

    Peer violence perpetration and victimization are the most common types of violence among youth. This study determined the associations among violent attitudes toward peers, involvement in peer violence perpetration, and experience with peer violence victimization among boys and girls in a high-risk, urban community. Analyses were based on data from the 2004 Youth Violence Survey, which was administered to over 80% of public school students in grades 7, 9, 11, and 12 (N = 4,131) in a disadvantaged, urban, school district in the USA. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to test the associations between attitudes in support of violence and involvement in violent behaviors. Results show that among youth, attitudes supporting boys hitting boys significantly increased the odds of peer violence perpetration after controlling for potential confounders (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.35; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.07, 1.72). However, stratified analyses for boys and girls show that attitudes supporting boys hitting boys increased the odds of peer violence perpetration for girls only after controlling for potential confounders (AOR, 1.49; 95% CI = 1.05, 2.13). The findings demonstrate that there are important differences between boys and girls in terms of their associations with violent attitudes and involvement in actual violent behaviors. However, additional research is needed to determine how attitude modifications can be incorporated into youth violence prevention programs. PMID:21785901

  10. Violence against women in North America.

    PubMed

    Erlick Robinson, G

    2003-08-01

    Although North America is viewed as a place where women have equal rights and status, violence against women is still rampant. Forty to 51% of women experience some type of violence in their lifetime including child abuse, physical violence, rape and domestic violence. The perpetrator is most likely to be a current or former partner. Such violence stems from historical views of women as property and may flourish because of the public's reluctance to get involved in family matters. The concept of violence has been expanded to include non-traditional types such as sexual harassment, breeches of fiduciary trust and stalking. Treatment of victims of violence must include ensuring their safety, encouraging them to make healthy choices and helping them to understand they are not at fault. Education at all levels is required to change attitudes which perpetuate violence despite laws which forbid it. PMID:12920616

  11. Violence against women: global scope and magnitude.

    PubMed

    Watts, Charlotte; Zimmerman, Cathy

    2002-04-01

    An increasing amount of research is beginning to offer a global overview of the extent of violence against women. In this paper we discuss the magnitude of some of the most common and most severe forms of violence against women: intimate partner violence; sexual abuse by non-intimate partners; trafficking, forced prostitution, exploitation of labour, and debt bondage of women and girls; physical and sexual violence against prostitutes; sex selective abortion, female infanticide, and the deliberate neglect of girls; and rape in war. There are many potential perpetrators, including spouses and partners, parents, other family members, neighbours, and men in positions of power or influence. Most forms of violence are not unique incidents but are ongoing, and can even continue for decades. Because of the sensitivity of the subject, violence is almost universally under-reported. Nevertheless, the prevalence of such violence suggests that globally, millions of women are experiencing violence or living with its consequences. PMID:11955557

  12. Characteristics of Child Sexual Abuse Victims According to Perpetrator Gender.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudin, Margaret M.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Comparison of 87 child abuse victims of lone female perpetrators with 93 victims of lone male perpetrators found that female perpetrators abused children 3.3 years younger than male perpetrators. Both female and male perpetrators abused more girls than boys and did not differ in severity of abuse. (Author/DB)

  13. PREVALENCE AND CORRELATES OF CLIENT-PERPETRATED ABUSE AMONG FEMALE SEX WORKERS IN TWO MEXICO-U.S. BORDER CITIES

    PubMed Central

    Ulibarri, Monica D.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Lozada, Remedios; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Amaro, Hortensia; O'Campo, Patricia; Patterson, Thomas L.

    2011-01-01

    History of abuse has been associated with greater HIV risk among women. This study examined client-perpetrated abuse among female sex workers (FSWs) in two Mexico-U.S. border cities where HIV prevalence is rising. Among 924 FSWs, prevalence of client-perpetrated abuse was 31%. In multivariate logistic regression models, intimate partner violence, psychological distress and having drug-using clients were associated with experiencing client-perpetrated abuse. FSWs along the Mexico-U.S. border report frequently experiencing abuse from both clients and intimate partners, which may have serious mental health consequences. Our findings suggest the need for screening and gender-based violence prevention services for Mexican FSWs. PMID:24686125

  14. Prevalence and correlates of client-perpetrated abuse among female sex workers in two Mexico-U.S. border cities.

    PubMed

    Ulibarri, Monica D; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Lozada, Remedios; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Amaro, Hortensia; O'Campo, Patricia; Patterson, Thomas L

    2014-04-01

    History of abuse has been associated with greater HIV risk among women. This study examined client-perpetrated abuse among female sex workers (FSWs) in two Mexico-U.S. border cities where HIV prevalence is rising. Among 924 FSWs, prevalence of client-perpetrated abuse was 31%. In multivariate logistic regression models, intimate partner violence (IPV), psychological distress, and having drug-using clients were associated with experiencing client-perpetrated abuse. FSWs along the Mexico-U.S. border report frequently experiencing abuse from both clients and intimate partners, which may have serious mental health consequences. Our findings suggest the need for screening and gender-based violence prevention services for Mexican FSWs. PMID:24686125

  15. Outcome Expectancies of Partner Abuse: Assessing Perpetrators' Expectancies and Their Associations with Readiness to Change, Abuse, and Relevant Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meis, Laura A.; Murphy, Christopher M.; Winters, Jamie J.

    2010-01-01

    Concerns about low motivation to change among perpetrators of intimate partner violence (IPV) have heightened interest employing behavior change models with this population. In the present investigation, a new scale was developed, the Outcome Expectancies for Partner Abuse (OEPA) Scale, assessing the negative and positive outcome expectancies of…

  16. The thrill of being violent as an antidote to posttraumatic stress disorder in Rwandese genocide perpetrators

    PubMed Central

    Weierstall, Roland; Schaal, Susanne; Schalinski, Inga; Dusingizemungu, Jean-Pierre; Elbert, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Background The cumulative exposure to life-threatening events increases the risk for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, over the course of evolutionary adaptation, intra-species killing may have also evolved as an inborn strategy leading to greater reproductive success. Assuming that homicide has evolved as a profitable strategy in humans, a protective mechanism must prevent the perpetrator from getting traumatised by self-initiated violent acts. Objective We thus postulate an inverse relation between a person's propensity toward violence and PTSD. Method We surveyed a sample of 269 Rwandan prisoners who were accused or convicted for crimes related to the 1994 genocide. In structured interviews we assessed traumatic event types, types of crimes committed, the person's appetitive violence experience with the Appetitive Aggression Scale (AAS) and PTSD symptom severity with the PSS-I. Results Using path-analysis, we found a dose-response effect between the exposure to traumatic events and the PTSD symptom severity (PSS-I). Moreover, participants who had reported that they committed more types of crimes demonstrated a higher AAS score. In turn, higher AAS scores predicted lower PTSD symptom severity scores. Conclusions This study provides first empirical support that the victim's struggling can be an essential rewarding cue for perpetrators. The results also suggest that an appetitive aggression can inhibit PTSD and trauma-related symptoms in perpetrators and prevent perpetrators from getting traumatised by their own atrocities. PMID:22893806

  17. The Occurrence of Female-to-Male Partner Violence Among Male Intimate Partner Violence Offenders Mandated to Treatment: A Brief Research Report

    PubMed Central

    Crane, Cory A.; Hawes, Samuel W.; Mandel, Dolores; Easton, Caroline J.

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the perceived perpetration of female-to-male intimate partner violence by victims of male offenders mandated to treatment. Sixty-eight male perpetrators of partner violence completed measures of dyadic violent and aggressive responding at intake and at a 12 week follow-up. Approximately 20% of male offenders reported partner violence perpetration and 30% reported victimization with bi-directional violence as the most common configuration of couple violence. Maladaptive responses to conflict were prevalent across partners. Significant and highly correlated reductions in aversive behaviors were detected across the assessment period for both males and their female partners. Results are interpreted within the context of motivational models of female-to-male partner violence and current treatment approaches. PMID:25750479

  18. The Relationship between Social Support and Adolescent Dating Violence: A Comparison across Genders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Tara N.; Branch, Kathryn A.

    2012-01-01

    Although much research has focused on the function of social support in adult intimate partner violence, little is known about the role of social support in adolescent dating violence. This study is an exploratory analysis of the independent impact of social support from friends and family on the risk of adolescent dating violence perpetration and…

  19. The Most Important Things Learned About Violence and Trauma in the Past 20 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Bonnie E.

    2005-01-01

    In the past 2 decades, important insights have been gained regarding violence and trauma. Complications occur in how violence and trauma, their causes, and their effects on victims should be defined. Violence and abuse to women- physical, sexual, and emotional - are not rare events and are most often perpetrated by partners or acquaintances rather…

  20. Perfilando a los estudiantes en relacion con la violencia (Profiling Students for Violence). ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lumsden, Linda

    This digest in Spanish discusses student profiling and describes strategies for reducing the risk of violence in schools. "Student profiling" refers to a process in which checklists of behaviors and personal characteristics associated with youth who have perpetrated violence are used to determine a student's potential for future violence. A…

  1. Development of a Certificate Training Curriculum for Domestic Violence Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wingfield, Debra A.; Blocker, L. Sharon

    1998-01-01

    A specialty training curriculum for domestic violence intervention and an entry-level domestic violence counseling certificate program are described. Five courses address perpetrator, victim, child witness, and victim counseling issues. Designed for a continuing education department, the curriculum was developed to meet statewide training…

  2. Associating Pregnancy with Partner Violence against Chinese Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Ko Ling; Brownridge, Douglas A.; Tiwari, Agnes; Fong, Daniel Y. T.; Leung, Wing Cheong; Ho, Pak Chung

    2011-01-01

    The present study discusses if pregnancy is a risk factor for intimate partner violence using a large, representative sample containing detailed information on partner violence including physical and sexual abuse as well as perpetrator-related risk factors. Data from a representative sample of 2,225 men were analyzed. The self-reported prevalence…

  3. Nonviolent Aspects of Interparental Conflict and Dating Violence among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tschann, Jeanne M.; Pasch, Lauri A.; Flores, Elena; Marin, Barbara VanOss; Baisch, E. Marco; Wibbelsman, Charles J.

    2009-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined whether nonviolent aspects of interparental conflict, in addition to interparental violence, predicted dating violence perpetration and victimization among 150 Mexican American and European American male and female adolescents, ages 16 to 20. When parents had more frequent conflict, were more verbally aggressive…

  4. Middle School Aggression and Subsequent Intimate Partner Physical Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donnell, Lydia; Stueve, Ann; Myint-U, Athi; Duran, Richard; Agronick, Gail; Wilson-Simmons, Renee

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between middle-school aggressive behaviors and young adults' experiences as victims and perpetrators of intimate partner physical violence. As part of the Reach for Health longitudinal study, surveys were conducted with 977 8th graders who were resurveyed as young adults, when lifetime partner violence was…

  5. Interpersonal violence among immigrants in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Dias, Sónia; Fraga, Sílvia; Barros, Henrique

    2013-02-01

    To assess prevalence of interpersonal violence among a mixed gender sample of immigrants in Portugal, describing the type of violence and associated factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted between October 2008 and May 2009, evaluating a sample of 702 immigrants residing in the Lisbon region. Information was obtained by trained interviewers using a structured questionnaire. Overall, 15.1 % (15.5 % females and 14.7 % males; p = 0.844) of the immigrants reported to be victims of at least one episode of violence during the last year, regardless of which type of violence was involved. The prevalence of intimate-partner violence was 4.1 %, and it was significantly higher among women than men (7.1 % vs. 0.9 %, respectively, p < 0.001). Women who reported being victims of violence during the previous year stated that the episodes occurred more often at home (54.4 %) with the partner as the perpetrator (43.9 %). On the other hand, male victims stated that the violent episodes occurred mostly in public spaces (40.8 %); men indicated that the perpetrator was frequently a stranger (28.6 %) or a co-worker (18.4 %). Violence is a frequent problem among both female and male immigrants living in Portugal, with different gender patterns regarding the perpetrators and settings of abuse. PMID:22618354

  6. Substance abuse and violence: cause and consequence.

    PubMed

    Johnson, E M; Belfer, M L

    1995-01-01

    Substance abuse has been associated with violent behavior for many decades. While the relationship is the same today as it was in the past, the pervasiveness of the association, and the consequences, are more dramatic. There are two ways in which substance abuse is related to violence. First, violence can be and is perpetrated under the influence of substances, and second, violence related to substance abuse stems from the trade in drugs, which is all too often focused in poor and underserved communities. The elimination of the market for drugs, and thus the reduction in the demand for drugs, will bring about a reduction in substance abuse-related violence. PMID:7795023

  7. The Gender Wage Gap and Domestic Violence.

    PubMed

    Aizer, Anna

    2010-09-01

    Three quarters of all violence against women is perpetrated by domestic partners. This study exploits exogenous changes in the demand for labor in female-dominated industries to estimate the impact of the male-female wage gap on domestic violence. Decreases in the wage gap reduce violence against women, consistent with a household bargaining model. These findings shed new light on the health production process as well as observed income gradients in health and suggest that in addition to addressing concerns of equity and efficiency, pay parity can also improve the health of American women via reductions in violence. PMID:25110354

  8. [Interfamilial violence, medicolegal and ethical aspects].

    PubMed

    Beauthier, J P

    2010-09-01

    Domestic or interfamilial violence--which is certainly not confined to disadvantaged social or cultural classes--is a process in which one partner carries against his spouse within the framework of private and privileged relationship (marriage, cohabitation, etc.), aggressive, violent and destructive behavior. All sectors of society are affected, whether urban or rural, and regardless of education or ethnic origin or religion. Such violence particularly affects women, but there are also violence perpetrated against men. This violence can take many forms, but we will only consider here the forensic clinical aspects, emphasizing the relevant legislation and medical ethics. PMID:21089423

  9. Media violence.

    PubMed

    Willis, E; Strasburger, V C

    1998-04-01

    American media are the most violent in the world, and American society is now paying a high price in terms of real life violence. Research has confirmed that mass media violence contributes to aggressive behavior, fear, and desensitization of violence. Television, movies, music videos, computer/video games are pervasive media and represent important influences on children and adolescents. Portraying rewards and punishments and showing the consequences of violence are probably the two most essential contextual factors for viewers as they interpret the meaning of what they are viewing on television. Public health efforts have emphasized public education, media literacy campaign for children and parents, and an increased use of technology to prevent access to certain harmful medial materials. PMID:9568012

  10. Types of adolescent exposure to violence as predictors of adult intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Menard, Scott; Weiss, Andrea J; Franzese, Robert J; Covey, Herbert C

    2014-04-01

    Despite evidence that exposure to violence in adolescence may be more predictive of problem behavior outcomes than exposure to violence in earlier childhood, there is limited research on the relationship of adolescent exposure to violence on adult intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration and victimization. This study examines the relationship of adolescent physical abuse victimization, witnessing parental violence, and adolescent exposure to violence in the community, to perpetration of and victimization by IPV in middle age. Respondents are drawn from a nationally representative longitudinal sample with data collected from 1976-77 to 2002-03, age 11-17 when first interviewed and 37-43 when last interviewed. Univariate descriptive statistics and bivariate correlations are presented, along with Heckman two-step models calculated separately for females and males. The use of the Heckman two-step model allows prediction not only of adult IPV, but also of selection out of intimate partner relationships (i.e., out of the at-risk population). For males, in the multivariate analysis, only physical abuse remains significant as a predictor. For females, adolescent exposure to violence is not predictive of adult IPV perpetration or victimization, but physical abuse is predictive of not being in the at-risk population (married or cohabiting). The combined index of adolescent exposure to violence is significant for both females and males in predicting selection into marriage or cohabitation, and at least marginally significant in predicting IPV. PMID:24594015

  11. Men's violence against women and men are inter-related: Recommendations for simultaneous intervention.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Paul J; Gruskin, Sofia; Rojo, Florencia; Dworkin, Shari L

    2015-12-01

    Men are more likely than women to perpetrate nearly all types of interpersonal violence (e.g. intimate partner violence, murder, assault, rape). While public health programs target prevention efforts for each type of violence, there are rarely efforts that approach the prevention of violence holistically and attempt to tackle its common root causes. Drawing upon theories that explain the drivers of violence, we examine how gender norms, including norms and social constructions of masculinity, are at the root of most physical violence perpetration by men against women and against other men. We then argue that simply isolating each type of violence and constructing separate interventions for each type is inefficient and less effective. We call for recognition of the commonalities found across the drivers of different types of violence and make intervention recommendations with the goal of seeking more long-standing solutions to violence prevention. PMID:26482359

  12. Characteristics of Violence among High Risk Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Secor-Turner, Molly; Garwick, Ann; Sieving, Renee; Seppelt, Ann

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Recent evidence demonstrates increasing rates of violence involvement among adolescent girls. The objective of this study was to describe the types and sources of violence experienced within social contexts of adolescent girls at high risk for pregnancy. Method Qualitative data for this analysis are drawn from intervention summary reports of 116 girls participating in Prime Time, a youth development intervention for adolescent girls. Descriptive content analysis techniques were used to identify types and sources of violence experienced by girls within their daily contexts. Results Types of violence included physical fighting, witnessing violence, physical abuse, gang-related violence, verbal fighting, verbal abuse and sexual abuse. Sources of violence included family, peers and friends, romantic partners, community violence, and self-perpetrated. Many girls in this study experienced violence in multiple contexts. Discussion It is imperative that efforts to assess and prevent violence among adolescent girls pay attention to the social contexts in which these adolescents live. PMID:23623540

  13. Dating violence, social learning theory, and gender: a multivariate analysis.

    PubMed

    Tontodonato, P; Crew, B K

    1992-01-01

    The study of violence between dating partners is a logical extension of interest in marital violence. However, little of this research tests explanations of intimate violence using multivariate techniques, and only recently have such tests occurred within a theoretical framework. Drawing on a recent social learning model of courtship violence (Riggs & O'Leary, 1989), this paper empirically examines constructs hypothesized to be predictive of the use of dating violence and investigates possible gender differences in the underlying causal structure of such violence. Logit analysis indicates that parent-child violence, drug use, and knowledge of use of dating violence by others predict the use of courtship violence by females. Belief that violence between intimates is justifiable, drug use, and parental divorce are related to perpetration of dating aggression by males. Explanations for these results and the importance of a multivariate approach to the problem are discussed. PMID:1504032

  14. [Child-to-parent violence and its association with exposure to marital violence and parent-to-child violence].

    PubMed

    Gámez-Guadix, Manuel; Calvete, Esther

    2012-05-01

    The aims of this study were: (a) to examine the relationships between the exposure to different types of family violence (intraparental violence and parent-to-child aggression) and the perpetration of child-to-parent violence (CPV); (b) to analyze sex differences in the relationships specified. The sample comprised 1681 Spanish university students who reported the exposure to different types of family violence during their childhood. Both psychological and physical family violence were analyzed separately. Results showed that both witnessing marital psychological violence and parent-to-child psychological aggression are related to CPV. Furthermore, psychological and physical parent-to-child aggression as well as witnessing physical aggression between parents was associated with physical CPV. Multigroup analyses showed that the relationships among variables were not significantly different as a function of sex. This finding suggests that the relation between exposure to family violence and CPV is similar for men and women. PMID:22420357

  15. Adolescent Perpetrator Treatment Programs: Program Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbey, Joan M.

    It has become increasingly evident that juveniles are the perpetrators of a substantial nunber of sexual assaults. Programs designed to treat these adolescent perpetrators usually have similar goals. They attempt to reduce the youth's risk of recidivism by helping him to recognize his problem, take responsibility for his actions, learn how to…

  16. Abusive Head Trauma: A Perpetrator Confesses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Erica; Shouldice, Michelle; Levin, Alex V.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To present a detailed confession from a perpetrator of Shaken Baby syndrome. Methods: Case study. Results: We present a confession of Shaken Baby syndrome describing how the perpetrator severely injured a 3 year old with repeated bursts of acceleration-deceleration (shaking). The child sustained retinal and intracranial hemorrhage.…

  17. Leadership in Multiple Perpetrator Stranger Rape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodhams, Jessica; Cooke, Claire; Harkins, Leigh; da Silva, Teresa

    2012-01-01

    Sexual offences by multiple perpetrators are more violent and involve more severe forms of sexual violation than those perpetrated by a lone offender. Often a clear leader exists within these groups. Questions have been raised as to the relative risk of reoffending and the potentially differing criminogenic needs of leaders and followers. However,…

  18. Partner Violence During Adolescence and Young Adulthood: Individual and Relationship Level Risk Factors.

    PubMed

    Novak, Jamie; Furman, Wyndol

    2016-09-01

    Violence within romantic relationships is a significant public health concern. Previous research largely explores partner violence at one or two time points, and often examines a limited set of risk factors. The present study explored both individual and relationship-level risk factors and their associations with physical victimization and perpetration across more than 10 years using a community sample of 200 participants (50 % female; M age Wave 1 = 15.8). Additionally, we explored the effects of previous partner violence on the likelihood of future partner violence. Survival analysis indicated that externalizing symptoms and negative interactions (e.g., relationship conflict) were associated with both perpetration and victimization. Reporting an experience of partner violence did not significantly alter an individual's risk of future partner violence. Overall, men were significantly more likely to report victimization; perpetration rates did not vary by gender. The results highlight the importance of examining multiple levels of risk. PMID:27099201

  19. Gender and Relational-Distance Effects in Arrests for Domestic Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lally, William; DeMaris, Alfred

    2012-01-01

    This study tests two hypotheses regarding factors affecting arrest of the perpetrator in domestic violence incidents. Black's relational-distance thesis is that the probability of arrest increases with increasing relational distance between perpetrator and victim. Klinger's leniency principle suggests that the probability of arrest is lower for…

  20. Interpersonal violence cases reported to the police: a Nigerian study.

    PubMed

    Okulate, Gbenga T

    2005-12-01

    The study involves 204 cases of interpersonal assault reported to the police during a period of 1 year. The patterns of domestic violence and community violence involving friends, neighbors, and strangers are described. The most common type of violence reported to the police is community interpersonal violence in which victims are mostly females and perpetrators are mostly males and members of gangs. Cases of rape are reported, whereas spousal violence tends to be underreported. On the whole, female victims are more likely to be younger than their male counterparts, whereas the male perpetrators are more likely to be unemployed. Repeat assault is found in 43 instances. Possible psychological and sociological explanations are offered for violent gang activities. The need to sensitize the police to become more involved is emphasized. The author proposes suggestions that may help reduce the incidence of community violence. PMID:16246919

  1. When the perpetrator gets killed: effects of observing the death of a handgun user in a televised public service announcement.

    PubMed

    Bernhardt, J M; Sorenson, J R; Brown, J D

    2001-02-01

    This study evaluates the cognitive effects of an anti-handgun violence public service announcement (PSA) on sixth-, seventh-, and eighth-grade students (N = 294). Participants were randomly assigned to a treatment group, which viewed a PSA depicting the death of an aggressive handgun user, or a comparison group, which viewed identical content except that the PSA showed no negative consequence for the handgun user. Logistic regression analysis, adjusting for race and gender, revealed that the treatment group was more likely to report negative expected outcomes for aggressively using a handgun and lower behavioral intentions to aggressively use a handgun compared with the comparison group. These findings suggest that observing handgun violence on television that depicts death as a negative physical consequence for the perpetrator may produce lower handgun-encouraging beliefs compared with observing no consequence for the perpetrator--the norm for most televised violence today. PMID:11213144

  2. Domestic Violence

    MedlinePlus

    ... mistreatment reported that 57 percent of perpetrators of physical abuse were partners or spouses. 1 Another study using ... the most common perpetrators of emotional abuse and physical abuse. Adult children and other relatives were also described ...

  3. Female Perpetrators of Intimate Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dutton, Donald G.; Nicholls, Tonia L.; Spidel, Alicia

    2005-01-01

    A review is made of female intimate abuse. It is concluded that females are as abusive as males in intimate relationships according to survey and epidemiological studies. This is especially so for younger "cohort" community samples followed longitudinally. Predictors of intimate violence with women appear to be similar to those of men; including…

  4. [Domestic violence: any progress?].

    PubMed

    Henrion, Roger

    2014-01-01

    Since the publication of the French national survey of violence against women in 2000, the fight against domestic violence has made steady progress. Knowledge of the phenomenon has significantly improved. A nationwide study of murders and manslaughters perpetrated by one partner of a couple against the other has been published annually since 2006. In 2012, domestic violence resulted in the deaths of 314 persons: 166 women, 31 men, 25 children, 9 collateral victims, 14 rivals, and two former spouses killed by their ex-fathers in law. In addition, 67 perpetrators committed suicide (51 men and3 women). The number of victims fluctuates from year to year but has remained fairly stable since 2006 (n=168). Legislation has improved significantly: eight new laws have been passed since 2004, all designed to protect women and to ensure that violent men are restrained and treated. New measures to inform and protect women have been implemented and others have been improved, such as the anonymous helpline (phone no 3919, "domestic violence information"). An inter-ministerial committee on the protection of women from violence and the prevention of human trafficking (MIPROF) was created on 3 January 2013. A website entitled "Stop violence against women " (Stop violences faites aux femmes) is now available. The "Imminent Danger" mobile phone system, designed to alert police if a suspected or known perpetrator breaches restraint conditions, will be extended to the entire country from January 2014. Referees charged with coordinating comprehensive long-tern care of women victims have been deployed at the county level. Information centers on the rights of women and families (CIDFF) now form a local nationwide network. Routine interviews with a midwife during the fourth month of pregnancy, focusing on the woman's emotional, economic and social conditions, have been implemented in 21 % of maternity units and should gradually be generalized. The authorities who have enforced the law have

  5. Deadly Lessons: Understanding Lethal School Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Mark H., Ed.; Petrie, Carol V., Ed.; Braga, Anthony A., Ed.; McLaughlin, Brenda L., Ed.

    This collection of papers is the outcome of the National Academies' effort to glean information from six different case studies of student-perpetrated school shootings. Part 1, "Case Studies of Lethal School Violence," includes: "The Copycat Factor: Mental Illness, Guns, and the Shooting Incident at Heritage High School, Rockdale County, Georgia"…

  6. Gender Symmetry, Sexism, and Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Christopher T.; Swan, Suzanne C.; Raghavan, Chitra

    2009-01-01

    This study of a predominantly Hispanic sample of 92 male and 140 female college students examines both gender symmetry in intimate partner violence (IPV) and inconsistent relationships found in previous studies between sexist attitudes and IPV. Results indicate that although comparable numbers of men and women perpetrate and are victimized in…

  7. Recalling Experiences of Teen Dating Violence: An Examination of Its Relationship to Family Violence and Locus of Control amongst African Americans and How These Variables Impact Relationships in Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCain, Stephanie D.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was two-fold: 1) to identify the relationship between witnessing violence at home and the effects it has on teen dating violence and future experiences with violence; and 2) to assess how perceived locus of control may reduce or exacerbate the relationship between each of the risk factors and perpetration of dating…

  8. Violence and gender: reports from an urban high school.

    PubMed

    Scherzer, Teresa; Pinderhughes, Howard L

    2002-02-01

    This article reports on the survey component of a study examining urban high school students' experiences with violence. The survey's purpose was to collect information on students' experiences with violence, explore gender differences, and identify which factors are associated with the self-reported use of violence. Two prominent risk factors for the self-reported use of violence were found: having a close friend or family member injured by violence, and gun possession. Young men and women did not differ significantly in overall exposure, victimization, and perpetration. However, gender clearly informed the types of violence reported. The findings offer practical strategies for addressing adolescent violence, such as reducing gun availability and community-level violence, but future research must further examine the role of gender in order to structure more effective prevention and intervention approaches that target different kinds of violence. PMID:11991157

  9. Reactions to Dating Violence among Latino Teenagers: An Experiment Utilizing the Articulated Thoughts in Simulated Situations Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rayburn, Nadine Recker; Jaycox, Lisa H.; McCaffrey, Daniel F.; Ulloa, Emilio C.; Zander-Cotugno, Megan; Marshall, Grant N.; Shelley, Gene A.

    2007-01-01

    Dating violence is a serious problem among adolescents and young adults. Understanding teens' reactions to dating violence offers the potential to understand the factors that lead to perpetration of violent behavior and to elucidate prevention strategies. Knowledge concerning youth attitudes about dating violence is limited, and has largely come…

  10. Trajectories of Physical Dating Violence from Middle to High School: Association with Relationship Quality and Acceptability of Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orpinas, Pamela; Hsieh, Hsien-Lin; Song, Xiao; Holland, Kristin; Nahapetyan, Lusine

    2013-01-01

    Although research on dating violence is growing, little is known about the distinct developmental trajectories of dating violence during adolescence. The current study identifies trajectories of physical dating violence victimization and perpetration that boys and girls follow from sixth to twelfth grade, examines the overlap of these…

  11. Bullying as a Longitudinal Predictor of Adolescent Dating Violence

    PubMed Central

    Foshee, Vangie A.; Reyes, Heath Luz McNaughton; Vivolo-Kantor, Alana M.; Basile, Kathleen C.; Chang, Ling-Yin; Faris, Robert; Ennett, Susan T.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose One suggested approach to preventing adolescent dating violence is to prevent behavioral precursors to dating violence, such as bullying. However, no longitudinal study has examined bullying as a behavioral precursor to dating violence. In this study, longitudinal data were used to examine (1) whether direct and indirect bullying perpetration in the sixth grade predicted the onset of physical dating violence perpetration by the eighth grade and (2) whether the associations varied by sex and race/ethnicity of the adolescent. Methods Data were collected in school from sixth graders in three primarily rural counties and then again when students were in the eighth grade. Analyses were conducted with 1,154 adolescents who had not perpetrated dating violence at the sixth-grade assessment. The sample was 47% male, 29% black, and 10% of another race/ethnicity than black or white. Results Direct bullying, defined as hitting, slapping, or picking on another kid in the sixth grade, predicted the onset of physical dating violence perpetration by the eighth grade, controlling for indirect bullying and potential confounders. Although indirect bullying, defined as spreading false rumors and excluding students from friendship groups, was associated with the onset of physical dating violence perpetration in bivariate analyses, it did not predict the onset of physical dating violence when controlling for direct bullying. None of the associations examined varied by sex or race/ethnicity of the adolescents. Conclusions Our findings suggest that efforts targeted at preventing direct bullying may also prevent the onset of physical dating violence. PMID:24768162

  12. Male rape victim and perpetrator blaming.

    PubMed

    Sleath, Emma; Bull, Ray

    2010-06-01

    One of four possible vignettes manipulated by (a) level of rape myth contained within them (low vs. high) and (b) type of rape (stranger vs. acquaintance) was presented to participants followed by scales measuring victim blame, perpetrator blame, belief in a just world, sex-role egalitarian beliefs, and male rape myth acceptance. Victim blaming was predicted by male rape myth acceptance. Perpetrator blaming was predicted by male rape myth acceptance and sex-role egalitarianism. Differences were found in victim and perpetrator blaming in terms of stranger and acquaintance rape and also in relation to manipulating the level of rape myths. Findings are discussed in relation to the previous literature on rape victim and perpetrator blaming. PMID:19738198

  13. Gender Differences in the Relations among Patriarchal Beliefs, Parenting and Teen Relationship Violence in Mexican Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Espinoza, Guadalupe; Hokoda, Audrey; Ulloa, Emilio C.; Ulibarri, Monica D.; Castaneda, Donna

    2012-01-01

    Teen relationship violence is a global phenomenon associated with adverse outcomes. As in other countries, teen relationship violence is of concern in Mexico. However, few studies have examined the risk and protective factors of teen relationship violence among Mexican adolescents. The current study examined whether patriarchal beliefs and exposure to authoritarian parenting among Mexican adolescents are associated with perpetration and victimization of physical and verbal-emotional teen relationship violence. Two hundred and four students (15 – 18 years old) from Monterrey, Mexico completed questionnaires. Hierarchical regression analyses controlling for age revealed that among girls, authoritarian parenting was associated with physical and verbal-emotional victimization and verbal-emotional violence perpetration. Among boys, higher endorsement of patriarchal beliefs was associated with lower reports of physical perpetration and physical victimization. PMID:23277734

  14. Effects of perpetrator identity on suicidality and nonsuicidal self-injury in sexually victimized female adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Unlu, Gulsen; Cakaloz, Burcu

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Child sexual abuse and sexual dating violence victimization are common problems that are known to have long-term negative consequences. This study aimed to compare the sociodemographic, abuse-related, and clinical features of female adolescents who were sexually abused by different perpetrators, and identify the factors associated with suicidality and nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) in these cases. Patients and methods Data of 254 sexually abused female adolescents between the ages of 12–18 years were evaluated. The cases were classified into three groups, namely “sexual dating violence”, “incest”, and “other child sexual abuse”, according to the identity of the perpetrator. The three groups were compared in terms of sociodemographic, abuse-related, and clinical features. Results Major depressive disorder was the most common psychiatric diagnosis, which was present in 44.9% of the cases. Among all victims, 25.6% had attempted suicide, 52.0% had suicidal ideation, and 23.6% had NSSI during the postabuse period. A logistic regression analysis revealed that attempted suicide was predicted by dating violence victimization (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =3.053; 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.473, 6.330) and depression (AOR =2.238; 95% CI =1.226, 4.086). Dating violence victimization was also the strongest predictor of subsequent suicidal ideation (AOR =3.500; 95% CI =1.817, 6.741). In addition, revictimization was determined to be an important risk factor for both suicidal ideation (AOR =2.897; 95% CI =1.276, 6.574) and NSSI (AOR =3.847; 95% CI =1.899, 7.794). Conclusion Perpetrator identity and revictimization are associated with negative mental health outcomes in sexually victimized female adolescents. Increased risk of suicidality and NSSI should be borne in mind while assessing cases with dating violence and revictimization histories, in particular. PMID:27382291

  15. The Transmission of Gun and Other Weapon-Involved Violence Within Social Networks.

    PubMed

    Tracy, Melissa; Braga, Anthony A; Papachristos, Andrew V

    2016-01-01

    Fatal and nonfatal injuries resulting from gun violence remain a persistent problem in the United States. The available research suggests that gun violence diffuses among people and across places through social relationships. Understanding the relationship between gun violence within social networks and individual gun violence risk is critical in preventing the spread of gun violence within populations. This systematic review examines the existing scientific evidence on the transmission of gun and other weapon-related violence in household, intimate partner, peer, and co-offending networks. Our review identified 16 studies published between 1996 and 2015 that suggest that exposure to a victim or perpetrator of violence in one's interpersonal relationships and social networks increases the risk of individual victimization and perpetration. Formal network analyses find high concentrations of gun violence in small networks and that exposure to gun violence in one's networks is highly correlated with one's own probability of being a gunshot victim. Physical violence by parents and weapon use by intimate partners also increase risk for victimization and perpetration. Additional work is needed to better characterize the mechanisms through which network exposures increase individual risk for violence and to evaluate interventions aimed at disrupting the spread of gun and other weapon violence in high-risk social networks. PMID:26733492

  16. International Students and Gender-Based Violence.

    PubMed

    Forbes-Mewett, Helen; McCulloch, Jude

    2016-03-01

    Headlines such as "Man Jailed for Train Station Attack on Indian Student," "Fatal Stabbing Hits Indian Student Hopes," and "Indian Student Bashings on the Rise in Sydney" highlight violent crimes against male international students by strangers in public spaces. The media reports run contrary to the perceptions of our interviewees who suggest that violence against female international students by known perpetrators in private spaces is common. We argue that intersecting inequalities relating to gender, race, and class are often compounded by the status of "international student." Discussions focus on various forms of gender-based violence and gender violence education and support programs in Australia and the United States. PMID:26347057

  17. Victims' Influence on Intimate Partner Violence Revictimization: An Empirical Test of Dynamic Victim-Related Risk Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuijpers, Karlijn F.; Van der Knaap, Leontien M.; Winkel, Frans Willem

    2012-01-01

    Research has reported that not only characteristics of the perpetrator but also characteristics of the victim influence risk for intimate partner violence (IPV). This would suggest that prevention of repeat abuse could benefit from a focus on both perpetrator and victim characteristics. Knowledge on factors that are within victims' sphere of…

  18. Fighting Violence without Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowicki, Mark A.; Martin, William C.

    Violence is becoming the number one problem in United States schools. Approximately 20 percent of high school students regularly carry guns and other weapons. Several nonviolent measures are appropriate to reduce violence in schools; but only the implementation of multiple ideas and measures, not "quick fix" solutions, will curb violence. Peer…

  19. Elderly adult survivors of family violence. Implications for clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Anetzberger, G J

    1997-10-01

    This article on elderly adult survivors of domestic violence (usually women) reviews the literature that examines the impact on later life of domestic violence experienced earlier in life and that examines the effects of elder abuse perpetrated by adult family members. The discussion is illustrated with case studies and figures that list the physical, psychological, behavioral, and social effects of each type of violence as well as intervening variables. Next, the paper reviews the influence of culture and ethnicity on the meaning attached to elder abuse and on help-seeking or accepting behavior. The article then proposes a conceptual framework that uses contributing factors (cultural background, individual influences, and cohort influences), modifying factors (the nature of violence, personal circumstances, and relationship with perpetrator), the meaning of violence, and the effects on the survivor to explain the effects of early or late family violence on elderly adult survivors. The discussion notes that the framework focuses on negative effects but that survivors of domestic violence can experience positive effects, such as the development of personal coping skills. The article ends by noting that this proposed framework has clinical implications because it recognizes that the effects of domestic violence on elderly adults may be complicated, it helps practitioners link symptoms to domestic violence, it helps practitioners realize that the meaning of domestic violence may vary among elderly victims, and it shows that family violence occurs in a social context. PMID:12322016

  20. Multiple Perpetrator Sexual Assault: How Does It Differ from Assault by a Single Perpetrator?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Louise; Brittain, Bernadette; Welch, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Research that attempts to identify characteristic features of multiple perpetrator sexual assault (MPSA) is limited. This study compared demographic and assault related characteristics of 135 cases of MPSA with 139 cases of single perpetrator sexual assault (SPSA) reported to the Haven sexual assault referral centre, Camberwell, London, over a…

  1. Perceptions of Domestic Violence: The Effects of Domestic Violence Myths, Victim's Relationship with Her Abuser, and the Decision to Return to Her Abuser

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamawaki, Niwako; Ochoa-Shipp, Monica; Pulsipher, Craig; Harlos, Andrew; Swindler, Scott

    2012-01-01

    Researchers in this study examined the attitudes toward domestic violence, the victim, and her perpetrator. A total of 194 participants were randomly assigned to one of 4 hypothetical scenarios to evaluate how observers' perceptions were influenced by their own sex and myths about domestic violence, by the victim's decision to return to the…

  2. Effect of partner violence in adolescence and young adulthood on blood pressure and incident hypertension.

    PubMed

    Clark, Cari Jo; Everson-Rose, Susan A; Alonso, Alvaro; Spencer, Rachael A; Brady, Sonya S; Resnick, Michael D; Borowsky, Iris W; Connett, John E; Krueger, Robert F; Suglia, Shakira F

    2014-01-01

    Intimate partner violence has adverse health consequences, but little is known about its association with hypertension. This study investigates sex differences in the relationship between intimate partner violence and blood pressure outcomes. Data included 9,699 participants from waves 3 (2001-02) and 4 (2008-09) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (51% female). Systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure and incident hypertension (SBP≥140 mmHg, DBP≥90 mmHg, or taking antihypertensive medication) were ascertained at wave 4. Intimate partner violence was measured at wave 3 with 8 items from the revised Conflict Tactics Scales. Separate victimization and perpetration scores were calculated. Sex-specific indicators of severe victimization and perpetration were created using the 66th percentile among those exposed as a cut point. Sex-specific, linear and logistic regression models were developed adjusting for age, race, financial stress, and education. Thirty-three percent of men and 47% of women reported any intimate partner violence exposure; participants were categorized as having: no exposure, moderate victimization and / or perpetration only, severe victimization, severe perpetration, and severe victimization and perpetration. Men experiencing severe perpetration and victimization had a 2.66 mmHg (95% CI: 0.05, 5.28) higher SBP and a 59% increased odds (OR: 1.59, 95% CI: 1.07, 2.37) of incident hypertension compared to men not exposed to intimate partner violence. No other category of violence was associated with blood pressure outcomes in men. Intimate partner violence was not associated with blood pressure outcomes in women. Intimate partner violence may have long-term consequences for men's hemodynamic health. Screening men for victimization and perpetration may assist clinicians to identify individuals at increased risk of hypertension. PMID:24658452

  3. Sibling bullying perpetration: associations with gender, grade, peer perpetration, trait anger, and moral disengagement.

    PubMed

    Tanrikulu, Ibrahim; Campbell, Marilyn A

    2015-03-01

    This study investigated bullying among siblings in both traditional and cyber forms, and the associations of gender, grade, peer bullying perpetration, trait anger, and moral disengagement. The participants were 455 children in Grades 5 to 12 (262 girls and 177 boys with 16 unknown gender) who had a sibling. As the number of siblings who only bullied by technology was low, these associations were not able to be calculated. However, the findings showed that the percentage of sibling traditional bullying perpetration (31.6%) was higher than peer bullying perpetration (9.8%). Sibling bullies reported engaging in complex behaviors of perpetration and victimization in both the physical and in cyber settings, although the number was small. Gender, trait anger, moral disengagement, and bullying peers at school (but not grade) were all significantly associated with sibling traditional bullying perpetration. The implications of the findings are discussed for bullying intervention and prevention programs to understand childhood bullying in diverse contexts. PMID:25038224

  4. Adolescent Conflict as a Developmental Process in the Prospective Pathway from Exposure to Interparental Violence to Dating Violence

    PubMed Central

    Narayan, Angela J.; Englund, Michelle M.; Carlson, Elizabeth A.; Egeland, Byron

    2013-01-01

    Within a developmental psychopathology framework, the current study examined adolescent conflict (age 16) with families, best friends, and dating partners as mediators in the prospective pathway from exposure to interparental violence (EIPV) in early childhood (0–64 months) to dating violence perpetration and victimization in early adulthood (age 23). Adolescent conflict was predicted to partially mediate EIPV and dating violence with significant direct paths from EIPV to dating violence, given the extant literature on the salience of early childhood EIPV for later maladjustment. Participants (N = 182; 99 males, 83 females; 67% Caucasian, 11% African-American, 18% other, 4% unreported) were drawn from a larger prospective study of high-risk mothers (aged 12–34 years) that followed their children from birth through adulthood. EIPV and adolescent conflict were rated from interviews with mothers and participants, and dating violence (physical perpetration and victimization) was assessed with the Conflict Tactics Scale. Path analyses showed that EIPV in early childhood (a) directly predicted dating violence perpetration in early adulthood and (b) predicted conflict with best friends, which in turn predicted dating violence perpetration. Although mediation of best friend conflict was not evident, indirect effects of EIPV to dating violence were found through externalizing behaviors in adolescence and life stress in early adulthood. Findings highlight that conflict with best friends is affected by EIPV and predicts dating violence, suggesting that it may be a promising target for relationship-based interventions for youth with EIPV histories. Furthermore, deleterious early experiences and contemporaneous risk factors are salient predictors of dating violence. PMID:23979004

  5. The massacre mass grave of Schöneck-Kilianstädten reveals new insights into collective violence in Early Neolithic Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Christian; Lohr, Christian; Gronenborn, Detlef; Alt, Kurt W

    2015-09-01

    Conflict and warfare are central but also disputed themes in discussions about the European Neolithic. Although a few recent population studies provide broad overviews, only a very limited number of currently known key sites provide precise insights into moments of extreme and mass violence and their impact on Neolithic societies. The massacre sites of Talheim, Germany, and Asparn/Schletz, Austria, have long been the focal points around which hypotheses concerning a final lethal crisis of the first Central European farmers of the Early Neolithic Linearbandkeramik Culture (LBK) have concentrated. With the recently examined LBK mass grave site of Schöneck-Kilianstädten, Germany, we present new conclusive and indisputable evidence for another massacre, adding new data to the discussion of LBK violence patterns. At least 26 individuals were violently killed by blunt force and arrow injuries before being deposited in a commingled mass grave. Although the absence and possible abduction of younger females has been suggested for other sites previously, a new violence-related pattern was identified here: the intentional and systematic breaking of lower limbs. The abundance of the identified perimortem fractures clearly indicates torture and/or mutilation of the victims. The new evidence presented here for unequivocal lethal violence on a large scale is put into perspective for the Early Neolithic of Central Europe and, in conjunction with previous results, indicates that massacres of entire communities were not isolated occurrences but rather were frequent features of the last phases of the LBK. PMID:26283359

  6. The massacre mass grave of Schöneck-Kilianstädten reveals new insights into collective violence in Early Neolithic Central Europe

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Christian; Lohr, Christian; Gronenborn, Detlef; Alt, Kurt W.

    2015-01-01

    Conflict and warfare are central but also disputed themes in discussions about the European Neolithic. Although a few recent population studies provide broad overviews, only a very limited number of currently known key sites provide precise insights into moments of extreme and mass violence and their impact on Neolithic societies. The massacre sites of Talheim, Germany, and Asparn/Schletz, Austria, have long been the focal points around which hypotheses concerning a final lethal crisis of the first Central European farmers of the Early Neolithic Linearbandkeramik Culture (LBK) have concentrated. With the recently examined LBK mass grave site of Schöneck-Kilianstädten, Germany, we present new conclusive and indisputable evidence for another massacre, adding new data to the discussion of LBK violence patterns. At least 26 individuals were violently killed by blunt force and arrow injuries before being deposited in a commingled mass grave. Although the absence and possible abduction of younger females has been suggested for other sites previously, a new violence-related pattern was identified here: the intentional and systematic breaking of lower limbs. The abundance of the identified perimortem fractures clearly indicates torture and/or mutilation of the victims. The new evidence presented here for unequivocal lethal violence on a large scale is put into perspective for the Early Neolithic of Central Europe and, in conjunction with previous results, indicates that massacres of entire communities were not isolated occurrences but rather were frequent features of the last phases of the LBK. PMID:26283359

  7. A review of research on women's use of violence with male intimate partners.

    PubMed

    Swan, Suzanne C; Gambone, Laura J; Caldwell, Jennifer E; Sullivan, Tami P; Snow, David L

    2008-01-01

    This article provides a review of research literature on women who use violence with intimate partners. The central purpose is to inform service providers in the military and civilian communities who work with domestically violent women. The major points of this review are as follows: (a) women's violence usually occurs in the context of violence against them by their male partners; (b) in general, women and men perpetrate equivalent levels of physical and psychological aggression, but evidence suggests that men perpetrate sexual abuse, coercive control, and stalking more frequently than women and that women also are much more frequently injured during domestic violence incidents; (c) women and men are equally likely to initiate physical violence in relationships involving less serious "situational couple violence," and in relationships in which serious and very violent "intimate terrorism" occurs, men are much more likely to be perpetrators and women victims; (d) women's physical violence is more likely than men's violence to be motivated by self-defense and fear, whereas men's physical violence is more likely than women's to be driven by control motives; (e) studies of couples in mutually violent relationships find more negative effects for women than for men; and (f) because of the many differences in behaviors and motivations between women's and men's violence, interventions based on male models of partner violence are likely not effective for many women. PMID:18624096

  8. A Review of Research on Women’s Use of Violence With Male Intimate Partners

    PubMed Central

    Swan, Suzanne C.; Gambone, Laura J.; Caldwell, Jennifer E.; Sullivan, Tami P.; Snow, David L.

    2010-01-01

    This article provides a review of research literature on women who use violence with intimate partners. The central purpose is to inform service providers in the military and civilian communities who work with domestically violent women. The major points of this review are as follows: (a) women’s violence usually occurs in the context of violence against them by their male partners; (b) in general, women and men perpetrate equivalent levels of physical and psychological aggression, but evidence suggests that men perpetrate sexual abuse, coercive control, and stalking more frequently than women and that women also are much more frequently injured during domestic violence incidents; (c) women and men are equally likely to initiate physical violence in relationships involving less serious “situational couple violence,” and in relationships in which serious and very violent “intimate terrorism” occurs, men are much more likely to be perpetrators and women victims; (d) women’s physical violence is more likely than men’s violence to be motivated by self-defense and fear, whereas men’s physical violence is more likely than women’s to be driven by control motives; (e) studies of couples in mutually violent relationships find more negative effects for women than for men; and (f ) because of the many differences in behaviors and motivations between women’s and men’s violence, interventions based on male models of partner violence are likely not effective for many women. PMID:18624096

  9. Gender, Psychopathy Factors and Intimate Partner Violence

    PubMed Central

    Mager, Kenna L.; Bresin, Konrad; Verona, Edelyn

    2014-01-01

    The present study sheds light on relationships between distinct psychopathic traits and perpetration of IPV in women versus men. Men and women with recent drug and/or violence histories (N = 250) were assessed for psychopathic traits using the Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version and for their and their partner's use of IPV with the Revised Conflict Tactics Scale. The first goal was to examine the moderating role of gender in psychopathy factor relationships to IPV. Although both the interpersonal-affective traits (Factor1) and the impulsive-antisocial traits (Factor 2) of psychopathy were related to higher frequency of IPV perpetration, the relationship between Factor 1 and IPV was stronger in men. Our second goal examined the moderating role of psychopathy traits in the relationship between partner's perpetration of IPV and participant perpetration (mutual violence) in the two genders. Relationships between partner- and self-IPV were similar at both low and high levels of Factor 1 in men, although the partner- and self-IPV relationship was significantly stronger among women at low relative to high levels of Factor 1. The relationship between partner- and self-IPV was stronger at high levels of Factor 2 in men, whereas Factor 2 did not moderate mutual violence in women. These results indicate that relationships between psychopathy factors and IPV differ by gender, with psychopathy generally exacerbating IPV perpetration in men and Factor 1 traits playing a unique role in mutual violence in women. These findings add to the literature on female psychopathy and have important implications for future research on gender and IPV. PMID:25020252

  10. Lethal and non-lethal violence against women in Australia: measurement challenges, conceptual frameworks, and limitations in knowledge.

    PubMed

    McPhedran, Samara; Baker, Jeanine

    2012-08-01

    Understanding pathways from non-lethal violence to lethal violence between intimate partners is a notable challenge for both policy and practice in partner violence prevention. Of particular interest is whether lethal violence represents an "escalation" of violence from "low" to "high" risk over time, or is best predicted by specific behavioral "typologies" of perpetrators. Testing the "escalation" and "typology" theories is hampered in Australia by limitations in knowledge about non-lethal and lethal violence against women. This article discusses data limitations, measurement problems, and conceptual shortcomings, and suggests approaches to improving evidence quality in the field of violence prevention and risk assessment. PMID:23008430

  11. Interpersonal Violence and Mental Health Outcomes among Asian American and Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander College Students

    PubMed Central

    Archambeau, Olga G.; Frueh, B. Christopher; Deliramich, Aimee N.; Elhai, Jon D.; Grubaugh, Anouk L.; Herman, Steve; Kim, Bryan S. K.

    2010-01-01

    In a cross-sectional survey of college students (N = 614) we studied interpersonal violence victimization, perpetration, and mental health outcomes in an ethnoracially diverse rural-based sample of Asian Americans (27%), and Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islanders (25%), two groups vastly underrepresented in trauma research. High rates of interpersonal violence (34%), violence perpetration (13%), and probable psychiatric diagnoses (77%), including posttraumatic stress disorder, were found. Exposure to physical violence, sexual violence, and life stress all were predictive of psychopathology. Female participants were associated with higher likelihood of sexual violence victimization compared to male participants, and Asian American status (especially among males) was associated with lower likelihood of physical and sexual violence compared with European Americans. These data enhance our understanding of interpersonal violence and mental health outcomes among previously understudied minority groups. PMID:21297936

  12. The Relationship Between Marijuana Use and Intimate Partner Violence in a Nationally Representative, Longitudinal Sample

    PubMed Central

    Reingle, Jennifer M.; Staras, Stephanie A. S.; Jennings, Wesley G.; Branchini, Jennifer; Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M.

    2013-01-01

    Intimate partner violence is a significant public health problem, as these behaviors have been associated with a number of negative health outcomes including illicit drug use, physical injury, chronic pain, sexually transmitted diseases, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder. The current study examined the association between marijuana use and intimate partner violence using a longitudinal survey of adolescents and young adults ages 15 to 26 years. Data were obtained from 9,421 adolescents in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) Waves 1 through 4 (1995–2008). Marijuana use was measured in the past year at each wave and participants were categorized as “users” or “nonusers.” Partner violence was constructed using six items (three pertaining to victimization and three concerning perpetration) from Wave 4 (2007–2008). Using these six items, participants were categorized as “victims only,” “perpetrators only,” or “victims and perpetrators.” Survey multinomial regression was used to examine the relationship between marijuana use and intimate partner violence. Consistent use of marijuana during adolescence was most predictive of intimate partner violence (OR = 2.08, p < .001). Consistent marijuana use (OR = 1.85, p < .05) was related to an increased risk of intimate partner violence perpetration. Adolescent marijuana use, particularly consistent use throughout adolescence, is associated with perpetration or both perpetration of and victimization by intimate partner violence in early adulthood. These findings have implications for intimate partner violence prevention efforts, as marijuana use should be considered as a target of early intimate partner violence intervention and treatment programming. PMID:22080574

  13. Changes in Intimate Partner Violence among Women Mandated to Community Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macy, Rebecca J.; Rizo, Cynthia F.; Guo, Shenyang; Ermentrout, Dania M.

    2013-01-01

    Increasingly, female victims of intimate partner violence (IPV) are charged with IPV perpetration and mandated by courts or child protective services to receive domestic violence services. A critical need exists for evidence-based interventions targeting the needs of this unique population, but such research is scarce. To address this gap, we…

  14. Ethnicity and Involvement in Violence on Television: Nature and Context of On-Screen Portrayals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunter, Barrie

    1998-01-01

    Examines the portrayal of majority and minority ethnic groups as aggressors or victims on British television, focusing on violence in drama and serials. Analysis of programs from 10 channels on 28 days reveals whites to be more heavily involved in television violence as perpetrators or victims in Britain than ethnic-minority characters. (SLD)

  15. Writing the Male Abuser in Cultural Responses to Domestic Violence in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godsland, Shelley

    2012-01-01

    The article analyzes the portrayal of the male perpetrator of heterosexual domestic violence in a selection of contemporary Spanish texts (novel, drama, and autobiography) that form part of a clearly discernible cultural response to the issue of intimate partner violence in Spain today. It reads the figure of the abuser in conjunction with a range…

  16. Violence in Schools: Results of an Inquiry Carried out in Kassel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greszik, Bethina; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Reports on a survey of 1,077 German students and 233 teachers about different forms of student violence. Finds that the perpetrators were nearly all male, while victims were both male and female. Observes that, in comparison with previous studies, the rate of school violence does not appear to be on the increase. (CFR)

  17. Aggression and Violence in the United States: Reflections on the Virginia Tech Shootings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenson, Jeffrey M.

    2007-01-01

    Aggression and violence in the United States remain vexing problems that require several key responses. First, universal prevention programs and targeted treatment strategies for people at risk of aggressive behavior are needed to address the established link between mental illness and the potential for violence. Sadly, many perpetrators of gun…

  18. Fears of Violence among English Young People: Disintegration Theory and British Social Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cockburn, Tom

    2008-01-01

    Young people are not only the perpetrators of violence; they are also the victims of violent acts. This leads to the question of how young people handle potential risk and how they can reduce the danger of becoming victims. The article stresses the topic of juvenile experience and fear of violence. Starting with a description of the nature of…

  19. Dating Violence, Bullying, and Sexual Harassment: Longitudinal Profiles and Transitions over Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Shari; Williams, Jason; Cutbush, Stacey; Gibbs, Deborah; Clinton-Sherrod, Monique; Jones, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Although there is growing recognition of the problem of dating violence, little is known about how it unfolds among young adolescents who are just beginning to date. This study examined classes (subgroups) and transitions between classes over three time points based on dating violence, bullying, and sexual harassment perpetration and victimization…

  20. The Role of Social Work in the Context of Social Disintegration and Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moller, Kurt

    2008-01-01

    Violence and the violence discourse are very similar from country to country: focus on youth, preponderance of males among perpetrators and victims, disproportionate involvement of migrants and indigenous people, greater prevalence with socioeconomic disadvantage and low education, and the impact of underlying factors such as political…

  1. Gender Differences in Risk for Intimate Partner Violence among South African Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gass, Jesse D.; Stein, Dan J.; Williams, David R.; Seedat, Soraya

    2011-01-01

    Despite a high prevalence of intimate partner violence in South Africa, few epidemiological studies have assessed individual risk factors and differential vulnerability by gender. This study seeks to analyze gender differences in risk for intimate partner violence victimization and perpetration according to childhood and adult risk factors in a…

  2. Dating Violence and Self-Injury among Undergraduate College Students: Attitudes and Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Christine E.; Wester, Kelly L.; Paladino, Derrick A.

    2008-01-01

    An Internet-based survey about dating violence and self-injury was completed by 1,777 undergraduates. A regression analysis tested if recent dating violence victimization and perpetration experiences predicted whether participants self-injured in the past 90 days, after controlling for demographic variables and attitudes toward self-injury and…

  3. The enduring mental health impact of mass violence: A community comparison study of Cambodian civilians living in Cambodia and Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Mollica, Richard F; Brooks, Robert; Tor, Svang; Lopes-Cardozo, Barbara; Silove, Derrick

    2016-01-01

    Background No population-based studies have directly compared the long-term health and mental health outcomes of conflict- versus non-conflict-affected communities from the same ethnic background. Aims To identify and compare levels of psychiatric morbidity between a traumatized and non-traumatized civilian community; to investigate the long-term impact of mass violence. Methods Double-stratified community surveys in Siem Reap and Surin provinces were conducted by highly qualified Cambodian interviewers using culturally validated survey instruments with known psychometric properties. These included Cambodian versions of the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25, the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire and the Medical Outcome Study Short Form. Results Siem Reap and Surin respondents experienced 12,266 and 621 major trauma events, respectively; 745 (76.2%) Siem Reap respondents and six (0.6%) Surin respondents reported torture events; 499 (49.5%) Siem Reap respondents and 203 (19.7%) Surin respondents met the clinical threshold for depression (OR 4.01, 95% CI 3.29–4.88); 204 (20.6%) Siem Reap respondents and 23 (2.2%) Surin respondents met the clinical threshold for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (OR 11.39, 95% CI 7.3–17.7).The MOS physical disability was higher in Siem Reap versus Surin respondents (74 (7.5%) vs 13 (1.3%), χ2 = 47.4 df = 1, p < .001). Health status was poorest among Siem Reap respondents when compared with Surin respondents (mean score 1.59 vs 0.59, respectively; t = 19.85 df = 2018, p < .001). Path analysis reveals that recent and past extreme violence are associated with the health and mental health status of the Siem Reap community. Conclusion After 25 years, the Khmer civilian population that experienced the Pol Pot genocide continues to suffer psychiatric morbidity and poor health. PMID:23396287

  4. Children and Television Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Timothy P.

    1973-01-01

    The question of whether violence depicted on television causes viewers to act aggressively is meaningless because it implies a simple "yes" or "no" response. Effects of mass media depend on the types of viewers and content as well as the conditions of message reception. Television violence can affect the behavior of children on some occasions.…

  5. Family Violence and Children’s Behavior Problems: Independent Contributions of Intimate Partner and Child-Directed Physical Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Gustafsson, Hanna C.; Barnett, Melissa A.; Towe-Goodman, Nissa R.; Mills-Koonce, W. Roger; Cox, Martha J.

    2014-01-01

    Using data from a diverse sample of 581 families living in predominantly low-income, rural communities, the current study sought to investigate the longitudinal associations among father-perpetrated intimate partner violence (IPV) and child-directed physical aggression perpetrated by the mother. The unique contributions of each of these types of family violence on children’s behavioral problems at school entry were also examined. Results confirm bidirectional associations between father-perpetrated IPV and maternal physical aggression directed toward the child, and indicate that both types of physical aggression contribute to child behavior problems at school entry. PMID:25431522

  6. Media Violence: The Search for Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thoman, Elizabeth

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the influence of mass media depictions of violence on children and provides suggestions for media literacy education. Calls for reducing children's exposure to media violence; changing the impact of violent images; stressing alternatives to violence for resolving conflicts; challenging the social supports for media violence; and…

  7. Inflicted Skeletal Trauma: The Relationship of Perpetrators to Their Victims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starling, Suzanne P.; Sirotnak, Andrew P.; Heisler, Kurt W.; Barnes-Eley, Myra L.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Although inflicted skeletal trauma is a very common presentation of child abuse, little is known about the perpetrators of inflicted skeletal injuries. Studies exist describing perpetrators of inflicted traumatic brain injury, but no study has examined characteristics of perpetrators of inflicted skeletal trauma. Methods: All cases of…

  8. Urban Young Women’s Experiences of Discrimination and Community Violence and Intimate Partner Violence

    PubMed Central

    O’Donnell, Lydia

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the interrelationships between urban young adult women’s experiences of discrimination and community violence and their reports of involvement in intimate partner violence (IPV). We explore whether such experiences are independent risk factors for IPV victimization and perpetration, even when accounting for aggressive behaviors and related risk taking, including drinking and sexual initiation, during early adolescence. We use data from the Reach for Health study, in which a sample of 550 urban African American and Latina women was followed from recruitment in economically distressed middle schools into young adulthood, over approximately 7 years. At the last wave, respondents were 19–20 years old; 28% were raising children. More than 40% reported experiencing at least one form of racial/ethnic discrimination sometimes or often over the past year. About 75% heard guns being shot, saw someone being arrested, or witnessed drug deals within this time period; 66% had seen someone beaten up, 26% had seen someone get killed, and 40% knew someone who was killed. Concurrent reports of lifetime IPV were also high: about a third reported being a victim of physical violence; a similar proportion reported perpetration. Results of multivariate regression analyses indicate that discrimination is significantly associated with physical and emotional IPV victimization and perpetration, controlling for socio-demographic characteristics, including ethnic identity formation, and early adolescent risk behaviors. Community violence is correlated with victimization, but the relationship remains significant only for emotional IPV victimization once early behaviors are controlled. Implications for violence prevention are discussed, including the importance of addressing community health, as well as individual patterns of behavior, associated with multiple forms of violence victimization and perpetration. PMID:18347993

  9. Intimate Partner Violence Between Male Iraq and Afghanistan Veterans and Their Female Partners Who Seek Couples Therapy.

    PubMed

    Tharp, Andra Teten; Sherman, Michelle D; Bowling, Ursula; Townsend, Bradford J

    2016-03-01

    The current study has three aims: (1) to describe the frequency, gender differences, and agreement in couples' reports of male-to-female and female-to-male intimate partner violence (IPV) reported by male veterans and their female partners who were seeking couples therapy; (2) to describe the pattern of violence reported by these couples (e.g., one-sided, mutual) and determine if frequency of violence varied based on patterns; and (3) to examine whether frequency of violence or pattern of violence were associated with veteran diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). One hundred heterosexual couples (male Iraq/Afghanistan veteran, female civilian) seeking couples therapy at a Veterans Affairs (VA) clinic completed self-report measures of violence in their relationship. Almost all couples reported verbal aggression. Men reported perpetrating more frequent sexual coercion, and women reported perpetrating more frequent physical aggression. Correspondence in partners' reports of violence varied based on type of violence from high correspondence on verbal aggression to low correspondence on sexual coercion. Three patterns of violence were identified: verbally aggressive (n = 45), one-sided physically aggressive (n = 27), and mutually physically aggressive (n = 26). Mutually physically aggressive couples generally reported the most frequent violence. Frequency and pattern of violence were not associated with veteran diagnosis of PTSD. Findings underscore the need for clinicians to assess both partners for violence perpetration and the need for effective prevention strategies and treatments for IPV among veterans. PMID:25538118

  10. Developing a center for Hispanic youth violence prevention.

    PubMed

    Mirabal-Colón, Brenda

    2003-03-01

    Youth violence is a serious public health problem, described by the Surgeon General's Report on Youth Violence (2001). Homicide is the second cause of death for the 15-24 age population in the USA and Puerto Rico; intentional injuries also result in significant morbidity. Youth are at greater risk of being victims than perpetrators of violence. African American and Hispanic youth are at particular risk. Effective, community-based initiatives to prevent youth violence are necessary to interrupt the cycle of violence. In 2000, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention of the Department of Health and Human Services awarded grants to establish ten Academic Centers of Excellence for Youth Violence Prevention. This article describes the development of the Center for Hispanic Youth Violence Prevention, of the FILIUS Institute of the University of Puerto Rico. PMID:12733449

  11. Review of research on child maltreatment and violence in youth.

    PubMed

    Maas, Carl; Herrenkohl, Todd I; Sousa, Cynthia

    2008-01-01

    This review addresses research regarding associations between child maltreatment and youth violence perpetration. The authors explore current findings on the direct effects of child maltreatment on later youth violence and possible gender and ethnic differences. They examine differences in the prediction of adolescent violence as a function of duration and timing of maltreatment. Results provide compelling evidence linking child maltreatment and later youth violence, although some research is inconclusive once demographics and other competing predictors are considered. Overall, physical abuse is perhaps the most consistent predictor of youth violence, patterned by an increased risk for children exposed to severe, compounded maltreatment. However, findings indicate that lesser severe forms of abuse can increase the risk of later violence for some youth. Limitations of current research include relatively few prospective, studies on the abuse-violence link; a general lack of specificity in definitions of key variables; and inconsistency in data analysis methods. PMID:18182631

  12. Dating violence among college students: the risk and protective factors.

    PubMed

    Kaukinen, Catherine

    2014-10-01

    The research review synthesizes the knowledge base on risk and protective factors for dating violence while highlighting its relevance to violence against college women. In particular, the review highlights the personal, family, relationship, and behavioral factors that heighten the risk of dating violence victimization and perpetration while also noting the methodological limitations of the current body of empirical research and identifying directions for future academic work. Researchers have identified the correlation between risky health and behavioral factors and dating violence, most often modeling these as part of the etiology of dating violence among college students. Less often have scholars explored these as co-occurring risk factors. This approach to dating violence may be used to develop meaningful and impactful interventions to reduce the incidence and prevalence of college dating violence while also addressing the other health risk behaviors that impact academic success and place students' well-being at risk. PMID:24499962

  13. Dating Violence Prevention Programming: Directions for Future Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Shorey, Ryan C.; Zucosky, Heather; Brasfield, Hope; Febres, Jeniimarie; Cornelius, Tara L.; Sage, Chelsea; Stuart, Gregory L.

    2012-01-01

    Dating violence among college students is a widespread and destructive problem. The field of dating violence has seen a substantial rise in research over the past several years, which has improved our understanding of factors that increase risk for perpetration. Unfortunately, there has been less attention paid to dating violence prevention programming, and existing programs have been marred with methodological weaknesses and a lack of demonstrated effectiveness in reducing aggression. In hopes of sparking new research on dating violence prevention programs, the current review examines possible new avenues for dating violence prevention programming among college students. We discuss clinical interventions that have shown to be effective in reducing a number of problematic behaviors, including motivational interventions, dialectical behavior therapy, mindfulness, and bystander interventions, and how they could be applied to dating violence prevention. We also discuss methodological issues to consider when implementing dating violence prevention programs. PMID:22773916

  14. From Family Violence to Dating Violence: Testing a Dual Pathway Model.

    PubMed

    Morris, Anjana Madan; Mrug, Sylvie; Windle, Michael

    2015-09-01

    Risk factors for adolescent perpetration of or victimization by dating violence stem from different levels of adolescents' social ecologies, including the family, individual, and peer domains. However, these multiple risk factors have not been fully integrated into a single comprehensive model of dating violence development. The present study examined prospective links between exposure to family violence in pre-adolescence; pro-violent beliefs, aggression, deviant peer affiliation, and aggression toward opposite-sex peers in early adolescence and dating violence in late adolescence. Using a longitudinal study of 461 youth (51 % female; 80 % African American, 19 % Caucasian, 1 % other ethnicities), path modeling evaluated a theoretically developed dual pathway model involving a general violence pathway and an early romantic aggression pathway. Each pathway links exposure to family violence in pre-adolescence with early adolescent pro-violent beliefs and/or aggressive behavior. In both pathways, pro-violent beliefs may reinforce aggressive behaviors between same-sex and opposite-sex peers, as well as strengthen bonds with deviant peers. In the last part of both pathways, aggressive behavior and peer deviance in early adolescence may contribute directly to late adolescent dating violence perpetration and victimization. The findings provided support for both pathways, as well as sex differences in the model. PMID:26208831

  15. Sexual Coercion among Adolescents: Victims and Perpetrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacasse, Anne; Mendelson, Morton J.

    2007-01-01

    Adolescence is a transitional period when the pressure to engage in romantic and sexual relationships can leave teenagers feeling confused and at risk for sexual coercion. Our studies investigated characteristics of male and female perpetrators and victims of peer sexual coercion, focusing on self-esteem, sexist attitudes, and involvement in…

  16. Male Rape Victim and Perpetrator Blaming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sleath, Emma; Bull, Ray

    2010-01-01

    One of four possible vignettes manipulated by (a) level of rape myth contained within them (low vs. high) and (b) type of rape (stranger vs. acquaintance) was presented to participants followed by scales measuring victim blame, perpetrator blame, belief in a just world, sex-role egalitarian beliefs, and male rape myth acceptance. Victim blaming…

  17. [Prevalence of experience of physical and psychological violence in the general population in the past 12 months. Results of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS1)].

    PubMed

    Lange, Cornelia; Starker, Anne; von der Lippe, Elena; Hölling, Heike

    2016-01-01

    Experiences of violence may have considerable psychosocial and health implications. A violence screening tool was implemented in the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS1) to depict the perpetrators' and victims' point of view. The study participants were between 18 and 64 years old (n = 5939). The aim of this article is to assess the percentage of people who experienced physical and psychological violence in the last 12 months or who suffered negative effects on their quality of life as a consequence or who were perpetrators of multiple acts of violence. The characteristics of victims, offenders, and their conflict partners are described. Furthermore, specific constellations of violence experience with regard to health-related quality of life are described. Finally, the association between being a victim of violence and different factors is estimated. In total, 2.7% of women and 4.3% of men reported multiple experiences of physical violence in the last 12 months or having their lives negatively impacted as a consequence of violence. Experience of psychological violence was reported by 18.9% of women and 15.4% of men. Women are more likely than men to be both perpetrator and victim within the family. Men are more likely than women to be both the perpetrator and victim outside of the family environment. Regardless of whether they are the victim or perpetrator of violence, the psychological well-being is significantly worse than those of people who did not experience violence. Experience of violence in childhood and adolescence increases the risk of becoming victim or perpetrator of violence later on in life. The findings presented here describe the psychological and physical experience of violence as one part of violence committed in the whole population. Some prevention advice is also presented. PMID:26525854

  18. Connections between online harassment and offline violence among youth in Central Thailand.

    PubMed

    Ojanen, Timo Tapani; Boonmongkon, Pimpawun; Samakkeekarom, Ronnapoom; Samoh, Nattharat; Cholratana, Mudjalin; Guadamuz, Thomas Ebanan

    2015-06-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that face-to-face (offline) youth violence and online harassment are closely interlinked, but evidence from Asian countries remains limited. This study was conducted to quantitatively assess the associations between offline violence and online harassment among youth in Central Thailand. Students and out-of-school youth (n=1,234, age: 15-24 years) residing, studying, and/or working in a district in Central Thailand were surveyed. Participants were asked about their involvement in online harassment and in verbal, physical, sexual, and domestic types of offline violence, as perpetrators, victims, and witnesses within a 1-year period. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess independent associations between different kinds of involvement in offline violence and online harassment. Perpetration and victimization within the past year were both reported by roughly half of the youth both online and offline. Over three quarters had witnessed violence or harassment. Perpetrating online harassment was independently associated with being a victim online (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=10.1; 95% CI [7.5, 13.6]), and perpetrating offline violence was independently associated with being a victim offline (AOR=11.1; 95% CI [8.1, 15.0]). Perpetrating online harassment was independently associated with perpetrating offline violence (AOR=2.7; 95% CI [1.9, 3.8]), and being a victim online was likewise independently associated with being a victim offline (AOR=2.6; 95% CI [1.9, 3.6]). Online harassment and offline violence are interlinked among Thai youth, as in other countries studied so far. Interventions to reduce either might best address both together. PMID:25913812

  19. Connections Between Online Harassment and Offline Violence among Youth in Central Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Ojanen, Timo Tapani; Boonmongkon, Pimpawun; Samakkeekarom, Ronnapoom; Samoh, Nattharat; Cholratana, Mudjalin

    2015-01-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that face-to-face (offline) youth violence and online harassment are closely interlinked, but evidence from Asian countries remains limited. This study was conducted to quantitatively assess the associations between offline violence and online harassment among youth in Central Thailand. Students and out-of-school youth (n = 1,234, age: 15-24 years) residing, studying, and/or working in a district in Central Thailand were surveyed. Participants were asked about their involvement in online harassment and in verbal, physical, sexual, and domestic types of offline violence, as perpetrators, victims, and witnesses within a 1-year period. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess independent associations between different kinds of involvement in offline violence and online harassment. Perpetration and victimization within the past year were both reported by roughly half of the youth both online and offline. Over three quarters had witnessed violence or harassment. Perpetrating online harassment was independently associated with being a victim online (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 10.1; 95% CI [7.5, 13.6]), and perpetrating offline violence was independently associated with being a victim offline (AOR = 11.1; 95% CI [8.1, 15.0]). Perpetrating online harassment was independently associated with perpetrating offline violence (AOR = 2.7; 95% CI [1.9, 3.8]), and being a victim online was likewise independently associated with being a victim offline (AOR = 2.6; 95% CI [1.9, 3.6]). Online harassment and offline violence are interlinked among Thai youth, as in other countries studied so far. Interventions to reduce either might best address both together. PMID:25913812

  20. Intimate partner violence: the effect of gender and contextual factors on community perceptions of harm, and suggested victim and criminal justice responses.

    PubMed

    Dennison, Susan M; Thompson, Carleen M

    2011-01-01

    Using a vignette to depict physical violence by an intimate partner, a 2 (perpetrator gender) X 2 (participant gender) X 2 (frequency) X 2 (intent to cause harm) between subjects factorial design was used to examine under what circumstances individuals perceive: an incident should be illegal, the extent of harm, and appropriate victim and criminal justice responses. There were 868 participants from the Brisbane (Australia) community (48.5% males). The actions of male perpetrators were viewed more seriously and the victims were recommended to seek more forms of assistance when the perpetrator was male. There were few differences in perceptions of violence according to participant gender. The frequency of the violence affected the participant's responses but the intentions of the perpetrator did not. Results are discussed in terms of stereotypes of intimate partner violence (IPV) and the implications for help-seeking behavior by victims. PMID:21846022

  1. Keeping it in the family: intergenerational transmission of violence in Cebu, Philippines.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Mahua; Hindin, Michelle J

    2015-03-01

    While witnessing violence between parents is one of the most consistent correlates of experiencing intimate partner violence (IPV) in later life, little research exists in developing countries on the effects of witnessing interparental IPV on young adults' involvement with family violence. This study examines the relation between witnessing interparental IPV and young adults' subsequent use and experience with family intimidation and physical abuse (FIPA) in Cebu, Philippines. Using data from the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey, recent use and experience of FIPA among 21-22 year old young adults was assessed through self-reports from the 2005 survey, and childhood witnessing of interparental IPV assessed from the 2002 survey. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine the effect of witnessing interparental IPV on young adults' use and experience of FIPA. Among all young adults, witnessing paternal perpetration of IPV predicted using FIPA, and witnessing maternal perpetration predicted experiencing FIPA. Among young adult females only, witnessing reciprocal IPV between parents predicted experiencing FIPA. Witnessing paternal perpetration of IPV among young adult males, maternal perpetration among young adult females, and reciprocal interparental IPV among all young adults predicted young adults both using and experiencing FIPA. Violence prevention efforts should reach all family members through family centered interventions. School based curricula, which largely focus on intimate partner and peer violence, should recognize adolescents' use and experience of violence with family members, and design modules accordingly. Further research on gender differences in family violence is recommended. PMID:25055760

  2. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MALE-PERPETRATED INTERPARENTAL AGGRESSION, PATERNAL CHARACTERISTICS, AND CHILD PSYCHOSOCIAL FUNCTIONING

    PubMed Central

    Febres, Jeniimarie; Shorey, Ryan C.; Zucosky, Heather C.; Brasfield, Hope; Vitulano, Michael; Elmquist, JoAnna; Ninnemann, Andrew; Labrecque, Lindsay; Stuart, Gregory L.

    2014-01-01

    It is well established that children in homes where interparental violence is present are at increased risk for psychosocial (i.e., internalizing, externalizing, and attention) difficulties. However, previous studies have provided a limited view on the variety of factors that commonly co-occur in these environments (e.g., other characteristics of the parents and family) and how they may collectively impact children. Knowing this information could have implications for parental interventions aimed at preventing the continuation or initiation of psychosocial problems in children. Thus, the present study simultaneously examined the association between father-perpetrated interparental aggression, father characteristics, and child psychosocial functioning in a sample of 145 men arrested for domestic violence. Results showed that of all the variables examined, paternal antisocial personality traits and interpersonal hostility were uniquely associated with overall child psychosocial impairment, externalizing problems, and attention problems. Implications for intervention programs are discussed. PMID:25132790

  3. Domestic Violence

    MedlinePlus

    Domestic violence is a type of abuse. It usually involves a spouse or partner, but it can also ... a child, elderly relative, or other family member. Domestic violence may include Physical violence that can lead to ...

  4. Domestic Violence

    MedlinePlus

    Domestic violence is a type of abuse. It usually involves a spouse or partner, but it can also be ... child, elderly relative, or other family member. Domestic violence may include Physical violence that can lead to ...

  5. Investigating violence and control dyadically in a help-seeking sample from Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Graham-Kevan, Nicola; Zacarias, Antonio Eugenio; Soares, Joaquim J F

    2012-01-01

    A sample of 1442 women attending a Forensic Healthcare Service provided information on their own and their partners' use of controlling behaviors, partner violence, and sexual abuse, as well as their own experiences of childhood abuse. Using Johnson's typology, the relationships were categorized as Nonviolent, Intimate Terrorism, or Situational Couple Violence. Findings suggest that help-seeking women's experiences of intimate violence may be diverse, with their roles ranging from victim to perpetrator. PMID:22666138

  6. Age and Gender Differences in Teen Relationship Violence

    PubMed Central

    Hokoda, Audrey; Martin del Campo, Miguel A.; Ulloa, Emilio C.

    2016-01-01

    Research shows that abuse in adolescence can start early and current literature regarding gender differences in Teen Relationship Violence (TRV) is inconsistent. Age and Gender differences in TRV were examined. Measures assessing TRV and its correlates were completed by 231 teens from 7th, 9th, and 11th grade classes. A 2 (gender) by 3 (grade) multivariate analysis of variance revealed significant effects for grade and gender indicating that 7th graders have lower perpetration and victimization of TRV, less anger control, and fewer positive conflict resolution behaviors than 9th and 11th graders. Furthermore, girls perpetrate more physical and emotional abuse while boys perpetrate more sexual abuse. Results have implications for timing and content of prevention programs addressing dating violence in adolescence. PMID:26989341

  7. Cross-sectional study of violence in emerging adulthood.

    PubMed

    Marcus, Robert F

    2009-01-01

    Theories of emerging adulthood, the evolutionary perspective, and the presence of turning points in the lives of 19-25-year olds were examined in relation to serious perpetrated violence for a cross-sectional sample of men and women (n=14,098) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), Wave III. Perpetrated, self-reported violence included armed robbery, gang fighting, using a weapon in a fight, pulling a knife or gun on someone, or shooting or stabbing someone. Results showed that 11.3% of emergent adults had perpetrated at least one of these behaviors in the past year. Hierarchical logistic regression analysis partially supported the three theories for both men and women, beyond the contribution of violence in adolescence. The presence of Wave III violence was more likely given the unique contributions of unmarried status and economic risk. Moreover, and consistent with the theory of emerging adulthood, both sensation seeking and depression declined with age and contributed to the acknowledgement of Wave III violence, beyond the contribution of controls for Wave I violence (6 years earlier), demographics, age, gender, unmarried status, and economic risk. Findings of age-related declines and gender differences in prevalence rates were consistent with previous research on nationally representative samples, and with the predictions of the three theories. PMID:19067362

  8. The Link Between Community-Based Violence and Intimate Partner Violence: the Effect of Crime and Male Aggression on Intimate Partner Violence Against Women.

    PubMed

    Kiss, Ligia; Schraiber, Lilia Blima; Hossain, Mazeda; Watts, Charlotte; Zimmerman, Cathy

    2015-08-01

    Both intimate partner violence (IPV) and community violence are prevalent globally, and each is associated with serious health consequences. However, little is known about their potential links or the possible benefits of coordinated prevention strategies. Using aggregated data on community violence from the São Paulo State Security Department (INFOCRIM) merged with WHO multi-country study on women's health and domestic violence data, random intercept models were created to assess the effect of crime on women's probability of experiencing IPV. The association between IPV and male aggression (measured by women's reports of their partner's fights with other men) was examined using logistic regression models. We found little variation in the likelihood of male IPV perpetration related to neighborhood crime level but did find an increased likelihood of IPV experiences among women whose partners were involved in male-to-male violence. Emerging evidence on violence prevention has suggested some promising avenues for primary prevention that address common risk factors for both perpetration of IPV and male interpersonal violence. Strategies such as early identification and effective treatment of emotional disorders, alcohol abuse prevention and treatment, complex community-based interventions to change gender social norms and social marketing campaigns designed to modify social and cultural norms that support violence may work to prevent simultaneously male-on-male aggression and IPV. Future evaluations of these prevention strategies should simultaneously assess the impact of interventions on IPV and male interpersonal aggression. PMID:26004379

  9. Gender and Intimate Partner Violence: Evaluating the Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilfus, Mary E.; Trabold, Nicole; O'Brien, Patricia; Fleck-Henderson, Ann

    2010-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a complex social problem that social workers must be trained to address, using the best available evidence. In this article we review divergent theories, research findings, and methods that underpin debates about the role of gender in IPV perpetration and victimization. We examine the literature that…

  10. Sexual Violence. Work in Progress No. 83-05.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Judith

    Rates of sexual assault on women are sufficiently high that women live with a lifelong, pervasive fear of violence. Research has just begun to identify and analyze the health and mental health effects of sexual assault on victims, and studies are investigating the social and individual motivations of perpetrators. This document contains a…

  11. Child and Adolescent Predictors of Male Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theobald, Delphine; Farrington, David P.

    2012-01-01

    Background: This study addresses to what extent child and adolescent explanatory factors predict male perpetrated intimate partner violence (IPV) in adulthood. Methods: We use prospective longitudinal data from the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development (CSDD). The CSDD is a survey of 411 male born in the 1950s in an inner London area. The men…

  12. Characteristics of Victims Coarrested for Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houry, Debra; Reddy, Sudha; Parramore, Constance

    2006-01-01

    This study evaluated the frequency of coarrest in female victims who utilized 911 for intimate partner violence (IPV) and any patterns or circumstances that increased the likelihood of coarrest. All cases of police-documented IPV where a female IPV victim was arrested in conjunction with the perpetrator were included. Each incident report was…

  13. Animal Abuse and Youth Violence. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ascione, Frank R.

    The forms of abuse that animals are subjected to are similar to the forms of abuse children experience, such as physical abuse, serious neglect, and psychological abuse. This document describes psychiatric, psychological, and criminal research linking animal abuse to violence perpetrated by juveniles and adults. Particular attention is given to…

  14. Violence Directed against Teachers: Results from a National Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mcmahon, Susan D.; Martinez, Andrew; Espelage, Dorothy; Rose, Chad; Reddy, Linda A.; Lane, Kathleen; Anderman, Eric M.; Reynolds, Cecil R.; Jones, Abraham; Brown, Veda

    2014-01-01

    Teachers in U.S. schools report high rates of victimization, yet previous studies focus on select types of victimization and student perpetrators, which may underestimate the extent of the problem. This national study was based on work conducted by the American Psychological Association Classroom Violence Directed Against Teachers Task Force and…

  15. Perceiving the Enemy Within: Optimistic Bias and School Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapin, John; Coleman, Grace

    2006-01-01

    The study provides a unique portrait of young men self-identified as potential perpetrators of school violence, and explores the relative contributions of personal attributes and the media in the creation and preservation of optimistic biases. The study is the first to document optimistic bias among middle and high school students within the…

  16. Identifying and Intervening with Girls at Risk for Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Sandra P.

    2003-01-01

    Youth violence has become a prominent national concern, largely focused on boys who have perpetrated highly publicized massacres. Less well-publicized is the rapid increase in arrests of girls for violent crimes and weapons violations. In just 2 decades, violent crime arrests for female juveniles increased by 108%. From research findings, a…

  17. Boys, Masculinity and School Violence: Reaping What We Sow

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Sandy White

    2007-01-01

    In this paper the author explores the relationship between masculinity and violence. She begins by pointing out that although all of the recent school shootings in the US have been perpetrated by boys, very few are associating the acts with the gender of the offenders. Perhaps this connection is not made because society is so conditioned to the…

  18. Invisible Kids: Preventing School Violence by Identifying Kids in Trouble.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bender, William N.; Shubert, Terresa H.; McLaughlin, Phillip J.

    2001-01-01

    Discussion of school violence compares possible causes of the school shootings in Colorado and Georgia with a prior analysis of possible causes of school shootings. Characteristics of these violent perpetrators are discussed as a possible guide to help identify these seemingly "invisible kids." Identification options include warning…

  19. Problematic drinking, impulsivity, and physical IPV perpetration: A dyadic analysis.

    PubMed

    Leone, Ruschelle M; Crane, Cory A; Parrott, Dominic J; Eckhardt, Christopher I

    2016-05-01

    Alcohol use and impulsivity are 2 known risk factors for intimate partner violence (IPV). The current study examined the independent and interactive effects of problematic drinking and 5 facets of impulsivity (i.e., negative urgency, positive urgency, sensation seeking, lack of premeditation, and lack of perseverance) on perpetration of physical IPV within a dyadic framework. Participants were 289 heavy drinking heterosexual couples (total N = 578) with a recent history of psychological and/or physical IPV recruited from 2 metropolitan U.S. cities. Parallel multilevel actor partner interdependence models were used and demonstrated actor problematic drinking, negative urgency, and lack of perseverance were associated with physical IPV. Findings also revealed associations between partner problematic drinking and physical IPV as well as significant Partner Problematic Drinking × Actor Impulsivity (Negative Urgency and Positive Urgency) interaction effects on physical IPV. Findings highlight the importance of examining IPV within a dyadic framework and are interpreted using the I3 metatheoretical model. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26828640

  20. 3 Echo: concept of operations for early care and evacuation of victims of mass violence.

    PubMed

    Autrey, Allen W; Hick, John L; Bramer, Kurtis; Berndt, Jeremy; Bundt, Jonathan

    2014-08-01

    This report describes the successful use of a simple 3-phase approach that guides the initial 30 minutes of a response to blast and active shooter events with casualties: Enter, Evaluate, and Evacuate (3 Echo) in a mass-shooting event occurring in Minneapolis, Minnesota USA, on September 27, 2012. Early coordination between law enforcement (LE) and rescue was emphasized, including establishment of unified command, a common operating picture, determination of evacuation corridors, swift victim evaluation, basic treatment, and rapid evacuation utilizing an approach developed collaboratively over the four years prior to the event. Field implementation of 3 Echo requires multi-disciplinary (Emergency Medical Services (EMS), fire and LE) training to optimize performance. This report details the mass-shooting event, the framework created to support the response, and also describes important aspects of the concepts of operation and curriculum evolved through years of collaboration between multiple disciplines to arrive at unprecedented EMS transport times in response to the event. PMID:24909363

  1. The Prevalence of Mental Health Problems in Men Arrested for Domestic Violence

    PubMed Central

    Shorey, Ryan C.; Febres, Jeniimarie; Brasfield, Hope; Stuart, Gregory L.

    2012-01-01

    The problem of male perpetrated intimate partner violence (IPV) is widespread. In an effort to identify risk factors for perpetrating IPV, researchers have examined mental health problems among perpetrators. However, the majority of research in this area has examined personality psychopathology and/or limited their investigation to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or depression. Thus, the present study examined self-reported Axis I psychopathology among men arrested for domestic violence (N = 308). Results replicated past research showing high rates of PTSD and depression. In addition, the prevalence of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), panic disorder, social phobia, and alcohol and drug disorders were very high. All types of mental health problems were positively associated with aggression perpetration. Males meeting probable diagnostic classification reported significantly more frequent aggression than males not meeting diagnostic classification, even after controlling for social desirability. Directions for future research and implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:23284227

  2. Dyadic Characteristics and Intimate Partner Violence among Men Who Have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Stephenson, Rob; Rentsch, Christopher; Salazar, Laura F; Sullivan, Patrick S

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Although the research community has begun to recognize intimate partner violence (IPV) as an important issue in same-sex relationships, there has been a lack of attention to characteristics of these relationships that may be associated with IPV. In particular, there has been a lack of attention paid to the associations between dyadic characteristics and IPV in same-sex relationships. This paper examined associations between dyadic characteristics, including relationship satisfaction, communal coping and efficacy, and perpetrating and experiencing IPV among a sample of United States men who have sex with men (MSM). Methods: We collected data via an online survey with 528 MSM, who were greater than 18 years of age and reported at least one male sex partner in the last 12 months. The analysis examined dyadic factors associated with reporting of experiencing and perpetrating emotional violence, physical violence, and sexual violence. Results: The prevalence of violence in the sample ranged from nine percent reporting perpetrating sexual violence to 33% of men reporting experiencing emotional violence. MSM who reported greater satisfaction with their relationship or who reported a higher degree of concordance with their partner on lifestyle choices were less likely to report experiencing or perpetrating emotional violence. MSM who perceived a stigma to being in a male same-sex couple were less likely to report experiencing or perpetrating sexual violence. Conclusion: The results presented here demonstrate high levels of IPV among MSM and that dyadic characteristics are associated with the occurrence of IPV. Understanding relationship characteristics associated with increased IPV among same-sex male couples can contribute to the development of more accurate IPV screening tools, and more sensitively and appropriately designed intervention messages. PMID:21731790

  3. A Typology of Violence against Self and Others and Its Associations with Drinking and Other Drug Use among High School Students in a U.S. General Population Survey

    PubMed Central

    Harford, Thomas C.; Yi, Hsiao-ye; Freeman, Robert C.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined associations between binge drinking and other substance use and perpetration of violence against self and others. Data were pooled from the 2003, 2005, and was constructed to reflect four categories of behaviors: other-directed violence only, self-directed violence only, combined other- and self-directed violence, and no violence. Results from multinomial logistic regressions show that the frequency of binge drinking and other substance use were significant risk factors for each of the violence categories relative to no-violence. However, the strengths of these associations varied across the violence categories. PMID:26478688

  4. Perceptions of managerial support after workplace violence.

    PubMed

    Christie, Wanda

    2015-11-01

    Workplace violence against nurses perpetrated by patients is a global problem, and healthcare organisations must take steps to ensure that staff feel safe at work and supported when incidents occur. A study was undertaken in a US teaching hospital to determine nurses' perceptions of management support following violent workplace incidents. This article describes the study and reports the results, which suggest that nurses want better implementation and enforcement of anti-violence policies, as well as more visible and immediate support from managers. PMID:26508071

  5. The Relationship Between Family-of-Origin Violence, Hostility, and Intimate Partner Violence in Men Arrested for Domestic Violence: Testing a Mediational Model.

    PubMed

    Elmquist, JoAnna; Shorey, Ryan C; Labrecque, Lindsay; Ninnemann, Andrew; Zapor, Heather; Febres, Jeniimarie; Wolford-Clevenger, Caitlin; Plasencia, Maribel; Temple, Jeff R; Stuart, Gregory L

    2016-09-01

    Although research has shown links between family-of-origin violence (FOV), intimate partner violence (IPV), and hostility, research has not examined whether hostility mediates the relationship between FOV and IPV. The current study examined whether hostility mediates FOV and IPV perpetration in 302 men arrested for domestic violence. Results demonstrated that hostility fully mediated the relationship between father-to-participant FOV and physical and psychological IPV, and the relationship between mother-to-participant FOV and physical IPV. Results indicated that hostility fully mediated the relationship between experiencing and witnessing FOV and physical IPV (composite FOV), and partially mediated the relationship between composite FOV and psychological aggression. PMID:26712239

  6. Violence in New South Wales emergency departments.

    PubMed

    Lyneham, J

    In 1999 the International Council of Nurses recognised workplace violence as a significant issue in nursing. During the same year the Australian Institute of Criminology reported that health was the most violent industry. This study examined the nature and extent of violence in NSW hospital emergency departments. Emergency nurses experienced violent incidents in their department, in the wards and outside the hospital setting. Every respondent (n=266) experienced some form of violence at least weekly. Ninety-two incidents involved lethal weapons. Ninety-two percent of perpetrators were patients or their relatives, however other staff members were also implicated. Non-reporting of violence is an issue as over 70% of incidents were not referred to authorities. Drugs, alcohol and emergency department waiting times are the most significant predisposing factors. Most emergency nurses are not satisfied with the response of administration to violent incidents within hospitals. PMID:11878501

  7. Dimensions of Functional Social Support and Depressive Symptoms: A Longitudinal Investigation of Women Seeking Help for Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suvak, Michael K.; Taft, Casey T.; Goodman, Lisa A.; Dutton, Mary Ann

    2013-01-01

    Objective: We examined 4 separate dimensions of functional social support (tangible, appraisal, self-esteem, and belonging) as predictors of change in depression over 4.5 years in a sample of women reporting intimate partner violence. Method: Participants were recruited as they sought help for violence perpetrated by a current or former male…

  8. Relationships among Alcohol Outlet Density, Alcohol Use, and Intimate Partner Violence Victimization among Young Women in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waller, Martha W.; Iritani, Bonita J.; Christ, Sharon L.; Clark, Heddy Kovach; Moracco, Kathryn E.; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Flewelling, Robert L.

    2012-01-01

    Greater access to alcohol has been widely found to be associated with many negative outcomes including violence perpetration. This study examines the relationship between alcohol outlet density, alcohol use, and intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization among young women in the United States. A direct association between alcohol outlet density…

  9. Violence against children in Brazilian scenery.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Antonio Jakeulmo; Sales, Magda Coeli Vitorino

    2016-03-01

    Violence is a social and public health phenomenon, with greater exacerbation when it affects children, causing an impact on child development and a catastrophic impact on the behavior of an adult life. The purpose of this article is to characterizing by the scientific evidence child abuse on the brasilian scene. There was used the integrative literature review and, as a source of research, the databases Lilacs and Scielo from August 2013. Among the six identified publications showed negligence as the main type of violence, five discoursed that Male gender is the most affected gender and ten stated that the perpetrator is always a family member. Also in this heart, it becomes clear that the parents are the greatest perpetrators of violence against children, especially the mother as the most frequent aggressors. The results demonstrate the need to identify early all types of violence, especially the neglect, recognizing that there is no significant distinction of violence between the genders and sharing the family environment as the most conducive environment for the growth of violent events. PMID:26960099

  10. Dating violence experiences of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender youth.

    PubMed

    Dank, Meredith; Lachman, Pamela; Zweig, Janine M; Yahner, Jennifer

    2014-05-01

    Media attention and the literature on lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth overwhelmingly focus on violence involving hate crimes and bullying, while ignoring the fact that vulnerable youth also may be at increased risk of violence in their dating relationships. In this study, we examine physical, psychological, sexual, and cyber dating violence experiences among lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth--as compared to those of heterosexual youth, and we explore variations in the likelihood of help-seeking behavior and the presence of particular risk factors among both types of dating violence victims. A total of 5,647 youth (51 % female, 74 % White) from 10 schools participated in a cross-sectional anonymous survey, of which 3,745 reported currently being in a dating relationship or having been in one during the prior year. Results indicated that lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth are at higher risk for all types of dating violence victimization (and nearly all types of dating violence perpetration), compared to heterosexual youth. Further, when looking at gender identity, transgender and female youth are at highest risk of most types of victimization, and are the most likely perpetrators of all forms of dating violence but sexual coercion, which begs further exploration. The findings support the development of dating violence prevention programs that specifically target the needs and vulnerabilities of lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth, in addition to those of female and transgender youth. PMID:23861097

  11. Childhood ADHD Potentiates the Association between Problematic Drinking and Intimate Partner Violence

    PubMed Central

    Wymbs, Brian T.; Walther, Christine A. P.; Cheong, JeeWon; Belendiuk, Katherine A.; Pedersen, Sarah L.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Pelham, William E.; Molina, Brooke S. G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Excessive alcohol consumption increases risk of perpetrating intimate partner violence (IPV). Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with problematic drinking and IPV, but it is unclear whether problem drinkers with ADHD are more likely than those without ADHD to perpetrate IPV. Method We compared the strength of association between problem drinking trajectories and IPV perpetration among 19 to 24 year-old men with (n=241) and without (n=180) childhood ADHD. Results Men with ADHD who reported higher heavy episodic drinking or alcohol use problems at age 19, and slower decreases in alcohol use problems from age 19 to 24, were more likely to perpetrate IPV than problem drinkers without ADHD, among whom the same associations were non-significant. Associations between problem drinking and IPV were not attenuated in adults with ADHD upon controlling for antisocial personality disorder. Conclusion Study findings highlight the heightened risk of problem drinkers with ADHD perpetrating IPV. PMID:25394520

  12. Prevalence and correlates of young people's sexual aggression perpetration and victimisation in 10 European countries: a multi-level analysis.

    PubMed

    Krahé, Barbara; Berger, Anja; Vanwesenbeeck, Ine; Bianchi, Gabriel; Chliaoutakis, Joannes; Fernández-Fuertes, Andrés A; Fuertes, Antonio; de Matos, Margarida Gaspar; Hadjigeorgiou, Eleni; Haller, Birgitt; Hellemans, Sabine; Izdebski, Zbigniew; Kouta, Christiana; Meijnckens, Dwayne; Murauskiene, Liubove; Papadakaki, Maria; Ramiro, Lucia; Reis, Marta; Symons, Katrien; Tomaszewska, Paulina; Vicario-Molina, Isabel; Zygadło, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Data are presented on young people's sexual victimisation and perpetration from 10 European countries (Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Greece, Lithuania, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia and Spain) using a shared measurement tool (N = 3480 participants, aged between 18 and 27 years). Between 19.7 and 52.2% of female and between 10.1 and 55.8% of male respondents reported having experienced at least one incident of sexual victimisation since the age of consent. In two countries, victimisation rates were significantly higher for men than for women. Between 5.5 and 48.7% of male and 2.6 and 14.8% of female participants reported having engaged in a least one act of sexual aggression perpetration, with higher rates for men than for women in all countries. Victimisation rates correlated negatively with sexual assertiveness and positively with alcohol use in sexual encounters. Perpetration rates correlated positively with attitudes condoning physical dating violence and with alcohol use in men, and negatively with sexual assertiveness in women. At the country level, lower gender equality in economic power and in the work domain was related to higher male perpetration rates. Lower gender equality in political power and higher sexual assertiveness in women relative to men were linked to higher male victimisation rates. PMID:25567318

  13. Severity of abuse to pregnant women and associated gun access of the perpetrator.

    PubMed

    McFarlane, J; Soeken, K; Campbell, J; Parker, B; Reel, S; Silva, C

    1998-06-01

    To investigate the relationship between abuse to pregnant women and gun access by the abuser, an ethnically stratified cohort of 199 pregnant abused women (70 African-Americans, 63 non-Hispanic Anglo-American, and 66 Hispanic women were interviewed using: (1) The Index of Spouse Abuse, a measure of the severity of physical and nonphysical abuse; (2) The Danger Assessment Scale, a measure of potential danger of homicide; and (3) The Severity of Violence Against Women Scale, a measure of threats of violence and actual violence. There were no significant differences by ethnicity among the 41.2% of the abused women who reported that their male partner had access to a gun. Among these same women reporting gun access, 17% reported the abuser kept the gun on his body. Women reporting gun access by the abuser reported higher level of abuse on all scaled instruments (P = < 0.01). To protect women's safety and prevent further trauma and potential homicide, routine assessment for abuse and gun access is recommended. Additionally, policy initiatives to remove firearms from abuse perpetrators may reduce the severity of violence experienced by abused women. PMID:9629034

  14. School Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinkle, William G., Ed.; Henry, Stuart, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    This volume presents papers from a 1998 conference on school violence in Valparaiso, Indiana. The papers include: "What is School Violence? An Integrated Definition" (Stuart Henry); "Violence in Schools: Rage against a Broken World" (J. Scott Staples); "Listening to What the Streets Say: Vengeance as Ideology?" (Ralph Cintron); "School Violence:…

  15. Domestic Violence

    MedlinePlus

    ... AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ083 WOMEN’S HEALTH Domestic Violence • What is domestic violence? • What are the types of abuse? • How can ... available to help abused women? What is domestic violence? Domestic violence is a pattern of threatening or ...

  16. Witnessed Community and Parental Violence in Relation to Substance Use and Delinquency in a National Sample of Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Zinzow, Heidi M.; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.; Hanson, Rochelle F.; Smith, Daniel W.; Saunders, Benjamin E.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined whether witnessed community and parental violence represented risk factors for substance use and delinquency among adolescents, beyond the contribution of direct violence and other risk factors. We also examined the role of violence characteristics. Participants were a national sample of 3,614 adolescents. Structured telephone interviews assessed demographics, trauma history, witnessed violence, delinquency, and substance use. While accounting for trauma history and other risk factors, witnessed community and parental violence were associated with delinquency. Community violence was associated with substance use. Chronic violence, knowing the perpetrator, and violence outside of school were correlated with substance use and delinquency among adolescents who witnessed community violence. These findings highlight the importance of targeting witnessed violence in prevention and intervention efforts. PMID:19885872

  17. Heterogeneity within multiple perpetrator rapes: a national comparison of lone, duo, and 3+ perpetrator rapes.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Teresa; Woodhams, Jessica; Harkins, Leigh

    2014-12-01

    The effect of number of perpetrators involved in multiple perpetrator rapes on offense characteristics is underresearched despite beliefs that duos/dyads differ in their interactions and dynamics to groups of 3+ members. We analyzed a national sample of 336 allegations of completed and attempted rape of female victims from the United Kingdom. Rapes committed by multiple (duos and groups of 3+ perpetrators) and lone offenders were compared on offense characteristics (incorporating the approach, maintenance, and closure phases of each rape) and victim and offender sociodemographic characteristics. Significant differences between rapes committed by lone, duo, and 3+ group offenders were found for the age and ethnicity of the offenders; the type of approach used; the locations of the initial contact, assault, and release of the victims; the use of a vehicle; the precautions utilized; the verbal themes present; and the sex acts performed. These results have implications for educational prevention programs and interventions with offenders. PMID:24002932

  18. Gender differences in risk for intimate partner violence among South African adults.

    PubMed

    Gass, Jesse D; Stein, Dan J; Williams, David R; Seedat, Soraya

    2011-09-01

    Despite a high prevalence of intimate partner violence in South Africa, few epidemiological studies have assessed individual risk factors and differential vulnerability by gender. This study seeks to analyze gender differences in risk for intimate partner violence victimization and perpetration according to childhood and adult risk factors in a national sample of South African men and women. Using data from the cross-sectional, nationally representative South Africa Stress and Health Study, the authors examine data from 1,715 currently married or cohabiting adults on reporting of intimate partner violence. Our analysis include (a) demographic factors, (b) early life risk factors (including exposure to childhood physical abuse, witnessing parental violence, parental closeness, and early onset DSM-IV disorders), and (c) adult risk factors (including experiencing the death of a child and episodes of DSM-IV disorders after age 20). Although prevalence rates of intimate partner violence are high among both genders, women are significantly more likely than men to report being victimized (29.3% vs. 20.9%). Rates of perpetrating violence are similar for women and men (25.2% and 26.5%, respectively). Men are more likely to report predictive factors for perpetration, whereas women are more likely to report predictors for victimization. Common risk factors among men and women reporting perpetration include exposure to childhood physical abuse, witnessing parental violence, and adult onset alcohol abuse/dependence. However, risk factors in male perpetrators are more likely to include cohabitation, low income, and early and adult-onset mood disorders, whereas risk factors in female perpetrators include low educational attainment and early onset alcohol abuse/dependence. The single common risk factor for male and female victims of partner violence is witnessing parental violence. Additional risk factors for male victims are low income and lack of closeness to a primary female

  19. Dating Violence among High-Risk Young Women: A Systematic Review Using Quantitative and Qualitative Methods

    PubMed Central

    Joly, Lauren E.; Connolly, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Our systematic review identified 21 quantitative articles and eight qualitative articles addressing dating violence among high risk young women. The groups of high-risk young women in this review include street-involved, justice-involved, pregnant or parenting, involved with Child Protective Services, and youth diagnosed with a mental health issue. Our meta-analysis of the quantitative articles indicated that 34% (CI = 0.24–0.45) of high-risk young women report that they have been victims of physical dating violence and 45% (CI = 0.31–0.61) of these young women report perpetrating physical dating violence. Significant moderator variables included questionnaire and timeframe. Meta-synthesis of the qualitative studies revealed that high-risk young women report perpetrating dating violence to gain power and respect, whereas women report becoming victims of dating violence due to increased vulnerability. PMID:26840336

  20. Dating Violence among High-Risk Young Women: A Systematic Review Using Quantitative and Qualitative Methods.

    PubMed

    Joly, Lauren E; Connolly, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Our systematic review identified 21 quantitative articles and eight qualitative articles addressing dating violence among high risk young women. The groups of high-risk young women in this review include street-involved, justice-involved, pregnant or parenting, involved with Child Protective Services, and youth diagnosed with a mental health issue. Our meta-analysis of the quantitative articles indicated that 34% (CI = 0.24-0.45) of high-risk young women report that they have been victims of physical dating violence and 45% (CI = 0.31-0.61) of these young women report perpetrating physical dating violence. Significant moderator variables included questionnaire and timeframe. Meta-synthesis of the qualitative studies revealed that high-risk young women report perpetrating dating violence to gain power and respect, whereas women report becoming victims of dating violence due to increased vulnerability. PMID:26840336

  1. Women's acceptance of intimate partner violence within marriage in rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Schuler, Sidney Ruth; Islam, Farzana

    2008-03-01

    Violence against women perpetrated by husbands and male partners occurs worldwide, and an increasing number of surveys indicate that it is widely condoned. This article presents findings from a 2002 survey conducted in six rural villages in Bangladesh suggesting that an extremely high proportion of women believe that husband's use of violence against their wives is acceptable. To investigate the reliability and the psychosocial underpinnings of these survey findings, we also examine data from 110 in-depth interviews and 14 small group discussions. The results suggest that although most abused women in the study had resigned themselves to accept a certain level of violence, they did not condone it, and many abused women said that perpetrators of violence should be punished, and in some cases the punishments they suggested were harsh. We conclude by raising questions regarding the meaning of responses to commonly used questions intended to measure women's attitudes toward intimate partner violence and by discussing policy implications. PMID:18540523

  2. Rethinking gender-based violence during war: is violence against civilian men a problem worth addressing?

    PubMed

    Linos, Natalia

    2009-04-01

    Gender-based violence during conflict and post-conflict situations has received increased attention in research and in the work of development agencies. Viewed primarily as a form of violence against women, this commentary questions whether male civilians have also been victims of gender-based violence during conflict, invisible due to stereotypes surrounding masculinity and a culturally permissive approach towards violence perpetrated against men, especially at times of war. The experience of civilian males of violence, including sexual violence, during the war in Bosnia and Herzegovina and other contemporary wars, suggests that the discourse on gender-based violence and public health research should begin exploring the specific needs of men. Drawing on Nancy Krieger's (Krieger, N. (2003). Genders, sexes, and health: what are the connections-and why does it matter? International Journal of Epidemiology, 32, 652-657) analysis on the differential role of 'sex' and 'gender' on a given exposure-outcome association, this commentary suggests that the impact of gender-based violence on health during conflict may be different for men and women and may require distinct therapeutic approaches. Given that perpetrators are often male, an extra level of stigma is added when heterosexual men are sexually violated, which may lead to underreporting and reduced health-service seeking behavior. Further public health research is needed to guide the work of humanitarian agencies working with survivors of gender-based violence in conflict and post-conflict settings to ensure equal access to appropriate health services for men and women. PMID:19269726

  3. [Violence against women: an involvement of all players].

    PubMed

    Simon, Sophie

    2014-11-01

    Every year in France, 201,000 women are victims of physical and/or sexual violence perpetrated by their partner or ex-partner. At the same time, 83,000 are victims of rape or attempted rape, by a known or unknown aggressor. The impact of this violence on the health and overall quality of life of female victims is considerable. Faced with the extent of these violences, initiatives are being set up, instigated by the government and numerous players in the field. PMID:25532259

  4. The Association of Investment Model Variables and Dyadic Patterns of Physical Partner Violence: A Study of College Women.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Kristiana J; Edwards, Katie M; Gidycz, Christine A

    2016-10-01

    Previous research has examined the association between intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization experiences and investment model variables, particularly with relation to leaving intentions. However, research only has begun to explore the impact that various dyadic patterns of IPV (i.e., unidirectional victimization, unidirectional perpetration, bidirectional violence, and non-violence) have on investment model variables. Grounded in behavioral principles, the current study used a sample of college women to assess the impact that perpetration and victimization have on investment model variables. Results indicated that 69.2% of the sample was in a relationship with no IPV. Among those who reported IPV in their relationships, 11.9% reported unidirectional perpetration, 10.6% bidirectional violence, and 7.4% unidirectional victimization. Overall, the findings suggest that women's victimization (i.e., victim only and bidirectional IPV) is associated with lower levels of satisfaction and commitment, and that women's perpetration (i.e., perpetration only and bidirectional IPV) is associated with higher levels of investment. Women in bidirectionally violent relationships reported higher quality alternatives than women in non-violent relationships. The current study emphasizes the importance of considering both IPV perpetration and IPV victimization experiences when exploring women's decisions to remain in relationships. PMID:25869304

  5. Intimate partner violence: prevalence and perceptions of married men in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Fawole, Olufunmilayo L; Salawu, Tokunbo A; Olarinmoye, Esther O Asekun

    In sub-Saharan Africa rates of intimate partner violence (IPV) are high. Thus, identifying reasons for abuse is crucial in ensuring women's health. Hence, mens perception of IPV was assessed, and prevalence of abuse determined. Survey of 820 married men from six urban communities in Ibadan was done using interviewer administered questionnaire. Four focus group discussions were conducted. Lifetime prevalence of perpetration of physical abuse was 25.1%, while psychological violence was 44.4%. Two hundred and forty (29.3%) had ever perpetrated sexual violence and 23.2% economic violence. At least one of these forms of violence had been perpetrated by 44.1% of the respondents. "Being rude" (66.4%) and "insufficient care of the children" (54.3%) were common justifications for IPV. Motive of the abuse were "to make partner responsible" (60.3%) and "to obtain respect" (59.9%). Predictors of perpetrating violence were being in polygamous unions (OR 1.83, 95% CI: 1.11-3.03), consuming alcohol (AOR 1.67; 95% CI: 1.10-2.53), and being Moslem (AOR = 1.87, 95% CI: 1.21-2.910). Men with inadequate knowledge and negative attitudes had greater likelihood of perpetrating IPV (AOR = 2.11, 95% CI: 1.37-3.26 and AOR = 2.09, 95% CI: 1.33-3.27). IPV was also associated with young age. Premarital counseling on how to resolve conflict without resulting to violence and early education of boys on violence to women is recommended. PMID:21273168

  6. Characterizing Perceived Police Violence: Implications for Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Hannah; Moore, Lisa; Gruskin, Sofia; Krieger, Nancy

    2004-01-01

    Despite growing recognition of violence’s health consequences and the World Health Organization’s recent classification of police officers’ excessive use of force as a form of violence, public health investigators have produced scant research characterizing police-perpetrated abuse. Using qualitative data from a study of a police drug crackdown in 2000 in 1 New York City police precinct, we explored 40 injection drug using and 25 non–drug using precinct residents’ perceptions of and experiences with police-perpetrated abuse. Participants, particularly injection drug users and non–drug using men, reported police physical, psychological, and sexual violence and neglect; they often associated this abuse with crackdown-related tactics and perceived officer prejudice. We recommend that public health research address the prevalence, nature, and public health implications of police violence. PMID:15226128

  7. Intergenerational violence in Burundi: Experienced childhood maltreatment increases the risk of abusive child rearing and intimate partner violence

    PubMed Central

    Crombach, Anselm; Bambonyé, Manassé

    2015-01-01

    Background Experiencing abuse during childhood affects the psychological well-being of individuals throughout their lives and may even influence their offspring by enhancing the likelihood of an intergenerational transmission of violence. Understanding the effects of childhood maltreatment on child-rearing practices and intimate partner violence might be of particular importance to overcome the consequences of violent conflicts in African societies. Objective Using Burundi as an example, we aimed to explore the associations between childhood maltreatment, intimate partner violence, perceived partner intimidation, gender and the probability of violently acting out against one's own children or romantic partner. Methods Amongst a sample of 141 men and 141 women in the capital of Burundi, we identified those who had biological children and those who lived or had lived in relationships. Using culturally appropriate instruments, we enquired about their exposure to childhood maltreatment and partner violence as well as their inclinations to act out violently. Results We found that childhood maltreatment and perceived partner intimidation were strong predictors for the perpetration of violence against children. Moreover, we found that women were more likely to use violence against children if they experienced partner violence and less likely to resort to violence if they felt intimidated. Men were more likely to perpetrate violence against their partner. Childhood maltreatment was again a strong predictor. The more women experienced partner violence, the more they fought back. Conclusions Childhood maltreatment is a strong predictor for domestic violence and has to be addressed to interrupt the cycle of violence in post-conflict countries. PMID:26679146

  8. [Violence in schools, adolescents suffering].

    PubMed

    Szombat, M; François, A

    2012-01-01

    The schoolbullying is a neologism which designates " a long-term violence, physical or psychological, perpetrated by one or more attackers (bully) against a victim (bullied) in a relationship of domination "(C. Blaya). This term is primarily used to describe repeated harassment behavior in schools. This phenomenon concerns one child out of seven in schools. Difficult to detect, it can have more or less serious psychological impacts (medium or long-term effects), such as dropout or anxious school refusal, loss of self esteem, major depressive disorder, suicide, eating disorders and leakage to substance abuse or alcohol. Its therapeutic follow-up is multidisciplinary and difficult. The aim of this paper is to draw the attention of health professionals to these new phenomena of violence in order to detect them as early as possible and thus provide optimal care. PMID:22512146

  9. Does the relationship between depression and intimate partner aggression vary by gender, victim-perpetrator role, and aggression severity?

    PubMed

    Graham, Kathryn; Bernards, Sharon; Flynn, Andrea; Tremblay, Paul F; Wells, Samantha

    2012-01-01

    Research has shown a consistent link between intimate partner violence (IPV) and depression, although this association may vary by gender, role in IPV (victim, perpetrator, or bidirectional), and aggression severity. We evaluated these factors in a telephone survey of 14,063 Canadians. All three factors were found to affect the association of depression with IPV. Specifically, depression was more strongly associated with IPV by a partner (i.e., victimization) for women but with aggression toward a partner (i.e., perpetration) for men. Severity of aggression was associated with increased risk of depression for both one-sided and bidirectional aggression by a partner but more strongly for one-sided aggression toward a partner. These findings suggest that research, prevention, and treatment should focus on all roles in IPV, not just male-to-female aggression. PMID:23155723

  10. Perpetuating the cycle of violence in South African low-income communities: attraction to violence in young men exposed to continuous threat

    PubMed Central

    Hinsberger, Martina; Sommer, Jessica; Kaminer, Debra; Holtzhausen, Leon; Weierstall, Roland; Seedat, Soraya; Madikane, Solomon; Elbert, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Background Life in the low-income urban communities of South Africa is imprinted by a cycle of violence in which young males predominantly are in the roles of both victim and perpetrator. There is some evidence that adolescents who show an attraction to cruelty can display high levels of psychosocial functioning despite the presence of posttraumatic stress symptoms. However, the role of appetitive aggression in the context of ongoing threats and daily hassles is not yet fully understood. Objective In this study, we examine the role of attraction to violence in areas of continuous traumatic stress exposure and its effect on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) severity and violence perpetration. Method A sample of 290 young males from two low-income Cape Town communities was surveyed. We assessed appetitive aggression with the Appetitive Aggression Scale (AAS), PTSD symptoms with the PTSD Symptom Scale-Interview, the number of witnessed and self-experienced traumatic event types with an adaptation of the Child Exposure to Community Violence questionnaire, and the number of perpetrated violence event types with an adapted offence checklist from the AAS. Results Appetitive aggression scores were predicted by witnessed as well as self-experienced traumatic events. Higher appetitive aggression scores resulted in higher levels of PTSD severity and perpetrated violence. Conclusions Young males living in the low-income areas of South Africa may develop an attraction to cruelty in response to exposure to violence. Their willingness to fight in turn can increase the likelihood of continued violent behaviour. In contrast to previous research from postconflict areas, appetitive aggression and engagement in violence do not prevent the development of PTSD, but are instead associated with higher levels of posttraumatic stress. PTSD symptoms such as avoidance and hyperarousal, as well as an attraction to cruelty and thus the willingness to fight, might support survival in areas of

  11. The language used when reporting interfemale violence among nurses in the workplace.

    PubMed

    Hockley, C

    2000-10-01

    Violence appears to be ignored among nurses, in part, because of the metaphors and euphemisms used to identify this significant phenomenon. Nurses rarely use the term 'violence' and may use metaphors and euphemisms or generally ignore the terms usually associated with violence, such as victim, perpetrator, horizontal violence, bullying and mobbing when discussing violent behaviour among, and with, their female colleagues. The reluctance to use unequivocal language when discussing workplace violence contributes to the issue remaining poorly recognised and poorly addressed; and increases the negative impact of workplace violence on the health and wellbeing of the individual. Moreover, the language that is used to describe violence among female nurses often carries with it different connotations from those that may be common in general society. This paper draws upon data from the author's doctoral research study to report the language used to describe interfemale violence in the workplace; and the consequences of using that language. PMID:11858308

  12. Recent or imminent separation and intimate violence against women. A conceptual overview and some Canadian examples.

    PubMed

    Sev'er, A

    1997-12-01

    The link between recent or imminent separation and violence against female partners is discussed. Interviews were conducted among 87 divorced, separated and domestic violence survivors during 1985-88 to study violence perpetrated by men against their female intimate partners. Various bodies of literature are reviewed to establish the fact that separation heightens the risk of violence. The conceptual contributions of social learning and power and control theories are presented as they pertain to intimate violence against women. An expanded version of the power-and-control model is used to underscore the violence proneness of separations, especially when women initiate separations. To illustrate the expanded model, numerous Canadian examples are provided, drawn from interviews with divorced women, survivors of intimate violence, and news media reports. Finally, different strategies to break the cycle of violence are summarized. PMID:12295554

  13. Spousal violence in Bangladesh as reported by men: prevalence and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Kiersten Blair; Das, Maitreyi Bordia

    2009-06-01

    To study risk factors for perpetration of spousal violence among men in Bangladesh, self-reported Demographic and Health Surveys data from 2,780 married men using bivariate and multivariate techniques are analyzed. Of the respondents, 74% report having ever been violent toward their wives; 37% report violence in the past year. Nonnormative behaviors increase the risk for violence: Men who marry more than once, men who use drugs, and men who are unfaithful to their wives are all significantly more likely to report violence against their spouses. Egalitarian attitudes toward women do not decrease the risk for violence. However, attitudes explicitly about wife-beating are the strongest predictor of violence: Men who believe wife-beating is acceptable are more than 4 times as likely to report recent violence against their wives. While men's self-reports of spousal violence indicate that wife-beating is prevalent in Bangladesh, the results indicate opportunities for programmatic intervention. PMID:18523237

  14. Prevalence, seriousness and reporting of work-related violence in the Danish elderly care.

    PubMed

    Sharipova, Muborak; Borg, Vilhelm; Hogh, Annie

    2008-12-01

    A survey study (paper and pencil) among staff of elderly care institutions in 36 Danish municipalities (n = 9949) was conducted in 2005 with a response rate of 78%. The majority of the participants of the study were women (96%). The paper presents the prevalence, perpetrators, seriousness (self-rated seriousness, injuries, sick leave and type of violence) of work-related physical violence towards care workers in the Danish elderly care and the frequency of reporting the incidents to the safety organization. The findings show that every fourth caregiver was exposed to violence in 2005. Care personnel working in nursing homes and integrated institutions had the highest prevalence of violence (40%) and were also most often (10%) exposed to violence. Clients were most often (>90% of cases) the perpetrators. The most frequent types of violence were hitting (63%) and scratching/pinching (63%). Being held (32%) or kicked (27%) was also mentioned as frequent types of violence; use of weapon, throwing or hitting with a hard objects were more seldom. Nearly 1/3 of the exposed respondents rated at least one incident as very serious. There were significant associations between self-rated seriousness and type of violence, injuries and sick leave. The incidents were, in particular when perpetrators were clients, often rated as not serious. Only 22% of the victims of violence reported the violent incidents to the safety organizations. Reports of violent incidents were significantly associated with frequency of exposure, type of violence, physical injury, sick leave and perpetrators. The more frequent and most serious cases were reported most often and cases where the perpetrators were clients were reported less often than when perpetrators were others. It has been suggested that underreporting of violence occurs because it is time consuming, lacks supervisory support, because it won't make any difference, because it is part of the job, and also because there is a tendency to

  15. When women tell: intimate partner violence and the factors related to police notification.

    PubMed

    Novisky, Meghan A; Peralta, Robert L

    2015-01-01

    We analyze how victim perceptions of mandatory arrest policies, perpetrator substance use, and presence of children are related to decisions to invoke law enforcement assistance. Logistic regression was used on survey responses from women receiving care in domestic violence shelters. Results suggest that as victim support for mandatory arrest increases, the odds of law enforcement notification of the abuse also increase. Accordingly, mandatory arrest may simply be reducing the probability of reporting intimate partner violence (IPV) among those who do not support the policy, instead of reducing IPV. Results also suggest that perpetrator substance use plays a significant role in law enforcement notification. PMID:25540249

  16. Do Parenting Practices and Pro-social Peers Moderate the Association between Intimate Partner Violence Exposure and Teen Dating Violence?

    PubMed Central

    Garrido, Edward F.; Taussig, Heather N.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Teen dating violence (TDV) affects the lives of millions of adolescents each year. The current study examined the association between intimate partner violence (IPV) exposure and TDV perpetration and victimization. In addition, positive parenting practices and pro-social peer relationships were examined as potential moderators of the association between IPV and TDV. Method Participants were 41 adolescents (ages 12–15) and their caregivers. Youth were currently or recently in an out-of-home placement due to maltreatment. Youth reported on their exposure to violence, involvement in TDV, and association with pro-social peers. Caregivers reported on their parenting practices. Results There was a significant, positive association between IPV exposure and TDV victimization, but not between IPV and TDV perpetration. In addition, positive parenting practices and pro-social peer relationships moderated the association between IPV and TDV perpetration, such that there was a positive association between IPV exposure and TDV perpetration at lower, but not higher levels of these moderators. Similarly, there was a positive association between IPV exposure and TDV victimization at lower, but not higher levels of positive parenting practices. Conclusions These results highlight the importance positive parenting practices and pro-social peers as key protective factors that may attenuate TDV involvement for high-risk adolescents. PMID:25635230

  17. Gender Inequitable Masculinity and Sexual Entitlement in Rape Perpetration South Africa: Findings of a Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Jewkes, Rachel; Sikweyiya, Yandisa; Morrell, Robert; Dunkle, Kristin

    2011-01-01

    Objective To describe the prevalence and patterns of rape perpetration in a randomly selected sample of men from the general adult population, to explore factors associated with rape and to describe how men explained their acts of rape. Design Cross-sectional household study with a two- stage randomly selected sample of men. Methods 1737 South African men aged 18–49 completed a questionnaire administered using an Audio-enhanced Personal Digital Assistant. Multivariable logistic regression models were built to identify factors associated with rape perpetration. Results In all 27.6% (466/1686) of men had raped a woman, whether an intimate partner, stranger or acquaintance, and whether perpetrated alone or with accomplices, and 4.7% had raped in the last 12 months. First rapes for 75% were perpetrated before age 20, and 53.9% (251) of those raping, did so on multiple occasions. The logistic regression model showed that having raped was associated with greater adversity in childhood, having been raped by a man and higher maternal education. It was associated with less equitable views on gender relations, having had more partners, and many more gender inequitable practices including transactional sex and physical partner violence. Also drug use, gang membership and a higher score on the dimensions of psychopathic personality, namely blame externalisation and Machiavellian egocentricity. Asked about why they did it, the most common motivations stemmed from ideas of sexual entitlement. Conclusions Perpetration of rape is so prevalent that population-based measures of prevention are essential to complement criminal justice system responses. Our findings show the importance of measures to build gender equity and change dominant ideas of masculinity and gender relations as part of rape prevention. Reducing men's exposure to trauma in childhood is also critically important. PMID:22216324

  18. Developmental Timing and Continuity of Exposure to Interparental Violence and Externalizing Behavior as Prospective Predictors of Dating Violence

    PubMed Central

    Narayan, Angela J.; Englund, Michelle M.; Egeland, Byron

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the prospective pathways of children's exposure to interparental violence (EIPV) in early and middle childhood and externalizing behavior in middle childhood and adolescence as developmental predictors of dating violence perpetration and victimization at ages 23 and 26 years. Participants (N = 168) were drawn from a longitudinal study of low-income families. Path analyses examined whether timing or continuity of EIPV predicted dating violence and whether timing or continuity of externalizing behavior mediated these pathways. Results indicated that EIPV in early childhood directly predicted perpetration and victimization at age 23. There were significant indirect effects from EIPV to dating violence through externalizing behavior in adolescence and life stress at age 23. Independent of EIPV, externalizing behavior in middle childhood also predicted dating violence through externalizing behavior in adolescence and life stress at age 23, but this pathway stemmed from maltreatment. These results highlight that the timing of EIPV and both the timing and continuity of externalizing behavior are critical risks for the intergenerational transmission of dating violence. Findings support a developmental perspective that negative early experiences and children's externalizing behavior are powerful influences for dating violence in early adulthood. PMID:24229543

  19. Developmental timing and continuity of exposure to interparental violence and externalizing behavior as prospective predictors of dating violence.

    PubMed

    Narayan, Angela J; Englund, Michelle M; Egeland, Byron

    2013-11-01

    This study investigated the prospective pathways of children's exposure to interparental violence (EIPV) in early and middle childhood and externalizing behavior in middle childhood and adolescence as developmental predictors of dating violence perpetration and victimization at ages 23 and 26 years. Participants (N = 168) were drawn from a longitudinal study of low-income families. Path analyses examined whether timing or continuity of EIPV predicted dating violence and whether timing or continuity of externalizing behavior mediated these pathways. Results indicated that EIPV in early childhood directly predicted perpetration and victimization at age 23. There were significant indirect effects from EIPV to dating violence through externalizing behavior in adolescence and life stress at age 23. Independent of EIPV, externalizing behavior in middle childhood also predicted dating violence through externalizing behavior in adolescence and life stress at age 23, but this pathway stemmed from maltreatment. These results highlight that the timing of EIPV and both the timing and the continuity of externalizing behavior are critical risks for the intergenerational transmission of dating violence. The findings support a developmental perspective that negative early experiences and children's externalizing behavior are powerful influences for dating violence in early adulthood. PMID:24229543

  20. Preliminary evaluation of an analog procedure to assess acceptability of intimate partner violence against women: the Partner Violence Acceptability Movie Task

    PubMed Central

    Gracia, Enrique; Rodriguez, Christina M.; Lila, Marisol

    2015-01-01

    Acceptability of partner violence against women is a risk factor linked to its perpetration, and to public, professionals’ and victims’ responses to this behavior. Research on the acceptability of violence in intimate partner relationships is, however, limited by reliance solely on self-reports that often provide distorted or socially desirable accounts that may misrepresent respondents’ attitudes. This study presents data on the development and initial validation of a new analog task assessing respondents’ acceptability of physical violence toward women in intimate relationships: the Partner Violence Acceptability Movie Task (PVAM). This new analog task is intended to provide a more implicit measure of the acceptability of partner violence against women. For this analog task, clips were extracted from commercially available films (90-s segments) portraying partner violence. Two independent samples were used to develop and evaluate the PVAM: a sample of 245 undergraduate students and a sample of 94 male intimate partner violence offenders. This new analog task demonstrated acceptable internal consistency. Results also indicated adequate construct validity. Both perpetrators and undergraduates scoring high in the PVAM also scored higher in self-reported justifications of partner abuse. Perpetrators of partner violence scored significantly higher in acceptability of partner violence than the undergraduate sample (both male and female students), and male students scored higher than females. These preliminary results suggest that the PVAM may be a promising tool to assess the acceptability of violence in intimate partner relationships, highlighting the need to consider alternatives to self-report to evaluate potential beliefs about partner violence. PMID:26528220

  1. Intimate partner violence: childhood exposure to domestic violence.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ping-Hsin; Jacobs, Abbie; Rovi, Susan L D

    2013-09-01

    Children who are exposed to domestic violence (DV) may experience many short- and long-term negative effects. They are up to 3.8 times more likely to become perpetrators or victims in adulthood than are children not exposed to DV. They also are at high risk of health problems, risky health behaviors, violence, and social functioning problems. Girls who witness intimate partner violence (IPV) are more likely to experience depression, anxiety, and trauma symptoms, and boys exposed to IPV are more likely to exhibit aggression and delinquent behaviors. To prepare the practice to identify and assist children exposed to DV, physicians should undergo training, implement screening protocols, use caution when documenting findings, collaborate with local agencies, and learn about the state's reporting laws. State and local DV service programs or other community resources can provide assessment and intervention assistance. Social workers, mental health professionals, and child and DV advocates can assist in providing treatment for children exposed to violence. Physicians should schedule follow-up appointments for children who need treatment, monitor behavior, and coordinate intervention services. PMID:24053262

  2. Examining the Prevalence, Bidirectionality, and Co-Occurrence of Sexual Intimate Partner Violence among Women During Pregnancy and Postpartum

    PubMed Central

    Hellmuth, Julianne C.; Jaquier, Véronique; Gordon, Kristina Coop; Moore, Todd M.; Stuart, Gregory L.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This longitudinal study examined the prevalence of women’s sexual intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration, the extent to which women experienced both sexual IPV victimization and perpetration, and the overlap between women’s experiences of sexual IPV with psychological and physical IPV victimization and perpetration. Methods Data were collected via self-report survey from 180 women during the first 18 weeks of pregnancy and 122 participants completed follow-up assessments at six weeks postpartum. Results At both time points, the prevalence of sexual IPV victimization and perpetration were similar in this sample. Bidirectional sexual IPV was more common than sexual IPV victimization or perpetration only. The majority of participants who experienced sexual IPV victimization at baseline and follow-up also experienced psychological or physical IPV victimization. No participants at either time point reported sexual IPV perpetration only, those participants who perpetrated sexual IPV also perpetrated psychological or physical IPV. Conclusions Future research should investigate women’s sexual IPV victimization and perpetration as they relate to other areas of mental and physical health during this time period. PMID:25664145

  3. Couples' marijuana use is inversely related to their intimate partner violence over the first 9 years of marriage.

    PubMed

    Smith, Philip H; Homish, Gregory G; Collins, R Lorraine; Giovino, Gary A; White, Helene R; Leonard, Kenneth E

    2014-09-01

    Research on the association between marijuana use and intimate partner violence (IPV) has generated inconsistent findings, and has been primarily based on cross-sectional data. We examined whether husbands' and wives' marijuana use predicted both husbands' and wives' IPV perpetration over the first 9 years of marriage (Wave 1, n = 634 couples). We also examined moderation by antisocial behavior, the spouse's marijuana use, and whether IPV was reported during the year before marriage. These predictive associations were calculated using a time-lagged multivariate generalized multilevel model, simultaneously estimating predictors of husband and wife IPV. In fully adjusted models, we found that more frequent marijuana use by husbands and wives predicted less frequent IPV perpetration by husbands. Husbands' marijuana use also predicted less frequent IPV perpetration by wives. Moderation analyses demonstrated that couples in which both spouses used marijuana frequently reported the least frequent IPV perpetration. There was a significant positive association between wives' marijuana use and wives' IPV perpetration, but only among wives who had already reported IPV perpetration during the year before marriage. These findings suggest there may be an overall inverse association between marijuana use and IPV perpetration in newly married couples, although use may be associated with greater risk of perpetration among women with a history of IPV perpetration. PMID:25134048

  4. Murder misdiagnosed as SIDS: a perpetrator's perspective

    PubMed Central

    Stanton, J; Simpson, A

    2001-01-01

    AIMS—Child murder misdiagnosed as sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is a difficult area to study. We present a perpetrator's descriptions to enrich clinicians' knowledge of possible presenting features of this phenomenon.
METHODS—Interview material was collected as part of a qualitative study of maternal filicide performed from a naturalistic paradigm in order to access the perpetrators' view of events. The woman participant has been convicted for three child murders and two attempted murders which were initially misdiagnosed as SIDS. Interviews were done in the participant's home with her partner present, while she was on leave from prison. Semi-structured interviews were conducted, recorded, transcribed, and analysed for themes. Specific ethical permission was gained to present this case in isolation and the paper was written in consultation with the woman described.
RESULTS—She described initial intense attachment to her first victim and described killing her because she was unable to bear her apnoea attacks and her fear of losing her. She described difficulty grieving for this child and subsequent failure to attach to her next child or feel for the other victims.
CONCLUSIONS—Expressions of intense attachment to an infant and description of intense grief over a death in a way which engages compassion should not deter a paediatrician from considering the possibility of the parent having killed the child.

 PMID:11719326

  5. We Shared Something Special: The Moral Discourse of Incest Perpetrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilgun, Jane F.

    1995-01-01

    Analyzed narrative accounts of incest perpetrators (10 men, 1 woman) using the concepts of justice and care. Almost all perpetrators defined incest as love and care and viewed their behavior as considerate and fair, although this care and love were contradicted by adults' refusal to stop when children wanted them to stop. (RJM)

  6. Cross-Type Recidivism among Child Maltreatment Victims and Perpetrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonson-Reid, Melissa; Drake, Brett; Chung, Sulki; Way, Ineke

    2003-01-01

    A study investigated the extent to which child maltreatment victims (n=61,693) and perpetrators (n=39,143) were reported for different types of maltreatment over time and service variables associated with recidivism. There was substantial cross-type recidivism at both the child and perpetrator levels, with neglect being the most common recidivism…

  7. Men's Alcohol Intoxication and Condom Use during Sexual Assault Perpetration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Kelly Cue; Kiekel, Preston A.; Schraufnagel, Trevor J.; Norris, Jeanette; George, William H.; Kajumulo, Kelly F.

    2012-01-01

    We assessed the association between alcohol consumption and condom use during penetrative sexual assault acts perpetrated by young adult men. Men aged 21 to 35 who reported inconsistent condom use and heavy episodic drinking (N = 225) completed a questionnaire assessing their perpetration of sexual assault since the age of 15, their consumption of…

  8. Domestic violence

    MedlinePlus

    Domestic violence is when a person uses abusive behavior to control a partner or other family member. The ... of any age, sex, culture, or class. When domestic violence is aimed at a child, it is called ...

  9. Dating Violence

    MedlinePlus

    ... Parents of Teens Crime, Teens, and Trauma Assault Bullying and Harassment Child Sexual Abuse Dating Violence Sexual ... Parents of Teens Crime, Teens, and Trauma Assault Bullying and Harassment Child Sexual Abuse Dating Violence Sexual ...

  10. Teen Violence

    MedlinePlus

    Teen violence refers to harmful behaviors that can start early and continue into young adulthood. The young ... death. An important risk factor for violence in teens is the behavior of their friends and classmates. ...

  11. Recent Violence in a Community-Based Sample of Homeless and Unstably Housed Women With High Levels of Psychiatric Comorbidity

    PubMed Central

    Riley, Elise D.; Cohen, Jennifer; Knight, Kelly R.; Decker, Alyson; Marson, Kara; Shumway, Martha

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We determined associations between co-occurring psychiatric conditions and violence against homeless and unstably housed women. Methods Between 2008 and 2010, we interviewed homeless and unstably housed women recruited from community venues about violence, socioeconomic factors, and psychiatric conditions. We used multivariable logistic regression to determine independent correlates of violence. Results Among 291 women, 97% screened positive for 1 or more psychiatric conditions. Types of violence perpetrated by primary partners and persons who were not primary partners (non–primary partners) included emotional violence (24% vs 50%; P < .01), physical violence (11% vs 19%; P < .01), and sexual violence (7% vs 22%; P <.01). The odds of primary partner and non–primary partner violence increased with each additional psychiatric diagnosis and decreasing levels of social isolation. Conclusions All types of violence were more commonly perpetrated by non– primary partners, suggesting that an exclusive focus on domestic violence screening in health care or social service settings will miss most of the violence in this population. Contrary to some previous studies, the odds of violence decreased as social isolation increased, suggesting that social isolation may be protective in homeless and unstably housed communities with high levels of comorbidity and limited options. PMID:25033127

  12. Bullying Predicts Reported Dating Violence and Observed Qualities in Adolescent Dating Relationships.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Wendy E; Wolfe, David A

    2015-10-01

    The relationship between reported bullying, reported dating violence, and dating relationship quality measured through couple observations was examined. Given past research demonstrating similarity between peer and dating contexts, we expected that bullying would predict negative dating experiences. Participants with dating experience (n = 585; 238 males, M(age) = 15.06) completed self-report assessments of bullying and dating violence perpetration and victimization. One month later, 44 opposite-sex dyads (M(age) = 15.19) participated in behavioral observations. In 10-min sessions, couples were asked to rank and discuss areas of relationship conflict while being video-recorded. Qualities of the relationship were later coded by trained observers. Regression analysis revealed that bullying positively predicted dating violence perpetration and victimization. Self-reported bullying also predicted observations of lower relationship support and higher withdrawal. Age and gender interactions further qualified these findings. The bullying of boys, but not girls, was significantly related to dating violence perpetration. Age interactions showed that bullying was positively predictive of dating violence perpetration and victimization for older, but not younger adolescents. Positive affect was also negatively predicted by bullying, but only for girls. These findings add to the growing body of evidence that adolescents carry forward strategies learned in the peer context to their dating relationships. PMID:25355858

  13. The Impact of Childhood Emotional Abuse on Violence among People Who Inject Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Lake, Stephanie; Wood, Evan; Dong, Huiru; Dobrer, Sabina; Montaner, Julio; Kerr, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Introduction and Aims Childhood emotional abuse is a known risk factor for various poor social and health outcomes. While people who inject drugs (IDU) report high levels of violence, in addition to high rates of childhood maltreatment, the relationship between childhood emotional abuse and later life violence within this population has not been examined. Design and Methods Cross-sectional data were derived from an open prospective cohort of IDU in Vancouver, Canada. Childhood emotional abuse was measured using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. We used multivariate logistic regression to examine potential associations between childhood emotional abuse and being a recent victim or perpetrator of violence. Results Between December 2005 and May 2013, 1437 IDU were eligible for inclusion in this analysis, including 465 (32.4%) women. In total, 689 (48.0%) reported moderate to severe history of childhood emotional abuse, while 333 (23.2%) reported being a recent victim of violence and 173 (12.0%) reported being a recent perpetrator of violence. In multivariate analysis, being a victim of violence (adjusted odds ratio = 1.49, 95% confidence interval 1.15–1.94) and being a perpetrator of violence (adjusted odds ratio = 1.58, 95% confidence interval 1.12–2.24) remained independently associated with childhood emotional abuse. Discussion and Conclusions We found high rates of childhood emotional abuse and subsequent adult violence among this sample of IDU. Emotional abuse was associated with both victimisation and perpetration of violence. These findings highlight the need for policies and programs that address both child abuse and historical emotional abuse among adult IDU. PMID:24635836

  14. Violence or Nonviolence: Which do We Choose?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schafer, John

    2005-01-01

    A large mass of research on violence now exists, yet the utilitarian value of this vast amount of scientific endeavor may be rated as low, comparing it to the levels of violence at all levels abounding in the world today. The author calls for centralizing funding and work on violence at the national level in the United States, perhaps forming a…

  15. Youth violence in the city: the role of educational interventions.

    PubMed

    Greene, M B

    1998-04-01

    Interpersonal violence is a major cause of ill health in urban communities and a significant social and political problem. The epidemiology of interpersonal violence is summarized, highlighting the fact the youth are overrepresented as victims and perpetrators of violence. General areas of agreement and disagreement about programmatic approaches to reducing youth violence are summarized, emphasizing that the most effective programs are comprehensive and integrated and incorporate multiple strategies at multiple levels in multiple settings. Four types of educational strategies to reduce youth violence are summarized: conflict management skills training, youth-operated programs, psychoeducational strategies, and family-based educational strategies. Exemplars of each are presented, and their strengths and weaknesses are discussed. Strategies to implement effective programs are summarized, and the policy and program planning implications of what is known are discussed. PMID:9548059

  16. Intergenerational transmission of partner violence: a 20-year prospective study.

    PubMed

    Ehrensaft, Miriam K; Cohen, Patricia; Brown, Jocelyn; Smailes, Elizabeth; Chen, Henian; Johnson, Jeffrey G

    2003-08-01

    An unselected sample of 543 children was followed over 20 years to test the independent effects of parenting, exposure to domestic violence between parents (ETDV), maltreatment, adolescent disruptive behavior disorders, and emerging adult substance abuse disorders (SUDs) on the risk of violence to and from an adult partner. Conduct disorder (CD) was the strongest risk for perpetrating partner violence for both sexes, followed by ETDV, and power assertive punishment. The effect of child abuse was attributable to these 3 risks. ETDV conferred the greatest risk of receiving partner violence; CD increased the odds of receiving partner violence but did not mediate this effect. Child physical abuse and CD in adolescence were strong independent risks for injury to a partner. SUD mediated the effect of adolescent CD on injury to a partner but not on injury by a partner. Prevention implications are highlighted. PMID:12924679

  17. Junior nursing students' experiences of vertical violence during clinical rotations.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Sandra P; Burk, Renee

    2009-01-01

    Horizontal violence is a form of workplace violence, a phenomenon that is prevalent in the nursing profession. Research has revealed a variety of negative peer-to-peer behaviors that lower morale and lead to turnover. However, little research has been conducted on "eating our young" (violence occurring between individuals with unequal power, such as staff nurse and student). We propose "vertical violence" as the appropriate term when abusive registered nurse (RN) behavior is directed towards students. We report a content analysis of stories written by junior nursing students about incidents of injustice perpetrated by staff RNs during their clinical experiences. Four levels of injustice were described. Nursing leadership, both in hospitals and educational institutions, must become engaged in efforts to eradicate vertical violence towards students. PMID:19631065

  18. Balancing Risks and Rewards: The Logic of Violence

    PubMed Central

    Broom, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Violence is widespread throughout the natural world, prominent examples being predatory violence between species, seasonal violent competition for mating rights and territories within species and food competition both within and between species. These interactions are generally between unrelated individuals with no social connection. There are, however, examples of violent behaviour which occurs within groups of individuals who otherwise cooperate to live, have significant social bonds and may also be related, and that is the primary focus of this paper. Examples are in the establishment and maintenance of dominance hierarchies, or in infanticide, where (usually) incoming males attempt to kill existing infants in a group. Such violence can seem paradoxical, but in fact is often perfectly logical for the individual perpetrating the violence, as distinct from the group as a whole. We discuss such situations from the perspective of evolutionary game theory, and also consider wider questions of interspecific violence. PMID:19949470

  19. Media violence.

    PubMed

    Cantor, J

    2000-08-01

    Research on the effects of media violence is not well understood by the general public. Despite this fact, there is an overwhelming consensus in the scientific literature about the unhealthy effects of media violence. Meta-analyses show that media-violence viewing consistently is associated with higher levels of antisocial behavior, ranging from the trivial (imitative violence directed against toys) to the serious (criminal violence), with many consequential outcomes in between (acceptance of violence as a solution to problems, increased feelings of hostility, and the apparent delivery of painful stimulation to another person). Desensitization is another well-documented effect of viewing violence, which is observable in reduced arousal and emotional disturbance while witnessing violence, the reduced tendency to intervene in a fight, and less sympathy for the victims of violence. Although there is evidence that youth who are already violent are more likely to seek out violent entertainment, there is strong evidence that the relationship between violence viewing and antisocial behavior is bidirectional. There is growing evidence that media violence also engenders intense fear in children which often lasts days, months, and even years. The media's potential role in solutions to these problems is only beginning to be explored, in investigations examining the uses and effects of movie ratings, television ratings, and the V-chip, and the effects of media literacy programs and public education efforts. Future research should explore important individual differences in responses to media violence and effective ways to intervene in the negative effects. PMID:10904203

  20. School Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schonfeld, Irvin Sam

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is threefold. First, the chapter summarizes what is known about the prevalence of violence and weapons in U.S. schools. Second, the chapter examines theories that bear on school violence and the empirical evidence linked to those theories. Third, the chapter looks at attempts to prevent school violence and,…

  1. Neighborhood Factors and Dating Violence Among Youth

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Renee M.; Parker, Elizabeth M.; Rinehart, Jenny; Nail, Jennifer; Rothman, Emily F.

    2015-01-01

    Context The purpose of this review is to summarize the empirical research on neighborhood-level factors and dating violence among adolescents and emerging adults to guide future research and practice. Evidence acquisition In 2015, 20 articles were identified through a search of the literature using PubMed. Eligible articles included those that: (1) had been published in a peer-reviewed journal since 2005; (2) reported a measure of association between at least one neighborhood-level factor and dating violence; and (3) had a study population of youth aged <26 years. We abstracted information about the studies, including measurement of dating violence and neighborhood factors, and measures of effect. Evidence synthesis Results were summarized into three categories based on the aspect of neighborhood which was the focus of the work: demographic and structural characteristics (n=11), neighborhood disorder (n=12), and social disorganization (n=8). There was some evidence to suggest that neighborhood disadvantage is associated with dating violence, but very little evidence to suggest that residence characteristics (e.g., racial heterogeneity) are associated with dating violence. Results do suggest that perceived neighborhood disorder is associated with physical dating violence perpetration, but do not suggest that it is associated with physical dating violence victimization. Social control and community connectedness are both associated with dating violence, but findings on collective efficacy are mixed. Conclusions Existing research suggests that neighborhood factors may be associated with dating violence. However, there is a limited body of research on the neighborhood context of dating violence and more rigorous research is needed. PMID:26296444

  2. Childhood maltreatment and intimate partner violence in dissociative disorder patients

    PubMed Central

    Webermann, Aliya R.; Brand, Bethany L.; Chasson, Gregory S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Childhood maltreatment (CM) is a risk factor for subsequent intimate partner violence (IPV) in adulthood, with high rates of retrospectively reported CM among IPV victims and perpetrators. A theorized mechanism of the link between CM and IPV is dissociation. Dissociation may allow perpetrators of violence to remain emotionally distant from their behavior and minimize empathy toward those they victimize, enabling them to commit acts of violence similar to their own experiences. Indeed, elevated rates of dissociation and dissociative disorders (DD) have been found among IPV survivors and perpetrators. In addition, in pilot studies, DD clinicians have reported high levels of violent behavior among DD patients. Objective The present study investigates IPV among DD patients with Dissociative Identity Disorder and Dissociative Disorder Not Otherwise Specified, a group with CM rates of 80–95% and severe dissociative symptoms. Methods DD clinicians reported on rates of CM and IPV among 275 DD patients in outpatient treatment. DD patients also completed a self-report measure of dissociation. Analyses assessed the associations between CM typologies and IPV, as well as trait dissociation and IPV. Results Physical and emotional child abuse were associated with physical IPV, and childhood witnessing of domestic violence (DV) and childhood neglect were associated with emotional IPV. Conclusions The present study is the first to provide empirical support for a possible CM to adult IPV developmental trajectory among DD patients. Future research is needed to better understand the link between CM and IPV among those with trauma and DD. PMID:25279109

  3. Sexual Assault Perpetrators' Justifications for Their Actions: Relationships to Rape Supportive Attitudes, Incident Characteristics, and Future Perpetration.

    PubMed

    Wegner, Rhiana; Abbey, Antonia; Pierce, Jennifer; Pegram, Sheri E; Woerner, Jacqueline

    2015-08-01

    Perpetrators use rape supportive attitudes and sexual assault incident characteristics to justify forcing sex on their victims. Perpetrators who can justify their behaviors are at increased risk for future perpetration. This study examined the relationships between rape supportive attitudes, sexual assault incident characteristics, and the post-assault justifications of 183 men sampled from the community who self-reported committing at least one act of sexual aggression. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses indicated that rape supportive attitudes, expectations for having sex, misperceptions of sexual intent, victims' alcohol consumption, attempts to be alone with her, and the number of consensual sexual activities prior to the unwanted sex were significant predictors of perpetrators' post-assault use of justifications. Greater use of justifications was a significant predictor of sexual aggression over a 1-year follow-up interval. These findings demonstrate the need for further research exploring when and why perpetrators use post-assault justifications and whether they are amenable to change. PMID:26056162

  4. Physical violence against health care workers: A nationwide study from Iran

    PubMed Central

    Fallahi-Khoshknab, Masoud; Oskouie, Fatemeh; Najafi, Fereshteh; Ghazanfari, Nahid; Tamizi, Zahra; Afshani, Shahla

    2016-01-01

    Background: Workplace violence is a serious and problematic phenomenon in health care settings. Research shows that health care workers are at the highest risk of such violence. The aim of this study was to address the frequency of physical violence against Iranian health personnel, their response to such violence, as well as the contributing factors to physical violence. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2011, in which 6500 out of 57,000 health personnel working in some teaching hospitals were selected using multi-stage random sampling. Data were collected using the questionnaire of “Workplace Violence in the Health Sector” developed by the International Labor Organization, the International Council of Nurses, the World Health Organization, and the Public Services International. Results: The findings revealed that 23.5% of the participants were exposed to physical violence in the 12 months prior to the study. Nurses were the main victims of physical violence (78%) and patients' families were the main perpetrators of violence (56%). The most common reaction of victims to physical violence was asking the aggressor to stop violence (45%). Lack of people's knowledge of employees' tasks was the most common contributing factor to physical violence (49.2%). Conclusions: Based on the results, legislating appropriate laws in order to prevent and control violence in the workplace is necessary. Moreover, developing educational programs to manage the incidence of physical violence should be on health centers' agenda. PMID:27186199

  5. Expect respect support groups: preliminary evaluation of a dating violence prevention program for at-risk youth.

    PubMed

    Ball, Barbara; Tharp, Andra Teten; Noonan, Rita K; Valle, Linda Anne; Hamburger, Merle E; Rosenbluth, Barri

    2012-07-01

    Expect Respect support groups, a selective prevention strategy, are designed to prevent and reduce dating violence among at-risk middle and high school students. This preliminary, uncontrolled evaluation examined changes in healthy relationship skills and emotionally and physically abusive behaviors in participants' peer and dating relationships. Self-reports (N = 144) showed significant increases in healthy relationship skills from baseline to program completion, whereas levels of victimization and perpetration remained unchanged. A subgroup of students who reported baseline levels of victimization and perpetration with means at least one standard deviation above the group mean reported significantly less victimization and perpetration at program completion. PMID:22872708

  6. Relation of Intimate Partner Violence to Salivary Cortisol among Couples Expecting a First Child

    PubMed Central

    Feinberg, Mark E.; Jones, Damon E.; Granger, Douglas A.; Bontempo, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Despite advances in understanding the role that several physiological systems play in the occurrence of general violence, little progress has been made toward understanding biological correlates of Intimate Partner Violence (IPV). We explored involvement of one physiological system, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Among 137 heterosexual couples expecting a first child, baseline level of HPA activity -- assessed via salivary cortisol collected before a couple conflict discussion -- was linked to both men’s and women’s violence perpetration. HPA reactivity to the conflict bout did not show an independent association with IPV. However, persisting elevation in men’s, and down-regulation in women’s, HPA activity during a further recovery period was linked to men’s violence perpetration. PMID:21830223

  7. Questioning dehumanization: intersubjective dimensions of violence in the Nazi concentration and death camps.

    PubMed

    Lang, Johannes

    2010-01-01

    Using the violence in Nazi concentration and death camps as its case study, this article explores the theoretical and empirical limits of the concept of dehumanization-the process by which the perpetrators come to perceive their victims as "not human" or "subhuman"-and delineates appropriate alternatives to the concept. The author argues that excessive violence is commonly misunderstood and misrepresented as dehumanization because it seems to aim at effacing the victim's human appearance. Yet, it is more accurate to see such violence as a ploy to extend the perpetrator's sense of power over another human being; it is precisely the human quality of the interaction that provides the violence with much of its meaning. The argument has a moral edge, demonstrating that the concept ultimately reduces, or displaces, the true horror of the killer-victim interaction. PMID:20681107

  8. TEEN DATING VIOLENCE: THE INFLUENCE OF FRIENDSHIPS AND SCHOOL CONTEXT

    PubMed Central

    Giordano, Peggy C.; Kaufman, Angela; Manning, Wendy D.; Longmore, Monica A.

    2015-01-01

    Prior research has examined parental and peer influences on teen dating violence (TDV), but fewer studies have explored the role of broader social contexts. Using data from the Toledo Adolescent Relationships Study (TARS), the present research examines the effect of variations in school context on teen dating violence perpetration, while taking into account parental, peer, and demographic factors. Drawing on interview data from 955 adolescents across 32 different schools, results indicate that net of parents’ and friends’ use of violence, the normative climate of schools, specifically school-level teen dating violence, is a significant predictor of respondents’ own violence perpetration. School-level dating norms (non-exclusivity in relationships) also contribute indirectly to the odds of experiencing TDV. However, a more general measure of school-level violence toward friends is not strongly related to variations in TDV, suggesting the need to focus on domain-specific influences. Implications for theories emphasizing social learning processes and for TDV prevention efforts are discussed. PMID:26412905

  9. Corruption: Engineers are Victims, Perpetrators or Both?

    PubMed

    Pecujlija, M; Cosic, I; Nesic-Grubic, L; Drobnjak, S

    2015-08-01

    This study was conducted in Serbian companies on licensed engineers and in its first part included a total of 336 licensed engineers who voluntarily completed the questionnaires about their ethical orientation and attitudes toward corruption and in the second part 214 engineers who participated in the first survey, who voluntarily evaluated their company's business operations characteristics. This study has clearly shown that there is a direct significant influence of the engineer's ethical orientations and attitudes toward corruption on their evaluation of the characteristics of their respective companies regarding business operations. This research also clearly shows that only engineers with a strong deontological orientation, low ethical subjectivity, and strong readiness to fight corruption, low corruption acceptance and high awareness of corruption can successfully fight corruption, improve the business operations of their companies and make beneficial changes to society. Otherwise, they should be considered as corruption perpetrators, not just as its victims. PMID:24935245

  10. Assaults on Inmates and Staff by Perpetrators of Intimate Partner Homicide: An Examination of Competing Hypotheses.

    PubMed

    Sorensen, Jonathan R; Vigen, Mark P; Woods, S O; Williams, Bradley D

    2015-11-01

    The current study presents the results of an analysis of serious and assaultive prison rule violating behavior among male perpetrators of intimate partner homicide (IPH). Data on prison rule violations were collected from a sample of 189 inmates convicted of IPH in a large, southern prison system. The study focused on the degree of continuity in violent behavior among IPH offenders from the community to the prison setting. The current study tested hypotheses derived from both the feminist perspective (FP) and the general violence perspective (GVP). As a group, IPH offenders were better behaved in prison than other incarcerated homicide offenders, thereby offering some support for the FP. However, the lower level of assaultive behavior among the group was not universal. Characteristics associated with continued violent offending in the prison environment were the same as those found in previous studies of incarcerated homicide offenders, thereby lending greater support to the GVP. PMID:25516133

  11. The violent female perpetrator and her victim.

    PubMed

    Weizmann-Henelius, Ghitta; Viemerö, Vappu; Eronen, Markku

    2003-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between violent female offenders and their victims as well as the putative differences in the motives and specific psychological factors among three groups of female offenders: women who have victimised someone closely related to them, those who have victimised an acquaintance and lastly women who have victimised a stranger. More than half (N=61) of all violent female offenders hospitalised or incarcerated in Finland during the year of study were interviewed and assessed by Structured Clinical Interview II for DSM-IV (SCID-II) and Hare's Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R). In 34% of the cases the victims were persons close to the offender, in 41% the victims were acquaintances and in 25% strangers. The victims in homicide offences were more often both male and closer to the perpetrator than in assault offences. Although motives were related to interpersonal problems, self-defence and long-term physical or psychological abuse were reported by only a few women, even for the small proportion of women whose victims were intimate partners. The most frequent reason for offences stemmed from confrontational situations in connection with alcohol use. Women who victimised acquaintances and strangers were also more likely to have a history of criminality and substance abuse than women who victimised those in close personal relationships. The latter were also more likely to have an antisocial personality disorder (PD) and psychopathic characteristics. There were, however, no significant differences found between those who had experienced physical or psychological abuse in childhood or adulthood and those who had no adverse experiences. These findings suggest that the violent behaviour by females leads more often to the death of the victim, when the victim is closely related to the perpetrator. The commonly-held view that violent female offending occurs primarily as a consequence of precipitation by the victim was

  12. Female child perpetrators: children who molest other children.

    PubMed

    Johnson, T C

    1989-01-01

    Little is known about sexual perpetration by females or by young children. This paper describes the sexual perpetration behavior of 13 female child perpetrators between 4 and 13 years of age. These children were treated in a specially designed program for child perpetrators, the Support Program for Abuse-Reactive Kids (SPARK) at Children's Institute International of Los Angeles, California. All of these girls used force or coercion to gain the compliance of the other child or children. Of these child perpetrators, 100% had been previously sexually abused; 31% had been physically abused; 85% were molested by family members; 77% of the girls chose a victim in their family (the other 3 girls had no available family members). The mean age of their first known perpetration was 6 years, 9 months. The average age of their victims was 4 years, 4 months. The average number of victims of these girls was 3.5 with a range of 1 to 15. The girls victimized two times more boys than girls. There was a history of sexual, physical, and substance abuse in the families of these children. Hypotheses regarding the genesis of the sexually abusive behavior in these female child perpetrators are explored. PMID:2819533

  13. Childhood maltreatment and violence: mediation through psychiatric morbidity.

    PubMed

    González, Rafael A; Kallis, Constantinos; Ullrich, Simone; Barnicot, Kirsten; Keers, Robert; Coid, Jeremy W

    2016-02-01

    Childhood maltreatment is associated with multiple adverse outcomes in adulthood including poor mental health and violence. We investigated direct and indirect pathways from childhood maltreatment to adult violence perpetration and the explanatory role of psychiatric morbidity. Analyses were based on a population survey of 2,928 young men 21-34 years in Great Britain in 2011, with boost surveys of black and minority ethnic groups and lower social grades. Respondents completed questionnaires measuring psychiatric diagnoses using standardized screening instruments, including antisocial personality disorder (ASPD), drug and alcohol dependence and psychosis. Maltreatment exposures included childhood physical abuse, neglect, witnessing domestic violence and being bullied. Adult violence outcomes included: any violence, violence toward strangers and intimate partners (IPV), victim injury and minor violence. Witnessing domestic violence showed the strongest risk for adult violence (AOR 2.70, 95% CI 2.00, 3.65) through a direct pathway, with psychotic symptoms and ASPD as partial mediators. Childhood physical abuse was associated with IPV (AOR 2.33, 95% CI 1.25, 4.35), mediated by ASPD and alcohol dependence. Neglect was associated with violence toward strangers (AOR 1.73, 95% CI 1.03, 2.91), mediated by ASPD. Prevention of violence in adulthood following childhood physical abuse and neglect requires treatment interventions for associated alcohol dependence, psychosis, and ASPD. However, witnessing family violence in childhood had strongest and direct effects on the pathway to adult violence, with important implications for primary prevention. In this context, prevention strategies should prioritize and focus on early childhood exposure to violence in the family home. PMID:26803688

  14. Addressing substance abuse and violence in substance use disorder treatment and batterer intervention programs

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Substance use disorders and perpetration of intimate partner violence (IPV) are interrelated, major public health problems. Methods We surveyed directors of a sample of substance use disorder treatment programs (SUDPs; N=241) and batterer intervention programs (BIPs; N=235) in California (70% response rate) to examine the extent to which SUDPs address IPV, and BIPs address substance abuse. Results Generally, SUDPs were not addressing co-occurring IPV perpetration in a formal and comprehensive way. Few had a policy requiring assessment of potential clients, or monitoring of admitted clients, for violence perpetration; almost one-quarter did not admit potential clients who had perpetrated IPV, and only 20% had a component or track to address violence. About one-third suspended or terminated clients engaging in violence. The most common barriers to SUDPs providing IPV services were that violence prevention was not part of the program’s mission, staff lacked training in violence, and the lack of reimbursement mechanisms for such services. In contrast, BIPs tended to address substance abuse in a more formal and comprehensive way; e.g., one-half had a policy requiring potential clients to be assessed, two-thirds required monitoring of substance abuse among admitted clients, and almost one-half had a component or track to address substance abuse. SUDPs had clients with fewer resources (marriage, employment, income, housing), and more severe problems (both alcohol and drug use disorders, dual substance use and other mental health disorders, HIV + status). We found little evidence that services are centralized for individuals with both substance abuse and violence problems, even though most SUDP and BIP directors agreed that help for both problems should be obtained simultaneously in separate programs. Conclusions SUDPs may have difficulty addressing violence because they have a clientele with relatively few resources and more complex psychological and medical

  15. Dating Violence among Youth Couples: Dyadic Analysis of the Prevalence and Agreement.

    PubMed

    Vicario-Molina, Isabel; Orgaz Baz, Begoña; Fuertes Martín, Antonio; González Ortega, Eva; Martínez Álvarez, José Luis

    2015-01-01

    Although dating violence takes place within the context of a couple, there are few studies exploring how the prevalence data change when violence is reported by one partner or both, and to what extent partners agree about the existence of violence. The aim of this study is therefore to analyze and compare the reports about the prevalence of violence obtained from participants and their partners, together with interpartner agreement concerning victimization and perpetration of threats, physical, verbal-emotional and sexual violence. A total of 105 young heterosexual couples answered a questionnaire about victimization and the perpetration of violence in their relationship during the previous year. The results indicated that prevalence rates varied, depending on who reported the violence -the man, the woman or the couple- perhaps because interpartner agreement was low, except for the occurrence of verbal-emotional violence and the absence of physical violence. These findings suggest the need to develop more systematic research, especially through the use of reports from both members of the couple. PMID:26073572

  16. Relationship between recent life events, social supports, and attitudes to domestic violence: predictive roles in behaviors.

    PubMed

    Guoping, Huang; Yalin, Zhang; Yuping, Cao; Momartin, Shakeh; Ming, Wei

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the relationship between recent life events, attitudes to domestic violence (DV), and DV behaviors among perpetrators of DV in China. A total of 600 participants were assessed for recent life events, psychological functioning, social support, and attitudes to DV. Results demonstrated that recent negative life events (NLE) and attitudes to DV were predictive factors for DV among perpetrators of DV, after controlling for demographic variables, psychological functioning, and social supports. The findings suggest that recent life events are potential factors contributing to behaviors of DV. The importance of changes of negative attitudes to DV among perpetrators was highly emphasized. Intervention and prevention programs based on psychological functioning and social support in relation to perpetrators of DV may be useful to control DV in China. PMID:19602674

  17. From Family to Friends: Does Witnessing Interparental Violence Affect Young Adults’ Relationships with Friends?

    PubMed Central

    Mandal, Mahua; Hindin, Michelle J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Childhood exposure to violence in one’s family of origin has been closely linked to subsequent perpetration and victimization of intimate partner violence. There is, however, little research on the relationship between witnessing violence and subsequent peer violence. This study investigates the effects of witnessing interparental violence among Filipino young adults on their use and experience of psychological aggression with friends. Methods The data source for this study was the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey. Recent perpetration and victimization of friend psychological aggression among young adults ages 21–22 years was assessed through self-reports from the 2005 survey, and witnessing interparental violence during childhood was assessed through self-reports from the 2002 survey. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine the effects of witnessing interparental violence on subsequent use and experience of friend psychological aggression. Analyses were stratified by gender. Results About 13% of females and 4% of males perpetrated psychological aggression towards close friends, and about 4% of females and males were victims. Fourteen percent of females and 3% of males experienced bidirectional psychological aggression. About 44% of females and 47% of males had, during childhood, witnessed their parents physically hurt one another. Witnessing maternal and reciprocal interparental violence during childhood significantly predicted bidirectional friend psychological aggression among males. Among females, witnessing interparental violence did not significantly predict involvement with friend psychological aggression. Conclusions Violence prevention programs should consider using family-centered interventions, and apply a gendered lens to their application. Further research on gender differences in friend aggression is recommended. PMID:23697789

  18. Responsibility Attribution for Violence against Women: A Study of Chinese Public Service Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Catherine So-kum; Pun, Shuk Han; Cheung, Fanny Mui-ching

    2002-01-01

    This study examined how Chinese public service professionals attributed responsibility to victims and perpetrators of violence against women (VAW). A total of 2,308 Chinese public service professionals in Hong Kong completed questionnaires on attitudes toward women, VAW-related perceptions, and assignment of responsibility to actors in written VAW…

  19. Client Violence toward Social Workers: The Role of Management in Community Mental Health Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Patricia C.; Munch, Shari

    2003-01-01

    Examines job-related, client-perpetrated threats or physical violence against social workers in general, and community outreach mental health professionals in particular. Highlights the critical role of supervisors and administrators in developing proactive prevention and postincident response policies and procedures that create an organizational…

  20. The Production of the "Battered Immigrant" in Public Policy and Domestic Violence Advocacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhuyan, Rupaleem

    2008-01-01

    In the context of U.S. public policy, "battered immigrant" signifies a person who is eligible to adjust his or her status under immigration law if he or she can demonstrate they have suffered domestic violence in the United States perpetrated by a U.S. citizen or legal permanent resident. Among community organizers, the term "battered immigrant"…

  1. Working Women Making It Work: Intimate Partner Violence, Employment, and Workplace Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanberg, Jennifer; Macke, Caroline; Logan, TK

    2007-01-01

    Partner violence may have significant consequences on women's employment, yet limited information is available about how women cope on the job with perpetrators' tactics and the consequences of her coping methods on employment status. This article investigates whether there is an association between workplace disclosure of victimization and…

  2. Responding to Crimes of Violence against Women: Gender Differences versus Organizational Imperatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buzawa, Eve; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Reports results of a study testing the hypothesis that an inverse relationship exists between level of intimacy between perpetrator and victim in incidents of violence and likelihood of arrest. Notwithstanding relevant elements of probable cause, such as the presence of weapons, witnesses, injury, and the offender, results supported the…

  3. Examining Gender Differences in the Nature and Context of Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Hyunkag

    2012-01-01

    Many studies have been conducted on gender differences in intimate partner violence (IPV), producing inconsistent results. Some studies report that men were victimized by IPV as much as women were, whereas others find that IPV was predominantly perpetrated by men against women. The nature and context of IPV may be crucial to understanding gender…

  4. Relationship between Recent Life Events, Social Supports, and Attitudes to Domestic Violence: Predictive Roles in Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guoping, Huang; Yalin, Zhang; Yuping, Cao; Momartin, Shakeh; Ming, Wei

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the relationship between recent life events, attitudes to domestic violence (DV), and DV behaviors among perpetrators of DV in China. A total of 600 participants were assessed for recent life events, psychological functioning, social support, and attitudes to DV. Results demonstrated that recent negative life…

  5. Children and Violence. Edited Proceedings of an International Symposium (Stockholm, Sweden, May 14-16, 1979).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1980

    The purpose of the international symposium on Violence Toward Children was to lay foundations, identify priorities and put forward guidelines for further research and action designed to reduce the level and frequency of violent acts perpetrated on children. This document presents an edited account of the major questions addressed. The main thesis…

  6. Two Generations at Risk: Child Welfare, Institutional Boundaries, and Family Violence in Grandparent Homes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Susan E.; Bazemore, Gordon

    2011-01-01

    Participation of extended family members, particularly custodial grandparents, has generally resulted in better outcomes for abused children and relief for an overburdened child welfare system. This research explores the risk of adolescent perpetrated violence in custodial grandparent households with data from the Florida Department of Juvenile…

  7. The effect of family violence on children's academic performance and behavior.

    PubMed Central

    Dyson, J. L.

    1990-01-01

    Homicide perpetrated by an acquaintance or a close family member is the leading cause of death among blacks. Black children adversely affected by these violent occurrences suffer posttraumatic stress disorder. The purpose of this study is to illustrate how damage caused to black children from exposure to violence is reflected in behavior problems and poor school performance. PMID:2304094

  8. Maternal Intimate Partner Violence and Behavioural Problems among Pacific Children Living in New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paterson, Janis; Carter, Sarnia; Gao, Wanzhen; Cowley-Malcolm, Esther; Iusitini, Leon

    2008-01-01

    Aims: To examine (1) the association between maternal intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration and victimisation and behavioural problems among two- and four-year-old Pacific children, and (2) the socio-demographic and parenting factors that may impact on this association. Design: Mothers of the Pacific Islands Families (PIF) cohort of Pacific…

  9. Violence against Pregnant Women Can Increase the Risk of Child Abuse: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Ko Ling; Brownridge, Douglas A.; Fong, Daniel Y. T.; Tiwari, Agnes; Leung, Wing Cheong; Ho, Pak Chung

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the impact of intimate partner violence (IPV) against pregnant women on subsequent perpetration of child abuse and neglect (CAN) by parents; and to test the mediation effect of recent IPV on the link between IPV during pregnancy and subsequent CAN. Methods: This study was a longitudinal follow-up of a population-based study on…

  10. Risk Factors for Unidirectional and Bidirectional Intimate Partner Violence among Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renner, Lynette M.; Whitney, Stephen D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to identify common and unique risk factors for intimate partner violence (IPV) among young adults in relationships. Guided by two models of IPV, the same set of risk factors was used to examine outcomes of unidirectional (perpetration or victimization) and bidirectional (reciprocal) IPV separately for males…

  11. Longitudinal Risk Factors for Intimate Partner Violence among Men in Treatment for Alcohol Use Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taft, Casey T.; O'Farrell, Timothy J.; Doron-Lamarca, Susan; Panuzio, Jillian; Suvak, Michael K.; Gagnon, David R.; Murphy, Christopher M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study examined static and time-varying risk factors for perpetration of intimate partner violence (IPV) among men in treatment for alcohol use disorders. Method: Participants were 178 men diagnosed with alcohol abuse or dependence and their partners. Most (85%) of the men were European American; their average age was 41.0 years.…

  12. Perpetration and Victimization of Intimate Partner Aggression Among Rural Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Schwab Reese, Laura M.; Harland, Karisa; Smithart, Kelsey

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Intimate partner aggression is a leading cause of injury among women of child-bearing age. Research suggests that pregnancy and the postpartum period are times of increased vulnerability to aggression. Since rural women are at an increased risk of intimate partner aggression, research is needed to examine the role of pregnancy and the presence of children on intimate partner aggression among this vulnerable population. The purpose of this study is to examine the association between young children and intimate partner aggression victimization and perpetration among a rural sample. This analysis utilized data from biologic females of child-bearing age from the Keokuk County Rural Health Study, a cohort study of over 1,000 rural families conducted from 1994 to 2011. Crude and adjusted logistic regression was used to determine the relationship between having a young child and experiencing four forms of intimate partner aggression: verbal aggression perpetration, verbal aggression victimization, physical aggression perpetration, and physical aggression victimization. Having young children was significantly associated with increased odds of perpetrating verbal aggression but not victimization of verbal aggression or perpetration and victimization of physical aggression. This significant relationship persisted after adjustment for education, employment, or location of residence but not age or marital status. The increased odds of perpetrating verbal aggression among mothers in a rural area highlight the need for interventions designed for rural parents. One method of reducing intimate partner aggression may be to incorporate intimate partner aggression prevention activities into existing child abuse intervention activities.

  13. Suspect aggression and victim resistance in multiple perpetrator rapes.

    PubMed

    Woodhams, Jessica; Cooke, Claire

    2013-11-01

    Several research studies have reported an elevated level of aggression in rapes committed by multiple perpetrators compared to rapes committed by lone suspects. Several factors that have been linked to elevated aggression in generic samples of rape were examined for the first time with a sample of multiple perpetrator rapes. Factors that might be associated with victim resistance were also investigated. Victim and offender characteristics, as well as the behaviors displayed by victims and offenders, were extracted from the police files of 89 multiple perpetrator stranger rapes perpetrated against female victims in the United Kingdom. These behaviors were rated for their level of suspect (non-sexual) aggression and victim resistance, respectively. Degree of victim resistance was significantly and positively associated with suspect aggression. Older victims were the recipients of significantly higher levels of suspect aggression. Victims who were incapacitated from drugs and/or alcohol were less likely to be the recipients of suspect aggression. Group leaders displayed more aggression towards the victim than the followers in the groups. The number of perpetrators was significantly related to the degree of resistance displayed by the victim with offences perpetrated by fewer suspects being characterized by more victim resistance. Research regarding cognitive appraisal during criminal interactions and the respective roles of offenders is referred to in considering these relationships. PMID:23740469

  14. Domestic violence and anger: what can primary care nurses do?

    PubMed

    Siddle, Ronald; Jones, Freda

    2002-08-01

    Patients with anger problems can cause difficulties for themselves, their families and society. Though psychological treatments are available, they are not always accessible. In order to help the victims of domestic violence, we focus here on working with perpetrators of violence. This article offers some statistics about the extent of the problem. It discusses difficulties in motivating patients for therapy and describes the cognitive model of anger. A number of intervention strategies based on this model are then discussed. The purpose is to assist clinicians with less experience of this patient group to help their patients minimize the frequency and severity of the anger incidents. Pointers for good practice are outlined. PMID:12192343

  15. Interpersonal violence, alcohol use, and acquired capability for suicide.

    PubMed

    Wolford-Clevenger, Caitlin; Febres, Jeniimarie; Zapor, Heather; Elmquist, JoAnna; Bliton, Chloe; Stuart, Gregory L

    2015-01-01

    Acquired capability for suicide (ACS), defined as pain tolerance and fearlessness about death, is theorized as necessary to enact suicide. This study examined the associations of interpersonal violence and alcohol use with ACS in 502 college students. General fearlessness/pain tolerance was positively associated with male gender and alcohol use. Fearlessness about death was positively associated with male gender and general physical violence perpetration. However, these risk factors did not explain variance in ACS beyond male gender and history of suicide attempts/nonsuicidal self-injury. These findings add to the understanding of ACS correlates. PMID:25551677

  16. Interpersonal Violence, Alcohol Use, and Acquired Capability for Suicide

    PubMed Central

    Wolford-Clevenger, Caitlin; Febres, Jeniimarie; Zapor, Heather; Elmquist, JoAnna; Bliton, Chloe; Stuart, Gregory L.

    2014-01-01

    Acquired capability for suicide (ACS), defined as pain tolerance and fearlessness about death, is theorized as necessary to enact suicide. This study examined the associations of interpersonal violence and alcohol use with ACS in 502 college students. General fearlessness/pain tolerance was positively associated with male gender and alcohol use. Fearlessness about death was positively associated with male gender and general physical violence perpetration. However, these risk factors did not explain variance in ACS beyond male gender and history of suicide attempts/nonsuicidal self-injury. These findings add to the understanding of ACS correlates. PMID:25551677

  17. Perverse relationships: the perspective of the perpetrator.

    PubMed

    Filippini, Sandra

    2005-06-01

    The author examines the theme of perverse relationships within the couple, focusing on the question of men's maltreatment of their female partners, particularly in the psychological sense. Various aspects of the perpetrator's personality and relational style are described. The author takes as her starting point and discusses in depth the concepts of 'narcissistic perversion' (Racamier, 1992) and 'relational perversion' (Pandolfi, 1999), considered useful for understanding and identifying this type of pathology. She postulates that maltreating behaviour, in fact, originates from the encounter of particularly non-empathic relational styles which are typical of certain personalities (mainly, but not exclusively, of the narcissistic disorder) with 'perversity', that is, perversion, understood as a character trait. The author makes a distinction between 'relational perversion' and 'sado-masochistic relationship', and presents a clinical picture deriving from the analysis of a man who maltreats his companion, in order to shed light on the above-mentioned aspects, touching on some problems arising in the analysis of such patients. In conclusion, she considers some aspects of the experience of victims of maltreatment. PMID:16096074

  18. Bullying in Jerusalem schools: victims and perpetrators.

    PubMed

    Gofin, R; Palti, H; Gordon, L

    2002-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of bullying among adolescents studying in Jerusalem schools and to identify the characteristics of its victims and perpetrators. Pupils in the 8th and 10th grade (ages 14-16 y) in 11 schools in Jerusalem (n=1182) anonymously completed the World Health Organization questionnaire from the 'Health Behavior in School Children' study. Bullying others or being bullied at least once in the last term was reported. The independent variables studied were socio-demographic characteristics, and personal and school-related factors. Bullying was reported by 57.1% of boys and 27.0% of girls, and being bullied by 50.3% of boys and 39.5% of girls. The factors associated with bullying others were lack of support from teachers for both genders and poor mental health among boys. Variables related to social exclusion among girls and social isolation among boys were associated with being bullied. Health professionals should be active in all levels of prevention to deal with this problem that affects the health and well-being of so many children and adolescents. PMID:12082600

  19. A National Descriptive Portrait of Adolescent Relationship Abuse: Results From the National Survey on Teen Relationships and Intimate Violence.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Bruce G; Mumford, Elizabeth A

    2016-03-01

    This article reports results from the National Survey on Teen Relationships and Intimate Violence (STRiV) for 12- to 18-year-old youth (n = 1,804). STRiV provides the first nationally representative household survey focused on adolescent relationship abuse (ARA), covering perpetration and victimization. Among respondents (37%) reporting current- or past-year dating, 69% reported lifetime ARA victimization (63% lifetime ARA perpetration). Although psychological abuse was most common for these youth (more than 60%), the rates of sexual abuse (18%) and physical abuse victimization (18%), as well as 12% reporting perpetrating physical abuse and/or sexual abuse (12%) were substantial as well. Other than differences by age and gender, ARA rates were consistent by race/ethnicity, geographic region, urbanicity, and household characteristics, highlighting the importance of universal prevention programs. Compared with youth aged 15 to 18, those 12 to 14 years old reported lower rates of psychological and sexual ARA victimization. Similarly, we found lower ARA perpetration rates for those 12 to 14. We found no gender differences for ARA victimization but found that girls perpetrated more physical ARA than boys. Girls aged 15 to 18 reported perpetrating moderate threats/physical violence at more than twice the rate of younger girls and 3 times the rate compared with boys aged 15 to 18; girls aged 15 to 18 reported perpetrating more than 4 times the rate of serious psychological abuse than boys 15 to 18. Finally, these data document the significant positive correlation between ARA victimization and perpetration. Findings suggest that when working with youth in prevention services, interventions should not be designed for monolithic groups of "victims" or "perpetrators." PMID:25548142

  20. Self-reported weapon ownership, use, and violence experience among clients accessing an inner-city sexually transmitted disease clinic.

    PubMed

    Jadack, R A; Pare, B; Kachur, S P; Zenilman, J M

    2000-06-01

    Little is known about the extent to which people who access public health care settings own/carry weapons and experience/perpetrate acts of violence. The purpose of this study was to describe weapon ownership and violence experiences of persons attending an inner-city sexually transmitted disease clinic. Face-to-face interviews were administered to 245 clients to assess weapon ownership, types of weapons carried, and experiences as victims or perpetrators of violent acts. Overall, 43.7% reported experience of carrying a weapon at some point in their lives. More men chose to carry guns; more women chose to carry knives or mace. Participants reported experiencing alarming levels of violence in the previous year: 30.5% experienced beatings, 23.9% reported being threatened with a gun, and 18.9% reported forced, unwanted sex. Persons with a history of carrying weapons were significantly more likely to report being both victims and perpetrators of violence. Persons who experienced violence in the previous month were significantly more likely to be diagnosed with an STD. Results show that STD clinics represent yet another setting wherein interventions to curb the extent of violence might be appropriate, and strategies to assist and protect those experiencing violence are needed. PMID:10871536