Science.gov

Sample records for massive star systems

  1. Super-Massive Stars: Dense Star-Gas Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaro-Seoane, Pau; Spurzem, Rainer; Just, Andreas

    We use a gaseous model and a semi-analytical approach to study the evolution of a super-massive central gaseous object (a super-massive star, {SMS} from now on) in an AGN and its evolution by interactions with the surrounding stellar system. Our future work in this field is outlined, which aims at a more detailed study of energy flows in the interstellar medium, stellar evolution and the relation between QSOs and galaxy formation.

  2. Massive Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livio, Mario; Villaver, Eva

    2009-11-01

    Participants; Preface Mario Livio and Eva Villaver; 1. High-mass star formation by gravitational collapse of massive cores M. R. Krumholz; 2. Observations of massive star formation N. A. Patel; 3. Massive star formation in the Galactic center D. F. Figer; 4. An X-ray tour of massive star-forming regions with Chandra L. K. Townsley; 5. Massive stars: feedback effects in the local universe M. S. Oey and C. J. Clarke; 6. The initial mass function in clusters B. G. Elmegreen; 7. Massive stars and star clusters in the Antennae galaxies B. C. Whitmore; 8. On the binarity of Eta Carinae T. R. Gull; 9. Parameters and winds of hot massive stars R. P. Kudritzki and M. A. Urbaneja; 10. Unraveling the Galaxy to find the first stars J. Tumlinson; 11. Optically observable zero-age main-sequence O stars N. R. Walborn; 12. Metallicity-dependent Wolf-Raynet winds P. A. Crowther; 13. Eruptive mass loss in very massive stars and Population III stars N. Smith; 14. From progenitor to afterlife R. A. Chevalier; 15. Pair-production supernovae: theory and observation E. Scannapieco; 16. Cosmic infrared background and Population III: an overview A. Kashlinsky.

  3. The formation of massive star systems by accretion.

    PubMed

    Krumholz, Mark R; Klein, Richard I; McKee, Christopher F; Offner, Stella S R; Cunningham, Andrew J

    2009-02-01

    Massive stars produce so much light that the radiation pressure they exert on the gas and dust around them is stronger than their gravitational attraction, a condition that has long been expected to prevent them from growing by accretion. We present three-dimensional radiation-hydrodynamic simulations of the collapse of a massive prestellar core and find that radiation pressure does not halt accretion. Instead, gravitational and Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities channel gas onto the star system through nonaxisymmetric disks and filaments that self-shield against radiation while allowing radiation to escape through optically thin bubbles. Gravitational instabilities cause the disk to fragment and form a massive companion to the primary star. Radiation pressure does not limit stellar masses, but the instabilities that allow accretion to continue lead to small multiple systems. PMID:19150809

  4. Massive Stars in Colliding Wind Systems: the GLAST Perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Reimer, Anita; Reimer, Olaf; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park

    2011-11-29

    Colliding winds of massive stars in binary systems are considered as candidate sites of high-energy non-thermal photon emission. They are already among the suggested counterparts for a few individual unidentified EGRET sources, but may constitute a detectable source population for the GLAST observatory. The present work investigates such population study of massive colliding wind systems at high-energy gamma-rays. Based on the recent detailed model (Reimer et al. 2006) for non-thermal photon production in prime candidate systems, we unveil the expected characteristics of this source class in the observables accessible at LAT energies. Combining the broadband emission model with the presently cataloged distribution of such systems and their individual parameters allows us to conclude on the expected maximum number of LAT-detections among massive stars in colliding wind binary systems.

  5. Young Massive Star Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Portegies Zwart, Simon F.; McMillan, Stephen L. W.; Gieles, Mark

    2010-09-01

    Young massive clusters (YMCs) are dense aggregates of young stars that form the fundamental building blocks of galaxies. Several examples exist in the Milky Way Galaxy and the Local Group, but they are particularly abundant in starburst and interacting galaxies. The few YMCs that are close enough to resolve are of prime interest for studying the stellar mass function and the ecological interplay between stellar evolution and stellar dynamics. The distant unresolved clusters may be effectively used to study the star-cluster mass function, and they provide excellent constraints on the formation mechanisms of young cluster populations. YMCs are expected to be the nurseries for many unusual objects, including a wide range of exotic stars and binaries. So far only a few such objects have been found in YMCs, although their older cousins, the globular clusters, are unusually rich in stellar exotica. In this review, we focus on star clusters younger than ˜100 Myr, more than a few current crossing times old, and more massive than ˜104M⊙; the size of the cluster and its environment are considered less relevant as distinguishing parameters. We describe the global properties of the currently known young massive star clusters in the Local Group and beyond, and discuss the state of the art in observations and dynamical modeling of these systems. In order to make this review readable by observers, theorists, and computational astrophysicists, we also review the cross-disciplinary terminology.

  6. SELF-REGULATED SHOCKS IN MASSIVE STAR BINARY SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Parkin, E. R.; Sim, S. A. E-mail: s.sim@qub.ac.uk

    2013-04-20

    In an early-type, massive star binary system, X-ray bright shocks result from the powerful collision of stellar winds driven by radiation pressure on spectral line transitions. We examine the influence of the X-rays from the wind-wind collision shocks on the radiative driving of the stellar winds using steady-state models that include a parameterized line force with X-ray ionization dependence. Our primary result is that X-ray radiation from the shocks inhibits wind acceleration and can lead to a lower pre-shock velocity, and a correspondingly lower shocked plasma temperature, yet the intrinsic X-ray luminosity of the shocks, L{sub X}, remains largely unaltered, with the exception of a modest increase at small binary separations. Due to the feedback loop between the ionizing X-rays from the shocks and the wind driving, we term this scenario as self-regulated shocks. This effect is found to greatly increase the range of binary separations at which a wind-photosphere collision is likely to occur in systems where the momenta of the two winds are significantly different. Furthermore, the excessive levels of X-ray ionization close to the shocks completely suppress the line force, and we suggest that this may render radiative braking less effective. Comparisons of model results against observations reveal reasonable agreement in terms of log (L{sub X}/L{sub bol}). The inclusion of self-regulated shocks improves the match for kT values in roughly equal wind momenta systems, but there is a systematic offset for systems with unequal wind momenta (if considered to be a wind-photosphere collision).

  7. Massive stars: Starbursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González Delgado, Rosa María

    2007-07-01

    Starbursts are the preferred place where massive stars form; the main source of thermal and mechanical heating in the interstellar medium, and the factory where the heavy elements form. Thus, starbursts play an important role in the origin and evolution of galaxies. Starbursts are bright at ultraviolet (UV) wavelengths, and after the pioneering IUE program, high spatial and spectral resolution UV observations of local starburst galaxies, mainly taken with HST and FUSE, have made relevant contributions to the following issues: a) The determination of the initial mass function (IMF) in violent star forming systems in low and high metallicity environments, and in dense (e.g. in stellar clusters) and diffuse environments: A Salpeter IMF with high-mass stars constrains well the UV properties. b) Stellar clusters are an important mode of star formation in starbursts. c) The role of starbursts in AGN: Nuclear starbursts can dominate the UV light in Seyfert 2 galaxies, having bolometric luminosities similar to the estimated bolometric luminosities of the obscured AGN. d) The interaction between massive stars and the interstellar medium: Outflows in cold, warm and coronal phases leave their imprints on the UV interstellar lines. Outflows of a few hundred km s%u22121 are ubiquitous phenomena in starbursts. Despite the very significant progress obtained over the past two decades of UV observations of starbursts, there are important problems that still need to be solved. High-spatial resolution UV observations of nearby starbursts are crucial to further progress in understanding the violent star formation processes in galaxies, the interaction between the stellar clusters and the interstellar medium, and the variation of the IMF. High-spatial resolution spectra are also needed to isolate the light from the center to the disk in UV luminous galaxies found by GALEX. Thus, a new UV mission furnished with an intermediate spectral resolution spectrograph with high spatial

  8. Massive Stars: Stellar Populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchi, Luciana

    2007-07-01

    Massive stars dominate the chemical and dynamical evolution of the ISM, and ultimately of their parent galaxy and the universe, because of their fast evolution and intense supersonic winds. Four decades ago, the first rocket UV spectra of massive stars revealed the importance of mass loss and began to change our understanding of their evolution. Recently, advances in stellar modeling, and the observation of crucial ions in the far-UV spectral range, led to the resolution of long-standing issues in our understanding of massive star atmospheres. A revised (downwards) calibration of Teff for early spectral types is emerging as a result. Meanwhile, HST imaging, and large ground-based telescopes with multislit spectroscopic capabilities, had opened the possibility of resolved studies of stellar populations in Local Group galaxies, which sample a variety of metallicity and environment conditions. More recently, GALEX is providing a global, deep view of the young stellar populations for hundreds of nearby galaxies, revealing their recent star-formation history and modalities. The wide-field coverage and sensitivity of the GALEX UV imaging, easily detecting extremely low levels of star formation, is again changing some of our views on massive star formation in galaxies.

  9. A Cornucopia of Massive Binary Star Systems in the Cygnus OB2 Association: Fifty and Counting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobulnicky, Henry A.; Kiminki, D. C.; Burke, J. F.; Chapman, J. E.; Keller, E.; Lester, K. V.; Rolen, E.; Topel, E.; Lundquist, M. J.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Vargas Alvarez, C. A.; Runnoe, J. C.; Dale, D. A.

    2014-01-01

    Massive binary star systems produce nature's most energetic events, including some classes of supernovae, gamma-ray bursts, X-ray binaries, and double-degenerate objects that generate gravitational wave radiation. The Cygnus OB2 Association is the largest nearby collection of massive stars, consisting of several hundred O and early B stars at a distance of just 1.4 kpc. Our Cygnus OB2 Radial Velocity Survey team at the University of Wyoming has spectroscopically monitored 115 stars of type B2 or earlier between 1999 and 2013, accruing an average of 12 observations per star at a velocity precision of 2-6 km/s. We have identified fifty massive binary systems, nearly all of which have full orbital solutions. Periods range from 1.4 days - 12.5 years and velocity semi-amplitudes span 4-300 km/s. Monte-Carlo modeling indicates that as many as 90% of massive systems contain multiple stars and that 45% of these can be characterized as ``close'' binaries that will interact, exchanging matter during main-sequence or post-main-sequence evolution. Statistical analysis of the orbital parameters reveals a striking surplus of close, short-period systems with periods P=1.4--7 days, with fully 30% (17 out of 50 systems) of the known binaries falling in this tight range; their typical orbital separations are just a small fraction of an astronomical unit. The remainder of the binary systems are consistent with a period distribution described as flat in log(P) out to several thousand day periods. The mass ratio distribution appears flat over the interval q=M2/M1=0.1-1.0, meaning that massive stars preferentially have massive companions. These data constitute the largest and most complete homogeneous database on any single collection of massive stars in a common formation environment covering the full range of stars expected to explode as supernovae (B2V and earlier). As such, the Survey provides the raw data for modeling rates of cosmic supernova, gamma-ray bursts, and X-ray binaries

  10. Massive soliton stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiu, Hong-Yee

    1990-01-01

    The structure of nontopological solutions of Einstein field equations as proposed by Friedberg, Lee, and Pang (1987) is examined. This analysis incorporates finite temperature effects and pair creation. Quarks are assumed to be the only species that exist in interior of soliton stars. The possibility of primordial creation of soliton stars in the incomplete decay of the degenerate vacuum in early universe is explored. Because of dominance of pair creation inside soliton stars, the luminosity of soliton stars is not determined by its radiative transfer characteristics, and the surface temperature of soliton stars can be the same as its interior temperature. It is possible that soliton stars are intense X-ray radiators at large distances. Soliton stars are nearly 100 percent efficient energy converters, converting the rest energy of baryons entering the interior into radiation. It is possible that a sizable number of baryons may also be trapped inside soliton stars during early epochs of the universe. In addition, if soliton stars exist they could assume the role played by massive black holes in galactic centers.

  11. A THIRD MASSIVE STAR COMPONENT IN THE {sigma} ORIONIS AB SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Simon-Diaz, S.; Caballero, J. A.; Lorenzo, J.

    2011-11-20

    We report on the detection of a third massive star component in the {sigma} Orionis AB system, traditionally considered as a binary system. The system has been monitored by the IACOB Spectroscopic Survey of Northern Massive Stars program, obtaining 23 high-resolution FIES-NOT spectra with a time span of {approx}2.5 years. The analysis of the radial velocity curves of the two spectroscopic components observed in the spectra has allowed us to obtain the orbital parameters of the system, resulting in a high eccentric orbit (e {approx} 0.78) with an orbital period of 143.5 {+-} 0.5 days. This result implies the actual presence of three stars in the {sigma} Orionis AB system when combined with previous results obtained from the study of the astrometric orbit (with an estimated period of {approx}157 years).

  12. A young massive planet in a star-disk system.

    PubMed

    Setiawan, J; Henning, Th; Launhardt, R; Müller, A; Weise, P; Kürster, M

    2008-01-01

    There is a general consensus that planets form within disks of dust and gas around newly born stars. Details of their formation process, however, are still a matter of ongoing debate. The timescale of planet formation remains unclear, so the detection of planets around young stars with protoplanetary disks is potentially of great interest. Hitherto, no such planet has been found. Here we report the detection of a planet of mass (9.8+/-3.3)M(Jupiter) around TW Hydrae (TW Hya), a nearby young star with an age of only 8-10 Myr that is surrounded by a well-studied circumstellar disk. It orbits the star with a period of 3.56 days at 0.04 au, inside the inner rim of the disk. This demonstrates that planets can form within 10 Myr, before the disk has been dissipated by stellar winds and radiation. PMID:18172492

  13. The evolution of massive stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The hypotheses underlying theoretical studies of the evolution of massive model stars with and without mass loss are summarized. The evolutionary tracks followed by the models across theoretical Hertzsprung-Russell (HR) diagrams are compared with the observed distribution of B stars in an HR diagram. The pulsational properties of models of massive star are also described.

  14. Massive OB stars at varying Z

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrero, A.; Garcia, M.; Simón-Díaz, S.; Camacho, I.; Sabín-Sanjulián, C.; Castro, N.

    2015-01-01

    Massive stars play a key role in environments with very different metallicities. To interpret the role of massive stars in these systems we have to know their properties at different metallicities. The Local Group offers an excellent laboratory to this aim.

  15. Mass loss of massive stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, F.

    2015-12-01

    In this contribution we review the properties of the winds of massive stars. We focus on OB stars, red supergiants, Luminous Blue Variables (LBVs) and Wolf-Rayet stars. For each type of star, we summarize the main wind properties and we give a brief description of the physical mechanism(s) responsible for mass loss.

  16. Population synthesis of massive stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanbeveren, Dany

    2014-09-01

    This review deals with massive star population synthesis with a realistic population of binaries. We focus on the comparison between observed star numbers (as a function of metallicity) and theoretically predicted numbers of stellar populations in regions of continuous star formation and in starburst regions. Special attention is given to the O-type/WR/red supergiant stellar population, the population of blue supergiants, the pulsar and binary pulsar population, and the supernova rates. Finally, we consider massive double compact star mergers and the link with gravitational wave sources (the advanced LIGO II) and r-process element production sites.

  17. Massive pulsating stars observed by BRITE-Constellation. I. The triple system β Centauri (Agena)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pigulski, A.; Cugier, H.; Popowicz, A.; Kuschnig, R.; Moffat, A. F. J.; Rucinski, S. M.; Schwarzenberg-Czerny, A.; Weiss, W. W.; Handler, G.; Wade, G. A.; Koudelka, O.; Matthews, J. M.; Mochnacki, St.; Orleański, P.; Pablo, H.; Ramiaramanantsoa, T.; Whittaker, G.; Zocłońska, E.; Zwintz, K.

    2016-04-01

    Context. Asteroseismology of massive pulsating stars of β Cep and SPB types can help us to uncover the internal structure of massive stars and understand certain physical phenomena that are taking place in their interiors. We study β Centauri (Agena), a triple system with two massive fast-rotating early B-type components which show p- and g-mode pulsations; the system's secondary is also known to have a measurable magnetic field. Aims: This paper aims to precisely determine the masses and detect pulsation modes in the two massive components of β Cen with BRITE-Constellation photometry. In addition, seismic models for the components are considered and the effects of fast rotation are discussed. This is done to test the limitations of seismic modeling for this very difficult case. Methods: A simultaneous fit of visual and spectroscopic orbits is used to self-consistently derive the orbital parameters, and subsequently the masses, of the components. Time-series analysis of BRITE-Constellation data is used to detect pulsation modes and derive their frequencies, amplitudes, phases, and rates of frequency change. Theoretically-predicted frequencies are calculated for the appropriate evolutionary models and their stability is checked. The effects of rotational splitting and coupling are also presented. Results: The derived masses of the two massive components are equal to 12.02 ± 0.13 and 10.58 ± 0.18 M⊙. The parameters of the wider, A-B system, presently approaching periastron passage, are constrained. Analysis of the combined blue- and red-filter BRITE-Constellation photometric data of the system revealed the presence of 19 periodic terms, of which eight are likely g modes, nine are p modes, and the remaining two are combination terms. It cannot be excluded that one or two low-frequency terms are rotational frequencies. It is possible that both components of β Cen are β Cep/SPB hybrids. An attempt to use the apparent changes of frequency to distinguish which

  18. Clumping Effects on Non-Thermal Particle Spectra in Massive Star Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Reimer, A.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park

    2007-11-09

    Observational evidence exists that winds of massive stars are clumped. Many massive star systems are known as non-thermal particle production sites, as indicated by their synchrotron emission in the radio band. As a consequence they are also considered as candidate sites for non-thermal high-energy photon production up to gamma-ray energies. The present work considers the effects of wind clumpiness expected on the emitting relativistic particle spectrum in colliding wind systems, built up from the pool of thermal wind particles through diffusive particle acceleration, and taking into account inverse Compton and synchrotron losses. In comparison to a homogeneous wind, a clumpy wind causes flux variations of the emitting particle spectrum when the clump enters the wind collision region. It is found that the spectral features associated with this variability moves temporally from low to high energy bands with the time shift between any two spectral bands being dependent on clump size, filling factor, and the energy-dependence of particle energy gains and losses.

  19. Magnetism in massive early-type stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grunhut, J. H.; Wade, G. A.

    2013-02-01

    In the last five years our knowledge of magnetism in early-type stars has significantly improved because of the new gen- eration of high-resolution spectropolarimeters (ESPaDOnS@CFHT, Narval@TBL, HARPSpol@ESO). The success of the Magnetism in Massive Stars (MiMeS) Project, for example, has greatly improved our understanding of the magnetic properties of massive early-type stars; however, it was mainly focused on single stars. Summarized here is our general understanding of stellar magnetism in early-type stars and the recent findings from the MiMeS project. As recent results suggest a significant fraction of early-type stars are in binaries, this implies that the interplay between magnetic fields and binarity has yet to be investigated in any significant detail. To this end, the current analysis of the recently discovered magnetic field in the rapidly-rotating secondary star of the close, massive binary system known as Plaskett's star - a unique system that is testing our current theories of binarity and magnetism in early-type stars, and a target for investigation in the recently accepted Binarity and Magnetic Interactions in various classes of Stars (BinaMIcS) Large Programs at CFHT and TBL - is discussed.

  20. Feedback During Massive Star Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Kei; Tan, Jonathan C.; Zhang, Yichen

    2016-01-01

    We present models of photoionization of massive protostellar cores, and show the impact of this ionization feedback on the efficiency of star formation and its observational features. Based on the Core Accretion scenario, we construct the collapse model of rotating massive-protostellar cloud cores together with a protostellar evolutional calculation, including feedback effects from a MHD disk wind, photoionization and radiation pressure. First, the MHD wind creates a bipolar outflow whose opening angle increases over the timescale of mass accretion. The ionizing luminosity dramatically increases after the protostar reaches ~ 5 Msun due to Kelvin-Helmholz contraction, and the MHD wind is photoionized when the protostellar mass reaches ~ 10 - 20 Msun. As the ionizing and bolometric luminosities increase, the outflow opening angle becomes wider due to radiation pressure feedback. By this combination of feedback processes, the envelope is eroded and the mass infall rate is significantly reduced to that arriving only from the disk-shielded equatorial region. At a protostellar mass of ~ 50 - 100 Msun, depending on the initial core properties, the mass accretion is halted by disk photoevaporation. In this way, feedback significantly reduces the star formation efficiency when forming massive stars from massive cloud cores, which could produce a cutoff at the high-mass end of the initial mass function. Along this evolutionary calculation, we also compute the detailed structure of the photoionized regions using a ray-tracing radiative transfer code and evaluate their emission signatures. Their free-free continuum and recombination line emissions are consistent with the variety of observed radio sources associated with massive protostars, i.e., jets and ultra/hyper-compact HII regions. The comparison between our models and such observations enables us to better define the evolutionary sequence of massive star formation.

  1. Nearby regions of massive star formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bally, John; Cunningham, Nathaniel; Moeckel, Nickolas; Smith, Nathan

    Observations of the nearest regions of massive star formation such as Orion are reviewed. Early-type stars in the local OB associations, as well as their superbubbles and supershells provide a fossil record of massive star birth in the Solar vicinity over about the last 40 Myr. This record shows that most massive stars are born from dense, high-pressure, hot cores which spawn transient clusters that dissipate into the field soon after formation. A large fraction (15 to 30%) of massive stars are high-velocity runaways moving at more than 20 km s^{-1}. High-mass stars have a larger companion fraction than their lower-mass siblings. The Orion star forming complex contains the nearest site of on-going massive star formation. Studies of the Orion Nebula and the dense molecular cloud core located immediately behind the HII region provide our sharpest view of massive star birth. This region has formed a hierarchy of clusters within clusters. The Trapezium, OMC-1S, and OMC-1 regions represent three closely spaced sub-clusters within the more extended Orion Nebula Cluster. The oldest of these sub-clusters, which consists of the Trapezium stars, has completely emerged from its natal core. The OMC-1S and OMC-1 regions, are still highly embedded and forming clusters of additional moderate and high mass stars. Over a dozen YSOs embedded in OMC-1S are driving jets and outflows, many of which are injecting energy and momentum into the Orion Nebula. Recent proper motion measurements indicate that the Becklin-Neugebauer object is a high-velocity star moving away from the OMC1 core with a velocity of 30 km s^{-1}, making it the youngest high-velocity star known. Source I may be moving in the opposite direction with a velocity of about 12 km s^{-1}. The projected separation between source I and BN was less than few hundred AU about 500 years ago. The spectacular bipolar molecular outflow and system of shock-excited H_2 fingers emerging from OMC-1 has a dynamical age of about 1100

  2. Massive Compact Stars as Quark Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, Hilário; Barbosa Duarte, Sérgio; de Oliveira, José Carlos T.

    2011-03-01

    High-mass compact stars have been reported recently in the literature, providing strong constraints on the properties of the ultra dense matter beyond the saturation nuclear density. In view of these results, the calculations of quark star or hybrid star equilibrium structure must be compatible with the provided observational data. But since the equations of state used in describing quark matter are in general too soft in comparison with the equation of states used to describe the hadronic or nuclear matter, the calculated quark star models presented in the literature are in general not suitable to explain the stability of highly-compact massive objects. In this work, we present the calculations of a spherically symmetric quark star structure by using an equation of state that takes into account the superconducting color-flavor locked phase of the strange quark matter. In addition, some fundamental aspects of QCD (asymptotic freedom and confinement) are considered by means of a phenomenological description of the deconfined quark phase, the density-dependent quark mass model. The quark matter behavior introduced by this model stiffens the corresponding equation of state. We thus investigate the influence of this model on the mass-radius diagram of quark stars. We obtain massive quark stars due to the stiffness of the equation of state, when a reasonable parameterization of the color superconducting gap is used. Models of quark stars enveloped by a nucleonic crust composed of a nuclear lattice embedded in an electron gas, with nuclei close to neutron drip line, are also discussed.

  3. Identifying Massive Runaway Stars by Detecting Infrared Bowshock Nebula: Four OB Stars and a New Massive Early-B Binary System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorber, Rebecca L.; Rebecca L. Sorber, Henry A. Kobulnicky, Daniel A. Dale, Matthew S. Povich, William T. Chick, Heather N. Wernke, Julian E. Andrews, Stephan Munari, Grace M. Olivier, Danielle Schurhammer

    2016-01-01

    Though the main sequence evolution of OB type stars is relatively well known, the mass loss rates for these stars are still highly uncertain. Some OB stars are gravitationally ejected from their birth sites, traveling at speeds of 30 km/s or more which results in a prominent bowshock nebulae. We identified OB bowshock candidates at low Galactic latitudes by visual inspection of the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) 22-micron images. Each candidate was observed using the Longslit Spectrograph at the Wyoming Infrared Observatory (WIRO) 2.3 meter telescope. We present here the results from observing four such candidates, and all four are confirmed as early type stars: GO92.3191+0.0591 (B1V) (aka ALS11826), GO86.551014-1.0873935 (B2V; a probable short-period binary), G076.6921-2.4071 (B5V), and G075.5711-0.2558 (B0V) (aka HD 194303). These results enlarge the sample of candidate runaway massive stars hosting bowshocks and provide a promising sample of such objects for studying stellar mass loss. This work is supported by the National Science Foundation Grants AST-1063146 (REU), AST-1411851 (RUI), and AST-1412845.

  4. Massive Stars in Interactive Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    St.-Louis, Nicole; Moffat, Anthony F. J.

    Massive stars start their lives above a mass of ~8 time solar, finally exploding after a few million years as core-collapse or pair-production supernovae. Above ~15 solar masses, they also spend most of their lives driving especially strong, hot winds due to their extreme luminosities. All of these aspects dominate the ecology of the Universe, from element enrichment to stirring up and ionizing the interstellar medium. But when they occur in close pairs or groups separated by less than a parsec, the interaction of massive stars can lead to various exotic phenomena which would not be seen if there were no binaries. These depend on the actual separation, and going from wie to close including colliding winds (with non-thermal radio emission and Wolf-Rayet dust spirals), cluster dynamics, X-ray binaries, Roche-lobe overflow (with inverse mass-ratios and rapid spin up), collisions, merging, rejuventation and massive blue stragglers, black-hole formation, runaways and gamma-ray bursts. Also, one wonders whether the fact that a massive star is in a binary affects its parameters compared to its isolated equivalent. These proceedings deal with all of these phenomena, plus binary statistics and determination of general physical properties of massive stars, that would not be possible with their single cousins. The 77 articles published in these proceedings, all based on oral talks, vary from broad revies to the lates developments in the field. About a third of the time was spent in open discussion of all participants, both for ~5 minutes after each talk and 8 half-hour long general dialogues, all audio-recorded, transcribed and only moderately edited to yield a real flavour of the meeting. The candid information in these discussions is sometimes more revealing than the article(s) that preceded them and also provide entertaining reading. The book is suitable for researchers and graduate students interested in stellar astrophysics and in various physical processes involved when

  5. PRISM Polarimetry of Massive Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerkstra, Brennan; Lomax, Jamie R.; Bjorkman, Karen S.; Bjorkman, Jon Eric; Skiff, Brian; Covey, Kevin R.; Wisniewski, John P.

    2016-01-01

    We present the early results from our long-term, multi-epoch filter polarization survey of massive stars in and around young Galactic clusters. These BVRI polarization data were obtained using the PRISM instrument mounted on the 1.8m Perkins Telescope at Lowell Observatory. We first detail the creation of our new semi-automated polarization data reduction pipeline that we developed to process these data. Next, we present our analysis of the instrumental polarization properties of the PRISM instrument, via observations of polarized and unpolarized standard stars. Finally, we present early results on the total and intrinsic polarization behavior of several isolated, previously suggested classical Be stars, and discuss these results in the context of the larger project.BK acknowledges support from a NSF/REU at the University of Oklahoma. This program was also supported by NSF-AST 11411563, 1412110, and 1412135.

  6. Binary interaction dominates the evolution of massive stars.

    PubMed

    Sana, H; de Mink, S E; de Koter, A; Langer, N; Evans, C J; Gieles, M; Gosset, E; Izzard, R G; Le Bouquin, J-B; Schneider, F R N

    2012-07-27

    The presence of a nearby companion alters the evolution of massive stars in binary systems, leading to phenomena such as stellar mergers, x-ray binaries, and gamma-ray bursts. Unambiguous constraints on the fraction of massive stars affected by binary interaction were lacking. We simultaneously measured all relevant binary characteristics in a sample of Galactic massive O stars and quantified the frequency and nature of binary interactions. More than 70% of all massive stars will exchange mass with a companion, leading to a binary merger in one-third of the cases. These numbers greatly exceed previous estimates and imply that binary interaction dominates the evolution of massive stars, with implications for populations of massive stars and their supernovae. PMID:22837522

  7. Massive Star Burps, Then Explodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-04-01

    Berkeley -- In a galaxy far, far away, a massive star suffered a nasty double whammy. On Oct. 20, 2004, Japanese amateur astronomer Koichi Itagaki saw the star let loose an outburst so bright that it was initially mistaken for a supernova. The star survived, but for only two years. On Oct. 11, 2006, professional and amateur astronomers witnessed the star actually blowing itself to smithereens as Supernova 2006jc. Swift UVOT Image Swift UVOT Image (Credit: NASA / Swift / S.Immler) "We have never observed a stellar outburst and then later seen the star explode," says University of California, Berkeley, astronomer Ryan Foley. His group studied the event with ground-based telescopes, including the 10-meter (32.8-foot) W. M. Keck telescopes in Hawaii. Narrow helium spectral lines showed that the supernova's blast wave ran into a slow-moving shell of material, presumably the progenitor's outer layers ejected just two years earlier. If the spectral lines had been caused by the supernova's fast-moving blast wave, the lines would have been much broader. artistic rendering This artistic rendering depicts two years in the life of a massive blue supergiant star, which burped and spewed a shell of gas, then, two years later, exploded. When the supernova slammed into the shell of gas, X-rays were produced. (Credit: NASA/Sonoma State Univ./A.Simonnet) Another group, led by Stefan Immler of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., monitored SN 2006jc with NASA's Swift satellite and Chandra X-ray Observatory. By observing how the supernova brightened in X-rays, a result of the blast wave slamming into the outburst ejecta, they could measure the amount of gas blown off in the 2004 outburst: about 0.01 solar mass, the equivalent of about 10 Jupiters. "The beautiful aspect of our SN 2006jc observations is that although they were obtained in different parts of the electromagnetic spectrum, in the optical and in X-rays, they lead to the same conclusions," says Immler. "This

  8. Limiting Accretion onto Massive Stars by Fragmentation-Induced Starvation

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, Thomas; Klessen, Ralf S.; Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark; Banerjee, Robi; /ZAH, Heidelberg

    2010-08-25

    Massive stars influence their surroundings through radiation, winds, and supernova explosions far out of proportion to their small numbers. However, the physical processes that initiate and govern the birth of massive stars remain poorly understood. Two widely discussed models are monolithic collapse of molecular cloud cores and competitive accretion. To learn more about massive star formation, we perform simulations of the collapse of rotating, massive, cloud cores including radiative heating by both non-ionizing and ionizing radiation using the FLASH adaptive mesh refinement code. These simulations show fragmentation from gravitational instability in the enormously dense accretion flows required to build up massive stars. Secondary stars form rapidly in these flows and accrete mass that would have otherwise been consumed by the massive star in the center, in a process that we term fragmentation-induced starvation. This explains why massive stars are usually found as members of high-order stellar systems that themselves belong to large clusters containing stars of all masses. The radiative heating does not prevent fragmentation, but does lead to a higher Jeans mass, resulting in fewer and more massive stars than would form without the heating. This mechanism reproduces the observed relation between the total stellar mass in the cluster and the mass of the largest star. It predicts strong clumping and filamentary structure in the center of collapsing cores, as has recently been observed. We speculate that a similar mechanism will act during primordial star formation.

  9. LIMITING ACCRETION ONTO MASSIVE STARS BY FRAGMENTATION-INDUCED STARVATION

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, Thomas; Klessen, Ralf S.; Banerjee, Robi; Low, Mordecai-Mark Mac

    2010-12-10

    Massive stars influence their surroundings through radiation, winds, and supernova explosions far out of proportion to their small numbers. However, the physical processes that initiate and govern the birth of massive stars remain poorly understood. Two widely discussed models are monolithic collapse of molecular cloud cores and competitive accretion. To learn more about massive star formation, we perform and analyze simulations of the collapse of rotating, massive, cloud cores including radiative heating by both non-ionizing and ionizing radiation using the FLASH adaptive-mesh refinement code. These simulations show fragmentation from gravitational instability in the enormously dense accretion flows required to build up massive stars. Secondary stars form rapidly in these flows and accrete mass that would have otherwise been consumed by the massive star in the center, in a process that we term fragmentation-induced starvation. This explains why massive stars are usually found as members of high-order stellar systems that themselves belong to large clusters containing stars of all masses. The radiative heating does not prevent fragmentation, but does lead to a higher Jeans mass, resulting in fewer and more massive stars than would form without the heating. This mechanism reproduces the observed relation between the total stellar mass in the cluster and the mass of the largest star. It predicts strong clumping and filamentary structure in the center of collapsing cores, as has recently been observed. We speculate that a similar mechanism will act during primordial star formation.

  10. Probing Massive Star Cluster Formation with ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Kelsey

    2015-08-01

    Observationally constraining the physical conditions that give rise to massive star clusters has been a long-standing challenge. Now with the ALMA Observatory coming on-line, we can finally begin to probe the birth environments of massive clusters in a variety of galaxies with sufficient angular resolution. In this talk I will give an overview of ALMA observations of galaxies in which candidate proto-super star cluster molecular clouds have been identified. These new data probe the physical conditions that give rise to super star clusters, providing information on their densities, pressures, and temperatures. In particular, the observations indicate that these clouds may be subject to external pressures of P/k > 108 K cm-3, which is consistent with the prevalence of optically observed adolescent super star clusters in interacting galaxy systems and other high pressure environments. ALMA observations also enable an assessement of the molecular cloud chemical abundances in the regions surrounding super star clusters. Molecular clouds associated with existing super star clusters are strongly correlated with HCO+ emission, but appear to have relatively low ratio of CO/HCO+ emission compared to other clouds, indicating that the super star clusters are impacting the molecular abundances in their vicinity.

  11. Formation and Assembly of Massive Star Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMillan, Stephen

    open access to state-of- the-art simulation techniques within a modern, modular software environment. We will follow the gravitational collapse of 0.1-10 million-solar mass gas clouds through star formation and coalescence into a star cluster, modeling in detail the coupling of the gas and the newborn stars. We will study the effects of star formation by detecting accreting regions of gas in self-gravitating, turbulent, MHD, FLASH models that we will translate into collisional dynamical systems of stars modeled with an N-body code, coupled together in the AMUSE framework. Our FLASH models will include treatments of radiative transfer from the newly formed stars, including heating and radiative acceleration of the surrounding gas. Specific questions to be addressed are: (1) How efficiently does the gas in a star forming region form stars, how does this depend on mass, metallicity, and other parameters, and what terminates star formation? What observational predictions can be made to constrain our models? (2) How important are different mechanisms for driving turbulence and removing gas from a cluster: accretion, radiative feedback, and mechanical feedback? (3) How does the infant mortality rate of young clusters depend on the initial properties of the parent cloud? (4) What are the characteristic formation timescales of massive star clusters, and what observable imprints does the assembly process leave on their structure at an age of 10-20 Myr, when formation is essentially complete and many clusters can be observed? These studies are directly relevant to NASA missions at many electromagnetic wavelengths, including Chandra, GALEX, Hubble, and Spitzer. Each traces different aspects of cluster formation and evolution: X-rays trace supernovae, ultraviolet traces young stars, visible colors can distinguish between young blue stars and older red stars, and the infrared directly shows young embedded star clusters.

  12. Massive star archeology in globular clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chantereau, W.; Charbonnel, C.; Meynet, G.

    2015-01-01

    Globular clusters are among the oldest structures in the Universe and they host today low-mass stars and no gas. However, there has been a time when they formed as gaseous objects hosting a large number of short-lived, massive stars. Many details on this early epoch have been depicted recently through unprecedented dissection of low-mass globular cluster stars via spectroscopy and photometry. In particular, multiple populations have been identified, which bear the nucleosynthetic fingerprints of the massive hot stars disappeared a long time ago. Here we discuss how massive star archeology can be done through the lense of these multiple populations.

  13. Recovery From Giant Eruptions in Massive Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashi, A.; Davidson, K.; Humphreys, R. M.

    2015-12-01

    We perform radiation hydrodynamic simulations to study how very massive stars recover from giant eruptions. The post eruption star experience strong mass loss due to strong winds, driven by radial pulsations in the star*s interior, that operate by the κ-mechanism. The mass loss history obtained in our simulations resembles η Car*s history.

  14. Evolved Massive Stars in the Local Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drout, M. R.; Massey, P.

    2015-05-01

    In this manuscript we describe a number of recent advances in the study of evolved massive stars in the Local Group, with an emphasis on how representative populations of these stars can be used to test models of massive star evolution. In honor of the 50th anniversary of the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) we attempt to put these finding in some historical context by discussing how our understanding of the various stages in the lives of massive stars has evolved since Cerro Tololo was first selected as the site for the observatory which would become CTIO.

  15. Massive star birth: A crossroads of Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cesaroni, R.; Felli, M.; Churchwell, E.; Walmsley, M.

    Massive stars, those with between 10 and 100 times the mass of the Sun, are among the rarest stars of all. They live fast and die young, but during their short lives produce the most dramatic effects on the surrounding interstellar medium in terms of dynamics, ionization, and chemical enrichment. Until a few decades ago massive star birth was literally shrouded in mystery, since these stars are born deep inside dense clouds of swirling dust and gas that obscures our view. At IAU S227, more than 200 of the world's leading astronomers presented a cornucopia of new results concerning the birth and infancy of massive stars. These proceedings show the achievements reached in this field, due to observations in the radio at mm and sub-mm wavelengths and in the infrared, and to theoretical models that simulate what happens in the cradle of a massive star.

  16. Magnetic fields and massive star formation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Qizhou; Keto, Eric; Ho, Paul T. P.; Ching, Tao-Chung; Chen, How-Huan; Qiu, Keping; Girart, Josep M.; Juárez, Carmen; Liu, Hauyu; Tang, Ya-Wen; Koch, Patrick M.; Rao, Ramprasad; Lai, Shih-Ping; Li, Zhi-Yun; Frau, Pau; Li, Hua-Bai; Padovani, Marco; Bontemps, Sylvain

    2014-09-10

    Massive stars (M > 8 M {sub ☉}) typically form in parsec-scale molecular clumps that collapse and fragment, leading to the birth of a cluster of stellar objects. We investigate the role of magnetic fields in this process through dust polarization at 870 μm obtained with the Submillimeter Array (SMA). The SMA observations reveal polarization at scales of ≲0.1 pc. The polarization pattern in these objects ranges from ordered hour-glass configurations to more chaotic distributions. By comparing the SMA data with the single dish data at parsec scales, we found that magnetic fields at dense core scales are either aligned within 40° of or perpendicular to the parsec-scale magnetic fields. This finding indicates that magnetic fields play an important role during the collapse and fragmentation of massive molecular clumps and the formation of dense cores. We further compare magnetic fields in dense cores with the major axis of molecular outflows. Despite a limited number of outflows, we found that the outflow axis appears to be randomly oriented with respect to the magnetic field in the core. This result suggests that at the scale of accretion disks (≲ 10{sup 3} AU), angular momentum and dynamic interactions possibly due to close binary or multiple systems dominate over magnetic fields. With this unprecedentedly large sample of massive clumps, we argue on a statistical basis that magnetic fields play an important role during the formation of dense cores at spatial scales of 0.01-0.1 pc in the context of massive star and cluster star formation.

  17. Hot Massive Stars: The Impact of HST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowther, Paul A.

    We review the contribution of Hubble Space Telescope to the study of hot, luminous stars. Optical and IR imaging have permitted spatially resolved observations of young, massive clusters within Local Group galaxies, such as R136, NGC 3603 and Arches, revealing unprecedented concentrations of very massive O stars. UV spectroscopy of field OB stars in the Magellanic Clouds have provided suitable templates for interpretation of metal-poor star-forming galaxies at high-redshift. Spectacular imaging provides the detailed structure of ejecta nebulae from individual stars, including the Homunculus associated with η Carinae and M1-67, associated with a Wolf-Rayet star. HST has permitted individual massive stars to be spatially resolved in giant HII regions located beyond the Local Group, such as NGC 604, plus individual clusters, dominated by the light of massive stars within starburst galaxies at larger distances, such as NGC 3125. UV spectroscopy of young, massive clusters in the extremely metal-poor HII galaxy I Zw 18 include signatures of large numbers of Wolf-Rayet stars.

  18. EXPLOSIVE OUTFLOWS POWERED BY THE DECAY OF NON-HIERARCHICAL MULTIPLE SYSTEMS OF MASSIVE STARS: ORION BN/KL

    SciTech Connect

    Bally, John; Cunningham, Nathaniel J.; Moeckel, Nickolas; Burton, Michael G.; Smith, Nathan; Frank, Adam; Nordlund, Ake E-mail: ncunningham2@unl.edu E-mail: mgb@phys.unsw.edu.au E-mail: afrank@pas.rochester.edu

    2011-02-01

    The explosive Becklin-Neugebauer (BN)/Kleinman-Low (KL) outflow emerging from OMC1 behind the Orion Nebula may have been powered by the dynamical decay of a non-hierarchical multiple system {approx}500 years ago that ejected the massive stars I, BN, and source n, with velocities of about 10-30 km s{sup -1}. New proper-motion measurements of H{sub 2} features show that within the errors of measurement, the outflow originated from the site of stellar ejection. Combined with published data, these measurements indicate an outflow age of {approx}500 years, similar to the time since stellar ejection. The total kinetic energy of the ejected stars and the outflow is about 2 to 6 x 10{sup 47} erg. It is proposed that the gravitational potential energy released by the formation of a short-period binary, most likely source I, resulted in stellar ejection and powered the outflow. A scenario is presented for the formation of a compact, non-hierarchical multiple star system, its decay into an ejected binary and two high-velocity stars, and launch of the outflow. Three mechanisms may have contributed to the explosion in the gas: (1) unbinding of the circumcluster envelope following stellar ejection, (2) disruption of circumstellar disks and high-speed expulsion of the resulting debris during the final stellar encounter, and (3) the release of stored magnetic energy. Plausible protostellar disk end envelope properties can produce the observed outflow mass, velocity, and kinetic energy distributions. The ejected stars may have acquired new disks by fall-back or Bondi-Hoyle accretion with axes roughly orthogonal to their velocities. The expulsion of gas and stars from OMC1 may have been driven by stellar interactions.

  19. The BinaMIcS project: understanding the origin of magnetic fields in massive stars through close binary systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alecian, E.; Neiner, C.; Wade, G. A.; Mathis, S.; Bohlender, D.; Cébron, D.; Folsom, C.; Grunhut, J.; Le Bouquin, J.-B.; Petit, V.; Sana, H.; Tkachenko, A.; ud-Doula, A.

    2015-01-01

    It is now well established that a fraction of the massive (M > 8 M ⊙) star population hosts strong, organised magnetic fields, most likely of fossil origin. The details of the generation and evolution of these fields are still poorly understood. The BinaMIcS project takes an important step towards the understanding of the interplay between binarity and magnetism during the stellar formation and evolution, and in particular the genesis of fossil fields, by studying the magnetic properties of close binary systems. The components of such systems are most likely formed together, at the same time and in the same environment, and can therefore help us to disentangle the role of initial conditions on the magnetic properties of the massive stars from other competing effects such as age or rotation. We present here the main scientific objectives of the BinaMIcS project, as well as preliminary results from the first year of observations from the associated ESPaDOnS and Narval spectropolarimetric surveys.

  20. Evolution of Massive Stars at Low Metallicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meynet, Georges; Walborn, Nolan R.; Hunter, Ian; Martayan, Christophe; van Marle, Allard Jan; Marchenko, Sergey; Vink, Jorick S.; Limongi, Marco; Levesque, Emily M.; Modjaz, Maryam

    2008-06-01

    This paper reports the contributions made on the occasion of the Special Session entitled “Evolution of Massive Stars at Low Metallicity” which was held on Sunday, December 9, 2007 in Kauai (USA).

  1. Massive Stars: Input Physics and Stellar Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Eid, M. F.; The, L.-S.; Meyer, B. S.

    2009-10-01

    We present a general overview of the structure and evolution of massive stars of masses ≥12 M ⊙ during their pre-supernova stages. We think it is worth reviewing this topic owing to the crucial role of massive stars in astrophysics, especially in the evolution of galaxies and the universe. We have performed several test computations with the aim to analyze and discuss many physical uncertainties still encountered in massive-star evolution. In particular, we explore the effects of mass loss, convection, rotation, 12C( α, γ)16O reaction and initial metallicity. We also compare and analyze the similarities and differences among various works and ours. Finally, we present useful comments on the nucleosynthesis from massive stars concerning the s-process and the yields for 26Al and 60Fe.

  2. Identifying new massive stars in Carina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, Michael J.; McSwain, M. Virginia; Povich, Matthew S.; Hanes, Richard J.

    2015-01-01

    We have conducted an optical and infrared spectroscopic survey of 94 candidate OB stars in the Great Carina Nebula. Candidates were selected on the basis of their infrared spectral energy distributions, which was used to estimate bolometric luminosity and effective temperature. Additionally, the presence of X-ray emission -- a sign of young, dynamic atmospheres -- was used to increase the likelihood of selecting newly formed massive stars associated with the Carina star formation region. Here, we present the preliminary results of this study including spectral types and the OB star confirmation rate. We also discuss the spatial distribution of the new OB stars with respect to the various clusters and sub-clusters and speculate on the implications of additional massive stars on the global mass function of the Carina star forming complex.

  3. Dynamical ejections of massive stars from young star clusters under diverse initial conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Seungkyung; Kroupa, Pavel

    2016-05-01

    We study the effects that initial conditions of star clusters and their massive star population have on dynamical ejections of massive stars from star clusters up to an age of 3 Myr. We use a large set of direct N-body calculations for moderately massive star clusters (Mecl ≈ 103.5 M⊙). We vary the initial conditions of the calculations, such as the initial half-mass radius of the clusters, initial binary populations for massive stars and initial mass segregation. We find that the initial density is the most influential parameter for the ejection fraction of the massive systems. The clusters with an initial half-mass radius rh(0) of 0.1 (0.3) pc can eject up to 50% (30)% of their O-star systems on average, while initially larger (rh(0) = 0.8 pc) clusters, that is, lower density clusters, eject hardly any OB stars (at most ≈ 4.5%). When the binaries are composed of two stars of similar mass, the ejections are most effective. Most of the models show that the average ejection fraction decreases with decreasing stellar mass. For clusters that are efficient at ejecting O stars, the mass function of the ejected stars is top-heavy compared to the given initial mass function (IMF), while the mass function of stars that remain in the cluster becomes slightly steeper (top-light) than the IMF. The top-light mass functions of stars in 3 Myr old clusters in our N-body models agree well with the mean mass function of young intermediate-mass clusters in M 31, as reported previously. This implies that the IMF of the observed young clusters is the canonical IMF. We show that the multiplicity fraction of the ejected massive stars can be as high as ≈ 60%, that massive high-order multiple systems can be dynamically ejected, and that high-order multiples become common especially in the cluster. We also discuss binary populations of the ejected massive systems. Clusters that are initially not mass-segregated begin ejecting massive stars after a time delay that is caused by mass

  4. How Massive Single Stars End Their Life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heger, A.; Fryer, C. L.; Woosley, S. E.; Langer, N.; Hartmann, D. H.

    2003-01-01

    How massive stars die-what sort of explosion and remnant each produces-depends chiefly on the masses of their helium cores and hydrogen envelopes at death. For single stars, stellar winds are the only means of mass loss, and these are a function of the metallicity of the star. We discuss how metallicity, and a simplified prescription for its effect on mass loss, affects the evolution and final fate of massive stars. We map, as a function of mass and metallicity, where black holes and neutron stars are likely to form and where different types of supernovae are produced. Integrating over an initial mass function, we derive the relative populations as a function of metallicity. Provided that single stars rotate rapidly enough at death, we speculate on stellar populations that might produce gamma-ray bursts and jet-driven supernovae.

  5. Olivier Chesneau's Work on Massive Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millour, F.

    2015-12-01

    Olivier Chesneau challenged several fields of observational stellar astrophysics with bright ideas and an impressive amount of work to make them real in the span of his career, from his first paper on P Cygni in 2000, up to his last one on V838 Mon in 2014. He was using all the so-called high-angular resolution techniques since it helped his science to be made, namely study in details the inner structure of the environments around stars, be it small mass (AGBs), more massive (supergiant stars), or explosives (Novae). I will focus here on his work on massive stars.

  6. Placing Observational Constraints on Massive Star Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenfield, Philip

    2011-10-01

    The lives and deaths of massive stars are intricately linked to the evolution of galaxies. Yet, despite their integral importance to understanding galaxy evolution, models of massive stars are inconsistent with observations. These uncertainties can be traced to limited observational constraints available for improving massive star models. A sensitive test of the underlying physics of massive stars, e.g., convection, rotation, and mass loss is to measure the ratio of blue core helium burning stars {BHeB} to red core helium burning stars {RHeB}, 5-20Msun stars in the stage evolution immediately following the main sequence. Even the most sophisticated models cannot accurately predict the observed ratio over a range of metallicities, suggesting an insufficient understanding of the underlying physics. However, observational measurements of this ratio over a wide range of environments would provide substantial constraints on the physical parameters governing the evolution of all stars >5 Msun.We propose to place stringent observational constraints on the physics of massive star evolution by uniformly measuring the B/R HeB ratio in a wide range of galaxies. The HST archive contains high quality optical imaging of resolved stellar populations of dozens of nearby galaxies. From the ANGST program, we identified 38 galaxies, spanning 2 dex in metallicity that have significant BHeB and RHeB populations. Using this sample, we will empirically characterize the colors of the BHeB and RHeB sequences as a function of luminosity and metallicity, measure the B/R ratio, and constrain the lifetimes of the BHeB and RHeBs in the Padova stellar evolution models and the Cambridge STARS code.

  7. A MASSIVE RUNAWAY STAR FROM 30 DORADUS

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, C. J.; Walborn, N. R.; Massa, D.; Lennon, D. J.; Crowther, P. A.; Henault-Brunet, V.; Taylor, W. D.; Howarth, I. D.; Sana, H.; Van Loon, J. Th.

    2010-06-01

    We present the first ultraviolet (UV) and multi-epoch optical spectroscopy of 30 Dor 016, a massive O2-type star on the periphery of 30 Doradus in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The UV data were obtained with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope as part of the Servicing Mission Observatory Verification program after Servicing Mission 4, and reveal no. 016 to have one of the fastest stellar winds known. From analysis of the C IV {lambda}{lambda}1548-51 doublet we find a terminal velocity, v {sub {infinity}} = 3450 {+-} 50 km s{sup -1}. Optical spectroscopy is from the VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey, from which we rule out a massive companion (with 2 days < P < 1 yr) to a confidence of 98%. The radial velocity of no. 016 is offset from the systemic value by -85 km s{sup -1}, suggesting that the star has traveled the 120 pc from the core of 30 Doradus as a runaway, ejected via dynamical interactions.

  8. Triggered star formation in the environment of young massive stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gritschneder, Matthias; Naab, T.; Heitsch, F.; Burkert, A.

    Recent observations with the Spitzer Space Telescope show clear evidence that star formation takes place in the surrounding of young massive O-type stars, which are shaping their environment due to their powerful radiation and stellar winds. In this work we investigate the effect of ionising radiation of massive stars on the ambient interstellar medium (ISM): In particular we want to examine whether the UV-radiation of O-type stars can lead to the observed pillar-like structures and can trigger star formation. We developed a new implementation, based on a parallel Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics code (VINE), that allows an efficient treatment of the effect of ionising radiation from massive stars on their turbulent gaseous environment. Here we present first results at very high resolution. We show that ionising radiation can trigger the collapse of an otherwise stable molecular cloud. The arising structures resemble observed structures (e.g. the pillars of creation in the Eagle Nebula (M16) or the Horsehead Nebula B33). Including the effect of gravitation we find small regions that can be identified as formation places of individual stars. We conclude that ionising radiation from massive stars alone can trigger substantial star formation in molecular clouds.

  9. Stars and star systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martynov, D. Ia.

    Topics examined include close binary systems, supernovae and their remnants, variable stars, young star groups (e.g., clusters and associations), spherical star clusters, and planetary nebulae. Also considered are the interstellar medium and star formation, systems of galaxies, and current problems in cosmology.

  10. A BINARY ORBIT FOR THE MASSIVE, EVOLVED STAR HDE 326823, A WR+O SYSTEM PROGENITOR

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, N. D.; Gies, D. R.; Williams, S. J. E-mail: gies@chara.gsu.edu

    2011-12-15

    The hot star HDE 326823 is a candidate transition-phase object that is evolving into a nitrogen-enriched Wolf-Rayet star. It is also a known low-amplitude, photometric variable with a 6.123 day period. We present new, high- and moderate-resolution spectroscopy of HDE 326823, and we show that the absorption lines show coherent Doppler shifts with this period while the emission lines display little or no velocity variation. We interpret the absorption line shifts as the orbital motion of the apparently brighter star in a close, interacting binary. We argue that this star is losing mass to a mass gainer star hidden in a thick accretion torus and to a circumbinary disk that is the source of the emission lines. HDE 326823 probably belongs to a class of objects that produce short-period WR+O binaries.

  11. First Circumstellar Disk around a Massive Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-06-01

    Observations with an infrared-sensitive instrument at the ESO 3.6-m telescope at La Silla have for the first time shown the presence of a disk around a hot and massive star, known as G339.88-1.26 . Until now, disks have only been found around less massive stars. Planets are formed in such disks. The new discovery may thus have important implications for our understanding of the formation of planetary systems around stars. TIMMI observations Observations at mid-infrared wavelengths were carried out in July 1997 by Bringfried Stecklum (Landessternwarte Thüringen, Tautenburg, Germany) and Hans-Ulrich Käufl (ESO), using the TIMMI instrument at the ESO 3.6-m telescope. Additional measurements were carried out in March 1998. TIMMI ( T hermal I nfrared M ulti M ode I nstrument) is a general-purpose camera spectrometer operating at a wavelength of 10 µm. To reach sufficient sensitivity, the camera must be cooled to approx. -260 o C, i.e. a few degrees above the absolute minimum, by use of liquid Helium. Astronomical objects whose temperatures are between -120 o C and 300 o C radiate most of their energy at this wavelength. In addition, dust and haze that are absolutely impenetrable for light visible to the human eye, are often found to be nearly transparent at this wavelength. This is why fire-fighters now use similar equipment to look through smoke. G339.88-1.26: A very special object ESO PR Photo 22a/98 ESO PR Photo 22a/98 [JPEG, 800k] This image is a true-color composite of near-infrared observations of the sky region around the radio source G339.88-1.26 with the ESO/MPI 2.2-m telescope at La Silla. In this image, the visible colors red, green and blue have been used to represent the infrared filters J, H and K (at 1.25, 1.63 and 2.2 µm wavelength, respectively). No object is visible at the position of the radio source, even at these near-infrared wavelengths. A dark band of absorbing dust is clearly visible, exactly at the position of the object (indicated by an

  12. Modeling populations of rotationally mixed massive stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brott, I.

    2011-02-01

    Massive stars can be considered as cosmic engines. With their high luminosities, strong stellar winds and violent deaths they drive the evolution of galaxies through-out the history of the universe. Despite the importance of massive stars, their evolution is still poorly understood. Two major issues have plagued evolutionary models of massive stars until today: mixing and mass loss On the main sequence, the effects of mass loss remain limited in the considered mass and metallicity range, this thesis concentrates on the role of mixing in massive stars. This thesis approaches this problem just on the cross road between observations and simulations. The main question: Do evolutionary models of single stars, accounting for the effects of rotation, reproduce the observed properties of real stars. In particular we are interested if the evolutionary models can reproduce the surface abundance changes during the main-sequence phase. To constrain our models we build a population synthesis model for the sample of the VLT-FLAMES Survey of Massive stars, for which star-formation history and rotational velocity distribution are well constrained. We consider the four main regions of the Hunter diagram. Nitrogen un-enriched slow rotators and nitrogen enriched fast rotators that are predicted by theory. Nitrogen enriched slow rotators and nitrogen unenriched fast rotators that are not predicted by our model. We conclude that currently these comparisons are not sufficient to verify the theory of rotational mixing. Physical processes in addition to rotational mixing appear necessary to explain the stars in the later two regions. The chapters of this Thesis have been published in the following Journals: Ch. 2: ``Rotating Massive Main-Sequence Stars I: Grids of Evolutionary Models and Isochrones'', I. Brott, S. E. de Mink, M. Cantiello, N. Langer, A. de Koter, C. J. Evans, I. Hunter, C. Trundle, J.S. Vink submitted to Astronomy & Astrop hysics Ch. 3: ``The VLT-FLAMES Survey of Massive

  13. Four open questions in massive star evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meynet, G.; Eggenberger, P.; Ekström, S.; Georgy, C.; Groh, J.; Maeder, A.; Saio, H.; Moriya, T.

    2013-12-01

    We discuss four questions dealing with massive star evolution. The first one is about the origin of slowly rotating, non-evolved, nitrogen rich stars. We propose that these stars may originate from initially fast rotating stars whose surface has been braked down. The second question is about the evolutionary status of α-Cygni variables. According to their pulsation properties, these stars should be post red supergiant stars. However, some stars at least present surface abundances indicating that they should be pre red supergiant stars. How to reconcile these two contradictory requirements? The third one concerns the various supernova types which are the end point of the evolution of stars with initial masses between 18 and 30M⊙, i.e. the most massive stars which go through a red supergiant phase during their lifetime. Do they produce types IIP, IIL, IIn, IIb or Ib supernovae or do they end without producing any SN event? Finally, we shall discuss reasons why so few progenitors of type Ibc supernovae have yet been detected?

  14. Massive Stars in the Quintuplet Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figer, Donald F.; McLean, Ian S.; Morris, Mark

    1999-03-01

    We present near-infrared photometry and K-band spectra of newly identified massive stars in the Quintuplet cluster, one of the three massive clusters projected within 50 pc of the Galactic center. We find that the cluster contains a variety of massive stars, including more unambiguously identified Wolf-Rayet stars than any cluster in the Galaxy, and over a dozen stars in earlier stages of evolution, i.e., luminous blue variables (LBVs), Ofpe/WN9, and OB supergiants. One newly identified star is the second luminous blue variable in the cluster, after the ``Pistol star.'' Although we are unable to provide certain spectral classifications for the five enigmatic Quintuplet-proper members, we tentatively propose that they are extremely dusty versions of the WC stars found elsewhere in the cluster and similar to the dozen or so known examples in the Galaxy. Although the cluster parameters are uncertain because of photometric errors and uncertainties in stellar models, i.e., extrapolating initial masses and estimating ionizing fluxes, we have the following conclusions. Given the evolutionary stages of the identified stars, the cluster appears to be about 4+/-1 Myr old, assuming coeval formation. The total mass in observed stars is ~103 Msolar, and the implied mass is ~104 Msolar, assuming a lower mass cutoff of 1 Msolar and a Salpeter initial mass function. The implied mass density in stars is greater than or similar to a few thousand Msolar pc-3. The newly identified stars increase the estimated ionizing flux from this cluster by about an order of magnitude with respect to earlier estimates, to 1050.9 photons s-1, or roughly what is required to ionize the nearby ``Sickle'' H II region (G0.18-0.04). The total luminosity from the massive cluster stars is ~107.5 Lsolar, enough to account for the heating of the nearby molecular cloud, M0.20-0.033. We propose a picture that integrates most of the major features in this part of the sky, excepting the nonthermal filaments. We

  15. The initial conditions of massive star evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sana, Hugues

    2016-07-01

    Massive stars are some of the most energetic building blocks of galaxies. They are the progenitors of supernovae and of neutrons stars and black holes, the coallescence of which is one of the most likely detectable sources of gravitational waves. Yet their formation remains poorly understood. As a consequence, the mechanisms that set initial parameters such as rotation rates, multiplicity and orbital distributions are also ill constrained. These quantities are however critical as they affect the internal mixing, the rate and nature of the interactions, the stars final fates and their end-of-life products. In this presentation, I will review existing and new observations that allow us to better constraints these parameters, hence the initial conditions for massive star evolution.

  16. Comments on the Evolution of Massive Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Eid, M. F.; The, L.-S.; Meyer, B. S.

    We describe in a brief form present results we have obtained from a careful and up to date study of the evolution of massive stars including their advanced evolutionary phases beyond the oxygen burning phase. We describe the effects of mass loss, treatment of convection in inhomogeneous stellar layers and the rate of the 12C(α,γ)16O reaction on the properties of stellar models in the interesting case of a 25 M⊙ star of solar-like initial metallicity.

  17. Massive stars. A chemical signature of first-generation very massive stars.

    PubMed

    Aoki, W; Tominaga, N; Beers, T C; Honda, S; Lee, Y S

    2014-08-22

    Numerical simulations of structure formation in the early universe predict the formation of some fraction of stars with several hundred solar masses. No clear evidence of supernovae from such very massive stars has, however, yet been found in the chemical compositions of Milky Way stars. We report on an analysis of a very metal-poor star SDSS J001820.5-093939.2, which possesses elemental-abundance ratios that differ significantly from any previously known star. This star exhibits low [α-element Fe] ratios and large contrasts between the abundances of odd and even element pairs, such as scandium/titanium and cobalt/nickel. Such features have been predicted by nucleosynthesis models for supernovae of stars more than 140 times as massive as the Sun, suggesting that the mass distribution of first-generation stars might extend to 100 solar masses or larger. PMID:25146286

  18. Towards Realistic Modeling of Massive Star Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gnedin, O.; Li, H.

    2016-06-01

    Cosmological simulations of galaxy formation are rapidly advancing towards smaller scales. Current models can now resolve giant molecular clouds in galaxies and predict basic properties of star clusters forming within them. I will describe new theoretical simulations of the formation of the Milky Way throughout cosmic time, with the adaptive mesh refinement code ART. However, many challenges - physical and numerical - still remain. I will discuss how observations of massive star clusters and star forming regions can help us overcome some of them. Video of the talk is available at https://goo.gl/ZoZOfX

  19. QUARK MATTER IN MASSIVE COMPACT STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Weissenborn, Simon; Pagliara, Giuseppe; Schaffner-Bielich, Juergen; Sagert, Irina; Hempel, Matthias

    2011-10-10

    The recent observation of the pulsar PSR J1614-2230 with a mass of 1.97 {+-} 0.04 M{sub sun} gives a strong constraint on the quark and nuclear matter equations of state (EoS). We explore the parameter ranges for a parameterized EoS for quark stars. We find that strange stars, made of absolutely stable strange quark matter, comply with the new constraint only if effects from the strong coupling constant and color-superconductivity are taken into account. Hybrid stars, compact stars with a quark matter core and a hadronic outer layer, can be as massive as 2 M{sub sun}, but only for a significantly limited range of parameters. We demonstrate that the appearance of quark matter in massive stars crucially depends on the stiffness of the nuclear matter EoS. We show that the masses of hybrid stars stay below the ones of hadronic and pure quark stars, due to the softening of the EoS at the quark-hadron phase transition.

  20. Extended High Circular Polarization in the Orion Massive Star Forming Region: Implications for the Origin of Homochirality in the Solar System

    PubMed Central

    Tamura, Motohide; Kandori, Ryo; Kusakabe, Nobuhiko; Hough, James H.; Bailey, Jeremy; Whittet, Douglas C. B.; Lucas, Philip W.; Nakajima, Yasushi; Hashimoto, Jun

    2010-01-01

    We present a wide-field (∼6′ × 6′) and deep near-infrared (Ks band: 2.14 μm) circular polarization image in the Orion nebula, where massive stars and many low-mass stars are forming. Our results reveal that a high circular polarization region is spatially extended (∼0.4 pc) around the massive star-forming region, the BN/KL nebula. However, other regions, including the linearly polarized Orion bar, show no significant circular polarization. Most of the low-mass young stars do not show detectable extended structure in either linear or circular polarization, in contrast to the BN/KL nebula. If our solar system formed in a massive star-forming region and was irradiated by net circularly polarized radiation, then enantiomeric excesses could have been induced, through asymmetric photochemistry, in the parent bodies of the meteorites and subsequently delivered to Earth. These could then have played a role in the development of biological homochirality on Earth. PMID:20213160

  1. Extended high circular polarization in the Orion massive star forming region: implications for the origin of homochirality in the solar system.

    PubMed

    Fukue, Tsubasa; Tamura, Motohide; Kandori, Ryo; Kusakabe, Nobuhiko; Hough, James H; Bailey, Jeremy; Whittet, Douglas C B; Lucas, Philip W; Nakajima, Yasushi; Hashimoto, Jun

    2010-06-01

    We present a wide-field (approximately 6' x 6') and deep near-infrared (K(s) band: 2.14 mum) circular polarization image in the Orion nebula, where massive stars and many low-mass stars are forming. Our results reveal that a high circular polarization region is spatially extended (approximately 0.4 pc) around the massive star-forming region, the BN/KL nebula. However, other regions, including the linearly polarized Orion bar, show no significant circular polarization. Most of the low-mass young stars do not show detectable extended structure in either linear or circular polarization, in contrast to the BN/KL nebula. If our solar system formed in a massive star-forming region and was irradiated by net circularly polarized radiation, then enantiomeric excesses could have been induced, through asymmetric photochemistry, in the parent bodies of the meteorites and subsequently delivered to Earth. These could then have played a role in the development of biological homochirality on Earth. PMID:20213160

  2. RY Scuti: Infrared and radio observations of the mass-loss wind of a massive binary star system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrz, R. D.; Hayward, T. L.; Houck, J. R.; Miles, J. W.; Hjellming, R. M.; Jones, T. J.; Woodward, Charles E.; Prentice, Ricarda; Forrest, W. J.; Libonate, S.

    1995-01-01

    We report infrared (IR) imaging, IR photometry, IR spectroscopy, optical/IR photopolarimetry, and Very Large Array (VLA) radio observations of the peculiar binary star RY Scuti. These observations provide an unprecedented view of the detailed spatial structure of the equatorial mass-loss wind of a massive, luminous, 'overcontact' binary system. The binary star (0.43 AU separation) is surrounded by a flattened equatorial disk with an outer radius of approximately = 3 x 10(exp 16) cm (2000 AU) that emits strongly in the IR and radio. The inside of the disk is ionized and emits free-free radiation from hydrogen and 12.8 micrometers forbidden-line emission from (Ne II); the outside of the disk emits thermal radiation from silicate dust. Radio continuum emission is also produced in a compact H II region surrounding the binary. The dust may have a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) component. We use a rudimentary geometric model in which the thermal IR and radio emission from the disk are assumed to arise in a pair of concentric toroidal rings to estimate the physical properties of the disk. The mean radius of the ionized gas toroid is approximately = 1.3 x 10(exp 16) cm (870 AU), and the mean radius of the dust toroid is approximately = 2.2 x 10(exp 16) cm (1470 AU). RY Scuti has a small intrinsic polarization, with the electric vector perpendicular to the equatorial disk, that is probably caused by electron scattering from hot gas close to the central binary. We conclude that neon in the nebula is overabundant with respect to hydrogen and helium by a factor of between 1.6 and 10. Our IR/radio image data suggest that the circumstellar disk is part of an extensive radiation driven mass-loss outflow that is strongly confined to the equatorial plane of the binary system. The sharp spatial separation of the outer dust torous from the inner ionized gas torus confirms earlier suggestions that dust formation in the circumstellar ejecta of very hot stars must occur in

  3. MASSIVE STAR FORMATION IN NGC 2074

    SciTech Connect

    Fleener, Christine E.; Chu, Y.-H.; Gruendl, Robert A.; Payne, James T.; Chen, C.-H. Rosie

    2010-01-15

    Spitzer observations of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) have revealed a large population of young stellar objects (YSOs), but complementary high-resolution images in the optical or near-IR wavelengths are still needed to resolve the multiplicity and immediate environments of the YSOs. The Hubble Space Telescope imaged the star-forming region NGC 2074 in the LMC during its 100,000th orbit, providing an opportunity to more closely examine the YSOs and their environments in this region. We have studied the 10 YSO candidates identified from Spitzer observations, confirming their nature and determining their physical parameters by modeling their spectral energy distributions. The majority of the YSOs and central stars of ultracompact H II regions in NGC 2074 have masses consistent with spectral types of early B to late O. The co-existence of massive early-type O stars and the less massive YSOs indicates that their formation may have started at a similar time, a few 10{sup 5} yr ago. NGC 2074 provides an opportunity to study the evolution of massive stars at their infancy.

  4. MASSIVE INFANT STARS ROCK THEIR CRADLE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Extremely intense radiation from newly born, ultra-bright stars has blown a glowing spherical bubble in the nebula N83B, also known as NGC 1748. A new NASA Hubble Space Telescope image has helped to decipher the complex interplay of gas and radiation of a star-forming region in a nearby galaxy. The image graphically illustrates just how these massive stars sculpt their environment by generating powerful winds that alter the shape of the parent gaseous nebula. These processes are also seen in our Milky Way in regions like the Orion Nebula. The Hubble telescope is famous for its contribution to our knowledge about star formation in very distant galaxies. Although most of the stars in the Universe were born several billions of years ago, when the Universe was young, star formation still continues today. This new Hubble image shows a very compact star-forming region in a small part of one of our neighboring galaxies - the Large Magellanic Cloud. This galaxy lies only 165,000 light-years from our Milky Way and can easily be seen with the naked eye from the Southern Hemisphere. Young, massive, ultra-bright stars are seen here just as they are born and emerge from the shelter of their pre-natal molecular cloud. Catching these hefty stars at their birthplace is not as easy as it may seem. Their high mass means that the young stars evolve very rapidly and are hard to find at this critical stage. Furthermore, they spend a good fraction of their youth hidden from view, shrouded by large quantities of dust in a molecular cloud. The only chance is to observe them just as they start to emerge from their cocoon - and then only with very high-resolution telescopes. Astronomers from France, the U.S., and Germany have used Hubble to study the fascinating interplay between gas, dust, and radiation from the newly born stars in this nebula. Its peculiar and turbulent structure has been revealed for the first time. This high-resolution study has also uncovered several individual stars

  5. The Evolution and Stability of Massive Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiode, Joshua Hajime

    Massive stars are the ultimate source for nearly all the elements necessary for life. The first stars forge these elements from the sparse set of ingredients supplied by the Big Bang, and distribute enriched ashes throughout their galactic homes via their winds and explosive deaths. Subsequent generations follow suit, assembling from the enriched ashes of their predecessors. Over the last several decades, the astrophysics community has developed a sophisticated theoretical picture of the evolution of these stars, but it remains an incomplete accounting of the rich set of observations. Using state of the art models of massive stars, I have investigated the internal processes taking place throughout the life-cycles of stars spanning those from the first generation ("Population III") to the present-day ("Population I"). I will argue that early-generation stars were not highly unstable to perturbations, contrary to a host of past investigations, if a correct accounting is made for the viscous effect of convection. For later generations, those with near solar metallicity, I find that this very same convection may excite gravity-mode oscillations that produce observable brightness variations at the stellar surface when the stars are near the main sequence. If confirmed with modern high-precision monitoring experiments, like Kepler and CoRoT, the properties of observed gravity modes in massive stars could provide a direct probe of the poorly constrained physics of gravity mode excitation by convection. Finally, jumping forward in stellar evolutionary time, I propose and explore an entirely new mechanism to explain the giant eruptions observed and inferred to occur during the final phases of massive stellar evolution. This mechanism taps into the vast nuclear fusion luminosity, and accompanying convective luminosity, in the stellar core to excite waves capable of carrying a super-Eddington luminosity out to the stellar envelope. This energy transfer from the core to the

  6. Theoretical Developments in Understanding Massive Star Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yorke, H. W.; Bodenheimer, P.

    2008-05-01

    Except under special circumstances massive stars in galactic disks will form through accretion. The gravitational collapse of a molecular cloud core will initially produce one or more low-mass quasi-hydrostatic objects of a few Jupiter masses. Through subsequent accretion the masses of these cores grow as they simultaneously evolve toward hydrogen-burning central densities and temperatures. We review the evolution of accreting (proto-)stars, including new results calculated with a publicly available stellar evolution code written by the authors. The evolution of accreting stars depends strongly on the accretion history. We find that for the high accretion rates considered, ˜10^{-3} M_⊙yr^{-1}, stars of ˜5-10 M_⊙ tend to bloat up to radii which may exceed 100 R_⊙. Because of the high rate of binarity among massive stars, we expect that these large radii during short phases of evolution will result in mass transfer, common envelope evolution, and a higher number of tight binaries with periods of a few days.

  7. Instability considerations for massive star eruptions

    SciTech Connect

    Guzik, J. A.

    2004-01-01

    We propose a mechanism to explain the observed properties of the giant eruptions of 'supernova imposters' such as {eta} Car and P Cyg. This mechanism must be episodic, generate a large amount of energy, and be very deep-seated, in order to lift about 10 solar masses out of the deep gravitational potential well of these massive evolved stars. We suggest that nonradial gravity mode oscillations capable of existing in the core grow slowly to sufficient amplitude to cause an episode of mixing. This mixing generates a burst of nuclear energy deep in the star that is responsible for the observed large mass ejection and bolometric magnitude increase.

  8. Very Massive Stars in the local Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vink, Jorick S.; Heger, Alexander; Krumholz, Mark R.; Puls, Joachim; Banerjee, S.; Castro, N.; Chen, K.-J.; Chenè, A.-N.; Crowther, P. A.; Daminelli, A.; Gräfener, G.; Groh, J. H.; Hamann, W.-R.; Heap, S.; Herrero, A.; Kaper, L.; Najarro, F.; Oskinova, L. M.; Roman-Lopes, A.; Rosen, A.; Sander, A.; Shirazi, M.; Sugawara, Y.; Tramper, F.; Vanbeveren, D.; Voss, R.; Wofford, A.; Zhang, Y.

    2015-03-01

    Recent studies have claimed the existence of very massive stars (VMS) up to 300 M ⊙ in the local Universe. As this finding may represent a paradigm shift for the canonical stellar upper-mass limit of 150 M ⊙, it is timely to discuss the status of the data, as well as the far-reaching implications of such objects. We held a Joint Discussion at the General Assembly in Beijing to discuss (i) the determination of the current masses of the most massive stars, (ii) the formation of VMS, (iii) their mass loss, and (iv) their evolution and final fate. The prime aim was to reach broad consensus between observers and theorists on how to identify and quantify the dominant physical processes.

  9. Dust in regions of massive star formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfire, Mark G.; Cassinelli, J. P.

    1989-01-01

    It is suggested that protostars increase mass by accreting the surrounding gas and dust. Grains are destroyed as they near the central protostar creating a dust shell or cocoon. Radiation pressure acting on the grains can halt the inflow of material thereby limiting the amount of mass accumulated by the protostar. General constraints were considered on the initial dust-to-gas ratio and mass accretion rates that permit inflow. These results were constrained further by constructing a numerical model, including radiative deceleration on grains and grain destruction processes. Also the constraints on dust properties were investigated which allow the formation of massive stars. The obtained results seem to suggest that massive star formation requires rather extreme preconditioning of the grain and gas environment.

  10. The Massive Star Population in M101

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grammer, Skyler H.

    An increasing number of non-terminal giant eruptions are being observed by modern supernova and transient surveys. Very little is known about the origin of these giant eruptions and their progenitors which are presumably very-massive, evolved stars such as luminous blue variables, hypergiants, and supergiants. Motivated by the small number of progenitors positively associated with these giant eruptions, we have begun a survey of the luminous and evolved massive star populations in several nearby galaxies. We aim to identify the likely progenitors of the giant eruptions, study the spatial variations in the stellar populations, and examine the relationship between massive star populations and their environment. The work presented here is focused on stellar populations in the relatively nearby, giant, spiral galaxy M101 from sixteen archival BVI HST/ACS images. We create a catalog of stars in the direction to M101 with photometric errors < 10% for V < 24.5 and 50% completeness down to V ˜ 26.5 even in regions of high stellar crowding. Using color and magnitude criteria we have identified candidate luminous OB type stars and blue supergiants, yellow supergiants, and red supergiants for future observation. We examine their spatial distributions across the face of M101 and find that the ratio of blue to red supergiants decreases by two orders of magnitude over the radial extent. From our catalog, we derive the star formation history (SFH) for the stellar populations in five 2' wide annuli by fitting the color-magnitude diagrams. Binning the SFH into time frames corresponding to populations traced by Halpha, far ultraviolet (FUV), and near ultraviolet (NUV) emission, we show that the fraction of stellar populations young enough to contribute in Halpha is 15% " 35% in the inner regions, compared to less than 5% in the outer regions. This provides a sufficient explanation for the lack of Halpha emission at large radii. We also model the blue to red supergiant ratio in our

  11. Proper Motions of Massive Stars in 30 Doradus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lennon, Daniel

    2013-10-01

    We propose an ambitious proper motion survey of massive stars in the 30 Doradus region of the Large Magellanic Cloud using the unique capabilities of HST. We will derive the directions of motion of massive runaway stars, searching in particular for massive stars which have been ejected from the central very massive cluster R136. These data will be combined with radial velocities from the VLT-FLAMES Survey of the Tarantula Nebula and with atmospheric analyses and stellar evolution models to constrain their origins. We will also search for very young isolated massive stars to test models of single-star formation. This work is highly relevant to star formation, cluster dynamics, the origin of field WR stars and GRBs, the creation of very massive stars by runaway mergers, and the possible formation of intermediate-mass black holes.

  12. On the Formation of Massive Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yorke, Harold W.; Sonnhalter, Cordula

    2002-04-01

    We calculate numerically the collapse of slowly rotating, nonmagnetic, massive molecular clumps of masses 30, 60, and 120 Msolar, which conceivably could lead to the formation of massive stars. Because radiative acceleration on dust grains plays a critical role in the clump's dynamical evolution, we have improved the module for continuum radiation transfer in an existing two-dimensional (axial symmetry assumed) radiation hydrodynamic code. In particular, rather than using ``gray'' dust opacities and ``gray'' radiation transfer, we calculate the dust's wavelength-dependent absorption and emission simultaneously with the radiation density at each wavelength and the equilibrium temperatures of three grain components: amorphous carbon particles, silicates, and ``dirty ice''-coated silicates. Because our simulations cannot spatially resolve the innermost regions of the molecular clump, however, we cannot distinguish between the formation of a dense central cluster or a single massive object. Furthermore, we cannot exclude significant mass loss from the central object(s) that may interact with the inflow into the central grid cell. Thus, with our basic assumption that all material in the innermost grid cell accretes onto a single object, we are able to provide only an upper limit to the mass of stars that could possibly be formed. We introduce a semianalytical scheme for augmenting existing evolutionary tracks of pre-main-sequence protostars by including the effects of accretion. By considering an open outermost boundary, an arbitrary amount of material could, in principal, be accreted onto this central star. However, for the three cases considered (30, 60, and 120 Msolar originally within the computation grid), radiation acceleration limited the final masses to 31.6, 33.6, and 42.9 Msolar, respectively, for wavelength-dependent radiation transfer and to 19.1, 20.1, and 22.9 Msolar for the corresponding simulations with gray radiation transfer. Our calculations

  13. The close-binary content of massive star clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Berg, Maureen C.

    2015-08-01

    The fates of star clusters and the binaries in them are closely intertwined. Close binaries support a cluster against core collapse, while stellar encounters in the dense cores of massive star clusters shape the properties and numbers of the binaries. Observations of massive globular clusters with the Chandra X-ray Observatory have revealed hundreds of close binaries. I will present new results from deep HST observations of massive star clusters including 47Tuc, M28, and M4, that are aimed at classifying the X-ray source populations. Besides exotic systems such as low-mass X-ray binaries and millisecond pulsars, more mundane systems such as magnetically active binaries and accreting white dwarfs have been found. I will discuss how a breakdown of sources by class has revealed how the various binary populations bear the imprints of stellar encounters: some are dominated by dynamical creation, others by dynamical destruction. I will also discuss the effects on the integrated X-ray emissivity of massive star clusters, which is suppressed compared to lower-density environments.

  14. The simultaneous formation of massive stars and stellar clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Rowan J.; Longmore, Steven; Bonnell, Ian

    2009-12-01

    We show that massive stars and stellar clusters are formed simultaneously, the global evolution of the forming cluster is what allows the central stars to become massive. We predict that massive star-forming clumps, such as those observed in Motte et al., contract and grow in mass leading to the formation of massive stars. This occurs as mass is continually channelled from large radii on to the central protostars, which can become massive through accretion. Using smoothed particle hydrodynamic simulations of massive star-forming clumps in a giant molecular cloud, we show that clumps are initially diffuse and filamentary, and become more concentrated as they collapse. Simulated interferometry observations of our data provide an explanation as to why young massive star-forming regions show more substructure than older ones. The most massive stars in our model are found within the most bound cluster. Most of the mass accreted by the massive stars was originally distributed throughout the clump at low densities and was later funnelled to the star due to global infall. Even with radiative feedback no massive pre-stellar cores are formed. The original cores are of intermediate mass and gain their additional mass in the protostellar stage. We also find that cores which form low-mass stars exist within the volume from which the high-mass stars accrete, but are largely unaffected by this process.

  15. New evolutionary tracks of massive stars with PARSEC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yang; Bressan, Alessandro; Girardi, Leo; Marigo, Paola

    2015-08-01

    We present new evolutionary tracks of massive stars that complement the already published PARSEC database and supersede the old Padova evolutionary tracks of massive stars, which are more than 20 years old. We consider a broad range of metallicities, from Z=0.0001 to Z=0.04, and initial masses up to M=350 M⊙. The evolution is computed from the pre-main sequence phase up to the central carbon ignition. We supplement the new tracks with new tables of theoretical bolometric corrections in several photometric systems, obtained by homogenizing stellar atmosphere models of hot and cool stars, PoWR, WM-basic, ATLAS9 and Phoenix.The mass, age and metallicity grids are fully adequate to perform detailed investigations of the properties of very young stellar systems, in local and distant galaxies.

  16. Dynamical Models for High-Energy Emission from Massive Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owocki, Stanley %FAA(University of Delaware)

    Massive stars are prominent sources of X-rays and gamma-rays detected by both targeted and survey observations from orbiting telescopes like Chandra, XMM/Newton, RXTE, and Fermi. Such high-energy emissions represent key probes of the dynamics of massive-star mass loss, and their penetration through many magnitudes of visible interstellar extinction makes them effective beacons of massive stars in distant reaches of the Galaxy, and in young, active star-forming regions. The project proposed here will develop a comprehensive theoretical framework for interpreting both surveys and targeted observations of high-energy emission from massive stars. It will build on our team's extensive experience in both theoretical models and observational analyses for three key types of emission mechanisms in the stellar wind outflows of these stars, namely: 1) Embedded Wind Shocks (EWS) arising from internal instabilities in the wind driving; 2) shocks in Colliding Wind Binary (CWB) systems; and 3) High-Mass X-ray Binaries (HMXB) systems with interaction between massive-star wind with a compact companion (neutron star or black hole). Taking advantage of commonalities in the treatment of radiative driving, hydrodynamics, shock heating and cooling, and radiation transport, we will develop radiation hydrodynamical models for the key observational signatures like energy distribution, emission line spectrum, and variability, with an emphasis on how these can be used in affiliated analyses of both surveys like the recent Chandra mapping of the Carina association, and targeted observations of galactic X-ray and gamma-ray sources associated with each of the above specific model types. The promises of new clumping-insensitive diagnostics of mass loss rates, and the connection to mass transfer and binarity, all have broad relevance for understanding the origin, evolution, and fate of massive stars, in concert with elements of NASA's Strategic Subgoal 3D. Building on our team's expertise, the

  17. Molecular Outflows in Massive Star Forming Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, Nichol

    2015-11-01

    This thesis presents millimetre continuum and molecular line observations exploring the properties of molecular outflows towards massive star forming regions. Massive stars produce some of the most energetic phenomena in the Galaxy, yet we still do not have a comprehensive understanding of how they actually form. Outflows are known to play a key role in this formation process and their properties, particularly how they change depending on the mass, luminosity and evolution of the driving source can shed light on how massive stars actually form. This thesis presents observations at both high (SMA 3 arcsecond) and low (JCMT 15 arcsecond) spatial resolution of the known jet/outflow tracers, SiO and 12CO, towards a sample massive star forming region drawn from the RMS survey. Furthermore, the presence of infall signatures is explored through observations of HCO+ and H13CO+, and the hot core nature of the regions is probed using tracers such as CH3CN, HC3N and CH3OH. SiO is detected towards approximately 50% of the massive young stellar objects and HII regions in the JCMT sample. The detection of SiO appears to be linked to the age of the RMS source, with the likely younger sources showing a stronger dependence with SiO. The presence of SiO also appears to be linked to the CO velocity, with SiO more efficiently tracing sources with higher velocity dispersions. In the MOPRA observations towards a sample of 33 RMS sources, CH3CN is detected towards 66% of the sources, with the redder likely younger sources having the largest rotational temperatures. This thesis presents the first interferometric SiO (5-4) and 12CO (2-1) observations, taken with the SMA, towards the massive star forming region G203.3166/NGC 2264-C. In this intermediate/massive star forming cluster, SiO is again tracing the youngest sources. Both the SiO and 12CO emission trace two bipolar, high velocity outflows towards the mm brightest, IR-dark, likely youngest sources in this reg! ion. In contrast the IR

  18. Eta Carinae in the Context of the Most Massive Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gull, Theodore R.; Damineli, Augusto

    2009-01-01

    Eta Car, with its historical outbursts, visible ejecta and massive, variable winds, continues to challenge both observers and modelers. In just the past five years over 100 papers have been published on this fascinating object. We now know it to be a massive binary system with a 5.54-year period. In January 2009, Car underwent one of its periodic low-states, associated with periastron passage of the two massive stars. This event was monitored by an intensive multi-wavelength campaign ranging from -rays to radio. A large amount of data was collected to test a number of evolving models including 3-D models of the massive interacting winds. August 2009 was an excellent time for observers and theorists to come together and review the accumulated studies, as have occurred in four meetings since 1998 devoted to Eta Car. Indeed, Car behaved both predictably and unpredictably during this most recent periastron, spurring timely discussions. Coincidently, WR140 also passed through periastron in early 2009. It, too, is a intensively studied massive interacting binary. Comparison of its properties, as well as the properties of other massive stars, with those of Eta Car is very instructive. These well-known examples of evolved massive binary systems provide many clues as to the fate of the most massive stars. What are the effects of the interacting winds, of individual stellar rotation, and of the circumstellar material on what we see as hypernovae/supernovae? We hope to learn. Topics discussed in this 1.5 day Joint Discussion were: Car: the 2009.0 event: Monitoring campaigns in X-rays, optical, radio, interferometry WR140 and HD5980: similarities and differences to Car LBVs and Eta Carinae: What is the relationship? Massive binary systems, wind interactions and 3-D modeling Shapes of the Homunculus & Little Homunculus: what do we learn about mass ejection? Massive stars: the connection to supernovae, hypernovae and gamma ray bursters Where do we go from here? (future

  19. Astronomers Discover Rotating Disk Around Young, Massive Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-01-01

    about six to 10 times more massive than the sun. The rotating disk and an "envelope" of material surrounding the star contain about 20 times the mass of the sun. VLA observations revealed the speed of material in the disk, indicating that the disk is rotating around the central star according to Kepler's laws of planetary motion, just as the planets of our Solar System do. The disk extends outward from the star more than 500 times the Earth-Sun distance. "This is comparable in size to the largest disks seen around smaller stars, but this one is at least four times more massive than those disks," Shepherd said. During star formation, the material in such disks is thought to be drawn into the new star by its gravitational pull, while other processes power an outflow of material into the surrounding space. The outflow in the region of G192.16-3.82 is one of the largest such outflows in our Milky Way Galaxy. The velocity measurements were possible because the disk contains water molecules that amplify microwave radio emissions in a manner similar to that in which a laser amplifies light. The water molecules that act as amplifiers -- masers -- both appear as bright spots on radio telescope images and are emitted at a specific, known radio frequency. The molecules' motion causes that frequency to be changed by the Doppler effect. The amount of change allows scientists to calculate the velocity. The VLA is an instrument of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory, a facility of the National Science Foundation, operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

  20. An Unstable Truth: How Massive Stars get their Mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosen, Anna L.; Krumholz, Mark R.; McKee, Christopher F.; Klein, Richard I.

    2016-08-01

    The pressure exerted by massive stars' radiation fields is an important mechanism regulating their formation. Detailed simulation of massive star formation therefore requires an accurate treatment of radiation. However, all published simulations have either used a diffusion approximation of limited validity; have only been able to simulate a single star fixed in space, thereby suppressing potentially-important instabilities; or did not provide adequate resolution at locations where instabilities may develop. To remedy this we have developed a new, highly accurate radiation algorithm that properly treats the absorption of the direct radiation field from stars and the re-emission and processing by interstellar dust. We use our new tool to perform three-dimensional radiation-hydrodynamic simulations of the collapse of massive pre-stellar cores with laminar and turbulent initial conditions and properly resolve regions where we expect instabilities to grow. We find that mass is channeled to the stellar system via gravitational and Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instabilities, in agreement with previous results using stars capable of moving, but in disagreement with methods where the star is held fixed or with simulations that do not adequately resolve the development of RT instabilities. For laminar initial conditions, proper treatment of the direct radiation field produces later onset of instability, but does not suppress it entirely provided the edges of radiation-dominated bubbles are adequately resolved. Instabilities arise immediately for turbulent pre-stellar cores because the initial turbulence seeds the instabilities. Our results suggest that RT features should be present around accreting massive stars throughout their formation.

  1. Radiative ablation of disks around massive stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kee, Nathaniel Dylan

    Hot, massive stars (spectral types O and B) have extreme luminosities (10. 4 -10. 6 L?) that drive strong stellar winds through UV line-scattering.Some massive stars also have disks, formed by either decretion from the star (as in the rapidly rotating "Classical Be stars"), or accretion during the star's formation. This dissertation examines the role of stellar radiation in driving (ablating) material away from these circumstellar disks. A key result is that the observed month to year decay of Classical Be disks can be explained by line-driven ablation without, as previously done, appealing to anomalously strong viscous diffusion. Moreover, the higher luminosity of O stars leads to ablation of optically thin disks on dynamical timescales of order a day, providing a natural explanation for the lack of observed Oe stars. In addition to the destruction of Be disks, this dissertation also introduces a model for their formation by coupling observationally inferred non-radial pulsation modes and rapid stellar rotation to launch material into orbiting Keplerian disks of Be-like densities. In contrast to such Be decretion disks, star-forming accretion disks are much denser and so are generally optically thick to continuum processes. To circumvent the computational challenges associated with radiation hydrodynamics through optically thick media, we develop an approximate method for treating continuum absorption in the limit of geometrically thin disks. The comparison of ablation with and without continuum absorption shows that accounting for disk optical thickness leads to less than a 50% reduction in ablation rate, implying that ablation rate depends mainly on stellar properties like luminosity. Finally, we discuss the role of "thin-shell mixing" in reducing X-rays from colliding wind binaries. Laminar, adiabatic shocks produce well understood X-ray emission, but the emission from radiatively cooled shocks is more complex due to thin-shell instabilities. The parameter

  2. STAR System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doverspike, James E.

    The STAR System is a developmental guidance approach to be used with elementary school children in the 5th or 6th grades. Two basic purposes underlie STAR: to increase learning potential and to enhance personal growth and development. STAR refers to 4 basic skills: sensory, thinking, adapting, and revising. Major components of the 4 skills are:…

  3. The massive star content of blue irregular galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamb, S. A.; Hunter, D. A.; Gallagher, J. S., III

    1986-01-01

    Three regions of recent star formation in blue irregular galaxies were observed with the IUE in the short wavelength, low dispersion mode. The spectra indicate that the massive star content is similar in 2 of the 3 regions and is best fit by a synthesized spectrum of a burst of massive stars 2.5 to 3.0 million yr old.

  4. Probing massive stars around gamma-ray burst progenitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Wenbin; Kumar, Pawan; Smoot, George F.

    2015-10-01

    Long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are produced by ultra-relativistic jets launched from core collapse of massive stars. Most massive stars form in binaries and/or in star clusters, which means that there may be a significant external photon field (EPF) around the GRB progenitor. We calculate the inverse-Compton scattering of EPF by the hot electrons in the GRB jet. Three possible cases of EPF are considered: the progenitor is (I) in a massive binary system, (II) surrounded by a Wolf-Rayet-star wind and (III) in a dense star cluster. Typical luminosities of 1046-1050 erg s-1 in the 1-100 GeV band are expected, depending on the stellar luminosity, binary separation (I), wind mass-loss rate (II), stellar number density (III), etc. We calculate the light curve and spectrum in each case, taking fully into account the equal-arrival time surfaces and possible pair-production absorption with the prompt γ-rays. Observations can put constraints on the existence of such EPFs (and hence on the nature of GRB progenitors) and on the radius where the jet internal dissipation process accelerates electrons.

  5. GRAVITATIONAL SLINGSHOT OF YOUNG MASSIVE STARS IN ORION

    SciTech Connect

    Chatterjee, Sourav; Tan, Jonathan C. E-mail: jt@astro.ufl.edu

    2012-08-01

    The Orion Nebula Cluster (ONC) is the nearest region of massive star formation and thus a crucial testing ground for theoretical models. Of particular interest among the ONC's {approx}1000 members are: {theta}{sup 1} Ori C, the most massive binary in the cluster with stars of masses 38 and 9 M{sub Sun }; the Becklin-Neugebauer (BN) object, a 30 km s{sup -1} runaway star of {approx}8 M{sub Sun }; and the Kleinmann-Low (KL) nebula protostar, a highly obscured, {approx}15 M{sub Sun} object still accreting gas while also driving a powerful, apparently 'explosive' outflow. The unusual behavior of BN and KL is much debated: How did BN acquire its high velocity? How is this related to massive star formation in the KL nebula? Here, we report the results of a systematic survey using {approx}10{sup 7} numerical experiments of gravitational interactions of the {theta}{sup 1}C and BN stars. We show that dynamical ejection of BN from this triple system at its observed velocity leaves behind a binary with total energy and eccentricity matching those observed for {theta}{sup 1}C. Five other observed properties of {theta}{sup 1}C are also consistent with it having ejected BN and altogether we estimate that there is only a {approx}< 10{sup -5} probability that {theta}{sup 1}C has these properties by chance. We conclude that BN was dynamically ejected from the {theta}{sup 1}C system about 4500 years ago. BN then plowed through the KL massive star-forming core within the last 1000 years causing its recently enhanced accretion and outflow activity.

  6. Energetic Supernovae of Very Massive Primordial Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ke-Jung; Woosley, Stan

    2015-08-01

    Current models of the formation of the first stars in the universe suggest that these stars were very massive, having a typical mass scale of hundreds of solar masses. Some of them would die as pair instability supernovae (PSNe) which might be the biggest explosions of the universe. We present the results from multidimensional numerical studies of PSNe with a new radiation-hydrodynamics code, CASTRO and with realistic nuclear reaction networks. We simulate the fluid instabilities that occur in multiple spatial dimensions and discuss how the resulting mixing affects the explosion, mixing, and nucleosynthesis of these supernovae. Our simulations provide useful predictions for the observational signatures of PSNe, which might soon be examined by the James Webb Space Telescope.

  7. Hot, Massive Stars in I Zw 18

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heap, Sara R.; Lindler, D.; Malumuth, E.

    2011-01-01

    I Zw 18 is one of the most primitive blue, compact dwarf galaxies. The ionized gas in I Zw 18 has a low oxygen abundance (O approx.1/30 Osun) and nitrogen abundance (N-1/100 Nsun) (Pequignot 2008). We have obtained a far-UV spectrum of the northwest massive star cluster of I Zw 18 using Hubble's Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS). The spectrum is compatible with continuous star-formation over the past approx.10 Myr, and a very low metallicity, log Z/Zsun 1.7, although the stellar surface may be enhanced in carbon. Stellar wind lines are very weak, and the edge velocity of wind lines is very low (approx.250 km/s).

  8. The Embedded Phase of Massive Star Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Tak, Floris

    2000-11-01

    This thesis studies the physical and chemical structure of a set of massive young stars which are surrounded by a thick envelope of dust and gas, the earliest known phase of massive star formation. The primary scientific questions addressed are: (i) What is the evolutionary order of the phenomena associated with massive star formation? (ii) What is the physical and chemical structure of the envelopes of massive young stars? How do they compare to those of low-mass stars? Do specific molecules trace different stages? (iii) What are the masses of any circumstellar disks, and on what time scales are they dispersed? To answer these questions, a sample of infrared and submillimeter sources has been selected on high luminosity, close distance, isolated location and high mid-infrared flux. We present observations of these sources with single-dish submillimeter antennas, millimeter interferometers and near-infrared spectroscopy, and also discuss ISO spectra. For the interpretation, we have developed models with a detailed physical structure, combined with chemical differentiation, which is strongly coupled to the temperature. Some of the conclusions are: The envelopes of massive young stars are well described by centrally heated spherical models, with masses of ~ 100-1000 Modot within radii of ~0.1 pc. For a power-law density structure n(r) = n0 (r / r0)-α, we find α = 1.0-1.5 for the younger sources, significantly lower than α ≅ 2 found for the envelopes of low-mass stars at a comparable stage of evolution. This difference may indicate that the support against gravitational collapse in high-mass cores is by nonthermal (e.g., turbulent) pressure, and in low-mass cores by thermal pressure. For the more evolved sources, α = 1.5-2.0 fits the data best. Unlike in low-mass star formation, the near-infrared emission decreases as the envelope warms up, indicates that the hot dust close to the star is destroyed and/or pushed out by stellar radiation or mass loss. The

  9. Tidal capture of stars by a massive black hole

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Novikov, I. D.; Pethick, C. J.; Polnarev, A. G.

    1992-01-01

    The processes leading to tidal capture of stars by a massive black hole and the consequences of these processes in a dense stellar cluster are discussed in detail. When the amplitude of a tide and the subsequent oscillations are sufficiently large, the energy deposited in a star after periastron passage and formation of a bound orbit cannot be estimated directly using the linear theory of oscillations of a spherical star, but rather numerical estimates must be used. The evolution of a star after tidal capture is discussed. The maximum ratio R of the cross-section for tidal capture to that for tidal disruption is about 3 for real systems. For the case of a stellar system with an empty capture loss cone, even in the case when the impact parameter for tidal capture only slightly exceeds the impact parameter for direct tidal disruption, tidal capture would be much more important than tidal disruption.

  10. Evolutionary Connections Between RSGs and Other Massive Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Nathan

    2015-08-01

    Red supergiants are an important mass-loss phase near the end of a massive star's life, but there are many other evolved mass-losing stars that populate the HR Diagram, and not all massive stars will pass through a red supergiant phase. This talk will provide an overview of other types of massive stars and how they relate to red supergiants. Mass loss by red supergiant winds will be weighed against the mass loss of other massive stars in terms of their contribution to pre-supernova evolution, focussing on trends with initial mass and metallicity. Moreover, some other evolved massive stars have already been RSG or will be in the future, and circumstellar material is an important clue in this regard. Last, the diversity of different supernova explosions, their circumstellar material, and statistics of SN types provide important constraints on the role of RSGs in the latest phases of evolution and mass loss.

  11. Tracking Advanced Planetary Systems (TAPAS) with HARPS-N. IV. TYC 3667-1280-1: The most massive red giant star hosting a warm Jupiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niedzielski, A.; Villaver, E.; Nowak, G.; Adamów, M.; Maciejewski, G.; Kowalik, K.; Wolszczan, A.; Deka-Szymankiewicz, B.; Adamczyk, M.

    2016-05-01

    Context. We present the latest result of the TAPAS project that is devoted to intense monitoring of planetary candidates that are identified within the PennState-Toruń planet search. Aims: We aim to detect planetary systems around evolved stars to be able to build sound statistics on the frequency and intrinsic nature of these systems, and to deliver in-depth studies of selected planetary systems with evidence of star-planet interaction processes. Methods: The paper is based on precise radial velocity measurements: 13 epochs collected over 1920 days with the Hobby-Eberly Telescope and its High-Resolution Spectrograph, and 22 epochs of ultra-precise HARPS-N data collected over 961 days. Results: We present a warm-Jupiter (Teq = 1350 K, m2 sin i = 5.4 ± 0.4 MJ) companion with an orbital period of 26.468 days in a circular (e = 0.036) orbit around a giant evolved (log g = 3.11 ± 0.09, R = 6.26 ± 0.86 R⊙) star with M⋆ = 1.87 ± 0.17 M⊙. This is the most massive and oldest star found to be hosting a close-in giant planet. Its proximity to its host (a = 0.21 au) means that the planet has a 13.9 ± 2.0% probability of transits; this calls for photometric follow-up study. Conclusions: This massive warm Jupiter with a near circular orbit around an evolved massive star can help set constraints on general migration mechanisms for warm Jupiters and, given its high equilibrium temperature, can help test energy deposition models in hot Jupiters. Based on observations obtained with the Hobby-Eberly Telescope, which is a joint project of the University of Texas at Austin, the Pennsylvania State University, Stanford University, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, and Georg-August-Universität Göttingen.Based on observations made with the Italian Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG) operated on the island of La Palma by the Fundación Galileo Galilei of the INAF (Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica) at the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto

  12. The properties of low-metallicity massive stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tramper, F.

    2014-11-01

    My thesis has two main topics: the study of low-metallicity massive stars, and the study of the suspected final stage of massive stars from a certain initial mass range, the WO stars. All the data that has been used in this thesis has been obtained with the X-Shooter spectrograph on ESO's Very Large Telescope. As the formation of massive stars was favored in the metal-free early universe, the properties and evolution of low-metallicity massive stars gives insight in the influence of these stars in the young universe. I have quantitatively analyzed six O-type stars in the low-metallicity dwarf galaxies IC1613, WLM and NGC3109. These stars appear to have surprisingly strong winds, and do not agree with theoretical predictions. The analysis of four more O stars confirms this finding. The low-metallicity temperature scale, recent star formation history of the galaxies and the evolutionary state of the O stars are also discussed. The enigmatic WO stars are very rare (only 9 are known), and are thought to represent the final stage of some of the most massive stars. The spectra of most of these stars have never been modeled in detailed using expanding atmosphere codes. I have modeled the spectrum of the low-metallicity WO star DR1 and find abundances comparable to carbon Wolf-Rayet stars, but a much higher stellar temperature. The study of the other known single WO stars (5 in total) shows that most of them show very high carbon and oxygen abundances, and have less then 40% of helium left (by mass). The found stellar abundances will be used to constrain the initial masses of the stars and their evolutionary path. They are also used to constrain the illusive carbon to oxygen thermonuclear reaction rate.

  13. Using young massive star clusters to understand star formation and feedback in high-redshift-like environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longmore, S.; Barnes, A.; Battersby, C.; Bally, J.; Kruijssen, J. M. Diederik; Dale, J.; Henshaw, J.; Walker, D.; Rathborne, J.; Testi, L.; Ott, J.; Ginsburg, A.

    2016-05-01

    The formation environment of stars in massive stellar clusters is similar to the environment of stars forming in galaxies at a redshift of 1 - 3, at the peak star formation rate density of the Universe. As massive clusters are still forming at the present day at a fraction of the distance to high-redshift galaxies they offer an opportunity to understand the processes controlling star formation and feedback in conditions similar to those in which most stars in the Universe formed. Here we describe a system of massive clusters and their progenitor gas clouds in the centre of the Milky Way, and outline how detailed observations of this system may be able to: (i) help answer some of the fundamental open questions in star formation and (ii) quantify how stellar feedback couples to the surrounding interstellar medium in this high-pressure, high-redshift analogue environment.

  14. Nucleosynthesis of Short-lived Radioactivities in Massive Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, B. S.

    2004-01-01

    A leading model for the source of many of the short-lived radioactivities in the early solar nebula is direct incorporation from a massive star [1]. A recent and promising incarnation of this model includes an injection mass cut, which is a boundary between the stellar ejecta that become incorporated into the solar cloud and those ejecta that do not [2-4]. This model also includes a delay time between ejection from the star and incorporation into early solar system solid bodies. While largely successful, this model requires further validation and comparison against data. Such evaluation becomes easier if we have a better sense of the nature of the synthesis of the various radioactivities in the star. That is the goal of this brief abstract.

  15. Massive Star Clusters in Dwarf Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, Soeren

    2015-08-01

    Dwarf galaxies are often characterized by very high globular cluster specific frequencies, in some cases exceeding that of the Milky Way by a factor of 100 or more. Moreover, the GCs are typically much more metal-poor than the bulk of the field stars, so that a substantial fraction (up to 20-25% or more) of all metal-poor stars in some dwarf galaxies are associated with GCs. The metal-poor components of these galaxies thus represent an extreme case of the "specific frequency problem". In this talk I will review the current status of our understanding of GC systems in dwarf galaxies. Particular emphasis will be placed on the implications of the high GC specific frequencies for the amount of mass loss the clusters could have experienced and the constraints this provides on theories for the origin of multiple populations in globular clusters.

  16. Probing Isolated Massive Star Formation in the LMC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephens, Ian

    2012-10-01

    Whether massive stars can form in isolation is one of the most debated questions in star formation. Observations of main sequence O-stars indicate that 5-10% of them form in isolation, but models of massive star formation suggest that massive stars should form in cluster environments. Isolated massive young stellar objects {YSOs} are better suited to address whether or not massive stars truly form in isolation since YSOs have had less time to disrupt their natal environment or move away from their stellar siblings. We have developed a unique sample of 7 candidates for isolated massive YSOs in the LMC. Within 80 pc, these objects are not associated with 1} other massive and intermediate-mass YSOs, 2} OB associations, and 3} giant molecular clouds {GMCs}. In all cases ground-based H-alpha observations show that they are affiliated with non-elongated, small HII regions and therefore are unlikely to be part of a runaway population. We request WFC3/UVIS and IR observations in the F656N, F555W, F814W, F110W, and F160W bands to examine the interstellar environment and determine the main sequence and pre-main sequence {PMS} populations down to 0.7 solar masses. In addition, coordinated parallel ACS/WFC F555W, F814W, and F658N observations will be used to assess the nearby control-field populations. From these observations we can search for lower-mass PMS stars, infer the local star formation history, and determine whether evidence exists for remnants of a disrupted GMC. With this statistically significant sample, we will have the ability to assess the possibility of massive stars forming in isolation.

  17. Five New Exoplanets Orbiting Three Metal-rich, Massive Stars: Two-planet Systems Including Long-period Planets and an Eccentric Planet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harakawa, Hiroki; Sato, Bun'ei; Omiya, Masashi; Fischer, Debra A.; Hori, Yasunori; Ida, Shigeru; Kambe, Eiji; Yoshida, Michitoshi; Izumiura, Hideyuki; Koyano, Hisashi; Nagayama, Shogo; Shimizu, Yasuhiro; Okada, Norio; Okita, Kiichi; Sakamoto, Akihiro; Yamamuro, Tomoyasu

    2015-06-01

    We report detections of new exoplanets from a radial-velocity (RV) survey of metal-rich FGK stars by using three telescopes. By optimizing our RV analysis method to long time-baseline observations, we have succeeded in detecting five new Jovian planets around three metal-rich stars, HD 1605, HD 1666, and HD 67087, with masses of 1.3 {{M}⊙ }, 1.5 {{M}⊙ }, and 1.4 {{M}⊙ }, respectively. A K1 subgiant star, HD 1605 hosts two planetary companions with minimum masses of {{M}p}sin i=0.96{{M}Jup} and 3.5{{M}Jup} in circular orbits with the planets’ periods P=577.9 and 2111 days, respectively. HD 1605 shows a significant linear trend in RVs. Such a system consisting of Jovian planets in circular orbits has rarely been found and thus HD 1605 should be an important example of a multi-planetary system that is likely unperturbed by planet-planet interactions. HD 1666 is an F7 main-sequence star that hosts an eccentric and massive planet of {{M}p}sin i=6.4{{M}Jup} in an orbit with {{a}p}=0.94 AU and eccentricity e=0.63. Such an eccentric and massive planet can be explained as a result of planet-planet interactions among Jovian planets. While we have found large residuals of rms=35.6 m {{s}-1}, the periodogram analysis does not support any additional periodicities. Finally, HD 67087 hosts two planets of {{M}p}sin i=3.1{{M}Jup} and 4.9{{M}Jup} in orbits with P=352.2 and 2374 days, and e=0.17 and 0.76, respectively. Although the current RVs do not lead to accurate determinations of its orbit and mass, HD 67087 c can be one of the most eccentric planets ever discovered in multiple systems.

  18. Proper Motions of Isolated Massive Stars Near the Galactic Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lennon, Daniel

    2014-10-01

    The Galactic Center is one of the most perplexing and unusual regions of the Galaxy. Not only is it home to the central massive black hole but it contains three very massive young star clusters within the central 30 pc; the Arches, Quintuplet and Central clusters. Furthermore, emission-line surveys have revealed the presence of what appears to be a diaspora of ~40 very massive isolated Wolf-Rayet-like stars scattered throughout the region, outside of these massive clusters. Their origin is currently unkown but the suspected causes include such diverse and exotic mechanisms as ejection by dynamical interaction within the massive clusters, ejection by supernovae events within those clusters old enough to have SN, ejection by interaction with the central black hole, stellar mergers in the field, and in situ star formation of isolated massive stars. These processes however should all leave clear and distinct dynamical signatures on their products.We propose using WFC3/IR to conduct a survey of ~150 square arcminutes the Galactic Center region to measure relative proper motions to an accuracy of 10 km/s for stars with masses as low as a few solar masses (late B-type). Our objectives include determining which of the known isolated massive stars are runaways, estimating their probable places of origin, discovering less luminous runaways that are invisible to emission line surveys, characterizing the dynamical properties of runaway stars in all luminosty ranges, and searching for signs of tidally disrupted massive clusters. The survey will have lasting legacy value to those trying to unravel the physics of galactic centers and the environments around massive black holes.

  19. Proper Motions of Isolated Massive Stars Near the Galactic Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lennon, Daniel

    2012-10-01

    The Galactic Center is one of the most perplexing and unusual regions of the Galaxy. Not only is it home to the central massive black hole but it contains three very massive young star clusters within the central 30 pc; the Arches, Quintuplet and Central clusters. Furthermore, emission-line surveys have revealed the presence of what appears to be a diaspora of 40 very massive isolated Wolf-Rayet-like stars scattered throughout the region, outside of these massive clusters. Their origin is currently unkown but the suspected causes include such diverse and exotic mechanisms as ejection by dynamical interaction within the massive clusters, ejection by supernovae events within those clusters old enough to have SN, ejection by interaction with the central black hole, stellar mergers in the field, and in situ star formation of isolated massive stars. These processes however should all leave clear and distinct dynamical signatures on their products.We propose using WFC3/IR to conduct a survey of 150 square arcminutes the Galactic Center region to measure relative proper motions to an accuracy of 10 km/s for stars with masses as low as a few solar masses {late B-type}. Our objectives include determining which of the known isolated massive stars are runaways, estimating their probable places of origin, discovering less luminous runaways that are invisible to emission line surveys, characterizing the dynamical properties of runaway stars in all luminosty ranges, and searching for signs of tidally disrupted massive clusters. The survey will have lasting legacy value to those trying to unravel the physics of galactic centers and the environments around massive black holes.

  20. ATLASGAL - towards a complete sample of massive star forming clumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urquhart, J. S.; Moore, T. J. T.; Csengeri, T.; Wyrowski, F.; Schuller, F.; Hoare, M. G.; Lumsden, S. L.; Mottram, J. C.; Thompson, M. A.; Menten, K. M.; Walmsley, C. M.; Bronfman, L.; Pfalzner, S.; König, C.; Wienen, M.

    2014-09-01

    By matching infrared-selected, massive young stellar objects (MYSOs) and compact H II regions in the Red MSX Source survey to massive clumps found in the submillimetre ATLASGAL (APEX Telescope Large Area Survey of the Galaxy) survey, we have identified ˜1000 embedded young massive stars between 280° < ℓ < 350° and 10° < ℓ < 60° with | b | < 1.5°. Combined with an existing sample of radio-selected methanol masers and compact H II regions, the result is a catalogue of ˜1700 massive stars embedded within ˜1300 clumps located across the inner Galaxy, containing three observationally distinct subsamples, methanol-maser, MYSO and H II-region associations, covering the most important tracers of massive star formation, thought to represent key stages of evolution. We find that massive star formation is strongly correlated with the regions of highest column density in spherical, centrally condensed clumps. We find no significant differences between the three samples in clump structure or the relative location of the embedded stars, which suggests that the structure of a clump is set before the onset of star formation, and changes little as the embedded object evolves towards the main sequence. There is a strong linear correlation between clump mass and bolometric luminosity, with the most massive stars forming in the most massive clumps. We find that the MYSO and H II-region subsamples are likely to cover a similar range of evolutionary stages and that the majority are near the end of their main accretion phase. We find few infrared-bright MYSOs associated with the most massive clumps, probably due to very short pre-main-sequence lifetimes in the most luminous sources.

  1. The incidence of stellar mergers and mass gainers among massive stars

    SciTech Connect

    De Mink, S. E.; Sana, H.; Langer, N.; Izzard, R. G.; Schneider, F. R. N.

    2014-02-10

    Because the majority of massive stars are born as members of close binary systems, populations of massive main-sequence stars contain stellar mergers and products of binary mass transfer. We simulate populations of massive stars accounting for all major binary evolution effects based on the most recent binary parameter statistics and extensively evaluate the effect of model uncertainties. Assuming constant star formation, we find that 8{sub −4}{sup +9}% of a sample of early-type stars are the products of a merger resulting from a close binary system. In total we find that 30{sub −15}{sup +10}% of massive main-sequence stars are the products of binary interaction. We show that the commonly adopted approach to minimize the effects of binaries on an observed sample by excluding systems detected as binaries through radial velocity campaigns can be counterproductive. Systems with significant radial velocity variations are mostly pre-interaction systems. Excluding them substantially enhances the relative incidence of mergers and binary products in the non-radial velocity variable sample. This poses a challenge for testing single stellar evolutionary models. It also raises the question of whether certain peculiar classes of stars, such as magnetic O stars, are the result of binary interaction and it emphasizes the need to further study the effect of binarity on the diagnostics that are used to derive the fundamental properties (star-formation history, initial mass function, mass-to-light ratio) of stellar populations nearby and at high redshift.

  2. The Prevalence and Impact of Wolf–Rayet Stars in Emerging Massive Star Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokal, Kimberly R.; Johnson, Kelsey E.; Indebetouw, Rémy; Massey, Philip

    2016-08-01

    We investigate Wolf–Rayet (WR) stars as a source of feedback contributing to the removal of natal material in the early evolution of massive star clusters. Despite previous work suggesting that massive star clusters clear out their natal material before the massive stars evolve into the WR phase, WR stars have been detected in several emerging massive star clusters. These detections suggest that the timescale for clusters to emerge can be at least as long as the time required to produce WR stars (a few million years), and could also indicate that WR stars may be providing the tipping point in the combined feedback processes that drive a massive star cluster to emerge. We explore the potential overlap between the emerging phase and the WR phase with an observational survey to search for WR stars in emerging massive star clusters hosting WR stars. We select candidate emerging massive star clusters from known radio continuum sources with thermal emission and obtain optical spectra with the 4 m Mayall Telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory and the 6.5 m MMT.4 We identify 21 sources with significantly detected WR signatures, which we term “emerging WR clusters.” WR features are detected in ˜50% of the radio-selected sample, and thus we find that WR stars are commonly present in currently emerging massive star clusters. The observed extinctions and ages suggest that clusters without WR detections remain embedded for longer periods of time, and may indicate that WR stars can aid, and therefore accelerate, the emergence process.

  3. The Prevalence and Impact of Wolf–Rayet Stars in Emerging Massive Star Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokal, Kimberly R.; Johnson, Kelsey E.; Indebetouw, Rémy; Massey, Philip

    2016-08-01

    We investigate Wolf–Rayet (WR) stars as a source of feedback contributing to the removal of natal material in the early evolution of massive star clusters. Despite previous work suggesting that massive star clusters clear out their natal material before the massive stars evolve into the WR phase, WR stars have been detected in several emerging massive star clusters. These detections suggest that the timescale for clusters to emerge can be at least as long as the time required to produce WR stars (a few million years), and could also indicate that WR stars may be providing the tipping point in the combined feedback processes that drive a massive star cluster to emerge. We explore the potential overlap between the emerging phase and the WR phase with an observational survey to search for WR stars in emerging massive star clusters hosting WR stars. We select candidate emerging massive star clusters from known radio continuum sources with thermal emission and obtain optical spectra with the 4 m Mayall Telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory and the 6.5 m MMT.4 We identify 21 sources with significantly detected WR signatures, which we term “emerging WR clusters.” WR features are detected in ∼50% of the radio-selected sample, and thus we find that WR stars are commonly present in currently emerging massive star clusters. The observed extinctions and ages suggest that clusters without WR detections remain embedded for longer periods of time, and may indicate that WR stars can aid, and therefore accelerate, the emergence process.

  4. Astronomers Discover Most Massive Neutron Star Yet Known

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-10-01

    spacetime produced by the white dwarf's gravitation. This effect, called the Shapiro Delay, allowed the scientists to precisely measure the masses of both stars. "We got very lucky with this system. The rapidly-rotating pulsar gives us a signal to follow throughout the orbit, and the orbit is almost perfectly edge-on. In addition, the white dwarf is particularly massive for a star of that type. This unique combination made the Shapiro Delay much stronger and thus easier to measure," said Scott Ransom, also of NRAO. The astronomers used a newly-built digital instrument called the Green Bank Ultimate Pulsar Processing Instrument (GUPPI), attached to the GBT, to follow the binary stars through one complete orbit earlier this year. Using GUPPI improved the astronomers' ability to time signals from the pulsar severalfold. The researchers expected the neutron star to have roughly one and a half times the mass of the Sun. Instead, their observations revealed it to be twice as massive as the Sun. That much mass, they say, changes their understanding of a neutron star's composition. Some theoretical models postulated that, in addition to neutrons, such stars also would contain certain other exotic subatomic particles called hyperons or condensates of kaons. "Our results rule out those ideas," Ransom said. Demorest and Ransom, along with Tim Pennucci of the University of Virginia, Mallory Roberts of Eureka Scientific, and Jason Hessels of the Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy and the University of Amsterdam, reported their results in the October 28 issue of the scientific journal Nature. Their result has further implications, outlined in a companion paper, scheduled for publication in the Astrophysical Journal Letters. "This measurement tells us that if any quarks are present in a neutron star core, they cannot be 'free,' but rather must be strongly interacting with each other as they do in normal atomic nuclei," said Feryal Ozel of the University of Arizona, lead author of

  5. The massive star population of Cygnus OB2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Nicholas J.; Drew, Janet E.; Mohr-Smith, Michael

    2015-05-01

    We have compiled a significantly updated and comprehensive census of massive stars in the nearby Cygnus OB2 association by gathering and homogenizing data from across the literature. The census contains 169 primary OB stars, including 52 O-type stars and 3 Wolf-Rayet stars. Spectral types and photometry are used to place the stars in a Hertzsprung-Russell diagram, which is compared to both non-rotating and rotating stellar evolution models, from which stellar masses and ages are calculated. The star formation history and mass function of the association are assessed, and both are found to be heavily influenced by the evolution of the most massive stars to their end states. We find that the mass function of the most massive stars is consistent with a `universal' power-law slope of Γ = 1.3. The age distribution inferred from stellar evolutionary models with rotation and the mass function suggest the majority of star formation occurred more or less continuously between 1 and 7 Myr ago, in agreement with studies of low- and intermediate-mass stars in the association. We identify a nearby young pulsar and runaway O-type star that may have originated in Cyg OB2 and suggest that the association has already seen its first supernova. Finally we use the census and mass function to calculate the total mass of the association of 16 500^{+3800}_{-2800} M⊙, at the low end, but consistent with, previous estimates of the total mass of Cyg OB2. Despite this Cyg OB2 is still one of the most massive groups of young stars known in our Galaxy making it a prime target for studies of star formation on the largest scales.

  6. A highly abnormal massive star mass function in the Orion Nebula cluster and the dynamical decay of trapezium systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pflamm-Altenburg, J.; Kroupa, P.

    2006-11-01

    The Orion Nebula cluster (ONC) appears to be unusual on two grounds: the observed constellation of the OB stars of the entire ONC and its Trapezium at its centre implies a time-scale problem given the age of the Trapezium, and an initial mass function (IMF) problem for the whole OB star population in the ONC. Given the estimated crossing time of the Trapezium, it ought to have totally dynamically decayed by now. Furthermore, by combining the lower limit of the ONC mass with a standard IMF it emerges that the ONC should have formed at least about 40 stars heavier than 5 Msolar while only 10 are observed. Using the N-body experiments we (i) confirm the expected instability of the Trapezium and (ii) show that beginning with a compact OB-star configuration of about 40 stars both the number of observed OB stars after 1 Myr within 1 pc radius and a compact trapezium configuration can be reproduced. These two empirical constraints thus support our estimate of 40 initial OB stars in the cluster. Interestingly, a more-evolved version of the ONC resembles the Upper Scorpius OB association. The N-body experiments are performed with the new C-code CATENA by integrating the equations of motion using the chain-multiple-regularization method. In addition, we present a new numerical formulation of the IMF.

  7. 25 GHz methanol masers in regions of massive star formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Britton, Tui R.; Voronkov, Maxim A.

    2012-07-01

    The bright 25 GHz series of methanol masers is formed in highly energetic regions of massive star formation and provides a natural signpost of shocked gas surrounding newly forming stars. A systematic survey for the 25 GHz masers has only recently been carried out. We present the preliminary results from the interferometric follow up of 51 masers at 25 GHz in the southern sky.

  8. Why UV Observatories are crucial to understand massive stars ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia Garcia, Miriam

    2012-07-01

    Each Ultraviolet (UV) mission has brought a breakthrough to our knowledge of massive stars. The first rocket UV spectra of O-type stars showed powerful P-Cygni profiles, which revealed that O stars have an expanding atmosphere or stellar wind. After IUE, FUSE and HST-STIS we now know that these winds are not static nor homogeneous, with shocks and mechanisms for extra ionization in the outflow. Radiation driven winds are actually one of the main pillars of the current paradigm of massive stars, as through mass-removal they dictate the sequence of evolutionary stages, duration, ionizing power and yields to the ISM, and the fate of the star as supernova. But many questions remain open: the weak-wind problem, the driving mechanism of very metal-poor massive stars (our connection to the first stars), and a proper characterization of wind inhomogeneities and shocks, to name a few. HST-COS and the up-coming WSO spectrographs will play a crucial role in solving these issues --crucial to calculate massive star feedback to the Universe-- thanks to the wealth of UV metallic transitions that offer many diagnostics to these physical phenomena.

  9. GRBs as Probes of Massive Stars Near and Far

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fynbo, Johan P. U.; Malesani, Daniele

    2008-06-01

    Long-duration gamma-ray bursts are the manifestations of massive stellar death. Due to the immense energy release they are detectable from most of the observable universe. In this way they allow us to study the deaths of single (or binary) massive stars possibly throughout the full timespan massive stars have existed in the Universe. GRBs provide a means to infer information about the environments and typical galaxies in which massive stars are formed. Two main obstacles remain to be crossed before the full potential of GRBs as probes of massive stars can be harvested: i) we need to build more complete and well understood samples in order not to be fooled by biases, and ii) we need to understand to which extent GRBs may be intrinsically biased in the sense that they are only formed by a limited subset of massive stars defined by most likely a restricted metallicity interval. I describe the status of an ongoing effort to build a more complete sample of long-duration GRBs with measured redshifts. Already now we can conclude that the environments of GRB progenitors are very diverse with metallicities ranging from solar to a hundredth solar and extinction ranging from none to AV > 5 mag. We have also identified a sightline with significant escape of Lyman continuum photons and another with a clear 2175 Å extinction bump.

  10. VLT-Flames Tarantula Survey and Multiplicity of Massive Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sana, H.

    2013-06-01

    The VLT-Flames Tarantula Survey (VFTS) has obtained optical spectroscopy of over 800 OB and Wolf-Rayet stars in the 30 Doradus region with the aim to investigate a number of questions regarding the formation, evolution and final fate of the most massive stars and the dynamics of the region. In this presentation, I will review some of the most important results obtained by the VFTS so far. The multi-epoch strategy was designed to identify spectroscopic binaries, and I will describe the binary properties in the 30 Dor region in the broader context of our knowledge of the multiplicity of massive stars.

  11. Eccentricity boost of stars around shrinking massive black hole binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwasa, Mao; Seto, Naoki

    2016-06-01

    Based on a simple geometrical approach, we analyze the evolution of the Kozai-Lidov mechanism for stars around shrinking massive black hole binaries on circular orbits. We find that, due to a peculiar bifurcation pattern induced by the Newtonian potential of stellar clusters, the orbit of stars could become highly eccentric. This transition occurs abruptly for stars with small initial eccentricities. The approach presented in this paper may be useful for studying the Kozai-Lidov mechanism in various astrophysical contexts.

  12. The evolutionary tracks of young massive star clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Pfalzner, S.; Steinhausen, M.; Vincke, K.; Menten, K.; Parmentier, G.

    2014-10-20

    Stars mostly form in groups consisting of a few dozen to several ten thousand members. For 30 years, theoretical models have provided a basic concept of how such star clusters form and develop: they originate from the gas and dust of collapsing molecular clouds. The conversion from gas to stars being incomplete, the leftover gas is expelled, leading to cluster expansion and stars becoming unbound. Observationally, a direct confirmation of this process has proved elusive, which is attributed to the diversity of the properties of forming clusters. Here we take into account that the true cluster masses and sizes are masked, initially by the surface density of the background and later by the still present unbound stars. Based on the recent observational finding that in a given star-forming region the star formation efficiency depends on the local density of the gas, we use an analytical approach combined with N-body simulations to reveal evolutionary tracks for young massive clusters covering the first 10 Myr. Just like the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram is a measure for the evolution of stars, these tracks provide equivalent information for clusters. Like stars, massive clusters form and develop faster than their lower-mass counterparts, explaining why so few massive cluster progenitors are found.

  13. Discovery of X-ray pulsations from a massive star.

    PubMed

    Oskinova, Lidia M; Nazé, Yael; Todt, Helge; Huenemoerder, David P; Ignace, Richard; Hubrig, Swetlana; Hamann, Wolf-Rainer

    2014-01-01

    X-ray emission from stars much more massive than the Sun was discovered only 35 years ago. Such stars drive fast stellar winds where shocks can develop, and it is commonly assumed that the X-rays emerge from the shock-heated plasma. Many massive stars additionally pulsate. However, hitherto it was neither theoretically predicted nor observed that these pulsations would affect their X-ray emission. All X-ray pulsars known so far are associated with degenerate objects, either neutron stars or white dwarfs. Here we report the discovery of pulsating X-rays from a non-degenerate object, the massive B-type star ξ(1) CMa. This star is a variable of β Cep-type and has a strong magnetic field. Our observations with the X-ray Multi-Mirror (XMM-Newton) telescope reveal X-ray pulsations with the same period as the fundamental stellar oscillations. This discovery challenges our understanding of stellar winds from massive stars, their X-ray emission and their magnetism. PMID:24892504

  14. Searching for Massive Star Clusters around Luminous Blue Variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stensland, Jared; Edwards, M. L.; Mikles, V. J.

    2011-01-01

    We present a method to search for the massive birth clusters of Luminous Blue Variables (LBVs). Using theoretical absolute magnitudes of early-type stars, we calculated expected color and magnitude limits for candidate massive stars at the distance and reddening of the Pistol Star and FMM 362 in the Quintuplet. We then applied these cuts to stars found in the 2MASS catalog surrounding the LBVs. By using a well-characterized cluster, we were able to confirm the method's effectiveness and determine the color and magnitude criteria that eliminated the highest number of false candidates while recovering the largest number of known massive cluster members. We then calculated and applied similar cuts to stars within a 1pc radius of WRA 751 to confirm its cluster, Teutsch 143a, discovered by Pasquali et al (2006) and later investigated by Froebrich et al (2008). We used our method to select 22 strong candidate massive cluster stars, 18 medium confidence candidates and 39 weak candidates, categorized based on their colors and magnitudes. These stars are prime candidates for follow-up spectroscopy to determine their spectral types and confirm cluster membership. We plan to apply a similar method to other LBVs without known birth clusters.

  15. Tidal evolution of stars hosting massive planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferraz-Mello, Sylvio; Pereira, Elielson S.; Moda, Lucas F. R.

    2015-08-01

    The tidal interaction between one close-in companion (exoplanet or brown-dwarf) and its host star transfers angular momentum from the orbit of the companion to the rotation of the star. In this communication, we present one model for the exchange of angular momentum between the orbit of the companion and the rotation of the star, due to the tidal interaction, and discuss the limits in which the transfer is significant. If the star is active, its rotation period is initially increasing due to the star's wind braking, but at some point the braking is overcome by the tidal transfer of angular momentum from the planet orbit and the rotation period starts decreasing, up to an inward spiraling of the planet orbit and its eventual fall in the star, when a rapid decrease in the star rotation period is seen. In non-active stars, the rotation period is driven towards the neighborhood of the orbital period. For a complete study of several cases see Ferraz-Mello et al. astro-ph/1503.04369. One consequence of these results is that the presence of a significant tidal torque does not allow us to use the gyrochronology rules to estimate the age of a star hosting a large close-in companion. Simulations using hypothetical values show that a companion with mass over 1 Jupiter mass in an orbit within 0.04 AU from a solar-type star (i.e. with period less than 3 days) produces in the rotation of the star an evolution different from that predicted for single stars.

  16. Massive Wolf-Rayet stars on the verge to explode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tramper, F.; Straal, S. M.; Sanyal, D.; Sana, H.; de Koter, A.; Gräfener, G.; Langer, N.; Vink, J. S.; de Mink, S. E.; Kaper, L.

    The enigmatic oxygen-sequence Wolf-Rayet stars represent a rare stage in the evolution of massive stars. Their properties can provide unique constraints on the pre-supernova evolution of massive stars. This work presents the results of a quantitative spectroscopic analysis of the known single WO stars, with the aim to obtain the key stellar parameters and deduce their evolutionary state.X-Shooter spectra of the WO stars are modeled using the line-blanketed non-local thermal equilibrium atmosphere code cmfgen. The obtained stellar parameters show that the WO stars are very hot, with temperatures ranging from 150 kK to 210 kK. Their chemical composition is dominated by carbon (>50%), while the helium mass fraction is very low (down to 14%). Oxygen mass fractions reach as high as 25%. These properties can be reproduced with dedicated evolutionary models for helium stars, which show that the stars are post core-helium burning and very close to their eventual supernova explosion. The helium-star masses indicate initial masses or approximately 40 - 60M⊙.Thus, WO stars represent the final evolutionary stage of stars with estimated initial masses of 40 - 60M⊙. They are post core-helium burning and may explode as type Ic supernovae within a few thousand years.

  17. The Formation of Massive Stars and Star Clusters in the Milky Way

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battersby, C. D.

    2013-10-01

    The life cycle of stars and gas in the Milky Way illuminates and shapes our view of the universe. This cycle is driven largely by massive stars through their immense ionizing radiation, powerful winds and outflows, and explosive supernovae, yet the processes leading to their formation remain elusive. I review the status of our understanding of massive star and cluster formation, beginning with a theoretical framework outlining the varying modes proposed for the accumulation of material onto forming stars: core accretion and competitive accretion. The observable consequences of each theory and their current statuses are discussed. I then delve into the growing body of observations toward massive star and cluster forming regions, focusing on recent observations of the structure and evolution of cluster- forming regions at early stages. I conclude with an outlook for the next stages in the field of massive star formation.

  18. INTERNAL GRAVITY WAVES IN MASSIVE STARS: ANGULAR MOMENTUM TRANSPORT

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, T. M.; Lin, D. N. C.; McElwaine, J. N.; Lau, H. H. B. E-mail: lin@ucolick.org E-mail: hblau@astro.uni-bonn.de

    2013-07-20

    We present numerical simulations of internal gravity waves (IGW) in a star with a convective core and extended radiative envelope. We report on amplitudes, spectra, dissipation, and consequent angular momentum transport by such waves. We find that these waves are generated efficiently and transport angular momentum on short timescales over large distances. We show that, as in Earth's atmosphere, IGW drive equatorial flows which change magnitude and direction on short timescales. These results have profound consequences for the observational inferences of massive stars, as well as their long term angular momentum evolution. We suggest IGW angular momentum transport may explain many observational mysteries, such as: the misalignment of hot Jupiters around hot stars, the Be class of stars, Ni enrichment anomalies in massive stars, and the non-synchronous orbits of interacting binaries.

  19. New Frontiers in Stellar Astrophysics: Massive Stars as Cosmological Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levesque, Emily M.

    2015-01-01

    Massive stars are crucial building blocks in the study of star-forming galaxies, stellar evolution, and transient events, and their applications as fundamental astrophysical tools span a broad range of subfields. Unfortunately, many key traits of massive stars - from their physical properties and ionizing radiation to their evolution and core-collapse deaths - remain poorly understood. I will discuss several current research programs focused on developing a comprehensive picture of massive stars across the cosmos. These include observational surveys and population synthesis models of star-forming galaxies; progenitor and host environment studies of transient phenomena such as supernovae and gamma-ray bursts; and the remarkable reach of extragalactic stellar observations, which recently led to the discovery of the first Thorne-Zytkow object candidate. With cutting-edge theoretical models and the capabilities of current ground-based and orbital observatories, we are ideally poised to make substantial progress in our understanding of massive stars over the coming decade. This in turn will equip us with the tools we need to take full advantage of the frontiers opened up by new observational facilities such as JWST, the ELTs, and LSST, allowing us to immediately begin probing the new corners of the universe that they reveal.

  20. JET FORMATION FROM MASSIVE YOUNG STARS: MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMICS VERSUS RADIATION PRESSURE

    SciTech Connect

    Vaidya, Bhargav; Porth, Oliver; Fendt, Christian; Beuther, Henrik E-mail: fendt@mpia.de

    2011-11-20

    Observations indicate that outflows from massive young stars are more collimated during their early evolution compared to later stages. Our paper investigates various physical processes that impact the outflow dynamics, i.e., its acceleration and collimation. We perform axisymmetric magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations particularly considering the radiation pressure exerted by the star and the disk. We have modified the PLUTO code to include radiative forces in the line-driving approximation. We launch the outflow from the innermost disk region (r < 50 AU) by magnetocentrifugal acceleration. In order to disentangle MHD effects from radiative forces, we start the simulation in pure MHD and later switch on the radiation force. We perform a parameter study considering different stellar masses (thus luminosity), magnetic flux, and line-force strength. For our reference simulation-assuming a 30 M{sub Sun} star-we find substantial de-collimation of 35% due to radiation forces. The opening angle increases from 20 Degree-Sign to 32 Degree-Sign for stellar masses from 20 M{sub Sun} to 60 M{sub Sun }. A small change in the line-force parameter {alpha} from 0.60 to 0.55 changes the opening angle by {approx}8 Degree-Sign . We find that it is mainly the stellar radiation that affects the jet dynamics. Unless the disk extends very close to the star, its force is too small to have much impact. Essentially, our parameter runs with different stellar masses can be understood as a proxy for the time evolution of the star-outflow system. Thus, we have shown that when the stellar mass (thus luminosity) increases with age, the outflows become less collimated.

  1. RCW 108: Massive Young Stars Trigger Stellar Birth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    RCW 108 is a region where stars are actively forming within the Milky Way galaxy about 4,000 light years from Earth. This is a complicated region that contains young star clusters, including one that is deeply embedded in a cloud of molecular hydrogen. By using data from different telescopes, astronomers determined that star birth in this region is being triggered by the effect of nearby, massive young stars.

    This image is a composite of X-ray data from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory (blue) and infrared emission detected by NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope (red and orange). More than 400 X-ray sources were identified in Chandra's observations of RCW 108. About 90 percent of these X-ray sources are thought to be part of the cluster and not stars that lie in the field-of-view either behind or in front of it. Many of the stars in RCW 108 are experiencing the violent flaring seen in other young star-forming regions such as the Orion nebula. Gas and dust blocks much of the X-rays from the juvenile stars located in the center of the image, explaining the relative dearth of Chandra sources in this part of the image.

    The Spitzer data show the location of the embedded star cluster, which appears as the bright knot of red and orange just to the left of the center of the image. Some stars from a larger cluster, known as NGC 6193, are also visible on the left side of the image. Astronomers think that the dense clouds within RCW 108 are in the process of being destroyed by intense radiation emanating from hot and massive stars in NGC 6193.

    Taken together, the Chandra and Spitzer data indicate that there are more massive star candidates than expected in several areas of this image. This suggests that pockets within RCW 108 underwent localized episodes of star formation. Scientists predict that this type of star formation is triggered by the effects of radiation from bright, massive stars such as those in NGC 6193. This radiation may cause the interior of gas

  2. Light element production by low energy nuclei from massive stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vangioni-Flam, E.; Casse, M.; Ramaty, R.

    1997-01-01

    The Orion complex is a source of gamma rays attributed to the de-excitation of fast carbon and oxygen nuclei excited through interactions with ambient hydrogen and helium. This has consequences for the production and evolution of light isotopes in the Galaxy, as massive stars appear as prolific sources of C-O rich low energy nuclei. The different stages of massive star evolution are considered in relation to the acceleration of nuclei to moderate energies. It is concluded that the low energy nuclear component originating from massive stars plays a larger role than the usual Galactic cosmic rays in shaping the evolution of Li-6, Be-9, B-10 and B-11, especially in the early Galactic evolution. The enhancement of the B-11/B-10 ratio observed in meteorites and in the interstellar medium is attributed to the interaction of low energy carbon nuclei with ambient H and to a lesser degree, to neutrino spallation.

  3. Mid-Infrared Interferometry of Dust around Massive Evolved Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajagopal, Jayadev; Menut, Jean-Luc; Wallace, D.; Danchi, W. C.; Chesneau, O.; Lopez, B.; Monnier, J. D.; Ireland, M.; Tuthill, P. G.

    2007-12-01

    We report long-baseline interferometric measurements of circumstellar dust around massive evolved stars with the MIDI instrument on the Very Large Telescope Interferometer and provide spectrally dispersed visibilities in the 8-13 μm wavelength band. We also present diffraction-limited observations at 10.7 μm on the Keck Telescope with baselines up to 8.7 m, which explore larger scale structure. We have resolved the dust shells around the late-type WC stars WR 106 and WR 95 and the enigmatic NaSt 1 (formerly WR 122), suspected to have recently evolved from a luminous blue variable (LBV) stage. For AG Car, the prototypical LBV in our sample, we marginally resolve structure close to the star, distinct from the well-studied detached nebula. The dust shells around the two WC stars show fairly constant size in the 8-13 μm MIDI band, with Gaussian half-widths of ~25 to 40 mas, and the Keck observations reveal an additional extended structure around WR 106. The visibility profiles for NaSt 1 obtained from two MIDI baselines indicate a compact source embedded in an extended structure. The compact dust we detect around NaSt 1 and AG Car favors recent or ongoing dust formation. Using the measured visibilities, we build spherically symmetric radiative transfer models of the WC dust shells, which enable detailed comparison with existing SED-based models. Our results indicate that the inner radii of the shells are within a few tens of AU from the stars. In addition, our models favor grain size distributions with large (~1 μm) dust grains. This proximity of the inner dust to the hot central star emphasizes the difficulty faced by current theories in forming dust in the hostile environment around WR stars. Although we detect no direct evidence for binarity for these objects, dust production in a colliding-wind interface in a binary system is a feasible mechanism in WR systems under these conditions.

  4. Unravelling the Mystery of Massive Star Birth - All Stars are Born the Same Way

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-07-01

    of a screw on the International Space Station, or more than ten times the resolution possible with current visible-light telescopes in space. With this unique capability, complemented by observations done with another of ESO's telescopes, the 3.58-metre New Technology Telescope at La Silla, Kraus and colleagues were able to detect a disc around IRAS 13481-6124. "This is the first time we could image the inner regions of the disc around a massive young star", says Kraus. "Our observations show that formation works the same for all stars, regardless of mass." The astronomers conclude that the system is about 60 000 years old, and that the star has reached its final mass. Because of the intense light of the star - 30 000 times more luminous than our Sun - the disc will soon start to evaporate. The flared disc extends to about 130 times the Earth-Sun distance - or 130 astronomical units (AU) - and has a mass similar to that of the star, roughly twenty times the Sun. In addition, the inner parts of the disc are shown to be devoid of dust. "Further observations with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), currently being constructed in Chile, could provide much information on these inner parts, and allow us to better understand how baby massive stars became heavy," concludes Kraus. More information This research was presented in a paper to appear in this week issue of Nature ("A hot compact dust disk around a massive young stellar object", by S. Kraus et al.). The team is composed of Stefan Kraus (University of Michigan, USA), Karl-Heinz Hofmann, Karl M. Menten, Dieter Schertl, Gerd Weigelt, Friedrich Wyrowski, and Anthony Meilland (Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Bonn, Germany),Karine Perraut (Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Grenoble, France), Romain Petrov and Sylvie Robbe-Dubois (Université de Nice Sophia-Antipolis/CNRS/Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur, France), Peter Schilke (Universität zu Köln, Germany), and Leonardo Testi (ESO).

  5. Near-Infrared Mass Loss Diagnostics for Massive Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonneborn, George; Bouret, J. C.

    2010-01-01

    Stellar wind mass loss is a key process which modifies surface abundances, luminosities, and other physical properties of hot, massive stars. Furthermore, mass loss has to be understood quantitatively in order to accurately describe and predict massive star evolution. Two urgent problems have been identified that challenge our understanding of line-driven winds, the so-called weak-wind problem and wind clumping. In both cases, mass-loss rates are drastically lower than theoretically expected (up to a factor 1001). Here we study how the expected spectroscopic capabilities of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), especially NIRSpec, could be used to significantly improve constraints on wind density structures (clumps) and deep-seated phenomena in stellar winds of massive stars, including OB, Wolf-Rayet and LBV stars. Since the IR continuum of objects with strong winds is formed in the wind, IR lines may sample different depths inside the wind than UV-optical lines and provide new information about the shape of the velocity field and clumping properties. One of the most important applications of IR line diagnostics will be the measurement of mass-loss rates in massive stars with very weak winds by means of the H I Bracket alpha line, which has been identified as one of the most promising diagnostics for this problem.

  6. Grain processes in massive star formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfire, M. G.; Cassinelli, J. P.

    1986-01-01

    Observational evidence suggests that stars greater than 100 M(solar) exist in the Galaxy and Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), however classical star formation theory predicts stellar mass limits of only approx. 60 M(solar). A protostellar accretion flow consists of inflowing gas and dust. Grains are destroyed as they are near the central protostar creating a dust shell or cocoon. Radiation pressure acting on the grain can halt the inflow of material thereby limiting the amount of mass accumulated by the protostar. We first consider rather general constraints on the initial grain to gas ratio and mass accretion rates that permit inflow. We further constrain these results by constructing a numerical model. Radiative deceleration of grains and grain destruction processes are explicitly accounted for in an iterative solution of the radiation-hydrodynamic equations. Findings seem to suggest that star formation by spherical accretion requires rather extreme preconditioning of the grain and gas environment.

  7. On the massive star-forming capacity of molecular clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franco, Jose; Shore, Steven N.; Tenorio-Tagle, Guillermo

    1994-01-01

    Assuming that photoionization is the self-limiting process for continued star formation, we estimate the maximum number of massive (OB) stars that can form within a molecular cloud. The most efficient cloud destruction mechanism in the early stages of H II region evolution is the evaporation of the cloud by stars located near the cloud boundary. The maximum number of OB stars is of order 1 per 10(exp 4) solar mass of average molecular gas, or 10 per 10(exp 4) solar mass of dense molecular gas. The resulting star-forming efficiencies within cloud complexes range from 2% to 16% depending on both the location of the stars in the cloud and the details of the initial mass function, with an overall value of about 5% for average molecular gas.

  8. Massive stars and miniature robots: today's research and tomorrow's technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, William David

    2013-03-01

    This thesis documents the reduction of the VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey (VFTS) data set, whilst also describing the analysis for one of the serendipitous discoveries: the massive binary R139. This high-mass binary will provide an excellent future calibration point for stellar models, in part as it seems to defy certain expectations about its evolution. Out with the VFTS, a search for binary companions around a trio of B-type supergiants is presented. These stars are surrounded by nebulae that closely resemble the triple-ring structure associated with the poorly-understood SN1987A. Do these stars share a similar evolutionary fate? While strong evidence is found for periodic pulsations in one of the stars, there appears to be no indication of a short-period binary companion suggested in the literature. Gathering observations from a wide range of environments builds a fuller picture of massive stars, but the samples remain somewhat limited. The coming generation of extremely large telescopes will open new regions for studies like the VFTS. Fully utilising these remarkable telescopes will require many new technologies, and this thesis presents one such development project. For adaptive-optics corrected, multi-object instruments it will be necessary to position small pick-off mirrors in the telescope¿s focal plane to select the sub-fields on the sky. This could be most efficiently achieved if the mirrors were self-propelled, which has led to a miniature robot project called MAPS - the Micro Autonomous Positioning System. A number of robots have been built with a footprint of only 30 x 30mm. These wirelessly-controlled robots draw their power from the floor on which they operate and have shown the potential to be positioned to an accuracy of tens of microns. This thesis details much of the early design work and testing of the robots, and also the development of the camera imaging system used to determine the position of the robots. The MAPS project is ongoing and a

  9. Massive Star Formation: Characterising Infall and Outflow in dense cores.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhter, Shaila; Cunningham, Maria; Harvey-Smith, Lisa; Jones, Paul Andrew; Purcell, Cormac; Walsh, Andrew John

    2015-08-01

    Massive stars are some of the most important objects in the Universe, shaping the evolution of galaxies, creating chemical elements, and hence shaping the evolution of the Universe. However, the processes by which they form, and how they shape their environment during their birth processes, are not well understood. We are using NH3 data from the "The H2O Southern Galactic Plane Survey" (HOPS) to define the positions of dense cores/clumps of gas in the southern Galactic plane that are likely to form stars. Due to its effective critical density, NH3 can detect massive star forming regions effectively compared to other tracers. We did a comparative study with different methods for finding clumps and found Fellwalker as the best. We found ~ 10% of the star forming clumps with multiple components and ~ 90% clumps with single component along the line of sight. Then, using data from the "The Millimetre Astronomy Legacy Team 90 GHz" (MALT90) survey, we search for the presence of infall and outflow associated with these cores. We will subsequently use the "3D Molecular Line Radiative Transfer Code" (MOLLIE) to constrain properties of the infall and outflow, such as velocity and mass flow. The aim of the project is to determine how common infall and outflow are in star forming cores, hence providing valuable constraints on the timescales and physical process involved in massive star formation.

  10. Wind channeling, magnetospheres, and spindown of magnetic massive stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owocki, S. P.; ud-Doula, A.; Townsend, R. H. D.; Petit, V.; Sundqvist, J. O.; Cohen, D. H.

    2014-08-01

    A subpopulation (~10%) of hot, luminous, massive stars have been revealed through spectropolarimetry to harbor strong (hundreds to tens of thousand Gauss), steady, large-scale (often significantly dipolar) magnetic fields. This review focuses on the role of such fields in channeling and trapping the radiatively driven wind of massive stars, including both in the strongly perturbed outflow from open field regions, and the wind-fed ``magnetospheres'' that develop from closed magnetic loops. For B-type stars with weak winds and moderately fast rotation, one finds ``centrifugal magnetospheres'', in which rotational support allows magnetically trapped wind to accumulate to a large density, with quite distinctive observational signatures, e.g. in Balmer line emission. In contrast, more luminous O-type stars have generally been spun down by magnetic braking from angular momentum loss in their much stronger winds. The lack of centrifugal support means their closed loops form a ``dynamical magnetosphere'', with trapped material falling back to the star on a dynamical timescale; nonetheless, the much stronger wind feeding leads to a circumstellar density that is still high enough to give substantial Balmer emission. Overall, this review describes MHD simulations and semi-analytic dynamical methods for modeling the magnetospheres, the magnetically channeled wind outflows, and the associated spin-down of these magnetic massive stars.

  11. Solar-like oscillations in a massive star.

    PubMed

    Belkacem, Kévin; Samadi, Réza; Goupil, Marie-Jo; Lefèvre, Laure; Baudin, Fréderic; Deheuvels, Sébastien; Dupret, Marc-Antoine; Appourchaux, Thierry; Scuflaire, Richard; Auvergne, Michel; Catala, Claude; Michel, Eric; Miglio, Andrea; Montalban, Josefina; Thoul, Anne; Talon, Suzanne; Baglin, Annie; Noels, Arlette

    2009-06-19

    Seismology of stars provides insight into the physical mechanisms taking place in their interior, with modes of oscillation probing different layers. Low-amplitude acoustic oscillations excited by turbulent convection were detected four decades ago in the Sun and more recently in low-mass main-sequence stars. Using data gathered by the Convection Rotation and Planetary Transits mission, we report here on the detection of solar-like oscillations in a massive star, V1449 Aql, which is a known large-amplitude (beta Cephei) pulsator. PMID:19541991

  12. The 3D Death of a Massive Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-07-01

    What happens at the very end of a massive star's life, just before its core's collapse? A group led by Sean Couch (California Institute of Technology and Michigan State University) claim to have carried out the first three-dimensional simulations of these final few minutes — revealing new clues about the factors that can lead a massive star to explode in a catastrophic supernova at the end of its life. A Giant Collapses In dying massive stars, in-falling matter bounces off the of collapsed core, creating a shock wave. If the shock wave loses too much energy as it expands into the star, it can stall out — but further energy input can revive it and result in a successful explosion of the star as a core-collapse supernova. In simulations of this process, however, theorists have trouble getting the stars to consistently explode: the shocks often stall out and fail to revive. Couch and his group suggest that one reason might be that these simulations usually start at core collapse assuming spherical symmetry of the progenitor star. Adding Turbulence Couch and his collaborators suspect that the key is in the final minutes just before the star collapses. Models that assume a spherically-symmetric star can't include the effects of convection as the final shell of silicon is burned around the core — and those effects might have a significant impact! To test this hypothesis, the group ran fully 3D simulations of the final three minutes of the life of a 15 solar-mass star, ending with core collapse, bounce, and shock-revival. The outcome was striking: the 3D modeling introduced powerful turbulent convection (with speeds of several hundred km/s!) in the last few minutes of silicon-shell burning. As a result, the initial structure and motions in the star just before core collapse were very different from those in core-collapse simulations that use spherically-symmetric initial conditions. The turbulence was then further amplified during collapse and formation of the shock

  13. On the evolution and explosion of massive stars

    SciTech Connect

    Limongi, Marco; Chieffi, Alessandro

    2008-05-21

    We review our recent progresses on the presupernova evolution of massive stars in the range 11-120 M{sub {center_dot}} of solar metallicity. Special attention will be devoted to the effect of the mass loss rate during the Wolf-Rayet stages in determining the structure and the physical properties of the star prior the supernova explosion. We also discuss the explosive yields and the initial mass-remnant mass relation in the framework of the kinetic bomb induced explosion and hence the contribution of these stars to the global chemical enrichment of the interstellar medium.

  14. Pre-Supernova Mass Loss Predictions for Massive Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vink, J. S.; de Koter, A.; Kotak, R.

    2008-06-01

    Massive stars and supernovae (SNe) have a huge impact on their environment. Despite their importance, a comprehensive knowledge of which massive stars produce which SNe is hitherto lacking. We use a Monte Carlo method to predict the mass-loss rates of massive stars in the Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram (HRD) covering all phases from the OB main sequence, the unstable Luminous Blue Variable (LBV) stage, to the final Wolf-Rayet (WR) phase. Although WR produce their own metals, a strong dependence of the mass-loss rate on the initial iron abundance is found at sub-solar metallicities (1/10 -- 1/100 solar). This may present a viable mechanism to prevent the loss of angular momentum by stellar winds, which could inhibit GRBs occurring at solar metallicities -- providing a significant boost to the collapsar model. Furthermore, we discuss recently reported quasi-sinusoidal modulations in the radio lightcurves of SN 2001ig and SNe 2003bg. We show that both the sinusoidal behaviour and the recurrence timescale of these modulations are consistent with the predicted mass-loss behaviour of LBVs. We discuss potential ramifications for the ``Conti'' scenario for massive star evolution.

  15. The Role of Rotation in the Evolution of Massive Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heap, Sara R.; Lanz, Thierry M.

    2002-01-01

    Recent evolutionary models of massive stars predict important effects of rotation including: increasing the rate of mass-loss; lowering the effective gravity; altering the evolutionary track on the HRD; extending the main-sequence phase (both on the HR diagram and in time); and mixing of CNO-processed elements up to the stellar surface. Observations suggest that rotation is a more important factor at lower metallicities because of higher initial rotational velocities and weaker winds. This makes the SMC, a low-metallicity galaxy (Z= 0.2 solar Z), an excellent environment for discerning the role of rotation in massive stars. We report on a FUSE + STIS + optical spectral analysis of 17 O-type stars in the SMC, where we found an enormous range in N abundances. Three stars in the sample have the same (low) CN abundances as the nebular material out of which they formed, namely C = 0.085 solar C and N = 0.034 solar N. However, more than half show N approx. solar N, an enrichment factor of 30X! Such unexpectedly high levels of N have ramifications for the evolution of massive stars including precursors to supernovae. They also raise questions about the sources of nitrogen in the early universe.

  16. The Role of Rotation in the Evolution of Massive Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heap, Sara R.; Lanz, Thierry M.

    2003-01-01

    Recent evolutionary models of massive stars predict important effects of rotation including: increasing the rate of mass loss; lowering the effective gravity; altering the evolutionary track on the Hertzsprung-Russel Diagram (HRD); extending the main-sequence phase (both on the HR diagram and in time); and mixing of CNO-processed elements up to the stellar surface. Observations suggest that rotation is a more important factor at lower metallicities because of higher initial rotational velocities and weaker winds. This makes the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC), a low-metallicity galaxy (Z=0.2 solar Z), an excellent environment for discerning the role of rotation in massive stars. We report on a FUSE+STIS+optical spectral analysis of 17 O-type stars in the SMC, where we found an enormous range in N abundances. Three stars in the sample have the same (low) CN abundances as the nebular material out of which they formed, namely C=0.085 solar C and N=0.034 solar N. However, more than half show N approx. solar N, an enrichment factor of 30X! Such unexpectedly high levels of N have ramifications for the evolution of massive stars including precursors to supernovae. They also raise questions about the sources of nitrogen in the early universe. This study was supported in part by grants from NASA's ADP, HST GO-7437, and FUSE B134.

  17. Presupernova evolution and explosion of massive stars with mass loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limongi, M.; Chieffi, A.

    2007-08-01

    We review the main properties of solar metallicity massive stars in the range 11-120 Msolar. The influence of the mass loss on the hydrostatic burning stages as well as the final explosion is discussed in some detail. We find that the minimum masses that enter the WNL, WNE and WC stages are 30 Msolar, 35 Msolar and 40 Msolar respectively; the limiting mass between stars exploding as SNII and SNIb/c is between 30 and 35 Msolar the limiting mass between stars forming neutron stars and black holes after the explosion is between 25-30 Msolar. We also discuss the properties of the chemical yields integrated over a Salpeter IMF and we find that stars with M >= 35 Msolar contribute for ~ 60% to the production of C, N and for ~ 40% to the production Sc and s-process elements up to Zr, while they do not produce any intermediate mass element because of the large remnant masses.

  18. Late stages of massive star evolution and nucleosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Nomoto, Ken'ichi; Hashimoto, Masa-aki

    1986-01-01

    The evolution of massive stars in the mass range of 8 to 25 M solar mass is reviewed. The effect of electron degeneracy on the gravothermal nature of stars is discussed. Depending on the stellar mass, the stars form three types of cores, namely, non-degenerate, semi-degenerate, and strongly degenerate cores. The evolution for these cases is quite distinct from each other and leads to the three different types of final fate. It is suggested that our helium star model, which is equivalent to a 25 M solar mass star, will form a relatively small mass iron core despite the faster /sup 12/C(..cap alpha..,..gamma..)/sup 16/O reaction. 50 refs., 21 figs.

  19. The multiplicity of massive stars: A high angular resolution survey with the HST fine guidance sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Aldoretta, E. J.; Gies, D. R.; Henry, T. J.; Jao, W.-C.; Norris, R. P. E-mail: gies@chara.gsu.edu E-mail: jao@chara.gsu.edu; and others

    2015-01-01

    We present the results of an all-sky survey made with the Fine Guidance Sensor on the Hubble Space Telescope to search for angularly resolved binary systems among massive stars. The sample of 224 stars is comprised mainly of Galactic O- and B-type stars and luminous blue variables, plus a few luminous stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The FGS TRANS mode observations are sensitive to the detection of companions with an angular separation between 0.″01 and 1.″0 and brighter than △m=5. The FGS observations resolved 52 binary and 6 triple star systems and detected partially resolved binaries in 7 additional targets (43 of these are new detections). These numbers yield a companion detection frequency of 29% for the FGS survey. We also gathered literature results on the numbers of close spectroscopic binaries and wider astrometric binaries among the sample, and we present estimates of the frequency of multiple systems and the companion frequency for subsets of stars residing in clusters and associations, field stars, and runaway stars. These results confirm the high multiplicity fraction, especially among massive stars in clusters and associations. We show that the period distribution is approximately flat in increments of logP. We identify a number of systems of potential interest for long-term orbital determinations, and we note the importance of some of these companions for the interpretation of the radial velocities and light curves of close binaries that have third companions.

  20. Rb and Zr abundances in massive Galactic AGB stars revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Mesa, V.; Zamora, O.; García-Hernández, D. A.; Plez, B.; Manchado, A.; Karakas, A. I.; Lugaro, M.

    2016-07-01

    We report new abundances of Rb and Zr in a sample of massive Galactic asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars that were previously studied with hydrostatic models by using more realistic dynamical model atmospheres. We use a modified version of the spectral synthesis code Turbospectrum, and consider the presence of a circumstellar envelope and a radial wind in the modelling of these Galactic AGB stars. The Rb and Zr are determined from the 7800 Å Rb I resonant line and the 6474 Å ZrO bandhead, respectively, and they are compared with the AGB nucleosynthesis theoretical predictions. The derived Rb abundances are much lower (∼⃒1-2 dex) with the new dynamical models, while the Zr abundances, however, are closer to the hydrostatic values. The new model atmospheres can help to resolve the problem of the mismatch between the observations and the nucleosynthesis theoretical predictions of massive AGB stars.

  1. UH cosmic rays: Possible origin in massive stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wefel, J. P.; Schramm, D. N.; Blake, J. B.

    1977-01-01

    The origin of the Z greater than 28, ultraheavy, cosmic rays in supernova explosions of massive stars is considered. For Z greater than 70, the UH data is dominated by an r-process source distribution, but for the elements just beyond iron, 29 or = Z less than 36, the data cannot be explained by any single process of nucleosynthesis. This problem is solved naturally in a massive star model by secondary neutron capture reactions occuring during core helium burning and during explosive carbon burning. Interstellar propagation calculations were performed with these episodes of synthesis as source distributions, and the results offer an explanation for the current UH cosmic-ray data. The heavy element synthesis during explosive carbon burning is reexamined using more realistic initial conditions given by the post-helium-burning configuration of the star. Effects of preferential acceleration are considered, and experimental tests are discussed.

  2. New very massive stars in Cygnus OB2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negueruela, I.; Marco, A.; Herrero, A.; Clark, J. S.

    2008-08-01

    Context: The compact association Cygnus OB2 is known to contain a large population of massive stars, but its total mass is currently a matter of debate. While recent surveys have uncovered large numbers of OB stars in the area around Cyg OB2, detailed study of the optically brightest among them suggests that most are not part of the association. Aims: We observed an additional sample of optically faint OB star candidates, with the aim of checking if more obscured candidates are correspondingly more likely to be members of Cyg OB2. Methods: Low resolution spectra of 9 objects allow the rejection of one foreground star and the selection of four O-type stars, which were later observed at higher resolution. In a subsequent run, we observed three more stars in the classification region and three other stars in the far red. Results: We identify five (perhaps six) new evolved very massive stars and three main sequence O-type stars, all of which are likely to be members of Cyg OB2. The new findings allow a much better definition of the upper HR diagram, suggesting an age ~2.5 Myr for the association and hinting that the O3-5 supergiants in the association are blue stragglers, either younger or following a different evolutionary path from other cluster members. Though the bulk of the early stars seems to belong to an (approximately) single-age population, there is ample evidence for the presence of somewhat older stars at the same distance. Conclusions: Our results suggest that, even though Cyg OB2 is unlikely to contain as many as 100 O-type stars, it is indeed substantially more massive than was thought prior to recent infrared surveys. Figure [see full textsee full textsee full textsee full textsee full textsee full textsee full text] and Table [see full textsee full textsee full textsee full textsee full textsee full textsee full text] are only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  3. Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy of the Most Massive Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figer, Donald; Najarro, Paco; Stolovy, Susan

    2004-09-01

    The most massive star that can form is presently defined by observations of a class of very rare stars having inferred initial masses of ~200 solar masses. There are only a few such stars in the Galaxy, including the Pistol Star, FMM362, and LBV 1806-20, the first two being located near the Galactic center, and third located in the disk near W31. Each has only recently been identified as so massive within the past 10 years through the analysis of infrared observations, but they are otherwise too faint, due to extinction, to observe at shorter wavelengths. These stars appear to be very luminous (L>10^6.3 solar luminosities), "blue" (T>10000 K), and variable (delta K~1 mag.), and the Pistol Star has ejected 10 solar masses of material in the past 10000 years. In addition, these stars have near-infrared spectra similar to those of prototypical Luminous Blue Variables, i.e. Eta Car and AG Car. Given their apparent violation of the Humphries-Davidson limit, they are presumably in a short-lived phase of stellar evolution that is often associated with rapid mass-loss through episodic eruptions of their outer atmospheres. We propose to determine the physical properties of these stars and the velocity and ionization structure in their winds by using spectra obtained with the high resolution modes of the Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) on the Spitzer Space Telescope. The 10 to 40 micron wavelength region is ideally suited for accessing a variety of lines from transitions of hydrogen, helium, iron, silicon, sulfur, among others; indeed, through our models, we predict that sufficiently sensitive spectra will yield over 300 spectral lines. In addition, we predict that the mid-infrared continuum will be dominated by free-free emission generated in the thick winds associated with these stars, an effect that should be clearly detectable in the spectra.

  4. The formation of massive stars: A 30 MO case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beech, Martin

    1993-07-01

    Pre-main sequence evolutionary tracks have been calculated for a series of massive star models under Hayashi's canonical theory and Stahler's mass accretion paradigm. Canonical pre-main sequence tracks for 15-60 solar mass (SM) stars were calculated with both Cox-Stewart (CS) and Rogers-Iglesias (RI) opacities. The differences between the two sequences were systematically explored. The final pre-main sequence phase of the canonical evolution and the onset of central hydrogen burning is discussed. Arrival of a massive star on the zero age main sequence (ZAMS) is defined and the characteristics of the upper ZAMS models are determined. A systematic investigation of pre-main sequence tracks revealed a boundary in the central density versus central temperature plane, beyond which the models always had a central convective core. In a study of a sequence of accretion models, beyond about 17 SM their characteristics became increasingly more luminous and cooler compared to the same-mass canonical ZAMS models. In the main sequence phase, the accretion build model evolved at essentially the same effective temperature as the canonical model but at a lower luminosity. An upper stellar birthline is proposed, defining a boundary in the Hertzsprung Russell diagram beyond which massive stars first become optically visible.

  5. The Pistol Star and Unstable Massive Stars at the Galactic Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najarro, F.

    2005-09-01

    We present recent results on quantitative spectroscopic studies of the Pistol Star and other massive stars in the Quintuplet and Arches clusters. Thanks to the impressive evolution of IR detectors and the new generation of line blanketed models for the extended atmospheres of hot stars we are able to accurately derive the physical properties of the massive stars in these clusters. Our analysis of the LBVs in the Quintuplet cluster provides, for the first time, a direct estimate of α-elements and Fe chemical abundances in these objects. Preliminary results point to a slightly enhanced enrichment of α-elements compared to Fe and suggest an initial mass function dominated by massive stars, as found for the Arches cluster. On the other hand, from our analysis of the Arches cluster, we introduce a new method to estimate metallicity in very young clusters based on the N abundance of WNL stars and the theory of evolution of massive stars. Results indicating solar metallicity are presented.

  6. Simulating the Birth of Massive Star Clusters: Is Destruction Inevitable?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosen, Anna

    2013-10-01

    Very early in its operation, the Hubble Space Telescope {HST} opened an entirely new frontier: study of the demographics and properties of star clusters far beyond the Milky Way. However, interpretation of HST's observations has proven difficult, and has led to the development of two conflicting models. One view is that most massive star clusters are disrupted during their infancy by feedback from newly formed stars {i.e., "infant mortality"}, independent of cluster mass or environment. The other model is that most star clusters survive their infancy and are disrupted later by mass-dependent dynamical processes. Since observations at present have failed to discriminate between these views, we propose a theoretical investigation to provide new insight. We will perform radiation-hydrodynamic simulations of the formation of massive star clusters, including for the first time a realistic treatment of the most important stellar feedback processes. These simulations will elucidate the physics of stellar feedback, and allow us to determine whether cluster disruption is mass-dependent or -independent. We will also use our simulations to search for observational diagnostics that can distinguish bound from unbound clusters, and to predict how cluster disruption affects the cluster luminosity function in a variety of galactic environments.

  7. Interaction of massive stars with the interstellar medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Geus, E. J.

    This paper reviews observations and theory regarding the interaction between massive stars in open clusters and OB associations and the interstellar medium. The results of a systematic study of the gas and dust surrounding a large sample of open clusters are described. Different models for the bubbles blown by stellar winds of O-type stars are discussed, and the effects of subsequent supernova are investigated. The effects of correlated supernovae on the morphology of the interstellar gas and on the communication of the disk with the halo of a galaxy are presented.

  8. Hyperspectral Imagers for the Study of Massive Star Nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drissen, L.; Alarie, A.; Martin, T.; Spiomm/Sitelle Team

    2012-12-01

    We present two wide-field imaging Fourier transform spectrometers built by our team to study the interstellar medium around massive stars in the Milky Way and nearby galaxies. SpIOMM, attached to the Mont Mégantic 1.6-m telescope, is capable of obtaining the visible spectrum of every source of light in a 12 arcminute field of view, with a spectral resolution ranging from R = 1 (wide-band image) to R = 25 000, resulting in about a million spectra with a spatial resolution of one arcsecond. SITELLE will be a similar instrument attached to the Canada-France-Hawaii telescope, and will be in operation in early 2013. We illustrate SpIOMM's capabilities to study the interactions between massive stars and their environment.

  9. Relativistic stars in de Rham-Gabadadze-Tolley massive gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsuragawa, Taishi; Nojiri, Shin'ichi; Odintsov, Sergei D.; Yamazaki, Masashi

    2016-06-01

    We study relativistic stars in the simplest model of the de Rham-Gabadadze-Tolley massive gravity which describes the massive graviton without a ghost propagating mode. We consider the hydrostatic equilibrium and obtain the modified Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equation and the constraint equation coming from the potential terms in the gravitational action. We give analytical and numerical results for quark and neutron stars and discuss the deviations compared with general relativity and F (R ) gravity. It is shown that the theory under investigation leads to a small deviation from general relativity in terms of density profiles and mass-radius relation. Nevertheless, such a deviation may be observable in future astrophysical probes.

  10. THE ROLE OF THE MAGNETOROTATIONAL INSTABILITY IN MASSIVE STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Wheeler, J. Craig; Kagan, Daniel; Chatzopoulos, Emmanouil

    2015-01-20

    The magnetorotational instability (MRI) is key to physics in accretion disks and is widely considered to play some role in massive star core collapse. Models of rotating massive stars naturally develop very strong shear at composition boundaries, a necessary condition for MRI instability, and the MRI is subject to triply diffusive destabilizing effects in radiative regions. We have used the MESA stellar evolution code to compute magnetic effects due to the Spruit-Tayler (ST) mechanism and the MRI, separately and together, in a sample of massive star models. We find that the MRI can be active in the later stages of massive star evolution, leading to mixing effects that are not captured in models that neglect the MRI. The MRI and related magnetorotational effects can move models of given zero-age main sequence mass across ''boundaries'' from degenerate CO cores to degenerate O/Ne/Mg cores and from degenerate O/Ne/Mg cores to iron cores, thus affecting the final evolution and the physics of core collapse. The MRI acting alone can slow the rotation of the inner core in general agreement with the observed ''initial'' rotation rates of pulsars. The MRI analysis suggests that localized fields ∼10{sup 12} G may exist at the boundary of the iron core. With both the ST and MRI mechanisms active in the 20 M {sub ☉} model, we find that the helium shell mixes entirely out into the envelope. Enhanced mixing could yield a population of yellow or even blue supergiant supernova progenitors that would not be standard SN IIP.

  11. The Role of the Magnetorotational Instability in Massive Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, J. Craig; Kagan, Daniel; Chatzopoulos, Emmanouil

    2015-01-01

    The magnetorotational instability (MRI) is key to physics in accretion disks and is widely considered to play some role in massive star core collapse. Models of rotating massive stars naturally develop very strong shear at composition boundaries, a necessary condition for MRI instability, and the MRI is subject to triply diffusive destabilizing effects in radiative regions. We have used the MESA stellar evolution code to compute magnetic effects due to the Spruit-Tayler (ST) mechanism and the MRI, separately and together, in a sample of massive star models. We find that the MRI can be active in the later stages of massive star evolution, leading to mixing effects that are not captured in models that neglect the MRI. The MRI and related magnetorotational effects can move models of given zero-age main sequence mass across "boundaries" from degenerate CO cores to degenerate O/Ne/Mg cores and from degenerate O/Ne/Mg cores to iron cores, thus affecting the final evolution and the physics of core collapse. The MRI acting alone can slow the rotation of the inner core in general agreement with the observed "initial" rotation rates of pulsars. The MRI analysis suggests that localized fields ~1012 G may exist at the boundary of the iron core. With both the ST and MRI mechanisms active in the 20 M ⊙ model, we find that the helium shell mixes entirely out into the envelope. Enhanced mixing could yield a population of yellow or even blue supergiant supernova progenitors that would not be standard SN IIP.

  12. Constraining scalar-tensor theories of gravity from the most massive neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palenzuela, Carlos; Liebling, Steven L.

    2016-02-01

    Scalar-tensor (ST) theories of gravity are natural phenomenological extensions to general relativity. Although these theories are severely constrained both by solar system experiments and by binary pulsar observations, a large set of ST families remain consistent with these observations. Recent work has suggested probing the unconstrained region of the parameter space of ST theories based on the stability properties of highly compact neutron stars. Here, the dynamical evolution of very compact stars in a fully nonlinear code demonstrates that the stars do become unstable and that the instability, in some cases, drives the stars to collapse. We discuss the implications of these results in light of recent observations of the most massive neutron star yet observed. In particular, such observations suggest that such a star would be subject to the instability for a certain regime; its existence therefore supports a bound on the ST parameter space.

  13. X-RAY EMISSION FROM MAGNETIC MASSIVE STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Nazé, Yaël; Petit, Véronique; Rinbrand, Melanie; Owocki, Stan; Cohen, David; Ud-Doula, Asif; Wade, Gregg A.

    2014-11-01

    Magnetically confined winds of early-type stars are expected to be sources of bright and hard X-rays. To clarify the systematics of the observed X-ray properties, we have analyzed a large series of Chandra and XMM-Newton observations, corresponding to all available exposures of known massive magnetic stars (over 100 exposures covering ∼60% of stars compiled in the catalog of Petit et al.). We show that the X-ray luminosity is strongly correlated with the stellar wind mass-loss rate, with a power-law form that is slightly steeper than linear for the majority of the less luminous, lower- M-dot B stars and flattens for the more luminous, higher- M-dot O stars. As the winds are radiatively driven, these scalings can be equivalently written as relations with the bolometric luminosity. The observed X-ray luminosities, and their trend with mass-loss rates, are well reproduced by new MHD models, although a few overluminous stars (mostly rapidly rotating objects) exist. No relation is found between other X-ray properties (plasma temperature, absorption) and stellar or magnetic parameters, contrary to expectations (e.g., higher temperature for stronger mass-loss rate). This suggests that the main driver for the plasma properties is different from the main determinant of the X-ray luminosity. Finally, variations of the X-ray hardnesses and luminosities, in phase with the stellar rotation period, are detected for some objects and they suggest that some temperature stratification exists in massive stars' magnetospheres.

  14. Stellar winds near massive black holes - the case of the S-stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lützgendorf, N.; Helm, E. van der; Pelupessy, F. I.; Portegies Zwart, S.

    2016-03-01

    The Galactic Centre provides a unique laboratory to study the interaction of a supermassive black hole (SMBH) with its gaseous and stellar environment. Simulations to determine the accretion of stellar winds from the surrounding O-stars on to the black hole have been performed earlier, but in those the presence of the S-star system was ignored. The S-stars are a group of young massive B-stars in relatively close orbits around the black hole. Here, we simulate those stars in order to study their contribution to the accretion rate, without taking the more distant and massive O-stars into account. We use the Astrophysical Multipurpose Software Environment to combine gravitational physics, stellar evolution and hydrodynamics in a single simulation of the S-stars orbiting the SMBH, and use this framework to determine the amount of gas that is accreted on to the black hole. We find that the accretion rate is sensitive to the wind properties of the S-stars (rate of mass-loss and terminal velocity). Our simulations are consistent with the observed accretion rate of the black hole only if the stars exhibit high wind mass-loss rates that are comparable with those of evolved 7-10 Myr old stars with masses of M = 19-25 M⊙. This is in contrast with observations that have shown that these stars are rather young, main-sequence B-stars. We therefore conclude that the S-stars cannot account for the accretion rate alone.

  15. Massive Stars and the Ionization of the Diffuse Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahre, Lauren E.; Walterbos, Rene A. M.

    2015-08-01

    Diffuse ionized Gas (DIG, sometimes called the warm ionized medium or WIM) has been recognized as a major component of the interstellar medium (ISM) in disk galaxies. A general understanding of the characteristics of the DIG is emerging, but several questions remain unanswered. One of these is the ionization mechanism for this gas, believed to be connected to OB stars and HII regions. Using 5-band (NUV (2750 A), U, V, B, and I) photometric imaging data from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Legacy Extragalactic Ultraviolet Survey (LEGUS) and ground-based Halpha data from the Local Volume Legacy (LVL) survey and HST Halpha data from LEGUS, we will investigate the photoionization of HII regions and DIG in nearly 50 galaxies. The 5-band photometry will enable us to determine properties of the most massive stars and reddening corrections for specific regions within a galaxy. Luminosities and ages for groups and clusters will be obtained from SED-fitting of photometric data. For individual stars ages will be determined from isochrone-fitting using reddening-corrected color-magnitude diagrams. We can then obtain estimates of the ionizing luminosities by matching these photometric properties for massive stars and clusters to various stellar atmosphere models. We will compare these predictions to the inferred Lyman continuum production rates from reddening-corrected ground- and HST-based Halpha data for HII regions and DIG. This particular presentation will demonstrate the above process for a set of selected regions in galaxies within the LEGUS sample. It will subsequently be expanded to cover the full LEGUS sample, with the overall goals of obtaining a better understanding of the radiative energy feedback from massive stars on the ISM, particularly their ability to ionize the surrounding ISM over a wide range of spatial scales and SFR surface densities, and to connect the ionization of the ISM to HII region morphologies.

  16. The Massive Star Forming Region Cygnus OB2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Nicholas James; Drake, J. J.; Drew, J. E.

    2009-12-01

    We present a multi-wavelength study of the massive star forming Cygnus OB2. Cygnus OB2 is the northern hemisphere's most massive star forming region and hosts a tremendously rich and diverse stellar population, with thousands of OB stars. The strong and highly variable extinction in the direction of the association have hindered previous studies of the region, but recent deep photometric surveys in the optical and near-infrared are opening the region up for study. The appreciation of the pivotal status of Cyg OB2 has led to a number of recent ambitious surveys of the cluster and its setting within the Cygnus-X region at X-ray, infrared and radio wavelengths. Chandra X-ray observations of two fields in the center of the association reveal 1720 X-ray sources, which we have combined with optical and near-IR photometry from the IPHAS and UKIDSS surveys. Near-IR photometry reveals a stellar population with a spread of ages greater than previously thought, overturning the picture of coeval star formation in the region. The distribution of young sources in the region shows evidence for clustering and significant mass segregation, which we judge to be primordial given the cluster's age.

  17. Evidence for a bifurcation in massive star evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeder, Andre

    1986-07-01

    The effects of rotationally induced mixing on the evolution of massive stars is examined. Models show that, due to the high radiative viscosity, the diffusion coefficient is sufficiently large to mix most massive stars during their MS lifetime. However, below a critical rotation velocity, diffusive mixing is efficiently prevented by the mu-gradient. A wide bifurcation appears in the evolutionary tracks. Below critical rotation, the evolution is essentially classical with unmodified redwards tracks in the HR diagram. Above critical rotation, the evolutionary tracks go upwards and bluewards, very close to those of fully homogeneous evolution. In this case the model composition is rapidly characterized by He and N enrichments, C and O depletions. The homogeneous models lead to the formation of WR stars before the end of the H-burning phase, which increases the WR lifetime; there is probably no WNE stage in this homogeneous evolutionary scheme. For the classically evolving stars, diffusion may increase the size of the convective core as overshooting does; diffusion may also produce moderate changes of the surface C/N and O/N ratios.

  18. NEARBY MASSIVE STAR CLUSTER YIELDS INSIGHTS INTO EARLY UNIVERSE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A NASA Hubble Space Telescope 'family portrait' of young, ultra-bright stars nested in their embryonic cloud of glowing gases. The celestial maternity ward, called N81, is located 200,000 light-years away in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC), a small irregular satellite galaxy of our Milky Way. Hubble's exquisite resolution allows astronomers to pinpoint 50 separate stars tightly packed in the nebula's core within a 10 light-year diameter - slightly more than twice the distance between earth and the nearest star to our sun. The closest pair of stars is only 1/3 of a light-year apart (0.3 arcseconds in the sky). This furious rate of mass loss from these super-hot stars is evident in the Hubble picture that reveals dramatic shapes sculpted in the nebula's wall of glowing gases by violent stellar winds and shock waves. A pair of bright stars in the center of the nebula is pouring out most of the ultraviolet radiation to make the nebula glow. Just above them, a small dark knot is all that's left of the cold cloud of molecular hydrogen and dust the stars were born from. Dark absorption lanes of residual dust trisect the nebula. The nebula offers a unique opportunity for a close-up glimpse at the 'firestorm' accompanying the birth of extremely massive stars, each blazing with the brilliance of 300,000 of our suns. Such galactic fireworks were much more common billions of years ago in the early universe, when most star formation took place. The 'natural-color' view was assembled from separate images taken with the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, in ultraviolet light and two narrow emission lines of ionized Hydrogen (H-alpha, H-beta). The picture was taken on September 4, 1997. Credit: Mohammad Heydari-Malayeri (Paris Observatory, France), NASA/ESA

  19. Evolution of massive stars in very young clusters and associations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stothers, R. B.

    1985-01-01

    Statistics concerning the stellar content of young galactic clusters and associations which show well defined main sequence turnups have been analyzed in order to derive information about stellar evolution in high-mass galaxies. The analytical approach is semiempirical and uses natural spectroscopic groups of stars on the H-R diagram together with the stars' apparent magnitudes. The new approach does not depend on absolute luminosities and requires only the most basic elements of stellar evolution theory. The following conclusions are offered on the basis of the statistical analysis: (1) O-tupe main-sequence stars evolve to a spectral type of B1 during core hydrogen burning; (2) most O-type blue stragglers are newly formed massive stars burning core hydrogen; (3) supergiants lying redward of the main-sequence turnup are burning core helium; and most Wolf-Rayet stars are burning core helium and originally had masses greater than 30-40 solar mass. The statistics of the natural spectroscopic stars in young galactic clusters and associations are given in a table.

  20. Can very compact and very massive neutron stars both exist?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drago, Alessandro; Lavagno, Andrea; Pagliara, Giuseppe

    2014-02-01

    The existence of neutron stars with masses of ˜2M⊙ requires a stiff equation of state at high densities. On the other hand, the necessary appearance also at high densities of new degrees of freedom, such as hyperons and Δ resonances, can lead to a strong softening of the equation of state with resulting maximum masses of ˜1.5M⊙ and radii smaller than ˜10 km. Hints for the existence of compact stellar objects with very small radii have been found in recent statistical analyses of quiescent low-mass X-ray binaries in globular clusters. We propose an interpretation of these two apparently contradicting measurements, large masses and small radii, in terms of two separate families of compact stars: hadronic stars, whose equation of state is soft, can be very compact, while quark stars, whose equation of state is stiff, can be very massive. In this respect an early appearance of Δ resonances is crucial to guarantee the stability of the branch of hadronic stars. Our proposal could be tested by measurements of radii with an error of ˜1 km, which is within reach of the planned Large Observatory for X-ray Timing satellite, and it would be further strengthened by the discovery of compact stars heavier than ˜2M⊙.

  1. Massive stars and expanding shells within the violent interstellar medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thilker, David Allan

    Massive stars have a tremendous impact on their surroundings, largely due to a prodigious production rate of Lyman continuum photons and their inevitable termination in a supernova explosion. A single OB star may ionize a sufficiently luminous HII region to remain detectable out to distances of many Mpc. By concentrating the mechanical power of many high mass stars in a limited volume over a short time period, OB associations are known to produce large expanding bubbles in the interstellar medium (ISM). Aperture synthesis observations of HI in nearby galaxies clearly reveal the bubbly character of the diffuse ISM and highlight the connection with massive stars. In this dissertation I close the loop between theory and observations regarding massive stars, their incipient HII regions, and related expanding shells, all in the hope of learning more about the diffuse ISM. The research described herein has three main components: (1)object recognition in the context of HI datacubes and hydrodynamic shell models, (2)automated photometry of HII regions in crowded narrowband images, and (3)population synthesis modeling of stellar clusters and expanding shells in disk galaxies. I have created efficient procedures for conducting a census of HI superbubbles and young massive star clusters in nearby galaxies, plus a modeling framework allowing one to check these databases for relative agreement. My population synthesis algorithm predicts ensemble characteristics: of a disk-galaxy shell population, given details of the stellar cluster formation process and global properties of the galaxy in question. My automated HI object recognition method has made possible the Las Cruces/Dwingeloo Supershell Survey (LCDSS) of 21 nearby disk galaxies. In this dissertation I present early LCDSS results for NGC 300, NGC 2403, M81, and M101. Furthermore, I demonstrate the technique for photometry of HII regions by analyzing a small sample of 11 prominent spirals. The photometric measurements are

  2. Stellar Feedback in Massive Star-Forming Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldwin, Jack; Pellegrini, Eric; Ferland, Gary; Murray, Norm; Hanson, Margaret

    2008-02-01

    Star formation rates and chemical evolution are controlled in part by the interaction of stellar radiation and winds with the remnant molecular gas from which the stars have formed. We are carrying out a detailed, panchromatic study in the two nearest giant star-forming regions to nail down the physics that produces the 10-20 parsec bubbles seen to surround young massive clusters in the Milky Way. This will determine if and how the clusters disrupt their natal giant molecular clouds (GMCs). Here we request 4 nights on the Blanco telescope to obtain dense grids of optical long-slit spectra criss-crossing each nebula. These will cover the [S II] doublet (to measure N_e) and also [O III], H(beta), [O I], H(alpha) and [N II] to measure the ionization mechanism and ionization parameter, at ~3000 different spots in each nebula. From this we can determine a number of dynamically important quantities, such as the gas density and temperature, hence pressure in and around these bubbles. These quantities can be compared to the dynamical (gravitationally induced) pressure, and the radiation pressure. All can be employed in dynamical models for the evolution of a GMC under the influence of an embedded massive star cluster. This research will elucidate the detailed workings of the star-forming regions which dominate the star formation rate in the Milky Way, and also will steadily improve our calibration and understanding of more distant, less well-resolved objects such as ULIRGS, Lyman break, and submillimeter galaxies.

  3. H II REGIONS: WITNESSES TO MASSIVE STAR FORMATION

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, Thomas; Banerjee, Robi; Klessen, Ralf S.; Low, Mordecai-Mark Mac; Galvan-Madrid, Roberto; Keto, Eric R.

    2010-03-10

    We describe the first three-dimensional simulation of the gravitational collapse of a massive, rotating molecular cloud that includes heating by both non-ionizing and ionizing radiation. These models were performed with the FLASH code, incorporating a hybrid, long characteristic, ray-tracing technique. We find that as the first protostars gain sufficient mass to ionize the accretion flow, their H II regions are initially gravitationally trapped, but soon begin to rapidly fluctuate between trapped and extended states, in agreement with observations. Over time, the same ultracompact H II region can expand anisotropically, contract again, and take on any of the observed morphological classes. In their extended phases, expanding H II regions drive bipolar neutral outflows characteristic of high-mass star formation. The total lifetime of H II regions is given by the global accretion timescale, rather than their short internal sound-crossing time. This explains the observed number statistics. The pressure of the hot, ionized gas does not terminate accretion. Instead, the final stellar mass is set by fragmentation-induced starvation. Local gravitational instabilities in the accretion flow lead to the build-up of a small cluster of stars, all with relatively high masses due to heating from accretion radiation. These companions subsequently compete with the initial high-mass star for the same common gas reservoir and limit its mass growth. This is in contrast to the classical competitive accretion model, where the massive stars are never hindered in growth by the low-mass stars in the cluster. Our findings show that the most significant differences between the formation of low-mass and high-mass stars are all explained as the result of rapid accretion within a dense, gravitationally unstable, ionized flow.

  4. Massive star formation by accretion. I. Disc accretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haemmerlé, L.; Eggenberger, P.; Meynet, G.; Maeder, A.; Charbonnel, C.

    2016-01-01

    Context. Massive stars likely form by accretion and the evolutionary track of an accreting forming star corresponds to what is called the birthline in the Hertzsprung-Russell (HR) diagram. The shape of this birthline is quite sensitive to the evolution of the entropy in the accreting star. Aims: We first study the reasons why some birthlines published in past years present different behaviours for a given accretion rate. We then revisit the question of the accretion rate, which allows us to understand the distribution of the observed pre-main-sequence (pre-MS) stars in the HR diagram. Finally, we identify the conditions needed to obtain a large inflation of the star along its pre-MS evolution that may push the birthline towards the Hayashi line in the upper part of the HR diagram. Methods: We present new pre-MS models including accretion at various rates and for different initial structures of the accreting core. We compare them with previously published equivalent models. From the observed upper envelope of pre-MS stars in the HR diagram, we deduce the accretion law that best matches the accretion history of most of the intermediate-mass stars. Results: In the numerical computation of the time derivative of the entropy, some treatment leads to an artificial loss of entropy and thus reduces the inflation that the accreting star undergoes along the birthline. In the case of cold disc accretion, the existence of a significant swelling during the accretion phase, which leads to radii ≳ 100 R⊙ and brings the star back to the red part of the HR diagram, depends sensitively on the initial conditions. For an accretion rate of 10-3M⊙ yr-1, only models starting from a core with a significant radiative region evolve back to the red part of the HR diagram. We also obtain that, in order to reproduce the observed upper envelope of pre-MS stars in the HR diagram with an accretion law deduced from the observed mass outflows in ultra-compact HII regions, the fraction of the

  5. FRAGMENTATION AT THE EARLIEST PHASE OF MASSIVE STAR FORMATION

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Qizhou; Wang Yang; Pillai, Thushara; Rathborne, Jill

    2009-05-01

    We present 1.3 mm continuum and spectral line images of two massive molecular clumps P1 and P2 in the G28.34+0.06 region with the Submillimeter Array (SMA). While the two clumps contain masses of 1000 and 880 M {sub sun}, respectively, P1 has a luminosity OF <10{sup 2} L {sub sun}, and a lower gas temperature and smaller line width than P2. Thus, P1 appears to be at a much earlier stage of massive star formation than P2. The high-resolution SMA observations reveal two distinctive cores in P2 with masses of 97 and 49 M {sub sun}, respectively. The 4 GHz spectral bandpass captures line emission from CO isotopologues, SO, CH{sub 3}OH, and CH{sub 3}CN, similar to hot molecular cores harboring massive young stars. The P1 clump, on the other hand, is resolved into five cores along the filament with masses from 22 to 64 M {sub sun} and an average projected separation of 0.19 pc. Except {sup 12}CO, no molecular line emission is detected toward the P1 cores at a 1{sigma} rms of 0.1 K. Since strong {sup 12}CO and C{sup 18}O emissions are seen with the single-dish telescope at a resolution of 11'', the nondetection of these lines with the SMA indicates a depletion factor up to 10{sup 3}. While the spatial resolution of the SMA is better than the expected Jeans length, the masses in P1 cores are much larger than the thermal Jeans mass, indicating the importance of turbulence and/or magnetic fields in cloud fragmentation. The hierarchical structures in the P1 region provide a glimpse of the initial phase of massive star and cluster formation.

  6. The Fragmentation of Massive Star-Forming Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodon, Javier Adrian

    2009-11-01

    Since its discovery by E. Salpeter in 1955, the high-mass end of the Initial Mass Function (IMF) has been continuously tested, and its slope has not changed from the value -2.35 originally calculated by Salpeter, the "Salpeter value". Furthermore, it is found that this value is universal. It not only describes the mass distribution of stellar masses in the Milky Way but also in other galaxies. Stars form individually or in systems within molecular clouds, from local condensations of sizes on the order of ~0.01 pc, the so-called "dense cores". In the case of low-mass star-forming regions, it is found that the Core Mass Function (CMF) resembles the Salpeter IMF. However, in the case of massive star-forming (MSF) regions, the answer is not that clear. The first CMF for a MSF region was derived in 2004 by H. Beuther and P. Schilke for the MSF IRAS 19410+2336. They found that this CMF also resembled the Salpeter IMF. Since then, a few more CMFs for MSF regions have been derived, always with exponents comparable to Salpeter. This suggested that the CMF and the IMF are related in a one-to-one or nearly one-to-one relationship, and that the fragmentation processes within a molecular cloud would set the shape of the IMF at an early evolutionary stage. Attempting to test that scenario, in this thesis I present and analyse high angular resolution interferometric observations of several MSF regions at millimeter wavelengths, describing their protostellar content and deriving their CMF whenever is possible. We confirm the result of Beuther & Schilke (2004) and obtain a CMF with a power-law slope similar to the Salpeter IMF, however for other MSF regions we obtain a CMF with a power-law slope flatter than Salpeter. This difference suggests that the IMF might not be set at the moment of the fragmentation of the cloud, but instead would be a result of the evolution of the cloud, starting with a flatter mass distribution that becomes steeper at later evolutionary stages. This

  7. Star Formation in Massive Clusters via Bondi Accretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, Norman; Chang, Philip

    2012-02-01

    Essentially all stars form in giant molecular clouds (GMCs). However, inside GMCs, most of the gas does not participate in star formation; rather, denser gas accumulates in clumps in the GMC, with the bulk of the stars in a given GMC forming in a few of the most massive clumps. In the Milky Way, these clumps have masses M cl <~ 5 × 10-2 of the GMC, radii r cl ~ 1 pc, and free-fall times τcl ~ 2 × 105 yr. We show that clumps inside GMCs should accrete at a modified Bondi accretion rate, which depends on clump mass as \\dot{M}_{cl}\\sim M_{cl}^{5/4}. This rate is initially rather slow, usually slower than the initial star formation rate inside the clump (we adopt the common assumption that inside the clump, \\dot{M}_*=\\epsilon _ffM_{cl}/\\tau _{cl}, with epsilonff ≈ 0.017). However, after ~2 GMC free-fall times τGMC, the clump accretion rate accelerates rapidly; formally, the clump can accrete the entire GMC in ~3τGMC. At the same time, the star formation rate accelerates, tracking the Bondi accretion rate. If the GMC is disrupted by feedback from the largest clump, half the stars in that clump form in the final τGMC before the GMC is disrupted. The theory predicts that the distribution of effective star formation rates, measured per GMC free-fall time, is broad, ranging from ~0.001 up to 0.1 or larger and that the mass spectrum of star clusters is flatter than that of clumps, consistent with observations.

  8. SOUTHERN MASSIVE STARS AT HIGH ANGULAR RESOLUTION: OBSERVATIONAL CAMPAIGN AND COMPANION DETECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Sana, H.; Lacour, S.; Gauchet, L.; Pickel, D.; Berger, J.-P.; Norris, B.; Olofsson, J.; Absil, O.; De Koter, A.; Kratter, K.; Schnurr, O.; Zinnecker, H.

    2014-11-01

    Multiplicity is one of the most fundamental observable properties of massive O-type stars and offers a promising way to discriminate between massive star formation theories. Nevertheless, companions at separations between 1 and 100 milliarcsec (mas) remain mostly unknown due to intrinsic observational limitations. At a typical distance of 2 kpc, this corresponds to projected physical separations of 2-200 AU. The Southern MAssive Stars at High angular resolution survey (SMaSH+) was designed to fill this gap by providing the first systematic interferometric survey of Galactic massive stars. We observed 117 O-type stars with VLTI/PIONIER and 162 O-type stars with NACO/Sparse Aperture Masking (SAM), probing the separation ranges 1-45 and 30-250 mas and brightness contrasts of ΔH < 4 and ΔH < 5, respectively. Taking advantage of NACO's field of view, we further uniformly searched for visual companions in an 8'' radius down to ΔH = 8. This paper describes observations and data analysis, reports the discovery of almost 200 new companions in the separation range from 1 mas to 8'' and presents a catalog of detections, including the first resolved measurements of over a dozen known long-period spectroscopic binaries. Excluding known runaway stars for which no companions are detected, 96 objects in our main sample (δ < 0°; H < 7.5) were observed both with PIONIER and NACO/SAM. The fraction of these stars with at least one resolved companion within 200 mas is 0.53. Accounting for known but unresolved spectroscopic or eclipsing companions, the multiplicity fraction at separation ρ < 8'' increases to f {sub m} = 0.91 ± 0.03. The fraction of luminosity class V stars that have a bound companion reaches 100% at 30 mas while their average number of physically connected companions within 8'' is f {sub c} = 2.2 ± 0.3. This demonstrates that massive stars form nearly exclusively in multiple systems. The nine non-thermal radio emitters observed by SMaSH+ are all resolved

  9. SOAR Optical and Near-infrared Spectroscopic Survey of Newly Discovered Massive Stars in the Periphery of Galactic Massive Star Clusters I-NGC 3603

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roman-Lopes, A.; Franco, G. A. P.; Sanmartim, D.

    2016-06-01

    In this work, we present the results of a spectroscopic study of very massive stars (VMSs) found outside the center of the massive stellar cluster NGC 3603. From the analysis of the associated Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) Telescope spectroscopic data and related optical–near-IR (NIR) photometry, we confirm the existence of several VMSs in the periphery of NGC 3603. The first group of objects (MTT58, WR42e, and RF7) is composed of three new Galactic exemplars of the OIf*/WN type, all of them with probable initial masses well above 100 {M}ȯ and estimated ages of about 1 Myr. Based on our Goodman blue-optical spectrum of another source in our sample (MTT68), we can confirm the previous finding in the NIR of the only other Galactic exemplar (besides HD 93129A) of the O2If* type known to date. Based on its position relative to a set of theoretical isochrones in a Hertzprung–Russel (H–R) diagram, we concluded that the new O2If* star could be one of the most massive (150 {M}ȯ ) and luminous (M V = ‑7.3) O-stars in the Galaxy. Also, another remarkable result is the discovery of a new O2v star (MTT31), which is the first exemplar of that class so far identified in the Milk Way. From its position in the H–R diagram it is found that this new star probably had an initial mass of 80 {M}ȯ , as well as an absolute magnitude of M V = ‑6.0, corresponding to a luminosity similar to other known O2v stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud. Finally, we also communicate the discovery of a new Galactic O3.5If* star (RFS8) that is quite an intriguing case. Indeed, it is located far to the south of the NGC 3603 center, in apparent isolation at a large radial projected linear distance of ˜62 pc. Its derived luminosity is similar to that of the other O3.5If* (Sh18) found in NGC 3603's innermost region, and the fact that a such high mass star is observed so isolated in the field led us to speculate that perhaps it could have been expelled from the innermost parts of the

  10. SOAR Optical and Near-infrared Spectroscopic Survey of Newly Discovered Massive Stars in the Periphery of Galactic Massive Star Clusters I-NGC 3603

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roman-Lopes, A.; Franco, G. A. P.; Sanmartim, D.

    2016-06-01

    In this work, we present the results of a spectroscopic study of very massive stars (VMSs) found outside the center of the massive stellar cluster NGC 3603. From the analysis of the associated Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) Telescope spectroscopic data and related optical–near-IR (NIR) photometry, we confirm the existence of several VMSs in the periphery of NGC 3603. The first group of objects (MTT58, WR42e, and RF7) is composed of three new Galactic exemplars of the OIf*/WN type, all of them with probable initial masses well above 100 {M}ȯ and estimated ages of about 1 Myr. Based on our Goodman blue-optical spectrum of another source in our sample (MTT68), we can confirm the previous finding in the NIR of the only other Galactic exemplar (besides HD 93129A) of the O2If* type known to date. Based on its position relative to a set of theoretical isochrones in a Hertzprung–Russel (H–R) diagram, we concluded that the new O2If* star could be one of the most massive (150 {M}ȯ ) and luminous (M V = ‑7.3) O-stars in the Galaxy. Also, another remarkable result is the discovery of a new O2v star (MTT31), which is the first exemplar of that class so far identified in the Milk Way. From its position in the H–R diagram it is found that this new star probably had an initial mass of 80 {M}ȯ , as well as an absolute magnitude of M V = ‑6.0, corresponding to a luminosity similar to other known O2v stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud. Finally, we also communicate the discovery of a new Galactic O3.5If* star (RFS8) that is quite an intriguing case. Indeed, it is located far to the south of the NGC 3603 center, in apparent isolation at a large radial projected linear distance of ∼62 pc. Its derived luminosity is similar to that of the other O3.5If* (Sh18) found in NGC 3603's innermost region, and the fact that a such high mass star is observed so isolated in the field led us to speculate that perhaps it could have been expelled from the innermost parts of the

  11. Are Young Massive Star Clusters in the Local Universe Analogous to Globular Clusters Progenitors?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charbonnel, Corinne

    2015-08-01

    Several models do compete to reproduce the present-day characteristics of globular clusters (GC) and to explain the origin of the multiple stellar populations these systems are hosting.In parallel, independent clues on GC early evolution may be derived from observations of young massive clusters (YMC) in the Local Group.But are these two populations of clusters related? In this talk, we discuss how and if GC and YMC data can be reconciled.We revisit in particular the impact of massive stars on the early evolution of massive star clusters, as well as the question of early gas expulsion.We propose several tests to probe whether the YMC we are observing today can be considered as the analogues of GC progenitors.

  12. INTEGRAL Observations Of Massive Stars Unveil Dynamics Of Stellar Winds.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, Roland; Zurita-Heras, J.; Leyder, J. C.

    2008-03-01

    INTEGRAL tripled the number of super-giant high-mass X-ray binaries (sgHMXB) known in the Galaxy by revealing absorbed and fast transient systems (SFXT). INTEGRAL also unambiguously detected hard X-ray emission from the colliding wind binary Eta Carinae. These observations provide new insights and quantitative constraints on these binary systems. First wind clumping in massive stars could be characterized observationally from the study of the hard X-ray variability of the compact accreting objects. A large fraction of the hard X-ray emission is emitted in the form of flares with a typical duration of 3 ks, frequency of 7 days and luminosity of 1036 erg/s. Such flares are most probably emitted by the interaction of a compact object orbiting at about 10 R* with wind clumps (1022-23 g) representing a large fraction of the stellar mass-loss rate. The density ratio between the clumps and the inter-clump medium is 102-4 in SFXT systems. These parameters are in good agreement with macro-clumping scenario and line driven instability simulations. SFXT have probably a larger orbital radius than classical sgHMXB. The first unambiguous detection of hard X-rays from Eta Carinae by INTEGRAL unveil relativistic particle acceleration in its colliding stellar winds. The observed emission is in agreement with the predictions of inverse Compton models, and corresponds to about 0.1% of the energy available in the wind collision. Eta Car is expected to be detected in the GeV energy range.

  13. The Energetic Impact of Massive Stars on the ISM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freyer, Tim; Hensler, Gerhard

    We present results of numerical simulations carried out with a 2D radiation hydrodynamics code in order to study the impact of massive stars on their surrounding interstellar medium. The interaction of the photoionized H II region with the stellar wind bubble can form a variety of interesting structures like shells, clouds, fingers, and spokes. These results shed light on the open question whether the complex structures that can be found in H II regions are relics from the time before the gas became ionized, or rather formed by dynamical processes in the course of the H II region evolution. We have also analysed the transfer and deposit of the stellar wind and radiation energy into the circumstellar medium until the star explodes as a supernova. Though the total mechanical wind energy supplied by a 60 Msolar star is negligible compared to the accumulated energy of the Lyman continuum photons, at the end of the star's lifetime the kinetic energy of bulk motion in the circumstellar gas is 4 times higher than in the same model without wind while the thermal energy of warm, photoionized gas is lower by some 45 %. Our results document the necessity to consider both, the ionizing radiation and the stellar wind of the star for an appropriate description of the circumstellar medium.

  14. Nucleosynthesis above the iron group in massive stars

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, R D; Woosley, S E; Weaver, T A

    2000-10-11

    The production of nuclei up to and including the light s-process component at A {approx} 60-90 is calculated for all stages of stable and explosive nuclear burning in stars of 15 and 25 M{sub {circle_dot}}. An extended nuclear reaction network of 480 isotopes is employed along with approximately two dozen recent revisions to key nuclear reaction rates. As noted previously, the new rates suggest a greatly diminished production of {sup 17}O and {sup 18}O in massive stars. {sup 22}Ne is also moderately enhanced. We find that a combination of pre-explosive s-process, {gamma}-process, and (mild) r-processes in massive stars give a consistently solar production of almost all isotopes from mass 64 through 90. However, even after the late stages of evolution are complete and the explosion is over, this same group of elements is overproduced compared to what is needed for the sun, especially in the 25 M{sub {circle_dot}} model.

  15. A giant outburst two years before the core-collapse of a massive star.

    PubMed

    Pastorello, A; Smartt, S J; Mattila, S; Eldridge, J J; Young, D; Itagaki, K; Yamaoka, H; Navasardyan, H; Valenti, S; Patat, F; Agnoletto, I; Augusteijn, T; Benetti, S; Cappellaro, E; Boles, T; Bonnet-Bidaud, J-M; Botticella, M T; Bufano, F; Cao, C; Deng, J; Dennefeld, M; Elias-Rosa, N; Harutyunyan, A; Keenan, F P; Iijima, T; Lorenzi, V; Mazzali, P A; Meng, X; Nakano, S; Nielsen, T B; Smoker, J V; Stanishev, V; Turatto, M; Xu, D; Zampieri, L

    2007-06-14

    The death of massive stars produces a variety of supernovae, which are linked to the structure of the exploding stars. The detection of several precursor stars of type II supernovae has been reported (see, for example, ref. 3), but we do not yet have direct information on the progenitors of the hydrogen-deficient type Ib and Ic supernovae. Here we report that the peculiar type Ib supernova SN 2006jc is spatially coincident with a bright optical transient that occurred in 2004. Spectroscopic and photometric monitoring of the supernova leads us to suggest that the progenitor was a carbon-oxygen Wolf-Rayet star embedded within a helium-rich circumstellar medium. There are different possible explanations for this pre-explosion transient. It appears similar to the giant outbursts of luminous blue variable stars (LBVs) of 60-100 solar masses, but the progenitor of SN 2006jc was helium- and hydrogen-deficient (unlike LBVs). An LBV-like outburst of a Wolf-Rayet star could be invoked, but this would be the first observational evidence of such a phenomenon. Alternatively, a massive binary system composed of an LBV that erupted in 2004, and a Wolf-Rayet star exploding as SN 2006jc, could explain the observations. PMID:17568740

  16. Young and old massive star clusters: Theoretical challenges for the next decade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charbonnel, Corinne

    2015-08-01

    Breakthrough results of high resolution observations both with HST and from the ground have revolutionized our view and our understanding of massive star clusters, young and old, in the Galaxy, in the Local Group, as well as in merging and interacting galaxies. This drastic paradigm shift has revealed the complexity of these systems and has raised a number of fundamental questions on the physical processes that drive the formation and evolution of massive star clusters in different environments, on the star cluster initial mass function, and on the contribution of these objects to the general galactic field stellar population. In this talk we review some of the main theoretical challenges that have to be faced in the field at the very same moment when we enter a golden age for observations and numerical multi-dimensional simulations.

  17. Formation, Evolution, and Survival of Massive Star Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fall, Michael

    2015-08-01

    This talk presents a synoptic theory for the formation, evolution, and survival of massive star clusters. These objects are important in the ecology of galaxies, as the sites of star formation and stellar feedback, as the building blocks of stellar populations. The talk is organized around the mass function of star clusters (i.e., the spectrum of cluster masses) and how it evolves with time (age). Observations show some remarkable similarities in the mass functions of clusters in different galaxies, analogous to the similarities in stellar initial mass functions (IMFs). Explaining the similarity of the mass functions of star clusters is one of the goals and successes of the theory presented here. A byproduct of this theory is a unified concept of star clusters of all types: associations, open clusters, populous clusters, globular clusters, etc. The physical processes that affect the mass functions of star clusters include the following: star formation and stellar feedback in the gas-dominated protoclusters, and the subsequent gravitational effects in the gas-free clusters, primarily stellar mass loss, tidal interactions with passing molecular clouds, and internal two-body relaxation. These processes all reduce the masses of clusters, thus lowering the amplitude of their mass function, but in such a way that the shape of the mass function is nearly preserved. The talk presents a quantitative, albeit approximate, analysis of all these effects. As a result of recent developments, there is now a growing connection between theory and observation in this field. The work presented here points to some future observations that would strengthen this connection.

  18. Effects of Ionization Feedback in Massive Star Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Thomas; Banerjee, R.; Klessen, R. S.; Mac Low, M.

    2009-01-01

    We present 3D high-resolution radiation-hydrodynamical simulations of massive star formation. We model the collapse of a massive molecular cloud core forming a high-mass star in its center. We use a version of the FLASH code that has been extended by including sink particles which are a source of both ionizing and non-ionizing radiation. The sink particles evolve according to a prestellar model which determines the stellar and accretion luminosities. Radiation transfer is done using the hybrid characteristics raytracing approach on the adaptive mesh developed by Rijkhorst et al. (2006). The radiative transfer module has been augmented to allow simulations with arbitrarily high resolution. Our highest resolution models resolve the disk scale height by at least 16 zones. Opacities for non-ionizing radiation have been added to account for the accretion heating, which is expected to be strong at the initial stage of star formation and believed to prevent fragmentation. Studies of collapsing massive cores show the formation of a gravitationally highly unstable disk. The accretion heating is not strong enough to suppress this instability. The ionizing radiation builds up an H II region around the protostar, which destroys the accretion disk close to it. We describe preliminary results, with a focus on how long the H II region remains confined by the accretion flow, and whether it can ever cut off accretion entirely. Thomas Peters acknowledges support from a Kade Fellowship for his visit to the American Museum of Natural History. He is a fellow of the International Max Planck Research School for Astronomy and Cosmic Physics at the University of Heidelberg and the Heidelberg Graduate School of Fundamental Physics. We also thank the DFG for support via the Emmy Noether Grant BA 3607/1 and the individual grant KL1358/5.

  19. JD13 - Eta Carinae in the Context of the Most Massive Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gull, Theodore R.; Damineli, Augusto

    2010-11-01

    Eta Car, with its historical outbursts, visible ejecta and massive, variable winds, continues to challenge both observers and modelers. In just the past five years over 100 papers have been published on this fascinating object. We now know it to be a massive binary system with a 5.54-year period. In January 2009, η Car underwent one of its periodic low-states, associated with periastron passage of the two massive stars. This event was monitored by an intensive multi-wavelength campaign ranging from γ-rays to radio. A large amount of data was collected to test a number of evolving models including 3-D models of the massive interacting winds. August 2009 was an excellent time for observers and theorists to come together and review the accumulated studies, as have occurred in four meetings since 1998 devoted to Eta Car. Indeed, η Car behaved both predictably and unpredictably during this most recent periastron, spurring timely discussions.

  20. LIMB-DARKENED RADIATION-DRIVEN WINDS FROM MASSIVE STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Cure, M.; Cidale, L.

    2012-10-01

    We calculated the influence of the limb-darkened finite-disk correction factor in the theory of radiation-driven winds from massive stars. We solved the one-dimensional m-CAK hydrodynamical equation of rotating radiation-driven winds for all three known solutions, i.e., fast, {Omega}-slow, and {delta}-slow. We found that for the fast solution, the mass-loss rate is increased by a factor of {approx}10%, while the terminal velocity is reduced about 10%, when compared with the solution using a finite-disk correction factor from a uniformly bright star. For the other two slow solutions, the changes are almost negligible. Although we found that the limb darkening has no effects on the wind-momentum-luminosity relationship, it would affect the calculation of synthetic line profiles and the derivation of accurate wind parameters.

  1. How Very Massive Metal Free Stars Start Cosmological Reionization

    SciTech Connect

    Wise, John H.; Abel, Tom

    2007-11-07

    The initial conditions and relevant physics for the formation of the earliest galaxies are well specified in the concordance cosmology. Using ab initio cosmological Eulerian adaptive mesh refinement radiation hydrodynamical calculations, we discuss how very massive stars start the process of cosmological reionization. The models include non-equilibrium primordial gas chemistry and cooling processes and accurate radiation transport in the Case B approximation using adaptively ray traced photon packages, retaining the time derivative in the transport equation. Supernova feedback is modeled by thermal explosions triggered at parsec scales. All calculations resolve the local Jeans length by at least 16 grid cells at all times and as such cover a spatial dynamic range of {approx}10{sup 6}. These first sources of reionization are highly intermittent and anisotropic and first photoionize the small scales voids surrounding the halos they form in, rather than the dense filaments they are! embedded in. As the merging objects form larger, dwarf sized galaxies, the escape fraction of UV radiation decreases and the H II regions only break out on some sides of the galaxies making them even more anisotropic. In three cases, SN blast waves induce star formation in overdense regions that were formed earlier from ionization front instabilities. These stars form tens of parsecs away from the center of their parent DM halo. Approximately 5 ionizing photons are needed per sustained ionization when star formation in 10{sup 6} M{sub {circle_dot}} halos are dominant in the calculation. As the halos become larger than {approx}10{sup 7} M{sub {circle_dot}}, the ionizing photon escape fraction decreases, which in turn increases the number of photons per ionization to 15--50, in calculations with stellar feedback only. Supernova feedback in these more massive halos creates a more diffuse medium, allowing the stellar radiation to escape more easily and maintaining the ratio of 5 ionizing

  2. Massive Emission-Line Stars in Nearby Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, P. L.; Holtzman, J. A.; Walterbos, R. A. M.

    2003-12-01

    The evolution of massive stars is still poorly understood because of critical effects of mass loss during the post-main sequence phase. Of particular relevance is the Luminous Blue Variable phase, during which high mass loss may occur over a brief period. It would be useful to know the mass range of stars that enter this phase, and the life time of the phase. For that, better estimates of the numbers of LBVs in different environments is crucial. In a study of M31, we detected candidate LBVs as luminous stars with strong Hα emission-lines and no nebular [SII] emission. (King, N.L., Walterbos, R.A.M., & Braun, R., 1998, ApJ, 507:210-220). HST's sensitivity offers the capability to identify these candidate LBVs in galaxies beyond the Local Group. We identify massive Hα emmision-line stars in nearby spiral galaxies within 10 Mpc, using data from the HST WFPC2 archive. We obtained stellar photometry in Hα (F656N) and various broadband filters, with methods developed for the HST Local Group Stellar Photometry archive (Holtzman, J., Afonso, C., & Dolphin, A., 2003, ApJS, submitted). We identify candidates based on the amount of Hα excess in two-color plots. We also require an absolute magnitude MV ≤ -5, and photometry fit parameters consistent with point source characteristics. Candidates are inspected visually on the images for verification purpose. We find promising candidates in several nearby galaxies. We will present a catalog of the objects, and discuss their properties and the environments in which they are found. Support for this work was provided by NASA through grant numbers AR-08372.01-97A and HST-AR-08749.01-A from the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by AURA, Inc. under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

  3. Massive star-forming regions across the galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rygl, Kazi Lucie Jessica

    2010-04-01

    Star-forming regions trace the spiral structure of the Galaxy. They are regions of increased column density and therefore traced well by the extinction in the mid-infrared based on the Spitzer/GLIMPSE 3.6-4.5 micron color excess maps. A sample of 25 high extinction clouds (HECs) was studied in the 1.2 mm dust continuum emission, and followed up by observations of ammonia plus several other molecules using the Effelsberg 100m, IRAM 30m and APEX telescopes. With these data we want to investigate the most early stages of massive star formation, which are currently still largely unknown. Three cloud classes were defined from their morphology in the 1.2 mm continuum maps: the early diffuse HECs, with a low contrast between the clump and cloud emission; the peaked HECs, with an increased contrast; the late multiply peaked HECs, with more than one clump and a high contrast between the clump and the cloud emission. The clouds are cold (T 16 K) and massive (M 800 M_sun) and contain dense clumps (n 10^5 cm^{-3}) of 0.3 pc in size. These clumps were investigated for evidence of gravitational collapse or expansion, for high velocity outflows, and for the presence of young stellar objects. Based on these results we interpret the three cloud classes as an evolutionary sequence of star-forming clouds. Accurate distances are a crucial parameter for establishing the mass, size, and luminosity of an object. Also, for understanding the spiral structure of the Galaxy trustworthy distances are necessary. The most accurate method to measure these is the trigonometric parallax. Using the European Very Large Baseline Interferometry Network of radio antennas we measured, for the first time, parallaxes of 6.7 GHz methanol masers. This transition belongs to the strongest maser species in the Galaxy, it is stable and observed toward numerous massive star-forming regions. We measured distances and proper motions toward L 1287, L 1206, NGC 281-W, ON 1 and S 255, and obtained their 3-dimensional

  4. Pair instability supernovae of very massive population III stars

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Ke-Jung; Woosley, Stan; Heger, Alexander; Almgren, Ann; Whalen, Daniel J.

    2014-09-01

    Numerical studies of primordial star formation suggest that the first stars in the universe may have been very massive. Stellar models indicate that non-rotating Population III stars with initial masses of 140-260 M {sub ☉} die as highly energetic pair-instability supernovae. We present new two-dimensional simulations of primordial pair-instability supernovae done with the CASTRO code. Our simulations begin at earlier times than previous multidimensional models, at the onset of core contraction, to capture any dynamical instabilities that may be seeded by core contraction and explosive burning. Such instabilities could enhance explosive yields by mixing hot ash with fuel, thereby accelerating nuclear burning, and affect the spectra of the supernova by dredging up heavy elements from greater depths in the star at early times. Our grid of models includes both blue supergiants and red supergiants over the range in progenitor mass expected for these events. We find that fluid instabilities driven by oxygen and helium burning arise at the upper and lower boundaries of the oxygen shell ∼20-100 s after core bounce. Instabilities driven by burning freeze out after the SN shock exits the helium core. As the shock later propagates through the hydrogen envelope, a strong reverse shock forms that drives the growth of Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities. In red supergiant progenitors, the amplitudes of these instabilities are sufficient to mix the supernova ejecta.

  5. PROTOSTELLAR OUTFLOWS AND RADIATIVE FEEDBACK FROM MASSIVE STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Kuiper, Rolf; Yorke, Harold W.; Turner, Neal J. E-mail: Harold.W.Yorke@jpl.nasa.gov

    2015-02-20

    We carry out radiation hydrodynamical simulations of the formation of massive stars in the super-Eddington regime including both their radiative feedback and protostellar outflows. The calculations start from a prestellar core of dusty gas and continue until the star stops growing. The accretion ends when the remnants of the core are ejected, mostly by the force of the direct stellar radiation in the polar direction and elsewhere by the reradiated thermal infrared radiation. How long the accretion persists depends on whether the protostellar outflows are present. We set the mass outflow rate to 1% of the stellar sink particle's accretion rate. The outflows open a bipolar cavity extending to the core's outer edge, through which the thermal radiation readily escapes. The radiative flux is funneled into the polar directions while the core's collapse proceeds near the equator. The outflow thus extends the ''flashlight effect'', or anisotropic radiation field, found in previous studies from the few hundred AU scale of the circumstellar disk up to the 0.1 parsec scale of the core. The core's flashlight effect allows core gas to accrete on the disk for longer, in the same way that the disk's flashlight effect allows disk gas to accrete on the star for longer. Thus although the protostellar outflows remove material near the core's poles, causing slower stellar growth over the first few free-fall times, they also enable accretion to go on longer in our calculations. The outflows ultimately lead to stars of somewhat higher mass.

  6. The life of massive stars seen through optical/infrared interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-Bermudez, J.; Alberdi, A.; Schödel, R.

    2015-05-01

    During the last decade, optical/infrared interferometry has become an essential tool to contribute to the understanding of stellar astrophysics. We present our results in the study of different aspects in the life of massive stars using optical interferometry. Particularly, we focused the discussion in our findings about multiplicity, interactions of the massive stars with the interstellar medium, and the early stages of high-mass stars. Our near-infrared observations comprise both: (i) long-baseline interferometry making use of AMBER/VLTI, and (ii) sparse aperture masking with VLT/NACO/SAM. These data have been obtained by our research group in the previous years, and the results have been published in several peer-reviewed papers. The principles of the optical/near-infrared interferometry are briefly presented. Particularly, we describe how to get the calibrated Interferometric observables. Henceforth, we present our results of two massive systems (HD150136 and Herschel 36) for which we discovered their triple nature using AMBER/VLTI. Finally, we will present the recently found evidence of a disk and a binary system in a very massive young stellar object known as IRS 9A in the NGC 3603 region.

  7. Massive runaway stars in the Small Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gvaramadze, V. V.; Pflamm-Altenburg, J.; Kroupa, P.

    2011-01-01

    Using archival Spitzer Space Telescope data, we identified for the first time a dozen runaway OB stars in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) through the detection of their bow shocks. The geometry of detected bow shocks allows us to infer the direction of motion of the associated stars and to determine their possible parent clusters and associations. One of the identified runaway stars, AzV 471, was already known as a high-velocity star on the basis of its high peculiar radial velocity, which is offset by ≃ 40 km s-1 from the local systemic velocity. We discuss implications of our findings for the problem of the origin of field OB stars. Several of the bow shock-producing stars are found in the confines of associations, suggesting that these may be “alien” stars contributing to the age spread observed for some young stellar systems. We also report the discovery of a kidney-shaped nebula attached to the early WN-type star SMC-WR3 (AzV 60a). We interpreted this nebula as an interstellar structure created owing to the interaction between the stellar wind and the ambient interstellar medium.

  8. Massive stars on the verge of exploding: the properties of oxygen sequence Wolf-Rayet stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tramper, F.; Straal, S. M.; Sanyal, D.; Sana, H.; de Koter, A.; Gräfener, G.; Langer, N.; Vink, J. S.; de Mink, S. E.; Kaper, L.

    2015-09-01

    Context. Oxygen sequence Wolf-Rayet (WO) stars are a very rare stage in the evolution of massive stars. Their spectra show strong emission lines of helium-burning products, in particular highly ionized carbon and oxygen. The properties of WO stars can be used to provide unique constraints on the (post-)helium burning evolution of massive stars, and their remaining lifetimes and the expected properties of their supernovae. Aims: We aim to homogeneously analyze the currently known presumed-single WO stars to obtain the key stellar and outflow properties and to constrain their evolutionary state. Methods: We use the line-blanketed non-local thermal equilibrium atmosphere code cmfgen to model the X-Shooter spectra of the WO stars and to deduce the atmospheric parameters. We calculate dedicated evolutionary models to determine the evolutionary state of the stars. Results: The WO stars have extremely high temperatures that range from 150 kK to 210 kK, and very low surface helium mass fractions that range from 44% down to 14%. Their properties can be reproduced by evolutionary models with helium zero-age main sequence masses of MHe,ini = 15-25 M⊙ that exhibit a fairly strong (a few times 10-5M⊙ yr-1), homogeneous (fc> 0.3) stellar wind. Conclusions: WO stars represent the final evolutionary stage of stars with estimated initial masses of Mini = 40-60 M⊙. They are post core-helium burning and predicted to explode as type Ic supernovae within a few thousand years. Based on observations obtained at the European Southern Observatory under program IDs 091.C-0934 and 093.D-0591.Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  9. Properties of massive stars in four clusters of the VVV survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hervé, A.; Martins, F.; Chené, A.-N.; Bouret, J.-C.; Borissova, J.

    2016-05-01

    The evolution of massive stars is only partly understood. Observational constraints can be obtained from the study of massive stars located in young massive clusters. The ESO Public Survey "VISTA Variables in the Vía Lácteá (VVV)" discovered several new clusters hosting massive stars. We present an analysis of massive stars in four of these new clusters. Our aim is to provide constraints on stellar evolution and to better understand the relation between different types of massive stars. We use the radiative transfer code CMFGEN to analyse K-band spectra of twelve stars with spectral types ranging from O and B to WN and WC. We derive the stellar parameters of all targets as well as surface abundances for a subset of them. In the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram, the Wolf-Rayet stars are more luminous or hotter than the O stars. From the log(C/N)-log(C/He) diagram, we show quantitatively that WN stars are more chemically evolved than O stars, WC stars being more evolved than WN stars. Mass loss rates among Wolf-Rayet stars are a factor of 10 larger than for O stars, in agreement with previous findings.

  10. OGLE-2008-BLG-355Lb: A massive planet around a late-type star

    SciTech Connect

    Koshimoto, N.; Sumi, T.; Fukagawa, M.; Shibai, H.; Udalski, A.; Bennett, D. P.; Bond, I. A.; Ling, C. H.; Rattenbury, N.; Botzler, C. S.; Freeman, M.; Abe, F.; Furusawa, K.; Itow, Y.; Masuda, K.; Matsubara, Y.; Fukui, A.; Muraki, Y.; Ohnishi, K.; Saito, To.; Collaboration: MOA Collaboration; OGLE Collaboration; and others

    2014-06-20

    We report the discovery of a massive planet, OGLE-2008-BLG-355Lb. The light curve analysis indicates a planet:host mass ratio of q = 0.0118 ± 0.0006 at a separation of 0.877 ± 0.010 Einstein radii. We do not measure a significant microlensing parallax signal and do not have high angular resolution images that could detect the planetary host star. Therefore, we do not have a direct measurement of the host star mass. A Bayesian analysis, assuming that all host stars have equal probability to host a planet with the measured mass ratio, implies a host star mass of M{sub h}=0.37{sub −0.17}{sup +0.30} M{sub ⊙} and a companion of mass M{sub P}=4.6{sub −2.2}{sup +3.7}M{sub J}, at a projected separation of r{sub ⊥}=1.70{sub −0.30}{sup +0.29} AU. The implied distance to the planetary system is D {sub L} = 6.8 ± 1.1 kpc. A planetary system with the properties preferred by the Bayesian analysis may be a challenge to the core accretion model of planet formation, as the core accretion model predicts that massive planets are far more likely to form around more massive host stars. This core accretion model prediction is not consistent with our Bayesian prior of an equal probability of host stars of all masses to host a planet with the measured mass ratio. Thus, if the core accretion model prediction is right, we should expect that follow-up high angular resolution observations will detect a host star with a mass in the upper part of the range allowed by the Bayesian analysis. That is, the host would probably be a K or G dwarf.

  11. Intermediate Luminosity Transients: their connection to Massive Stars, Episodic Mass Loss, and Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prieto, Jose

    2013-06-01

    I will discuss a growing class of optical transients with typical peak luminosities between novae and supernovae. I will present their observational properties and their links to evolved massive stars, including the full range from massive AGB stars (8-10 Mo) to the most massive stars (> 100 Mo) like Eta Carinae. I will put their observational properties in the context of propsed physical mechanisms, including episodic mass-loss events, stellar mergers, and supernovae.

  12. An Apparent Precessing Helical Outflow from a Massive Evolved Star: Evidence for Binary Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, R. M.; Hankins, M. J.; Herter, T. L.; Morris, M. R.; Mills, E. A. C.; Ressler, M. E.

    2016-02-01

    Massive, evolved stars play a crucial role in the metal enrichment, dust budget, and energetics of the interstellar medium; however, the details of their evolution are uncertain because of their rarity and short lifetimes before exploding as supernovae. Discrepancies between theoretical predictions from single-star evolutionary models and observations of massive stars have evoked a shifting paradigm that implicates the importance of binary interaction. We present mid- to far-infrared observations from the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy of a conical “helix” of warm dust (˜180 K) that appears to extend from the Wolf-Rayet star WR102c. Our interpretation of the helix is a precessing, collimated outflow that emerged from WR102c during a previous evolutionary phase as a rapidly rotating luminous blue variable. We attribute the precession of WR102c to gravitational interactions with an unseen compact binary companion whose orbital period can be constrained to 800 days < P < 1400 days from the inferred precession period, τp ˜ 1.4 × 104 yr, and limits imposed on the stellar and orbital parameters of the system. Our results concur with the range of orbital periods (P ≲ 1500 days) where spin-up via mass exchange is expected to occur for massive binary systems.

  13. Dynamic Star Formation in the Massive DR21 Filament

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, N.; Csengeri, T.; Bontemps, S.; Motte, F.; Simon, R.; Hennebelle, P.; Federrath, C.; Klessen, R.; /ZAH, Heidelberg /KIPAC, Menlo Park

    2010-08-25

    The formation of massive stars is a highly complex process in which it is unclear whether the star-forming gas is in global gravitational collapse or an equilibrium state supported by turbulence and/or magnetic fields. By studying one of the most massive and dense star-forming regions in the Galaxy at a distance of less than 3 kpc, i.e. the filament containing the well-known sources DR21 and DR21(OH), we attempt to obtain observational evidence to help us to discriminate between these two views. We use molecular line data from our {sup 13}CO 1 {yields} 0, CS 2 {yields} 1, and N{sub 2}H{sup +} 1 {yields} 0 survey of the Cygnus X region obtained with the FCRAO and CO, CS, HCO{sup +}, N{sub 2}H{sup +}, and H{sub 2}CO data obtained with the IRAM 30m telescope. We observe a complex velocity field and velocity dispersion in the DR21 filament in which regions of the highest column-density, i.e., dense cores, have a lower velocity dispersion than the surrounding gas and velocity gradients that are not (only) due to rotation. Infall signatures in optically thick line profiles of HCO{sup +} and {sup 12}CO are observed along and across the whole DR21 filament. By modelling the observed spectra, we obtain a typical infall speed of {approx}0.6 km s{sup -1} and mass accretion rates of the order of a few 10{sup -3} M{sub {circle_dot}} yr{sup -1} for the two main clumps constituting the filament. These massive clumps (4900 and 3300 M{sub {circle_dot}} at densities of around 10{sup 5} cm{sup -3} within 1 pc diameter) are both gravitationally contracting. The more massive of the clumps, DR21(OH), is connected to a sub-filament, apparently 'falling' onto the clump. This filament runs parallel to the magnetic field. Conclusions. All observed kinematic features in the DR21 filament (velocity field, velocity dispersion, and infall), its filamentary morphology, and the existence of (a) sub-filament(s) can be explained if the DR21 filament was formed by the convergence of flows on large

  14. The evolution of galaxy star formation activity in massive haloes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popesso, P.; Biviano, A.; Finoguenov, A.; Wilman, D.; Salvato, M.; Magnelli, B.; Gruppioni, C.; Pozzi, F.; Rodighiero, G.; Ziparo, F.; Berta, S.; Elbaz, D.; Dickinson, M.; Lutz, D.; Altieri, B.; Aussel, H.; Cimatti, A.; Fadda, D.; Ilbert, O.; Le Floch, E.; Nordon, R.; Poglitsch, A.; Xu, C. K.

    2015-02-01

    Context. There is now a large consensus that the current epoch of the cosmic star formation history (CSFH) is dominated by low mass galaxies while the most active phase, between redshifts 1 and 2, is dominated by more massive galaxies, which evolve more quickly. Aims: Massive galaxies tend to inhabit very massive haloes, such as galaxy groups and clusters. We aim to understand whether the observed "galaxy downsizing" could be interpreted as a "halo downsizing", whereas the most massive haloes, and their galaxy populations, evolve more rapidly than the haloes with lower mass. Methods: We studied the contribution to the CSFH of galaxies inhabiting group-sized haloes. This is done through the study of the evolution of the infra-red (IR) luminosity function of group galaxies from redshift 0 to redshift ~1.6. We used a sample of 39 X-ray-selected groups in the Extended Chandra Deep Field South (ECDFS), the Chandra Deep Field North (CDFN), and the COSMOS field, where the deepest available mid- and far-IR surveys have been conducted with Spitzer MIPS and with the Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer (PACS) on board the Herschel satellite. Results: Groups at low redshift lack the brightest, rarest, and most star forming IR-emitting galaxies observed in the field. Their IR-emitting galaxies contribute ≤10% of the comoving volume density of the whole IR galaxy population in the local Universe. At redshift ≳1, the most IR-luminous galaxies (LIRGs and ULIRGs) are mainly located in groups, and this is consistent with a reversal of the star formation rate (SFR) vs. density anti-correlation observed in the nearby Universe. At these redshifts, group galaxies contribute 60-80% of the CSFH, i.e. much more than at lower redshifts. Below z ~ 1, the comoving number and SFR densities of IR-emitting galaxies in groups decline significantly faster than those of all IR-emitting galaxies. Conclusions: Our results are consistent with a "halo downsizing" scenario and highlight the

  15. A Spectroscopic Survey of Massive Stars in M31 and M33

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massey, Philip; Neugent, Kathryn F.; Smart, Brianna M.

    2016-09-01

    We describe our spectroscopic follow-up to the Local Group Galaxy Survey (LGGS) photometry of M31 and M33. We have obtained new spectroscopy of 1895 stars, allowing us to classify 1496 of them for the first time. Our study has identified many foreground stars, and established membership for hundreds of early- and mid-type supergiants. We have also found nine new candidate luminous blue variables and a previously unrecognized Wolf–Rayet star. We republish the LGGS M31 and M33 catalogs with improved coordinates, and including spectroscopy from the literature and our new results. The spectroscopy in this paper is responsible for the vast majority of the stellar classifications in these two nearby spiral neighbors. The most luminous (and hence massive) of the stars in our sample are early-type B supergiants, as expected; the more massive O stars are more rare and fainter visually, and thus mostly remain unobserved so far. The majority of the unevolved stars in our sample are in the 20–40 M ⊙ range. The spectroscopic observations reported here were obtained at the MMT Observatory, a joint facility of the University of Arizona and the Smithsonian Institution. MMT telescope time was granted by NOAO, through the Telescope System Instrumentation Program (TSIP). TSIP is funded by the National Science Foundation. This paper uses data products produced by the OIR Telescope Data Center, supported by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory.

  16. Combining magnetic and seismic studies to constrain processes in massive stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neiner, Coralie; Degroote, Pieter; Coste, Blanche; Briquet, Maryline; Mathis, Stéphane

    2014-08-01

    The presence of pulsations influences the local parameters at the surface of massive stars and thus it modifies the Zeeman magnetic signatures. Therefore it makes the characterisation of a magnetic field in pulsating stars more difficult and the characterisation of pulsations is thus required for the study of magnetic massive stars. Conversely, the presence of a magnetic field can inhibit differential rotation and mixing in massive stars and thus provides important constraints for seismic modelling based on pulsation studies. As a consequence, it is necessary to combine spectropolarimetric and seismic studies for all massive classical pulsators. Below we show examples of such combined studies and the interplay between physical processes.

  17. The role of low-mass star clusters in forming the massive stars in DR 21

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivilla, V. M.; Jiménez-Serra, I.; Martín-Pintado, J.; Sanz-Forcada, J.

    2014-01-01

    We have studied the young low-mass pre-main sequence (PMS) stellar population associated with the massive star-forming region DR 21 by using archival X-ray Chandra observations and by complementing them with existing optical and infrared (IR) surveys. The Chandra observations have revealed for the first time a new highly extincted population of PMS low-mass stars previously missed in observations at other wavelengths. The X-ray population exhibits three main stellar density peaks, coincident with the massive star-forming regions, being the DR 21 core the main peak. The cross-correlated X-ray/IR sample exhibits a radial `Spokes-like' stellar filamentary structure that extends from the DR 21 core towards the northeast. The near-IR data reveal a centrally peaked structure for the extinction, which exhibits its maximum in the DR 21 core and gradually decreases with the distance to the N-S cloud axis and to the cluster centre. We find evidence of a global mass segregation in the full low-mass stellar cluster, and of a stellar age segregation, with the youngest stars still embedded in the N-S cloud, and more evolved stars more spatially distributed. The results are consistent with the scenario where an elongated overall potential well created by the full low-mass stellar cluster funnels gas through filaments feeding stellar formation. Besides the full gravitational well, smaller scale local potential wells created by dense stellar sub-clusters of low-mass stars are privileged in the competition for the gas of the common reservoir, allowing the formation of massive stars. We also discuss the possibility that a stellar collision in the very dense stellar cluster revealed by Chandra in the DR 21 core is the origin of the large-scale and highly energetic outflow arising from this region.

  18. Massive Star Formation at Millimeter and Submillimeter Wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Yu-Nung

    2004-06-01

    This dissertation investigates massive star formation in the Milky Way via millimeter and submillimeter observations of luminous young stellar objects. First, I describe a snapshot continuum and multi-molecular-line survey with the BIMA array aimed at characterizing very young high-mass stars. The target sample consists of eleven luminous IRAS sources associated with very young ultracompact (UC) HII regions, which have weak cm-wave flux densities and very compact angular sizes despite their small (kinematic) distances. In this way, I hope to preferentially select and study extremely young high-mass stars. Most of the 3 millimeter continuum emission shows multiple components, which is consistent with the picture of a clustered formation mode of massive stars. I identify five 3 mm dust sources as good candidates for high-mass protostars because they are coincident in position with their luminous IRAS counterparts and dense molecular gas as traced by H13CO+ emission, yet not detected at 3.6 cm. The typical dust and gas mass of the 3 mm components is a few tens M_sun, while the 3 mm components with centimeter counterparts are ~5 times less massive than those not associated with centimeter continuum, suggesting that some 3 mm sources with centimeter counterparts may relate to very young intermediate-mass stars. On the other hand, due to the relatively weak centimeter luminosity of a few mJy kpc^2, some target centimeter continuum sources could correspond to stellar winds/jets rather than real HII . Furthermore, I present near-IR photometry of the target compact centimeter sources obtained from the new released Two Micron All Sky Survey archival data. Second, I present millimeter observations with the BIMA array of the bipolar molecular outflows associated with the luminous far-IR sources IRAS 21519+5613 and IRAS 22506+5944. Although outflows have been identified as a common occurrence in the formation of both high-and low-mass stars, only about ten molecular outflows

  19. The chemical composition of Galactic ring nebulae around massive stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esteban, C.; Mesa-Delgado, A.; Morisset, C.; García-Rojas, J.

    2016-08-01

    We present deep spectra of ring nebulae associated with Wolf-Rayet (WR) and O-type stars: NGC 6888, G2.4+1.4, RCW 58, S 308, NGC 7635 and RCW 52. The data have been taken with the 10m Gran Telescopio Canarias and the 6.5m Clay Telescope. We extract spectra of several apertures in some of the objects. We derive C$^{++}$ and O$^{++}$ abundances from faint recombination lines in NGC 6888 and NGC 7635, permitting to derive their C/H and C/O ratios and estimate the abundance discrepancy factor (ADF) of O$^{++}$. The ADFs are larger than the typical ones of normal HII regions but similar to those found in the ionised gas of star-forming dwarf galaxies. We find that chemical abundances are rather homogeneous in the nebulae where we have spectra of several apertures: NGC 6888, NGC 7635 and G2.4+1.4. We obtain very high values of electron temperature in a peripheral zone of NGC 6888, finding that shock excitation can reproduce its spectral properties. We find that all the objects associated with WR stars show N enrichment. Some of them also show He enrichment and O deficiency as well as a lower Ne/O than expected, this may indicate the strong action of the ON and NeNa cycles. We have compared the chemical composition of NGC 6888, G2.4+1.4, RCW 58 and S 308 with the nucleosynthesis predicted by stellar evolution models of massive stars. We find that non-rotational models of stars of initial masses between 25 and 40 solar masses seem to reproduce the observed abundance ratios of most of the nebulae.

  20. The chemical composition of Galactic ring nebulae around massive stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esteban, C.; Mesa-Delgado, A.; Morisset, C.; García-Rojas, J.

    2016-08-01

    We present deep spectra of ring nebulae associated with Wolf-Rayet (WR) and O-type stars: NGC 6888, G2.4+1.4, RCW 58, S 308, NGC 7635 and RCW 52. The data have been taken with the 10m Gran Telescopio Canarias and the 6.5m Clay Telescope. We extract spectra of several apertures in some of the objects. We derive C2+ and O2+ abundances from faint recombination lines in NGC 6888 and NGC 7635, permitting to derive their C/H and C/O ratios and estimate the abundance discrepancy factor (ADF) of O2+. The ADFs are larger than the typical ones of normal H II regions but similar to those found in the ionized gas of star-forming dwarf galaxies. We find that chemical abundances are rather homogeneous in the nebulae where we have spectra of several apertures: NGC 6888, NGC 7635 and G2.4+1.4. We obtain very high values of electron temperature in a peripheral zone of NGC 6888, finding that shock excitation can reproduce its spectral properties. We find that all the objects associated with WR stars show N enrichment. Some of them also show He enrichment and O deficiency as well as a lower Ne/O than expected, this may indicate the strong action of the ON and NeNa cycles. We have compared the chemical composition of NGC 6888, G2.4+1.4, RCW 58 and S 308 with the nucleosynthesis predicted by stellar evolution models of massive stars. We find that non-rotational models of stars of initial masses between 25 and 40 M⊙ seem to reproduce the observed abundance ratios of most of the nebulae.

  1. How Very Massive Metal-Free Stars Start Cosmological Reionization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wise, John H.; Abel, Tom

    2008-01-01

    The initial conditions and relevant physics for the formation of the earliest galaxies are well specified in the concordance cosmology. Using ab initio cosmological Eulerian adaptive mesh refinement radiation hydrodynamical calculations, we discuss how very massive stars start the process of cosmological reionization. The models include nonequilibrium primordial gas chemistry and cooling processes and accurate radiation transport in the case B approximation using adaptively ray-traced photon packages, retaining the time derivative in the transport equation. Supernova feedback is modeled by thermal explosions triggered at parsec scales. All calculations resolve the local Jeans length by at least 16 grid cells at all times and as such cover a spatial dynamic range of approx.10(exp 6). These first sources of reionization are highly intermittent and anisotropic and first photoionize the small-scale voids surrounding the halos they form in, rather than the dense filaments they are embedded in. As the merging objects form larger, dwarf-sized galaxies, the escape fraction of UV radiation decreases and the H II regions only break out on some sides of the galaxies, making them even more anisotropic. In three cases, SN blast waves induce star formation in overdense regions that were formed earlier from ionization front instabilities. These stars form tens of parsecs away from the center of their parent DM halo. Approximately five ionizing photons are needed per sustained ionization when star formation in 10(exp 6) stellar Mass halos is dominant in the calculation. As the halos become larger than approx.10(exp 7) Stellar Mass, the ionizing photon escape fraction decreases, which in turn increases the number of photons per ionization to 15-50, in calculations with stellar feedback only. Radiative feedback decreases clumping factors by 25% when compared to simulations without star formation and increases the average temperature of ionized gas to values between 3000 and 10,000 K.

  2. Massive star formation within the Leo 'primordial' ring.

    PubMed

    Thilker, David A; Donovan, Jennifer; Schiminovich, David; Bianchi, Luciana; Boissier, Samuel; de Paz, Armando Gil; Madore, Barry F; Martin, D Christopher; Seibert, Mark

    2009-02-19

    Few intergalactic, plausibly primordial clouds of neutral atomic hydrogen (H(i)) have been found in the local Universe, suggesting that such structures have either dispersed, become ionized or produced a stellar population on gigayear timescales. The Leo ring, a massive (M(H(i)) approximately 1.8 x 10(9)M[symbol: see text], M[symbol: see text] denoting the solar mass), 200-kpc-wide structure orbiting the galaxies M105 and NGC 3384 with a 4-Gyr period, is a candidate primordial cloud. Despite repeated atttempts, it has previously been seen only from H i emission, suggesting the absence of a stellar population. Here we report the detection of ultraviolet light from gaseous substructures of the Leo ring, which we attribute to recent massive star formation. The ultraviolet colour of the detected complexes is blue, implying the onset of a burst of star formation or continuous star formation of moderate (approximately 10(8)-yr) duration. Measured ultraviolet-visible photometry favours models with low metallicity (Z approximately Z[symbol: see text]/50-Z[symbol: see text]/5, Z[symbol: see text] denoting the solar metallicity), that is, a low proportion of elements heavier than helium, although spectroscopic confirmation is needed. We speculate that the complexes are dwarf galaxies observed during their formation, but distinguished by their lack of a dark matter component. In this regard, they resemble tidal dwarf galaxies, although without the enrichment preceding tidal stripping. If structures like the Leo ring were common in the early Universe, they may have produced a large, yet undetected, population of faint, metal-poor, halo-lacking dwarf galaxies. PMID:19225520

  3. Massive Young Star Clusters in M33: Stochastic Star Formation Ruled Out

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Lópezlira, R. A.; Pflamm-Altenburg, J.; Kroupa, P.

    2014-09-01

    It is widely accepted that the distribution function of the masses of young star clusters is universal and can be purely interpreted as a probability density distribution function with a constant upper mass limit. As a result of this picture, the masses of the most massive objects would be exclusively determined by the size of the sample. Conversely we show, with very high confidence, that the masses of the most massive young (< 10 Myr) star clusters in the flocculent galaxy M33 decrease with increasing galactocentric radius, in contradiction with a constant shape and upper mass limit of the cluster mass function. Moreover, by comparing the radial distributions of gas surface densities and highest cluster masses, we find that M_{max} ∝ Σ_{gas, total}^{3.8 ± 0.3}, M_{max} ∝ Σ_{H_2}^{1.2± 0.1} and M_{max} ∝ Σ_{SFR}^{0.9 ± 0.1}. Hence, in M33 we can rule out stochastic star formation. The change of the maximum cluster mass there must be due to physical causes, i.e., very massive star clusters may require special physical conditions, like high gas surface densities, in order to form.

  4. The Very Massive Star Content of the Nuclear Star Clusters in NGC 5253

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, L. J.; Crowther, P. A.; Calzetti, D.; Sidoli, F.

    2016-05-01

    The blue compact dwarf galaxy NGC 5253 hosts a very young starburst containing twin nuclear star clusters, separated by a projected distance of 5 pc. One cluster (#5) coincides with the peak of the Hα emission and the other (#11) with a massive ultracompact H ii region. A recent analysis of these clusters shows that they have a photometric age of 1 ± 1 Myr, in apparent contradiction with the age of 3–5 Myr inferred from the presence of Wolf-Rayet features in the cluster #5 spectrum. We examine Hubble Space Telescope ultraviolet and Very Large Telescope optical spectroscopy of #5 and show that the stellar features arise from very massive stars (VMSs), with masses greater than 100 M ⊙, at an age of 1–2 Myr. We further show that the very high ionizing flux from the nuclear clusters can only be explained if VMSs are present. We investigate the origin of the observed nitrogen enrichment in the circumcluster ionized gas and find that the excess N can be produced by massive rotating stars within the first 1 Myr. We find similarities between the NGC 5253 cluster spectrum and those of metal-poor, high-redshift galaxies. We discuss the presence of VMSs in young, star-forming galaxies at high redshift; these should be detected in rest-frame UV spectra to be obtained with the James Webb Space Telescope. We emphasize that population synthesis models with upper mass cutoffs greater than 100 M ⊙ are crucial for future studies of young massive star clusters at all redshifts.

  5. The Inflow Signature toward Different Evolutionary Phases of Massive Star Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Mihwa; Lee, Jeong-Eun; Kim, Kee-Tae; Evans, Neal J., II

    2016-08-01

    We analyze both HCN J = 1–0 and HNC J = 1–0 line profiles to study the inflow motions in different evolutionary stages of massive star formation: 54 infrared dark clouds (IRDCs), 69 high-mass protostellar objects (HMPOs), and 54 ultra-compact H ii regions (UCHIIs). Inflow asymmetry in the HCN spectra seems to be prevalent throughout all the three evolutionary phases, with IRDCs showing the largest excess in the blue profile. In the case of the HNC spectra, the prevalence of blue sources does not appear, apart from for IRDCs. We suggest that this line is not appropriate to trace the inflow motion in the evolved stages of massive star formation, because the abundance of HNC decreases at high temperatures. This result highlights the importance of considering chemistry in dynamics studies of massive star-forming regions. The fact that the IRDCs show the highest blue excess in both transitions indicates that the most active inflow occurs in the early phase of star formation, i.e., in the IRDC phase rather than in the later phases. However, mass is still inflowing onto some UCHIIs. We also find that the absorption dips of the HNC spectra in six out of seven blue sources are redshifted relative to their systemic velocities. These redshifted absorption dips may indicate global collapse candidates, although mapping observations with better resolution are needed to examine this feature in more detail.

  6. EXPLOSIVE DISINTEGRATION OF A MASSIVE YOUNG STELLAR SYSTEM IN ORION

    SciTech Connect

    Zapata, Luis A.; Schmid-Burgk, Johannes; Menten, Karl M.; Ho, Paul T. P.; Rodriguez, Luis F.

    2009-10-10

    Young massive stars in the center of crowded star clusters are expected to undergo close dynamical encounters that could lead to energetic, explosive events. However, there has so far never been clear observational evidence of such a remarkable phenomenon. We here report new interferometric observations that indicate the well-known enigmatic wide-angle outflow located in the Orion BN/KL star-forming region to have been produced by such a violent explosion during the disruption of a massive young stellar system, and that this was caused by a close dynamical interaction about 500 years ago. This outflow thus belongs to a totally different family of molecular flows that is not related to the classical bipolar flows that are generated by stars during their formation process. Our molecular data allow us to create a three-dimensional view of the debris flow and to link this directly to the well-known Orion H{sub 2} 'fingers' farther out.

  7. Explosive Disintegration of a Massive Young Stellar System in Orion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zapata, Luis A.; Schmid-Burgk, Johannes; Ho, Paul T. P.; Rodríguez, Luis F.; Menten, Karl M.

    2009-10-01

    Young massive stars in the center of crowded star clusters are expected to undergo close dynamical encounters that could lead to energetic, explosive events. However, there has so far never been clear observational evidence of such a remarkable phenomenon. We here report new interferometric observations that indicate the well-known enigmatic wide-angle outflow located in the Orion BN/KL star-forming region to have been produced by such a violent explosion during the disruption of a massive young stellar system, and that this was caused by a close dynamical interaction about 500 years ago. This outflow thus belongs to a totally different family of molecular flows that is not related to the classical bipolar flows that are generated by stars during their formation process. Our molecular data allow us to create a three-dimensional view of the debris flow and to link this directly to the well-known Orion H2 "fingers" farther out.

  8. Gravity as main driver of non-thermal motions in massive star forming regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Traficante, A.; Fuller, G. A.; Smith, R.; Billot, N.; Duarte-Cabral, A.; Peretto, N.; Molinari, S.; Pineda, J. E.

    2016-05-01

    The origin of the observed non-thermal motions in massive star forming regions is still unclear. These motions can originate from local turbulence or from self-gravity and the two scenarios lead to two different star formation mechanisms. The recent findings of Heyer et al. ([5]) have supported self-gravity as main driver of the non-thermal motions, although without a clear interpretation of the results. In this contribution we introduce a new formalism to describe the relation between gravity and kinetic motion in massive star formation. We show that the Heyer findings are a particular result of this description and have a direct physical interpretation. We applied this formalism to different surveys of massive star forming regions covering all spatial scales from giant molecular clouds down to massive cores, including new data from massive candidate starless clumps. The results presented in this contribution strongly support a chaotic, gravitationally driven global collapse scenario as massive star formation mechanism.

  9. Resolved photometry of extragalactic young massive star clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, S. S.; de Mink, S. E.; Eldridge, J. J.; Langer, N.; Bastian, N.; Seth, A.; Smith, L. J.; Brodie, J.; Efremov, Yu. N.

    2011-08-01

    Aims: We present colour-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) of young massive star clusters in several galaxies located well beyond the Local Group. The richness of these clusters allows us to obtain large samples of post-main sequence stars and test how well the observed CMDs are reproduced by canonical stellar isochrones. Methods: We use imaging of seven clusters in the galaxies NGC 1313, NGC 1569, NGC 1705, NGC 5236 and NGC 7793 obtained with the Advanced Camera for Surveys on board the Hubble Space Telescope and carry out PSF-fitting photometry of individual stars in the clusters. The clusters have ages in the range ~(5-50) × 106 years and masses of ~105 M⊙-106 M⊙. Although crowding prevents us from obtaining photometry in the inner regions of the clusters, we are still able to measure up to 30-100 supergiant stars in each of the richest clusters. The resulting CMDs and luminosity functions are compared with photometry of artificially generated clusters, designed to reproduce the photometric errors and completeness as realistically as possible. Results: In agreement with previous studies, our CMDs show no clear gap between the H-burning main sequence and the He-burning supergiant stars, contrary to predictions by common stellar isochrones. In general, the isochrones also fail to match the observed number ratios of red-to-blue supergiant stars, although the difficulty of separating blue supergiants from the main sequence complicates this comparison. In several cases we observe a large spread (1-2 mag) in the luminosities of the supergiant stars that cannot be accounted for by observational errors. We find that this spread can be reproduced by including an age spread of ~(10-30) × 106 years in the models. However, age spreads cannot fully account for the observed morphology of the CMDs and other processes, such as the evolution of interacting binary stars, may also play a role. Conclusions: Colour-magnitude diagrams can be successfully obtained for massive star

  10. Quasi-stars: accreting black holes inside massive envelopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Begelman, Mitchell C.; Rossi, Elena M.; Armitage, Philip J.

    2008-07-01

    We study the structure and evolution of `quasi-stars', accreting black holes embedded within massive hydrostatic gaseous envelopes. These configurations may model the early growth of supermassive black hole seeds. The accretion rate on to the black hole adjusts so that the luminosity carried by the convective envelope equals the Eddington limit for the total mass, M* + MBH ~ M*. This greatly exceeds the Eddington limit for the black hole mass alone, leading to rapid growth of the black hole. We use analytic models and numerical stellar structure calculations to study the structure and evolution of quasi-stars. We show that the photospheric temperature of the envelope scales as Tph ~ M-2/5BHM7/20*, and decreases with time while the black hole mass increases. Once Tph < 104 K, the photospheric opacity drops precipitously and Tph hits a limiting value, analogous to the Hayashi track for red giants and protostars, below which no hydrostatic solution for the convective envelope exists. For metal-free (Population III) opacities, this limiting temperature is approximately 4000 K. After a quasi-star reaches this limiting temperature, it is rapidly dispersed by radiation pressure. We find that black hole seeds with masses between 103 and 104Msolar could form via this mechanism in less than a few Myr.

  11. Evolution and Nucleosynthesis in Massive Stars of Zero Metallicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heger, Alexander; Woosley, Stan E.; Waters, Richard

    We follow the evolution of rotating, zero metallicity stars in the mass range 15-250 M_⊙ from the zero-age main sequence to core collapse. Detailed nucleosynthesis is computed using a 199 isotope network complete up to germanium. In addition to the expected overabundance of alpha-isotopes in the final yields (compared to similar mass stars of solar metallicity), we find evidence for the production of primary 14 N. Stars more massive than ≳ 100 M_⊙ on the main sequence will encounter the electron-positron pair instability following helium burning. For currently favored values of nuclear cross sections and convection algorithm, we determine critical helium core masses for pulsational pair instability, prompt Explosion, or prompt block hole formation of 45, 65, and 140 M_⊙ respectively. Towards the upper end of the mass range that explodes, very large quantities of 56 Ni are produced and the explosion should be extremely bright. The high mass models that wake black holes might be potential progenitors of gamma-ray bursts (GRB) of enormous energy.

  12. OT1_tgull_3: The Homunculus: Clues to Massive Ejection from the Most Massive Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gull, T.

    2010-07-01

    Eta Carinae is a lynchpin between mass ejection by highly evolved massive stars and the enriched ISM. The Homunculus, a very dusty, neutral bipolar shell ejected in the 1840s, is known to contain at least 12 solar masses, based upon gas/dust=100. But this ejecta is very N-rich with C and O being 0.02 that of solar abundance. What dust formed and how much total mass was ejected? Our ultimate goal is to obtain the total ejected mass. We propose to obtain full spectral scans of the Homunculus with PACS and SPIRES and selected scans with HIFI. We will use these spectra to identify molecules and atomic species associated with this C- and O-depleted gas. While most of this depletion is due to CNO processing and conduction in stars > 60 solar masses, additional depletion is likely due to the first molecules and dust formed at high temperatures during the 1840s eruption. In line of sight we see overabundances of metals not ordinarily seen in the ISM: Sr, Sc, V. These metals have been trapped in atomic state due to limited O and C being available to form molecules. Yet dust has still formed. But what kind of dust? Through existing HST/STIS and VLT/UVES spectra combined with the proposed Herschel spectra and detailed modeling, we will gain much better insight on how molecules and dust can formed in depleted C,O conditions, and in turn provide an improved estimate of the total mass loss. Implications from this study apply to the first massive stars and the earliest dust in the Universe.

  13. Ages of young star clusters, massive blue stragglers, and the upper mass limit of stars: Analyzing age-dependent stellar mass functions

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, F. R. N.; Izzard, R. G.; Langer, N.; Stolte, A.; Hußmann, B.; De Mink, S. E.; De Koter, A.; Sana, H.; Gvaramadze, V. V.; Liermann, A.

    2014-01-10

    Massive stars rapidly change their masses through strong stellar winds and mass transfer in binary systems. The latter aspect is important for populations of massive stars as more than 70% of all O stars are expected to interact with a binary companion during their lifetime. We show that such mass changes leave characteristic signatures in stellar mass functions of young star clusters that can be used to infer their ages and to identify products of binary evolution. We model the observed present-day mass functions of the young Galactic Arches and Quintuplet star clusters using our rapid binary evolution code. We find that the shaping of the mass function by stellar wind mass loss allows us to determine the cluster ages as 3.5 ± 0.7 Myr and 4.8 ± 1.1 Myr, respectively. Exploiting the effects of binary mass exchange on the cluster mass function, we find that the most massive stars in both clusters are rejuvenated products of binary mass transfer, i.e., the massive counterpart of classical blue straggler stars. This resolves the problem of an apparent age spread among the most luminous stars exceeding the expected duration of star formation in these clusters. We perform Monte Carlo simulations to probe stochastic sampling, which support the idea of the most massive stars being rejuvenated binary products. We find that the most massive star is expected to be a binary product after 1.0 ± 0.7 Myr in Arches and after 1.7 ± 1.0 Myr in Quintuplet. Today, the most massive 9 ± 3 stars in Arches and 8 ± 3 in Quintuplet are expected to be such objects. Our findings have strong implications for the stellar upper mass limit and solve the discrepancy between the claimed 150 M {sub ☉} limit and observations of four stars with initial masses of 165-320 M {sub ☉} in R136 and of supernova 2007bi, which is thought to be a pair-instability supernova from an initial 250 M {sub ☉} star. Using the stellar population of R136, we revise the upper mass limit to values in the range

  14. Narrow-band Imaging of Massive Star-Forming Regions: Tracing Outflows and the Rate of Star-Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Kendall; Willis, Sarah; Hora, Joseph L.

    2016-01-01

    Narrowband images targeting ionized hydrogen (Brackett gamma, 2.17 microns) and molecular hydrogen (2.12 microns) were obtained for six massive star-forming regions within the Milky Way, NGC 6334, G305, G3333, G3264, G3266, and G351. These regions are within 1-4 kpc from our solar system. The narrowband flux in Brackett gamma was used as a star-formation tracer to calculate a star-formation rate for each region. This is compared with other star-formation rates found using other methods such as the count of young stars and YSOs, and rates calculated from using other tracers (e.g. 70 micron monochromatic luminosity). The molecular hydrogen narrowband images were manually searched to locate outflows from young stars. Once these outflows are identified, it may help to get a better survey of the young stellar population. A better understanding of the stellar population distribution can lead to more accurate star-formation rates to compare to those calculated from star-formation tracers. We found the regions NGC 6334 and G3266 to have the highest levels of ongoing star formation activity as indicated by the number of molecular hydrogen objects (MHOs) detected. There are a total of 279 cataloged MHOs in 181 categorized systems for the six regions. There are a total of 150 identified potential driving sources.This work was supported in part by the NSF REU and DoD ASSURE programs under NSF grant no. 1262851 and by the Smithsonian Institution.

  15. The origin of massive clusters: from hyper-massive clouds to mini-bursts of star formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motte, Frederique; Louvet, Fabien; Nguyen Luong, Quang

    2015-08-01

    Herschel revealed high-density cloud filaments of several pc^3, which are forming clusters of OB-type stars. Counting Herschel protostars gives a direct measure of the mass of stars forming in a period of ~10^5 yrs, the ``instantaneous'' star formation activity. Given their activity, these so-called mini-starburst cloud ridges could be seen as "miniature and instant models" of starburst galaxies. Their characteristics could shed light on the origin of massive clusters.

  16. What the Spatial Distribution of Stars tells us about Star Formation and Massive Cluster Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bressert, Eli; Bastian, N.; Testi, L.; Patience, J.; Longmore, S.

    2012-01-01

    We present a dissertation study on two recent results regarding the clustering properties of young stars. First, we discuss a global study of young stellar object (YSO) surface densities in star forming regions based on a comprehensive collection of Spitzer Space Telescope surveys, which encompasses nearly all star formation in the solar neighbourhood. It is shown that the distribution of YSO surface densities is a smooth distribution, being adequately described by a lognormal function from a few to 103 YSOs pc-2, with a peak at 22 YSOs pc-2 and a dispersion of 0.85. We find no evidence for multiple discrete modes of star-formation (e.g. clustered and distributed) and that not all stars form in clusters. A Herschel Space Observatory study confirms the YSO surface density results by observing and analyzing the prestellar core population in several star forming regions. Secondly, we propose that bound stellar clusters primarily form from dense clouds having escape speeds greater than the sound speed in photo-ionized gas. A list of giant molecular clumps with masses >103 M⊙ that have escape speeds greater than the sound speed in photo-ionized plasma is compiled from the Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey. In these clumps, radiative feedback in the form of gas ionization is bottled up, enabling star formation to proceed to sufficiently high efficiency so that the resulting star cluster remains bound even after gas removal. We present over ten candidates that will most likely form >103 M⊙ star clusters and two of them that are comparable to NGC 3603 (>104 M⊙). Thus, providing us with an outlook on the next generation of star clusters in the Milky Way and clues to the initial conditions of massive cluster formation.

  17. Massive-star supernovae as major dust factories.

    PubMed

    Sugerman, Ben E K; Ercolano, Barbara; Barlow, M J; Tielens, A G G M; Clayton, Geoffrey C; Zijlstra, Albert A; Meixner, Margaret; Speck, Angela; Gledhill, Tim M; Panagia, Nino; Cohen, Martin; Gordon, Karl D; Meyer, Martin; Fabbri, Joanna; Bowey, Janet E; Welch, Douglas L; Regan, Michael W; Kennicutt, Robert C

    2006-07-14

    We present late-time optical and mid-infrared observations of the Type II supernova 2003gd in the galaxy NGC 628. Mid-infrared excesses consistent with cooling dust in the ejecta are observed 499 to 678 days after outburst and are accompanied by increasing optical extinction and growing asymmetries in the emission-line profiles. Radiative-transfer models show that up to 0.02 solar masses of dust has formed within the ejecta, beginning as early as 250 days after outburst. These observations show that dust formation in supernova ejecta can be efficient and that massive-star supernovae could have been major dust producers throughout the history of the universe. PMID:16763110

  18. Modeling and analysing massive star spectra: recent advances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamann, Wolf-Rainer; Todt, Helge; Sander, Andreas; Hainich, Rainer; Shenar, Tomer; Oskinova, Lidia

    2013-06-01

    Depending on their mass-loss rate, the spectra of massive stars are more or less formed in the expanding parts of their atmosphere, i.e. in the stellar wind. Over decades we have developed a sophisticated non-LTE code for modeling such spectra adequately. Originally, the "Potsdam WR PoWR" code aimed at Wolf-Rayet stars with their emission-line dominated spectra. Meanwhile we have added a more detailed treatment of the lower, nearly static parts of the atmosphere, including pressure broadening of lines. This extends the applicability of the models to spectra showing both, photospheric absorption lines and stellar wind features, e.g. from O and B-type stars. The ionizing effect of X-rays, which are intrinsically produced in stellar winds, can be taken into account. Instead of a one-temperature plasma, a power-law distribution of the X-ray emission measure can be chosen and gives the best fit of the EUV spectral energy distribution. The effect of rotation on the emergent spectrum can be simulated under suitable assumptions on the angular motions in the wind. When clumping is accounted for in the approximation of optically thin structures, this leads to a reduction of empirical mass-loss rates when determined from recombination lines. A more general, but not fully consistent formalism has been incorporated to account for the effect of "macroclumping" on resonance lines. PoWR calculations were also combined with a 3-D Monte Carlo code for resonance line scattering in a structured stellar wind. A formalism has been developed to establish the hydrodynamically consistent solution for radiation-driven winds, including all multiple-scattering effects that are essential e.g. for WR stars, but this branch of the code is not ready yet for routinely use. PoWR models have been used extensively for analyzing WR stars in the Galaxy and the Magellanic Clouds, and for a couple of OB-type stars and LBVs. An increasing number of models is made available via internet.

  19. X-ray diagnostics of massive star winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oskinova, Lidia M.

    2016-09-01

    Nearly all types of massive stars with radiatively driven stellar winds are X-ray sources that can be observed by the presently operating powerful X-ray telescopes. In this review I briefly address recent advances in our understanding of stellar winds obtained from X-ray observations. X-rays may strongly influence the dynamics of weak winds of main sequence B-type stars. X-ray pulsations were detected in a β Cep type variable giving evidence of tight photosphere-wind connections. The winds of OB dwarfs with subtypes later than O9V may be predominantly in a hot phase, and X-ray observations offer the best window for their studies. The X-ray properties of OB supergiants are largely determined by the effects of radiative transfer in their clumped stellar winds. The recently suggested method to directly measure mass-loss rates of O stars by fitting the shapes of X-ray emission lines is considered but its validity cannot be confirmed. To obtain robust quantitative information on stellar wind parameters from X-ray spectroscopy, a multiwavelength analysis by means of stellar atmosphere models is required. Independent groups are now performing such analyses with encouraging results. Joint analyses of optical, UV, and X-ray spectra of OB supergiants yield consistent mass-loss rates. Depending on the adopted clumping parameters, the empirically derived mass-loss rates are a factor of a few smaller or comparable to those predicted by standard recipes (Vink et al., 2001). All sufficiently studied O stars display variable X-ray emission that might be related to corotating interaction regions in their winds. In the latest stages of stellar evolution, single red supergiants (RSG) and luminous blue variable (LBV) stars do not emit observable amounts of X-rays. On the other hand, nearly all types of Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars are X-ray sources. X-ray spectroscopy allows a sensitive probe of WR wind abundances and opacities.

  20. Mapping the Innermost Regions of Massive Stars in Formation through Millimeter Recombination Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galván-Madrid, R.; Liu, H. B.; Hernández-Gómez, A.; Carrasco-González, C.

    2015-12-01

    Millimeter (mm) recombination lines (RLs) are intrinsically brighter than centimeter RLs and are free of pressure broadening. Mapping mm RLs in massive star formation (MSF) regions would trace the dynamics of the innermost volume where stars more massive than 10 or 20 ⊙ are forming. We report on our search using ALMA for mm RL emission in two MSF regions.

  1. Signatures of multiple stellar populations in unresolved extragalactic globular/young massive star clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Peacock, Mark B.; Zepf, Stephen E.; Finzell, Thomas

    2013-06-01

    We present an investigation of potential signatures of the formation of multiple stellar populations in recently formed extragalactic star clusters. All of the Galactic globular clusters for which good samples of individual stellar abundances are available show evidence for multiple populations. This appears to require that multiple episodes of star formation and light element enrichment are the norm in the history of a globular cluster. We show that there are detectable observational signatures of multiple formation events in the unresolved spectra of massive, young extragalactic star clusters. We present the results of a pilot program to search for one of the cleanest signatures that we identify—the combined presence of emission lines from a very recently formed population and absorption lines from a somewhat older population. A possible example of such a system is identified in the Antennae galaxies. This source's spectrum shows evidence of two stellar populations with ages of 8 Myr and 80 Myr. Further investigation shows that these populations are in fact physically separated, but only by a projected distance of 59 pc. We show that the clusters are consistent with being bound and discuss the possibility that their coalescence could result in a single globular cluster hosting multiple stellar populations. While not the prototypical system proposed by most theories of the formation of multiple populations in clusters, the detection of this system in a small sample is both encouraging and interesting. Our investigation suggests that expanded surveys of massive young star clusters should detect more clusters with such signatures.

  2. Stability of metal-rich very massive stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodman, J.; White, Christopher J.

    2016-02-01

    We revisit the stability of very massive non-rotating main-sequence stars at solar metallicity, with the goal of understanding whether radial pulsations set a physical upper limit to stellar mass. Models of up to 938 solar masses are constructed with the MESA code, and their linear stability in the fundamental mode, assumed to be the most dangerous, is analysed with a fully non-adiabatic method. Models above 100 M⊙ have extended tenuous atmospheres (`shelves') that affect the stability of the fundamental. Even when positive, this growth rate is small, in agreement with previous results. We argue that small growth rates lead to saturation at small amplitudes that are not dangerous to the star. A mechanism for saturation is demonstrated involving non-linear parametric coupling to short-wavelength g-modes and the damping of the latter by radiative diffusion. The shelves are subject to much more rapidly growing strange modes. This also agrees with previous results but is extended here to higher masses. The strange modes probably saturate via shocks rather than mode coupling but have very small amplitudes in the core, where almost all of the stellar mass resides. Although our stellar models are hydrostatic, the structure of their outer parts suggests that optically thick winds, driven by some combination of radiation pressure, transonic convection, and strange modes, are more likely than pulsation in the fundamental mode to limit the main-sequence lifetime.

  3. MODELING BROADBAND X-RAY ABSORPTION OF MASSIVE STAR WINDS

    SciTech Connect

    Leutenegger, Maurice A.; Zsargo, Janos; Martell, Erin M.; Owocki, Stanley P.; Gagne, Marc; Hillier, D. John

    2010-08-20

    We present a method for computing the net transmission of X-rays emitted by shock-heated plasma distributed throughout a partially optically thick stellar wind from a massive star. We find the transmission by an exact integration of the formal solution, assuming that the emitting plasma and absorbing plasma are mixed at a constant mass ratio above some minimum radius, below which there is assumed to be no emission. This model is more realistic than either the slab absorption associated with a corona at the base of the wind or the exospheric approximation that assumes that all observed X-rays are emitted without attenuation from above the radius of optical depth unity. Our model is implemented in XSPEC as a pre-calculated table that can be coupled to a user-defined table of the wavelength-dependent wind opacity. We provide a default wind opacity model that is more representative of real wind opacities than the commonly used neutral interstellar medium (ISM) tabulation. Preliminary modeling of Chandra grating data indicates that the X-ray hardness trend of OB stars with spectral subtype can largely be understood as a wind absorption effect.

  4. Modeling Broadband X-Ray Absorption of Massive Star Winds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leutenegger, Maurice A.; Cohen,David H.; Zsargo, Janos; Martell, Erin M.; MacArthur, James P.; Owocki, Stanley P.; Gagne, Marc; Hillier, D. John

    2010-01-01

    We present a method for computing the net transition of X-rays emitted by shock-heated plasma distributed throughout a partially optically thick stellar wind from a massive star. We find the transmission by an exact integration of the formal solution, assuming the emitting plasma and absorbing plasma are mixed at a constant mass ratio above some minimum radius, below which there is assumed to be no emission. This model is more realistic than either the slab absorption associated with a corona at the base of the wind or the exospheric approximation that assumes all observed X-rays are emitted without attenuation from above the radius of optical depth unity. Our model is implemented in XSPEC as a pre-calculated table that can be coupled to a user-defined table of the wavelength dependent wind opacity. We provide a default wind opacity model that is more representative of real wind opacities than the commonly used neutral ISM tabulation. Preliminary modeling of Chandra grating data indicates that the X-ray hardness trend of OB stars with spectral subtype cars largely be understood as a wind absorption effect.

  5. Radioactive 26Al from massive stars in the Galaxy.

    PubMed

    Diehl, Roland; Halloin, Hubert; Kretschmer, Karsten; Lichti, Giselher G; Schönfelder, Volker; Strong, Andrew W; von Kienlin, Andreas; Wang, Wei; Jean, Pierre; Knödlseder, Jürgen; Roques, Jean-Pierre; Weidenspointner, Georg; Schanne, Stephane; Hartmann, Dieter H; Winkler, Christoph; Wunderer, Cornelia

    2006-01-01

    Gamma-rays from radioactive 26Al (half-life approximately 7.2 x 10(5) years) provide a 'snapshot' view of continuing nucleosynthesis in the Galaxy. The Galaxy is relatively transparent to such gamma-rays, and emission has been found concentrated along its plane. This led to the conclusion that massive stars throughout the Galaxy dominate the production of 26Al. On the other hand, meteoritic data show evidence for locally produced 26Al, perhaps from spallation reactions in the protosolar disk. Furthermore, prominent gamma-ray emission from the Cygnus region suggests that a substantial fraction of Galactic 26Al could originate in localized star-forming regions. Here we report high spectral resolution measurements of 26Al emission at 1808.65 keV, which demonstrate that the 26Al source regions corotate with the Galaxy, supporting its Galaxy-wide origin. We determine a present-day equilibrium mass of 2.8 (+/- 0.8) solar masses of 26Al. We use this to determine that the frequency of core collapse (that is, type Ib/c and type II) supernovae is 1.9 (+/- 1.1) events per century. PMID:16397491

  6. Recent highlights of spectropolarimetry applied to the magnetometry of massive stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grunhut, J. H.

    2015-01-01

    Spectropolarimetry is a powerful tool used to probe fundamental properties of stars that cannot typically be measured in any other way. A new generation of high-resolution spectropolarimeters (ESPaDOnS at the Canada-France-Hawaii telescope, Narval at the Télescope Bernad Lyot, and HARPSpol at the 3.6-m ESO telescope) and dedicated observing campaigns (such as the Magnetism in Massive Stars (MiMeS) project) have led to significant improvements in both our observational and theoretical understanding of the underlying physics governing massive stars. In this article I review recent advances in the field of stellar magnetism of massive stars acquired using spectropolarimetry.

  7. SN Evolution in the Environment of Massive Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwarkadas, V.

    2005-09-01

    Mass loss from massive stars (⪆ 8 M⊙) can result in the formation of circumstellar wind blown cavities surrounding the star, bordered by a thin, dense, cold shell. When the star explodes as a core-collapse supernova (SN), the resulting shock wave will interact with this modified medium around the star, rather than the interstellar medium. We explore the formation of these bubbles around various types of stars, and the evolution of SNe within these wind-blown bubbles. The evolution depends primarily on a single parameter Λ, the ratio of the mass of the dense shell to that of the ejected material. We investigate the evolution for different values of this parameter. We also plot approximate X-ray surface brightness plots from the simulations. For very small values Λ ≪ 1 the effect of the shell is negligible as expected. Values of Λ ⪉ 1 affect the SN evolution, but the SN 'forgets' about the existence of the shell in about 10 doubling times or so. The X-ray luminosity increases by a couple of orders of magnitude upon shock-shell collision. The remnant density profile changes after the shock-shell impact, and consequently the X-ray emission from the remnant will also change. X-ray images will show the presence of a double-shelled structure as the reflected shock begins to move inwards. The density discontinuity behind the inward-moving shock wave is found to be Rayleigh-Taylor unstable. Larger values of Λ result in more SN energy being expended to the shell. The resulting reflected shock moves quickly back to the origin, and consequently the ejecta are thermalized rapidly. The evolution of the remnant is speeded up, and the entire remnant appears bright in X-rays. If Λ ≫ 1 then a substantial amount of energy may be expended in the shell. In the extreme case the SN may go directly from the free-expansion to the adiabatic stage, bypassing the Sedov stage.

  8. THE FRAGMENTATION OF MAGNETIZED, MASSIVE STAR-FORMING CORES WITH RADIATIVE FEEDBACK

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, Andrew T.; McKee, Christopher F.; Cunningham, Andrew J.; Klein, Richard I.; Krumholz, Mark R.

    2013-04-01

    We present a set of three-dimensional, radiation-magnetohydrodynamic calculations of the gravitational collapse of massive (300 M{sub Sun }), star-forming molecular cloud cores. We show that the combined effects of magnetic fields and radiative feedback strongly suppress core fragmentation, leading to the production of single-star systems rather than small clusters. We find that the two processes are efficient at suppressing fragmentation in different regimes, with the feedback most effective in the dense, central region and the magnetic field most effective in more diffuse, outer regions. Thus, the combination of the two is much more effective at suppressing fragmentation than either one considered in isolation. Our work suggests that typical massive cores, which have mass-to-flux ratios of about 2 relative to critical, likely form a single-star system, but that cores with weaker fields may form a small star cluster. This result helps us understand why the observed relationship between the core mass function and the stellar initial mass function holds even for {approx}100 M{sub Sun} cores with many thermal Jeans masses of material. We also demonstrate that a {approx}40 AU Keplerian disk is able to form in our simulations, despite the braking effect caused by the strong magnetic field.

  9. Outflow Feedback Regulated Massive Star Formation in Parsec-Scale Cluster Forming Clumps

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Peng; Li, Zhi-Yun; Abel, Tom; Nakamura, Fumitaka; /Niigata U.

    2010-02-15

    We investigate massive star formation in turbulent, magnetized, parsec-scale clumps of molecular clouds including protostellar outflow feedback using three dimensional numerical simulations of effective resolution 2048{sup 3}. The calculations are carried out using a block structured adaptive mesh refinement code that solves the ideal MHD equations including self-gravity and implements accreting sink particles. We find that, in the absence of regulation by magnetic fields and outflow feedback, massive stars form readily in a turbulent, moderately condensed clump of {approx} 1,600 M{sub {circle_dot}} (containing {approx} 10{sup 2} initial Jeans masses), along with a cluster of hundreds of lower mass stars. The massive stars are fed at high rates by (1) transient dense filaments produced by large-scale turbulent compression at early times, and (2) by the clump-wide global collapse resulting from turbulence decay at late times. In both cases, the bulk of the massive star's mass is supplied from outside a 0.1 pc-sized 'core' that surrounds the star. In our simulation, the massive star is clump-fed rather than core-fed. The need for large-scale feeding makes the massive star formation prone to regulation by outflow feedback, which directly opposes the feeding processes. The outflows reduce the mass accretion rates onto the massive stars by breaking up the dense filaments that feed the massive star formation at early times, and by collectively slowing down the global collapse that fuel the massive star formation at late times. The latter is aided by a moderate magnetic field of strength in the observed range (corresponding to a dimensionless clump mass-to-flux ratio {lambda} {approx} a few); the field allows the outflow momenta to be deposited more efficiently inside the clump. We conclude that the massive star formation in our simulated turbulent, magnetized, parsec-scale clump is outflow-regulated and clump-fed (ORCF for short). An important implication is that the

  10. The Evolution of Massive Stars: a Selection of Facts and Questions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanbeveren, D.

    In the present paper we discuss a selection of facts and questions related to observations and evolutionary calculations of massive single stars and massive stars in interacting binaries. We focus on the surface chemical abundances, the role of stellar winds, the early Be-stars, the high mass X-ray binaries and the effects of rotation on stellar evolution. Finally, we present an unconventionally formed object scenario (UFO-scenario) of WR binaries in dense stellar environments.

  11. Intermediate-Mass Star-Forming Regions: What are the Most Massive Stars Formed?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobulnicky, Chip; Vargas, Carlos; Kerton, Charles; Arvidsson, Kim

    2010-08-01

    High-mass star formation cannot be viewed as simply a scaled-up version of the paradigm for low-mass star formation. The high-mass regime (M> 10 Msun) appears to require significant differences in cloud fragmentation, accretion, radiation, turbulence, and overall molecular density compared to the low-mass regime. We have identified a sample of intermediate-mass star-forming regions (IM SFRs) hosting embedded clusters that straddle the boundary of these two regimes and can be used to understand the factors that govern the transition between these extremes. Most notable among these factors is the possibility of a critical cloud mass column density that appears to divide high-mass SFRs from IM SFRs. Yet, the very nature of IM SFRs and their stellar content are almost completely unknown, primarily because of the previous difficulty in identifying such objects. We propose HK band spectroscopy of the brightest stellar sources near nine IM SFRs to identify probable members, confirm the IM nature of the most massive stars, and characterize their evolutionary state. Three nights with FLAMINGOS on the 4 m (or equivalent IR spectrograph) will suffice to obtain classification spectra and several spectral diagnostics sensitive to accretion for at least 8-10 stars per object.

  12. An Extraordinary Cluster of Massive Young Stars in the Milky Way's Nucleus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Serabyn, E.; Shupe, D.; Figer, D. F.

    1998-01-01

    The mass distribution of newborn stars is key to the evolution of galaxies, as it determines whether a galaxy's interstellar medium is funneled predominantly into dim, long-lived, low-mass stars, as is the case in normal galactic disks, or into bright, short-lived, massive stars, as is perhaps the case in starburst nuclei.

  13. Double core evolution. 7: The infall of a neutron star through the envelope of its massive star companion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Terman, James L.; Taam, Ronald E.; Hernquist, Lars

    1995-01-01

    Binary systems with properties similar to those of high-mass X-ray binaries are evolved through the common envelope phase. Three-dimensional simulations show that the timescale of the infall phase of the neutron star depends upon the evolutionary state of its massive companion. We find that tidal torques more effectively accelerate common envelope evolution for companions in their late core helium-burning stage and that the infall phase is rapid (approximately several initial orbital periods). For less evolved companions the decay of the orbit is longer; however, once the neutron star is deeply embedded within the companion's envelope the timescale for orbital decay decreases rapidly. As the neutron star encounters the high-density region surrounding the helium core of its massive companion, the rate of energy loss from the orbit increases dramatically leading to either partial or nearly total envelope ejection. The outcome of the common envelope phase depends upon the structure of the evolved companion. In particular, it is found that the entire common envelope can be ejected by the interaction of the neutron star with a red supergiant companion in binaries with orbital periods similar to those of long-period Be X-ray binaries. For orbital periods greater than or approximately equal to 0.8-2 yr (for companions of mass 12-24 solar mass) it is likely that a binary will survive the common envelope phase. For these systems, the structure of the progenitor star is characterized by a steep density gradient above the helium core, and the common envelope phase ends with a spin up of the envelope to within 50%-60% of corotation and with a slow mass outflow. The efficiency of mass ejection is found to be approximately 30%-40%. For less evolved companions, there is insufficient energy in the orbit to unbind the common envelope and only a fraction of it is ejected. Since the timescale for orbital decay is always shorter than the mass-loss timescale from the common envelope

  14. The Wind and Mass-loss Properties of the Most Massive Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bestenlehner, Joachim; Vink, Jorick; Gräfener, Götz; Najarro, Francisco

    2013-06-01

    Mass-loss rates play an important role in the evolution of massive stars. The initial, present day and the mass at their end of their lifetime is considerable different as a result of mass loss. Different stages of evolution have different mass-loss rates. The understanding of massive star evolution is tightly connected to the understanding of their mass loss properties. In the context of the VLT-Flames Tarantula Survey I will present the results from our spectral analysis of stars in the transition region from O-stars to very massive WN(h)-stars. WN(h)-stars are very young and massive stars which develop already in the earliest stages of their evolution WR-star like winds. For the analysis we used the non-LTE radiative transfer code CMFGEN to investigate the wind and mass-loss properties of these very massive stars. This analysis also tests theoretical predictions which suggest a notable change of the mass-loss behaviour at a certain Eddington factor in the transition region from O to WN(h)-stars (Bestenlehner et al. 2011, Bestenlehner et al. in prep.)

  15. Recovery from Giant Eruptions in Very Massive Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashi, Amit; Davidson, Kris; Humphreys, Roberta M.

    2016-01-01

    We use a hydro-and-radiative-transfer code to explore the behavior of a very massive star (VMS) after a giant eruption—i.e., following a supernova impostor event. Beginning with reasonable models for evolved VMSs with masses of 80 M⊙ and 120 M⊙, we simulate the change of state caused by a giant eruption via two methods that explicitly conserve total energy. (1) Synthetically removing outer layers of mass of a few M⊙ while reducing the energy of the inner layers. (2) Synthetically transferring energy from the core to the outer layers, an operation that automatically causes mass ejection. Our focus is on the aftermath, not the poorly understood eruption itself. Then, using a radiation-hydrodynamic code in 1D with realistic opacities and convection, the interior disequilibrium state is followed for about 200 years. Typically the star develops a ˜400 km s-1 wind with a mass loss rate that begins around 0.1 M⊙ yr-1 and gradually decreases. This outflow is driven by κ-mechanism radial pulsations. The 1D models have regular pulsations but 3D models will probably be more chaotic. In some cases a plateau in the mass-loss rate may persist about 200 years, while other cases are more like η Car which lost >10 M⊙ and then had an abnormal mass loss rate for more than a century after its eruption. In our model, the post-eruption outflow carried more mass than the initial eruption. These simulations constitute a useful preliminary reconnaissance for 3D models which will be far more difficult.

  16. Exploring the Neutrino-Driven Explosion Mechanism of Massive Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janka, H.-T.

    2002-05-01

    In this talk I attempt to present an unprejudiced discussion of our present understanding of neutrino-driven explosions and the requirements for achieving future progress in theoretical work. Neutrinos undoubtedly play a crucial role for the dynamics of stellar core collapse and the evolution of the supernova shock. They clearly dominate the energetics of neutron star formation, as splendidly confirmed by the neutrino detection in connection with Supernova 1987A. Unfortunately, we do not have observational support for the theoretical conception that neutrino energy deposition behind the shock is the ultimate cause for the explosion of ``typical'' supernovae. Numerical simulations and analytic work, however, demonstrate that neutrino-driven explosions can be obtained for suitable conditions and reasonable combinations of relevant parameters. But the outcome of computer models depends sensitively on changes of the input physics as well as details of the numerical treatment. Discussing the neutrino-driven mechanism is therefore a quantitative problem, and conclusive answers are jeopardized by deficiencies in the numerical description and our still incomplete knowledge of the physical conditions and neutrino interactions in dense matter. Refering to results from a new generation of core-collapse simulations which solve the Boltzmann equation for the neutrino transport, I will show that quantitatively meaningful models require the inclusion of general relativity and the accurate (but so far grossly approximated) treatment of neutrino reactions below the neutrinosphere. Advancement towards a standard supernova model requires multi-dimensional calculations to account for the effects of hydrodynamic instabilities. The latter cannot only decide about the viability of the neutrino-driven mechanism, but can also account for the anisotropies observed in the majority of ordinary massive star explosions. Acknowledgments: This work was supported by the Sonderforschungsbereich 375

  17. The delay time distribution of massive double compact star mergers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mennekens, N.; Vanbeveren, D.

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the temporal evolution of binary populations, in general, and double compact-star binaries and mergers, in particular, within a galactic evolution context, a very straightforward method is obviously to implement a detailed binary evolutionary model in a galactic chemical evolution code. To our knowledge, the Brussels galactic chemical evolution code is the only one that fully and consistently accounts for the important effects of interacting binaries on the predictions of chemical evolution. With a galactic code that does not explicitly include binaries, the temporal evolution of the population of double compact star binaries and mergers can be estimated with reasonable accuracy if the delay time distribution (DTD) for these mergers is available. The DTD for supernovae type Ia has been studied extensively in the past decade. In the present paper we present the DTD for merging double neutron-star binaries and mixed systems consisting of a neutron star and a black hole. The latter mergers are very promising sites for producing r-process elements, and the DTDs can be used to study the galactic evolution of these elements with a code that does not explicitly account for binaries.

  18. MOLECULAR LINE EMISSION FROM A PROTOPLANETARY DISK IRRADIATED EXTERNALLY BY A NEARBY MASSIVE STAR

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, Catherine; Millar, T. J.; Nomura, Hideko

    2013-04-01

    Star formation often occurs within or nearby stellar clusters. Irradiation by nearby massive stars can photoevaporate protoplanetary disks around young stars (so-called proplyds) which raises questions regarding the ability of planet formation to take place in these environments. We investigate the two-dimensional physical and chemical structure of a protoplanetary disk surrounding a low-mass (T Tauri) star which is irradiated by a nearby massive O-type star to determine the survivability and observability of molecules in proplyds. Compared with an isolated star-disk system, the gas temperature ranges from a factor of a few (in the disk midplane) to around two orders of magnitude (in the disk surface) higher in the irradiated disk. Although the UV flux in the outer disk, in particular, is several orders of magnitude higher, the surface density of the disk is sufficient for effective shielding of the disk midplane so that the disk remains predominantly molecular in nature. We also find that non-volatile molecules, such as HCN and H{sub 2}O, are able to freeze out onto dust grains in the disk midplane so that the formation of icy planetesimals, e.g., comets, may also be possible in proplyds. We have calculated the molecular line emission from the disk assuming LTE and determined that multiple transitions of atomic carbon, CO (and isotopologues, {sup 13}CO and C{sup 18}O), HCO{sup +}, CN, and HCN may be observable with ALMA, allowing characterization of the gas column density, temperature, and optical depth in proplyds at the distance of Orion ( Almost-Equal-To 400 pc).

  19. MASSIVE BLACK HOLES IN STELLAR SYSTEMS: 'QUIESCENT' ACCRETION AND LUMINOSITY

    SciTech Connect

    Volonteri, M.; Campbell, D.; Mateo, M.; Dotti, M.

    2011-04-01

    Only a small fraction of local galaxies harbor an accreting black hole, classified as an active galactic nucleus. However, many stellar systems are plausibly expected to host black holes, from globular clusters to nuclear star clusters, to massive galaxies. The mere presence of stars in the vicinity of a black hole provides a source of fuel via mass loss of evolved stars. In this paper, we assess the expected luminosities of black holes embedded in stellar systems of different sizes and properties, spanning a large range of masses. We model the distribution of stars and derive the amount of gas available to a central black hole through a geometrical model. We estimate the luminosity of the black holes under simple, but physically grounded, assumptions on the accretion flow. Finally, we discuss the detectability of 'quiescent' black holes in the local universe.

  20. SUPERSONIC LINE BROADENING WITHIN YOUNG AND MASSIVE SUPER STAR CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Tenorio-Tagle, Guillermo; Silich, Sergiy; Wuensch, Richard; Munoz-Tunon, Casiana; Palous, Jan E-mail: richard@wunsch.c E-mail: cmt@ll.iac.e

    2010-01-10

    The origin of supersonic infrared and radio recombination nebular lines often detected in young and massive superstar clusters is discussed. We suggest that these arise from a collection of repressurizing shocks (RSs), acting effectively to re-establish pressure balance within the cluster volume and from the cluster wind which leads to an even broader although much weaker component. The supersonic lines here are shown to occur in clusters that undergo a bimodal hydrodynamic solution, that is within clusters that are above the threshold line in the mechanical luminosity or cluster mass versus the size of the cluster plane. A plethora of RSs is due to frequent and recurrent thermal instabilities that take place within the matter reinserted by stellar winds and supernovae. We show that the maximum speed of the RSs and of the cluster wind are both functions of the temperature reached at the stagnation radius. This temperature depends only on the cluster heating efficiency (eta). Based on our two-dimensional simulations we calculate the line profiles that result from several models and confirm our analytical predictions. From a comparison between the predicted and observed values of the half-width zero intensity of the two line components, we conclude that the thermalization efficiency in young super star clusters above the threshold line must be lower than 20%.

  1. Atomic Physics of Shocked Plasma in Winds of Massive Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leutenegger, Maurice A.; Cohen, David H.; Owocki, Stanley P.

    2012-01-01

    High resolution diffraction grating spectra of X-ray emission from massive stars obtained with Chandra and XMM-Newton have revolutionized our understanding of their powerful, radiation-driven winds. Emission line shapes and line ratios provide diagnostics on a number of key wind parameters. Modeling of resolved emission line velocity profiles allows us to derive independent constraints on stellar mass-loss rates, leading to downward revisions of a factor of a few from previous measurements. Line ratios in He-like ions strongly constrain the spatial distribution of Xray emitting plasma, confirming the expectations of radiation hydrodynamic simulations that X-ray emission begins moderately close to the stellar surface and extends throughout the wind. Some outstanding questions remain, including the possibility of large optical depths in resonance lines, which is hinted at by differences in line shapes of resonance and intercombination lines from the same ion. Resonance scattering leads to nontrivial radiative transfer effects, and modeling it allows us to place constraints on shock size, density, and velocity structure

  2. Constraining globular cluster formation through studies of young massive clusters - IV. Testing the fast rotating massive star scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastian, N.; Hollyhead, K.; Cabrera-Ziri, I.

    2014-11-01

    One of the leading models for the formation of multiple stellar populations within globular clusters is the `fast rotating massive star' (FRMS) scenario, where the ejecta of rapidly rotating massive stars is mixed with primordial material left over from the star formation process, to form a second generation of stars within the decretion discs of the high-mass stars. A requirement of this model, at least in its current form, is that young massive (i.e. proto-globular) clusters are not able to eject the unused gas and dust from the star formation process from the cluster for 20-30 Myr after the formation of the first generation of stars, i.e. the cluster remains embedded within the gas cloud in which it forms. Here, we test this prediction by performing a literature search for young massive clusters in nearby galaxies, which have ages less than 20 Myr that are not embedded. We report that a number of such clusters exist, with masses near or significantly above 106 M⊙, with ages between a few Myr and ˜15 Myr, suggesting that even high-mass clusters are able to clear any natal gas within them within a few Myr after formation. Additionally, one cluster, Cluster 23 in ESO 338-IG04, has a metallicity below that of some Galactic globular clusters that have been found to host multiple stellar populations, mitigating any potential effect of differences in metallicity in the comparison. The clusters reported here are in contradiction to the expectations of the FRMS scenario, at least in its current form.

  3. Discovering Massive Runaway Stars with Infrared Bowshock Nebulae: Identifying Twelve New Early-Type Stars using SMOG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chick, William T.; Andrews, Julian E.; Kobulnicky, Henry A.; Povich, Matthew S.; Dale, Daniel A.; Munari, Stephan; Olivier, Grace M.; Schurhammer, Danielle; Sorber, Rebecca L.; Wernke, Heather N.

    2016-01-01

    Massive O and B type stars are crucial to the evolution of the interstellar medium, dominating the production of ionizing radiation, mechanical energy, and heavy elements. However, due to their short lives and relative scarcity, these stars are some of the least well understood and are difficult to locate outside of large star forming regions. A small but significant fraction of these massive stars have been observed to be high-velocity runaway stars moving rapidly away from their origin. When these stars encounter nebular gas they create characteristic arc-shaped bowshocks of heated compressed dust and gas. Using the distinct infrared emission morphology of the hot dust, these bowshock nebulae are predicted to give the location of the massive early type stars.Visual inspection of 24-micron band images from the Spitzer Mapping of the Outer Galaxy (SMOG) revealed 12 new bowshock nebula candidates. Follow up optical spectroscopy from the Wyoming Infrared Observatory confirmed that all 12 of the associated stellar sources are early-type stars. Combined with related results from visual searches for bowshock nebulae using WISE and Spitzer surveys in the inner Galaxy, we have identified over 85 new early type bowshock supporting stellar sources, a 95% success rate. We conclude that morphological selection of arc-shared infrared nebulae with a symmetrically placed star is an efficient way to discover early type stars.This work is supported by the National Science Foundation under grants AST-1063146 (REU), AST-1411851 (RUI), and AST-1412845.

  4. Massive stars and the energy balance of the ISM: I. The imapct of an isolated 60 M star

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yorke, H. W.; Freyer, T.; Hensler, G.

    2002-01-01

    We present results of numerical simulations carried out with a 2D radiation hydrodynamics code in order to study the impact of massive stars on their surrounding interstellar medium. This first paper deals with the evolution of the circumstellar gas around an isolated 60 M star.

  5. Imprints of fast-rotating massive stars in the Galactic Bulge.

    PubMed

    Chiappini, Cristina; Frischknecht, Urs; Meynet, Georges; Hirschi, Raphael; Barbuy, Beatriz; Pignatari, Marco; Decressin, Thibaut; Maeder, André

    2011-04-28

    The first stars that formed after the Big Bang were probably massive, and they provided the Universe with the first elements heavier than helium ('metals'), which were incorporated into low-mass stars that have survived to the present. Eight stars in the oldest globular cluster in the Galaxy, NGC 6522, were found to have surface abundances consistent with the gas from which they formed being enriched by massive stars (that is, with higher α-element/Fe and Eu/Fe ratios than those of the Sun). However, the same stars have anomalously high abundances of Ba and La with respect to Fe, which usually arises through nucleosynthesis in low-mass stars (via the slow-neutron-capture process, or s-process). Recent theory suggests that metal-poor fast-rotating massive stars are able to boost the s-process yields by up to four orders of magnitude, which might provide a solution to this contradiction. Here we report a reanalysis of the earlier spectra, which reveals that Y and Sr are also overabundant with respect to Fe, showing a large scatter similar to that observed in extremely metal-poor stars, whereas C abundances are not enhanced. This pattern is best explained as originating in metal-poor fast-rotating massive stars, which might point to a common property of the first stellar generations and even of the 'first stars'. PMID:21525928

  6. Hydrodynamical simulations of the tidal stripping of binary stars by massive black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mainetti, Deborah; Lupi, Alessandro; Campana, Sergio; Colpi, Monica

    2016-04-01

    In a galactic nucleus, a star on a low angular momentum orbit around the central massive black hole can be fully or partially disrupted by the black hole tidal field, lighting up the compact object via gas accretion. This phenomenon can repeat if the star, not fully disrupted, is on a closed orbit. Because of the multiplicity of stars in binary systems, also binary stars may experience in pairs such a fate, immediately after being tidally separated. The consumption of both the binary components by the black hole is expected to power a double-peaked flare. In this paper, we perform for the first time, with GADGET2, a suite of smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations of binary stars around a galactic central black hole in the Newtonian regime. We show that accretion luminosity light curves from double tidal disruptions reveal a more prominent knee, rather than a double peak, when decreasing the impact parameter of the encounter and when elevating the difference between the mass of the star which leaves the system after binary separation and the mass of the companion. The detection of a knee can anticipate the onset of periodic accretion luminosity flares if one of the stars, only partially disrupted, remains bound to the black hole after binary separation. Thus knees could be precursors of periodic flares, which can then be predicted, followed up and better modelled. Analytical estimates in the black hole mass range 105-108 M⊙ show that the knee signature is enhanced in the case of black holes of mass 106-107 M⊙.

  7. Not Your Grandmother's HII Regions: An X-ray Tour of Massive Star-forming Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Townsley, Leisa K.

    2006-09-01

    Chandra and XMM-Newton are providing remarkable new views of massive star-forming regions, revealing all stages in the life cycle of high-mass stars and their effects on their surroundings. We will tour several such regions, highlighting physical processes that characterize the life of a cluster of massive stars, from deeply-embedded cores too young to have established an HII region to superbubbles so large that they shape our views of galaxies. Along the way we see that X-ray observations reveal hundreds of pre-main sequence stars accompanying the massive stars that power great HII region complexes. The most massive stars themselves are often anomalously hard X-ray emitters; this may be a new indicator of close binarity. These complexes are sometimes suffused by diffuse X-ray structures, signatures of multi-million-degree plasmas created by fast O-star winds. In older regions we see the X-ray remains of the deaths of massive stars that stayed close to their birthplaces, exploding as cavity supernovae within the superbubbles that these clusters created.

  8. Nucleosynthesis in a massive star associated with magnetohydrodynamical jets from collapsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ono, M.; Hashimoto, M.; Fujimoto, S.; Kotake, K.; Yamada, S.

    2012-11-01

    We investigate the nucleosynthesis during the stellar evolution and the jet-like supernova explosion of a massive star of 70 Msolar having the solar metallicity in the main sequence stage. The nucleosynthesis calculations have been performed with large nuclear reaction networks, where the weak s-, p-, and r-processes are taken into account. As a result s-elements of 60 > A > 90 and r-elements of 90 > A > 160 are highly overproduced relative to the solar system abundances. We find that the Sr-Y-Zr isotopes are primarily synthesized in the explosive nucleosynthesis which could be one of the sites of the lighter element primary process (LEPP).

  9. Effects of a new 3-alpha reaction on the s-process in massive stars

    SciTech Connect

    Kikuch, Yukihiro; Ono, Masaomi; Matsuo, Yasuhide; Hashimoto, Masa-aki; Fujimoto, Shin-ichiro

    2012-11-12

    Effect of a new 3-alpha reaction rate on the s-process during the evolution of a massive star of 25 solar mass is investigated for the first time, because the s-process in massive stars have been believed to be established with only minor change. We find that the s-process with use of the new rate during the core helium burning is very inefficient compared to the case with the previous 3-alpha rate. However, the difference of the overproduction is found to be largely compensated by the subsequent carbon burning. Since the s-process in massive stars has been attributed so far to the neutron irradiation during core helium burning, our finding reveals for the first time the importance of the carbon burning for the s-process during the evolution of massive stars.

  10. Evidence of magnetic field decay in massive main-sequence stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fossati, L.; Schneider, F. R. N.; Castro, N.; Langer, N.; Simón-Díaz, S.; Müller, A.; de Koter, A.; Morel, T.; Petit, V.; Sana, H.; Wade, G. A.

    2016-08-01

    A significant fraction of massive main-sequence stars show strong, large-scale magnetic fields. The origin of these fields, their lifetimes, and their role in shaping the characteristics and evolution of massive stars are currently not well understood. We compile a catalogue of 389 massive main-sequence stars, 61 of which are magnetic, and derive their fundamental parameters and ages. The two samples contain stars brighter than magnitude 9 in the V-band and range in mass between 5 and 100 M⊙. We find that the fractional main-sequence age distribution of all considered stars follows what is expected for a magnitude limited sample, while that of magnetic stars shows a clear decrease towards the end of the main sequence. This dearth of old magnetic stars is independent of the choice of adopted stellar evolution tracks, and appears to become more prominent when considering only the most massive stars. We show that the decreasing trend in the distribution is significantly stronger than expected from magnetic flux conservation. We also find that binary rejuvenation and magnetic suppression of core convection are unlikely to be responsible for the observed lack of older magnetic massive stars, and conclude that its most probable cause is the decay of the magnetic field, over a time span longer than the stellar lifetime for the lowest considered masses, and shorter for the highest masses. We then investigate the spin-down ages of the slowly rotating magnetic massive stars and find them to exceed the stellar ages by far in many cases. The high fraction of very slowly rotating magnetic stars thus provides an independent argument for a decay of the magnetic fields.