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Sample records for mastiff bordeaux dogs

  1. Neospora caninum infection in a Napolitan mastiff dog from Spain.

    PubMed

    Pumarola, M; Añor, S; Ramis, A J; Borràs, D; Gorraiz, J; Dubey, J P

    1996-09-16

    Fetal neosporosis-associated myeloencephalitis was diagnosed in a 4-month-old Napolitan mastiff dog from Spain. Neospora caninum tachyzoites and tissue cysts were observed in lesions in the central nervous system and the diagnosis was confirmed by immunohistochemical staining with anti-N. caninum monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies. PMID:8893485

  2. Characterization of Proteinuria in Dogue de Bordeaux Dogs, a Breed Predisposed to a Familial Glomerulonephropathy: A Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Lavoué, Rachel; Trumel, Catherine; Smets, Pascale M. Y.; Braun, Jean-Pierre; Aresu, Luca; Daminet, Sylvie; Concordet, Didier; Palanché, Florence; Peeters, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    Dogue de Bordeaux dog has been reported to be predisposed to a familial glomerulonephropathy that displays some morphological modifications reported in focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis. Prevalence of quantitatively abnormal renal proteinuria was recently reported to be 33% in this breed. The nature of the proteinuria was assessed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-agarose gel electrophoresis and determinations of urinary markers (urinary retinol-binding protein, urinary N-acetyl-β-glucosaminidase, urinary albumin and urinary immunoglobulin G) on stored specimens. Diagnostic performances of sodium dodecyl sulfate-agarose gel electrophoresis to identify dogs with elevated urinary biomarkers were assessed. Samples from 102 adult Dogue de Bordeaux dogs (47 non-proteinuric [urine protein-to-creatinine ratio≤0.2], 20 borderline-proteinuric [0.2< urine protein-to-creatinine ratio ≤0.5] and 35 proteinuric dogs [urine protein-to-creatinine ratio >0.5]) were used, of which 2 were suffering from familial glomerulonephropathy. The electrophoretic protein patterns, for all but one proteinuric dog, were indicative of a glomerular origin and, in all dogs, the urinary albumin concentration related to creatinine concentration and the urinary immunoglobulin G concentration related to creatinine concentration were above the upper limit of the reference interval established for the breed. Sensitivity and specificity of sodium dodecyl sulfate-agarose gel electrophoresis identifying dogs with elevated urinary albumin concentration were 94% and 92%, respectively, while diagnostic performance of sodium dodecyl sulfate-agarose gel electrophoresis in detecting dogs with elevated urinary immunoglobulin G concentration yielded sensitivity and specificity of 90% and 74%, respectively. These results suggest that all proteinuric and some borderline-proteinuric Dogue de Bordeaux dogs likely have underlying glomerular lesions and that sodium dodecyl sulfate-agarose gel electrophoresis and

  3. Population variation revealed high-altitude adaptation of Tibetan mastiffs.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Wu, Dong-Dong; Boyko, Adam R; Wang, Guo-Dong; Wu, Shi-Fang; Irwin, David M; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2014-05-01

    With the assistance of their human companions, dogs have dispersed into new environments during the expansion of human civilization. Tibetan Mastiff (TM), a native of the Tibetan Plateau, was derived from the domesticated Chinese native dog and, like Tibetans, has adapted to the extreme environment of high altitude. Here, we genotyped genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 32 TMs and compared them with SNPs from 20 Chinese native dogs and 14 gray wolves (Canis lupus). We identified 16 genes with signals of positive selection in the TM, with 12 of these candidate genes associated with functions that have roles in adaptation to high-altitude adaptation, such as EPAS1, SIRT7, PLXNA4, and MAFG that have roles in responses to hypoxia. This study provides important information on the genetic diversity of the TM and potential mechanisms for adaptation to hypoxia. PMID:24520091

  4. The effect of training and breed group on problem-solving behaviours in dogs.

    PubMed

    Marshall-Pescini, Sarah; Frazzi, Chiara; Valsecchi, Paola

    2016-05-01

    Dogs have become the focus of cognitive studies looking at both their physical and social problem-solving abilities (Bensky et al. in Adv Stud Behav, 45:209-387, 2013), but very little is known about the environmental and inherited factors that may affect these abilities. In the current study, we presented a manipulation task (a puzzle box) and a spatial task (the detour) to 128 dogs belonging to four different breed groups: Herding, Mastiff-like, Working and Retrievers (von Holdt et al. in Nature 464:898-902, 2010). Within each group, we tested highly trained and non-trained dogs. Results showed that trained dogs were faster at obtaining the reward in the detour task. In the manipulation task, trained dogs approached the apparatus sooner in the first familiarization trial, but no effect of breed emerged on this variable. Furthermore, regardless of breed, dogs in the trained group spent proportionally more time interacting with the apparatus and were more likely to succeed in the test trial than dogs in the non-trained group, whereas regardless of training, dogs in the working breed group were more likely to succeed than dogs in the retriever and herding breed groups (but not the mastiff-like group). Finally, trained dogs were less likely to look at a person than non-trained dogs during testing, but dogs in the herding group more likely to do so than dogs in the retriever and working but not the mastiff-like breed groups. Overall, results reveal a strong influence of training experience but less consistent differences between breed groups on different components thought to affect problem solving. PMID:26861484

  5. Dogs

    MedlinePlus

    ... found on the skin of people and animals. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is the same bacterium that has become resistant to some antibiotics. Dogs and other animals often can carry MRSA ...

  6. Molecular Aberrance in Papillary Thyroid Microcarcinoma Bearing High Aggressiveness: Identifying a "Tibetan Mastiff Dog" From Puppies.

    PubMed

    Li, Dapeng; Gao, Ming; Li, Xiaolong; Xing, Mingzhao

    2016-07-01

    Today the most common differentiated thyroid cancer in many countries is papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC). Although the majority of PTMCs exhibit an indolent clinical course, a few possess high risk for aggressiveness with tumor invasion, metastasis, and even patient mortality. This imposes significant confusion and often dilemma in the clinical management of PTMC. The present review summarizes the molecular pathogenesis, particularly the major genetic alterations, of PTMC that may have prognostic values in assisting risk stratification of this cancer and identification of the most aggressive cases from the many well-behaving cases. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 1491-1496, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26841328

  7. Total hip replacement in two dogs with unsuccessful femoral head ostectomy

    PubMed Central

    Heo, Su-Young

    2015-01-01

    An English setter (case 1) and a Tibetan mastiff (case 2) presented with intermittent weight-bearing lameness on the right hind limb when trotting. The dogs had a history of femoral head and neck ostectomy (FHNO). Orthopedic examination revealed pain and crepitus on the right hip joint. The dogs underwent total hip replacement (THR). At the 2-year (case 1) and 1-year (case 2) follow-up, both dogs had resumed normal activity without lameness. The muscle mass and range of motion were significantly improved in the affected hind limb. In conclusion, FHNO with poor functional outcomes can be successfully ameliorated with THR. PMID:25269715

  8. Total hip replacement in two dogs with unsuccessful femoral head ostectomy.

    PubMed

    Heo, Su-Young; Seol, Jae-Won; Lee, Hae-Beom

    2015-01-01

    An English setter (case 1) and a Tibetan mastiff (case 2) presented with intermittent weight-bearing lameness on the right hind limb when trotting. The dogs had a history of femoral head and neck ostectomy (FHNO). Orthopedic examination revealed pain and crepitus on the right hip joint. The dogs underwent total hip replacement (THR). At the 2-year (case 1) and 1-year (case 2) follow-up, both dogs had resumed normal activity without lameness. The muscle mass and range of motion were significantly improved in the affected hind limb. In conclusion, FHNO with poor functional outcomes can be successfully ameliorated with THR. PMID:25269715

  9. Cold agglutinin activity in 2 dogs.

    PubMed

    Rojas-Temahuay, Gabriela; Crain, Sarah; Benson, Catherine; Sharkey, Leslie; Nothnagel, Geneva

    2014-09-01

    A 5-year-old neutered male Mastiff and an 8-year-old spayed female Labrador Retriever were presented to the University of Minnesota Veterinary Medical Center. The Mastiff was presented for evaluation of lameness and pyoderma one month prior in Missouri, where he tested positive for Ehrlichia canis by serum ELISA test, treated with doxycycline. PCR for Ehrlichia sp, Anaplasma sp, Babesia sp, and Bartonella sp, and PCR for antigen receptor rearrangement were negative, serum protein electrophoresis (SPE) revealed polyclonal gammopathy, and mildly reactive lymphoid cells were seen cytologically. The Labrador presented with a proliferative rostral mandibular gingival mass and lipomas for further presurgical evaluation of cold agglutinin activity documented by a commercial laboratory 2 years earlier prior to removal of a grade II mast cell tumor. This dog had a negative SNAP4Dx, normal SPE, and persistently increased serum ALP activity and polyuria/polydipsia suggestive for hyperadrenocorticism. Both dogs had markedly agglutinated RBC in the EDTA samples that dispersed with warming, and normal plasma color. Cold agglutinin activity was demonstrated by direct saline agglutination testing using whole blood and washed erythrocytes demonstrating agglutination at 30°C, 25°C, 15°C, and 4°C, but not at 37°C. CBC results (ADVIA 2120i) from the Mastiff revealed no significant differences in the RBC results obtained at room temperature (RT) and at 37°C; however, the RT run demonstrated negative bias in neutrophil and platelet concentrations attributed to rapid RBC settling. This uncommon hematologic condition may cause artifacts on the automated leukogram and platelet count, and may be subclinical for long periods. PMID:25056251

  10. Report for 2012 from the Bordeaux IVS Analysis Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charlot, Patrick; Bellanger, Antoine; Bouffet, Romuald; Bourda, Geraldine; Collioud, Arnaud; Baudry, Alain

    2013-01-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the Bordeaux IVS Analysis Center during the year 2012. The work focused on (i) regular analysis of the IVS-R1 and IVS-R4 sessions with the GINS software package; (ii) systematic VLBI imaging of the RDV sessions and calculation of the corresponding source structure index and compactness values; (iii) investigation of the correlation between astrometric position instabilities and source structure variations; and (iv) continuation of our VLBI observational program to identify optically-bright radio sources suitable for the link with the future Gaia frame. Also of importance is the 11th European VLBI Network Symposium, which we organized last October in Bordeaux and which drew much attention from the European and International VLBI communities.

  11. Report for 2011 from the Bordeaux IVS Analysis Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charlot, Patrick; Bellanger, Antoine; Bourda, Geraldine; Collioud, Arnaud; Baudry, Alain

    2012-01-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the Bordeaux IVS Analysis Center during the year 2011. The work focused on (i) regular analysis of the IVS-R1 and IVS-R4 sessions with the GINS software package; (ii) systematic VLBI imaging of the RDV sessions and calculation of the corresponding source structure index and compactness values; (iii) imaging of the sources observed during the 2009 International Year of Astronomy IVS observing session; and (iv) continuation of our VLBI observational program to identify optically-bright radio sources suitable for the link with the future Gaia frame. Also of importance is the enhancement of the IVS LiveWeb site which now comprises all IVS sessions back to 2003, allowing one to search past observations for session-specific information (e.g. sources or stations).

  12. Cervical myelopathy associated with extradural synovial cysts in 4 dogs.

    PubMed

    Levitski, R E; Chauvet, A E; Lipsitz, D

    1999-01-01

    Three Mastiffs and 1 Great Dane were presented to the University of Wisconsin Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital for cervical myelopathy based on history and neurologic examination. All dogs were males and had progressive ataxia and tetraparesis. Degenerative arthritis of the articular facet joints was noted on survey spinal radiographs. Myelography disclosed lateral axial compression of the cervical spinal cord medial to the articular facets. Extradural compressive cystic structures adjacent to articular facets were identified on magnetic resonance imaging (1 dog). High protein concentration was the most important finding on cerebrospinal fluid analysis. Dorsal laminectomies were performed in all dogs for spinal cord decompression and cyst removal. Findings on cytologic examination of the cystic fluid were consistent with synovial fluid, and histopathologic results supported the diagnosis of synovial cysts. All dogs are ambulatory and 3 are asymptomatic after surgery with a follow-up time ranging from 1 to 8 months. This is the 1st report of extradural synovial cysts in dogs, and synovial cysts should be a differential diagnosis for young giant breed dogs with cervical myelopathy. PMID:10357105

  13. Total venous inflow occlusion and pericardial auto-graft reconstruction for right atrial hemangiosarcoma resection in a dog.

    PubMed

    Verbeke, Fei; Binst, Dominique; Stegen, Ludo; Waelbers, Tim; de Rooster, Hilde; Van Goethem, Bart

    2012-10-01

    A sizeable right atrial hemangiosarcoma in a 6-year-old Bordeaux dog, World Health Organization (WHO) stage 2, was excised using total venous inflow occlusion. The defect was restored with a non-vascularized pericardial auto-graft. The dog had a disease-free interval of 7 mo. The dog was euthanized 9 months later, at which time there were distant metastases but no indication of local recurrence. PMID:23543933

  14. Total venous inflow occlusion and pericardial auto-graft reconstruction for right atrial hemangiosarcoma resection in a dog

    PubMed Central

    Verbeke, Fei; Binst, Dominique; Stegen, Ludo; Waelbers, Tim; de Rooster, Hilde; Van Goethem, Bart

    2012-01-01

    A sizeable right atrial hemangiosarcoma in a 6-year-old Bordeaux dog, World Health Organization (WHO) stage 2, was excised using total venous inflow occlusion. The defect was restored with a non-vascularized pericardial auto-graft. The dog had a disease-free interval of 7 mo. The dog was euthanized 9 months later, at which time there were distant metastases but no indication of local recurrence. PMID:23543933

  15. Characterisation of road sediments near Bordeaux with emphasis on phosphorus.

    PubMed

    Durand, Cédric; Ruban, Véronique; Amblès, André; Clozel, Blandine; Achard, Loïc

    2003-06-01

    Road sediments from the region of Bordeaux (France) were analysed for trace metals, hydrocarbons (including Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, PAHs) and phosphorus. The aim of the study was to assess their potential risk for the environment. The sediments were collected by means of a sweeper. The particles are mostly sandy clay loam and silty clay loam with 5.6-8.3% CaO. Heavy metal concentrations are generally below the French and Dutch standards for polluted soils, but a few samples have higher concentrations, e.g., 547 mg kg(-1) for Zn, and 222 mg kg(-1) for Pb. PAH concentrations are above the Dutch target value for polluted soils, and could be a threat to the environment: pyrene (2600 microg kg(-1)) and fluoranthene (1400 microg kg(-1)) have the highest concentrations, whereas chrysene (340 microg kg(-1)) has the lowest. Consequently, these sediments must be considered as waste according to the French circular no 2001-39 from 18 June 2001 and cannot be disposed of anywhere. The Standards Measurements and Testing (SMT) protocol for sequential extraction of phosphorus in sediments was used to determine the forms of phosphorus in the samples. Total phosphorus concentration is 620 mg kg(-1) on average, with a maximum of 933 mg kg(-1); organic phosphorus content is low (36 mg kg(-1) on average). The protocol could be slightly amended, especially with regards to organic phosphorus at low concentrations and could then be used for the determination of phosphorus in other materials such as sludge from detention ponds. PMID:12833990

  16. Opinions of veterinarians regarding aggression in different breeds of dogs.

    PubMed

    Stafford, K J

    1996-08-01

    Aggression in 108 dog breeds and six crosses was ranked by 185 members of the Companion Animal Society of the New Zealand Veterinary Association. The Rottweiler and German Shepherd were categorised as extremely aggressive and the Akita, Basengi, Chihuahua (long-coated and short-coated), Chow Chow, Cocker Spaniel, Shar pei and Welsh Corgi (Cardigan and Pembroke) were classified as very aggressive. A chi-squared test of data from the twenty most popular breeds showed that significant differences were perceived between the breeds. Cocker Spaniels, Pembroke Welsh Corgis, German Shepherds and Rottweilers were more aggressive than Staffordshire Bull Terriers, Border Collies and Doberman Pinchers, which were more aggressive than Cavalier King Charles Spaniels, Bichon Frise, English Springer Spaniels, German Shorthaired Pointers, Weimaraners, Labrador Retrievers, Golden Retrievers, Newfoundlands, Dalmatians, Boxers, Bulldogs, Bull Mastiffs and Rough Collies. PMID:16031916

  17. Emphysematous pyometra secondary to Enterococcus avium infection in a dog.

    PubMed

    Chang, An-Chi; Cheng, Ching-Chang; Wang, Hsien-Chi; Lee, Wei-Ming; Shyu, Ching-Lin; Lin, Cheng-Chung; Chen, Kuan-Sheng

    2016-06-16

    A 5-year-old female intact Mastiff dog was presented with a history of vaginal discharge for 1 day. Physical examination revealed a sanguineo-purulent vaginal discharge and systemic inflammatory response syndrome. Abdominal radiographs showed several dilated and gas- filled tubular loops. The differential diagnoses included emphysematous pyometra or small intestinal mechanical ileus. Surgical exploration of the abdomen demonstrated a severely dilated and gas-filled uterus, and emphysematous pyometra was confirmed. The patient's clinical signs resolved after ovariohysterectomy. Histopathology revealed mild endometrial cystic hyperplasia with infiltration of inflammatory cells in the superficial endometrial epithelia. Enterococcus avium, an α-hemolytic gram-positive coccus, was isolated from the uterus. This paper highlights the radiographic features of emphysematous pyometra and a pathogen that has never been reported to be associated with canine pyometra previously. PMID:27111397

  18. Fatal Canid Herpesvirus 1 Respiratory Infections in 4 Clinically Healthy Adult Dogs.

    PubMed

    Kumar, S; Driskell, E A; Cooley, A J; Jia, K; Blackmon, S; Wan, X-F; Uhl, E W; Saliki, J T; Sanchez, S; Krimer, P M; Hogan, R J

    2015-07-01

    Four healthy adult dogs (Golden Retrievers aged 6 years and 9 years, Dalmatian aged 13 years, and Mastiff aged 5 years) developed clinical signs of acute respiratory disease and died within 2 to 7 days of onset of clinical signs. The lungs of the 3 dogs submitted for necropsy were diffusely and severely reddened due to hyperemia and hemorrhage. Microscopic lesions in all dogs were suggestive of acute viral or toxic respiratory damage and varied from acute severe fibrinonecrotic or hemorrhagic bronchopneumonia to fibrinous or necrotizing bronchointerstitial pneumonia. Necropsied dogs also had hemorrhagic rhinitis and tracheitis with necrosis. Virus isolation, transmission electron microscopy, and polymerase chain reaction were used to confirm the presence of canid herpesvirus 1 (CaHV-1) in the lung samples of these dogs. Lung tissues were negative for influenza A virus, canine distemper virus, canine parainfluenza virus, canine respiratory coronavirus, and canine adenovirus 2. Canid herpesvirus 1 has been isolated from cases of acute infectious respiratory disease in dogs but has only rarely been associated with fatal primary viral pneumonia in adult dogs. The cases in the current report document lesions observed in association with CaHV-1 in 4 cases of fatal canine herpesvirus pneumonia in adult dogs. PMID:25358536

  19. Metabolic changes of Vitis vinifera berries and leaves exposed to Bordeaux mixture.

    PubMed

    Martins, Viviana; Teixeira, António; Bassil, Elias; Blumwald, Eduardo; Gerós, Hernâni

    2014-09-01

    Since the development of Bordeaux mixture in the late 1800's, copper-based fungicides have been widely used against grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) diseases, mainly in organic but also in conventional viticulture; however their intensive use has raised phytotoxicity concerns. In this study, the composition of grape berries and leaves upon Bordeaux mixture treatment was investigated during the fructification season by a metabolomic approach. Four applications of Bordeaux mixture till 3 weeks before harvest were performed following the regular management practices of organic viticulture. Results showed that the copper-based treatment affected the content in sugars, organic acids, lipids and flavan-3-ols of grapes and leaves at specific developmental stages. Nonetheless, the levels of sucrose, glucose and fructose, and of tartaric and malic acids were not significantly affected in mature grapes. In contrast, a sharp decrease in free natural amino acids was observed, together with a reduction in protein content and in mineral nitrogen forms. The treatment with Bordeaux mixture increased by 7-fold the copper levels in tissue extracts from surface-washed mature berries. PMID:25022258

  20. The theoretical background to BS7167: 1990 - specification for Bordeaux connections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorley, T. A. E.

    1992-03-01

    The theoretical background to the specification of Bordeaux connections (components of lifting gear used to join together wire rope and a chain, or two lengths of wire rope, where the joined lengths have to run over a sheave as in the case of grabbing cranes) is documented. Decisions taken in the drafting of earlier specifications are not documented. The design criteria for BS7167:1990 are addressed. The various parts of the Bordeaux connection specified in the standard are discussed in turn: the link portion, the rope portion, and the grab shackle. Some tests on the new design undertaken by the Health and Safety Executive confirm the new design criteria to be adequate for the strengths of rope to be used with this component.

  1. Health monitoring of the Saint-Jean bridge of Bordeaux, France using fiber Bragg grating extensometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magne, Sylvain; Boussoir, Jonathan; Rougeault, Stephane; Marty-Dewynter, Veronique; Ferdinand, Pierre; Bureau, Lionel

    2003-07-01

    Most civil engineering structures have been built in the 50's and 60's and reach similar level of degradation accelerated by loading conditions and corrosion. In Europe, National Authorities and the European Commission promote Health Monitoring concepts, instrumentation of existing structures and help in the design of new durable structures of higher performance. In this context, the CEA-List has achieved a non-exclusive industrial transfer of its Bragg grating sensing technology for civil engineering applications to Hydrolog (French SME), supported by the European Community and the french ministry of Industry. In order to check the reliability and user-friendliness of this instrumentation, eleven spectrally-multiplexed Bragg grating-based extensometers, four FBG temperature sensors and an acquisition unit have been installed into the Saint-Jean bridge in Bordeaux, France with the help of the Infrastructure Regional Direction (DRE-Aquitaine) and the Bordeaux Authority (Communaute Urbaine de Bordeaux). A standardized loading of the bridge has been performed on October 29, 1001, with the purpose of correlating its mechanical reaction to loading conditions. Moreover, the equipment has been operating for one year to take into account the winter-summer cycle.

  2. [Dog bites].

    PubMed

    Horn, Benedikt

    2015-01-01

    In Switzerland 10'000 people are bitten by a dog annualy. Dog bites are notifiable incidents. Defensive and offensive aggression of dogs (why does a dog bite?), history, signs, treatment and prevention are discussed. Finally a short psychogram of dog owner and victim emphasizes the role of avoiding any escalation. PMID:25533260

  3. Whole-genome sequencing of six dog breeds from continuous altitudes reveals adaptation to high-altitude hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Gou, Xiao; Wang, Zhen; Li, Ning; Qiu, Feng; Xu, Ze; Yan, Dawei; Yang, Shuli; Jia, Jia; Kong, Xiaoyan; Wei, Zehui; Lu, Shaoxiong; Lian, Linsheng; Wu, Changxin; Wang, Xueyan; Li, Guozhi; Ma, Teng; Jiang, Qiang; Zhao, Xue; Yang, Jiaqiang; Liu, Baohong; Wei, Dongkai; Li, Hong; Yang, Jianfa; Yan, Yulin; Zhao, Guiying; Dong, Xinxing; Li, Mingli; Deng, Weidong; Leng, Jing; Wei, Chaochun; Wang, Chuan; Mao, Huaming; Zhang, Hao; Ding, Guohui; Li, Yixue

    2014-01-01

    The hypoxic environment imposes severe selective pressure on species living at high altitude. To understand the genetic bases of adaptation to high altitude in dogs, we performed whole-genome sequencing of 60 dogs including five breeds living at continuous altitudes along the Tibetan Plateau from 800 to 5100 m as well as one European breed. More than 150× sequencing coverage for each breed provides us with a comprehensive assessment of the genetic polymorphisms of the dogs, including Tibetan Mastiffs. Comparison of the breeds from different altitudes reveals strong signals of population differentiation at the locus of hypoxia-related genes including endothelial Per-Arnt-Sim (PAS) domain protein 1 (EPAS1) and beta hemoglobin cluster. Notably, four novel nonsynonymous mutations specific to high-altitude dogs are identified at EPAS1, one of which occurred at a quite conserved site in the PAS domain. The association testing between EPAS1 genotypes and blood-related phenotypes on additional high-altitude dogs reveals that the homozygous mutation is associated with decreased blood flow resistance, which may help to improve hemorheologic fitness. Interestingly, EPAS1 was also identified as a selective target in Tibetan highlanders, though no amino acid changes were found. Thus, our results not only indicate parallel evolution of humans and dogs in adaptation to high-altitude hypoxia, but also provide a new opportunity to study the role of EPAS1 in the adaptive processes. PMID:24721644

  4. Long-term air pollution indicator assessment: example of black smoke in Bordeaux, France.

    PubMed

    Filleul, Laurent; Baldi, Isabelle; Quenel, Philippe; Brochard, Patrick; Tessier, Jean François

    2002-05-01

    The aim of the second phase of the Pollution Atmosphérique et Affections Respiratoires Chroniques (PAARC) study, started in 1974, was to compare the long-term mortality between populations living in areas with different air pollution levels. In Bordeaux (France), four different areas were concerned by the study. The black smoke measures were realized between 1974 and 1981. After 1981, the stations set specifically for the study were not used any more. The purpose of this study was to estimate the evolution of air pollution in those areas between 1982 and 1997 using the measures of 12 Association de Prévention de la Pollution Atmosphérique (APPA) stations located in Bordeaux city but not in the PAARC areas. The method used was divided in three phases: a correlation study between the stations of the different networks, a selection of the pertinent stations and the setting up of indicators using the arithmetic means method. Monthly means concentrations were estimated from January 1982 to December 1997. Models showed a decrease in black smoke levels whatever the area. The difference in level from one area to another, existing between the areas in 1974, was still with predicted values in 1997, but less important. Black smoke mean concentration for 1982-1997 was, respectively, 16.4 and 16.2 microg/m3, in areas 1 and 2. It was a little bit higher in area 3 with 18.9 microg/m3. Area 4 still has the highest level with 26.3 microg/m3. To conclude, this method enabled to assess different air pollution levels at different times in the four areas of the PAARC study in Bordeaux. Those levels could be used to study the impact of the air pollution on long-term mortality on populations living in the areas considered. PMID:12032819

  5. Kinematic parameters and membership probabilities of open clusters in the Bordeaux PM2000 catalogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krone-Martins, A.; Soubiran, C.; Ducourant, C.; Teixeira, R.; Le Campion, J. F.

    2010-06-01

    Aims: We derive lists of proper-motions and kinematic membership probabilities for 49 open clusters and possible open clusters in the zone of the Bordeaux PM2000 proper motion catalogue (+11° ≤ δ ≤ +18°). We test different parametrisations of the proper motion and position distribution functions and select the most successful one. In the light of those results, we analyse some objects individually. Methods: We differenciate between cluster and field member stars, and assign membership probabilities, by applying a new and fully automated method based on both parametrisations of the proper motion and position distribution functions, and genetic algorithm optimization heuristics associated with a derivative-based hill climbing algorithm for the likelihood optimization. Results: We present a catalogue comprising kinematic parameters and associated membership probability lists for 49 open clusters and possible open clusters in the Bordeaux PM2000 catalogue region. We note that this is the first determination of proper motions for five open clusters. We confirm the non-existence of two kinematic populations in the region of 15 previously suspected non-existent objects. Full Table 5 is also available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/516/A3

  6. Identification of Piperitone as an Aroma Compound Contributing to the Positive Mint Nuances Perceived in Aged Red Bordeaux Wines.

    PubMed

    Picard, Magali; Lytra, Georgia; Tempere, Sophie; Barbe, Jean-Christophe; de Revel, Gilles; Marchand, Stéphanie

    2016-01-20

    Although a sensory definition of the aging bouquet of red Bordeaux wines was recently established, its chemical transcription has only partially been elucidated. A multiple-step approach, combining sensory evaluations of red Bordeaux wines and aromatic reconstitutions of wine extract fractions, was used to identify the molecular markers involved. One wine with a high aging-bouquet score and a mint nuance has received particular attention. Various reconstitution and omission tests highlighted the contribution of two specific fractions to the intensity of the perception of mint aroma. Gas chromatography coupled to olfactometry and mass spectrometry was applied to the targeted fractions to identify molecular marker(s) responsible for the mint nuance in fine red Bordeaux wines. A similar analytical process was applied to selected fractions of essential oils presenting mint odors to characterize them and interpret the mass spectrometry data. This approach resulted in the detection of piperitone, a monoterpene ketone that, to the best of our knowledge, was reported for the first time as a contributor to the positive mint aroma of aged red Bordeaux wines. PMID:26735409

  7. Adsorption kinetics and thermodynamics of acid Bordeaux B from aqueous solution by graphene oxide/PAMAMs.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fan; He, Shengfu; Zhang, Chen; Peng, Zhiyuan

    2015-01-01

    Graphene oxide/polyamidoamines dendrimers (GO/PAMAMs) composites were synthesized via modifying GO with 2.0 G PAMAM. The adsorption behavior of the GO/PAMAMs for acid Bordeaux B (ABB) was studied and the effects of media pH, adsorption time and initial ABB concentration on adsorption capacity of the adsorbent were investigated. The optimum pH value of the adsorption of ABB onto GO/PAMAMs was 2.5. The maximum adsorption capacity increased from 325.78 to 520.83 mg/g with the increase in temperature from 298 to 328 K. The equilibrium data followed the Langmuir isotherm model better than the Freundlich model. The kinetic study illustrated that the adsorption of ABB onto GO/PAMAMs fit the pseudo-second-order model. The thermodynamic parameters indicated that the adsorption process was physisorption, and also an endothermic and spontaneous process. PMID:26398038

  8. Vaginal fold prolapse in a dog with pyometra and ovarian papillary cystadenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zedda, Maria-Teresa; Bogliolo, Luisa; Ariu, Federica; Ledda, Mauro; Falchi, Laura; Pinna-Parpaglia, Maria-Luisa; Pau, Salvatore

    2016-04-01

    CASE DESCRIPTION A 7-year-old 42-kg (92.4-lb) sexually intact nulliparous female Italian Mastiff was examined because of a history of vaginal prolapse during diestrus. CLINICAL FINDINGS A physical examination revealed vaginal fold prolapse. Abdominal ultrasonography revealed an enlarged uterus with hypoechogenic content, corpora lutea in the ovaries, and a cyst in the right ovary. Hematologic abnormalities included leukocytosis, neutrophilia, mild anemia, and low Hct. Progesterone and estradiol concentrations were 9.36 ng/mL and 30.42 pg/mL, respectively, in serum and 72.72 ng/mL and 792 pg/mL, respectively, in the ovarian cystic fluid. TREATMENT AND OUTCOME Ovariohysterectomy was performed; the prolapsed tissue was repositioned by external manipulation and maintained in situ by temporary apposition of the vulvar lips with a retention suture. Anatomic and histologic examinations of the excised tissues revealed pyometra and papillary cystadenocarcinoma in the right ovary. The vaginal hyperplasia completely regressed at 35 days after surgery; 5 months after surgery, the dog's general condition was considered good. CLINICAL RELEVANCE Findings in this case were indicative of a hormonally active ovarian papillary cystadenocarcinoma in a female dog in diestrus. Hormone production by the cystadenocarcinoma was the predisposing factor that induced pyometra, mucosal hyperplasia, and vaginal fold prolapse in the dog. On the basis of these concurrent disorders, ovariohysterectomy was an appropriate treatment. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2016;248:822-826). PMID:27003024

  9. Naturally occurring rhodopsin mutation in the dog causes retinal dysfunction and degeneration mimicking human dominant retinitis pigmentosa

    PubMed Central

    Kijas, James W.; Cideciyan, Artur V.; Aleman, Tomas S.; Pianta, Michael J.; Pearce-Kelling, Susan E.; Miller, Brian J.; Jacobson, Samuel G.; Aguirre, Gustavo D.; Acland, Gregory M.

    2002-01-01

    Rhodopsin is the G protein-coupled receptor that is activated by light and initiates the transduction cascade leading to night (rod) vision. Naturally occurring pathogenic rhodopsin (RHO) mutations have been previously identified only in humans and are a common cause of dominantly inherited blindness from retinal degeneration. We identified English Mastiff dogs with a naturally occurring dominant retinal degeneration and determined the cause to be a point mutation in the RHO gene (Thr4Arg). Dogs with this mutant allele manifest a retinal phenotype that closely mimics that in humans with RHO mutations. The phenotypic features shared by dog and man include a dramatically slowed time course of recovery of rod photoreceptor function after light exposure and a distinctive topographic pattern to the retinal degeneration. The canine disease offers opportunities to explore the basis of prolonged photoreceptor recovery after light in RHO mutations and determine whether there are links between the dysfunction and apoptotic retinal cell death. The RHO mutant dog also becomes the large animal needed for preclinical trials of therapies for a major subset of human retinopathies. PMID:11972042

  10. Longevity and mortality of owned dogs in England.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, D G; Church, D B; McGreevy, P D; Thomson, P C; Brodbelt, D C

    2013-12-01

    Improved understanding of longevity represents a significant welfare opportunity for the domestic dog, given its unparalleled morphological diversity. Epidemiological research using electronic patient records (EPRs) collected from primary veterinary practices overcomes many inherent limitations of referral clinic, owner questionnaire and pet insurance data. Clinical health data from 102,609 owned dogs attending first opinion veterinary practices (n=86) in central and southeast England were analysed, focusing on 5095 confirmed deaths. Of deceased dogs with information available, 3961 (77.9%) were purebred, 2386 (47.0%) were female, 2528 (49.8%) were neutered and 1105 (21.7%) were insured. The overall median longevity was 12.0 years (IQR 8.9-14.2). The longest-lived breeds were the Miniature poodle, Bearded collie, Border collie and Miniature dachshund, while the shortest-lived were the Dogue de Bordeaux and Great Dane. The most frequently attributed causes of death were neoplastic, musculoskeletal and neurological disorders. The results of multivariable modelling indicated that longevity in crossbred dogs exceeded purebred dogs by 1.2 years (95% confidence interval 0.9-1.4; P<0.001) and that increasing bodyweight was negatively correlated with longevity. The current findings highlight major breed differences for longevity and support the concept of hybrid vigour in dogs. PMID:24206631

  11. Geostatistical investigations for suitable mapping of the water table: the Bordeaux case (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guekie simo, Aubin Thibaut; Marache, Antoine; Lastennet, Roland; Breysse, Denys

    2016-02-01

    Methodologies have been developed to establish realistic water-table maps using geostatistical methods: ordinary kriging (OK), cokriging (CoK), collocated cokriging (CoCoK), and kriging with external drift (KED). In fact, in a hilly terrain, when piezometric data are sparsely distributed over large areas, the water-table maps obtained by these methods provide exact water levels at monitoring wells but fail to represent the groundwater flow system, manifested through an interpolated water table above the topography. A methodology is developed in order to rebuild water-table maps for urban areas at the city scale. The interpolation methodology is presented and applied in a case study where water levels are monitored at a set of 47 points for a part urban domain covering 25.6 km2 close to Bordeaux city, France. To select the best method, a geographic information system was used to visualize surfaces reconstructed with each method. A cross-validation was carried out to evaluate the predictive performances of each kriging method. KED proves to be the most accurate and yields a better description of the local fluctuations induced by the topography (natural occurrence of ridges and valleys).

  12. Heavy metal balances of an Italian soil as affected by sewage sludge and Bordeaux mixture applications

    SciTech Connect

    Moolenaar, S.W.; Beltrami, P.

    1998-07-01

    Applications of sewage sludge and Bordeaux mixture (Bm) (a mixture of copper sulfate and lime) add heavy metals to the soil. At an experimental farm in the Cremona district (Italy), the authors measured current heavy metal contents in soil and their removal via harvested products. They also measured heavy metal adsorption by soil from this farm. With these data, projections were made of the long-term development of heavy metal (Cd, Cu, and Zn) contents in soil, crop removal, and leaching at different application rates of sewage sludge and Bm. These projections were compared with existing quality standards of the European Union (EU) and Italy with regard to soil and groundwater. The calculations reveal that the permitted annual application rates of sewage sludge and Bm are likely to result in exceedance of groundwater and soil standards. Sewage sludge applications, complying with the Italian legal limits, may pose problems for Cd, Cu, and Zn within 30, 70, and 100 yr, respectively. Furthermore, severe Cu pollution of integrated and especially organic (Bm only) vineyards is unavoidable with the currently allowed application rates of Bm. The results suggest that the current Italian soil protection policy as well as the EU policy are not conducive of a sustainable heavy metal management in agroecosystems.

  13. [Pharmacists as pioneers in porcelain production: what the service, Flora Danica owe to the Bordeaux's apothecary Marc-Hilaire Vilaris].

    PubMed

    Devaux, Guy

    2004-01-01

    In 1766, The Bordeaux's apothecary Marc-Hilaire Vilaris (1719-1792) identified with certainty a kaolin's deposit at Saint-Yrieix, in the country of Limousin, allowing so the porcelain manufacture in France and the development of a china clay's and porcelain's dough trade. Archives documents give evidence of regularly supplies of limousin's raw materials by the pharmacist Frantz Heinrich Müller (1732-1820), Director of the Royal china's Manufactury of Denmark, some time before production of the famous table service Flora Danica. PMID:15264339

  14. Television and World Affairs Teaching in Schools; Report of the Atlantic Study Conference on Education (9th, Bordeaux, Sept. 3-9, 1972).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eppstein, John, Ed.

    The principal papers read at the ninth conference in a series of Biennial Atlantic Study Conferences on Education, which was organized at the University of Bordeaux at Talence to benefit those concerned with the teaching of world affairs and social science in the secondary schools of the Western world, are included in this report. Titles of papers…

  15. Dog bites.

    PubMed

    1991-04-01

    Although our canine companions can provide us with many hours of unyielding love and faithfulness, it is important to remember that these same loving creatures inflict 500,000 to one million bites per year, accounting for one percent of all emergency room visits nationwide. Ten percent of these injuries require suturing, one to two percent require hospitalization, and approximately one-third of dog bite injuries cause lost time from work or school. The United States Postal Service spends more than $250,000 annually just for prevention and treatment of dog bite injuries involving letter carriers! Still think that adorable pooch is harmless? Read on. PMID:1857330

  16. Dog Fights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Kelley R.

    2010-01-01

    Bringing service animals into schools raises serious questions about how to meet one student's special needs while ensuring the educational well-being of all. This article discusses how schools grapple with the practical and legal questions involved in allowing service dogs on campus. The author cites a case in 2009 called "Kalbfleisch v. Columbia…

  17. Quantitative analysis of Bordeaux red wine precipitates by solid-state NMR: Role of tartrates and polyphenols.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Shipra; Iturmendi, Nerea; Grelard, Axelle; Moine, Virginie; Dufourc, Erick

    2016-05-15

    Stability of wines is of great importance in oenology matters. Quantitative estimation of dark red precipitates formed in Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon wine from Bordeaux region for vintages 2012 and 2013 was performed during the oak barrel ageing process. Precipitates were obtained by placing wine at -4°C or 4°C for 2-6 days and monitored by periodic sampling during a one-year period. Spectroscopic identification of the main families of components present in the precipitate powder was performed with (13)C solid-state CPMAS NMR and 1D and 2D solution NMR of partially water re-solubilized precipitates. The study revealed that the amount of precipitate obtained is dependent on vintage, temperature and grape variety. Major components identified include potassium bitartrate, polyphenols, polysaccharides, organic acids and free amino acids. No evidence was found for the presence of proteins. The influence of main compounds found in the precipitates is discussed in relation to wine stability. PMID:26775965

  18. Involvement of Dimethyl Sulfide and Several Polyfunctional Thiols in the Aromatic Expression of the Aging Bouquet of Red Bordeaux Wines.

    PubMed

    Picard, Magali; Thibon, Cécile; Redon, Pascaline; Darriet, Philippe; de Revel, Gilles; Marchand, Stéphanie

    2015-10-14

    The development of an aromatic bouquet during fine wine aging depends on complex transformations occurring in a reductive atmosphere, favorable to the formation and preservation of sulfur odorants, such as dimethyl sulfide (DMS) and polyfunctional thiols. The aim of this study was to address their role in the occurrence, evolution, and perceived sensory nuances of the aging bouquet of red Bordeaux wines. These compounds were quantified in 24 wines and scored by a professional wine panel for the degree to which they reflected the aging bouquet olfactory concept. Partial least square (PLS) analysis, combining sensory and quantitative chemical data, predicted that DMS, 2-furanmethanethiol, and 3-sulfanylhexanol concentrations correlated with the typicality score, discriminating highly-typical wines from less-typical ones. Several vintages from three vineyards were then subjected to sensory and chemical analysis to determine how aging bouquet typicality and the intensity of five key aromatic notes (undergrowth, truffle, fresh fruit, toasted, and empyreumatic) evolved during bottle storage in relation to these three sulfur odorants. PCA analysis emphasized their combined impact on aging bouquet typicality and their contribution to undergrowth, truffle, and empyreumatic attributes. PMID:26365759

  19. Cat and Dog Bites

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Cat and Dog Bites Cat and Dog Bites How should I take care of a bite from a cat or a dog? Whether from a family pet or a neighborhood stray, cat and dog bites are common. Here are some ...

  20. Dogs recognize dog and human emotions.

    PubMed

    Albuquerque, Natalia; Guo, Kun; Wilkinson, Anna; Savalli, Carine; Otta, Emma; Mills, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The perception of emotional expressions allows animals to evaluate the social intentions and motivations of each other. This usually takes place within species; however, in the case of domestic dogs, it might be advantageous to recognize the emotions of humans as well as other dogs. In this sense, the combination of visual and auditory cues to categorize others' emotions facilitates the information processing and indicates high-level cognitive representations. Using a cross-modal preferential looking paradigm, we presented dogs with either human or dog faces with different emotional valences (happy/playful versus angry/aggressive) paired with a single vocalization from the same individual with either a positive or negative valence or Brownian noise. Dogs looked significantly longer at the face whose expression was congruent to the valence of vocalization, for both conspecifics and heterospecifics, an ability previously known only in humans. These results demonstrate that dogs can extract and integrate bimodal sensory emotional information, and discriminate between positive and negative emotions from both humans and dogs. PMID:26763220

  1. Tularaemia in Norwegian dogs.

    PubMed

    Nordstoga, Anne; Handeland, Kjell; Johansen, Tone Bjordal; Iversen, Lena; Gavier-Widén, Dolores; Mattsson, Roland; Wik-Larssen, Kjersti; Afset, Jan Egil; Næverdal, Rune; Lund, Arve

    2014-10-10

    We describe tularaemia in a Norwegian dog caused by Francisella tularensis subspecies holarctica. A Hamilton Hound and his owner developed tulaeremia after hunting an infected mountain hare (Lepus timidus). The dog showed signs of lethargy, anorexia and fever during a period two to four days after hunting and thereafter fully recovered. Its antibody titers increased 32-fold from one to three weeks post exposure. Thereafter, the titer declined and leveled off at moderate positive values up to one year after exposure (end of study). This is believed to be the first case report of clinical F. tularensis subspecies holarctica infection in a European dog. In 2011, enormous numbers of Norway lemmings (Lemmus lemmus) occurred in Finnmark, the northernmost county of Norway and many dogs caught and swallowed lemmings. Some of these dogs developed non-specific signs of disease and the owners consulted a veterinary surgeon, who suspected tularaemia. In order to investigate this hypothesis, serum samples from 33 dogs were examined for antibodies to F. tularensis. The dogs were allocated into three groups: Dogs from Finnmark that became sick (Group 1) or remained healthy following contact with lemmings (Group 2), and healthy control dogs from Oslo without known contact with lemmings (Group 3). All the serum samples were analyzed with a tube agglutination assay. Among dogs exposed to lemmings, 10/11 and 3/12 were antibody positive in Group 1 and Group 2, respectively, whereas none of the control dogs (n=10) were positive for antibodies against F. tularensis. These results strongly indicate that the non-specific disease seen in the dogs in Finnmark was linked to F. tularensis infection acquired through contact with lemmings. PMID:25150161

  2. Service dogs. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2012-09-01

    The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) amends its regulations concerning veterans in need of service dogs. Under this final rule, VA will provide to veterans with visual, hearing, or mobility impairments benefits to support the use of a service dog as part of the management of such impairments. The benefits include assistance with veterinary care, travel benefits associated with obtaining and training a dog, and the provision, maintenance, and replacement of hardware required for the dog to perform the tasks necessary to assist such veterans. PMID:22950145

  3. [Frederic Dubois D'Amiens, physician-philosopher. An example of the thought of the Royal Society of Medicine of Bordeaux in 1830].

    PubMed

    Klein, Alexandre

    2011-01-01

    Frédéric Dubois d'Amiens (1799-1873) was perpetual secretary of the Academy of Medicine between 1847 and 1873. He remained famous in the history of the medicine for his Praises as well as for his criticism of the animal magnetism. But people often do not know that he won in 1830 the competition of the Royal Society of Medicine of Bordeaux concerning the distinction of hypochondria and hysteria. Nevertheless, the winning report, published in 1833 under the title A Philosophical history of hypochondria and hysteria, is the most accomplished work of Dubois d'Amiens, both by the development of an unexpected historical and philosophical method and by the new description which he gives of hypochondria. It is from this work that we wish to pay tribute to Dubois d'Amiens. PMID:21936214

  4. Do Dogs Know Bifurcations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minton, Roland; Pennings, Timothy J.

    2007-01-01

    When a dog (in this case, Tim Pennings' dog Elvis) is in the water and a ball is thrown downshore, it must choose to swim directly to the ball or first swim to shore. The mathematical analysis of this problem leads to the computation of bifurcation points at which the optimal strategy changes.

  5. The dog genome.

    PubMed

    Galibert, F; André, C

    2006-01-01

    Over the last few centuries, several hundred dog breeds have been artificially selected through intense breeding, resulting in the modern dog population having the widest polymorphism spectrum in terms of body shape, behavior and aptitude among mammals. Unfortunately, this diversification has predisposed most breeds to specific diseases of genetic origin. The highly fragmented nature of the dog population offers a great opportunity to track the genes and alleles responsible for these diseases as well as for the various phenotypic traits. This has led to a thorough analysis of the dog genome. Here, we report the main results obtained during the last ten years, culminating in the recent publication of a complete dog genome sequence. PMID:18753768

  6. BigDog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Playter, R.; Buehler, M.; Raibert, M.

    2006-05-01

    BigDog's goal is to be the world's most advanced quadruped robot for outdoor applications. BigDog is aimed at the mission of a mechanical mule - a category with few competitors to date: power autonomous quadrupeds capable of carrying significant payloads, operating outdoors, with static and dynamic mobility, and fully integrated sensing. BigDog is about 1 m tall, 1 m long and 0.3 m wide, and weighs about 90 kg. BigDog has demonstrated walking and trotting gaits, as well as standing up and sitting down. Since its creation in the fall of 2004, BigDog has logged tens of hours of walking, climbing and running time. It has walked up and down 25 & 35 degree inclines and trotted at speeds up to 1.8 m/s. BigDog has walked at 0.7 m/s over loose rock beds and carried over 50 kg of payload. We are currently working to expand BigDog's rough terrain mobility through the creation of robust locomotion strategies and terrain sensing capabilities.

  7. Dogs discriminate identical twins.

    PubMed

    Pinc, Ludvík; Bartoš, Luděk; Reslová, Alice; Kotrba, Radim

    2011-01-01

    Earlier studies have shown variation among experimental attempts to establish whether human monozygotic twins that are genetically identical also have identical individual scents. In none of the cases were the dogs able to distinguish all the individual scents of monozygotic twins living in the same environment if the scents were presented to them separately. Ten specially trained police German Shepherd dogs of three Czech Republic Police Regional Headquarters were used for scent identification in our study. The dogs were supposed to match scents of two monozygotic pairs (5 and 7 years old) and two dizygotic twin pairs (8 and 13 years old). Scents were collected on cotton squares stored in glass jars. Dog handlers were blind to the experiment details. In each trial (line-up), one scent was used as a starting scent and the dog was then sent to determine if any of the 7 presented glass jars contained a matching scent. Scents of children of similar ages were used as distractors. In the matching procedure, the dogs matched correctly the scent of one twin with the other, as well as two scents collected from every single identical and non-identical twin to prove their efficacy and likewise, the presence of the matching twin scent in any given glass jar. All dogs in all trials distinguished correctly the scents of identical as well as non-identical twins. All dogs similarly matched positively two scents collected from the same individuals. Our findings indicated that specially trained German Shepherd dogs are able to distinguish individual scents of identical twins despite the fact that they live in the same environment, eat the same food and even if the scents are not presented to them simultaneously. PMID:21698282

  8. Dogs Discriminate Identical Twins

    PubMed Central

    Pinc, Ludvík; Bartoš, Luděk; Reslová, Alice; Kotrba, Radim

    2011-01-01

    Earlier studies have shown variation among experimental attempts to establish whether human monozygotic twins that are genetically identical also have identical individual scents. In none of the cases were the dogs able to distinguish all the individual scents of monozygotic twins living in the same environment if the scents were presented to them separately. Ten specially trained police German Shepherd dogs of three Czech Republic Police Regional Headquarters were used for scent identification in our study. The dogs were supposed to match scents of two monozygotic pairs (5 and 7 years old) and two dizygotic twin pairs (8 and 13 years old). Scents were collected on cotton squares stored in glass jars. Dog handlers were blind to the experiment details. In each trial (line-up), one scent was used as a starting scent and the dog was then sent to determine if any of the 7 presented glass jars contained a matching scent. Scents of children of similar ages were used as distractors. In the matching procedure, the dogs matched correctly the scent of one twin with the other, as well as two scents collected from every single identical and non-identical twin to prove their efficacy and likewise, the presence of the matching twin scent in any given glass jar. All dogs in all trials distinguished correctly the scents of identical as well as non-identical twins. All dogs similarly matched positively two scents collected from the same individuals. Our findings indicated that specially trained German Shepherd dogs are able to distinguish individual scents of identical twins despite the fact that they live in the same environment, eat the same food and even if the scents are not presented to them simultaneously. PMID:21698282

  9. [Fatal dog bite injuries].

    PubMed

    Pollak, S; Mortinger, H

    1989-01-01

    In the absence of her parents, a girl of 4 months was killed by a 2-year old male Rottweiler dog belonging to the same family. The dog's front teeth left marks of individual, circular or scratch-like abrasions as well as slit-like severances of the skin, arranged in curved lines. The pattern of the skin-lesions largely correspond to the anatomy of the dog's set of teeth. No tissue defects (effects of devour) could be detected. Multiple traumatization of the trunk had led to serial rib fractures and ruptures of several organs. PMID:2818522

  10. Cholangiohepatitis in a dog.

    PubMed

    Forrester, S D; Rogers, K S; Relford, R L

    1992-06-01

    Cholangiohepatitis was diagnosed in a dog with a 4-day history of anorexia, vomiting, fever, and icterus. Additional findings included signs of depression, dehydration, hepatosplenomegaly, and abdominal discomfort. Exploratory laparotomy was performed, and specimens of liver, spleen, and bile were obtained. Histologic evaluation of liver and spleen revealed acute, suppurative cholangio-hepatitis and splenitis, respectively. Cultures of liver and bile yielded Klebsiella sp. The dog responded to rehydration and intravenous administration of chloramphenicol. Although uncommon, cholangiohepatitis should be suspected in dogs with anorexia, fever, vomiting, icterus, and signs of abdominal discomfort. Definitive diagnosis requires bacterial cultures of liver and bile. Administration of an appropriate antibiotic should resolve clinical signs. PMID:1624352

  11. Jealousy in Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Christine R.; Prouvost, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that jealousy is unique to humans, partially because of the complex cognitions often involved in this emotion. However, from a functional perspective, one might expect that an emotion that evolved to protect social bonds from interlopers might exist in other social species, particularly one as cognitively sophisticated as the dog. The current experiment adapted a paradigm from human infant studies to examine jealousy in domestic dogs. We found that dogs exhibited significantly more jealous behaviors (e.g., snapping, getting between the owner and object, pushing/touching the object/owner) when their owners displayed affectionate behaviors towards what appeared to be another dog as compared to nonsocial objects. These results lend support to the hypothesis that jealousy has some “primordial” form that exists in human infants and in at least one other social species besides humans. PMID:25054800

  12. How dogs drink water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gart, Sean; Socha, Jake; Vlachos, Pavlos; Jung, Sunghwan

    2014-11-01

    Animals with incomplete cheeks (i.e. dogs and cats) need to move fluid against gravity into the body by means other than suction. They do this by lapping fluid with their tongue. When a dog drinks, it curls its tongue posteriorly while plunging it into the fluid and then quickly withdraws its tongue back into the mouth. During this fast retraction fluid sticks to the ventral part of the curled tongue and is drawn into the mouth due to inertia. We show several variations of this drinking behavior among many dog breeds, specifically, the relationship between tongue dynamics and geometry, lapping frequency, and dog weight. We also compare the results with the physical experiment of a rounded rod impact onto a fluid surface. Supported by NSF PoLS #1205642.

  13. Hybrid vigour in dogs?

    PubMed

    Nicholas, Frank W; Arnott, Elizabeth R; McGreevy, Paul D

    2016-08-01

    Evidence from other species justifies the hypotheses that useful hybrid vigour occurs in dogs and that it can be exploited for improved health, welfare and fitness for purpose. Unfortunately, most of the relevant published canine studies do not provide estimates of actual hybrid vigour because of inadequate specification of the parentage of mixed-bred dogs. To our knowledge, only three published studies have shed any light on actual hybrid vigour in dogs. There are two reports of actual hybrid vigour between Labrador and Golden retrievers, the first ranging from +2.5% to -6.0% for components of a standardised applied-stimulus behavioural test, and the second being at least +12.4% for chance of graduating as a guide dog. The third study provides a minimum estimate of negative actual hybrid vigour: crossbreds between Labrador retrievers and poodles had a higher prevalence of multifocal retinal dysplasia than the average prevalence in their purebred parent breeds. The lack of estimates of actual hybrid vigour can be overcome by including the exact nature of the cross (e.g. F1, F2 or backcross) and their purebred parental breeds in the specification of mixed-bred dogs. Even if only F1 crossbreds can be categorised, this change would enable researchers to conduct substantial investigations to determine whether hybrid vigour has any utility for dog breeding. PMID:27387730

  14. [Vaccination protection and advice to travellers. Statistical data on the activity of the International Vaccination Center of Bordeaux (France) in 1988].

    PubMed

    Raccurt, C P

    1989-01-01

    Most travellers to tropical countries are young adults aged between 25 and 44; they tend to be of average or high socioeconomic status, to have a university education and to live in urban areas. The number of countries visited is high (111). Half the travellers go to Senegal, Ivory Coast and French Guiana. Asian countries are underrepresented among the clients of the Bordeaux centre because they do not require yellow-fever vaccination. The main reasons for travel are pleasure (73%) and business (23%). The length of stay is closely correlated with the reason for travel. Considerably more people travel in the winter period. The most frequently performed vaccinations are yellow fever, tetanus and poliomyelitis, in roughly equal numbers. A major role of a vaccination centre in the eyes of the public is to provide travellers with information and advice. A specialist centre of this kind, kept regularly informed about epidemiological developments around the world, is best equipped to advise on effective malaria prophylaxis. The centre's health-education role extends to all risks associated with travelling, in particular the sexually transmitted diseases and specifically tropical diseases, and also the consequences of changes in climate or altitude and failure to take general hygiene precautions. Computerized data banks accessible to the general public are certainly an information medium for the future, but at present are still underused. PMID:2800559

  15. Identification of impact odorants in Bordeaux red grape juice, in the commercial yeast used for its fermentation, and in the produced wine.

    PubMed

    Kotseridis, Y; Baumes, R

    2000-02-01

    The aroma extract dilution analysis method was used to detect the impact odorants of Bordeaux Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot wines extracts, as well as those of the extracts of the corresponding Cabernet Sauvignon juice and dry yeasts used for its fermentation. The wines and the yeasts were extracted using dichloromethane, and the juice was extracted using Amberlite XAD-2. Structural identification of the impact odorants using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and atomic emission detection (sulfur acquisition) was achieved after enrichment of these extracts by silica gel and Affi-Gel 501 chromatography. The same odorants (with the exception of dimethyl sulfide among 48) were detected in both wine extracts, with about the same flavor dilution (FD) factors. The 18 impact odorants detected in the Cabernet Sauvignon juice and dry yeast extracts were also found in the wine extracts. The odorants with the highest FD factors were 3-(methylsulfanyl)propanal, (E,Z)-nona-2, 6-dienal, and decanal in the juice extract, 2-methyl-3-sulfanylfuran, 3-(methylsulfanyl)propanal, 2-/3-methylbutanoic acids, and phenylethanal in the dry yeast extract, and 2-/3-methylbutanols, 2-phenylethanol, 2-methyl-3-sulfanylfuran, acetic acid, 3-(methylsulfanyl)propanal, 2-/3-methylbutanoic acids, beta-damascenone, 3-sulfanylhexan-1-ol, Furaneol, and homofuraneol in the wine extracts. Determination of the odor thresholds of some of these impact odorants was carried out. PMID:10691647

  16. Dog Ownership, Dog Walking, and Children's and Parents' Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmon, Jo; Timperio, Anna; Chu, Binh; Veitch, Jenny

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to determine cross-sectional associations of dog ownership, dog walking, and physical activity (PA) among children and their parents. Objective measures of PA were obtained for children ages 5-6 and 10-12 years from 19 primary schools across Melbourne, Australia. Parents self-reported their PA, dog ownership, and frequency of dog…

  17. Treating Cushing's Disease in Dogs

    MedlinePlus

    ... on top of the kidneys. Dogs, cats, and horses, as well as humans, can get Cushing's disease. ... commonly found in dogs than in cats or horses. "Cortisol is one of the body's natural steroids," ...

  18. Upper Airway Injury in Dogs Secondary to Trauma: 10 Dogs (2000-2011).

    PubMed

    Basdani, Eleni; Papazoglou, Lysimachos G; Patsikas, Michail N; Kazakos, Georgios M; Adamama-Moraitou, Katerina K; Tsokataridis, Ioannis

    2016-01-01

    Ten dogs that presented with trauma-induced upper airway rupture or stenosis were reviewed. Tracheal rupture was seen in seven dogs, tracheal stenosis in one dog, and laryngeal rupture in two dogs. Clinical abnormalities included respiratory distress in five dogs, subcutaneous emphysema in eight, air leakage through the cervical wound in seven, stridor in three dogs, pneumomediastinum in four and pneumothorax in one dog. Reconstruction with simple interrupted sutures was performed in four dogs, tracheal resection and end-to-end anastomosis in five dogs, and one dog was euthanized intraoperatively. Complications were seen in three dogs including aspiration pneumonia in one and vocalization alterations in two dogs. PMID:27487354

  19. Preventing aggressive behaviour in dogs.

    PubMed

    Orritt, Rachel

    2016-07-01

    Delegates from around the world met at the University of Lincoln on June 11 and 12 for the third annual UK Dog Bite Prevention and Behaviour conference. The conference, hosted by dog trainer Victoria Stilwell, brings together dog behaviour experts to discuss possible solutions to this public health issue. Rachel Orritt, who has been examining the perceptions, assessment and management of human-directed aggressive behaviour in dogs for her PhD, reports. PMID:27389748

  20. Dog saliva – an important source of dog allergens

    PubMed Central

    Polovic, N; Wadén, K; Binnmyr, J; Hamsten, C; Grönneberg, R; Palmberg, C; Milcic-Matic, N; Bergman, T; Grönlund, H; van Hage, M; Crameri, Reto

    2013-01-01

    Background Allergy to dog (Canis familiaris) is a worldwide common cause of asthma and allergic rhinitis. However, dander extract in routine diagnostics is not an optimal predictor of IgE-mediated dog allergy. Our objective was to evaluate saliva as an allergen source for improved diagnostics of allergy to dog. Methods IgE-binding proteins in dog saliva and dander extract were analysed by immunoblot and mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) using pooled or individual sera from dog-allergic patients (n = 13). Sera from 59 patients IgE positive to dander and 55 patients IgE negative to dander but with symptoms to dog were analysed for IgE against saliva and dander by ELISA. Basophil stimulation with dog saliva and dander extract was measured by flow cytometry among three dog-allergic patients. Additionally, IgE-binding protein profiles of saliva from different breeds were investigated by immunoblot. Results Greater number and diversity of IgE-binding proteins was found in saliva compared to dander extract and varied among dog breeds. In saliva, Can f 1, 2, 3 and 6 were identified but also four new saliva allergen candidates. The majority of the 59 dog dander–positive sera (n = 44) were IgE positive to dog saliva. Among patients IgE negative to dander, but with symptoms to dog, 20% were IgE positive to saliva. The biological activity of saliva was confirmed by basophil degranulation. Conclusions Dog saliva is an allergen source for improved diagnostics of dog allergy. The IgE-binding protein profile of saliva from different dogs varies. PMID:23464525

  1. 76 FR 35162 - Service Dogs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-16

    ... AFFAIRS 38 CFR Part 17 RIN 2900-AN51 Service Dogs AGENCY: Department of Veterans Affairs. ACTION: Proposed... veterans in need of service dogs. Under current regulations, VA provides benefits to veterans with guide dogs, and this rulemaking would broaden and clarify those benefits. This rulemaking would...

  2. Facial dog attack injuries.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wei; Patil, Pavan Manohar

    2015-02-01

    The exposed position of the face makes it vulnerable to dog bite injuries. This fact combined with the short stature of children makes them a high-risk group for such attacks. In contrast to wounds inflicted by assaults and accidents, dog bite wounds are deep puncture type wounds compounded by the presence of pathologic bacteria from the saliva of the attacking dog. This, combined with the presence of crushed, devitalized tissue makes these wounds highly susceptible to infection. Key to successful management of such wounds are meticulous cleansing of the wound, careful debridement, primary repair, appropriate antibiotic therapy, and rabies and tetanus immunization where indicated. This review presents an overview of the epidemiology, presentation, management of such emergencies, and the recent advances in the care of such patients. PMID:25829713

  3. Effect of copper-based fungicide (bordeaux mixture) spray on the total copper content of areca nut: Implications in increasing prevalence of oral submucous fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Mathew, Philips; Austin, Ravi David; Varghese, Soma Susan; Manojkumar, A. D.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Potentially malignant disorders like oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) often precede oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The rate of transformation of OSMF to OSCC ranges from 3 to 19%. OSMF is etiologically related to chewing of areca nut (betel nut), and the high copper content in areca nut plays an important role in the pathogenesis of the disorder. Even though many studies estimated and confirmed increased copper levels in areca nuts, studies tracing the source of the increased copper content are scarce. Interestingly, on review of agricultural literature, it was found that most of the areca nut plantations in South India commonly use a copper-based fungicide, bordeaux mixture (BM). Aim: The aim of the study was to estimate and compare the copper content in areca nuts from plantations with and without copper-based fungicide usage. Materials and Methods: Four areca nut plantations from Dakshina Kannada district, Karnataka (group A) and four plantations from Ernakulam district, Kerala (group B) were selected for the study. The plantations from Karnataka used copper-based fungicide regularly, whereas the latter were devoid of it. Areca nut samples of three different maturities (unripe, ripe, and exfoliated) obtained from all plantations were dehusked, ground, and subjected to atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) for copper analysis. Results: There was statistically significant difference in the copper content of areca nuts from both groups. The areca nuts from plantations treated with copper-based fungicide showed significantly higher copper levels in all maturity levels compared to their counterparts in the other group (P < 0.05). Conclusions: The high copper content in areca nut may be related to the copper-based fungicide treatment on the palms. These areca nuts with high copper content used in quid or commercial products may be responsible for the increasing prevalence of OSMF. PMID:26312227

  4. Vanishing native American dog lineages

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Dogs were an important element in many native American cultures at the time Europeans arrived. Although previous ancient DNA studies revealed the existence of unique native American mitochondrial sequences, these have not been found in modern dogs, mainly purebred, studied so far. Results We identified many previously undescribed mitochondrial control region sequences in 400 dogs from rural and isolated areas as well as street dogs from across the Americas. However, sequences of native American origin proved to be exceedingly rare, and we estimate that the native population contributed only a minor fraction of the gene pool that constitutes the modern population. Conclusions The high number of previously unidentified haplotypes in our sample suggests that a lot of unsampled genetic variation exists in non-breed dogs. Our results also suggest that the arrival of European colonists to the Americas may have led to an extensive replacement of the native American dog population by the dogs of the invaders. PMID:21418639

  5. Automatic imitation in dogs

    PubMed Central

    Range, Friederike; Huber, Ludwig; Heyes, Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    After preliminary training to open a sliding door using their head and their paw, dogs were given a discrimination task in which they were rewarded with food for opening the door using the same method (head or paw) as demonstrated by their owner (compatible group), or for opening the door using the alternative method (incompatible group). The incompatible group, which had to counterimitate to receive food reward, required more trials to reach a fixed criterion of discrimination performance (85% correct) than the compatible group. This suggests that, like humans, dogs are subject to ‘automatic imitation’; they cannot inhibit online the tendency to imitate head use and/or paw use. In a subsequent transfer test, where all dogs were required to imitate their owners' head and paw use for food reward, the incompatible group made a greater proportion of incorrect, counterimitative responses than the compatible group. These results are consistent with the associative sequence learning model, which suggests that the development of imitation depends on sensorimotor experience and phylogenetically general mechanisms of associative learning. More specifically, they suggest that the imitative behaviour of dogs is shaped more by their developmental interactions with humans than by their evolutionary history of domestication. PMID:20667875

  6. Zen Hot Dog Molecules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Dennis

    2009-01-01

    Substituted cycloalkanes with one branch illustrating each topic in an instructional unit can serve as summaries or reviews in courses of organic chemistry. The hungry Zen master told the hot dog vendor to make him one with everything. You can do the same for your students.

  7. Zen Hot Dog Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, Dennis

    2009-04-01

    Substituted cycloalkanes with one branch illustrating each topic in an instructional unit can serve as summaries or reviews in courses of organic chemistry. The hungry Zen master told the hot dog vendor to make him one with everything. You can do the same for your students.

  8. Neosporosis in dogs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Neospora caninum is a protozoan parasite of animals. Until 1988, it was misdiagnosed as Toxoplasma gondii. Since its first recognition in 1984 and the description of a new genus and species Neospora caninum in 1988, neosporosis has emerged as a serious disease of dogs and cattle worldwide. Additiona...

  9. Radiographic liver size in Pekingese dogs versus other dog breeds.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jihye; Keh, Seoyeon; Kim, Hyunwook; Kim, Junyoung; Yoon, Junghee

    2013-01-01

    Differential diagnoses for canine liver disease are commonly based on radiographic estimates of liver size, however little has been published on breed variations. Aims of this study were to describe normal radiographic liver size in Pekingese dogs and to compare normal measurements for this breed with other dog breeds and Pekingese dogs with liver disease. Liver measurements were compared for clinically normal Pekingese (n = 61), normal non-Pekingese brachycephalic (n = 45), normal nonbrachycephalic (n = 71), and Pekingese breed dogs with liver disease (n = 22). For each dog, body weight, liver length, T11 vertebral length, thoracic depth, and thoracic width were measured on right lateral and ventrodorsal abdominal radiographs. Liver volume was calculated using a formula and ratios of liver length/T11 vertebral length and liver volume/body weight ratio were determined. Normal Pekingese dogs had a significantly smaller liver volume/body weight ratio (16.73 ± 5.67, P < 0.05) than normal non-Pekingese brachycephalic breed dogs (19.54 ± 5.03) and normal nonbrachycephalic breed dogs (18.72 ± 6.52). The liver length/T11 vertebral length ratio in normal Pekingese (4.64 ± 0.65) was significantly smaller than normal non-Pekingese brachycephalic breed dogs (5.16 ± 0.74) and normal nonbrachycephalic breed dogs (5.40 ± 0.74). Ratios of liver volume/body weight and liver length/T11 vertebral length in normal Pekingese were significantly different from Pekingese with liver diseases (P < 0.05). Findings supported our hypothesis that Pekingese dogs have a smaller normal radiographic liver size than other breeds. We recommend using 4.64× the length of the T11 vertebra as a radiographic criterion for normal liver length in Pekingese dogs. PMID:23094756

  10. Xylitol and Your Dog: Danger, Paws Off

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Xylitol and Your Dog: Danger, Paws Off Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... back to top Why is Xylitol Dangerous to Dogs, but Not People? In both people and dogs, ...

  11. Do Dogs Provide Information Helpfully?

    PubMed Central

    Piotti, Patrizia; Kaminski, Juliane

    2016-01-01

    Dogs are particularly skilful during communicative interactions with humans. Dogs’ abilities to use human communicative cues in cooperative contexts outcompete those of other species, and might be the result of selection pressures during domestication. Dogs also produce signals to direct the attention of humans towards outside entities, a behaviour often referred to as showing behaviour. This showing behaviour in dogs is thought to be something dogs use intentionally and referentially. However, there is currently no evidence that dogs communicate helpfully, i.e. to inform an ignorant human about a target that is of interest to the human but not to the dog. Communicating with a helpful motive is particularly interesting because it might suggest that dogs understand the human’s goals and need for information. In study 1, we assessed whether dogs would abandon an object that they find interesting in favour of an object useful for their human partner, a random novel distractor, or an empty container. Results showed that it was mainly self-interest that was driving the dogs’ behaviour. The dogs mainly directed their behaviour towards the object they had an interest in, but dogs were more persistent when showing the object relevant to the human, suggesting that to some extent they took the humans interest into account. Another possibility is that dogs’ behaviour was driven by an egocentric motivation to interact with novel targets and that the dogs’ neophila might have masked their helpful tendencies. Therefore, in study 2 the dogs had initial access to both objects, and were expected to indicate only one (relevant or distractor). The human partner interacted with the dog using vocal communication in half of the trials, and remaining silent in the other half. Dogs from both experimental groups, i.e. indicating the relevant object or indicating the distractor, established joint attention with the human. However, the human’s vocal communication and the presence

  12. Using dogs for tiger conservation and research.

    PubMed

    Kerley, Linda L

    2010-12-01

    This paper is a review of the history, development and efficacy of using dogs in wildlife studies and considers the use of dogs in the research and conservation of wild tigers (Panthera tigris Linnaeus, 1758). Using scat detection dogs, scent-matching dogs, law enforcement detection dogs and protection dogs are proven methods that can be effectively used on tigers. These methods all take advantage of the dog's extremely evolved sense of smell that allows them to detect animals or animal byproducts (often the focus of tiger studies). Dogs can be trained to communicate this information to their handlers. PMID:21392356

  13. Collection Development "Dog Care & Training": The Well-Behaved Dog

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alpi, Kristine M.; Sherman, Barbara L.

    2008-01-01

    Dogs are indeed people's best friends. A majority of owners report that their dog is a "member of the family," and that acceptable canine behavior and optimal care are high priorities for them. The human-animal bond, the close connection between people and their pets, is forged by positive interactions, but unacceptable canine behaviors that…

  14. [Fighting dogs--dangerous dogs: legal situation in Bavaria].

    PubMed

    Breitsamer, F

    2001-03-01

    A report is given on eight years of experience with the Bavarian legal regulation for the protection against dangerous dogs of 10.7.1992. The implementation of the regulation was a success. Since then only two cases of biting accidents are reported. In one case the dogs were euthanatized, in the other case they were taken away and given to other owners. The advantages of the regulation are seen in the increased responsibility of the dog owner who has to give proof of the peaceful character of his dog in form of an expert testimony. This lowers the administration costs and has revealed a preventive effect, the dog owners are looking more carefully after their animals to avoid any security problems. PMID:11314462

  15. Botulism in 2 urban dogs

    PubMed Central

    Uriarte, Ane; Thibaud, Jean-Laurent; Blot, Stéphane

    2010-01-01

    Two dogs from the same owner were referred for ascending weakness and paresis of 2 to 3 days duration. Electromyography and electroneurography determined that there were normal F-waves, decreased compound action potential, and decreased activity on repetitive nerve stimulation. These findings were valuable in diagnosing botulism in the dogs. PMID:21197207

  16. Neuromuscular disease in a dog.

    PubMed

    Bors, M; Valentine, B A; de Lahunta, A

    1988-10-01

    Diffuse neuromuscular disease occurs sporadically in dogs. The most commonly reported diffuse neuromuscular diseases are polyradiculoneuritis (coonhound paralysis), tick paralysis, botulism, and myasthenia gravis (1,2,12). This clinical report describes an atypical presentation of a diffuse neuromuscular disease in a dog. PMID:3168469

  17. Nodular panniculitis in the dog.

    PubMed

    Baker, B B; Stannard, A A

    1975-10-15

    Nodular panniculitis, a granulomatous inflammatory disease of the subcutaneous fat, was diagnosed in 11 dogs. Clinically, the disease was characterized by development of subcutaneous nodules and intermittent fever and anorexia. Short-term corticosteroid therapy was effective in 10 of the 11 dogs. PMID:1237484

  18. Ureteral fibropapilloma in a dog.

    PubMed

    Hattel, A L; Diters, R W; Snavely, D A

    1986-04-15

    A fibropapilloma was found to involve the left ureter in a 7-year-old castrated male Doberman Pinscher dog. Severe unilateral hydronephrosis and hydroureter were associated with the ureteral mass. Treatment consisted of unilateral nephrectomy and ureterectomy. This case represents an additional type of primary ureteral neoplasm found in the dog. PMID:3710881

  19. Retrobulbar chondrosarcoma in a dog

    PubMed Central

    Ralić, M.; Vasić, J.; Jovanović, M.; Cameron, B.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a review of a dog, with a retrobulbar chondrosarcoma, which was admitted for surgery for visible changes in his eye during inspection. Orbital neoplasia in dogs may be primary and secondary. Sixty percent of orbital neoplasia in dogs are primary, ninety percent of which are malignant. Retrobulbar neoplasms are rare and in their early stage represent a diagnostic challenge. Chondrosarcoma of the skull is a slow-progressing malignant disease which occurs locally, aggressive with invasion into the surrounding tissues. Dogs with chondrosarcoma of the skull have life expectancy between 210 and 580 days - in our case it was 180 days - after the first alterations on the eye of the dog occurred. PMID:26623338

  20. Rotary slot dog

    DOEpatents

    Cutburth, Ronald W.; Smauley, David A.

    1987-01-01

    A clamp or dog is disclosed which preferably comprises a slotted stepped cylindrical body which is inserted into a hole in a workpiece and then fastened to a base or fixture using a screw which is inserted through the slot. The stepped configuration provides an annular clamping surface which securely clamps the workpiece against the base or fixture. The slotted cylindrical configuration permits adjustment of the workpiece and retaining clamp in any direction, i.e., over 360.degree., relative to the mounting position of the screw in the base or fixture.

  1. When You Meet a Dog Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ulrey, Pauline

    1994-01-01

    Tips are offered for use in an encounter with a dog guide and its blind owner. Tips include approaching the person from the right side, not taking hold of the dog guide's harness, not offering food to the dog guide, and not petting the dog guide without the owner's permission. (JDD)

  2. Infertility in the male dog.

    PubMed

    Wallace, M S

    1992-09-01

    The diagnosis and characterization of infertility in the male dog depends largely on the initial history and semen evaluation and on following the course of infertility over time. The diagnostic testing described here is helpful for guiding therapy, but the prognosis in serious cases of infertility is usually poor. Cases of subfertility that are not progressive have a better prognosis with optimal breeding management. Finally, the clinician should remember that some insults to the testes are reversible with time so it is important not to administer therapy that will interfere with the dog's ability to recover. Client education is an important part of the management of male dog infertility because it is not uncommon for various drugs to be administered by the breeder, or at the breeder's request, without a sufficient diagnostic work-up. In addition, errors of breeding management may play a role in male dog infertility or limit the success of treatment. PMID:1421819

  3. Pseudoketogenesis in hepatectomized dogs.

    PubMed

    Des Rosiers, C; Montgomery, J A; Garneau, M; David, F; Mamer, O A; Daloze, P; Toffolo, G; Cobelli, C; Landau, B R; Brunengraber, H

    1990-03-01

    Overestimation of ketone body turnover in vivo, measured by tracer kinetics, could occur if specific activity or molar percent enrichment is diluted in extrahepatic tissues by label exchange via reversal of 3-oxoacid-CoA transferase, a process we call pseudoketogenesis. To test this hypothesis, euglycemic hepatectomized dogs were injected with a bolus of acetoacetate (0.8 mmol/kg), 32% enriched in [3,4-13C2]acetoacetate. Concentrations and labeling patterns of blood acetoacetate and R-3-hydroxybutyrate were measured by selected ion-monitoring gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. During the 60 min after bolus injection of [3,4-13C2]acetoacetate, the molar percent enrichment of blood [3,4-13C2]acetoacetate decreased to 73 +/- 3% (n = 5) in controls and to 11.5 +/- 0.8% (n = 3) during infusion of dichloroacetate, an activator of pyruvate dehydrogenase. The enrichment of R-3-hydroxy-[3,4-13C2]butyrate followed closely that of [3,4-13C2]acetoacetate. These dilutions occurred despite a net uptake of ketone bodies. Concomitantly, 10.6 +/- 2.2 (n = 5) and 6.0 +/- 2.9% (n = 3) of [13C]acetoacetate molecules were labeled on all four carbons in control and dichloroacetate-treated dogs, respectively. This uniformly labeled acetoacetate arises from partial equilibration between [3,4-13C2]acetoacetate and [1,2-13C2]acetyl-CoA via the reactions catalyzed by 3-oxoacid-CoA transferase and acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase. Our data demonstrate the reversibility of the 3-oxoacid-CoA transferase in intact extrahepatic tissues and support the concept of pseudoketogenesis. This phenomenon has been quantitated by kinetic analysis of the data. PMID:2316645

  4. Cranial mediastinal carcinomas in nine dogs.

    PubMed

    Liptak, J M; Kamstock, D A; Dernell, W S; Ehrhart, E J; Rizzo, S A; Withrow, S J

    2008-03-01

    Nine dogs were diagnosed with cranial mediastinal carcinomas. Based on histological and immunohistochemical analysis, four dogs were diagnosed with ectopic follicular cell thyroid carcinomas, one dog with ectopic medullary cell thyroid carcinoma, two dogs with neuroendocrine carcinomas and two dogs with anaplastic carcinomas. Clinical signs and physical examination findings were associated with a space-occupying mass, although one dog was diagnosed with functional hyperthyroidism. Surgical resection was attempted in eight dogs. The cranial mediastinal mass was invasive either into the heart or into the cranial vena cava in three dogs. Resection was complete in six dogs and unresectable in two dogs. All dogs survived surgery, but four dogs developed pulmonary thromboembolism and two dogs died of respiratory complications postoperatively. Adjunctive therapies included pre-operative radiation therapy (n=1) and postoperative chemotherapy (n=3). Three dogs had metastasis at the time of diagnosis, but none developed metastasis following surgery. The overall median survival time was 243 days. Local invasion, pleural effusion and metastasis did not have a negative impact on survival time in this small case series. PMID:19178660

  5. Are dogs just like us?

    PubMed

    Gross, Michael

    2015-08-31

    Dogs have evolved to become the animal species most integrated with human society. Surprisingly, the origins and mechanisms of the remarkable co-evolution are still obscure and provide fuel for debates. Brain imaging studies showing up similarities and recent results implicating the hormone oxytocin also suggest that it makes sense to compare the social mind of dogs to our own. Michael Gross reports. PMID:26561653

  6. Why do adult dogs 'play'?

    PubMed

    Bradshaw, John W S; Pullen, Anne J; Rooney, Nicola J

    2015-01-01

    Among the Carnivora, play behaviour is usually made up of motor patterns characteristic of predatory, agonistic and courtship behaviour. Domestic dogs are unusual in that play is routinely performed by adults, both socially, with conspecifics and with humans, and also asocially, with objects. This enhanced playfulness is commonly thought to be a side effect of paedomorphosis, the perpetuation of juvenile traits into adulthood, but here we suggest that the functions of the different types of play are sufficiently distinct that they are unlikely to have arisen through a single evolutionary mechanism. Solitary play with objects appears to be derived from predatory behaviour: preferred toys are those that can be dismembered, and a complex habituation-like feedback system inhibits play with objects that are resistant to alteration. Intraspecific social play is structurally different from interspecific play and may therefore be motivationally distinct and serve different goals; for example, dogs often compete over objects when playing with other dogs, but are usually more cooperative when the play partner is human. The majority of dogs do not seem to regard competitive games played with a human partner as "dominance" contests: rather, winning possession of objects during games appears to be simply rewarding. Play may be an important factor in sociality, since dogs are capable of extracting social information not only from games in which they participate, but also from games that they observe between third parties. We suggest that the domestic dog's characteristic playfulness in social contexts is an adaptive trait, selected during domestication to facilitate both training for specific purposes, and the formation of emotionally-based bonds between dog and owner. Play frequency and form may therefore be an indicator of the quality of dog-owner relationships. PMID:25251020

  7. Hydrated nucleus pulposus herniation in seven dogs.

    PubMed

    Manunta, M L; Evangelisti, M A; Bergknut, N; Grinwis, G C M; Ballocco, I; Meij, B P

    2015-03-01

    The clinical signs, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings, treatment and follow-up in seven dogs with hydrated nucleus pulposus extrusion (HNPE) are reported. All dogs had tetraparesis or tetraplegia. T2-weighted MRI revealed extradural hyperintense homogeneous material compressing the cervical spinal cord. After conservative treatment (five dogs) or surgical decompression (two dogs), all dogs returned to ambulatory function within 1 month. Follow-up MRI in conservatively treated dogs revealed complete disappearance of the extruded material. Histopathological examination of surgical specimens confirmed that the retrieved material was extruded nucleus pulposus with evidence of early degeneration. PMID:25599897

  8. 9 CFR 93.600 - Importation of dogs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Importation of dogs. 93.600 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Dogs § 93.600 Importation of dogs. (a) All dogs. Dogs from any region of...) Dogs must be accompanied by a certificate signed by a full-time salaried veterinary official of...

  9. 9 CFR 93.600 - Importation of dogs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Importation of dogs. 93.600 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Dogs § 93.600 Importation of dogs. (a) All dogs. Dogs from Angola... applicable requirements of this part: (1) Dogs must be accompanied by a certificate signed by a...

  10. 9 CFR 93.600 - Importation of dogs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Importation of dogs. 93.600 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Dogs § 93.600 Importation of dogs. (a) All dogs. Dogs from Angola... applicable requirements of this part: (1) Dogs must be accompanied by a certificate signed by a...

  11. 9 CFR 93.600 - Importation of dogs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Importation of dogs. 93.600 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Dogs § 93.600 Importation of dogs. (a) All dogs. Dogs from any region of...) Dogs must be accompanied by a certificate signed by a full-time salaried veterinary official of...

  12. 9 CFR 93.600 - Importation of dogs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Importation of dogs. 93.600 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Dogs § 93.600 Importation of dogs. (a) All dogs. Dogs from Angola... applicable requirements of this part: (1) Dogs must be accompanied by a certificate signed by a...

  13. [Dangerous dogs in Berlin in comparison to the dog population--ways to reduce the dangerousness of dogs].

    PubMed

    Kuhne, Franziska; Struwe, Rainer

    2006-01-01

    The law for handling and control of dogs in Berlin of September 29, 2004 was enacted to prevent the risks for humans and animals when ever they have contact with dogs. "Dangerous dogs" are defined by this law. There are 10 breeds of dogs supposed to be dangerous due to specific characteristics of their breed ("listed breeds"). The dangerousness of a dog's breed is not identical with the dangerousness of an individual dog. The subject of this study is to examine the potential dangerousness of dog breeds and not the individual dangerousness of a dog. This study refers to statistics of incidents between dogs and humans in Berlin for the years 1998 to 2004. The population density of a breed is based on the dogs assessed for tax purposes in Berlin of January 1, 2005 and on the dog registrations maintained at veterinary hospitals. The fourfold-table-test was used to compare the quantity of the recorded incidents of two statistically independent dog breeds. Of the total population of 107,804 tax assessed dogs in Berlin in 2004, 0.9% was documented as dogs involved in incidents with humans. The incidents per year decreased in the "listed breeds"about 68% and in the "unlisted breeds" about 41% during the last 7 years in Berlin. Therefore, the probability (the odds ratio) of a breed to be conspicuous was analysed. The values for the calculation of this probability were the number of dogs of a breed having been involved in incidents compared to the population of this breed based on tax records. The comparison of the probability of a breed with another to be conspicuous was used to compile a cluster of breeds which had the same probability to be conspicuous in 2004. A cluster was assessed for dogs of the following breeds: Sheep dogs, Rottweiler, Doberman, Pitbull Terrier and American Staffordshire Terrier. A listing of breeds is not the right way to reduce the potential dangerousness of a dog, especially in the private domain of their owners. Most incidents with dogs occur in

  14. Assisting Handlers Following Attacks on Dog Guides: Implications for Dog Guide Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godley, Cheryl A.; Gillard, Marc A.

    2011-01-01

    Attacks by dogs on dog guides are traumatic for dog guide teams. One variable that affects a team's recovery is how handlers cope with emotional responses to the attack. This article presents a three-stage model for assisting handlers that is useful for handlers and dog guide instructors.

  15. Plasma Creatinine Clearance in the Dog

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazier, Loy W.

    1977-01-01

    Lists materials and methods for an experiment that demonstrates the concept of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) using anesthesized dogs. In the dog, GFR is equivalent to the renal plasma clearance of exogenous creatinine. (CS)

  16. [Imported infestations of nasopharyngeal parasites in dogs].

    PubMed

    Gothe, R; Barutzki, D; Schöl, H; Heinen, H

    1991-02-01

    In this paper infestations of the nasal cavity with Myxobdella annandalei in a dog after a sojourn in Nepal and with Linguatula serrata in 2 stray dogs from Turkey, which were imported to Germany, are described. PMID:2048114

  17. Extradural spinal synovial cysts in nine dogs.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, P J; Sturges, B K; Berry, W L; Vernau, K M; Koblik, P D; Lecouteur, R A

    2001-10-01

    Nine dogs presenting for investigation of cervical or thoracolumbar myelopathies were diagnosed with extradural spinal synovial cysts. Degenerative disease affecting the articular facets or intervertebral discs was present on plain spinal radiographs in all cases. Myelography was consistent with dorsolateral, extradural spinal cord compression. Two groups of dogs were identified: (1) young, giant breed dogs with multiple cysts involving one or more levels of the cervical spinal cord; and (2) older, large breed dogs with solitary cysts involving the thoracolumbar spinal cord. The synovial cysts constituted the major compressive lesions in four of the dogs. Analysis of lumbar cerebrospinal fluid demonstrated albuminocytological dissociation, consistent with chronic compressive myelopathy, in six dogs. All dogs underwent decompressive surgery and the diagnosis of synovial cysts was confirmed histologically. The mean follow-up period was 17 months (range four to 36 months). At the time of follow-up, all dogs were fully ambulatory with improved neurological function compared with that at initial presentation. PMID:11688527

  18. Military Dog Training for Law Enforcement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atwell, Lou E.

    1977-01-01

    Describes five courses involved in the intensive training that dogs and their handlers go through in the Military Dog Studies Branch at Lackland Air Force Base (San Antonio, Texas) in preparation for duties in law enforcement. (HD)

  19. Dog allergen levels in homes with hypoallergenic compared with nonhypoallergenic dogs

    PubMed Central

    Wegienka, Ganesa R.; Havstad, Suzanne L.; Zoratti, Edward M.; Ownby, Dennis R.; Johnson, Christine Cole

    2011-01-01

    Background: Despite the public interest in hypoallergenic dogs, few scientific, including epidemiological studies have attempted to evaluate claims of hypoallergenicity. This study was designed to determine whether dog breeds reported as hypoallergenic correspond to lower dog allergen in the home versus nonhypoallergenic dogs. Methods: A web search was conducted to identify breeds cited as hypoallergenic. Four separate classification schemes using combinations of purebred and mixed breed dogs were used to compare the levels of Canis familiaris 1 in dust samples collected from homes with hypoallergenic versus nonhypoallergenic dogs from an established birth cohort. Results: No classification scheme showed that the level of dog allergen in homes with hypoallergenic dogs differed from other homes. Conclusion: Dog-allergic individuals should have access to scientifically valid information on the level of allergen shedding of different breeds of dogs. PMID:21819763

  20. DNA testing and domestic dogs.

    PubMed

    Mellersh, Cathryn

    2012-02-01

    There are currently about 80 different DNA tests available for mutations that are associated with inherited disease in the domestic dog, and as the tools available with which to dissect the canine genome become increasingly sophisticated, this number can be expected to rise dramatically over the next few years. With unrelenting media pressure focused firmly on the health of the purebred domestic dog, veterinarians and dog breeders are turning increasingly to DNA tests to ensure the health of their dogs. It is ultimately the responsibility of the scientists who identify disease-associated genetic variants to make sensible choices about which discoveries are appropriate to develop into commercially available DNA tests for the lay dog breeder, who needs to balance the need to improve the genetic health of their breed with the need to maintain genetic diversity. This review discusses some of the factors that should be considered along the route from mutation discovery to DNA test and some representative examples of DNA tests currently available. PMID:22071879

  1. 49 CFR 236.743 - Dog, swing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Dog, swing. 236.743 Section 236.743 Transportation... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.743 Dog, swing. A locking dog mounted in such a manner that it is free to rotate on a trunnion which is riveted to a...

  2. 49 CFR 236.743 - Dog, swing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Dog, swing. 236.743 Section 236.743 Transportation... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.743 Dog, swing. A locking dog mounted in such a manner that it is free to rotate on a trunnion which is riveted to a...

  3. 50 CFR 216.82 - Dogs prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Dogs prohibited. 216.82 Section 216.82... Pribilof Islands Administration § 216.82 Dogs prohibited. In order to prevent molestation of fur seal herds, the landing of any dogs at Pribilof Islands is prohibited....

  4. 49 CFR 236.743 - Dog, swing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Dog, swing. 236.743 Section 236.743 Transportation... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.743 Dog, swing. A locking dog mounted in such a manner that it is free to rotate on a trunnion which is riveted to a...

  5. 50 CFR 216.82 - Dogs prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Dogs prohibited. 216.82 Section 216.82... Pribilof Islands Administration § 216.82 Dogs prohibited. In order to prevent molestation of fur seal herds, the landing of any dogs at Pribilof Islands is prohibited....

  6. 49 CFR 236.743 - Dog, swing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dog, swing. 236.743 Section 236.743 Transportation... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.743 Dog, swing. A locking dog mounted in such a manner that it is free to rotate on a trunnion which is riveted to a...

  7. 49 CFR 236.743 - Dog, swing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Dog, swing. 236.743 Section 236.743 Transportation... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.743 Dog, swing. A locking dog mounted in such a manner that it is free to rotate on a trunnion which is riveted to a...

  8. 50 CFR 216.82 - Dogs prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Dogs prohibited. 216.82 Section 216.82... Pribilof Islands Administration § 216.82 Dogs prohibited. In order to prevent molestation of fur seal herds, the landing of any dogs at Pribilof Islands is prohibited....

  9. 50 CFR 216.82 - Dogs prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dogs prohibited. 216.82 Section 216.82... Pribilof Islands Administration § 216.82 Dogs prohibited. In order to prevent molestation of fur seal herds, the landing of any dogs at Pribilof Islands is prohibited....

  10. 50 CFR 216.82 - Dogs prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Dogs prohibited. 216.82 Section 216.82... Pribilof Islands Administration § 216.82 Dogs prohibited. In order to prevent molestation of fur seal herds, the landing of any dogs at Pribilof Islands is prohibited....

  11. Dipylidium (Dog and Cat Flea Tapeworm) FAQs

    MedlinePlus

    ... the most common kind of tapeworm dogs and cats get? The most common tapeworm of dogs and cats in the United States is called Dipylidium caninum . ... infected with a tapeworm larvae. A dog or cat may swallow a flea while self-grooming. Once ...

  12. Hendra Virus Infection in Dog, Australia, 2013.

    PubMed

    Kirkland, Peter D; Gabor, Melinda; Poe, Ian; Neale, Kristie; Chaffey, Kim; Finlaison, Deborah S; Gu, Xingnian; Hick, Paul M; Read, Andrew J; Wright, Therese; Middleton, Deborah

    2015-12-01

    Hendra virus occasionally causes severe disease in horses and humans. In Australia in 2013, infection was detected in a dog that had been in contact with an infected horse. Abnormalities and viral RNA were found in the dog's kidney, brain, lymph nodes, spleen, and liver. Dogs should be kept away from infected horses. PMID:26583697

  13. Prevalence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium species in dog park attending dogs compared to non-dog park attending dogs in one region of Colorado.

    PubMed

    Wang, Andrea; Ruch-Gallie, Rebecca; Scorza, Valeria; Lin, Philip; Lappin, Michael R

    2012-03-23

    Dog parks are very popular in urban areas, but there are no current studies attempting to correlate visits to dog parks and risk of colonization by enteric parasites. The purpose of this study was to determine whether dog park visitation is associated with an increased prevalence of enteric parasites or an increase in prevalence of gastrointestinal signs in dogs in northern Colorado. Feces from dogs owned by veterinary students or Veterinary Teaching Hospital staff members were submitted with a completed survey form detailing dog park attendance rates, fecal character scores, and other clinical information. Feces were examined microscopically for parasites after sugar centrifugation, for Giardia spp. cysts and Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts by a commercially available immunofluorescence assay (FA) and the FA positive samples were genotyped after PCR amplification. The Giardia assemblages were determined using the glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) β-giardin and triose phosphate isomerase (TPI) genes and the Cryptosporidium species were determined using the heat shock protein-70 gene. A total of 129 fecal samples were assayed; 66 were from dog park attending dogs and 63 were from non-dog park-attending dogs. The overall parasite prevalence rate was 7.0% (9 of 129 samples). Dog park attending dogs were more likely to be positive for Giardia or Cryptosporidium than non-dog park-attending dogs (p=0.0279), but there was no association of gastrointestinal signs with dog park attendance or with fecal flotation or FA results. The five Giardia isolates were assemblage C and/or D and the one Cryptosporidium isolate was Ctenocephalides canis. PMID:21890275

  14. History of guide dog use by veterans.

    PubMed

    Ostermeier, Mark

    2010-08-01

    The first guide dog school was established in Germany during World War I to care for German soldiers blinded in that war. Other schools in Germany followed. Observation by an American at one of the schools led to the creation of the first guide dog school in the United States in 1929, "The Seeing Eye." Additional U.S. schools were opened during and after World War II. This article discusses the history of guide dog use by veterans, including the formation of the first guide dog schools in response to aiding blinded servicemen, and the involvement of federal agencies and guide dog schools in providing assistance to blinded veterans. PMID:20731263

  15. Serum haptoglobin concentrations in dogs with liver disease.

    PubMed

    Crawford, K; Warman, S M; Marques, A I; Yool, D A; Eckersall, P D; McCulloch, E; Lynn, K; Mellanby, R J; Gow, A G

    2013-12-14

    Dogs with liver disease have been shown to have increased serum C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations. However, it is unclear whether dogs with liver disease also have increased serum haptoglobin concentrations. The aim of the study was to measure serum haptoglobin concentrations in healthy dogs, hospitalised dogs and dogs with liver diseases. Haptoglobin concentrations were measured in 30 healthy dogs, 47 hospitalised dogs with non-hepatic illness, 46 dogs with congenital portosystemic shunt (cPSS) and 11 dogs with primary hepatopathy. Haptoglobin concentrations were not significantly different between cPSS dogs with and without hepatic encephalopathy (HE), thus all cPSS dogs were considered as one group. Haptoglobin concentrations were significantly different between the remaining groups (P<0.0001). Hospitalised ill dogs had significantly higher haptoglobin concentrations than healthy dogs (P<0.001), dogs with cPSS (P<0.001) and dogs with primary hepatopathy (P<0.05). There was no significant difference between haptoglobin concentrations in healthy dogs, dogs with cPSS and dogs with primary hepatopathy. Haptoglobin concentrations were not significantly increased in dogs with liver diseases or in dogs with cPSS and HE. This is in contrast with the previously reported CRP results. This study demonstrates that liver function should be considered when interpreting haptoglobin concentrations in dogs. PMID:24158322

  16. Pathological features of polyneuropathy in three dogs.

    PubMed

    Tsuboi, Masaya; Uchida, Kazuyuki; Ide, Tetsuya; Ogawa, Mizue; Inagaki, Takehiko; Tamura, Shinji; Saito, Miyoko; Chambers, James K; Nakayama, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    Canine polyneuropathy is a neurological disorder characterized by a dysfunction of multiple peripheral nerves. The etiology of the disease is diverse; it may occur in cases of infectious, immune-mediated, or hereditary conditions or in association with endocrinopathy, neoplasm, or chemical intoxication. It is often difficult to determine the etiology through clinical symptoms. The aim of this study is to investigate pathological differences among three canine polyneuropathy cases with each presumably having a different etiology. Cases included a 13-month-old female border collie (Dog No.1), a 21-month-old male chihuahua (Dog No.2) and an 11-year-old male beagle (Dog No.3). Clinical examinations revealed hindlimb ataxia and sensory loss in Dog No.1, forelimb paralysis and vertebral pain in Dog No.2, and paddling-gait and hypothyroidism in Dog No.3. Histopathologically, axonal swelling and pale myelin were observed in Dog No.1. Giant axons mimicking giant axonal neuropathy were obvious in Dog No.2. Dog No.3 showed atrophic axons and severe interstitial edema. Distributions of peripheral nerve lesions coincided with respective clinical symptoms. According to their clinical and pathological features, Dogs No.1 and No.2 were suspected of hereditary polyneuropathy, while Dog No.3 seemed to have hypothyroidism-associated polyneuropathy. As each case demonstrated unique pathological features, different pathogeneses of peripheral nerve dysfunction were suggested. PMID:23123885

  17. Efficacy of albendazole against giardiasis in dogs.

    PubMed

    Barr, S C; Bowman, D D; Heller, R L; Erb, H N

    1993-06-01

    Efficacy of albendazole for treating giardiasis in dogs was assessed in 3 experiments. In experiment 1, Giardia cysts were cleared from feces of 5 of 7 dogs (as determined by the zinc-sulfate concentration technique) after the dogs received a single dose of albendazole (25 mg/kg of body weight, PO), whereas feces of 3 of 7 dogs became clear of cysts without treatment. In experiment 2, feces of 5 of 5 dogs became clear of cysts after albendazole treatment (25 mg/kg, PO, q 12 h for 4 doses); feces of 1 of 5 untreated control dogs became clear. In experiment 3, feces of 18 of 20 dogs became clear of cysts after albendazole (25 mg/kg, PO, q 12 h for 4 doses) was given; none of the 20 control dogs had feces clear of cysts. Signs of toxicosis were not observed in any dog. These results indicate that a single dose of albendazole (25 mg/kg, PO) is not effective for treating giardiasis in dogs. However, 4 doses of albendazole (25 mg/kg, PO, q 12 h) are highly effective and non-toxic for treatment of giardiasis in dogs. PMID:8323064

  18. Incidence and impact of dog attacks on guide dogs in the UK: an update.

    PubMed

    Moxon, R; Whiteside, H; England, G C W

    2016-04-01

    Data on dog attacks on Guide Dogs' stock were reviewed to investigate the characteristics of the attacks. An average of 11.2 attacks occurred each month. Nearly all of the attacks occurred in public areas, 68.4 per cent of victim dogs were qualified guide dogs and 55.5 per cent of victim dogs were working in harness when they were attacked. Guide Dogs' stock were injured in 43.2 per cent of attacks and veterinary costs for attacks were estimated at £34,514.30. Over 40 per cent of qualified guide dogs' working ability was affected and >20 per cent of qualified guide dogs required some time off from working after a dog attack. Twenty dogs were permanently withdrawn from the Guide Dogs' programme as a result of dog attacks, 13 of which were qualified and working with guide dog owners at the time of the withdrawal; this resulted in a financial cost of >£600,000 to the charity. More importantly perhaps, temporary and permanent withdrawals have a significant impact upon the mobility and independence of guide dog owners and in many cases significantly impacted their emotional well-being. PMID:26924739

  19. Continued distress among abandoned dogs in Fukushima.

    PubMed

    Nagasawa, Miho; Mogi, Kazutaka; Kikusui, Takefumi

    2012-01-01

    In Fukushima, Japan, a prolonged refugee situation caused by a major nuclear incident after the earthquake of March 11, 2011 has led to the unintentional abandonment of many pets. We received stray or abandoned dogs from rescue centers in Fukushima Prefecture. During re-socialization training and health care, we accessed the behavioral characteristics and the urine cortisol level of each dog and compared them with those of other abandoned dogs not involved in this earthquake. The dogs from Fukushima showed significantly lower aggression toward unfamiliar people, trainability, and attachment to their caretakers; also, urine cortisol levels in the dogs from Fukushima were 5-10-fold higher than those in abandoned dogs from another area of Japan. These results suggested that the dogs from Fukushima suffered through an extremely stressful crisis. PMID:23061007

  20. 77 FR 54368 - Service Dogs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-05

    ... published in the Federal Register (76 FR 35162) a proposed rule to amend VA regulations to broaden and... quality of care that the VA-system can provide. 76 FR 35163. One commenter additionally noted that the... AFFAIRS 38 CFR Part 17 RIN 2900-AN51 Service Dogs AGENCY: Department of Veterans Affairs. ACTION:...

  1. [Glomerulonephritis in dogs and cats].

    PubMed

    Reinacher, M; Frese, K

    1991-04-01

    Immunohistology and special staining of plastic sections allow diagnosis and differentiation of subtypes of glomerulonephritis in dogs. Frequency and clinical importance of these forms of glomerulonephritis vary significantly. In cats, glomerulonephritis occurs frequently in FIV-positive cats but is rare in animals suffering from persistent FeLV infection or FIP. PMID:2068715

  2. 4 CFR 25.12 - Dogs and other animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Dogs and other animals. 25.12 Section 25.12 Accounts... AND ON ITS GROUNDS § 25.12 Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing eye dogs or other guide dogs, shall not be brought into the GAO Building or on its grounds for other than...

  3. 4 CFR 25.12 - Dogs and other animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Dogs and other animals. 25.12 Section 25.12 Accounts... AND ON ITS GROUNDS § 25.12 Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing eye dogs or other guide dogs, shall not be brought into the GAO Building or on its grounds for other than...

  4. 4 CFR 25.12 - Dogs and other animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dogs and other animals. 25.12 Section 25.12 Accounts... AND ON ITS GROUNDS § 25.12 Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing eye dogs or other guide dogs, shall not be brought into the GAO Building or on its grounds for other than...

  5. 4 CFR 25.12 - Dogs and other animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Dogs and other animals. 25.12 Section 25.12 Accounts... AND ON ITS GROUNDS § 25.12 Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing eye dogs or other guide dogs, shall not be brought into the GAO Building or on its grounds for other than...

  6. 4 CFR 25.12 - Dogs and other animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Dogs and other animals. 25.12 Section 25.12 Accounts... AND ON ITS GROUNDS § 25.12 Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing eye dogs or other guide dogs, shall not be brought into the GAO Building or on its grounds for other than...

  7. Retrospective analysis of spinal arachnoid cysts in 14 dogs.

    PubMed

    Rylander, Helena; Lipsitz, David; Berry, Wayne L; Sturges, Beverly K; Vernau, Karen M; Dickinson, Peter J; Añor, Sonia A; Higgins, Robert J; LeCouteur, Richard A

    2002-01-01

    Spinal cord dysfunction secondary to spinal arachnoid cysts (SACs) has been reported previously in dogs. This retrospective study reviews the clinical signs, radiographic findings, and outcome after surgical resection of SACs in 14 dogs. Plain vertebral column radiographs and myelography were done in all dogs. Computed tomography (CT) was done in 7 dogs and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in 3 dogs. Affected dogs were between 1 and 12 years of age, and 8 of 14 were Rottweilers. Abnormalities detected on neurological examination depended on the location of the SAC. Five dogs had bilobed or multiple SACs. SACs were located in the cervical vertebral column in 11 dogs and in the thoracic vertebral column in 4 dogs. All dogs had dorsally or dorsolaterally located SACs. Two dogs also had additional ventrally located SACs. Spinal cord compression secondary to intervertebral disc extrusion or protrusion was demonstrated at the site of the SACs in 2 dogs. Surgical resection of the SACs was completed in all dogs. Eleven dogs were available for follow-up. Five weeks postoperatively, 7 dogs improved in neurological function, with some residual ataxia and paresis in 6 of these dogs. Neurological function had deteriorated in 4 dogs. It was concluded from this study that Rottweilers have a higher incidence of SACs than other breeds of dog. Furthermore, bilobed or multiple SACs can occur commonly, and myelography effectively localized SACs in dogs. Surgical resection of SACs resulted in improvement in neurological function in the majority of treated dogs. PMID:12465766

  8. [Lens luxation in dogs: a retrospective study of 134 dogs (2000-2011)].

    PubMed

    Betschart; Hässig; Spiess

    2014-03-01

    This retrospective study evaluated cases of lens luxation in dogs that were documented at the University of Zurich Veterinary Teaching Hospital between 2000 and 2011. A total 134 dogs were included in the study. This population of dogs with lens luxation represents 0.41 % of all dogs presented to the Zurich Veterinary Teaching Hospital (32'523) and 3.02 % of all dogs presented to the ophthalmology service during the same time period. The 134 dogs represented over 40 different breeds, including mixed breeds. 63 of the dogs were male, 71 were female. The 134 dogs were divided in primary lens luxation (86 of the 134 dogs, 64 %) and secondary lens luxation (48 dogs, 36 %). The most frequent causes for secondary lens luxation were glaucoma (58 %), cataract (19 %) and trauma (17 %). This study shows the predisposition for primary lens luxations in terrier breeds, Chinese Crested dogs, Pinscher and Spitz. In contrast, Siberian Huskies, Basset Hounds, Bearded Collies, Cairn Terriers, mixed breed dogs, Bolonka Zwetna, Boston Terriers, Borzoi, Doberman, Eurasian, Leonberg, Luzerner Niederlaufhund and Weimaraner suffered significantly more often from secondary lens luxation. There was no sex predilection for primary or secondary lens luxation. Dogs with primary lens luxation were on average 7.39 ± 3.02 years old, which is significantly younger than the dogs with secondary lens luxation (9.12 ± 3.38 years). Dogs with primary lens luxation showed a significantly higher rate of a bilateral development than those with secondary lens luxation (85.5 % of the dogs with primary lens luxation and only 14.5 % of the dogs with secondary lens luxation showed it in both their eyes). PMID:24568806

  9. VARIABILITY IN THE ULTRASONOGRAPHIC APPEARANCE OF THE PANCREAS IN HEALTHY DOGS COMPARED TO DOGS WITH HYPERADRENOCORTICISM.

    PubMed

    Granger, L Abbigail; Hilferty, Michael; Francis, Taylor; Steiner, Jörg M; Gaschen, Lorrie

    2015-01-01

    Anecdotally, an unusually hyperechoic pancreas can be found in seemingly healthy dogs on ultrasound examination and the prevalence and clinical significance of this finding is unknown. The objective of this study was to describe the prevalence of a hyperechoic and/or heterogenous pancreas in healthy dogs and correlate these findings to weight, age, and body condition score (BCS). An additional objective was to describe the prevalence of a hyperechoic and/or heterogenous pancreas in dogs with hyperadrenocorticism and compare this to the healthy dogs. Pancreata of 74 healthy dogs were evaluated prospectively and pancreatic echogenicity and echotexture were graded. Each dog's age, BCS, and weight were recorded. Dogs were screened for health by physical examination, serum chemistry panel, urine specific gravity, and a canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity assay. Pancreatic images for 92 dogs having hyperadrenocorticism were also reviewed and pancreatic echogenicity and echotexture were recorded. The prevalence of pancreatic hyperechogenicity in normal dogs was 7% (5 of 74) and heterogeneity was 40% (30 of 74). No correlation existed between pancreatic echogenicity and weight, age, or BCS (P > 0.1 for all sets). A statistically significant increase in the proportion of dogs having a hyperechoic pancreas was found in the hyperadrenocorticism sample of dogs (40%, 37 of 92, P < 0.0001). The underlying cause of pancreatic variability in the few healthy dogs and in dogs with hyperadrenocorticism is unknown and the varying appearance of the pancreas in these samples confounds interpretation of diseases such as chronic pancreatitis. PMID:25850824

  10. Urinary tract manifestations of protothecosis in dogs.

    PubMed

    Pressler, Barrak M; Gookin, Jody L; Sykes, Jane E; Wolf, Alice M; Vaden, Shelly L

    2005-01-01

    Records of 13 dogs with systemic infection with Prototheca sp. from 3 veterinary teaching hospitals were reviewed. Acute renal failure secondary to disseminated infection with Prototheca zopfii was diagnosed in 2 dogs. In 1 dog, acute renal failure developed during administration of immunosuppressive drugs for treatment of anterior uveitis. During diagnostic evaluation of this dog, Prototheca sp. organisms were noted in urine sediment and renal biopsy specimens. In the 2nd dog, acute renal failure was diagnosed after treatment for bacterial cystitis. After diagnosis of protothecosis, organisms were successfully isolated by aerobic urine culture. Both dogs with acute renal failure did not respond to conventional medical therapy. In total, Prototheca sp. was noted in urine sediment in 4 of 8 dogs and successfully cultured from urine in 5 of 7 dogs. Four of 5 dogs had organisms noted in the kidneys on histopathologic examination. In all dogs, the species identified was P zopfii. Sensitivity testing of 3 isolates revealed wide differences in in vitro drug resistance. Examination and culture of urine is recommended as a practical method for diagnosis of systemic infection with Prototheca sp. PMID:15715059

  11. Going to the Dogs: The Dog and I, LLC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Priscilla

    2008-01-01

    How do you go from being a successful mechanical engineer or the manager of an optical store to giving up the security of those positions and caring for man's best friend? Just ask the mother and daughter team of Diane Holstein and Lisa Ferrerio, co-owners of The Dog and I. Everyone has the dream of doing a job they love, but not everyone can make…

  12. Behavioural changes in dogs treated with corticosteroids.

    PubMed

    Notari, Lorella; Burman, Oliver; Mills, Daniel

    2015-11-01

    In human medicine, psychiatric side effects among patients on corticosteroid therapy are widely reported, but this appears to have been largely overlooked in the animal literature despite glucocorticoids being widely used in veterinary medicine. Therefore the aim of the current study was to identify possible psycho-behavioural changes in dogs treated with corticosteroids. Two different methodologies were used. Firstly, dog owners were asked to fill a 12 item questionnaire aimed at further validating the initial results of a previous survey relating to changes seen when their dog was receiving corticosteroid treatment. In a second study, a population of dogs undertook behavioural tests aimed at objectively identifying changes when receiving corticosteroid therapy. In the first study, a sample of owners whose dogs were receiving treatment for dermatological, orthopaedic or other conditions evaluated their dogs' behaviour on and off therapy, using a seven point scale. The survey was completed by 44 dog owners with dogs receiving treatment with a range of corticosteroid preparations (mainly prednisolone and methylprednisolone) and 54 dog owners with dogs receiving treatment with other drugs, mainly antibiotics and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Dogs under corticosteroid treatment were reported to be significantly less playful, more nervous/restless, more fearful/less confident, more aggressive in the presence of food, more prone to barking, more prone to startle, more prone to reacting aggressively when disturbed, and more prone to avoiding people or unusual situations. In the second study, eleven “treatment” dogs were tested both before and during corticosteroid treatment with either methyl-prednisolone or prednisolone to assess their sensitivity to a potentially aversive sound stimulus. Eleven control dogs were also tested at the same time intervals in the same environment. Dogs were exposed to a brief dog growl while they explored bowls containing food

  13. Welcoming max: Increasing pediatric provider knowledge of service dogs.

    PubMed

    Stace, Laura Britton

    2016-08-01

    Service dogs have been used in the adult population for decades. Recently, there has been a diversification in types of service dogs, specifically for the pediatric population. Although guide dogs and mobility dogs are accepted in society, autism assistance dogs, seizure alert and response dogs and diabetic alert dogs are relatively new. As pediatric service dogs attract more attention, pediatric providers need to be prepared to answer parental inquires regarding service dog use. The pediatric provider is well equipped to identify children who could benefit from a service dog intervention and should be able to make a referral to a reputable service dog provider. This article presents guidance on appropriate patient selection, making a service dog referral, and risks and benefits involved. Pediatric providers are ideally positioned to be leaders in implementing this evolving new assistive technology that can help to alleviate pediatric disabilities for both the patient and family. PMID:27502802

  14. Degenerative myelopathy in two Boxer dogs.

    PubMed

    Miller, A D; Barber, R; Porter, B F; Peters, R M; Kent, M; Platt, S R; Schatzberg, S J

    2009-07-01

    Degenerative myelopathy (DM) is a common, slowly progressive, debilitating disease reported in several dog breeds, including the German Shepherd Dog and Pembroke Welsh Corgi. Boxer dogs present occasionally for a thoracolumbar myelopathy for which no cause is identified on MRI or cerebrospinal fluid analysis. Despite a lack of a histologic description of DM in the Boxer in the veterinary literature, such dogs are presumed to have DM. Here we report 2 histologically confirmed cases of DM in the Boxer breed in which histologic studies disclosed marked degenerative changes in the spinal cord that were most prominent in the thoracic and cranial lumbar segments. Lesions consisted of myelin vacuolation and degeneration, myelophagocytosis, reactive astrocytosis, and ellipsoid formation most prominent in the lateral and ventral funiculi. We present a detailed histologic description of DM in the Boxer dog and compare it to DM in other purebred dogs. PMID:19276068

  15. Acceptance of Dog Guides and Daily Stress Levels of Dog Guide Users and Nonusers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsunaka, Kumiko; Koda, Naoko

    2008-01-01

    The degree of acceptance of dog guides at public facilities, which is required by law in Japan, was investigated, and evidence of rejection was found. Japanese people with visual impairments who used dog guides reported higher daily stress levels than did those who did not use dog guides. (Contains 3 tables and 1 figure.)

  16. "What Are All These Dogs Doing at School?" Using Therapy Dogs to Promote Children's Reading Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jalongo, Mary Renck

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses how registered therapy dogs can motivate and support children as they practice reading aloud in the company of the dog and with the support of the dog's handler. It also offers practical advice to educators, librarians, administrators, and community members seeking to implement such a program in their communities.

  17. Some effects of sarcoptic mange on dogs.

    PubMed

    Arlian, L G; Morgan, M S; Rapp, C M; Vyszenski-Moher, D L

    1995-10-01

    Sequential changes in pathology were examined for scabies-infested dogs to determine the effects of infestation with Sarcoptes scabiei var. canis. During 8 wk of infestation with S. scabiei, the progression of the disease was evaluated weekly by skin scrape, clinical examination, and blood analyses. At 8 wk, selected organs were microscopically examined for histopathology. All infested dogs developed an advanced level of scabies infestation by 8 wk. Of the 36 blood parameters evaluated, only values for erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) deviated significantly from the normal ranges for dogs. However, infested dogs had significantly (P < 0.01) lower average hemoglobin and hematocrit concentrations after 8 wk of infestation compared to their values prior to infestation or to the values for the control dogs. Red blood cell levels for infested dogs dropped significantly (P < 0.01) from preinfestation concentrations by week 8. Conversely, by 8 wk total white blood cell and neutrophil concentrations were significantly (P < 0.01) greater than uninfested controls. Also, whereas average eosinophil concentrations were not statistically different for infested dogs compared to controls, some individual infested dogs exhibited eosinophilia at 4-8 wk of infestation. The ESRs for infested dogs were significantly (P < 0.01) greater at week 6 and 8 than for experimental dogs prior to infestation or control dogs. All parameters except neutrophils had returned to preinfestation levels by 2 wk after treatment for scabies. Neutrophil concentrations were no longer significantly different by 4 wk posttreatment. There were no significant differences in serum enzyme, biochemical and electrolyte concentrations between infested and control dogs.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7472858

  18. Diagnosis and Management of Cholesteatomas in Dogs.

    PubMed

    Risselada, Marije

    2016-07-01

    Surgical intervention of aural cholesteatomas in dogs can be curative. Imaging findings include a soft tissue density in the middle ear and destruction of the bone of the bulla with characteristics of an aggressive lesion. Dogs with early stage disease have a better outcome than those with chronic disease, temporal bone involvement and neurologic signs. Dogs with recurrent disease can be reoperated or managed medically with long-term resolution or palliation of clinical signs. PMID:26972889

  19. Congenital anorectal abnormalities in six dogs.

    PubMed

    Prassinos, N N; Papazoglou, L G; Adamama-Moraitou, K K; Galatos, A D; Gouletsou, P; Rallis, T S

    2003-07-19

    Congenital anorectal abnormalities were diagnosed in three male and three female dogs. One dog had anal stenosis, three had a persistent anal membrane, and the other two had an imperforate anus associated with a rectovaginal fistula. Five of the dogs were treated surgically, and four of them which were followed up for periods ranging from one to five years continued to pass faeces normally. PMID:12892267

  20. Humanity's Dual Response to Dogs and Wolves.

    PubMed

    Treves, Adrian; Bonacic, Cristian

    2016-07-01

    Dogs were first domesticated 31 000-41 000 years ago. Humanity has experienced ecological costs and benefits from interactions with dogs and wolves. We propose that humans inherited a dual response of attraction or aversion that expresses itself independently to domestic and wild canids. The dual response has had far-reaching consequences for the ecology and evolution of all three taxa, including today's global 'ecological paw print' of 1 billion dogs and recent eradications of wolves. PMID:27185394

  1. Dirofilaria infections in working dogs in Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Miterpáková, M; Antolová, D; Hurníková, Z; Dubinský, P; Pavlacka, A; Németh, J

    2010-06-01

    A monitoring programme aimed at the diagnosis of subcutaneous dirofilariasis and heartworm disease in working (police and military) dogs in Slovakia has been performed during the period of September 2007 to February 2008. In co-operation with the Ministry of the Interior and the Ministry of Defence, in total, 710 dogs (591 police dogs and 119 military dogs) were investigated for the presence of microfilariae in blood. All police and military dogs in active service held on the territory of Slovakia were included. Microfilariae were detected in 118 (20.0%) police dogs and 10 (8.4%) military dogs. The most infected individuals originated from southern parts of Slovakia (Trnava region 53.6% and Nitra region 39.6%); the prevalence was low in northern regions (Zilina 3.1% and Presov 6.6%). In several districts of southern Slovakia, the prevalence of subcutaneous dirofilariasis in working dogs exceeded 40%. In all infected animals, the autochthonous origin of the disease was confirmed; however, due to the frequent movement of working dogs, it was not possible to identify the exact locality of infection. At present, a dog living in Nemsová village in Trencín district (north-western part of the country) is regarded as the northernmost localized autochthonous case of subcutaneous dirofilariasis in Slovakia. In three dogs, co-infection of Dirofilaria repens and Dirofilaria immitis was detected. High prevalence rates in working dogs and the zoonotic characteristic of the disease represent an undoubtedly important veterinary and medical problem that requires the urgent introduction of prophylactic and control measures. PMID:19728899

  2. Malicious paraquat poisoning in Oklahoma dogs.

    PubMed

    Bischoff, K; Brizzee-Buxton, B; Gatto, N; Edwards, W C; Stair, E L; Logan, C

    1998-06-01

    Paraquat is a restricted use herbicide which is extremely toxic to companion animals when ingested. This report details one incident of malicious poisoning involving 6 dogs. All dogs were from the same geographic area, and 5 had pulmonary and renal lesions consistent with paraquat toxicosis. Diagnosis was initiated by a modified dithionite spot test on vomitus from 1 dog. Subsequent tissue paraquat levels ranged from non-detectable to 1 ppm. PMID:9610494

  3. Gastrointestinal basidiobolomycosis in a dog

    PubMed Central

    OKADA, Kazuki; AMANO, Shinjiro; KAWAMURA, Yoshio; KAGAWA, Yumiko

    2015-01-01

    An 8-year-old, spayed, female Shiba dog was presented to a referring veterinarian with a complaint of chronic diarrhea and anorexia. Ultrasound and radiographs revealed an irregular mass in the pelvic cavity. The mass and the affected section of colon were surgically removed. Histopathological examination revealed multifocal coalescing granulomas and effaced intestinal structures. Central necrotic debris surrounded by multinucleated giant cells, lymphocytes, plasma cells and neutrophils was observed. Numerous, irregularly branched hyphae with pale basophilic, thin walls and occasional bulbous enlargements at the tips were present. Polymerase chain reaction identified Basidiobolus ranarum, successfully confirming a definitive diagnosis of basidiobolomycosis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of intestinal basidiobolomycosis in a dog. PMID:25960121

  4. Coccygeal chordoma in a dog.

    PubMed

    Munday, John S; Brown, Cathy A; Weiss, Raul

    2003-05-01

    A 4-cm diameter spherical mass was removed from the region of the second coccygeal vertebra of a 6-year-old female Doberman Pinscher dog. The mass had been present for 7 months and was described as multilobular and smooth. Histologically, the neoplasm consisted of small spindle-shaped cells surrounding lobules of large vacuolated polygonal cells. Mucin was present within most lobules. The large polygonal cells stained positively with antibodies against vimentin, cytokeratin, and S-100 protein. Although the spindle-shaped cells stained positively with antibodies against vimentin, they only occasionally contained cytokeratin. The histology and immunohistochemistry are consistent with that reported for chordoma. Although 4 chordomas have previously been reported in dogs, this is the first case in which immunohistochemistry has been used to support the histological diagnosis. Neither recurrence nor metastasis was reported 10 months after surgical excision. PMID:12735353

  5. CANINE: a robotic mine dog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stancil, Brian A.; Hyams, Jeffrey; Shelley, Jordan; Babu, Kartik; Badino, Hernán.; Bansal, Aayush; Huber, Daniel; Batavia, Parag

    2013-01-01

    Neya Systems, LLC competed in the CANINE program sponsored by the U.S. Army Tank Automotive Research Development and Engineering Center (TARDEC) which culminated in a competition held at Fort Benning as part of the 2012 Robotics Rodeo. As part of this program, we developed a robot with the capability to learn and recognize the appearance of target objects, conduct an area search amid distractor objects and obstacles, and relocate the target object in the same way that Mine dogs and Sentry dogs are used within military contexts for exploration and threat detection. Neya teamed with the Robotics Institute at Carnegie Mellon University to develop vision-based solutions for probabilistic target learning and recognition. In addition, we used a Mission Planning and Management System (MPMS) to orchestrate complex search and retrieval tasks using a general set of modular autonomous services relating to robot mobility, perception and grasping.

  6. Essential thrombocythemia in a dog.

    PubMed

    Mizukoshi, Takeshi; Fujino, Yasuhito; Yasukawa, Kuniyoshi; Matumoto, Hidefumi; Matsumura, Shingo; Nagasaki, Teppei; Ohno, Koichi; Tsujimoto, Hajime; Shimoda, Tetsuya

    2006-11-01

    A two-year old male Welsh Corgi was referred for persistent thrombocytosis and occasional seizure. Hematological findings indicated marked thrombocytosis, eosinophilia, basophilia and moderate anemia. Bone marrow examination revealed marked megakaryocytic hyperplasia with morphologic abnormality. A diagnosis of essential thrombocythemia was made and the treatment was initiated with combination chemotherapy and maintained by prednisolone and busulfan. The dog successfully achieved complete remission on 100 days after initial presentation and has been good in health without chemotherapy since then. PMID:17146180

  7. Pharmacokinetics of cannabidiol in dogs.

    PubMed

    Samara, E; Bialer, M; Mechoulam, R

    1988-01-01

    Cannabidiol (CBD) is one of the major nonpsychoactive cannabinoids produced by Cannabis sativa L. Recent studies have shown that CBD has a high protective index, comparable to that of phenobarbital and phenytoin. Because CBD has been reported to possess both anticonvulsant and antiepileptic activity, its pharmacokinetics were studied in dogs after the administration of two iv doses (45 and 90 mg) and one oral dose (180 mg) to dogs. After iv administration, CBD was rapidly distributed, followed by a prolonged elimination. It has a terminal half-life of 9 hr. CBD plasma levels declined in a triphasic fashion. The total body clearance of CBD was 17 liters/hr (after the 45-mg dose) and 16 liters/hr (after the 90-mg dose). This clearance value, after its normalization to blood clearance using mathematical equations, approaches the value of the hepatic blood flow; the extraction ratio in the liver is 0.74. CBD was observed to have a large volume of distribution, approximately 100 liters. In the dose range of 45 to 90 mg, the increase in the AUC was proportional to the dose, a fact that indicates that the pharmacokinetic profile of CBD in this dose range was not dose dependent. In three of the six dogs studied, CBD could not be detected in the plasma after oral administration. In the other three, the oral bioavailability ranged from 13 to 19%. The results of this study show that CBD is barely absorbed after oral administration to dogs. This low bioavailability may be due to a first pass effect. PMID:2900742

  8. [Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency in dogs].

    PubMed

    van Noort, R

    1990-07-01

    Pancreatic exocrine insufficiency is the most common cause of maldigestion in dogs. This is usually caused by irreversible atrophy of the pancreas which subsequently requires life-long substitution therapy. The pathophysiology, symptoms and diagnosis are briefly reviewed in the present paper. The Trypsin-like-immunoreactivity test is recommended for establishing the diagnosis. Finally, treatment and possible causes of the failure of therapy are discussed. PMID:2196714

  9. Blastomycosis in a postpartum dog.

    PubMed

    Panciera, David L; Troy, Gregory C; Purswell, Beverly J

    2014-10-01

    Transplacental infection with Blastomyces dermatitidis is rare in humans and unknown in the dog. A Doberman pinscher bitch was diagnosed with blastomycosis 25 days after whelping. Clinical signs were noted after whelping and were progressive. All 9 pups were free of clinical signs and had negative urine Blastomyces antigen tests at 6 weeks of age and remained free of signs of illness through 11 months of age. The bitch responded to treatment with itraconazole. PMID:25379395

  10. Pneumatosis coli in a dog.

    PubMed

    Russell, Nicholas J; Tyrrell, Dayle; Irwin, Peter J; Beck, Catherine

    2008-01-01

    A 17-year-old, castrated male Maltese was presented with chronic polyphagia and a 2-week history of tenesmus, diarrhea, hematochezia, weight loss, and ribbon-like feces. Pneumatosis coli was diagnosed by abdominal radiography. Concurrent hyperadrenocorticism was suspected. The clinical signs of colorectal disease resolved within 2 days of initiating a lowresidue diet and oral metronidazole. Pneumatosis coli should be considered as a differential diagnosis for colorectal disease in dogs. PMID:18175797

  11. Blastomycosis in a postpartum dog

    PubMed Central

    Panciera, David L.; Troy, Gregory C.; Purswell, Beverly J.

    2014-01-01

    Transplacental infection with Blastomyces dermatitidis is rare in humans and unknown in the dog. A Doberman pinscher bitch was diagnosed with blastomycosis 25 days after whelping. Clinical signs were noted after whelping and were progressive. All 9 pups were free of clinical signs and had negative urine Blastomyces antigen tests at 6 weeks of age and remained free of signs of illness through 11 months of age. The bitch responded to treatment with itraconazole. PMID:25379395

  12. Dogs' social referencing towards owners and strangers.

    PubMed

    Merola, Isabella; Prato-Previde, Emanuela; Marshall-Pescini, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Social referencing is a process whereby an individual uses the emotional information provided by an informant about a novel object/stimulus to guide his/her own future behaviour towards it. In this study adult dogs were tested in a social referencing paradigm involving a potentially scary object with either their owner or a stranger acting as the informant and delivering either a positive or negative emotional message. The aim was to evaluate the influence of the informant's identity on the dogs' referential looking behaviour and behavioural regulation when the message was delivered using only vocal and facial emotional expressions. Results show that most dogs looked referentially at the informant, regardless of his/her identity. Furthermore, when the owner acted as the informant dogs that received a positive emotional message changed their behaviour, looking at him/her more often and spending more time approaching the object and close to it; conversely, dogs that were given a negative message took longer to approach the object and to interact with it. Fewer differences in the dog's behaviour emerged when the informant was the stranger, suggesting that the dog-informant relationship may influence the dog's behavioural regulation. Results are discussed in relation to studies on human-dog communication, attachment, mood modification and joint attention. PMID:23071828

  13. Diagnosis of food allergy in dogs.

    PubMed

    Rosser, E J

    1993-07-15

    The diagnosis of food allergy was confirmed in 51 dogs while the responsiveness to a 60-day home-cooked restricted dietary trial (elimination-diet trial) was evaluated. The primary clinical sign of allergy detected and evaluated in all dogs was persistent and nonseasonally pruritic skin disease. The duration of time between starting the elimination-diet trial and remission of clinical signs was recorded. Dogs were then reexposed to diets that had been fed before testing, and the duration of time before pruritus recurred was recorded. The elapsed time during which dogs were being fed an elimination diet before remission of clinical signs was 1 to 3 weeks in 13 dogs, 4 to 6 weeks in 25 dogs, 7 to 8 weeks in 10 dogs, and 9 to 10 weeks in 3 dogs. Findings indicated that the recommendation of a 3-week elimination-diet trial for diagnosis of food allergy was adequate for only 25% of the dogs. It is recommended that test diets be fed for at least 10 weeks before a food allergy is ruled out. PMID:8407485

  14. Antiepileptic Drug Withdrawal in Dogs with Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Gesell, Felix Kaspar; Hoppe, Sonja; Löscher, Wolfgang; Tipold, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders in dogs and is treated by chronic administration of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). In human beings with epilepsy, it is common clinical practice to consider drug withdrawal after a patient has been in remission (seizure free) for three or more years, but withdrawal is associated with the risk of relapse. In the present study, the consequences of AED withdrawal were studied in dogs with epilepsy. Therefore, 200 owners of dogs with idiopathic or presumed idiopathic epilepsy were contacted by telephone interview, 138 cases could be enrolled. In 11 cases, the therapy had been stopped after the dogs had become seizure free for a median time of 1 year. Reasons for AED withdrawal were appearance or fear of adverse side effects, financial aspects, and the idea that the medication could be unnecessary. Following AED withdrawal, four of these dogs remained seizure free, seven dogs suffered from seizure recurrence, of which only three dogs could regain seizure freedom after resuming AED therapy. Due to the restricted case number, an exact percentage of dogs with seizure recurrence after AED withdrawal cannot be given. However, the present study gives a hint that similar numbers as in human patients are found, and the data can help owners of epileptic dogs and the responsible clinician to decide when and why to stop antiepileptic medication. PMID:26664952

  15. [Keeping dogs indoor aggravates infantile atopic dermatitis].

    PubMed

    Endo, K; Hizawa, T; Fukuzumi, T; Kataoka, Y

    1999-12-01

    We had a two-month-old girl with severe dermatitis since birth. Her serum RAST to HD, Df and Dp were 1.06, 0.03 and 0.01 Ua/ml respectively. A Yorkshire terrier were kept at her mother's parents' home where the patient had lived for a month since birth. Her eczema, which became markedly aggravated whenever she visited there, improved after the elimination of the dog. We investigated the relationship between keeping dogs and infantile atopic dermatitis. We studied 368 patients under the age of two years (211 boys and 157 girls). Skin symptoms were graded globally mild, moderate or severe. Total serum IgE and specific antibody titer to dog dander were measured. We asked them whether they kept dogs and specifically, where they kept dogs, outdoor, indoor, in their own house, or in their grandparents' house. 197 patients had no contact with dogs, 90 patients kept dogs outdoor and 81 patients did indoor. The positive rate of RAST (> or = 0.7 Ua/ml) to dog dander was 6.1%, 17.8% and 46.9% respectively in these three groups. There were strong statistical differences between three groups. On the other hand, among the 81 patients who kept indoor, the RAST positive rates were almost same regarding where the dogs were kept, in their own house or their grandparents' house. Interestingly this difference happens only with patients under the age of 3 months. Patients older than 4 months showed no significant differences in the positive RAST rates, whether they kept dogs indoor or outdoor. This suggests the sensitization occurs before the age of 3 months. Speaking of symptoms, patients who kept dogs indoor showed significantly more severe symptoms than patients who had no contact with dogs and patients who kept dogs outdoor. There was no significant difference between the symptoms of patients who had no contact with dogs and those of patients who kept dogs outdoor. This implies the patient's symptom will improve only by moving the dog out of the house. PMID:10666918

  16. [Recognizing and assessing aggressive behaviour in dogs].

    PubMed

    Schalke, E; Hackbarth, H

    2006-03-01

    Within the population the sensitivity to aggressive behaviour in dogs has increased. The authorities are confronted with a problem: if any incident occurs it is their task to decide whether the dogs involved constitute a threat to other people or whether the charge is only the result of a quarrel between neighbours. For this reason, an examination of the dogs with regard to their aggressive behaviour is necessary. Seen from the biological point of view, aggressive behaviour is one of four possibilities a dog can chose from to solve a conflict. The dog's intention in showing aggressive behaviour is to eliminate disturbances and to maintain a distance in space and time. Aggressive behaviour might also be necessary to acquire or defend resources essential to the dog's life. This is to secure its survival and its success in reproduction. One can see from this that aggressive behaviour is a very important and biologically necessary adjustment factor. However, when living together with man aggressive behaviour might become a problem. For the assessment and the therapy of the problem it is necessary to exa-mine the behaviour shown by the dog with regard to its cause. To be able to do this an exact anamnesis, a medical check, and an examination of the dog on the basis of its display in special situations are necessary. For this reason, exclusively veterinarians with a special further education in the field of behaviour should carry out the examination of dogs. PMID:16669189

  17. Seroprevalence of Coxiella burnetii in Australian dogs.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, A J; Norris, J M; Heller, J; Brown, G; Malik, R; Bosward, K L

    2016-09-01

    The role of dogs in the transmission of Coxiella burnetii to humans is uncertain, and extensive seroprevalence studies of dogs have not been previously conducted in Australia. This study determined C. burnetii exposure in four diverse canine subpopulations by adapting, verifying and comparing an indirect immunofluoresence assay (IFA) and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) used to detect anti-C. burnetii antibodies in humans. Canine serum samples (n = 1223) were tested with IFA from four subpopulations [breeding establishments; household pets; free-roaming dogs in Aboriginal communities; shelter dogs]. The proportions of seropositive dogs were as follows: breeding (7/309, 2.3%), household pets (10/328, 3%), Aboriginal communities (21/321, 6.5%) and shelters (5/265, 1.9%). Dogs from Aboriginal communities were 2.8 times (CI 1.5-5.1; P < 0.001) more likely to be seropositive than dogs from other populations. The ELISA was used on 86 of 1223 sera tested with IFA, and a Cohen's Kappa coefficient of 0.60 (CI 0.43-0.78) indicated good agreement between the two assays. This study has established that Australian dogs within all four subpopulations have been exposed to C. burnetii and that a higher seroprevalence was observed amongst free-roaming dogs associated with Aboriginal communities. As C. burnetii recrudesces during pregnancy and birth products contain the highest concentration of organism, individuals assisting at the time of parturition, those handling pups shortly after birth as well as those residing in the vicinity of whelping dogs are potentially at risk of developing Q fever. However, the identification of active antigen shed in excreta from seropositive dogs is required in order to accurately define and quantify the public health risk. PMID:26729351

  18. Staphylococcus pseudintermedius necrotizing fasciitis in a dog

    PubMed Central

    Weese, J. Scott; Poma, Roberta; James, Fiona; Buenviaje, Gilbert; Foster, Robert; Slavic, Durda

    2009-01-01

    Staphylococcus pseudintermedius was implicated as the cause of rapidly progressive and fatal necrotizing fasciitis in a dog. The isolate was methicillin-susceptible and did not contain genes encoding the Panton-Valentine leukocidin. While Streptococcus canis is typically considered to be the main cause of necrotizing fasciitis in dogs, staphylococci should also be considered. PMID:19721787

  19. Hendra Virus Infection in Dog, Australia, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Gabor, Melinda; Poe, Ian; Neale, Kristie; Chaffey, Kim; Finlaison, Deborah S.; Gu, Xingnian; Hick, Paul M.; Read, Andrew J.; Wright, Therese; Middleton, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Hendra virus occasionally causes severe disease in horses and humans. In Australia in 2013, infection was detected in a dog that had been in contact with an infected horse. Abnormalities and viral RNA were found in the dog’s kidney, brain, lymph nodes, spleen, and liver. Dogs should be kept away from infected horses. PMID:26583697

  20. 49 CFR 236.718 - Chart, dog.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Chart, dog. 236.718 Section 236.718 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.718 Chart, dog....

  1. 49 CFR 236.718 - Chart, dog.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Chart, dog. 236.718 Section 236.718 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.718 Chart, dog....

  2. 49 CFR 236.718 - Chart, dog.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Chart, dog. 236.718 Section 236.718 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.718 Chart, dog....

  3. Interactions of wolves and dogs in Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fritts, S.H.; Paul, W.J.

    1989-01-01

    This article reports on the nature and extent of wolf-dog interactions in Minnesota, based on investigations of complaints received by personnel of the federal government dealing with wolf-depredation control. Findings may indicate the wolf-dog interactions that can be expected in other recovery areas.

  4. 49 CFR 236.718 - Chart, dog.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Chart, dog. 236.718 Section 236.718 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.718 Chart, dog....

  5. 49 CFR 236.718 - Chart, dog.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Chart, dog. 236.718 Section 236.718 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.718 Chart, dog....

  6. Training Shelter Volunteers to Teach Dog Compliance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Veronica J.; DiGennaro Reed, Florence D.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the degree to which training procedures influenced the integrity of behaviorally based dog training implemented by volunteers of an animal shelter. Volunteers were taught to implement discrete-trial obedience training to teach 2 skills (sit and wait) to dogs. Procedural integrity during the baseline and written instructions…

  7. "The Dog Project:" Implications for Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Joanne Marie

    2004-01-01

    In this photo essay, I examine the social contexts of literacy development through an exploration of a unique organization called "The Dog Project." In this descriptive narrative, I document the ways children's interactions with their peers, the instructors, and the dogs in the project fostered their sense of self-efficacy, their…

  8. A technique for saliva collection in dogs.

    PubMed

    Phillips, P A; Newcomer, C E; Shultz, D S

    1983-10-01

    A plastic two-chambered vacuum-collection device was developed to collect saliva produced by the parotid gland in dogs. Repeated application of the device on the parotid gland papilla was atraumatic. Dogs were restrained during the collection period with a continuous intravenous infusion of ketamine hydrochloride and diazepam in lactated Ringer's solution. The anesthetic regime did not interfere with salivation. PMID:6645392

  9. Flavobacterium breve meningitis in a dog.

    PubMed

    Haburjak, J J; Schubert, T A

    1997-01-01

    An unusual, gram-negative rod was isolated in significant numbers (4+) from the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of a dog. This isolate, Flavobacterium breve, has not been identified previously as a pathogen in the dog. The case and the characteristics of the organism are described. PMID:9358418

  10. Context specificity of inhibitory control in dogs

    PubMed Central

    MacLean, Evan L.; Hare, Brian A.

    2014-01-01

    Across three experiments, we explored whether a dog's capacity for inhibitory control is stable or variable across decision-making contexts. In the social task, dogs were first exposed to the reputations of a stingy experimenter that never shared food and a generous experimenter who always shared food. In subsequent test trials, dogs were required to avoid approaching the stingy experimenter when this individual offered (but withheld) a higher-value reward than the generous experimenter did. In the A-not-B task, dogs were required to inhibit searching for food in a previously rewarded location after witnessing the food being moved from this location to a novel hiding place. In the cylinder task, dogs were required to resist approaching visible food directly (because it was behind a transparent barrier), in favor of a detour reaching response. Overall, dogs exhibited inhibitory control in all three tasks. However, individual scores were not correlated between tasks, suggesting that context has a large effect on dogs' behavior. This result mirrors studies of humans, which have highlighted intra-individual variation in inhibitory control as a function of the decision-making context. Lastly, we observed a correlation between a subject's age and performance on the cylinder task, corroborating previous observations of age-related decline in dogs' executive function. PMID:23584618

  11. Going to the 'Dogs' to Test Hypotheses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramm, Kenneth R.

    1982-01-01

    Describes an alternative method for using live animals in the classroom. A toy dog, the "Trail Tracker Hound Dog" (manufactured by CPG Products Corporation, Cincinnati, Ohio), is used to encourage development of such skills as observation, hypothesis testing, and collection and analysis of scientific data. (Author/JN)

  12. Ileal cannulation and associated complications in dogs.

    PubMed

    Hill, R C; Ellison, G W; Burrows, C F; Bauer, J E; Carbia, B

    1996-02-01

    Accurate measurement of small intestinal digestibility is important in dogs because it allows the formulation of pet foods that provide optimal nutrition at minimal cost. Digestibility measured by comparing nutrient intake to fecal excretion in intact animals does not distinguish small intestinal digestion from large intestinal bacterial fermentation. Ileal cannulation allows small intestinal digestion to be measured alone by comparing nutrient intake with ileal excretion of chyme. Nevertheless, ileal cannulation and its associated complications are not well documented in dogs. We describe the implantation of a simple T-cannula in the ileum of nine dogs for an average duration of 26 weeks. Established cannulas were well tolerated, and one dog retained the cannula for 14 months. Nevertheless, ileal effluent proved extremely caustic, and the incidence of complications in the immediate postoperative period was high. Only one dog had an unremarkable postoperative course. Complications included abscessation and cannula extrusion, followed by severe excoriation and ulceration of the skin. This excoriation could be prevented only by immediate surgical closure of the fistula. Chronic ileal cannulation is therefore a viable technique in dogs, but careful monitoring of the cannula site is essential. Dogs should be subjected to this procedure only if adequate veterinary and nursing care is available. It is preferable to maintain a colony of long-term cannulated dogs rather than to implant cannulas as needed. PMID:8699825

  13. POLLUTION DETECTION DOGS: PROOF OF CONCEPT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dogs have been used extensively in law enforcement and military applications to detect narcotics and explosives for over thirty years. Dogs are regularly used in arson investigations to detect accelerants since they are much more accurate at discriminating between accelerants an...

  14. Have Fun. Be Active with Your Dog!

    MedlinePlus

    ... together. Take a brisk walk to your local dog park. Be imaginative. Walks are great, but consider other ... obstacle course in your yard or at the park; together, move around, through, and even ... water for both you and your dog. In hot weather , go out in the morning ...

  15. Metazoan parasites of dogs in Sabah, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    MacAdam, I; Gudan, D; Timbs, D V; Urquhart, H R; Sewell, M M

    1984-02-01

    The parasites which occurred most frequently in 175 owned or stray dogs in Sabah were Ancylostoma spp. present in 68% of the animals. Dirofilaria immitis occurred in 70% of the adult dogs but neither D. immitis nor Spirocerca lupi were present in puppies under four months of age. The latter attained a prevalence of 30% in the adults. In contrast Toxocara canis occurred in 81% of the puppies but infrequently in older dogs. Dipylidium caninum was moderately prevalent (15 to 25%) in dogs of all ages. Ticks were the most common arthropod parasite being present on 26% of the dogs and were mainly Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Demodectic and sarcoptic mange were confirmed and fleas and lice were also recovered. PMID:6730003

  16. Do dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) prefer family?

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Jennifer; Vonk, Jennifer

    2015-10-01

    Kin recognition requires the ability to discriminate between one's own genetic relatives and non-relatives. There are two mechanisms that aid in kin discrimination: phenotype matching and familiarity. Dogs may be a good model for assessing these mechanisms as dogs are a promiscuous social species with a keen sense of smell. Domestic dogs of both sexes were presented with two scents (close kin, distant-kin) and preference was assessed through three measures (latency to approach, number of visits, time spent). Experiment 1 explored the possibility of phenotype matching as subjects had no contact with sires, whose scent was presented alongside a control male's scent. Experiment 2 explored recognition of siblings raised with the subjects and then separated at seven weeks of age. Whereas female dogs in this experiment did not show a statistically significant preference, male dogs showed a preference for distant-kin when presented with sire and female sibling samples. PMID:26277060

  17. Hyperferritinemia in dogs with splenic hemangiosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Chikazawa, Seishiro; Hori, Yasutomo; Hoshi, Fumio; Kanai, Kazutaka; Ito, Naoyuki; Higuchi, Seiichi

    2013-11-01

    Serum ferritin concentration increases in dogs in association with various diseases. In this study, we measured serum ferritin levels in dogs with splenic masses, using a sandwich ELISA assay. Eleven dogs with hemangiosarcoma (HSA), six with hematoma, 1 with hemangioma and 3 with lymphoma were enrolled. All dogs with HSA had serum ferritin concentrations above the normal limit (1,357 ng/ml, mean + 2× standard deviation of normal). Increased serum ferritin concentrations have also been observed in few cases of hematoma, hemangioma and lymphoma. Therefore, hyperferritinemia is not specific for splenic HSA, but may have clinical usefulness as a sensitive test for the disease. Further evaluation of serum ferritin concentrations in dogs with splenic HSA is needed. PMID:23803459

  18. Acute idiopathic polyneuropathy in the dog.

    PubMed

    Northington, J W; Brown, M J; Farnbach, G C; Steinberg, S A

    1981-08-15

    From among a large group of dogs with acute tetraparesis, we identified 10 dogs with a distinct peripheral nerve disorder. Prior to the onset of signs, all of the dogs had been healthy, and none was known to have been exposed to a neurotoxin or raccoon bite. Weakness, with hypoactive or absent segmental reflexes, became progressively worse for 1 to 21 days. Results of electromyography and nerve conduction studies invariably were compatible with a diagnosis of polyneuropathy that predominantly affected proximal nerve segments. Appearance of nerve biopsy specimens and the short time course for functional recovery suggested a demyelinative component to the disorder. The extent of recovery was variable but often rapid and complete in dogs that did not succumb to complications in the early period. Corticosteroid therapy did not demonstrably influence the outcome. This acute idiopathic polyneuropathy in the dog shares many clinical and pathologic features with idiopathic polyradiculoneuritis (Coonhound paralysis). PMID:6270046

  19. Nasca classification of hemivertebra in five dogs.

    PubMed

    Besalti, Omer; Ozak, Ahmet; Pekcan, Zeynep; Eminaga, Salih

    2005-01-01

    : Five dogs, four small mixed breed and a Doberman Pinscher, presented in our clinic with hemivertebra. Complete physical, radiological and neurological examinations were done and the spinal deformities were characterized in accord with the Nasca classification used in human medicine. Two dogs had multiple hemivertebrae (round, oval or wedge-shaped: Type 3) in the thoracic region; one dog had an individual surplus half vertebral body (Type 1) plus a wedge-shaped hemivertebra (Type 2b) in the lumbar region; one dog had multiple hemivertebrae which were fused on one side (Type 4a) in the thoracic region; and one dog had a wedge-shaped hemivertebra (Type 2a) in the cervical region. PMID:21851666

  20. Functional MRI in Awake Unrestrained Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Berns, Gregory S.; Brooks, Andrew M.; Spivak, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Because of dogs' prolonged evolution with humans, many of the canine cognitive skills are thought to represent a selection of traits that make dogs particularly sensitive to human cues. But how does the dog mind actually work? To develop a methodology to answer this question, we trained two dogs to remain motionless for the duration required to collect quality fMRI images by using positive reinforcement without sedation or physical restraints. The task was designed to determine which brain circuits differentially respond to human hand signals denoting the presence or absence of a food reward. Head motion within trials was less than 1 mm. Consistent with prior reinforcement learning literature, we observed caudate activation in both dogs in response to the hand signal denoting reward versus no-reward. PMID:22606363

  1. Bacteriological study of the liver in dogs.

    PubMed

    Niza, M M R E; Ferreira, A J A; Peleteiro, M C; Vilela, C L

    2004-08-01

    This study aimed to confirm the possible presence of bacteria in the liver of healthy dogs. Laparotomy was performed in 20 animals admitted for routine abdominal surgery. To be selected for the study, dogs had to be healthy adults without clinical liver disease, signs of infection or macroscopic liver abnormalities. Biopsy samples were histologically and bacteriologically examined. Bacteriological analysis was negative for the livers of eight of the dogs. The remaining animals harboured a diverse bacterial flora in their liver. Twelve bacterial species were identified. Histology showed that the livers of 19 dogs had minor or no abnormalities, and only one animal had interstitial fibrosis and trabecular disarrangement. Histological changes were not related to the presence of bacteria. Thus the results showed that the liver of healthy dogs may harbour different bacterial species. These microorganisms did not cause any detectable manifestation of disease, despite being potential pathogens. PMID:15352409

  2. N-desmethyldiazepam physical dependence in dogs.

    PubMed

    McNicholas, L F; Martin, W R; Pruitt, T A

    1985-11-01

    Dogs, surgically implanted with a chronic gastric fistula, were chronically dosed with N-desmethyldiazepam (32 mg/kg/day) in four divided doses to attain N-desmethyldiazepam plasma levels comparable to those observed in dogs dependent on diazepam (60 mg/kg/day). The time course of N-desmethyldiazepam abstinence was studied, beginning not less than 2 weeks after stabilization levels had been achieved. The abstinence syndrome observed after abrupt discontinuation of N-desmethyldiazepam was similar to the diazepam abstinence syndrome but differed in several important aspects. In diazepam-dependent dogs, there was a short burst of tremor very early in withdrawal (approximately 1-2 hr after the last dose of diazepam) that was not seen in N-desmethyldiazepam-dependent dogs. Signs of abstinence such as tremor, hot foot walking and twitches and jerks were more frequently observed in N-desmethyldiazepam-dependent dogs than in diazepam-dependent dogs as were decreases in food and water intake and in body weight. The overall intensity of abstinence, as measured by the Diazepam Withdrawal Abstinence Scale, was greater in N-desmethyldiazepam-dependent dogs than in dogs dependent on either lorazepam or diazepam. Plasma levels of N-desmethyldiazepam and oxazepam were nearly equal in dogs dependent on diazepam or on N-desmethyldiazepam and were 4 to 10 times greater than the plasma levels of diazepam or lorazepam in diazepam- or lorazepam-dependent dogs, respectively. Furthermore, the plasma levels of N-desmethyldiazepam and oxazepam declined much more slowly than the levels of diazepam and lorazepam. These results suggest that physical dependence on diazepam is caused by the accumulation and actions of N-desmethyldiazepam.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3932642

  3. Multifocal retinopathy of Great Pyrenees dogs.

    PubMed

    Grahn, B.H.; Philibert, H.; Cullen, C.L.; Houston, D.M.; Semple, H.A.; Schmutz, S.M.

    1998-01-01

    Forty-four related Great Pyrenees dogs were examined ophthalmoscopically. Focal retinal elevations, multiple gray-tan-pink subretinal patches, and discrete areas of tapetal hyper-reflectivity were seen in 19 dogs, ranging from 13 weeks to 10 years of age. These lesions varied in size from focal spots that were barely visible with the indirect ophthalmoscope to areas that were larger than the optic disc. Complete blood cell counts, serum biochemical profiles, urinalyses, and blood pressure measurements were completed on four affected dogs and all were within normal reference ranges. Photopic and scotopic electroretinography was completed and the a-wave and b-wave amplitudes and latencies were similar for affected and age-matched nonaffected Great Pyrenees and other normal dogs. Electroretinograms that were examined twice during a 3-year period on three affected adult dogs did not reveal significant progressive deterioration of the a or b-wave parameters. Fluorescein angiography was completed on four affected dogs of ages 1 (n = 2), 5, and 6 years. These angiograms were repeated in three of these dogs 1 year later. The blood ocular barrier was intact in these dogs but there was blocked choroidal fluorescence. Postmortem examination, light microscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy were performed on three affected puppies and two affected adult dogs. These examinations revealed that the lesions in the puppies were limited to bilateral multiple areas of retinal pigment epithelial vacuolation, hypertrophy, and apparent separation from Bruch's membrane, and multiple serous retinal detachments. The affected adult dogs had focal retinal degeneration and retinal pigment epithelial hypertrophy, hyperplasia and pigmentation. Pedigree analysis and test mating confirm that this condition is inherited, probably as an autosomal recessive trait. This condition develops at approximately 13 weeks of age and the focal areas of retinal detachment and retinal pigment

  4. Vaginal Leiomyoma in a Dog

    PubMed Central

    Kang, T. B.; Holmberg, D. L.

    1983-01-01

    The surgical treatment of vaginal leiomyoma in a seven year old Blue Heeler bitch is described. A smooth, 12 cm diameter submucosal, intraluminal, firm mass was found on vaginal examination. It appeared to arise from the left ventral vaginal wall, cranial to the clitoris but caudal to the cervix. There was no history of urinary problems and the dog was normal in all other aspects. The treatment was surgical excision of the mass via an episiotomy. Histological examination indicated a leiomyoma. The differential diagnoses, possible etiologies and control or prevention of the condition by ovariohysterectomy are also discussed. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2. PMID:17422296

  5. Proteinuria in dogs and cats

    PubMed Central

    Harley, Leyenda; Langston, Cathy

    2012-01-01

    Proteinuria is defined as the presence of protein in the urine. Normally, circulating serum proteins are blocked by the glomerulus due to size and/or charge. Any small proteins that pass through a healthy glomerulus are reabsorbed by the renal tubules or broken down by renal tubular epithelial cells. Persistent proteinuria, in the absence of lower urinary tract disease or reproductive tract disease, is usually an indication of renal damage or dysfunction. Less commonly persistent proteinuria can be caused by increased circulating levels of low molecular weight proteins. This article reviews mechanisms of proteinuria in dogs and cats and discusses the importance of screening for and ultimately treating proteinuria. PMID:23204582

  6. Proteinuria in dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Harley, Leyenda; Langston, Cathy

    2012-06-01

    Proteinuria is defined as the presence of protein in the urine. Normally, circulating serum proteins are blocked by the glomerulus due to size and/or charge. Any small proteins that pass through a healthy glomerulus are reabsorbed by the renal tubules or broken down by renal tubular epithelial cells. Persistent proteinuria, in the absence of lower urinary tract disease or reproductive tract disease, is usually an indication of renal damage or dysfunction. Less commonly persistent proteinuria can be caused by increased circulating levels of low molecular weight proteins. This article reviews mechanisms of proteinuria in dogs and cats and discusses the importance of screening for and ultimately treating proteinuria. PMID:23204582

  7. 31 CFR 407.11 - Dogs and other animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Dogs and other animals. 407.11 Section 407.11 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) SECRET... TREASURY ANNEX § 407.11 Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing-eye dogs, shall...

  8. 36 CFR 262.11 - Impounding of dogs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Impounding of dogs. 262.11... ENFORCEMENT SUPPORT ACTIVITIES Impoundments and Removals § 262.11 Impounding of dogs. Any dog found running at large in a part of the National Forest System, which has been closed to dogs running at large, may...

  9. 36 CFR 504.10 - Dogs and other animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Dogs and other animals. 504... GOVERNING SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS § 504.10 Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing-eye dogs, shall not be brought upon the premises for other than official purposes....

  10. 31 CFR 407.11 - Dogs and other animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Dogs and other animals. 407.11 Section 407.11 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) SECRET... TREASURY ANNEX § 407.11 Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing-eye dogs, shall...

  11. 36 CFR 504.10 - Dogs and other animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Dogs and other animals. 504... GOVERNING SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS § 504.10 Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing-eye dogs, shall not be brought upon the premises for other than official purposes....

  12. 36 CFR 520.11 - Dogs and other animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dogs and other animals. 520.11 Section 520.11 Parks, Forests, and Public Property SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION RULES AND REGULATIONS... Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing-eye dogs, shall not be brought upon...

  13. 36 CFR 504.10 - Dogs and other animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Dogs and other animals. 504... GOVERNING SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS § 504.10 Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing-eye dogs, shall not be brought upon the premises for other than official purposes....

  14. 31 CFR 91.11 - Dogs and other animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Dogs and other animals. 91.11 Section 91.11 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance MONETARY OFFICES... GROUNDS § 91.11 Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing-eye dogs, shall not...

  15. 36 CFR 520.11 - Dogs and other animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Dogs and other animals. 520.11... THE BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS OF THE NATIONAL ZOOLOGICAL PARK OF THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION § 520.11 Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing-eye dogs, shall not be brought upon...

  16. 31 CFR 91.11 - Dogs and other animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Dogs and other animals. 91.11 Section 91.11 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance MONETARY OFFICES... GROUNDS § 91.11 Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing-eye dogs, shall not...

  17. 36 CFR 262.11 - Impounding of dogs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Impounding of dogs. 262.11... ENFORCEMENT SUPPORT ACTIVITIES Impoundments and Removals § 262.11 Impounding of dogs. Any dog found running at large in a part of the National Forest System, which has been closed to dogs running at large, may...

  18. 36 CFR 504.10 - Dogs and other animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Dogs and other animals. 504.10... SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS § 504.10 Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing-eye dogs, shall not be brought upon the premises for other than official purposes....

  19. 36 CFR 262.11 - Impounding of dogs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Impounding of dogs. 262.11... ENFORCEMENT SUPPORT ACTIVITIES Impoundments and Removals § 262.11 Impounding of dogs. Any dog found running at large in a part of the National Forest System, which has been closed to dogs running at large, may...

  20. 36 CFR 520.11 - Dogs and other animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Dogs and other animals. 520.11 Section 520.11 Parks, Forests, and Public Property SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION RULES AND REGULATIONS... Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing-eye dogs, shall not be brought upon...

  1. 36 CFR 504.10 - Dogs and other animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dogs and other animals. 504... GOVERNING SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS § 504.10 Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing-eye dogs, shall not be brought upon the premises for other than official purposes....

  2. 36 CFR 262.11 - Impounding of dogs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Impounding of dogs. 262.11... ENFORCEMENT SUPPORT ACTIVITIES Impoundments and Removals § 262.11 Impounding of dogs. Any dog found running at large in a part of the National Forest System, which has been closed to dogs running at large, may...

  3. 31 CFR 91.11 - Dogs and other animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Dogs and other animals. 91.11 Section 91.11 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance MONETARY OFFICES... GROUNDS § 91.11 Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing-eye dogs, shall not...

  4. 31 CFR 91.11 - Dogs and other animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Dogs and other animals. 91.11 Section 91.11 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance MONETARY OFFICES... GROUNDS § 91.11 Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing-eye dogs, shall not...

  5. 31 CFR 407.11 - Dogs and other animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dogs and other animals. 407.11 Section 407.11 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) SECRET... TREASURY ANNEX § 407.11 Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing-eye dogs, shall...

  6. 36 CFR 520.11 - Dogs and other animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Dogs and other animals. 520.11 Section 520.11 Parks, Forests, and Public Property SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION RULES AND REGULATIONS... Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing-eye dogs, shall not be brought upon...

  7. 36 CFR 262.11 - Impounding of dogs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Impounding of dogs. 262.11... ENFORCEMENT SUPPORT ACTIVITIES Impoundments and Removals § 262.11 Impounding of dogs. Any dog found running at large in a part of the National Forest System, which has been closed to dogs running at large, may...

  8. 36 CFR 520.11 - Dogs and other animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Dogs and other animals. 520.11 Section 520.11 Parks, Forests, and Public Property SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION RULES AND REGULATIONS... Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing-eye dogs, shall not be brought upon...

  9. 31 CFR 407.11 - Dogs and other animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Dogs and other animals. 407.11 Section 407.11 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) SECRET... TREASURY ANNEX § 407.11 Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing-eye dogs, shall...

  10. 31 CFR 407.11 - Dogs and other animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Dogs and other animals. 407.11 Section 407.11 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) SECRET... TREASURY ANNEX § 407.11 Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing-eye dogs, shall...

  11. 31 CFR 91.11 - Dogs and other animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dogs and other animals. 91.11 Section... CONDUCT IN OR ON THE BUREAU OF THE MINT BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS § 91.11 Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing-eye dogs, shall not be brought upon the property for other than...

  12. Decline in human dog-bite cases during a street dog sterilisation programme in Jaipur, India.

    PubMed

    Reece, J F; Chawla, S K; Hiby, A R

    2013-05-01

    Human dog-bite injuries are a major public health problem, particularly where there are large populations of free-roaming or street dogs. Dog bites are also the major source of human rabies infections. There is little information on the means to reduce these injuries. Monthly human animal-bite injury records from January 2003 to June 2011 were obtained from the main government hospital in Jaipur, India. The data were analysed and compared with records of pregnancy in street dogs in Jaipur obtained from a street dog sterilisation programme. Human animal-bite injuries showed a seasonal pattern which followed by approximately 10 weeks the seasonal peak of street dog breeding. The number of human animal bites has declined significantly since 2003. It is concluded that a street dog sterilisation programme can reduce human dog-bite injuries by reducing the maternal protective behaviour of the street dogs, as well as reducing the total size of the roaming dog population. PMID:23492927

  13. Phylogenetic Distinctiveness of Middle Eastern and Southeast Asian Village Dog Y Chromosomes Illuminates Dog Origins

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Sarah K.; Pedersen, Niels C.; Jafarishorijeh, Sardar; Bannasch, Danika L.; Ahrens, Kristen D.; Wu, Jui-Te; Okon, Michaella; Sacks, Benjamin N.

    2011-01-01

    Modern genetic samples are commonly used to trace dog origins, which entails untested assumptions that village dogs reflect indigenous ancestry or that breed origins can be reliably traced to particular regions. We used high-resolution Y chromosome markers (SNP and STR) and mitochondrial DNA to analyze 495 village dogs/dingoes from the Middle East and Southeast Asia, along with 138 dogs from >35 modern breeds to 1) assess genetic divergence between Middle Eastern and Southeast Asian village dogs and their phylogenetic affinities to Australian dingoes and gray wolves (Canis lupus) and 2) compare the genetic affinities of modern breeds to regional indigenous village dog populations. The Y chromosome markers indicated that village dogs in the two regions corresponded to reciprocally monophyletic clades, reflecting several to many thousand years divergence, predating the Neolithic ages, and indicating long-indigenous roots to those regions. As expected, breeds of the Middle East and East Asia clustered within the respective regional village dog clade. Australian dingoes also clustered in the Southeast Asian clade. However, the European and American breeds clustered almost entirely within the Southeast Asian clade, even sharing many haplotypes, suggesting a substantial and recent influence of East Asian dogs in the creation of European breeds. Comparison to 818 published breed dog Y STR haplotypes confirmed this conclusion and indicated that some African breeds reflect another distinct patrilineal origin. The lower-resolution mtDNA marker consistently supported Y-chromosome results. Both marker types confirmed previous findings of higher genetic diversity in dogs from Southeast Asia than the Middle East. Our findings demonstrate the importance of village dogs as windows into the past and provide a reference against which ancient DNA can be used to further elucidate origins and spread of the domestic dog. PMID:22194840

  14. Aprindine for treatment of ventricular arrhythmias in the dog.

    PubMed

    Muir, W W; Bonagura, J D

    1982-10-01

    Aprindine hydrochloride was administered IV and orally to 20 dogs with ventricular tachycardia. Seventeen of the 20 dogs had been unsuccessfully treated with conventional antiarrhythmic drugs. Fifteen of the 20 dogs converted to sinus rhythm after IV aprindine therapy, 4 dogs demonstrated marked slowing of their ventricular tachycardia, and 1 dog showed an increase in the rate of ventricular tachycardia. Emesis, ataxia, salivation, and nystamus were observed in 7 dogs after IV aprindine therapy. One dog developed clinical and laboratory evidence compatible with acute hepatitis. PMID:7149383

  15. Quantum non-barking dogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imari Walker, Sara; Davies, Paul C. W.; Samantray, Prasant; Aharonov, Yakir

    2014-06-01

    Quantum weak measurements with states both pre- and post-selected offer a window into a hitherto neglected sector of quantum mechanics. A class of such systems involves time dependent evolution with transitions possible. In this paper we explore two very simple systems in this class. The first is a toy model representing the decay of an excited atom. The second is the tunneling of a particle through a barrier. The post-selection criteria are chosen as follows: at the final time, the atom remains in its initial excited state for the first example and the particle remains behind the barrier for the second. We then ask what weak values are predicted in the physical environment of the atom (to which no net energy has been transferred) and in the region beyond the barrier (to which the particle has not tunneled). Thus, just as the dog that didn't bark in Arthur Conan Doyle's story Silver Blaze gave Sherlock Holmes meaningful information about the dog's non-canine environment, here we probe whether the particle that has not decayed or has not tunneled can provide measurable information about physical changes in the environment. Previous work suggests that very large weak values might arise in these regions for long durations between pre- and post-selection times. Our calculations reveal some distinct differences between the two model systems.

  16. Managing Neuropathic Pain in Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Sarah A.

    2016-01-01

    Disorders of the somatosensory system such as neuropathic pain are common in people with chronic neurologic and musculoskeletal diseases, yet these conditions remain an underappreciated morbidity in veterinary patients. This is likely because assessment of neuropathic pain in people relies heavily on self-reporting, something our veterinary patients are not able to do. The development of neuropathic pain is a complex phenomenon, and concepts related to it are frequently not addressed in the standard veterinary medical curriculum such that veterinarians may not recognize this as a potential problem in patients. The goals of this review are to discuss basic concepts in the pathophysiology of neuropathic pain, provide definitions for common clinical terms used in association with the condition, and discuss pharmacological treatment options for dogs with neuropathic pain. The development of neuropathic pain involves key mechanisms such as ectopic afferent nerve activity, peripheral sensitization, central sensitization, impaired inhibitory modulation, and pathologic activation of microglia. Treatments aimed at reducing neuropathic pain are targeted at one or more of these mechanisms. Several drugs are commonly used in the veterinary clinical setting to treat neuropathic pain. These include gabapentin, pregabalin, amantadine, and amitriptyline. Proposed mechanisms of action for each drug, and known pharmacokinetic profiles in dogs are discussed. Strong evidence exists in the human literature for the utility of most of these treatments, but clinical veterinary-specific literature is currently limited. Future studies should focus on objective methods to document neuropathic pain and monitor response to therapy in veterinary patients. PMID:26942185

  17. Metabolism of cibenzoline in dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Loh, A.C.; Williams, T.H.; Tilley, J.W.; Sasso, G.J.; Carbone, J.J.; Leinweber, F.J.; Cazes, M.

    1986-03-05

    The disposition of /sup 14/C-cibenzoline in male dogs after oral administration of 13.8 mg/kg of cibenzoline base, 4,5-dihydro-2-(2,2-diphenylcyclopropyl)-1H-imidazole, was investigated. Unchanged drug was the major excreted component in 0-24 h urine from 3 dogs, ranging from 32.2-56.6% of the dose. A phenolic metabolite was purified by TLC after Glusulase hydrolysis and identified by NMR and MS as p-hydroxycibenzoline in rearranged form, rac-4-(5-phenyl(2,3,6,7-tetrahydro-5H-pyrrolo-(1,2-a)imidazol-5-yl)) phenol. The 0-24 h urine contained 4-5% of the dose as this compound. The conditions leading to rearrangement of synthetic p-hydroxycibenzoline, trans-rac-4-(2-(4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazol-2-yl)-phenylcyclopropyl) phenol, were investigated. These studies suggested that unrearranged p-hydroxycibenzoline was excreted and that rearrangement occurred predominantly during the purification procedure. Unchanged cibenzoline, purified from urine, was analyzed by ORD/CD and found to display slight optical activity, corresponding to an optical purity of 15%. Shape of the spectra and sign (minus) were those of reference S(-) cibenzoline. p-Hydroxycibenzoline and its rearranged analog were only slightly active in inhibiting ventricular arrhythmia in rats induced by i.v. infusion of aconitine.

  18. Dog is a dog is a dog: Infant rule learning is not specific to language

    PubMed Central

    Saffran, Jenny R.; Pollak, Seth D.; Seibel, Rebecca L.; Shkolnik, Anna

    2007-01-01

    Human infants possess powerful learning mechanisms used for the acquisition of language. To what extent are these mechanisms domain-specific? One well-known infant language learning mechanism is the ability to detect and generalize rule-like similarity patterns, such as ABA or ABB (Marcus et al., 1999). The results of three experiments demonstrate that 7-month-old infants can detect and generalize these same patterns when the elements consist of pictures of animals (dogs and cats). These findings indicate that rule learning of this type is not specific to language acquisition. PMID:17188676

  19. Review on Dog Rabies Vaccination Coverage in Africa: A Question of Dog Accessibility or Cost Recovery?

    PubMed Central

    Jibat, Tariku; Hogeveen, Henk; Mourits, Monique C. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Rabies still poses a significant human health problem throughout most of Africa, where the majority of the human cases results from dog bites. Mass dog vaccination is considered to be the most effective method to prevent rabies in humans. Our objective was to systematically review research articles on dog rabies parenteral vaccination coverage in Africa in relation to dog accessibility and vaccination cost recovery arrangement (i.e.free of charge or owner charged). Methodology/Principal Findings A systematic literature search was made in the databases of CAB abstracts (EBSCOhost and OvidSP), Scopus, Web of Science, PubMed, Medline (EBSCOhost and OvidSP) and AJOL (African Journal Online) for peer reviewed articles on 1) rabies control, 2) dog rabies vaccination coverage and 3) dog demography in Africa. Identified articles were subsequently screened and selected using predefined selection criteria like year of publication (viz. ≥ 1990), type of study (cross sectional), objective(s) of the study (i.e. vaccination coverage rates, dog demographics and financial arrangements of vaccination costs), language of publication (English) and geographical focus (Africa). The selection process resulted in sixteen peer reviewed articles which were used to review dog demography and dog ownership status, and dog rabies vaccination coverage throughout Africa. The main review findings indicate that 1) the majority (up to 98.1%) of dogs in African countries are owned (and as such accessible), 2) puppies younger than 3 months of age constitute a considerable proportion (up to 30%) of the dog population and 3) male dogs are dominating in numbers (up to 3.6 times the female dog population). Dog rabies parenteral vaccination coverage was compared between “free of charge” and “owner charged” vaccination schemes by the technique of Meta-analysis. Results indicate that the rabies vaccination coverage following a free of charge vaccination scheme (68%) is closer to the

  20. How to Steal a Dog and Other Lessons in Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author relates how a lost dog gave her the idea for writing her book, "How to Steal a Dog." Her tale of serendipity began when she, a dog-lover, walked into a garden center near her home and saw a sign for a lost dog taped beside the cash register. She states that, although her story is about a girl who stole a dog and…

  1. Social referencing in dog-owner dyads?

    PubMed

    Merola, I; Prato-Previde, E; Marshall-Pescini, S

    2012-03-01

    Social referencing is the seeking of information from another individual to form one's own understanding and guide action. In this study, adult dogs were tested in a social referencing paradigm involving their owner and a potentially scary object. Dogs received either a positive or negative message from the owner. The aim was to evaluate the presence of referential looking to the owner, behavioural regulation based on the owner's (vocal and facial) emotional message and observational conditioning following the owner's actions towards the object. Most dogs (83%) looked referentially to the owner after looking at the strange object, thus they appear to seek information about the environment from the human, but little differences were found between dogs in the positive and negative groups as regards behavioural regulation: possible explanations for this are discussed. Finally, a strong effect of observational conditioning was found with dogs in the positive group moving closer to the fan and dogs in the negative group moving away, both mirroring their owner's behaviour. Results are discussed in relation to studies on human-dog communication, attachment and social learning. PMID:21874515

  2. Diagnostic testing of dogs for food hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Jeffers, J G; Shanley, K J; Meyer, E K

    1991-01-15

    Thirteen food-allergic dogs were studied to evaluate the efficacy of feeding a commercially available egg and rice diet, intradermal skin testing, and serologic testing by ELISA for diagnosing and/or characterizing food hypersensitivity. Feeding of a home-cooked whole lamb meat and rice diet for 3 weeks, followed by challenge with each dog's regular diet, served as the standard for diagnosing food hypersensitivity. Each dog underwent provocative testing with 6 individual ingredients to determine as many of its dietary allergens as possible. Prior to skin testing and serologic testing by ELISA, most dogs had been recently exposed to the offending diet and subsequently manifested clinical signs of allergy. All dogs that tolerated the aforementioned commercial diet were exposed to it for at least 7 weeks; 84.6% of food-hypersensitive dogs ate the commercial diet with impunity. Of the 2 reactors to the commercial diet, only 1 became pruritic in response to provocation testing with chicken eggs. Low sensitivity and high specificity were found for skin testing and the ELISA, indicating a lack of true- and false-positive reactions. Neither the positive nor negative predictive values adequately predicted positive and negative reactions, respectively, for either test. On the basis of these results, the commercial diet, skin testing, and anti-IgE ELISA cannot replace an owner-prepared food elimination diet for food hypersensitivity testing in dogs. PMID:2004984

  3. Consumer Acceptance of Dry Dog Food Variations

    PubMed Central

    Donfrancesco, Brizio Di; Koppel, Kadri; Swaney-Stueve, Marianne; Chambers, Edgar

    2014-01-01

    Simple Summary The objectives of this study were to compare the acceptance of different dry dog food products by consumers, determine consumer clusters for acceptance, and identify the characteristics of dog food that drive consumer acceptance. Pet owners evaluated dry dog food samples available in the US market. The results indicated that appearance of the sample, especially the color, influenced pet owner’s overall liking more than the aroma of the product. Abstract The objectives of this study were to compare the acceptance of different dry dog food products by consumers, determine consumer clusters for acceptance, and identify the characteristics of dog food that drive consumer acceptance. Eight dry dog food samples available in the US market were evaluated by pet owners. In this study, consumers evaluated overall liking, aroma, and appearance liking of the products. Consumers were also asked to predict their purchase intent, their dog’s liking, and cost of the samples. The results indicated that appearance of the sample, especially the color, influenced pet owner’s overall liking more than the aroma of the product. Overall liking clusters were not related to income, age, gender, or education, indicating that general consumer demographics do not appear to play a main role in individual consumer acceptance of dog food products. PMID:26480043

  4. Borreliosis in dogs from southern Connecticut.

    PubMed

    Magnarelli, L A; Anderson, J F; Kaufmann, A F; Lieberman, L L; Whitney, G D

    1985-05-01

    Blood samples were obtained from dogs in tick-infested regions of southern Connecticut to assess canine exposure to Borrelia burgdorferi, the etiologic agent of Lyme disease in human beings. An indirect fluorescent antibody test detected immunoglobulin (Ig)M antibodies at titers of 1:64 to 1:512 in 22 of 84 serum samples previously shown to be positive with a polyvalent rabbit anti-dog total Ig conjugate. Analyses of paired serum samples from 20 seropositive dogs revealed temporal differences in titers; changes occurred during brief (1 month) or extended (greater than 4 years) sampling periods. Clinical records for 52 seropositive dogs indicated a history of intermittent lameness in 19 of these. Limb/joint disorders typically developed in dogs without IgM antibodies, suggesting manifestation during later phases of illness. A microscopic-agglutination test was used to assess cross reactivity between B burgdorferi and 20 serovars of Leptospira interrogans and biflexa. Analyses of 63 dog serum specimens with antibodies to B burgdorferi and a series of reference rabbit sera revealed minor antigenic relatedness. There was geographic clustering of dogs with antibodies to B burgdorferi in areas of south-central and southeastern Connecticut, where human Lyme disease also occurs. PMID:3997647

  5. Hierarchical stimulus processing by dogs (Canis familiaris).

    PubMed

    Pitteri, Elisa; Mongillo, Paolo; Carnier, Paolo; Marinelli, Lieta

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the visual processing of global and local levels of hierarchical stimuli in domestic dogs. Fourteen dogs were trained to recognise a compound stimulus in a simultaneous conditioned discrimination procedure and were then tested for their local/global preference in a discrimination test. As a group, dogs showed a non-significant trend for global precedence, although large inter-individual variability was observed. Choices in the test were not affected by either dogs' sex or the type of stimulus used for training. However, the less time a dog took to complete the discrimination training phase, the higher the probability that it chose the global level of test stimulus. Moreover, dogs that showed a clear preference for the global level in the test were significantly less likely to show positional responses during discrimination training. These differences in the speed of acquisition and response patterns may reflect individual differences in the cognitive requirements during discrimination training. The individual variability in global/local precedence suggests that experience in using visual information may be more important than predisposition in determining global/local processing in dogs. PMID:24337824

  6. Dog ownership and dog walking to promote physical activity and health in patients.

    PubMed

    Epping, Jacqueline N

    2011-07-01

    Lack of physical activity is a significant risk factor for many chronic diseases and conditions and is associated with significant medical costs. Approximately half of adults and more than a third of adolescents and youth in the United States do not achieve recommended levels of physical activity. Effective population-level strategies are needed to promote activities that are practical, accessible, and sustainable and that can reach a large proportion of the population. Dog walking may be such a strategy. Walking is popular, easy, and sustainable and has a low risk of injury. Owning dogs confers many health benefits, and dog walking, in particular, can help promote physical activity and improve health. Physicians and other health care providers can play a unique and integral role in promoting physical activity among patients by recommending dog walking both to dog owners and to non-dog owners as a purposeful, enjoyable, and sustainable form of regular physical activity. PMID:23531898

  7. Efficacy of oxfendazole for the treatment of giardiosis in dogs. Experiments in dog breeding kennels.

    PubMed

    Villeneuve, V; Beugnet, F; Bourdoiseau, G

    2000-09-01

    Giardiosis is one of the most frequent parasites of dogs and cats. Since several years, the treatment is based on the use of metronidazole. A coproscopic study in four dog kennels was conducted to demonstrate, at a significant level, the efficacy of oxfendazole (Dolthène, Merial). At the posology of 11.3 mg/kg each day during three days (D1, D2 and D3), no dogs eliminated Giardia cysts and all dogs are clinically cured. The importance of hygienic measures is underlined. In kennels 1 and 2 where hygienic conditions were poor, dogs reexcreted cysts again after treatment. In kennels where the boxes were disinfected, no dogs, treated with 22.6 or 11.3 mg/kg, reexcreted Giardia cysts. PMID:11031759

  8. Circovirus in Tissues of Dogs with Vasculitis and Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Li, Linlin; McGraw, Sabrina; Zhu, Kevin; Leutenegger, Christian M.; Marks, Stanley L.; Kubiski, Steven; Gaffney, Patricia; Dela Cruz Jr, Florante N.; Wang, Chunlin; Delwart, Eric

    2013-01-01

    We characterized the complete genome of a novel dog circovirus (DogCV) from the liver of a dog with severe hemorrhagic gastroenteritis, vasculitis, and granulomatous lymphadenitis. DogCV was detected by PCR in fecal samples from 19/168 (11.3%) dogs with diarrhea and 14/204 (6.9%) healthy dogs and in blood from 19/409 (3.3%) of dogs with thrombocytopenia and neutropenia, fever of unknown origin, or past tick bite. Co-infection with other canine pathogens was detected for 13/19 (68%) DogCV-positive dogs with diarrhea. DogCV capsid proteins from different dogs varied by up to 8%. In situ hybridization and transmission electron microscopy detected DogCV in the lymph nodes and spleens of 4 dogs with vascular compromise and histiocytic inflammation. The detection of a circovirus in tissues of dogs expands the known tropism of these viruses to a second mammalian host. Our results indicate that circovirus, alone or in co-infection with other pathogens, might contribute to illness and death in dogs. PMID:23628223

  9. Comparison of the nutrient composition of commercial dog milk replacers with that of dog milk

    PubMed Central

    Heinze, Cailin R.; Freeman, Lisa M.; Martin, Camilia R.; Power, Michael L.; Fascetti, Andrea J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare the nutrient composition of commercially available dog milk replacers with that of dog milk. Design Prospective, cross-sectional study. Sample 5 dog milk samples and 15 samples of commercial dog milk replacers. Procedures Dog milk and milk replacers were analyzed for concentrations of total protein, essential amino acids, sugars, total fat, essential fatty acids, calcium, and phosphorus. Energy density was calculated. Results from milk replacers were compared with the range of the concentration of each nutrient in milk samples from mature dogs as well as the National Research Council (NRC) recommendations for puppy growth. Results Milk replacers varied widely in caloric density and concentration of nutrients such as calcium, protein, and fat. Calcium concentration was lower in 14 of 15 milk replacers than in the dog milk samples. Docosahexaenoic acid was undetectable in 12 of 15 milk replacers but present in all dog milk samples. All milk replacers had numerous essential nutrients outside of the range of the dog milk samples, and many had concentrations of amino acids, essential fatty acids, calcium, and phosphorus less than the NRC minimal requirement or recommended allowance. Compared with NRC recommendations, some dog milk samples had concentrations of total protein, linoleic acid, calcium, or phosphorus less than the recommended allowance. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance Results suggested that there was substantial variation in nutrient composition of 15 dog milk replacers and that some products were closer approximations of dog milk than others. Nearly all products would benefit from more appropriate calcium, amino acids, and essential fatty acids concentrations and better feeding directions. PMID:24871064

  10. Impacts of anthropogenic pressures on the water quality of the Gironde Estuary (SW France) from the Urban Agglomeration of Bordeaux: spatial characterization and inputs of trace metal elements (Ag, As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kessaci, Kahina; Coynel, Alexandra; Blanc, Gérard; Deycard, Victoria N.; Derriennic, Hervé; Schäfer, Jörg

    2014-05-01

    Recent European legislation (2000/60/CE) has listed eight trace metal elements as priority toxic substances for water quality. Urban metal inputs into hydrosystems are of increasing interest to both scientists and managers facing restrictive environmental protection policies, population increase and changing metal applications. The Gironde Estuary (SW France; 625 km2) is known for its metal/metalloid pollution originating from industrial (e.g. Cd, Zn, Cu, As, Ag, Hg) or agricultural sources (e.g. Cu) in the main fluvial tributaries (Garonne and Dordogne Rivers). However, little peer-reviewed scientific work has addressed the impact of urban sources on the Gironde Estuary, especially the Urban Agglomeration of Bordeaux (~1 million inhabitants) located on the downstream branch of the Garonne River. In this study, a snapshot sampling campaign was performed in 2011 for characterizing the spatial distribution of dissolved and particulate metal/metalloid (As, Ag, Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu) concentrations in three suburban watersheds: the Jalle of Blanquefort (330 km2), Eau Bourde (140 km2), and Peugue (112 km2). Furthermore, particulate metal Enrichment Factors (EF) were calculated using local geochemical background measured at the bottom of a sediment core (492 cm). Results indicated that metal concentrations displayed a high spatial variability depending on the suburban watershed and the studied element. Local concentrations anomalies were observed for: (i) As in the Eau Bourde River in dissolved (4.2 μg/l) and particulate phases (246 mg/kg; EF= 20) and attributed to a nearby industrial incinerator; (ii) Zn in the Peugue River with maximum dissolved and particulate concentrations of 87 μg/l and 1580 mg/kg (EF=17), respectively, probably due to urban habitation runoff; (iii) Ag in the Jalle of Blanquefort River with high dissolved (74 ng/l) and particulate concentrations (33.7 mg/kg; EF=117) due to industrial activities in the downstream part. Based on hydro

  11. Putative avocado toxicity in two dogs.

    PubMed

    Buoro, I B; Nyamwange, S B; Chai, D; Munyua, S M

    1994-03-01

    Two dogs were seen at the University Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya, both having histories of dyspnoea, progressively enlarging abdomens, anasarca, ascites, pleural and pericardial effusion, and pulmonary oedema. One of the dogs had a mild neutrophilic leucocytosis, elevated levels of alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase and proteinuria. Histopathological examination of the myocardium revealed some damage to myocytes and a mononuclear cellular infiltration involving the myocardium, liver and kidneys. The two dogs had a fondness for avocado fruits and, as the presenting syndrome is identical to that seen in goats, sheep and horses poisoned by avocados, a comparison is made and the probable manifestation of this poisoning presented. PMID:7898892

  12. Cat scratch disease from a domestic dog.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tun-Chieh; Lin, Wei-Ru; Lu, Po-Liang; Lin, Chun-Yu; Chen, Yen-Hsu

    2007-02-01

    Cat scratch disease (CSD), caused by Bartonella henselae, is a zoonosis and characterized by self-limited lymphadenopathy. It is transmitted commonly by scratch or bite from cats or kitten. We report an unusual case of CSD caused by a domestic dog scratch that we believe is the first report in Taiwan. A 23-year-old healthy woman developed cervical lymphadenopathy, mild fever, headache, and malaise 3 days after dog scratch. Her symptoms improved after azithromycin treatment. Serology proved B. henselae infection. The owners of a domestic dog might be at risk of "cat" scratch disease. PMID:17493900

  13. [Sled dog racing and animal welfare aspects].

    PubMed

    Schminke, A; Möbius, G

    1998-03-01

    Transport, housing and the dimensions of strain during training and race are important aspects of animal welfare. The race veterinarian has a great responsibility. He is responsible for the treatment of injured dogs and he has to give advice on all medical and animal welfare questions. The presence of the veterinarian during the entire race is very important. These veterinarians should have special knowledge of small animals and of sled dogs in particular. There should be health checks of sled dogs before and after racing similar to horse sport tournaments. PMID:9581387

  14. Introduction to myofascial trigger points in dogs.

    PubMed

    Wall, Rick

    2014-06-01

    In dogs, muscles make up 44%-57% of total body weight and can serve as source of both pain and dysfunction when myofascial trigger points are present. However, rarely is muscle mentioned as a generator of pain in dogs, and even less mentioned is muscle dysfunction. The veterinary practitioner with interest in pain management, rehabilitation, orthopedics, and sports medicine must be familiar with the characteristics, etiology, and precipitating factors of myofascial trigger points. Additionally, the development of examination and treatment skill is needed to effectively manage myofascial trigger points in dogs. PMID:25454375

  15. Laryngeal disease in dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Macphail, Catriona

    2014-01-01

    The most common disease process involving the larynx is laryngeal paralysis, which occurs much more frequently in dogs than in cats. Diagnosis of laryngeal paralysis requires close attention to anesthetic plane and coordination of respiratory effort with laryngeal motion. Surgical arytenoid lateralization improves respiration and quality of life in dogs with laryngeal paralysis; however, aspiration pneumonia is a recognized complication, and generalized neuropathy can progress. Laryngeal collapse can result from any cause of chronic upper airway obstruction, but is most often associated with unaddressed brachycephalic airway syndrome. Laryngeal neoplasia, while generally uncommon, occurs more frequently in cats than in dogs. PMID:24268331

  16. Fleas parasitizing domestic dogs in Spain.

    PubMed

    Gracia, M J; Calvete, C; Estrada, R; Castillo, J A; Peribáñez, M A; Lucientes, J

    2008-02-14

    In addition to their importance to veterinary clinical practice as ectoparasites, fleas of domestic dogs are of special concern because they can be vectors of disease, including zoonoses. Flea assemblages parasitizing domestic dogs usually comprise several flea species whose distribution is determined by factors acting at several scales. Knowledge of these factors will aid in assessment of the distribution patterns of flea parasitism, and is an important tool in developing control strategies and in evaluation of flea-borne disease risk in dogs and humans. In this survey we used data from 744 domestic dogs from 79 localities in Spain to explore the associations between the abundance of flea species, host-dependent factors (sex and age), and host habitat factors including abode (farm, house with garden, apartment), location (urban or rural), the presence of other pets, and dog activity (measured as the frequency with which dogs left their abode). We also considered environmental factors including the time of year and mean annual temperature and rainfall. Variations in flea community structure at infracommunity and component community levels were also explored. Four flea species were found parasitizing dogs. Ctenocephalides felis was the most abundant (88.02% of fleas identified), followed by Ctenocephalides canis (10.38%), Pulex irritans (1.47%) and Echidnophaga gallinacea (0.13%). Overall flea abundance was higher on dogs living on farms than in apartments, as was the abundance of Ct. felis, Ct. canis and P. irritans. Ct. felis was more abundant on dogs living in houses than in apartments, but the reverse was found for P. irritans. Overall flea abundance and Ct. canis abundance were highest in rural areas, whereas the presence of other pets sharing the abode was associated with higher overall flea abundance and Ct. felis abundance. Only P. irritans abundance was positively related to the activity of dogs. Ct. canis and P. irritans abundances were higher during the

  17. Size and demography pattern of the domestic dog population in Bhutan: Implications for dog population management and disease control.

    PubMed

    Rinzin, Karma; Tenzin, Tenzin; Robertson, Ian

    2016-04-01

    Understanding the demography of domestic dogs is essential to plan the dog population management and rabies control program. In this study, we estimated the owned and stray dog population and the proportion of owned dogs that are free-roaming in Bhutan. For this, a cross-sectional household surveys were conducted in six districts (both urban and rural areas) and two border towns in southern Bhutan. The population estimation was done by extrapolation of the mean number of dogs per household and dogs per person, whilst mark-resight survey was conducted to estimate the proportion of owned dogs that were free-roaming. A total of 1,301 (rural:585; urban:716) respondents (one per household) were interviewed of which 173 households (24.4%) in urban areas owned 237 dogs whilst 238 households (40.8%) in rural areas owned 353 dogs. The mean number of dogs per dog owning household was estimated to be 1.44 (urban:1.37 dogs; rural:1.48 dogs) and dogs per household was estimated to be 0.45 (urban:0.33; rural:0.60). The dog: human ratio was 1:16.30 (0.06 dogs per person) in urban areas and 1:8.43 (0.12 dogs per person) in rural areas. The total owned dog population based on the mean number of dogs per household and dogs per person were estimated to be 65,312 and 71,245 in the country, respectively. The male: female ratio of the owned dog was 1.31:1 in urban areas and 2.05:1 in rural areas. Majority of the dogs were local non-descript breeds in both urban (60.8%) and rural (78%) areas, and the most common source was acquisition from friends or family (44.7%). The stray dog population in Bhutan was estimated to be 48,379 (urban:22,772; rural:25,607). Of the total estimated owned dog population in the two border towns, the proportion that were found free-roaming was estimated to be 31%. The different dog population estimation methods were compared and discussed in this paper. This study generated baseline data on the demographic patterns of the owned and stray dogs in Bhutan which

  18. Evaluation of the shock index in dogs presenting as emergencies

    PubMed Central

    Porter, Adam E.; Rozanski, Elizabeth A.; Sharp, Claire R.; Dixon, Kursten L.; Lyn Price, Lori; Shaw, Scott P.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To 1) determine the normal range for Shock Index (SI) [defined as heart rate (HR)/systolic blood pressure (SBP)], in healthy dogs, and 2) compare SI in healthy dogs with dogs presenting to the emergency room (ER) deemed to be in or not in a state of shock. Design Prospective study. Animals 68 clinically normal dogs,,18 dogs that were presented to the ER deemed to be in shock and 19 dogs presenting to the ER not deemed to be in shock. Setting University teaching hospital. Interventions Peripheral or central venous blood sampling. Measurements and Main Results Heart rate and SBP were recorded on simulated presentation (healthy dogs), and emergency presentations for both dogs deemed to be in shock and dogs not deemed in shock. Dogs in shock had a median SI of 1.37 (0.87–3.13), which was significantly higher than both other groups; dogs not deemed in shock had median SI 0.73 (0.56–1.20), P<0.0001 and healthy dogs had median SI 0.78 (0.37–1.30) P<0.0001), respectively. Receiver operator characteristic curve analysis suggested a SI cut-off of 1.0, yielding an area under the receiver operator characteristic (AUROC) of 0.89 (Specificity (Sp) 89, Sensitivity (Sn) 90) when comparing dogs deemed in shock with healthy dogs, and 0.92 (Sp 95, Sn 89) when comparing dogs in shock with to dogs not deemed in shock. Conclusions The SI is an easy and non-invasive patient parameter that is higher in dogs that are deemed to be in shock than both healthy dogs and dogs presented as emergencies but not deemed to be in a state of shock. The measurement of SI may have some benefit in clinical assessment of emergency patients. PMID:23855723

  19. [Hepatitis in dogs; a review].

    PubMed

    Rothuizen, J; van den Ingh, T S

    1998-04-15

    As with most liver diseases, the symptoms of hepatitis in dogs are nearly always aspecific: the dogs eat less, are apathetic, sometimes have polyuria/polydipsia, and sometimes have diarrhoea. Hepatoencephalopathy and ascites only occur with these symptoms in very advanced stages of chronic hepatitis. Only a part of the dogs have jaundice. Because of these aspecific symptoms, the diagnosis hepatitis is often not taken into consideration, even though the presence of a liver disease can be easily detected by measuring plasma concentrations of alkaline phosphatase and bile acids, one or both of which are elevated. The diagnosis is confirmed by histological examination of a liver biopsy sample. The most common forms of hepatitis are non-specific reactive hepatitis, acute hepatitis, and chronic hepatitis. Non-specific reactive hepatitis is a reaction against endotoxin as a result of sepsis or an increased gastrointestinal absorption. Treatment is directed to the primary process. Leptospirosis also causes non-specific reactive hepatitis, but then renal insufficiency is the most prominent feature. The diagnosis is made not on the basis of a liver biopsy but on the basis of increased IgM titres against Leptospira. Immediate treatment with antibiotics and infusions at the first signs (jaundice and uraemia) can save the animal's life. Acute hepatitis can develop as a result of infection, toxins, or liver hypoxia. There is no specific treatment, but adequate recovery often occurs with supportive treatment. Corticosteroids are contraindicated. Chronic hepatitis, which can lead to cirrhosis, is the most common form of hepatitis. It is an autoimmune inflammatory reaction that is usually caused by a virus infection but sometimes by poisoning (intoxication). Long treatment with prednisolone or azathioprine is usually successful, but early recognition of the disease increases the likelihood of success. Nowadays, chronic hepatitis due to hepatic copper accumulation in Beddlington

  20. Penis Allotransplantation in Beagle Dog

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This is an original research of penis allotransplantation. The paper presents an experiment allogenic penis transplantation model in Beagles, with a focus on recovery of blood supply and changes in tissue architecture. Twenty adult Beagles were allocated to 10 pairs for penile transplantation. After operation, the skin and glans were observed. If adverse symptoms occurred, the transplanted penis was resected and pathologically examined. Frequency of urination, urinary stream, and patency level were recorded 7 days after transplantation. Cystourethrography was performed on Day 10. The transplanted penises were resected on Day 14 for pathological examination. The research showed that transplanted penises survived after allotransplantation, and the dogs regained urination ability. Penis autotransplantation in Beagles is feasible. This preliminary study shows a potential for application of this new procedure for penis transplantation in humans. PMID:26977412

  1. Tooth brushing inhibits oral bacteria in dogs.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Hayashi, Kotaro; Kijima, Saku; Nonaka, Chie; Yamazoe, Kazuaki

    2015-10-01

    In this study, scaling, polishing and daily tooth brushing were performed in 20 beagle dogs, and the number of oral bacteria was determined using a bacterial counter. The dogs were randomized into the scaling (S), scaling + polishing (SP), scaling + tooth daily brushing (SB) and scaling + polishing + tooth daily brushing (SPB) groups. Samples were collected from the buccal surface of the maxillary fourth premolars of the dogs immediately after scaling and every week thereafter from weeks 1 to 8. Throughout the study, the number of bacteria was significantly lower in the SB and SPB groups compared with the S group. The findings suggest that daily tooth brushing inhibited oral bacterial growth in the dogs. PMID:25994486

  2. Pharmacokinetics of oral dichloroacetate in dogs.

    PubMed

    Maisenbacher, Herbert W; Shroads, Albert L; Zhong, Guo; Daigle, Adam D; Abdelmalak, Monica M; Samper, Ivan Sosa; Mincey, Brandy D; James, Margaret O; Stacpoole, Peter W

    2013-12-01

    We characterized the pharmacokinetics and dynamics of dichloroacetate (DCA), an investigational drug for mitochondrial diseases, pulmonary arterial hypertension, and cancer. Adult Beagle dogs were orally administered 6.25 mg/kg q12h DCA for 4 weeks. Plasma kinetics was determined after 1, 14, and 28 days. The activity and expression of glutathione transferase zeta 1 (GSTZ1), which biotransforms DCA to glyoxylate, were determined from liver biopsies at baseline and after 27 days. Dogs demonstrate much slower clearance and greater inhibition of DCA metabolism and GSTZ1 activity and expression than rodents and most humans. Indeed, the plasma kinetics of DCA in dogs is similar to humans with GSTZ1 polymorphisms that confer exceptionally slow plasma clearance. Dogs may be a useful model to further investigate the toxicokinetics and therapeutic potential of DCA. PMID:24038869

  3. Skin neoplasms of dogs in Sydney.

    PubMed

    Rothwell, T L; Howlett, C R; Middleton, D J; Griffiths, D A; Duff, B C

    1987-06-01

    In a survey of dogs in Sydney, mastocytomas (16.1%) and histiocytomas (14.0%) were the most common in a total of 1,000 skin neoplasms. The basal cell and appendage group provided 25.5% of the neoplasms. The prevalence of the various neoplasms, the age of affected dogs, the proportion in the sexes, the common sites of occurrence and prevalence in the different breeds were broadly similar to findings in surveys in other countries, except that in the Syndeny dogs there was a greater prevalence of histiocytomas and haemangiopericytomas, a more common occurrence of histiocytomas in mature dogs, an occurrence of histiocytomas in similar numbers on the head, trunk and limbs, and a remarkably common development of squamous cell carcinomas in Dalmatians. PMID:3115242

  4. Thyroid tumors in dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Barber, Lisa G

    2007-07-01

    The clinical presentation and biologic behavior of thyroid tumors vary widely among dogs, cats, and human beings. Although thyroid tumors in dogs are rare, they are most likely to be malignant. Clinical signs are usually the result of impingement on surrounding structures, and clinical hyperthyroidism is rare. In contrast, hyperthyroidism resulting from benign thyroid proliferation is relatively common among older cats. Malignant tumors are extremely uncommon but have high metastatic potential. Irrespective of the tumor's ability to produce functional thyroid hormone, scintigraphy is often helpful in the diagnosis and staging of thyroid tumors in all three species. Treatment with surgery is a reasonable treatment option for noninvasive tumors. Iodine 131 is a well-established treatment for thyroid nodules in cats, but its effectiveness in dogs is controversial. In dogs, external beam radiation therapy has produced more consistent results in affording local tumor control when surgery is not possible. PMID:17619010

  5. Elimination of bacteria from dogs with antibiotics*

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Norman R.; van der Waaij, D.; Cohen, Bennett J.

    1974-01-01

    The effect of oral administration of neomycin cephalothin or kanamycin cephalothin on the aerobic intestinal bacterial flora, was studied in dogs maintained under isolation conditions in a conventional animal room. The dogs were successfully freed of aerobic bacteria with both combinations within two to seven days after the start of antibiotic treatment, and were maintained bacteria free for up to 21 days. Decontamination was attained more rapidly in dogs that were bathed in hexachlorophene surgical soap before and during the first and third days of antibiotic treatment. There was no evidence of toxicity from either of the antibiotic combinations. These results indicate that, as with mice and monkeys, decontamination of dogs with oral antibiotics is feasible. The technique is of potential value in preventing endogenous bacterial infections in canine experimental studies involving use of immunosuppressive agents. PMID:4529233

  6. [Imported parasites in dogs: Dirofilaria repens and Dipetalonema reconditum].

    PubMed

    Zahler, M; Glaser, B; Gothe, R

    1997-07-01

    Between June 1993 and May 1996 infections with filariae were diagnosed in 80 dogs. Five animals were infected with Dirofilaria repens and three other dogs with Dipetalonema reconditum. One of the D. reconditum positive dogs was also infected with Dirofilaria immitis. An epidemiological analysis of the cases was possible for three D. repens and two D. reconditum infected dogs. Two of the dogs with D. repens infections had been imported from Italy or Greece, the third dog had been taken by its owner to Hungary and former Yugoslavia. The dogs infected with D. reconditum were imported from Corse or Spain. Regarding the other 72 dogs with filariae, 45 animals were infected with D. immitis. For 27 dogs being negative in the D. immitis ELISA, microfilariae have been demonstrated. However, a histochemical species differentiation of the microfilariae was not possible because fresh blood smears were not available. PMID:9312900

  7. CT Pneumocolonography In Normal Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Steffey, Michele A.; Daniel, Leticia; Taylor, Sandra L.; Chen, Rachel X.; Zwingenberger, Allison L.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives of this experimental study were to describe effects of varying technical components that may contribute to an optimal protocol for CT pneumocolonography (CTP) in dogs, and to develop a standardized methodology for CTP as a future potential diagnostic tool in canine clinical patients with large bowel disease. Eight purpose-bred intact male hound cross research dogs were enrolled and randomized to groups based on variables of pressure/body position (n=4) and insufflation time (n=4). For each segment of large bowel (rectum, colorectal junction, descending colon, transverse colon, ascending colon), the adequacy of bowel preparation, % of bowel lumen filled with fecal material, and bowel tortuosity or folding were assessed. Measurements of bowel wall thickness (cm), cross-sectional bowel lumen diameter (cm), and cross-sectional bowel luminal area (cm2) were obtained at standardized locations within the large bowel. False discovery rates (FDR) were calculated to adjust for multiple testing. Values of FDR < 0.05 were considered significant. Differences in mean cross-sectional area and diameter and bowel wall thickness under increasing pressure were not significant after adjusting for multiple testing; some had raw p values <0.05. Ascending colon diameter and ascending colon area significantly increased with insufflation time (FDR<0.05). No other response variables showed a significant change with insufflation time. The optimal insufflation pressure for maintaining pneumocolon in this study was determined to be 20 mmHg. CTP is a feasible technique to provide consistent distension for imaging of the large bowel and further study on application of CTP in clinical patients is warranted. PMID:25545308

  8. Serum-free thyroxine concentrations, measured by chemiluminescence assay before and after thyrotropin administration in healthy dogs, hypothyroid dogs, and euthyroid dogs with dermathopathies.

    PubMed Central

    Paradis, M; Pagé, N; Larivière, N; Fontaine, M

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the usefulness of free thyroxine (FT4) measured by chemiluminescence in evaluating thyroid function in dogs. Total thyroxine (TT4) concentration measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA) and FT4 measured by chemiluminescence were evaluated in 30 healthy dogs, 60 euthyroid dogs with concurrent dermatopathies, and 30 hypothyroid dogs before and after intravenous stimulation with 1 or 2 IU of thyrotropin (TSH). Median basal TT4 and median TT4 concentrations at 4 h post-TSH administration were not significantly different (P < 0.0001) between healthy dogs and euthyroid dogs with dermatopathies, but were significantly higher than those in hypothyroid dogs. In healthy dogs, the median TT4 concentrations at 4 and 6 h post-TSH administration were not significantly different. Median basal FT4 and median FT4 concentrations at 4 h post-TSH administration in healthy dogs were significantly lower (P < 0.0001) than those in euthyroid dogs with dermatopathies, but significantly higher than the same parameters in hypothyroid dogs. There was a significant difference between the median FT4 concentrations at 4 h post-TSH administration and median basal FT4 concentrations for healthy dogs and euthyroid dogs with dermatopathies, but not for hypothyroid dogs. Lastly, in healthy dogs, median FT4 concentrations at 4 and 6 h post-TSH administration were not significantly different. Free thyroxine measured by chemiluminescence was highly correlated (P < 0.0001; Spearman r = 0.91) with FT4 measured by the reference method for free hormone analysis, namely, equilibrium dialysis, when sera from 56 dogs were used. PMID:8705973

  9. The trochanter tertius in a dog.

    PubMed

    Pinna, S; Grandis, A; Spadari, A

    2015-01-01

    The tuberositas glutaea is a rudimentary structure in the dog's os femoris. It gives attachment to the superficial gluteal muscle, and is known by veterinary anatomists and orthopedic surgeons as trochanter tertius. We report an atypical eminence exposed through a surgical approach on a Cane Corso Dog. Anatomic and radiographic investigations led us to recognize this eminence as an abnormally grown tuberositas glutaea. PMID:25720655

  10. Dog models for blinding inherited retinal dystrophies.

    PubMed

    Petersen-Jones, Simon M; Komáromy, András M

    2015-03-01

    Spontaneous canine models exist for several inherited retinal dystrophies. This review will summarize the models and indicate where they have been used in translational gene therapy trials. The RPE65 gene therapy trials to treat childhood blindness are a good example of how studies in dogs have contributed to therapy development. Outcomes in human clinical trials are compared and contrasted with the result of the preclinical dog trials. PMID:25671556

  11. Littoral cell angiosarcoma in a dog.

    PubMed

    Gal, A; Yamate, J; Golbar, H M; Spoerer, K; Fredrickson, R

    2013-01-01

    This report describes the microscopical and immunohistochemical characteristics of littoral cell angiosarcoma in a 12-year-old, neutered female, beagle dog. The dog succumbed to metastatic disease 3 months after diagnosis of a mid-splenic mass. The tumour was characterized by two histological patterns: anastomosing microvascular channels and microvascular papillary fronds. The neoplastic cells expressed both endothelial and histiocytic markers and were erythrophagocytic. Immunohistochemical findings consistent with malignancy were CD34 expression and high Ki67 nuclear immunoreactivity. PMID:23453493

  12. Functioning unilateral adrenocortical carcinoma in a dog

    PubMed Central

    Gójska-Zygner, Olga; Lechowski, Roman; Zygner, Wojciech

    2012-01-01

    An 11-year-old, 24-kg, intact female Siberian husky dog in anestrus had a 2-month history of polyuria and polydipsia. The dog had signs of mineralocorticoid excess such as hypertension and hypokalemia refractory to potassium supplementation. Abdominal ultrasound revealed an irregular mass in the left adrenal gland. The ACTH stimulation test for aldosterone concentration did not reveal hyperaldosteronism. Unilateral adrenalectomy was performed and histopathology identified adrenal cortical carcinoma. All clinical signs of mineralocorticoid excess ceased after surgery. PMID:23204580

  13. Dog Models for Blinding Inherited Retinal Dystrophies

    PubMed Central

    Komáromy, András M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Spontaneous canine models exist for several inherited retinal dystrophies. This review will summarize the models and indicate where they have been used in translational gene therapy trials. The RPE65 gene therapy trials to treat childhood blindness are a good example of how studies in dogs have contributed to therapy development. Outcomes in human clinical trials are compared and contrasted with the result of the preclinical dog trials. PMID:25671556

  14. Assortative mating and fragmentation within dog breeds

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background There are around 400 internationally recognized dog breeds in the world today, with a remarkable diversity in size, shape, color and behavior. Breeds are considered to be uniform groups with similar physical characteristics, shaped by selection rooted in human preferences. This has led to a large genetic difference between breeds and a large extent of linkage disequilibrium within breeds. These characteristics are important for association mapping of candidate genes for diseases and therefore make dogs ideal models for gene mapping of human disorders. However, genetic uniformity within breeds may not always be the case. We studied patterns of genetic diversity within 164 poodles and compared it to 133 dogs from eight other breeds. Results Our analyses revealed strong population structure within poodles, with differences among some poodle groups as pronounced as those among other well-recognized breeds. Pedigree analysis going three generations back in time confirmed that subgroups within poodles result from assortative mating imposed by breed standards as well as breeder preferences. Matings have not taken place at random or within traditionally identified size classes in poodles. Instead, a novel set of five poodle groups was identified, defined by combinations of size and color, which is not officially recognized by the kennel clubs. Patterns of genetic diversity in other breeds suggest that assortative mating leading to fragmentation may be a common feature within many dog breeds. Conclusion The genetic structure observed in poodles is the result of local mating patterns, implying that breed fragmentation may be different in different countries. Such pronounced structuring within dog breeds can increase the power of association mapping studies, but also represents a serious problem if ignored. In dog breeding, individuals are selected on the basis of morphology, behaviour, working or show purposes, as well as geographic population structure. The same

  15. Acute thallium toxicosis in a dog.

    PubMed

    Waters, C B; Hawkins, E C; Knapp, D W

    1992-09-15

    A Doberman Pinscher was evaluated for acute onset of gastroenteritis, characterized by anorexia, hematemesis, and hematochezia. The dog had ingested mole bait containing thallium 2 days prior to admission. Thallium toxicosis was confirmed by detection of thallium in the urine, using colorimetric analysis. The dog responded well to administration of antibiotics, fluids administered IV, warm-water enemas, and oral administration of activated charcoal slurries. PMID:1399797

  16. Peripheral Giant Cell Granuloma in a Dog.

    PubMed

    Hiscox, Lorraine A; Dumais, Yvan

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral giant cell granuloma is considered rare in the dog with little known about the clinicopathologic features. There are few reports in the veterinary literature concerning this benign, reactive lesion, formerly known as giant cell epulis. In humans, the four most commonly described reactive epulides are focal fibrous hyperplasia (fibrous epulis), pyogenic granuloma, peripheral ossifying fibroma, and peripheral giant cell granuloma. This case report describes the diagnosis and surgical management of a peripheral giant cell granuloma in a dog. PMID:26415387

  17. [Ankyloglossia in an Anatolian Shepherd dog].

    PubMed

    Grundmann, S; Hofmann, A

    2006-08-01

    Ankyloglossia, commonknown as tongue-tie, is a rare congenital oral anomaly in dogs. A complete attachment of the lingual frenulum to the floor of the oral cavity leads to limited mobility of the tongue including problems during eating and swallowing. In humans ankyloglossia is a common anomaly in newborn infants. In our report a 5-month old Anatolian Shepherd dog was surgically treated and full function of the tongue could be achieved with a horizontal-to-vertical frenuloplasty. PMID:16933707

  18. Antitussive effects of levodropropizine in the dog.

    PubMed

    Munt, P L; Clavenna, G; Algate, D R; Leach, R M

    1994-02-01

    The antitussive activity of levodropropizine (S(-)3-(4-phenyl-piperazine-1-yl)-propane-1,2-diol, DF 526, CAS 99291-25-5) was evaluated after oral administration to the conscious dog. Levodropropizine had a good antitussive activity, comparable with, but having a longer duration of action than dropropizine, the racemate from which it is derived. The antitussive activity of levodropropizine in the dog was approximately 1/20 of that of codeine phosphate. PMID:8147948

  19. Pathologic factors affecting postsplenectomy survival in dogs.

    PubMed

    Spangler, W L; Kass, P H

    1997-01-01

    The apparently high prevalence of splenomegaly in dogs, along with the surgical accessibility of the spleen, results in a relatively large number of splenectomies in dogs in clinical veterinary practice. Splenic nodular lesions are widely considered to be indicative of hemangiosarcoma and thus a disease that is ultimately fatal. This study correlates the results of complete pathologic evaluation and classification of 500 spleens obtained by splenectomy with survival information for each dog. Among the spleens examined, 257 of 500 (51.4%) were classified nonneoplastic and 241 (48.2%) were neoplastic; 2 (0.4%) were unclassified. Miscellaneous non-nodular splenomegaly accounted for 46 of 257 (18%) of the nonneoplastic lesions; nodular splenomegaly accounted for 206 of 257 (79%) of nonneoplastic splenic lesions and was composed of lymphoid hyperplastic nodules and associated hematomas, hyperplastic lymphoid nodules alone, or hematomas with no apparent underlying cause. Nodular neoplastic diseases of the spleen were divided among benign tumors (11.5%) and a variety of primary sarcomas. Hemangiosarcoma made up 51% of splenic malignancies but accounted for less than 25% of the spleens evaluated. Survival of dogs with hematomas associated with nonneoplastic conditions of the spleen was markedly different from that in dogs with hemangiosarcoma-associated hematomas, even though most could not be effectively differentiated on gross inspection. Two month postoperative survival was 83% for dogs with nonneoplastic-related hematomas, whereas only 31% of dogs with hemangiosarcoma, with or without associated hematomas, were alive after 2 months. Twelve-month survival times were 64% and 7%, respectively. An overall postsplenectomy survival rate of 52% was based on the number of dogs surviving for a minimum of 6 months postoperatively. PMID:9183768

  20. Influence of dog appeasing pheromone (DAP) on dogs housed in a long-term kennelling facility

    PubMed Central

    Grigg, E. K.; Piehler, M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Kennel facilities are commonly acknowledged as a stressful environment for many domestic dogs (Canis familiaris). One therapeutic measure used to reduce anxiety in dogs is dog appeasing pheromone (DAP), which has been found effective in reducing stress-related behaviours in a number of contexts. Aims and Objectives A pilot study was conducted to assess whether DAP would reduce frequency of stress-related behaviours in a group of eight dogs housed for teaching purposes in a long-term kennelling facility. Materials and Methods Using video analysis, proportion of time spent in stress-related behaviours for six dogs fitted with DAP collars, versus two control dogs (without collars), was compared for the time before and during DAP exposure. Results No significant differences were found either in the proportion of time spent in stress-related behaviours in the baseline versus treatment periods or between the collared and control dogs in the change in proportion of time they spent in any of the focal behaviours in the baseline versus treatment periods. Conclusions Possible reasons for these findings include an actual lack of effect of DAP on dogs housed in this long-term kennelling facility, an apparent lack of effect due to small sample size in this pilot study and high behavioural variation among individual dogs. Despite lack of a demonstrated effect of the DAP collars on these dogs, attention brought by this study to the behavioural issues seen in some of the dogs did have a positive impact, as it contributed to the development of an active, coordinated behavioural wellness and enrichment programme for the colony. PMID:26392901

  1. Treatment of Baylisascaris procyonis infections in dogs with milbemycin oxime.

    PubMed

    Bowman, Dwight D; Ulrich, Michael A; Gregory, Dawn E; Neumann, Norwood R; Legg, Walter; Stansfield, David

    2005-05-15

    An examination was made as to the ability of Sentinel Flavor Tabs (milbemycin oxime/lufenuron) to treat Baylisascaris procyonis infections in dogs. The study was designed as a critical trial and included five naturally infected dogs and two dogs that were experimentally infected. Another dog from a prior clinical trial that was treated with Sentinel Flavor Tabs as part of the original FDA submission package for intestinal nematode infections was also included with the treated dogs. Of the five naturally infected dogs treated as part of the critical trial, three were cleared of their infections. These five dogs passed a total of 52 worms after treatment; one dog retained 23 worms and the other retained 1 worm at necropsy 7 days after treatment. Two of five experimentally infected Beagle dogs that had been given mice that had been fed 200 infectious eggs, developed patent infections with the parasite. These dogs were treated, and one of the dogs passed one worm and the other passed two worms after treatment with no worms being detected at necropsy 7 days after treatment. The one dog that was treated with milbemycin oxime as part of the FDA submission was clear of worms at necropsy. Overall, the mean efficacy of Sentinel Flavor Tabs was found to be 91.0%. Of the eight dogs that were treated, six were totally cleared of their infections, a cure rate of 75%. The two dogs that did not clear their infections had very large numbers of adult B. procyonis within their intestinal tracts at the time of treatment, one dog had 40 worms (23 remaining) and the other had 26 worms (1 remaining). It is suggested that the treatment of dogs with monthly Sentinel Flavor Tabs could markedly reduce the chance of infected dogs contaminating the environment. Also, additional monthly treatments are highly likely to clear dogs of any worms not killed with the initial treatment. PMID:15845284

  2. Thrombocytopenia associated with neoplasia in dogs.

    PubMed

    Grindem, C B; Breitschwerdt, E B; Corbett, W T; Page, R L; Jans, H E

    1994-01-01

    Ten percent (214/2,059) of all dogs with cancer at North Carolina State University Veterinary Teaching Hospital had thrombocytopenia. The thrombocytopenia was associated with infectious/inflammatory etiologies in 4%, miscellaneous disorders (therapy, bone marrow failure, disseminated intravascular coagulation) in 35%, and neoplasia without identifiable secondary factors in 61% of cancer-bearing dogs. Classifying these dogs by tumor groups revealed the following proportionate ratios: lymphoid, 29%; carcinoma, 28%; sarcoma, 20%; hemic neoplasia, 7%; multiple, 5%; unclassified, 3%; benign, 3%; brain, 3%; and endocrine, 3%. Dogs with hemangiosarcoma, lymphoma, and melanoma were at increased risk of developing thrombocytopenia. Cytotoxic therapy was the major factor increasing the risk of thrombocytopenia in dogs with melanoma. Golden Retrievers were the only breed recognized with a predisposition to develop thrombocytopenia. If thrombocytopenia is identified in a dog with cancer, we recommend thorough evaluation of the coagulation system before surgery or therapy, and careful consideration of the risks and potential benefits of myelosuppressive or L-asparaginase therapy. PMID:7884725

  3. Suppression of fertility in adult dogs.

    PubMed

    Maenhoudt, C; Santos, N R; Fontbonne, A

    2014-06-01

    Unfortunately, the overpopulation of dogs is still a problem in the majority of countries and even though surgical methods of sterilization, the most traditional and commonly used technique, have been intensively performed, the impact on the dog population is negligible. The neutering of companion animals as ovariohysterectomy (spaying) or orchidectomy (castration) has its limitations because of the cost, the need of a surgical environment and the risk of surgical and/or anaesthetical complications (ACCD 2009). In fact, surgical castration has been banished in some northern European countries and has limited acceptance in other countries. In a survey performed in Sao Paulo, Brazil, 56.5% of the owners of adopted shelter dogs were against the surgical procedure for different reasons (Soto et al. 2005). Currently, the options for contraception, defined as suppression of fertility are based on hormonal treatment. The treatments can be divided into analogues of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH), progestins and androgens. Other possibilities of contraception are via the immunological system with vaccinations against GnRH, the luteinizing hormone (LH) receptor and the zona pellucida proteins. Finally, there is also the intra-epididymal or intratesticular injection of sclerosing substances in dogs. Mechanical devices to disrupt fertility are not used anymore due to the side effects. Suppression of fertility in adult dogs will be reviewed in order of use and possible impact on the dog population. PMID:24947862

  4. Pharmacokinetics of oral amantadine in greyhound dogs.

    PubMed

    Norkus, C; Rankin, D; Warner, M; KuKanich, B

    2015-06-01

    This study reports the pharmacokinetics of amantadine in greyhound dogs after oral administration. Five healthy greyhound dogs were used. A single oral dose of 100 mg amantadine hydrochloride (mean dose 2.8 mg/kg as amantadine hydrochloride) was administered to nonfasted subjects. Blood samples were collected at predetermined time points from 0 to 24 h after administration, and plasma concentrations of amantadine were measured by liquid chromatography with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. Noncompartmental pharmacokinetic analyses were performed. Amantadine was well tolerated in all dogs with no adverse effects observed. The mean (range) amantadine CMAX was 275 ng/mL (225-351 ng/mL) at 2.6 h (1-4 h) with a terminal half-life of 4.96 h (4.11-6.59 h). The results of this study can be used to design dosages to assess multidose pharmacokinetics and dosages designed to achieve targeted concentrations in order to assess the clinical effects of amantadine in a variety of conditions including chronic pain. Further studies should also assess the pharmacokinetics of amantadine in other dog breeds or using population pharmacokinetics studies including multiple dog breeds to assess potential breed-specific differences in the pharmacokinetics of amantadine in dogs. PMID:25427541

  5. [Intersexuality in dogs: causes and genetics].

    PubMed

    Kuiper, H; Distl, O

    2004-06-01

    Failures in the establishment of chromosomal, gonadal and phenotypic sex can cause intersexuality in dogs. Thus, diagnosis of chimaerism, mosaicism, sex reversal syndrome, and male or female pseudohermaphroditism in intersex individuals has to be based on the inspection of the chromosomes, gonads and the phenotypic appearance of the reproductive organs. In a study over two years, seven dogs of different breeds suspected to be intersexes were cytogenetically investigated. A sry-negative XX-sex reversal syndrome was diagnosed in a Jack Russel Terrier. In a mixbred dog a persistent Mullerian duct syndrome (PMDS) was found and a Border Terrier Dog showed an XX/XY chromosomal chimaerism. In further four dogs of different breeds, a female constitution of sex chromosomes was seen. As a sign of intersexuality each of these dog showed an enlarged clitoris. A differentiation between XX-sex reversal syndrome and female pseudohermaphroditism was not possible because there was no information on the internal genital tract and gonads available. PMID:15287579

  6. Experimental canine parvovirus infection in dogs.

    PubMed

    Pollock, R V

    1982-04-01

    In specific pathogen-free dogs, clinical signs of experimental canine parvovirus infection were mild, inconsistent and transient. Clinical signs were more pronounced in conventionally-raised dogs, but the severe disease reported in field cases was not reproduced in either group. A pronounced plasma viremia occurred on the 2nd to 4th day post-infection (d.p.i.) in dogs challenged oronasally. Antibody was detectable on the 5th d.p.i. Marked pyrexia was rare, but a significant temperature rise usually coincided with the appearance of antibody and the cessation of viremia. Significant lymphopenia, but not leukopenia, occurred on the 3rd to 7th d.p.i. Virus could be readily isolated from fecal matter on the 3rd to 8th d.p.i.; a few dogs continued to shed virus for up to 12 days. In dogs challenged parenterally, the onset of elevated temperatures, viral shed and antibody production occurred 24-48 hours sooner. Convalescent dogs were no longer contagious for susceptible contact animals 25 days or longer after challenge, although infectious virus persisted in feces for more than 6 months at room temperature. Active giardiasis seemed to exacerbate the clinical syndrome, although treatment with corticosteroids or anti-thymocyte serum did not. PMID:6211333

  7. Efficacy of fenbendazole against giardiasis in dogs.

    PubMed

    Barr, S C; Bowman, D D; Heller, R L

    1994-07-01

    Efficacy of fenbendazole at 2 dosages for treating naturally acquired giardiasis in dogs was assessed. Giardia cysts were not detected in the feces of 6 of 6 group-1 dogs (as determined by use of the zinc sulfate concentration technique) after fenbendazole treatment (50 mg/kg of body weight, PO, q 24 h, for 3 doses). Cysts were not detected in the feces of 6 of 6 group-2 dogs after fenbendazole treatment (50 mg/kg of body weight, PO, q 8 h, for 3 days). However, cysts were not detected in the feces of only 1 of 6 group-3 (nontreated control) dogs. Signs of toxicosis were not observed in any dog. These results indicate that the current label dosage (for the treatment of Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonina, Ancylostoma caninum, Uncinaria stenocephala, Trichuris vulpis, and Taenia pisiformis, but not Giardia spp) of fenbendazole (50 mg/kg, PO, q 24 h, for 3 doses) is also effective for treating giardiasis in dogs. PMID:7978640

  8. [Plasma amino acid concentrations in aggressive dogs].

    PubMed

    Juhr, Norbert-Christian; Brand, Ulrike; Riedel, Eberhard

    2005-01-01

    Following the hypothesis that metabolic screens may be useful tools in the diagnosis of canine aggression we have investigated the blood plasma amino acid levels of dogs which have been found aggressive (N = 10) against dogs or men in comparison to non-aggressive dogs (N = 10). In summary, the aggressive dogs showed elevated plasma concentrations of the neurophysiological active aromatic amino acids tryptophan (46/171 micromol/l, p < 0,001), tyrosine (38/67 micromol/l, p < 0.01) and histidine (74/91 micromol/l, p < 0.01) and lower lysine concentrations (175/151 micromol/l, p < 0.05), which seems to point to a stress situation of these dogs. The nitrogen metabolism is impaired in the urea-cycle in the conversion of ornithine (17/34 micromol/l, p < 0.01) to citrulline (64/47 micromol/l). Higher levels of branched chain amino acids, especially leucine (122/150 micromol/l, p < 0.01), mainly metabolized in muscles, and isoleucin (60/71 micromol/l, p < 0.05) show a high energy potential. The acidose-stimulator methionine (48/78 micromol/l, p < 0.01) proved elevated. The results show that the changed behavior in the aggressive dogs is also reflected in their free amino acid plasma concentrations, independent of the question whether these data are the cause or the result of the aggressivity. PMID:15803756

  9. Who Let the Dog in? How to Incorporate a Dog into a Self-Contained Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Katherine L.

    2007-01-01

    Described in this article are outcomes, procedures, and suggestions for incorporating a dog into a classroom for students with emotional or behavioral disorders. First, the outcomes for the inclusion of a dog are presented and are reported from an empirical study conducted by the author. Next, details are provided on how teachers would initially…

  10. Recombinant rabies virus expressing dog GM-CSF is an efficacious oral rabies vaccine for dogs

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhao; Ruan, Juncheng; Tang, Lijun; Jia, Ziming; Cui, Min; Zhao, Ling; Fu, Zhen F.

    2015-01-01

    Developing efficacious oral rabies vaccines is an important step to increase immunization coverage for stray dogs, which are not accessible for parenteral vaccination. Our previous studies have demonstrated that recombinant rabies virus (RABV) expressing cytokines/chemokines induces robust protective immune responses after oral immunization in mice by recruiting and activating dendritic cells (DCs) and B cells. To develop an effective oral rabies vaccine for dogs, a recombinant attenuated RABV expressing dog GM-CSF, designated as LBNSE-dGM-CSF was constructed and used for oral vaccination in a dog model. Significantly more DCs or B cells were activated in the peripheral blood of dogs vaccinated orally with LBNSE-dGM-CSF than those vaccinated with the parent virus LBNSE, particularly at 3 days post immunization (dpi). As a result, significantly higher levels of virus neutralizing antibodies (VNAs) were detected in dogs immunized with LBNSE-dGM-CSF than with the parent virus. All the immunized dogs were protected against a lethal challenge with 4500 MICLD50 of wild-type RABV SXTYD01. LBNSE-dGM-CSF was found to replicate mainly in the tonsils after oral vaccination as detected by nested RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Taken together, our results indicate that LBNSE-dGM-CSF could be a promising oral rabies vaccine candidate for dogs. PMID:26436700

  11. Recombinant rabies virus expressing dog GM-CSF is an efficacious oral rabies vaccine for dogs.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ming; Wang, Lei; Zhou, Songqin; Wang, Zhao; Ruan, Juncheng; Tang, Lijun; Jia, Ziming; Cui, Min; Zhao, Ling; Fu, Zhen F

    2015-11-17

    Developing efficacious oral rabies vaccines is an important step to increase immunization coverage for stray dogs, which are not accessible for parenteral vaccination. Our previous studies have demonstrated that recombinant rabies virus (RABV) expressing cytokines/chemokines induces robust protective immune responses after oral immunization in mice by recruiting and activating dendritic cells (DCs) and B cells. To develop an effective oral rabies vaccine for dogs, a recombinant attenuated RABV expressing dog GM-CSF, designated as LBNSE-dGM-CSF was constructed and used for oral vaccination in a dog model. Significantly more DCs or B cells were activated in the peripheral blood of dogs vaccinated orally with LBNSE-dGM-CSF than those vaccinated with the parent virus LBNSE, particularly at 3 days post immunization (dpi). As a result, significantly higher levels of virus neutralizing antibodies (VNAs) were detected in dogs immunized with LBNSE-dGM-CSF than with the parent virus. All the immunized dogs were protected against a lethal challenge with 4500 MICLD50 of wild-type RABV SXTYD01. LBNSE-dGM-CSF was found to replicate mainly in the tonsils after oral vaccination as detected by nested RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Taken together, our results indicate that LBNSE-dGM-CSF could be a promising oral rabies vaccine candidate for dogs. PMID:26436700

  12. Human perception of fear in dogs varies according to experience with dogs.

    PubMed

    Wan, Michele; Bolger, Niall; Champagne, Frances A

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the role of experience in humans' perception of emotion using canine visual signals, we asked adults with various levels of dog experience to interpret the emotions of dogs displayed in videos. The video stimuli had been pre-categorized by an expert panel of dog behavior professionals as showing examples of happy or fearful dog behavior. In a sample of 2,163 participants, the level of dog experience strongly predicted identification of fearful, but not of happy, emotional examples. The probability of selecting the "fearful" category to describe fearful examples increased with experience and ranged from.30 among those who had never lived with a dog to greater than.70 among dog professionals. In contrast, the probability of selecting the "happy" category to describe happy emotional examples varied little by experience, ranging from.90 to.93. In addition, the number of physical features of the dog that participants reported using for emotional interpretations increased with experience, and in particular, more-experienced respondents were more likely to attend to the ears. Lastly, more-experienced respondents provided lower difficulty and higher accuracy self-ratings than less-experienced respondents when interpreting both happy and fearful emotional examples. The human perception of emotion in other humans has previously been shown to be sensitive to individual differences in social experience, and the results of the current study extend the notion of experience-dependent processes from the intraspecific to the interspecific domain. PMID:23284765

  13. Human Perception of Fear in Dogs Varies According to Experience with Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Michele; Bolger, Niall; Champagne, Frances A.

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the role of experience in humans’ perception of emotion using canine visual signals, we asked adults with various levels of dog experience to interpret the emotions of dogs displayed in videos. The video stimuli had been pre-categorized by an expert panel of dog behavior professionals as showing examples of happy or fearful dog behavior. In a sample of 2,163 participants, the level of dog experience strongly predicted identification of fearful, but not of happy, emotional examples. The probability of selecting the “fearful” category to describe fearful examples increased with experience and ranged from.30 among those who had never lived with a dog to greater than.70 among dog professionals. In contrast, the probability of selecting the “happy” category to describe happy emotional examples varied little by experience, ranging from.90 to.93. In addition, the number of physical features of the dog that participants reported using for emotional interpretations increased with experience, and in particular, more-experienced respondents were more likely to attend to the ears. Lastly, more-experienced respondents provided lower difficulty and higher accuracy self-ratings than less-experienced respondents when interpreting both happy and fearful emotional examples. The human perception of emotion in other humans has previously been shown to be sensitive to individual differences in social experience, and the results of the current study extend the notion of experience-dependent processes from the intraspecific to the interspecific domain. PMID:23284765

  14. Computed tomography myelographic findings in dogs with cervical spondylomyelopathy.

    PubMed

    da Costa, Ronaldo C; Echandi, Rita L; Beauchamp, Dustin

    2012-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) myelography is used occasionally in the diagnosis of cervical spondylomyelopathy, but the type of lesion found in large- versus giant-breed dogs using this modality has not been characterized. Our purpose was to report the frequency of compressive lesions in large- and giant-breed dogs with cervical spondylomyelopathy and imaged using CT myelography. Fifty-eight dogs were retrospectively studied, 23 large-breed and 35 giant-breed dogs. Multiple sites of compression were found in 12 large-breed dogs (52.2%) compared to 30 (85.8%) giant-breed dogs. The main site of compression was at C5-6 and C6-7 in both large-breed (91.3%) and giant-breed (72.4%) dogs. The main cause and direction of compression was disc-associated and ventral in 19 (82.6%) of the large-breed dogs while osseous changes were the primary cause of compression in 27 (77.2%) of the giant-breed dogs, with most compressions being lateral (51.4%), followed by dorsolateral (14.2%). Osseous compression was observed at C7-T1 in eight giant-breed dogs (22.8%), and at T1-T2 or T2 only in five dogs (14.3%). Four of 23 large-breed dogs (17.4%), and seven (20%) of 35 giant-breed dogs had spinal cord atrophy. Therefore, giant-breed dogs often have multiple compressions, usually caused by osseous changes causing lateralized compressions. In large-breed dogs most compressions are disc-associated and located ventrally. Considering the number of giant-breed dogs with compressions at C7-T1, T1-2, and T2, it is important to include the cranial thoracic region when imaging dogs suspected of having cervical spondylomyelopathy. PMID:22093094

  15. Computed tomographic findings in 15 dogs with eosinophilic bronchopneumopathy.

    PubMed

    Mesquita, Luis; Lam, Richard; Lamb, Christopher R; McConnell, J Fraser

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophilic bronchopneumopathy is a disease characterized by the infiltration of the lung and bronchial mucosa by eosinophils. The aim of the present study was to describe the CT findings in a large series of dogs with confirmed diagnosis of eosinophilic bronchopneumopathy. Computed tomographic scans of 15 dogs with confirmed diagnosis of eosinophilic bronchopneumopathy were evaluated retrospectively by two boarded radiologists who reached a consensus. Abnormalities were identified in 14/15 (93%) dogs, including pulmonary parenchymal abnormalities in 14/15 (93%) dogs, bronchial wall thickening in 13 (87%) dogs, which was considered marked in eight (53%), plugging of the bronchial lumen by mucus/debris in 11 (73%) dogs, and bronchiectasis in nine (60%) dogs. Pulmonary nodules were identified in 5/15 (33%) dogs including one dog with a mass. All dogs with a nodular lung pattern had additional abnormalities. Lymphadenopathy was present in 10 dogs (67%). Lesions associated with eosinophilic bronchopneumopathy are variable and heterogeneous and encompass a wider variety of computed tomographic features than reported previously. Computed tomographic images were abnormal in the majority of affected dogs, hence CT is a useful modality to characterize the nature and distribution of thoracic lesions in dogs with eosinophilic bronchopneumopathy. PMID:25124052

  16. Diseases Transmitted by Man's Best Friend: The Dog.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Jerry; Lorber, Bennett

    2015-08-01

    The relationship between dogs and humans is ancient and mutually beneficial. Dogs have served people well as companions, workmates, guides, and protectors. However, on occasion, dogs may injure humans through biting or may transmit pathogens resulting in a large number of problems ranging from a trivial rash to life-threatening bacteremia. Given that there are more than 80 million pet dogs in the United States, it is worth knowing the potential problems that can result from canine exposure. Annually, almost 5 million people in the United States suffer a dog bite. Dog bite wounds become infected up to 15% of the time. In those who have had a splenectomy, a dog bite may transmit the bacterium Capnocytophaga canimorsus, leading to life-threatening bacteremia. Other illnesses that humans can acquire from dog contact include ringworm, diarrheal disease (salmonellosis, campylobacteriosis, and intestinal parasites), leptospirosis, brucellosis, Q fever, visceral larva migrans, and echinococcosis. Evidence exists that the family dog may serve as a reservoir for uropathogenic Escherichia coli that can lead to urinary tract infections among human household contacts. In this article we discuss dog-related infectious diseases as well as measures to minimize dog-associated illness (e.g., do not disturb sleeping dogs; HIV-infected persons who wish to acquire a puppy should have the dog's stool checked for Cryptosporidium). PMID:26350317

  17. Thyroid hormones concentrations and ECG picture in the dog.

    PubMed

    Pasławska, U; Noszczyk-Nowak, A; Kungl, K; Bioły, K; Popiel, J; Nicpoń, J

    2006-01-01

    Disorders of the thyroid gland activity are the most commonly encountered disturbances of endocrine origin in the dog. Hypo- or hyperthyroidism may disturb the function of the cardiovascular system and cause arrhythmias. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of thyroid gland activity on electrocardiogram (ECG) picture in the dog by comparing ECG curves of healthy dogs, dogs with hypothyroidism and dogs with cardiac insufficiency caused by endocardiosis of the mitral valve. The study was performed on 38 dogs, patients of the Department of Internal and Parasitic Diseases with Clinic for Horses, Dogs and Cats in Wrocław. The animals were assigned to 3 groups: Group I--control group, 13 clinically healthy dogs; Group II--14 dogs with diagnosed cardiac insufficiency caused by endocardiosis of the mitral valve; Group III--11 dogs with hypothyroidism. Clinical examination of the animals was conducted according to the following pattern: anamnesis, general clinical examination, cardiological examination (ECG, USG of the heart) and laboratory analysis (triacylglycerydes, cholesterol, T3, T4, FT4). In this study, the significant influence of thyroid gland activity on ECG picture of the evaluated dogs was found. In the dogs with hypothyroidism a decrease in the sino-atrial node activity was observed, which led to decreased heart rate. In dogs with hypothyroidism, the innerheart conduction was reduced, which was demonstrated by prolongation of the P wave, QRS complex and the QT interval. PMID:17203744

  18. Dog Ecology and Population Studies in Lagos State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Hambolu, Sunday E.; Dzikwi, Asabe A.; Kwaga, Jacob K.P.; Kazeem, Haruna M.; Umoh, Jarlath U.; Hambolu, Dupe A.

    2014-01-01

    Dog population dynamics have a major impact upon the effectiveness of rabies control strategies. As such, understanding domestic dog ecology has been recognized as central to the design of effective rabies control programmes. This study was conducted to determine the dog ecology in Lagos State using compound dog count and street dog count in the three senatorial districts (Lagos West, East and Central) of Lagos State from February, 2011 to January, 2012. A total of 546 questionnaires were distributed for the compound dog count and all were completed and returned. Various aspects of dog ecology were determined, including size, sex, breed of the dog population, management of dogs and rabies awareness among the respondents. Out of the 546 compounds surveyed, 518 (94.87%) owned at least one dog. A total of 1,427 dogs were counted from the street counts while a total of 1,447 dogs (2.8 dogs/compound) were counted from the compound count. The dogs comprised of 583 males and 864 females, out of which 64.10% are confined. The dog vaccination coverage in the dog population surveyed was 64.10% and administered majorly (91.30%) by veterinarians. Security (60%) and pets (26%) were the major reasons for keeping dogs. Majority (88.80%) of the respondents were aware of rabies and its mode of transmission, but still believed in the use of concoctions (40.40%), herbs (19.90%) and consumption of the organ of the offending dog (11.50%) for the treatment of rabies. The findings of this study showed a male: female ratio of dog to be 1:1.5 and a dog: human ratio of 1:5.6. There was also a responsible dog ownership as majority of the respondents do confine, vaccinate and provide food for their dogs. Vaccination coverage of the total dog population was however below the 70-80% target recommended by the World Health Organization to achieve herd immunity. PMID:24576383

  19. Dog ecology and population studies in Lagos State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Hambolu, Sunday Emmanuel; Dzikwi, Asabe A; Kwaga, Jacob K P; Kazeem, Haruna M; Umoh, Jarlath U; Hambolu, Dupe A

    2014-03-01

    Dog population dynamics have a major impact upon the effectiveness of rabies control strategies. As such, understanding domestic dog ecology has been recognized as central to the design of effective rabies control programmes. This study was conducted to determine the dog ecology in Lagos State using compound dog count and street dog count in the three senatorial districts (Lagos West, East and Central) of Lagos State from February, 2011 to January, 2012. A total of 546 questionnaires were distributed for the compound dog count and all were completed and returned. Various aspects of dog ecology were determined, including size, sex, breed of the dog population, management of dogs and rabies awareness among the respondents. Out of the 546 compounds surveyed, 518 (94.87%) owned at least one dog. A total of 1,427 dogs were counted from the street counts while a total of 1,447 dogs (2.8 dogs/compound) were counted from the compound count. The dogs comprised of 583 males and 864 females, out of which 64.10% are confined. The dog vaccination coverage in the dog population surveyed was 64.10% and administered majorly (91.30%) by veterinarians. Security (60%) and pets (26%) were the major reasons for keeping dogs. Majority (88.80%) of the respondents were aware of rabies and its mode of transmission, but still believed in the use of concoctions (40.40%), herbs (19.90%) and consumption of the organ of the offending dog (11.50%) for the treatment of rabies. The findings of this study showed a male: female ratio of dog to be 1:1.5 and a dog: human ratio of 1:5.6. There was also a responsible dog ownership as majority of the respondents do confine, vaccinate and provide food for their dogs. Vaccination coverage of the total dog population was however below the 70-80% target recommended by the World Health Organization to achieve herd immunity. PMID:24576383

  20. Dogs and their human companions: the effect of familiarity on dog-human interactions.

    PubMed

    Kerepesi, Andrea; Dóka, Antal; Miklósi, Ádám

    2015-01-01

    There are few quantitative examinations of the extent to which dogs discriminate between familiar and unfamiliar persons. In our study we have investigated whether dogs show differential behaviour towards humans of different degrees of familiarity (owner, familiar person, unfamiliar person). Dogs and humans were observed in eight test situations: (1) Three-way strange situation test, (2) Calling in from food, (3) Obedience test, (4) Walking away, (5) Threatening approach, (6) Playful interaction, (7) Food inhibition test and (8) Manipulation of the dog's body. Dogs distinguished between the owner and the two other test partners in those tests which involved separation from the owner (Test 1, 4), were aversive for the dog (Test 5) or involved playing interaction (Test 6). Our results revealed that the owner cannot be replaced by a familiar person in situations provoking elevated anxiety and fear. In contrasts, dogs did not discriminate between the owner and the familiar person in those tests that were based on obedient behaviour or behaviour towards an assertive person (Tests 2, 3, 7 and 8). Dogs' former training experience reduced the difference between their behaviour towards the owner and the familiar person in situations requiring obedience but it did not mask it totally. The dogs' behaviour towards each of the humans participating in the tests was consistent all over the test series. In summary, dogs discriminated between their owner and the unfamiliar person and always preferred the owner to the unfamiliar person. However, the discrimination between the owner and the familiar person is context-specific. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Canine Behavior. PMID:24548652

  1. Analysis of Pediatric Facial Dog Bites

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Henry H.; Neumeier, Anna T.; Davies, Brett W.; Durairaj, Vikram D.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize and report the epidemiological data regarding pediatric facial dog bites. For this study, a retrospective chart review was used. This study was performed at a large tertiary pediatric hospital. All children younger than 18 years who sought medical attention after a facial dog bite between January 1, 2003, and December 31, 2008, were included. Demographic and epidemiologic data were collected and analyzed. A total of 537 children were identified. The average age was 4.59 ± 3.36 years, with a slight male preponderance (52.0%). The majority of dog bites occurred in children 5 years of age or younger (68.0%). Almost all (89.8%) of the dogs were known to the children. When circumstances surrounding the bite were documented, over half (53.2%) of the cases were provoked. The most common breeds were mixed breed (23.0%), Labrador retriever (13.7%), Rottweiler (4.9%), and German shepherd (4.4%). Inpatient treatment was required in 121 (22.5%) patients with an average length of stay of 2.96 ± 2.77 days. Children 5 years or younger were more likely to be hospitalized than older children. Children 5 years old and younger are at high risk for being bitten in the face by a familiar dog and are more likely to require hospitalization than older children. Certain dog breeds are more likely to bite, and there is often a history of provocation. There is a tremendous financial and psychosocial burden associated with dog bites, and prevention strategies should focus on education with the aid of public policies and better documentation and reporting systems. PMID:24436765

  2. Dog Ownership and Adolescent Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Sirard, John R.; Patnode, Carrie D.; Hearst, Mary O.; Laska, Melissa N.

    2011-01-01

    Background Positive associations between dog ownership and adult health outcomes have been observed, but research involving youth is lacking. Purpose The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship of family dog ownership to adolescent and parent physical activity, weight status, and metabolic risk factors. Methods Data were collected on dog ownership in 618 adolescent/parent pairs between 9/2006 and 6/2008 and analyzed in 2010. Adolescent physical activity was assessed by ActiGraph accelerometers. Trained staff measured blood pressure, height and weight, and percentage body fat was calculated by impedance. A subsample of adolescents (n=318) opted for a fasting blood draw used to derive a metabolic risk cluster score. Parents and adolescents provided consent and assent, respectively. Results Adolescents’ mean age was 14.6±1.8 years and 49% were male. White and higher SES adolescents were more likely to own a dog. In models adjusted for age, puberty, gender, race, total household members and SES, adolescent physical activity (mean counts min−1 day−1) remained significantly associated with dog ownership (β=24.3, SE=12.4, p=0.05) while the association with minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity day−1 became nonsignificant (β=2.2, SE=1.2, p=0.07). No significant results were observed for other adolescent characteristics. Conclusions Dog ownership was associated with more physical activity among adolescents. Further research using longitudinal data will help clarify the role that dog ownership may have on adolescent physical activity. PMID:21335266

  3. Prevalence of antileptospiral serum antibodies in dogs in Ireland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A total of 474 serum samples from client owned Irish dogs were tested for the presence of antibodies against serovars Canicola, Icterohaemorrhagiae, Bratislava, Autumnalis, Pomona, Altodouro, Grippotyphosa, Mozdok, Hardjobovis and Ballum. Six percent of dogs presented to veterinary practitioners for...

  4. Preference for copying unambiguous demonstrations in dogs (Canis familiaris).

    PubMed

    Pongrácz, Péter; Miklósi, Adám; Timár-Geng, Katalin; Csányi, Vilmos

    2003-09-01

    In an earlier study (P. Pongracz et al., 2001), it was shown that human demonstration significantly enhances the detouring ability of dogs (Canis familiaris) around a V-shaped fence. The authors investigated the effect of the direction of the demonstrated detour and the dogs' detouring experience. They found that dogs' trial-and-error experience influences strongly the direction of the dogs' detours later, even if the demonstrator showed detours along the opposite side of the fence. However, dogs' preferences based on their own experiences were changed when the dogs observed demonstrations only on 1 side of the fence. Dogs with no trial-and-error experience followed the direction of 1-sided demonstrations. The change from dogs' own directions to the demonstrated directions seems not to be due to simple facilitative effects of social experience; the similarity with the demonstrated action depends on complex interactions between individual experience and socially provided information. PMID:14498810

  5. Allergic inhalant dermatitis attributable to marijuana exposure in a dog.

    PubMed

    Evans, A G

    1989-12-01

    Exposure to marijuana was believed to be responsible for clinical signs consistent with allergic inhalant dermatitis in a dog. The dog had facial and pedal pruritus associated with bilateral ocular discharge. Clinical signs resolved when the dog was kenneled, but returned when the dog was returned to its home. The results of intradermal skin testing, using a standard tray of 51 inhalant extracts, did not adequately account for the dog's clinical signs. Later, the owners indicated that previous residents of the owners' home had cultivated marijuana intensively inside and outside of the home. Intradermal skin testing with a source of marijuana pollen extract was performed, yielding a positive reaction in the dog and a negative reaction in another dog without clinical or historical evidence of allergic inhalant dermatitis. The affected dog was treated successfully and exclusively by hyposensitization with marijuana pollen extract. PMID:2599943

  6. The English Bulldog's Health Has Gone to The Dogs

    MedlinePlus

    ... The English Bulldog's Health Has Gone to the Dogs Aggressive breeding to change appearance dampened the pooches' ... are sicker than almost any other breed of dog. And, a new study says their genes don' ...

  7. Sugar-Free Gum Can Be Deadly for Dogs

    MedlinePlus

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158834.html Sugar-Free Gum Can Be Deadly for Dogs Keep ... could be deadly. Xylitol, the substance that gives sugar-free gum its sweetness, is dangerous to dogs, ...

  8. Plasma von Willebrand factor concentration and thyroid function in dogs.

    PubMed

    Avgeris, S; Lothrop, C D; McDonald, T P

    1990-03-15

    Plasma von Willebrand factor antigen concentration was determined in 15 dogs with suspected hypothyroidism, in 1 dog with hyperthyroidism, and in 14 euthyroid dogs. The mean +/- SEM von Willebrand factor:antigen concentration in hypothyroid dogs (47.1% +/- 12.6%) was significantly decreased (P less than 0.0005), compared with that in euthyroid dogs (94.7 +/- 5.6%). Four hypothyroid dogs were given thyroxine for 1 month and all 4 had an increase in von Willebrand factor:antigen concentration. The plasma von Willebrand factor:antigen concentration was 200% in the hyperthyroid dog. Seemingly, reduced concentrations of plasma von Willebrand factor:antigen can be found in dogs in association with congenital von Willebrand disease or with von Willebrand disease acquired through hypothyroidism. PMID:2107158

  9. Sugar-Free Gum Can Be Deadly for Dogs

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Sugar-Free Gum Can Be Deadly for Dogs Keep all products containing the sweetener xylitol out ... 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Here's an alert for all dog lovers: Sugarless chewing gum isn't good for ...

  10. Dogs lap using acceleration-driven open pumping.

    PubMed

    Gart, Sean; Socha, John J; Vlachos, Pavlos P; Jung, Sunghwan

    2015-12-29

    Dogs lap because they have incomplete cheeks and cannot suck. When lapping, a dog's tongue pulls a liquid column from the bath, suggesting that the hydrodynamics of column formation are critical to understanding how dogs drink. We measured lapping in 19 dogs and used the results to generate a physical model of the tongue's interaction with the air-fluid interface. These experiments help to explain how dogs exploit the fluid dynamics of the generated column. The results demonstrate that effects of acceleration govern lapping frequency, which suggests that dogs curl the tongue to create a larger liquid column. Comparing lapping in dogs and cats reveals that, despite similar morphology, these carnivores lap in different physical regimes: an unsteady inertial regime for dogs and steady inertial regime for cats. PMID:26668382

  11. Gallbladder aspirate from a dog.

    PubMed

    Neel, Jennifer A; Tarigo, Jaime; Grindem, Carol B

    2006-12-01

    A 7-year-old, male, castrated, Labrador Retriever with a history of pancreatitis and inflammatory bowel disease presented for vomiting and anorexia. Serum biochemistry findings were indicative of cholestasis, hepatocellular insult, and decreased hepatic function. Ultrasound examination showed sediment and gas within the gallbladder, and a diagnosis of emphysematous cholecystitis was made. Emergency gallbladder resection was performed. Cytologic examination of bile fluid collected at surgery showed a mixed population of bacteria (bactibilia) together with fungal organisms consistent with Cyniclomyces guttulatus (previously known as Saccharomycopsis guttulatus). Similar fungal organisms were seen on a fecal smear. Bacteria cultured were normal gastrointestinal flora, supporting ascending infection; the fungal organisms were interpreted as incidental. Histopathology of the gallbladder indicated active (suppurative) and chronic (lymphocytic) cholecystitis and sections of liver tissue had evidence of chronic liver disease. A positive liver culture indicated concurrent bacterial hepatitis or cholangiohepatitis. Despite supportive care, the dog continued to decline and was euthanized 30 days later. Necropsy results confirmed end stage liver disease, but an initiating cause was not found. This case highlights the role of bactibilia in the development of acute cholecystitis and the unique cytologic appearance of C guttulatus as an incidental finding in bile fluid. PMID:17123257

  12. Urachal Adenocarcinoma in a Dog.

    PubMed

    Shrader, S; Lauridson, J; King, Z; Loch, J

    2016-05-01

    An 8-year-old neutered female Labrador retriever was presented with a 3-year history of intermittent haematuria. Ultrasonographic evaluation of the urinary bladder revealed a 2 × 3 × 0.5 cm intraluminal mass arising at the dome. The mass was excised via partial cystectomy. Histopathological examination revealed neoplastic epithelial cells arranged in sheets, irregularly-branching tubules and acini within a fibrovascular stroma. Neoplastic cells were cuboidal to polygonal with abundant foamy amphophilic cytoplasm, typically with a single, large, clear intracytoplasmic vacuole and eccentric nucleus ('signet ring' cells). Neoplastic tubules were often ectatic and contained abundant mucin. Immunohistochemically, the neoplastic cells had weak, cytoplasmic immunoreactivity for cytokeratin 7 and rare, but strong, nuclear immunoreactivity for CDX2. Based on the cellular morphology, immunolabelling characteristics and anatomical location, a diagnosis of adenocarcinoma of urachal origin was made. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first reported case of urachal adenocarcinoma in a dog. PMID:27009748

  13. The role of police dogs as companions and working partners.

    PubMed

    Hart, L A; Zasloff, R L; Bryson, S; Christensen, S L

    2000-02-01

    Written responses to a questionnaire by 255 officers who used canines in police work were assessed. Almost all officers frequently played with, talked to, petted, and brushed their dogs and believed the dogs benefitted their health and well-being. Officers whose dogs slept indoors, often in the same bedroom, generally said they loved their dogs and they described their dogs as calm rather than active, as indicated by a multiple correspondence analysis. These 96 officers more than the 154 officers whose dogs slept outdoors or in kennels also planned to remain in canine work. Although departments often assumed responsibility for purchasing the dogs, the more experienced officers usually were involved in the final selection of dogs (logistic regression: p < .0001). Compared with 94 officers not involved in selecting their dogs, 106 officers with a specific role in selecting their dogs planned to stay in canine work, as shown by a multiple correspondence analysis. They believed the dogs had saved their lives (p < .01). Over-all, officers reported spending 4.1 hr. on-duty and 2.9 hr. off-duty per week training their dogs, and also played with them for 6.5 hr. per week, assuring a regular pattern of exercise for the officers. Virtually all officers valued canine service and believed the dogs enhanced the department's effectiveness. This study showed that both close companionship with the dog and involvement in selecting the dog were associated both with satisfaction with the dog and with working as a canine officer. PMID:10778270

  14. Neoplasms in young dogs after perinatal irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Benjamin, S.A.; Lee, A.C.; Angleton, G.M.; Saunders, W.J.; Miller, G.K.; Williams, J.S.; Brewster, R.D.; Long, R.I.

    1986-08-01

    For a study of the life-time effects of irradiation during development, 1,680 beagles were given single, whole-body exposures to /sup 60/Co gamma-radiation at one of three prenatal (preimplantation, embryonic, and fetal) or at one of three postnatal (neonatal, juvenile, and young adult) ages. Mean doses were 0, 0.16, or 0.83 Gy. For comparison with data on childhood cancer after prenatal irradiation, examination was made of tumors occurring in young dogs in this life-span experiment. Up to 4 years of age, 18 dogs had neoplasms diagnosed, 2 of these being in controls. Four dogs that were irradiated in the perinatal (late fetal or neonatal) period died of cancers prior to 2 years of age. This risk was of significant increase compared to the risks for other experimental groups and for the canine population in general. Overall, 71% (5 of 7) of all cancers and 56% (10 of 18) of all benign and malignant neoplasms seen in the first 4 years of life occurred in 29% (480 of 1680) of the dogs irradiated in the perinatal period. These data suggest an increased risk for neoplasia after perinatal irradiation in dogs.

  15. Pharmacokinetics of azithromycin in rats and dogs.

    PubMed

    Shepard, R M; Falkner, F C

    1990-01-01

    After intravenous or oral administration to rats and dogs, azithromycin was rapidly distributed into the tissues, where concentrations frequently exceeded those in serum by 100-fold or more within 24 h of a single dose. Tissue concentrations were proportional to the dose following single administrations of 10 to 40 mg/kg in rats and dogs. Tissue concentrations were higher after multiple dosing and became greater as the dose was increased from 10 to 40 mg/kg. Elimination half-lives were similar in most tissues and were about 40 h in rats after seven doses of 20 mg/kg and about 90 h in dogs after five doses of 30 mg/kg. Serum concentrations declined in a multi-exponential manner, reflecting initial rapid distribution into tissues and then slow return to serum from tissues. Azithromycin had good oral bioavailability in rats and dogs (46% and 97%, respectively). Rapid uptake of azithromycin by tissues from serum and slow redistribution from tissues to serum are apparently factors governing the pharmacokinetics of azithromycin in rats and dogs. Serum concentrations do not reflect the availability of azithromycin in tissues. PMID:2154438

  16. Oxytocin promotes social bonding in dogs

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Teresa; Nagasawa, Miho; Mogi, Kazutaka; Hasegawa, Toshikazu; Kikusui, Takefumi

    2014-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that enduring social bonds have fitness benefits. However, very little is known about the neural circuitry and neurochemistry underlying the formation and maintenance of stable social bonds outside reproductive contexts. Oxytocin (OT), a neuropeptide synthetized by the hypothalamus in mammals, regulates many complex forms of social behavior and cognition in both human and nonhuman animals. Animal research, however, has concentrated on monogamous mammals, and it remains unknown whether OT also modulates social bonds in nonreproductive contexts. In this study we provide behavioral evidence that exogenous OT promotes positive social behaviors in the domestic dog toward not only conspecifics but also human partners. Specifically, when sprayed with OT, dogs showed higher social orientation and affiliation toward their owners and higher affiliation and approach behaviors toward dog partners than when sprayed with placebo. Additionally, the exchange of socio-positive behaviors with dog partners triggered the release of endogenous OT, highlighting the involvement of OT in the development of social relationships in the domestic dog. These data provide new insight into the mechanisms that facilitate the maintenance of close social bonds beyond immediate reproductive interest or genetic ties and complement a growing body of evidence that identifies OT as one of the neurochemical foundations of sociality in mammalian species. PMID:24927552

  17. [Dog and fox faecal contamination of farmland].

    PubMed

    Hauser, M; Basso, W; Deplazes, P

    2015-08-01

    The contamination with faeces from dogs and foxes was documented on 14 different grassland areas in the canton of Zurich, Switzerland, over one year. A total of 402 dog and 58 fox faecal samples were collected from the grasslands, further 236 faecal samples were retrieved from Robidog® units (disposal units for dog waste bags) in the immediate vicinity. The degree of fecal contamination per 100 m2 and year was 0.07-0.75 for dog samples and 0-0.06 for fox samples. Dog faeces from Robidog® units and grasslands contained stages of the following parasites, respectively (sedimentation/flotation method): Toxocara sp. (2.5%; 1.2%), Taenia crassiceps (with molecular confirmation; 0.8%; 0.2%), Capillaria sp. (0.4%; 0.7%), Trichuris sp. (0.8%; 1%), Isospora sp. (2.1%; 2%) and Angiostrongylus vasorum (0.4%; 0.5%). In fox faeces parasite stages were more frequently detected: 19% Toxocara sp., 8.6% Taenia crassiceps, 6.9% Echinococcus multilocularis, 60.3% Capillaria sp., 29.3% Trichuris sp. In two fecal samples from foxes, Taenia saginata eggs or Toxoplasmagondii oocysts were confirmed by molecular analyses, these findings may be explained as an intestinal passage after coprophagy of human or cat feces, respectively. Therefore, foxes can also indirectly play a role in parasite transmission to livestock. PMID:26753365

  18. Rabies risk in raccoon dogs and foxes.

    PubMed

    Singer, A; Kauhala, K; Holmala, K; Smith, G C

    2008-01-01

    Raccoon dogs are seen as a new host for fox rabies in Europe. Disease spread in a community of species can change the epidemiology of the disease and calls for new disease control strategies. This study assesses the risk of a rabies outbreak, introduced to a community of foxes and raccoon dogs in Southern Finland, as an example of the reintroduction of rabies into rabies-free areas. Epidemiology is simulated with a two-species model, based on approaches for rabies in foxes and parameterised from recently published data on raccoon dog and fox ecology in Northeast Europe. The risk of the establishment of rabies was investigated. The effectiveness of vaccination control was estimated. Results show that rabies may not spread in a single species, when population densities are low, as in Finland. However, persistent epidemics are very likely in the species' community. The threshold density for a system of combined species decreases non-linearly, compared to the thresholds of each of the species. A behavioural factor that influences rabies epidemiology is raccoon dog hibernation, which may alter with climate change. Thus, the new host, the raccoon dog, has to be considered in defining new emergency control strategies for rabies free states in Europe. PMID:18634482

  19. [The nature of the dog--a contribution to the keeping and breeding of so-called fighting dogs].

    PubMed

    Loeffler, K; Eichelberg, H

    1991-06-01

    The behavioural repertoire of dogs derives from that of the wolf. But there are distinct race-specific differences which go back to the man's breeding influence in the course of domestication to develop special qualities in dogs. Today, dog keeping no longer corresponds to these qualities of dogs in many ways. We refer to the problems resulting from this and man's responsibility for the establishment of a man-dog relationship that is functional and responds to the dog's character. The abuse of certain dog behaviour by man has to be pursued consistently. In the same way we must also take care of an unforced integration of dogs into our society. PMID:1889368

  20. Dog mitochondrial genome sequencing to enhance dog mtDNA discrimination power in forensic casework.

    PubMed

    Verscheure, Sophie; Backeljau, Thierry; Desmyter, Stijn

    2014-09-01

    A Belgian dog population sample and several population studies worldwide have confirmed that only a limited number of mtDNA control region haplotypes is observed in the majority of dogs. The high population frequency of these haplotypes negatively impacts both the exclusion probability of dog mtDNA analysis and the evidential value of a match with one of these haplotypes in casework. Variation within the mtDNA coding region was explored to improve the discrimination power of dog mtDNA analysis. In the current study, the entire mitochondrial genome of 161 dogs was sequenced applying a quality assured strategy and resulted in a total of 119 different mitochondrial genome sequences. Our research was focused on those dogs with the six most common control region haplotypes from a previous Belgian population study. We identified 33 informative SNPs that successfully divide the six most common control region haplotypes into 32 clusters of mitochondrial genome sequences. Determining the identity of these 33 polymorphic sites in addition to control region sequencing in case of a match with one of these 6 control region haplotypes could augment the exclusion probability of forensic dog mtDNA analysis from 92.5% to 97.5%. PMID:24905334

  1. Soil change induced by prairie dogs across three ecological sites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.) can influence vegetation dynamics and landscape hydrology by altering soil properties, yet few studies have evaluated soil responses to prairie dog activities across a range of soil types. This study was conducted to quantify prairie dog effects on soil properties within...

  2. Paraneoplastic hypercalcemia in a dog with thyroid carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lane, Amy E.; Wyatt, Kenneth M.

    2012-01-01

    This case report describes a dog with thyroid carcinoma and paraneoplastic hypercalcemia. Following thyroidectomy the dog became hypocalcemic and required supplementation with calcitriol and calcium carbonate. During the following 2 years, attempts to reduce the supplementation resulted in hypocalcemia. The dog died from renal failure with no evidence of thyroid carcinoma. PMID:23543930

  3. Humoral response to rabies vaccines in pet dogs.

    PubMed

    Singh, V K; Tiwari, K N; Mohan, Bhardwaj; Mala, Chabbra; Rana, U V S; Ichhpujani, R L

    2007-06-01

    Humoral immune response was studied in dogs vaccinated with different tissue culture vaccines commonly used for immunization of dogs in India. The results revealed that after single dose of vaccination only 56% dogs developed protective titer (> or = 1:8). The response of the three vaccines used in the study was not similar, highlighting the need to maintain post marketing surveillance. PMID:18338690

  4. 42 CFR 71.51 - Dogs and cats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Dogs and cats. 71.51 Section 71.51 Public Health... QUARANTINE Importations § 71.51 Dogs and cats. (a) Definitions. As used in this section the term: Cat means all domestic cats. Confinement means restriction of a dog or cat to a building or other enclosure at...

  5. 50 CFR 36.36 - Sled dogs and household pets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Sled dogs and household pets. The general trespass provisions of 50 CFR 26.21 shall not apply to household pets and sled, work, or pack dogs under the direct control of their owners or handlers, but such... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Sled dogs and household pets....

  6. 9 CFR 113.40 - Dog safety tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Dog safety tests. 113.40 Section 113... Procedures § 113.40 Dog safety tests. The safety tests provided in this section shall be conducted when... recommended for use in dogs. Serials which are not found to be satisfactory when tested pursuant to...

  7. 50 CFR 28.43 - Destruction of dogs and cats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Destruction of dogs and cats. 28.43 Section 28.43 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... VIOLATIONS OF PARTS 25, 26, AND 27 Impoundment Procedures § 28.43 Destruction of dogs and cats. Dogs and...

  8. How Dogs Know when Communication Is Intended for Them

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaminski, Juliane; Schulz, Linda; Tomasello, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Domestic dogs comprehend human gestural communication in a way that other animal species do not. But little is known about the specific cues they use to determine when human communication is intended for them. In a series of four studies, we confronted both adult dogs and young dog puppies with object choice tasks in which a human indicated one of…

  9. 76 FR 54392 - Animal Welfare; Importation of Live Dogs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-01

    ... Welfare; Importation of Live Dogs AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION... restrict the importation of certain live dogs. Consistent with this amendment, this proposed rule would, with certain limited exceptions, prohibit the importation of dogs from any part of the world into...

  10. 9 CFR 3.8 - Exercise for dogs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Exercise for dogs. 3.8 Section 3.8... WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.8 Exercise for dogs. Dealers, exhibitors, and...

  11. 9 CFR 113.40 - Dog safety tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Dog safety tests. 113.40 Section 113... Procedures § 113.40 Dog safety tests. The safety tests provided in this section shall be conducted when... recommended for use in dogs. Serials which are not found to be satisfactory when tested pursuant to...

  12. 50 CFR 28.43 - Destruction of dogs and cats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Destruction of dogs and cats. 28.43 Section 28.43 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... VIOLATIONS OF PARTS 25, 26, AND 27 Impoundment Procedures § 28.43 Destruction of dogs and cats. Dogs and...

  13. 42 CFR 71.51 - Dogs and cats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Dogs and cats. 71.51 Section 71.51 Public Health... QUARANTINE Importations § 71.51 Dogs and cats. (a) Definitions. As used in this section the term: Cat means all domestic cats. Confinement means restriction of a dog or cat to a building or other enclosure at...

  14. 42 CFR 71.51 - Dogs and cats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Dogs and cats. 71.51 Section 71.51 Public Health... QUARANTINE Importations § 71.51 Dogs and cats. (a) Definitions. As used in this section the term: Cat means all domestic cats. Confinement means restriction of a dog or cat to a building or other enclosure at...

  15. 46 CFR 386.19 - Dogs and other animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Dogs and other animals. 386.19 Section 386.19 Shipping... AND GROUNDS AT THE UNITED STATES MERCHANT MARINE ACADEMY § 386.19 Dogs and other animals. Persons are prohibited from bringing dogs and other animals on to the Academy premises, except for authorized...

  16. 46 CFR 386.19 - Dogs and other animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dogs and other animals. 386.19 Section 386.19 Shipping... AND GROUNDS AT THE UNITED STATES MERCHANT MARINE ACADEMY § 386.19 Dogs and other animals. Persons are prohibited from bringing dogs and other animals on to the Academy premises, except for authorized...

  17. 50 CFR 28.43 - Destruction of dogs and cats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Destruction of dogs and cats. 28.43 Section 28.43 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... VIOLATIONS OF PARTS 25, 26, AND 27 Impoundment Procedures § 28.43 Destruction of dogs and cats. Dogs and...

  18. 44 CFR 15.13 - Dogs and other animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dogs and other animals. 15.13 Section 15.13 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER § 15.13 Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing-eye...

  19. 50 CFR 36.36 - Sled dogs and household pets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Sled dogs and household pets. The general trespass provisions of 50 CFR 26.21 shall not apply to household pets and sled, work, or pack dogs under the direct control of their owners or handlers, but such... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sled dogs and household pets....

  20. 9 CFR 3.8 - Exercise for dogs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Exercise for dogs. 3.8 Section 3.8... WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.8 Exercise for dogs. Dealers, exhibitors, and...

  1. 9 CFR 113.40 - Dog safety tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Dog safety tests. 113.40 Section 113... Procedures § 113.40 Dog safety tests. The safety tests provided in this section shall be conducted when... recommended for use in dogs. Serials which are not found to be satisfactory when tested pursuant to...

  2. 50 CFR 36.36 - Sled dogs and household pets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Sled dogs and household pets. The general trespass provisions of 50 CFR 26.21 shall not apply to household pets and sled, work, or pack dogs under the direct control of their owners or handlers, but such... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Sled dogs and household pets....

  3. 50 CFR 28.43 - Destruction of dogs and cats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Destruction of dogs and cats. 28.43 Section 28.43 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... VIOLATIONS OF PARTS 25, 26, AND 27 Impoundment Procedures § 28.43 Destruction of dogs and cats. Dogs and...

  4. 44 CFR 15.13 - Dogs and other animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Dogs and other animals. 15.13 Section 15.13 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER § 15.13 Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing-eye...

  5. 9 CFR 3.8 - Exercise for dogs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Exercise for dogs. 3.8 Section 3.8... WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.8 Exercise for dogs. Dealers, exhibitors, and...

  6. 50 CFR 36.36 - Sled dogs and household pets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Sled dogs and household pets. The general trespass provisions of 50 CFR 26.21 shall not apply to household pets and sled, work, or pack dogs under the direct control of their owners or handlers, but such... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Sled dogs and household pets....

  7. 46 CFR 386.19 - Dogs and other animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Dogs and other animals. 386.19 Section 386.19 Shipping... AND GROUNDS AT THE UNITED STATES MERCHANT MARINE ACADEMY § 386.19 Dogs and other animals. Persons are prohibited from bringing dogs and other animals on to the Academy premises, except for authorized...

  8. 42 CFR 71.51 - Dogs and cats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Dogs and cats. 71.51 Section 71.51 Public Health... QUARANTINE Importations § 71.51 Dogs and cats. (a) Definitions. As used in this section the term: Cat means all domestic cats. Confinement means restriction of a dog or cat to a building or other enclosure at...

  9. 9 CFR 3.8 - Exercise for dogs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Exercise for dogs. 3.8 Section 3.8... WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.8 Exercise for dogs. Dealers, exhibitors, and...

  10. 9 CFR 113.40 - Dog safety tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Dog safety tests. 113.40 Section 113... Procedures § 113.40 Dog safety tests. The safety tests provided in this section shall be conducted when... recommended for use in dogs. Serials which are not found to be satisfactory when tested pursuant to...

  11. 46 CFR 386.19 - Dogs and other animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Dogs and other animals. 386.19 Section 386.19 Shipping... AND GROUNDS AT THE UNITED STATES MERCHANT MARINE ACADEMY § 386.19 Dogs and other animals. Persons are prohibited from bringing dogs and other animals on to the Academy premises, except for authorized...

  12. 44 CFR 15.13 - Dogs and other animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Dogs and other animals. 15.13 Section 15.13 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER § 15.13 Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing-eye...

  13. 50 CFR 36.36 - Sled dogs and household pets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Sled dogs and household pets. The general trespass provisions of 50 CFR 26.21 shall not apply to household pets and sled, work, or pack dogs under the direct control of their owners or handlers, but such... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Sled dogs and household pets....

  14. 9 CFR 113.40 - Dog safety tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dog safety tests. 113.40 Section 113... Procedures § 113.40 Dog safety tests. The safety tests provided in this section shall be conducted when... recommended for use in dogs. Serials which are not found to be satisfactory when tested pursuant to...

  15. 44 CFR 15.13 - Dogs and other animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Dogs and other animals. 15.13 Section 15.13 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER § 15.13 Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing-eye...

  16. 50 CFR 28.43 - Destruction of dogs and cats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Destruction of dogs and cats. 28.43 Section 28.43 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... VIOLATIONS OF PARTS 25, 26, AND 27 Impoundment Procedures § 28.43 Destruction of dogs and cats. Dogs and...

  17. 44 CFR 15.13 - Dogs and other animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Dogs and other animals. 15.13 Section 15.13 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER § 15.13 Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing-eye...

  18. 42 CFR 71.51 - Dogs and cats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dogs and cats. 71.51 Section 71.51 Public Health... QUARANTINE Importations § 71.51 Dogs and cats. (a) Definitions. As used in this section the term: Cat means all domestic cats. Confinement means restriction of a dog or cat to a building or other enclosure at...

  19. 46 CFR 386.19 - Dogs and other animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Dogs and other animals. 386.19 Section 386.19 Shipping... AND GROUNDS AT THE UNITED STATES MERCHANT MARINE ACADEMY § 386.19 Dogs and other animals. Persons are prohibited from bringing dogs and other animals on to the Academy premises, except for authorized...

  20. 9 CFR 3.8 - Exercise for dogs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exercise for dogs. 3.8 Section 3.8... WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.8 Exercise for dogs. Dealers, exhibitors, and...

  1. Laryngeal structure and function in dogs with cough.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Lynelle R

    2016-07-15

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the prevalence and type of laryngeal abnormalities in dogs examined because of cough that did not have signs of upper airway disease and to compare the prevalence of those abnormalities among dogs with various respiratory tract diseases. DESIGN Prospective study. ANIMALS 138 dogs with cough that did not have signs of upper airway disease. PROCEDURES The study was conducted between July 2001 and October 2014 and included dogs examined for cough that had laryngoscopic and bronchoscopic examinations performed by 1 examiner. Laryngeal hyperemia and swelling were recorded, and laryngeal function was assessed before and after doxapram stimulation when indicated. Results were compared among dogs on the basis of cough duration (acute [< 2 weeks], subacute [2 weeks to 2 months], and chronic [> 2 months]) and disease diagnosed (inflammatory airway disease, airway collapse, lower respiratory tract infection, and eosinophilic bronchopneumopathy). RESULTS Laryngeal hyperemia was detected in 73 of 134 (54%) dogs with cough of subacute or chronic duration, and its prevalence did not vary significantly among dogs with various diseases. Thirteen dogs had laryngeal paresis, and 13 dogs had laryngeal paralysis; dysphonia (n = 2) and stridor (1) were uncommon findings in those dogs. The prevalence of laryngeal dysfunction (paresis or paralysis) did not differ significantly among diseases. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that 26 of 138 (19%) dogs examined because of cough alone had laryngeal dysfunction, which suggested that a complete laryngoscopic examination should be included in the diagnostic evaluation of dogs with cough. PMID:27379595

  2. The Experience of Living with and Using a Dog Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miner, Rachel Joy-Taub

    2001-01-01

    A study of eight adults who use dog guides found four themes that described the experience of using a dog guide: increased confidence, increased independence, changed public interactions, and additional responsibilities or inconveniences. Most participants described their dogs as social "ice breakers" that led to increased interaction with people.…

  3. Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii in dogs in Trinidad and Tobago.

    PubMed

    Ali, C N; Harris, J A; Watkins, J D; Adesiyun, A A

    2003-05-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii agglutinins and to investigate the relationship between various risk factors and occurrence of toxoplasmosis in dogs in Trinidad. Of a total 250 dogs, comprising domestic, hunting and stray dogs, 80 (32.0%) were positive for T. gondii agglutinins at a titre of > or =1:32 using a latex agglutination test. Stray dogs (60.5%) had statistically significantly higher (P<0.001) seroprevalence for toxoplasmosis than hunting dogs (30.5%) and domestic dogs (25.5%). Amongst dogs whose ages were known, the prevalence of toxoplasmosis was significantly highest (P=0.037) in dogs in the >2-3 years age group compared with other age groups. Dogs that consumed home-cooked foods had a seroprevalence of 32.9% compared with those fed commercial dog foods (17.2%) and dogs fed both home-cooked and commercial foods (21.0%). However, the difference was not statistically significant (P>0.05; chi(2)). The rather high prevalence of toxoplasmosis in stray dogs is a good indication of the extent of the infection in the environment. PMID:12719132

  4. Important behavioral traits for predicting guide dog qualification.

    PubMed

    Arata, Sayaka; Momozawa, Yukihide; Takeuchi, Yukari; Mori, Yuji

    2010-05-01

    Guide dogs for the blind help blind people physically and mentally in their daily lives. Their qualifications are based on health, working performance and temperament; approximately 70% of dogs that fail to qualify are disqualified for behavioral reasons. In order to achieve early prediction of qualification, it would be essential as the first step to identify important temperament traits for guide dogs. Therefore, we administered a questionnaire consisting of 22 temperament items to experienced trainers to assess candidate dogs at the Japan Guide Dog Association after three months of training, which was at least three months prior to the final success (qualified as a guide dog) or failure (disqualified for behavioral reasons) judgment. Factor analyses of question items stably extracted three factors with high internal consistency, Distraction, Sensitivity and Docility. When we compared factor points between successful dogs and failed dogs, the successful dogs showed significantly and consistently lower Distraction points and higher Docility points. Additionally, Distraction points could predict qualification with 80.6% accuracy and detect 28.2% of the failed dogs that had higher Distraction points than any of the successful dogs. Of the nine question items not included in the three factors, two items (;Aggression' and ;Animal interest') were consistently associated with qualification. These results suggest that Distraction is stably assessable and has the strongest impact on success or failure judgment; therefore, it will be the first target to establish a behavioral test that may lead to early prediction of guide dog qualification. PMID:20009419

  5. Dog population management for the control of human echinococcosis.

    PubMed

    Kachani, Malika; Heath, David

    2014-11-01

    Cystic and alveolar hydatid disease of humans caused by infection with Echinococcus granulosus or Echinococcus multilocularis are significant zoonoses in developing countries. For human infections, the main definitive host is the dog, and reduction in the population of unwanted dogs, together with anthelmintic treatment of wanted dogs, are recommended control procedures for these zoonoses. Both owned and unowned dogs have been shown to be a major source of Echinococcus spp. infection in developing countries. Unowned dogs are the most challenging category in dog population management for the control of major zoonotic diseases. Unowned dogs are those dogs that do not have an owner, and those dogs whose owner cannot readily be identified. Control of numbers of unowned dogs can be done in various ways if funds are available. Fertility control and humane euthanasia are likely to be the most effective procedures in developing countries. Fertility control requires significant funding, and where resources are scarce humane euthanasia may be the most effective option. Both procedures are ongoing events, with no predictable end point. This paper examines the sociology and technology for the population management of owned and unowned dogs, specifically for the reduction of human hydatid disease. Examples are given for developing and developed countries. Although a "One Health" approach is desirable, the technology for hydatid control is different from that for rabies, and FAO Animal Welfare recommendations for dog population management should be adjusted accordingly. PMID:25046696

  6. Thrombocytosis associated with a myeloproliferative disorder in a dog

    SciTech Connect

    Degen, M.A.; Feldman, B.F.; Turrel, J.M.; Goding, B.; Kitchell, B.; Mandell, C.P. )

    1989-05-15

    A dog with a myeloproliferative disorder and thrombocytosis had clinical signs that were consistent with a diagnosis of essential thrombocythemia. The dog was treated with aspirin, radioactive phosphorus, and melphalan. Eighteen months after referral, the disorder progressed to chronic granulocytic leukemia, and treatment was switched to hydroxyurea. Fourteen months later, the dog was euthanatized because of uncontrollable atrial fibrillation.

  7. Hyperthyroidism associated with a thyroid adenoma in a dog.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, D; Thompson, J; Layton, A W; Calderwood-Mays, M; Ellison, G; Mannella, C

    1991-07-01

    Hyperthyroidism associated with thyroid adenoma was diagnosed in a dog. Typical clinical signs of hyperthyroidism were resolved with surgical excision of the adenoma. Hyperthyroidism in dogs usually is associated with thyroid carcinoma, which has a poor prognosis. This case emphasizes the importance of obtaining a histologic diagnosis of thyroid tumors in hyperthyroid dogs before giving a prognosis. PMID:1885334

  8. Biological effects of {sup 137}CsCl injected in beagle dogs of different dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Nikula, K.J.; Boecker, B.B.; Griffith, W.C.

    1996-11-01

    The toxicity of {sup 137}Cs in the beagle dog was investigated at the Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute (ITRI) and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) as part of programs to evaluate the biological effects of both radionuclides in atomic bomb fallout and internally deposited fission-product radionuclides. In the ITRI study, young adult dogs were exposed once by intravenous injection to a range of {sup 137}Cs concentrations; the results have recently been published. The purpose of the present report is to summarize the ANL study and to compare the results of the two studies. At ANL, 63 dogs in three age groups (15 juveniles, 142-151 days old; 38 young adults, 388-427 days old; and 10 middle-aged dogs, 1387-2060 days old) were given {sup 137}Cs intravenously at levels (61-162f MBq/kg) near those expected to be lethal within 30 days after injection. There were 17 control dogs from the same colony. Twenty-three of the dogs injected with {sup 137}Cs, including all middle-aged dogs, died within 52 days after injection due to hematopoietic cell damage resulting in severe pancytopenia that led to fatal hemorrhage and/or septicemia. The other significant early effect was damage to the germinal epithelium of the seminiferous tubules. The design of the ANL study revealed an age- and gender-related differential radiosensitivity for early effects. The middle-aged dogs died significantly earlier due to complications of hematological dyscrasia compared to the juvenile and young adult dogs, and the middle-aged females died significantly earlier than the middle-aged males. The most significant non-neoplastic late effects in the {sup 137}Cs-injected dogs from ANL and ITRI were atrophy of the germinal epithelium of seminiferous tubules with azoospermia, and a significant dose-dependent decrease in survival. The survival of the ANL dogs was decreased more than that of the ITRI dogs at similar radiation doses from {sup 137}Cs. 19 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. DOG-SPOT database for comprehensive management of dog genetic research data.

    PubMed

    Powell, Julie As; Allen, Jeremy; Sutter, Nathan B

    2010-01-01

    Research laboratories studying the genetics of companion animals have no database tools specifically designed to aid in the management of the many kinds of data that are generated, stored and analyzed. We have developed a relational database, "DOG-SPOT," to provide such a tool. Implemented in MS-Access, the database is easy to extend or customize to suit a lab's particular needs. With DOG-SPOT a lab can manage data relating to dogs, breeds, samples, biomaterials, phenotypes, owners, communications, amplicons, sequences, markers, genotypes and personnel. Such an integrated data structure helps ensure high quality data entry and makes it easy to track physical stocks of biomaterials and oligonucleotides. PMID:21159202

  10. Spontaneous aortic dissecting hematoma in two dogs.

    PubMed

    Boulineau, Theresa Marie; Andrews-Jones, Lydia; Van Alstine, William

    2005-09-01

    This report describes 2 cases of spontaneous aortic dissecting hematoma in young Border Collie and Border Collie crossbred dogs. Histology was performed in one of the cases involving an unusual splitting of the elastin present within the wall of the aorta, consistent with elastin dysplasia as described in Marfan syndrome in humans. The first case involved a young purebred Border Collie that died suddenly and the second case involved a Border Collie crossbred dog that died after a 1-month history of seizures. Gross lesions included pericardial tamponade with dissection of the ascending aorta in the former case and thoracic cavity hemorrhage, mediastinal hematoma, and aortic dissection in the latter. Histologic lesions in the case of the Border Collie crossbred dog included a dissecting hematoma of the ascending aorta with elastin dysplasia and right axillary arterial intimal proliferation. PMID:16312247

  11. Gastritis and Gastric Ulcers in Working Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Michael S.; Williamson, Katherine K.

    2016-01-01

    Gastritis and gastric ulcers are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in canine athletes. Although the majority of scientific work on this condition has been performed in ultraendurance racing sled dogs, this condition has been identified in other canine athletes, including sled dogs competing in shorter events and dogs performing off-leash explosive detection duties. The cause of the syndrome is unknown, but current hypotheses propose a link between exercise-induced hyperthermia and loss of gastric mucosal barrier function as an early event in the pathogenesis. Treatment is focused on prevention of clinical disease using acid secretion inhibitors, such as omeprazole, which has excellent efficacy in controlled clinical studies. PMID:27092307

  12. Primary lumbar extradural hemangiosarcoma in a dog.

    PubMed

    Paek, Matthew; Glass, Eric; Kent, Marc; Clifford, Craig A; De Lahunta, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    A 9 yr old castrated male golden retriever weighing 36 kg was presented for evaluation of progressive left pelvic limb paresis and fecal and urinary incontinence. MRI demonstrated an extradural, ovoid mass compressing the lumbar spinal cord. Surgical excision of the mass was performed. Histologically, the mass was consistent with hemangiosarcoma with no involvement of the adjacent vertebrae. The dog underwent a doxorubicin-based chemotherapy protocol with the addition of oral cyclophosphamide. After completion of chemotherapy, the dog was evaluated q 4 mo for restaging. Clinicopathological evidence of primary tumor recurrence or metastatic disease was not detected for 15 mo after initial diagnosis and treatment. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of a primary extradural hemangiosarcoma in the lumbar vertebral column in a dog. The clinical presentation, diagnosis, treatment, and outcome are also discussed. PMID:25955146

  13. Chronic tracheobronchial disease in the dog.

    PubMed

    Padrid, P; Amis, T C

    1992-09-01

    Tracheobronchial collapse and chronic bronchitis (CB) are the two most common forms of chronic tracheobronchial disease in dogs. These conditions may exist independently of one another, although CB and some degree of tracheobronchial collapse often co-exist in the same patient. Diagnosis of CB can be established on clinical grounds alone, whereas radiographic or bronchoscopic evidence is required to confirm the diagnosis of tracheobronchial collapse. Although glucocorticoid drug therapy remains one of the most effective methods for managing CB, surgical implantation of a prosthetic airway device may be of great benefit for some dogs with a focal area of collapsing trachea. With early diagnosis and aggressive medical and surgical management, the prognosis for many dogs with chronic tracheobronchial disease is good for reasonable quality of life. PMID:1523790

  14. Color-dilution alopecia in dogs.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae Hoon; Kang, Kyung Il; Sohn, Hyun Joo; Woo, Gye Hyeong; Jean, Young Hwa; Hwang, Eui Kyung

    2005-09-01

    Color-dilution alopecia is a relatively uncommon hereditary skin disease seen in "Blue" and other color-diluted dogs. This syndrome is associated with a color-dilution gene. The initial clinical signs are the gradual onset of a dry, dull and poor hair coat quality. Hair shafts and hair regrowth are poor, and follicular papules may develop and progress to frank comedones. Hair loss and comedo formation are usually most severe on the trunk, especially color-diluted area on the skin. Six cases of color-dilution alopecia are reported in 3 months to 10 years old dogs. The breeds of dogs are blue Doberman Pinscher, Miniature Pinscher, Dachshund, and Schnauzer. Grossly, extensive partial hair loss was seen on the skin. Histopathologically, the epidermis is relatively normal but may be hyperplastic. Hair follicles are characterized by atrophy and distortion. Heavily clumped melanin is present in the epidermis, dermis and hair follicles. PMID:16131833

  15. Keloidal fibromas and fibrosarcomas in the dog.

    PubMed

    Mikaelian, I; Gross, T L

    2002-01-01

    Sixteen dogs (2-12 years of age) presented with one (n = 15) or two (n = 1) cutaneous nodules (n = 16) or a dermal plaque (n = 1). Intact males (n = 9) and neutered males (n = 4) were more affected than were females (n = 3). Histologically, these lesions were characterized by focal dermal and subcutaneous deposition of thick hyalinized collagen fibers intermingled with fibroblasts, and in 13 of 17 lesions, a variable number of CD18-positive cells were interpreted as reactive macrophages. Fibroblasts in three dogs formed intersecting fascicles, interpreted as evidence of malignant transformation. The terms keloidal fibroma and keloidal fibrosarcoma can be applied to these lesions. Excision was curative in five dogs with keloidal fibroma for which follow-up was available. However, because malignant transformation may occur, wide excision of canine keloidal lesions is warranted. PMID:12102210

  16. [Passive immunization in dogs and cats].

    PubMed

    Bergmann, Michèle; Friedl, Yvonne; Hartmann, Katrin

    2016-08-17

    Antibodies play an important role in the defense against infectious diseases. Passive immunization provides immediate protection through transfer of exogenous antibodies to a recipient. It is mainly used for prophylaxis in dogs and cats that failed to receive maternal antibodies through the colostrum or when there is an acute risk to acquire infectious diseases. Only a small number of placebo-controlled studies have been published regarding the therapeutic use of passive immunization in small animals. While positive effects were reported in cats with acute virus infections of the upper respiratory tract and in dogs with distemper, no statistically significant influence could be demonstrated in the treatment of canine parvovirosis. Prospective, double-blinded, and placebo-controlled studies using adequate numbers of patients are warranted for a definitive statement regarding the therapeutic and prophylactic use of passive immunization in dogs and cats. PMID:27410719

  17. The response of guide dogs and pet dogs (Canis familiaris) to cues of human referential communication (pointing and gaze).

    PubMed

    Ittyerah, Miriam; Gaunet, Florence

    2009-03-01

    The study raises the question of whether guide dogs and pet dogs are expected to differ in response to cues of referential communication given by their owners; especially since guide dogs grow up among sighted humans, and while living with their blind owners, they still have interactions with several sighted people. Guide dogs and pet dogs were required to respond to point, point and gaze, gaze and control cues of referential communication given by their owners. Results indicate that the two groups of dogs do not differ from each other, revealing that the visual status of the owner is not a factor in the use of cues of referential communication. Both groups of dogs have higher frequencies of performance and faster latencies for the point and the point and gaze cues as compared to gaze cue only. However, responses to control cues are below chance performance for the guide dogs, whereas the pet dogs perform at chance. The below chance performance of the guide dogs may be explained by a tendency among them to go and stand by the owner. The study indicates that both groups of dogs respond similarly in normal daily dyadic interaction with their owners and the lower comprehension of the human gaze may be a less salient cue among dogs in comparison to the pointing gesture. PMID:18769948

  18. Evaluation of geriatric changes in dogs

    PubMed Central

    Pati, Soumyaranjan; Panda, S. K.; Acharya, A. P.; Senapati, S.; Behera, M.; Behera, S. S.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The present study has been envisaged to ascertain the old age for critical management of geriatric dogs considering the parameters of externally visible changes, haemato-biochemical alterations and urine analysis in geriatric dogs approaching senility. Materials and Methods: The study was undertaken in the Department of Veterinary Pathology in collaboration with Teaching Veterinary Clinic complex spanning a period of 1 year. For screening of geriatric dogs, standard geriatric age chart of different breeds was followed. The external characteristics such as hair coat texture, dental wear and tear, skin texture and glaucoma were taken as a marker of old age. Haematology, serum biochemistry and urine analysis were also included in the study. Results: External visible changes like greying of hair, dull appearance of hair coat, glaucoma, osteoarthritis, dental wear and tear were commonly encountered in the aged dogs. The haemoglobin, total erythrocyte count and packed cell volume showed a decreasing trend in the geriatric groups. Biochemical values like total protein, albumin, calcium level showed a decreasing trend while urea level with an increasing trend in geriatric dogs without any much alteration in serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminse, serum glutamic-pyruvate transaminase, cholesterol and creatinine. Physical examination of urine revealed yellow, amber, red, deep red color with turbidity and higher specific gravity. Chemical examination revealed presence of protein, glucose, ketone bodies, blood and bilirubin on some cases. The culture and sensitivity test of the urine samples revealed presence of bacteria with sensitive and resistance to some antibiotics. Conclusion: External visible changes are still the golden standard of determining the old age in dogs. Haemato-biochemical evaluation can be useful for correlating with the pathophysiological status of the animal. Biochemical analysis of urine can be employed rightly as kidney dysfunction is being major

  19. First isolation of Hammondia heydorni from dogs in China.

    PubMed

    Jie, Hu Jun; Yu, Meng; Fen, Yang Yan; Mei, Guo Yan; Yan, Yang; Esch, G W; QingTuan, Fu

    2013-10-18

    Fecal samples of 945 dogs were examined microscopically in 2 refuge facilities in China from March 2010 to November 2011. In 8 dogs, oocysts, 9-14 μm in size, were found. Their morphology was similar to those of Hammondia heydorni and Neospora caninum. Sporulated Hammondia/Neospora-like oocysts were fed to 2 dogs, 2 gerbils, 2 guinea pigs, and 2 KM mice; tissues from these inoculated animals were then fed to coccidia-free dogs to determine species susceptibility to these oocysts. Oocysts were not excreted in the feces of dogs or rodents inoculated with oocysts. However, the dogs fed the tissues of gerbils or guinea pigs that were inoculated orally with oocysts excreted fresh oocysts. Dogs fed tissues from guinea pigs inoculated with brain and muscular homogenate from guinea pigs that were fed sporulated Hammondia/Neospora-like oocysts did not excrete oocysts. These findings indicated that the oocysts from naturally infected dogs had an obligatory 2-host life cycle, with gerbils and guinea pigs as intermediate hosts. DNA isolated from these oocysts could not be amplified using N. caninum- and Toxoplasma gondii-specific primers. However, positive amplification with the H. heydorni-specific primers confirmed the presence of H. heydorni DNA in the samples. A comparison of the intron 1 sequence of the alpha tubulin gene with those from H. heydorni from dogs and H. triffittae from foxes showed that dog-derived oocysts possessed a different alpha tubulin gene. Both our dog-derived sequence and 2 previous alpha tubulin gene sequences from H. triffittae from foxes contained a 9-bp insertion relative to 3 sequences of H. heydorni from dogs. However, when the 9-bp insertion from H. triffittae sequences were compared, the 9-bp insertion in our dog-derived sequence had a nucleotide substitution. The present study, therefore, provides new evidence of genetic diversity among isolates from dogs. This is the first survey for H. heydorni in dogs from China. PMID:23731857

  20. Genome Sequencing Highlights the Dynamic Early History of Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Freedman, Adam H.; Gronau, Ilan; Schweizer, Rena M.; Ortega-Del Vecchyo, Diego; Han, Eunjung; Silva, Pedro M.; Galaverni, Marco; Fan, Zhenxin; Marx, Peter; Lorente-Galdos, Belen; Beale, Holly; Ramirez, Oscar; Hormozdiari, Farhad; Alkan, Can; Vilà, Carles; Squire, Kevin; Geffen, Eli; Kusak, Josip; Boyko, Adam R.; Parker, Heidi G.; Lee, Clarence; Tadigotla, Vasisht; Siepel, Adam; Bustamante, Carlos D.; Harkins, Timothy T.; Nelson, Stanley F.; Ostrander, Elaine A.; Marques-Bonet, Tomas; Wayne, Robert K.; Novembre, John

    2014-01-01

    To identify genetic changes underlying dog domestication and reconstruct their early evolutionary history, we generated high-quality genome sequences from three gray wolves, one from each of the three putative centers of dog domestication, two basal dog lineages (Basenji and Dingo) and a golden jackal as an outgroup. Analysis of these sequences supports a demographic model in which dogs and wolves diverged through a dynamic process involving population bottlenecks in both lineages and post-divergence gene flow. In dogs, the domestication bottleneck involved at least a 16-fold reduction in population size, a much more severe bottleneck than estimated previously. A sharp bottleneck in wolves occurred soon after their divergence from dogs, implying that the pool of diversity from which dogs arose was substantially larger than represented by modern wolf populations. We narrow the plausible range for the date of initial dog domestication to an interval spanning 11–16 thousand years ago, predating the rise of agriculture. In light of this finding, we expand upon previous work regarding the increase in copy number of the amylase gene (AMY2B) in dogs, which is believed to have aided digestion of starch in agricultural refuse. We find standing variation for amylase copy number variation in wolves and little or no copy number increase in the Dingo and Husky lineages. In conjunction with the estimated timing of dog origins, these results provide additional support to archaeological finds, suggesting the earliest dogs arose alongside hunter-gathers rather than agriculturists. Regarding the geographic origin of dogs, we find that, surprisingly, none of the extant wolf lineages from putative domestication centers is more closely related to dogs, and, instead, the sampled wolves form a sister monophyletic clade. This result, in combination with dog-wolf admixture during the process of domestication, suggests that a re-evaluation of past hypotheses regarding dog origins is

  1. Genome sequencing highlights the dynamic early history of dogs.

    PubMed

    Freedman, Adam H; Gronau, Ilan; Schweizer, Rena M; Ortega-Del Vecchyo, Diego; Han, Eunjung; Silva, Pedro M; Galaverni, Marco; Fan, Zhenxin; Marx, Peter; Lorente-Galdos, Belen; Beale, Holly; Ramirez, Oscar; Hormozdiari, Farhad; Alkan, Can; Vilà, Carles; Squire, Kevin; Geffen, Eli; Kusak, Josip; Boyko, Adam R; Parker, Heidi G; Lee, Clarence; Tadigotla, Vasisht; Wilton, Alan; Siepel, Adam; Bustamante, Carlos D; Harkins, Timothy T; Nelson, Stanley F; Ostrander, Elaine A; Marques-Bonet, Tomas; Wayne, Robert K; Novembre, John

    2014-01-01

    To identify genetic changes underlying dog domestication and reconstruct their early evolutionary history, we generated high-quality genome sequences from three gray wolves, one from each of the three putative centers of dog domestication, two basal dog lineages (Basenji and Dingo) and a golden jackal as an outgroup. Analysis of these sequences supports a demographic model in which dogs and wolves diverged through a dynamic process involving population bottlenecks in both lineages and post-divergence gene flow. In dogs, the domestication bottleneck involved at least a 16-fold reduction in population size, a much more severe bottleneck than estimated previously. A sharp bottleneck in wolves occurred soon after their divergence from dogs, implying that the pool of diversity from which dogs arose was substantially larger than represented by modern wolf populations. We narrow the plausible range for the date of initial dog domestication to an interval spanning 11-16 thousand years ago, predating the rise of agriculture. In light of this finding, we expand upon previous work regarding the increase in copy number of the amylase gene (AMY2B) in dogs, which is believed to have aided digestion of starch in agricultural refuse. We find standing variation for amylase copy number variation in wolves and little or no copy number increase in the Dingo and Husky lineages. In conjunction with the estimated timing of dog origins, these results provide additional support to archaeological finds, suggesting the earliest dogs arose alongside hunter-gathers rather than agriculturists. Regarding the geographic origin of dogs, we find that, surprisingly, none of the extant wolf lineages from putative domestication centers is more closely related to dogs, and, instead, the sampled wolves form a sister monophyletic clade. This result, in combination with dog-wolf admixture during the process of domestication, suggests that a re-evaluation of past hypotheses regarding dog origins is

  2. Complete Situs Inversus in 2 Asymptomatic Dogs.

    PubMed

    Cahua, Jacqueline; Dias, Diego; Gonzales-Viera, Omar

    2015-06-01

    Complete situs inversus is a rare congenital condition that is characterized by the development of the thoracic and abdominal viscera in a mirror image to their normal orientation. This study describes this condition in 2 dogs: an 8-year-old male dalmatian that was originally evaluated for cystitis and a 3-year-old male crossbreed Pekinese that had a routine echographic study. In dogs, most of the reported cases were associated with the Kartagener syndrome, but our patients had no evidences of this ciliary disorder. PMID:26359728

  3. An Old Dog and New Tricks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cameron, W. Scott

    2003-01-01

    As I approach my 55th birthday, the old adage 'you can't teach an old dog new tricks' keeps coming to mind. I'm not sure why, because I don't feel old and I'm still interested in taking on new challenges and learning new tricks. However, as I mentor new project managers, I am also aware that others may consider me an old dog unable to learn new tricks. To the contrary, the people I mentor continue to teach me new tricks and challenge my assumptions about project management.

  4. Extradural spinal liposarcoma in a dog.

    PubMed

    Lewis, D D; Kim, D Y; Paulsen, D B; Kerwin, S C

    1991-12-01

    An 8-year-old female Doberman Pinscher was examined because of progressive, asymmetric, ambulatory caudal paraparesis. Myelography revealed extradural left ventrolateral spinal cord compression over the first and second lumbar vertebral bodies. A left hemilaminectomy, extending from the thirteenth thoracic to the second lumbar vertebrae, was done, and an extradural mass was removed. The tumor was identified histologically as myxoid liposarcoma. The dog's neurologic function improved gradually after surgery; however, at 7 months after surgery, hind limb neurologic function deteriorated rapidly over a 5-week period, presumably because of local recurrence of the tumor. The dog was euthanatized; necropsy was not permitted. PMID:1778745

  5. Urinary capillariosis in six dogs from Italy

    PubMed Central

    Mariacher, A.; Millanta, F.; Guidi, G.; Perrucci, S.

    2016-01-01

    Canine urinary capillariosis is caused by the nematode Pearsonema plica. P. plica infection is seldomly detected in clinical practice mainly due to diagnostic limitations. This report describes six cases of urinary capillariosis in dogs from Italy. Recurrent cystitis was observed in one dog, whereas another patient was affected by glomerular amyloidosis. In the remaining animals, the infection was considered an incidental finding. Immature eggs of the parasite were observed with urine sediment examination in 3/6 patients. Increased awareness of the potential pathogenic role of P. plica and clinical disease presentation could help identify infected animals. PMID:27354971

  6. Orbital chondroma rodens in a dog.

    PubMed

    Pletcher, J M; Koch, S A; Stedham, M A

    1979-07-15

    A chondroma rodens involving the superficial medial aspect of the right orbit was diagnosed in a 9-year-old dog referred because of chronic unilateral epiphora. Examination revealed several ophthalmic abnormalities attributable to a space-occupying mass in the superficial medial aspect of the orbit. The mass was excised; however, regrowths at the primary site necessitated additional surgical interventions. The dog was given radiation therapy, which provided encouraging results. Subtle histologic differences as well as differing epidemiologic features suggest that chondroma rodens is not analogous to the human entity of juvenile aponeurotic fibroma, to which it has been compared in the past. PMID:500440

  7. Cardiac changes in experimental hyperthyroidism in dogs.

    PubMed

    Hoey, A; Page, A; Brown, L; Atwell, R B

    1991-11-01

    Injection of triiodothyronine (T3) (1 mg/kg per day subcutaneously for 14 days) to 10 healthy dogs produced a hyperthyroid state characterised by high serum T3 concentrations, hypokalaemia, hyperactivity, loss of weight, diarrhoea and thirst. Electrocardiographic measurements showed that these dogs had an increase in heart rate of 63 +/- 11 beats/min with a significantly increased T wave amplitude without changes in R wave amplitude. Echocardiographic measurements showed no changes in fractional shortening and no evidence of ventricular hypertrophy, in contrast to reports in humans, cats and rats. However, the smooth muscle of the coronary arteries was markedly hypertrophied, which may cause a decrease in myocardial perfusion. PMID:1776932

  8. Infection of Domestic Dogs in Peru by Zoonotic Bartonella Species: A Cross-Sectional Prevalence Study of 219 Asymptomatic Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Diniz, Pedro Paulo V. P.; Morton, Bridget A.; Tngrian, Maryam; Kachani, Malika; Barrón, Eduardo A.; Gavidia, Cesar M.; Gilman, Robert H.; Angulo, Noelia P.; Brenner, Elliott C.; Lerner, Richard; Chomel, Bruno B.

    2013-01-01

    Bartonella species are emerging infectious organisms transmitted by arthropods capable of causing long-lasting infection in mammalian hosts. Among over 30 species described from four continents to date, 15 are known to infect humans, with eight of these capable of infecting dogs as well. B. bacilliformis is the only species described infecting humans in Peru; however, several other Bartonella species were detected in small mammals, bats, ticks, and fleas in that country. The objective of this study was to determine the serological and/or molecular prevalence of Bartonella species in asymptomatic dogs in Peru in order to indirectly evaluate the potential for human exposure to zoonotic Bartonella species. A convenient sample of 219 healthy dogs was obtained from five cities and three villages in Peru. EDTA-blood samples were collected from 205 dogs, whereas serum samples were available from 108 dogs. The EDTA-blood samples were screened by PCR followed by nucleotide sequencing for species identification. Antibodies against B. vinsonii berkhoffii and B. rochalimae were detected by IFA (cut-off of 1∶64). Bartonella DNA was detected in 21 of the 205 dogs (10%). Fifteen dogs were infected with B. rochalimae, while six dogs were infected with B. v. berkhoffii genotype III. Seropositivity for B. rochalimae was detected in 67 dogs (62%), and for B. v. berkhoffii in 43 (40%) of the 108 dogs. Reciprocal titers ≥1∶256 for B. rochalimae were detected in 19% of dogs, and for B. v. berkhoffii in 6.5% of dogs. This study identifies for the first time a population of dogs exposed to or infected with zoonotic Bartonella species, suggesting that domestic dogs may be the natural reservoir of these zoonotic organisms. Since dogs are epidemiological sentinels, Peruvian humans may be exposed to infections with B. rochalimae or B. v. berkhoffii. PMID:24040427

  9. Dogs are able to solve a means-end task

    PubMed Central

    Range, Friederike; Hentrup, Marleen; Viranyi, Zsofia

    2014-01-01

    Dogs, although very skilled in social communicative tasks, have shown limited abilities in the domain of physical cognition. Consequently, several researchers hypothesized that domestication enhanced dogs’ cognitive abilities in the social realm, but relaxed selection on the physical one. For instance, dogs failed to demonstrate means-end understanding, an important form of relying on physical causal connection, when tested in a string-pulling task. Here, we tested dogs in an ‘on/off’ task using a novel approach. Thirty-two dogs were confronted with four different conditions in which they could choose between two boards one with a reward ‘on’ and another one with a reward ‘off’ (reward was placed next to the board). The dogs chose the correct board when 1) both rewards were placed at the same distance from the dog, when 2) the reward placed ‘on’ the board was closer to the dog, and 3) even when the reward placed ‘off’ the board was much closer to the dog and was food. Interestingly, in the latter case dogs did not perform above chance, if instead of a direct reward, the dogs had to retrieve an object placed on the board to get a food reward. In contrast to previous string pulling studies, our results show that dogs are able to solve a means-end task even if proximity of the unsupported reward is a confounding factor. PMID:21445577

  10. Age, sex and reproductive status affect boldness in dogs.

    PubMed

    Starling, Melissa J; Branson, Nicholas; Thomson, Peter C; McGreevy, Paul D

    2013-09-01

    Boldness in dogs is believed to be one end of the shy-bold axis, representing a super-trait. Several personality traits fall under the influence of this super-trait. Previous studies have found that boldness is affected by breed and breed groups, influences performance in sporting dogs, and is affected in some cases by the sex of the dogs. This study investigated the effects of dog age, sex and reproductive status on boldness in dogs by way of a dog personality survey circulated amongst Australian dog owners. Age had a significant effect on boldness (F=4.476; DF=16,758; P<0.001), with boldness decreasing with age in years. Males were bolder than females (F=19.219; DF=1,758; P<0.001) and entire dogs were bolder than neutered dogs (F=4.330; DF=1,758; P<0.038). The study indicates how behaviour may change in adult dogs as they age and adds to the literature on how sex and reproductive status may affect personality in dogs. PMID:23778256

  11. Associations between Domestic-Dog Morphology and Behaviour Scores in the Dog Mentality Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Holly R.; McGreevy, Paul D.; Starling, Melissa J.; Forkman, Bjorn

    2016-01-01

    The domestic dog shows a wide range of morphologies, that humans have selected for in the process of creating unique breeds. Recent studies have revealed correlations between changes in morphology and behaviour as reported by owners. For example, as height and weight decrease, many undesirable behaviours (non-social fear, hyperactivity and attention seeking) become more apparent. The current study aimed to explore more of these correlations, but this time used reports from trained observers. Phenotypic measurements were recorded from a range of common dog breeds (n = 45) and included cephalic index (CI: the ratio of skull width to skull length), bodyweight, height and sex. These data were then correlated with results from the Dog Mentality Assessment (DMA), which involves trained observers scoring a dog’s reaction to stimuli presented over 10 standardised subtests. Each subtest is designed to evoke a behavioural response. Backward elimination and weighted step-wise regression revealed that shorter dogs demonstrated more aggressive tendencies, reacting defensively toward both assistants dressed as ghosts (p = 0.045), and to a dummy (p = 0.008). Taller dogs were more affectionate when greeting and being handled by humans (p = 0.007, p = <0.001, respectively). Taller dogs were also more cooperative (p = <0.001), and playful (p = 0.001) with humans than shorter dogs. Heavier dogs were more inquisitive toward a dummy (p = 0.011), to the source of a metallic noise (p = 0.010) and to an assistant (p = 0.003). Heavier dogs were also more attentive to the ghosts (p = 0.013). In comparison, lighter dogs were cautious of a dummy (p = <0.001) and fearful of the sound of a gunshot (p = <0.001). Lighter dogs were also cautious of, and demonstrated prolonged fearfulness toward, the source of metallic noise (p = <0.001, p = <0.034, respectively). With a far larger sample and the advantage of third-party reporting (which overcomes potential owner bias), the current findings build

  12. Reclaiming identity through service to dogs in need.

    PubMed

    Alers, Elvin V; Simpson, Kevin M

    2012-01-01

    Dog Tags is an animal-assisted therapy offered by the Washington Humane Society (WHS) in partnership with the Walter Reed National Military Medical Center (WRNMMC). The program is open to all ranks of enlisted service members using WRNMMC services. Dog Tags is a 3-tiered certificate program allowing Soldiers, recovering at WRNMMC, to learn and apply progressively complex and challenging elements of canine positive reinforcement training to dogs awaiting adoption at the WHS. Although each tier is a self-contained and complete curriculum, subsequent tiers build on the skills and knowledge acquired in the previous one(s). Dog Tags Warrior/trainers work with fully-screened (health and temperament) shelter dogs to provide these dogs with mental stimulation, environmental enrichment, and socialization that are vital to their successful adoption and integration into new homes. The Soldiers also benefit because they develop new skills, build positive bonds with the dogs, and continue to serve their community. PMID:22388686

  13. Dogs lap using acceleration-driven open pumping

    PubMed Central

    Gart, Sean; Socha, John J.; Vlachos, Pavlos P.; Jung, Sunghwan

    2015-01-01

    Dogs lap because they have incomplete cheeks and cannot suck. When lapping, a dog’s tongue pulls a liquid column from the bath, suggesting that the hydrodynamics of column formation are critical to understanding how dogs drink. We measured lapping in 19 dogs and used the results to generate a physical model of the tongue’s interaction with the air–fluid interface. These experiments help to explain how dogs exploit the fluid dynamics of the generated column. The results demonstrate that effects of acceleration govern lapping frequency, which suggests that dogs curl the tongue to create a larger liquid column. Comparing lapping in dogs and cats reveals that, despite similar morphology, these carnivores lap in different physical regimes: an unsteady inertial regime for dogs and steady inertial regime for cats. PMID:26668382

  14. Intramedullary cavernous malformation of the spinal cord in two dogs.

    PubMed

    MacKillop, E; Olby, N J; Linder, K E; Brown, T T

    2007-07-01

    Intramedullary cavernous malformations (CVMs) of the spinal cord were diagnosed in 2 adult dogs that presented for paraparesis. An intramedullary spinal cord lesion was identified on a myelogram in the first dog, and expansion of the vertebral canal was evident on radiographs in the second. Extensive intraparenchymal hemorrhage was found on gross postmortem examination in both dogs, and a distinct lobulated intramedullary mass was evident in the second dog. Microscopically, both lesions were composed of dilated, thin-walled vascular channels with little-to-no intervening neural parenchyma. Both dogs had evidence of channel thrombosis along with perilesional hemorrhage and hemosiderin accumulation. The second dog had additional degenerative changes, including thickened fibrous channel walls with hyalinization, foci of mineralization, and occasional tongues of entrapped gliotic neuropil. CVMs appear to be an uncommon cause of both acute and chronic spinal cord disease in the dog. PMID:17606517

  15. Computed Tomography of the Prostate Gland in Healthy Intact Dogs and Dogs with Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Pasikowska, J; Hebel, M; Niżański, W; Nowak, M

    2015-10-01

    To date, there is only scarce data on the evaluation of the prostate gland in dogs using computed tomography (CT). The aims of our study were to describe CT features of BPH in dogs and to determine the size of the prostate gland in healthy male dogs and dogs with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) through CT. Additionally, we aimed to compare and establish the most useful parameters for CT measurements of the prostate in patients with BPH. The study population consisted of 20 healthy intact male dogs and 20 male intact dogs with confirmed BPH. Pre- and post-contrast CT studies were evaluated. The most common CT features in dogs with recognized BPH were symmetrical prostatomegaly and heterogeneity of the prostatic parenchyma. The mean prostatic density (D) was 56HU (±4.39) in pre-contrast CT images and 84HU (±8) in post-contrast images in dogs with BPH. The mean prostatic length (L) was 43.87 mm (±11), the mean width (W) amounted to 48.95 mm (±8.76) and the mean height (H) reached 44.9 mm (±9.48) in clinically affected patients. The mean ratios were: rL - 2,12 (±0.5); rW - 2.39 (±0.53) and rH - 2.16 (±0.39) in the BPH group. The prostate should be considered to be enlarged when rL exceeds 3.05; rW exceeds 3.38 and rH exceeds 2.94. Our findings indicated that CT is a useful tool in diagnosing prostate disorders, including BPH. The heterogeneity, density and ratios of prostatic length, width and height can be useful parameters in the diagnosis of BPH. PMID:26303126

  16. Laser lithotripsy for removal of uroliths in dogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Larry G.; Lulich, Jody P.

    2006-02-01

    Introduction: This study evaluated the ability to fragment and remove naturally occurring uroliths in dogs using a holmium: YAG laser. Methods: Twenty four dogs with naturally occurring uroliths including 10 spayed females and 14 neutered males. The dogs were 8.7 +/- 2.8 years old and weighed 13.7 +/- 8.0 kg. All dogs had bladder stones and 5 male dogs also had urethral stones. In female dogs, cystoscopy was performed using a rigid cystoscope with sheath diameter of 14 to 19 french. Cystoscopy was performed in males dogs using a 7.5 french diameter pediatric ureteroscope. Uroliths were fragmented using a 20 watt Holmium: YAG laser and the fragments were removed by basket extraction and voiding urohydropropulsion. Results: Average laser parameters for urolith fragmentation were 0.7 Joules at 8 Hertz (range: 0.5 to 1.3 Joules at 5 to 13 Hertz). All urolith fragments were successfully removed in all 10 female dogs and 11 of 14 male dogs. In one male dog, the urethra was too small to allow passage of the ureteroscope. In one of the male dogs, the urethral stones were successfully removed by laser lithotripsy, but removal of the bladder stones was performed by cystotomy. There was one complication of urethral perforation during attempts to pass an access sheath transurethrally in a dog with extensive proliferative urethritis. Conclusions: Laser lithotripsy is a safe and effective method of removing bladder and urethral stones in dogs provided the dog is large enough to permit transurethral passage of a cystoscope or ureteroscope.

  17. Hematobiochemical changes in ehrlichiosis in dogs of Anand region, Gujarat

    PubMed Central

    Bhadesiya, C. M.; Raval, S. K.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The present research work was undertaken to study the diagnostic importance of hematobiochemical changes in naturally occurring ehrlichiosis in dogs of Anand region, Gujarat irrespective of their age, breed, and sex. Materials and Methods: Blood samples from a total of 29 dogs of Anand region of Gujarat state were screened for detection of anti-Ehrlichia canis antibodies using Immunocomb® rapid diagnostic kit (Biogal Galed Laboratories, Israel) and subjected to estimation of hematobiochemical parameters by auto hematology analyzers at College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, Anand. Statistical analysis, interpretation and comparison of hematobiochemical changes with scientific literature was carried out in order to understand the pathophysiology of the disease. Results: Of 29 dogs, 18 were positive for naturally occurring ehrlichiosis based on the presence of anti-E. canis antibodies while 11 were negative. Haematology evinced that the mean values of hemoglobin, total erythrocyte counts, platelet count and packed cell volume in dogs with ehrlichiosis decreased significantly (p<0.01) in comparison to healthy dogs. Among differential leucocyte count, mean values of lymphocytes decreased, neutrophils increased, eosinophils decreased and basophils decreased significantly (p<0.05) in dogs with ehrlichiosis in comparison to healthy dogs while statistically non-significant (p>0.05) difference was observed in values of monocytes in dogs with ehrlichiosis and healthy dogs. Among various red blood cells indices, the mean values of mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration increased significantly (p<0.01) in dogs with ehrlichiosis in comparison to healthy dogs. Serum biochemistry revealed significant (p<0.01) increase in serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase, serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase and creatinine levels as well as decrease in total protein levels in dogs with ehrlichiosis as compared to healthy dogs. Conclusion: Clinical importance of

  18. Successful direct amplification of nuclear markers from single dog hairs using DogFiler multiplex.

    PubMed

    Blackie, Renée; Taylor, Duncan; Linacre, Adrian

    2015-09-01

    We report on successful amplification of canine STR DNA profiles from single dog hairs. Dog hairs are commonly found on clothing or items of interest in forensic casework and may be crucial associative evidence if linked to an individual dog. We used direct amplification from these hairs to increase the DNA yield of the sample, as well as greatly reducing analysis time. Hairs from different somatic regions were used from several different dog breeds to amplify a selection of eight loci from the validated DogFiler multiplex. Naturally shed canine hairs were processed, with a mix of coarse topcoat (guard) hairs and thinner soft undercoat hairs. Multiple sections of single hairs were amplified in 5 mm segments to determine the viability of DNA recovery from the shaft of the hair. Single guard hairs were cut into 5 mm sections and added directly into a PCR tube. Undercoat hairs, which are very fine, were amplified together in a single tube (approximately ten small hairs). Coarse hairs were found to be the most successful in producing full DNA profiles at all eight loci, matching the corresponding reference profile for that dog. PMID:25994427

  19. Telangiectasia of Pembroke Welsh Corgi dogs.

    PubMed

    Moore, F M; Thornton, G W

    1983-03-01

    Multiple vascular lesions involving kidneys and various other organs consisting of cavernous, blood-filled spaces lined by endothelial cells with various amounts of mural collagen are described in eight Pembroke Welsh Corgi dogs. The most common clinical sign associated with this condition is hematuria. PMID:6836876

  20. Fatal diphenhydramine poisoning in a dog

    PubMed Central

    Buchweitz, John P.; Raverty, Stephen A.; Johnson, Margaret B.; Lehner, Andreas F.

    2014-01-01

    We report a fatal diphenhydramine poisoning of a 10-year-old, male poodle-cross dog with pre-existing conditions and suspected co-ingestion of ethanol. This case illustrates that diphenhydramine overdose can be fatal in certain circumstances and that analytical toxicology may play an important role in animal death investigations. PMID:25392554

  1. Highly athletic terrestrial mammals: horses and dogs.

    PubMed

    Poole, David C; Erickson, Howard H

    2011-01-01

    Evolutionary forces drive beneficial adaptations in response to a complex array of environmental conditions. In contrast, over several millennia, humans have been so enamored by the running/athletic prowess of horses and dogs that they have sculpted their anatomy and physiology based solely upon running speed. Thus, through hundreds of generations, those structural and functional traits crucial for running fast have been optimized. Central among these traits is the capacity to uptake, transport and utilize oxygen at spectacular rates. Moreover, the coupling of the key systems--pulmonary-cardiovascular-muscular is so exquisitely tuned in horses and dogs that oxygen uptake response kinetics evidence little inertia as the animal transitions from rest to exercise. These fast oxygen uptake kinetics minimize Intramyocyte perturbations that can limit exercise tolerance. For the physiologist, study of horses and dogs allows investigation not only of a broader range of oxidative function than available in humans, but explores the very limits of mammalian biological adaptability. Specifically, the unparalleled equine cardiovascular and muscular systems can transport and utilize more oxygen than the lungs can supply. Two consequences of this situation, particularly in the horse, are profound exercise-induced arterial hypoxemia and hypercapnia as well as structural failure of the delicate blood-gas barrier causing pulmonary hemorrhage and, in the extreme, overt epistaxis. This chapter compares and contrasts horses and dogs with humans with respect to the structural and functional features that enable these extraordinary mammals to support their prodigious oxidative and therefore athletic capabilities. PMID:23737162

  2. 49 CFR 236.742 - Dog, locking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Dog, locking. 236.742 Section 236.742 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.742...

  3. 49 CFR 236.742 - Dog, locking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Dog, locking. 236.742 Section 236.742 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.742...

  4. 49 CFR 236.742 - Dog, locking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Dog, locking. 236.742 Section 236.742 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.742...

  5. 38 CFR 17.148 - Service dogs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... beneficiary under 38 U.S.C. 111 and 38 CFR part 70, without regard to whether the veteran meets the eligibility criteria as set forth in 38 CFR part 70. Note: VA will provide payment for travel expenses related... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Service dogs....

  6. Dogs Don't Need Calculus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolt, Mike

    2010-01-01

    Many optimization problems can be solved without resorting to calculus. This article develops a new variational method for optimization that relies on inequalities. The method is illustrated by four examples, the last of which provides a completely algebraic solution to the problem of minimizing the time it takes a dog to retrieve a thrown ball,…

  7. 38 CFR 17.148 - Service dogs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... beneficiary under 38 U.S.C. 111 and 38 CFR part 70, without regard to whether the veteran meets the eligibility criteria as set forth in 38 CFR part 70. Note: VA will provide payment for travel expenses related... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Service dogs....

  8. 49 CFR 236.742 - Dog, locking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dog, locking. 236.742 Section 236.742 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.742...

  9. 49 CFR 236.742 - Dog, locking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Dog, locking. 236.742 Section 236.742 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.742...

  10. Radiography of spontaneous periodontitis in dogs.

    PubMed

    Hamp, S E; Hamp, M; Olsson, S E; Lindberg, R; Schauman, P

    1997-10-01

    The pattern and distribution of periodontitis were investigated in 162 randomly selected dogs available for necropsy in veterinary practice. There were 82 males and 80 females of 50 different breeds (150 dogs were pure-bred and 12 were mongrels, aged between 7 months and 14 yr. Presence of periodontitis was determined by assessment of alveolar bone loss on radiographs of the skulls and jaws. Periodontitis occurred frequently with increasing age, although the prevalence varied markedly among and within different breeds. Of the breeds most represented in the sample, periodontitis was most frequently seen in poodles and dachshunds but was rarely recognized in German shepherd dogs. Regardless of age, the vast majority of the dogs displayed either one or both of two different radiographic patterns of alveolar bone loss. One pattern was characterized by slight, horizontal alveolar bone loss involving interradicular and interdental areas. The other pattern was one of predominantly crater-like, or narrow, vertical bone defects which, when advanced, often extended around a single root or tooth to surround the root apices. The two types of patterns did not seem to be breed-dependent. The posterior maxillary and mandibular premolars and molars were the most frequently affected teeth. Alveolar bone loss was most severe in the maxilla, while corresponding bone loss in the mandible was more often related to increasing age. PMID:9401931

  11. Listeria monocytogenes septicemia in an immunocompromised dog

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An 11-year-old, male castrated, Boston terrier was presented to the North Carolina State University College of Veterinary Medicine Small Animal Emergency Service (NCSU-CVM-SAER) with a two-day history of progressive ataxia, left-sided head tilt, and anorexia. The dog had previously been diagnosed wi...

  12. Radioimmunoassy for phencyclidine (PCP) in serum. [Dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Owens, S.M.; Woodworth, J.; Mayersohn, M.

    1982-07-01

    This accurate, sensitive radioimmunoassay for determining phencyclidine concentrations in serum specimens involves the use of anti-phencyclidine sera, 0.1 mL of serum specimen, an iodinated tracer, and a solid-phase separation. Phencyclidine metabolities do not show significant cross reactivity, but several phencyclidine analogs do cross react. Within-run coefficients of variation for human and dog serum ranged from 2.5 to 13% for concentrations from 2.0 to 500 ..mu..g/L. Day-to-day coefficients of variation for human and dog serum ranged from 4.3 to 16.7% for concentrations ranging from 2.0 to 09.0 ..mu..g/L. The sensitivity of the radioimmunoassay is <0.5 ..mu..g/L. Thirty serum specimens from two dogs given 1 mg of phencyclidine per kilogram body weight were analyzed by radioimmunoassay and a gas-chromatographic method. Nonparametris statistical comparison and linear regression showed that results from the two procedures correlate well (r/sup 2/ = 0.952). Concentration-time data from the two dogs are presented to illustrate the utility of the radioimmunoassay for examining phencyclidine disposition.

  13. Serum Biochemical Phenotypes in the Domestic Dog

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Yu-Mei; Hadox, Erin; Szladovits, Balazs; Garden, Oliver A.

    2016-01-01

    The serum or plasma biochemical profile is essential in the diagnosis and monitoring of systemic disease in veterinary medicine, but current reference intervals typically take no account of breed-specific differences. Breed-specific hematological phenotypes have been documented in the domestic dog, but little has been published on serum biochemical phenotypes in this species. Serum biochemical profiles of dogs in which all measurements fell within the existing reference intervals were retrieved from a large veterinary database. Serum biochemical profiles from 3045 dogs were retrieved, of which 1495 had an accompanying normal glucose concentration. Sixty pure breeds plus a mixed breed control group were represented by at least 10 individuals. All analytes, except for sodium, chloride and glucose, showed variation with age. Total protein, globulin, potassium, chloride, creatinine, cholesterol, total bilirubin, ALT, CK, amylase, and lipase varied between sexes. Neutering status significantly impacted all analytes except albumin, sodium, calcium, urea, and glucose. Principal component analysis of serum biochemical data revealed 36 pure breeds with distinctive phenotypes. Furthermore, comparative analysis identified 23 breeds with significant differences from the mixed breed group in all biochemical analytes except urea and glucose. Eighteen breeds were identified by both principal component and comparative analysis. Tentative reference intervals were generated for breeds with a distinctive phenotype identified by comparative analysis and represented by at least 120 individuals. This is the first large-scale analysis of breed-specific serum biochemical phenotypes in the domestic dog and highlights potential genetic components of biochemical traits in this species. PMID:26919479

  14. Canine kobuviruses in diarrhoeic dogs in Italy.

    PubMed

    Di Martino, Barbara; Di Felice, Elisabetta; Ceci, Chiara; Di Profio, Federica; Marsilio, Fulvio

    2013-09-27

    Canine kobuviruses (CaKVs) are newly recognized picornaviruses recently detected in dogs in the US. By molecular analysis of the whole genome, CaKV that appeared genetically closest to the murine kobuvirus (MuKV) and to the human Aichi virus (AiV), may be classified in the Kobuvirus genus as new genotype (CaKV type 1) within the species Aichivirus A. To date, there are no information on the epidemiology of these novel viruses in other continents. In this study, by screening a collection of 256 dog fecal samples either from diarrhoeic or asymptomatic animals, CaKV was identified in six specimens with an overall prevalence of 2.34% (6/256). All the positive dogs presented diarrhea and were found to be infected by CaKV alone or in mixed infections with canine coronavirus (CCoV) and/or canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2). By molecular analysis of the partial 3D gene, all the strains detected displayed a close relatedness with the CaKVs recently identified in the US. This study provides evidence that CaKVs circulate in diarrhoeic dogs in Italy and are not geographically restricted to the North American continent, where they were first signaled. PMID:23806200

  15. Cervical spondylomyelopathy (wobbler syndrome) in dogs.

    PubMed

    da Costa, Ronaldo C

    2010-09-01

    Cervical spondylomyelopathy (CSM) is a common and controversial disease of the cervical spine of large and giant breed dogs. Not many diseases in veterinary medicine have been referred to by 14 different names and have had 21 surgical techniques proposed to treat it. This article reviews the current knowledge of CSM with regard to its etiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, treatment, and outcome. PMID:20732597

  16. Serum Biochemical Phenotypes in the Domestic Dog.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yu-Mei; Hadox, Erin; Szladovits, Balazs; Garden, Oliver A

    2016-01-01

    The serum or plasma biochemical profile is essential in the diagnosis and monitoring of systemic disease in veterinary medicine, but current reference intervals typically take no account of breed-specific differences. Breed-specific hematological phenotypes have been documented in the domestic dog, but little has been published on serum biochemical phenotypes in this species. Serum biochemical profiles of dogs in which all measurements fell within the existing reference intervals were retrieved from a large veterinary database. Serum biochemical profiles from 3045 dogs were retrieved, of which 1495 had an accompanying normal glucose concentration. Sixty pure breeds plus a mixed breed control group were represented by at least 10 individuals. All analytes, except for sodium, chloride and glucose, showed variation with age. Total protein, globulin, potassium, chloride, creatinine, cholesterol, total bilirubin, ALT, CK, amylase, and lipase varied between sexes. Neutering status significantly impacted all analytes except albumin, sodium, calcium, urea, and glucose. Principal component analysis of serum biochemical data revealed 36 pure breeds with distinctive phenotypes. Furthermore, comparative analysis identified 23 breeds with significant differences from the mixed breed group in all biochemical analytes except urea and glucose. Eighteen breeds were identified by both principal component and comparative analysis. Tentative reference intervals were generated for breeds with a distinctive phenotype identified by comparative analysis and represented by at least 120 individuals. This is the first large-scale analysis of breed-specific serum biochemical phenotypes in the domestic dog and highlights potential genetic components of biochemical traits in this species. PMID:26919479

  17. Paraneoplastic hypertrophic osteopathy in 30 dogs

    PubMed Central

    Withers, S. S.; Johnson, E. G.; Culp, W. T. N.; Rodriguez, C. O.; Skorupski, K. A.; Rebhun, R. B.

    2016-01-01

    Paraneoplastic hypertrophic osteopathy (pHO) is known to occur in both canine and human cancer patients. While the pathology of pHO is well-described in the dog, very little information exists regarding the true clinical presentation of dogs affected with pHO. The primary objective of this study was to provide a more comprehensive clinical picture of pHO. To this end, we retrospectively identified 30 dogs and recorded data regarding presenting complaints and physical examination (PE) findings on the date of pHO diagnosis. As a secondary objective, any blood test results were also collected from the computerized records. The most common clinical signs included leg swelling, ocular discharge and/or episcleral injection, lameness, and lethargy. The most common haematological and serum biochemical abnormalities included anaemia, neutrophilia and elevated alkaline phosphatase. In addition to presenting a more detailed clinical description of pHO in the dog, these data support the previously described haematological, serum biochemical and PE abnormalities published in individual case reports. PMID:23489591

  18. Listeria monocytogenes septicemia in an immunocompromised dog

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An 11-year-old, male castrated, Boston Terrier was presented to the North Carolina State University College of Veterinary Medicine Small Animal Emergency Service with a 2-day history of progressive ataxia, left-sided head tilt, and anorexia. The dog had previously been diagnosed with chronic lymphoi...

  19. The fibrous epulis in the dog.

    PubMed

    Greenwood, A M; O'Brien, F V

    1975-09-01

    The pathology of the fibrous epulis in the dog is described and found to be comparable to that seen in humans. Emphasis is placed on the apparent relationship between the hyperplasia of the covering epithelium and calcification of the connective tissue component, and a theory to explain this relationship is proposed. PMID:809554

  20. Nipah Virus Infection in Dogs, Malaysia, 1999

    PubMed Central

    Alim, Asiah N.M.; Bunning, Michel L.; Lee, Ong Bee; Wagoner, Kent D.; Amman, Brian R.; Stockton, Patrick C.; Ksiazek, Thomas G.

    2009-01-01

    The 1999 outbreak of Nipah virus encephalitis in humans and pigs in Peninsular Malaysia ended with the evacuation of humans and culling of pigs in the epidemic area. Serologic screening showed that, in the absence of infected pigs, dogs were not a secondary reservoir for Nipah virus. PMID:19523300

  1. Diagnosis of pancreatitis in dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Xenoulis, P G

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatitis is the most common disorder of the exocrine pancreas in both dogs and cats. Ante-mortem diagnosis of canine and feline pancreatitis can be challenging. The clinical picture of dogs and cats with pancreatitis varies greatly (from very mild to severe or even fatal) and is characterised by non-specific findings. Complete blood count, serum biochemistry profile and urinalysis should always be performed in dogs and cats suspected of having pancreatitis, although findings are not-specific for pancreatitis. Serum amylase and lipase activities and trypsin-like immunoreactivity (TLI) concentrations have no or only limited clinical value for the diagnosis of pancreatitis in either dogs or cats. Conversely, serum pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity (PLI) concentration is currently considered to be the clinicopathological test of choice for the diagnosis of canine and feline pancreatitis. Abdominal radiography is a useful diagnostic tool for the exclusion of other diseases that may cause similar clinical signs to those of pancreatitis. Abdominal ultrasonography can be very useful for the diagnosis of pancreatitis, but this depends largely on the clinician's experience. Histopathological examination of the pancreas is considered the gold standard for the diagnosis and classification of pancreatitis, but it is not without limitations. In clinical practice, a combination of careful evaluation of the animal's history, serum PLI concentration and abdominal ultrasonography, together with pancreatic cytology or histopathology when indicated or possible, is considered to be the most practical and reliable means for an accurate diagnosis or exclusion of pancreatitis compared with other diagnostic modalities. PMID:25586803

  2. Filarioids infecting dogs in northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Rafael Antonio Nascimento; de Oliveira do Rêgo, Ana Gabriela; de Farias Firmino, Everton Diogo; do Nascimento Ramos, Carlos Alberto; de Carvalho, Gílcia Aparecida; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Otranto, Domenico; Alves, Leucio Câmara

    2016-08-15

    Species of filarial nematodes belonging to the genera Dirofilaria and Acanthocheilonema are recognised as common parasites of dogs throughout the world. Recently, other filarioids featured by the presence of dermal microfilariae (e.g., Onchocerca lupi and Cercopithifilaria spp.) have been recognised in Europe. In Brazil, reports of filarioids in dogs are limited to Dirofilaria immitis, Acanthocheilonema reconditum and Cercopithifilaria bainae. To investigate the distribution of filarial infections in dogs living in an endemic region from northeastern Brazil, blood and skin samples (n=104) were microscopically (modified Knott's test and skin snip sediment examination) and molecularly evaluated. Twenty-two dogs (21.15%) were positive at microscopic and/or molecular examination for at least one filarioid species, with 21 (20.19%) animals positive for blood microfilariae at molecular and/or at microscopic examination. Microfilariae of D. immitis were detected in 12 (11.54%) animals, with co-infection of D. immitis and A. reconditum observed in four (3.85%) individuals. One animal was positive for C. bainae at both microscopic and molecular examination. Analysis of sequence obtained in the present study showed significant alignment identity with that of C. bainae from Europe. Considering that in the area of study arthropod vectors (mosquitoes, fleas and ticks) are prevalent throughout the year, preventive measures should be disposed in order to avoid the animal infestation and pathogen infection. PMID:27514878

  3. Four hot DOGs in the microwave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frey, Sándor; Paragi, Zsolt; Gabányi, Krisztina Éva; An, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Hot dust-obscured galaxies (hot DOGs) are a rare class of hyperluminous infrared galaxies identified with the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) satellite. The majority of them are at high redshifts (z ˜ 2-3), at the peak epoch of star formation in the Universe. Infrared, optical, radio, and X-ray data suggest that hot DOGs contain heavily obscured, extremely luminous active galactic nuclei (AGN). This class may represent a short phase in the life of the galaxies, signifying the transition from starburst- to AGN-dominated phases. Hot DOGs are typically radio-quiet, but some of them show mJy-level emission in the radio (microwave) band. We observed four hot DOGs using the technique of very long baseline interferometry (VLBI). The 1.7 GHz observations with the European VLBI Network (EVN) revealed weak radio features in all sources. The radio is free from dust obscuration and, at such high redshifts, VLBI is sensitive only to compact structures that are characteristic of AGN activity. In two cases (WISE J0757+5113, WISE J1603+2745), the flux density of the VLBI-detected components is much smaller than the total flux density, suggesting that ˜70-90 per cent of the radio emission, while still dominated by AGN, originates from angular scales larger than that probed by the EVN. The source WISE J1146+4129 appears a candidate compact symmetric object, and WISE J1814+3412 shows a 5.1 kpc double structure, reminiscent of hotspots in a medium-sized symmetric object. Our observations support that AGN residing in hot DOGs may be genuine young radio sources where starburst and AGN activities coexist.

  4. Ultrasonographic evaluation of tracheal collapse in dogs.

    PubMed

    Eom, Kidong; Moon, Kumjung; Seong, Yunsang; Oh, Taeho; Yi, Sungjoon; Lee, Keunwoo; Jang, Kwangho

    2008-12-01

    Tracheal ultrasonography was performed to measure the width of the tracheal ring shadow and to assess the clinical relevance of these measurements for identifying tracheal collapse. The first tracheal ring width (FTRW) and thoracic inlet tracheal ring width (TITRW) were measured on both expiration and inspiration. The mean of the FTRW width (129 dogs) was greater in expiration (10.97 plusmn; 1.02 mm, p = 0.001) than that in inspiration (9.86 plusmn; 1.03 mm). For 51 normal dogs, the mean of the TITRW width was greater in expiration (9.05 plusmn; 1.52 mm, p = 0.001) than in inspiration (8.02 plusmn; 1.43 mm). For 78 tracheal collapse dogs, the mean of the TITRW width was greater in expiration (15.89 plusmn; 1.01 mm, p = 0.001) than in inspiration (14.85 plusmn; 1.17 mm). The TITRW/FTRW ratio of the normal dogs was higher (p = 0.001) in expiration (0.81 plusmn; 0.09) than that in inspiration (0.79 plusmn; 0.10). When compared between the normal and tracheal collapse dogs, the TITRW/FTRW ratio was also increased (p = 0.001) both in expiration (1.54 plusmn; 0.09) and inspiration (1.47 plusmn; 0.08), respectively. Based on these results, the cutoff level of the TITRW/FTRW ratio was statistically analyzed according to the receiver operating characteristic curve and it could be set at 1.16 in expiration and at 1.13 in inspiration. We have demonstrated that tracheal ultrasonography is a useful technique for the evaluation of tracheal collapse and it can be a supportive tool together with the radiographic findings for making the correct diagnosis. PMID:19043316

  5. [Giardiasis in dogs in a breeding kennel].

    PubMed

    Horejs, R; Koudela, B

    1994-01-01

    Giardia intestinalis is a pathogenic protozoan which infects humans and a wide range of animals including dogs. Giardia infections in dogs have been reported by several authors. Prevalence of Giardia varies widely depending on the detection method, geographic localization, and population studied. The objective of the study reported here was to determine the prevalence of giardiasis in German Shepherd Dogs in a breeding unit. In our trial conducted over 18 months, 28 bitches, 5 adult males and 101 puppies (between 1.5 and 12 months old) were subjected to individual fecal examination for Giardia cysts, coccidial oocysts and helminth ova. Total 494 individual fecal samples were examined by the magnesium sulphate flotation technique (1.30 sp. gr) and Giardia cysts were detected in 36.2% of fecal samples. Giardia cysts were observed in 1 of 29 (3.4%) fecal samples from adult males, 11 of 157 (7.0%) fecal samples from bitches and 164 of 308 (53.2%) puppies' fecal specimens. No association between bouts of diarrhea and peaks of Giardia cysts shedding could be demonstrated. The source of infection for the pups was not ascertained, as no temporal association between shedding of Giardia cyst by bitches and their litters could be demonstrated. The majority of pups had passed peak of Giardia cyst shedding between week 6 of age 12 week of age. When Giardia infection was detected, the dogs were treated with either ornidazole (Avrazor, Léciva) at 25 mg/kg or metronidazole (Entizol, Polfa) 50 mg/kg for three to five days. Within seven days of completing a course of treatment fecal examinations were carried out on each dog to determine whether treatment had been effective.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8184530

  6. STS-69 Crew members display 'Dog Crew' patches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Following their arrival at KSC's Shuttle Landing Facility, the five astronauts assigned to Space Shuttle Mission STS-69 display the unofficial crew patch for their upcoming spaceflight: the Dog Crew II patch. Mission Commander David M. Walker (center) and Payload Commander James S. Voss (second from right) previously flew together on Mission STS-53, the final dedicated Department of Defense flight on the Space Shuttle. A close comradery formed among Walker, Voss and the rest of the crew, and they dubbed themselves the 'dogs of war', with each of the STS-53 'Dog Crew' members assigned a 'dog tag' or nickname. When the STS-69 astronauts also became good buddies, they decided it was time for the Dog Crew II to be named. Walker's dog tag is Red Dog, Voss's is Dogface, Pilot Kenneth D. Cockrell (second from left) is Cujo, space rookie and Mission Specialist Michael L. Gernhardt (left) is Under Dog, and Mission Specialist James H. Newman (right) is Pluato. The Dog Crew II patch features a bulldog peering out from a doghouse shaped like the Space Shuttle and lists the five crew member's dog names. The five astronauts are scheduled to lift off on the fifth Shuttle flight of the year at 11:04 a.m. EDT, August 31, aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour.

  7. Induction of meniscal regeneration in dogs using a novel biomaterial.

    PubMed

    Cook, J L; Tomlinson, J L; Kreeger, J M; Cook, C R

    1999-01-01

    A unique biomaterial, porcine small intestinal submucosa, was used to construct grafts for implantation into surgically created medial meniscal defects in dogs. Five dogs received grafts and two were left untreated as controls. All dogs were evaluated at 4, 8, and 12 weeks by means of lameness scoring, force plate analysis, and ultrasonography. Twelve weeks after implantation the dogs were sacrificed and the replacement tissue was evaluated for gross and histologic appearance, amount, glycosaminoglycan content, and type II collagen immunoreactivity. Four weeks after instrumentation, both groups had lameness scores that were significantly higher than preoperative scores, but at the 8- and 12-week evaluations, scores for the grafted dogs were not different from preoperative values. The ultrasonographic appearance of replacement tissue in grafted defects resembled normal meniscus. In the untreated defects, only unorganized tissue was present. In control dogs, replacement tissue resembled fibrous tissue and cartilage erosions were visible on the medial femoral condyles. In four of the five grafted dogs, replacement tissue was grossly indistinguishable from normal meniscus. The amount of tissue in the defect was significantly greater for the grafted dogs. Histologically, replacement tissue in control dogs was composed of vascularized connective tissue with no evidence of chondroid differentiation. Replacement tissue in grafted dogs closely resembled normal meniscal tissue with respect to chondroid differentiation, collagen content, and zonal architecture. Porcine small intestinal submucosa appeared to have beneficial effects on meniscal regeneration. PMID:10496586

  8. Cyniclomyces guttulatus Infection in Dogs: 19 Cases (2006-2013).

    PubMed

    Winston, Jenessa Andrzejewski; Piperisova, Ida; Neel, Jennifer; Gookin, Jody L

    2016-01-01

    Cyniclomyces guttulatus, a gastrointestinal yeast of rabbits, is considered an uncommon, nonpathogenic, "pass through" organism and possible opportunistic pathogen in dogs that consume rabbit feces. This retrospective study aimed to characterize the presenting complaint, clinical findings, location of organisms, and final diagnosis of dogs in which yeast morphologically consistent with C. guttulatus were identified at a veterinary teaching hospital from 2006-2013. The prevalence of C. guttulatus infection in a general population of dogs from a regional animal shelter was also determined. Nineteen dogs were retrospectively identified as diagnosed with C. guttulatus infection. Among these, 79% presented with a chief complaint and/or clinical signs consistent with gastrointestinal tract disease. The most common clinical sign was chronic diarrhea. The majority of dogs had C. guttulatus identified cytologically within samples obtained from the gastrointestinal tract; however, four dogs had C. guttulatus identified in non-gastrointestinal tract samples, including a nasal biopsy (one dog) and urine (three dogs). C. guttulatus was not identified in any of 105 shelter dogs evaluated, suggesting low prevalence of C. guttulatus in our region. These findings suggest that additional studies to determine if C. guttulatus is a potential cause or consequence of gastrointestinal illness in dogs may be warranted. PMID:26606203

  9. Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth in dogs with chronic intestinal disease.

    PubMed

    Rutgers, H C; Batt, R M; Elwood, C M; Lamport, A

    1995-01-15

    Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) was diagnosed by quantitative bacterial culture of duodenal juice samples obtained endoscopically in 41 of 80 dogs that were admitted with chronic diarrhea, vomiting, or weight loss. Thirteen dogs had aerobic bacterial overgrowth, most frequently comprising Escherichia coli, staphylococci, and enterococci, and 28 dogs had mixed anaerobic overgrowth, most frequently including Clostridium and Bacteroides spp. Affected dogs comprised 23 breeds, including 10 German Shepherd Dogs and median age at diagnosis was 2 years (range, 6 months to 11 years). High serum folate and low serum cobalamin concentrations had fair specificity (79 and 87%, respectively), but low sensitivity (51 and 24%, respectively) in detecting SIBO. Histologic examination of duodenal biopsy specimens did not reveal abnormalities (26/41 dogs), or revealed mild to moderate lymphocytic (12/41) or eosinophilic (2/41) infiltrates, or lymphosarcoma (1/41). Oral antibiotic treatment was effective in 77% (23/30 dogs), but prolonged treatment (> 4 weeks) was required to control signs and prevent recurrence in 50% (15/30). Corticosteroids were used alone in a dog with eosinophilic enteritis and in combination with antibiotics in 4 dogs with marked gastrointestinal lymphocytic/plasmacytic infiltrates. This study suggested that SIBO may be observed in dogs of many breeds, without an obvious primary cause, and that, although results of indirect tests may be suggestive of SIBO, bacterial culture of duodenal juice samples remains necessary for definitive diagnosis. PMID:7751219

  10. Breeding implications resulting from classification of patellae luxation in dogs.

    PubMed

    van Grevenhof, E M; Hazewinkel, H A W; Heuven, H C M

    2016-08-01

    Patellar luxation (PL) is one of the major hereditary orthopaedic abnormalities observed in a variety of dog breeds. When the patellae move sideways out of the trochlear groove, this is called PL. The PL score varies between dogs from normal to very severe. Reducing the prevalence of PL by breeding could prevent surgery, thereby improve welfare. Orthopaedic specialists differentiate between normal and loose patellae, where the patellae can be moved to the edge of the trochlear groove, considering scoring loose patellae as normal in the future. Loose patellae are considered acceptable for breeding so far by the breeding organization. The aim of this study was to analyse the genetic background of PL to decide on the importance of loose patellae when breeding for healthy dogs. Data are available from two dog breeds, that is Flat-coated Retrievers (n = 3808) and Kooiker dogs (n = 794), with a total of 4602 dogs. Results show that loose patellae indicate that dogs are genetically more susceptible to develop PL because family members of the dogs with loose patellae showed more severe PL. In addition, the estimated breeding values for dogs with loose patellae indicate that breeding values of dogs with loose patellae were worse than breeding values obtained for dogs with a normal score. Given these results, it is advised to orthopaedic specialists to continue to score loose patellae as a separate class and to dog breeders to minimize the use of dogs in breeding with a genetically higher susceptibility for PL. PMID:26403830

  11. Tail Docking and Ear Cropping Dogs: Public Awareness and Perceptions

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Katelyn E.; Robbins, Jesse; von Keyserlingk, Marina A. G.

    2016-01-01

    Tail docking and ear cropping are two surgical procedures commonly performed on many dog breeds. These procedures are classified as medically unnecessary surgeries whose purpose is primarily cosmetic. Available attitude research surrounding these controversial practices has been limited to surveys of veterinarians and dog breeders familiar with both practices. The aim of this project was to: 1) assess public awareness of tail docking and ear cropping, 2) determine whether physical alteration of a dog affects how the dog, and 3) owner are perceived. In Experiment 1 awareness was measured using a combination of both explicit and implicit measures. We found that 42% of participants (n = 810) were unable to correctly explain the reason why tail docked and ear cropped dogs had short ears and tails. Similarly, an implicit measure of awareness (‘nature vs nurture task’), found that the majority of participants believed short tails and erect ears were a consequence of genetics rather than something the owner or breeder had done. The results obtained in Experiment 2 (n = 392) provide evidence that ear cropped and tail docked dogs are perceived differently than an identical dog in its ‘natural’ state. Modified dogs were perceived as being more aggressive, more dominant, less playful and less attractive than natural dogs. Experiment 3 (n = 410) is the first evidence that owners of modified dogs are perceived as being more aggressive, more narcissistic, less playful, less talkative and less warm compared to owners of natural dogs. Taken together, these results suggest that although a significant proportion of subjects appear unaware of the practices of tail docking and ear cropping in dogs, these procedures have significant impacts on how modified dogs and their owners are perceived by others. PMID:27348817

  12. Tail Docking and Ear Cropping Dogs: Public Awareness and Perceptions.

    PubMed

    Mills, Katelyn E; Robbins, Jesse; von Keyserlingk, Marina A G

    2016-01-01

    Tail docking and ear cropping are two surgical procedures commonly performed on many dog breeds. These procedures are classified as medically unnecessary surgeries whose purpose is primarily cosmetic. Available attitude research surrounding these controversial practices has been limited to surveys of veterinarians and dog breeders familiar with both practices. The aim of this project was to: 1) assess public awareness of tail docking and ear cropping, 2) determine whether physical alteration of a dog affects how the dog, and 3) owner are perceived. In Experiment 1 awareness was measured using a combination of both explicit and implicit measures. We found that 42% of participants (n = 810) were unable to correctly explain the reason why tail docked and ear cropped dogs had short ears and tails. Similarly, an implicit measure of awareness ('nature vs nurture task'), found that the majority of participants believed short tails and erect ears were a consequence of genetics rather than something the owner or breeder had done. The results obtained in Experiment 2 (n = 392) provide evidence that ear cropped and tail docked dogs are perceived differently than an identical dog in its 'natural' state. Modified dogs were perceived as being more aggressive, more dominant, less playful and less attractive than natural dogs. Experiment 3 (n = 410) is the first evidence that owners of modified dogs are perceived as being more aggressive, more narcissistic, less playful, less talkative and less warm compared to owners of natural dogs. Taken together, these results suggest that although a significant proportion of subjects appear unaware of the practices of tail docking and ear cropping in dogs, these procedures have significant impacts on how modified dogs and their owners are perceived by others. PMID:27348817

  13. Relationships Between Dog Ownership and Physical Activity in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Wertheim, Betsy C.; Manson, JoAnn E.; Chlebowski, Rowan T.; Volpe, Stella Lucia; Howard, Barbara V.; Stefanick, Marcia L.; Thomson, Cynthia A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Positive associations between dog ownership and physical activity in older adults have been previously reported. Purpose The objective of this study was to examine cross-sectional associations between dog ownership and physical activity measures in a well-characterized, diverse sample of postmenopausal women. Methods Analyses included 36,984 dog owners (mean age: 61.5 yrs), and 115,645 non-dog owners (mean age: 63.9 yrs) enrolled in a clinical trial or the observational study of the Women’s Health Initiative between 1993 and 1998. Logistic regression models were used to test for associations between dog ownership and physical activity, adjusted for potential confounders. Results Owning a dog was associated with a higher likelihood of walking ≥150 min/wk (OR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.10–1.17) and a lower likelihood of being sedentary ≥8 hr/day (OR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.83–0.89) as compared to not owning a dog. However, dog owners were less likely to meet ≥7.5 MET-hr/wk of total physical activity as compared to non-dog owners (OR, 1.03; 95% CI, 1.00–1.07). Conclusions Dog ownership is associated with increased physical activity in older women, particularly among women living alone. Health promotion efforts aimed at older adults should highlight the benefits of regular dog walking for both dog owners and non-dog owners. PMID:25449694

  14. Clinical and bacteriological assessment of dog-to-dog bite wounds.

    PubMed

    Mouro, S; Vilela, C L; Niza, M M R E

    2010-07-29

    Although dog-to-dog bite wounds are frequent, few studies correlate bacterial involvement to clinical aspects. This work aimed at relating clinical evolution and bacteriological data, with the evolution time (ET), i.e., the period of time elapsed from aggression until presentation. A total of 228 wounds from 83 cases of bitten dogs was evaluated; 48 of the wounds were sampled for bacteriology. Dogs with clinically infected wounds (N=29) were subjected to antimicrobial therapy and local disinfection. Dogs without clinical signs of infection were either subjected to the same treatment (N=43) or only subjected to daily wound saline irrigation (N=11), to evaluate the need for antimicrobial prophylaxis. The majority of wounds were laceration and puncture wounds with dermis penetration (41.2% and 23.2%, respectively). Only 17% of the wounds were clinically infected. The mean ET was 39h 30m and prolonged ET was significantly correlated to infection. None of the wounds from animals not given antibiotics became infected. Bacteriology was positive in 95.8% of the wounds sampled (N=46). A total of 125 isolates was obtained, mostly aerobes. Clinical infection was associated with the presence of strict anaerobes. Excluding antibiotics that should be preserved for life-threatening cases, the higher rates of in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility were observed for sulphamethoxazole-trimethoprim (94.4%) and amoxicillin-clavulanate (91.9%). This study identified the time lag from aggression to presentation as a risk factor for infection development. Further studies are required to evaluate the actual requirement for antimicrobial therapy when only dermis is affected in dog-to-dog bite wounds. PMID:20116941

  15. Oocysts and high seroprevalence of Neospora caninum in dogs living in remote Aboriginal communities and wild dogs in Australia.

    PubMed

    King, Jessica S; Brown, Graeme K; Jenkins, David J; Ellis, John T; Fleming, Peter J S; Windsor, Peter A; Slapeta, Jan

    2012-06-01

    Canines are definitive hosts of Neospora caninum (Apicomplexa). For horizontal transmission from canines to occur, viable oocysts of N. caninum must occur in the environment of susceptible intermediate hosts. Canids in Australia include wild dogs and Aboriginal community dogs. Wild dogs are those dogs that are not dependent on humans for survival and consist of the dingo, feral domestic dog and their hybrid genotypes. Aboriginal community dogs are dependent on humans, domesticated and owned by a family, but are free-roaming and have free access throughout the community. In this study the extent of N. caninum infection was determined in a total of 374 dogs (75 wild dogs and 299 Aboriginal community dogs) using a combination of microscopic, molecular and serological techniques. Oocysts of N. caninum were observed in the faeces of two juvenile Aboriginal community dogs (2/132; 1.5%). To estimate N. caninum prevalence, a new optimised cut-off of 18.5% inhibition for a commercial competitive ELISA was calculated using a two-graph receiver-operating characteristic (TG-ROC) analysis and IFAT as the gold standard resulting in equal sensitivity and specificity of 67.8%. Of the 263 dog sera tested the true prevalence of N. caninum antibodies was 27.0% (95% confidence limit: 10.3-44.1%). The association between the competitive ELISA results in dogs less than 12 month old and older dogs was significant (P=0.042). To our knowledge this is the first large scale parasitological survey of the Aboriginal community dogs and wild dogs from Australia. The high prevalence of N. caninum infection in Aboriginal community dogs illustrates that horizontal transmission of N. caninum is occurring in Australia. These results demonstrated that N. caninum in dogs is widespread, including the semi-arid to arid regions of north-western New South Wales and the Northern Territory. The populations of free-ranging dogs are likely to be important contributors to the sylvatic life cycle of N. caninum

  16. Comparison of behavioral characteristics of dogs in the United States and Japan.

    PubMed

    Nagasawa, Miho; Kanbayashi, Shunichi; Mogi, Kazutaka; Serpell, James A; Kikusui, Takefumi

    2016-02-01

    This study examined the difference in dog owning between Japan and the United States, and the effect of these differences on dogs' behavioral characteristics. Behavioral evaluations of privately-owned dogs were obtained by using online questionnaire. We compared background and demographic information from the two countries and analyzed the effects of these differences on behavioral characteristics in dogs. The results indicated that there was a bias in the dog breeds kept in Japan compared to the United States and that Japanese dogs' body weight was lower than the US dogs. The main source of dog acquisition was pet stores in Japan and breeders and/or shelters in the United States. Multiple linear regression analysis found that Japanese dogs showed more aggression to household members and higher energy, restlessness and fear of non-social stimuli than US dogs, while US dogs showed more fear of unfamiliar persons, separation-related behavior and excitability. US dogs also showed higher levels of trainability and attachment to owners. The lower dog's body weight was, the higher the behavioral scores except for trainability were. When dogs that were obtained under 3 months of age were analyzed, the younger the dogs were when their owners obtained them, the higher the scores on some behavioral problem factors were. The higher rates of problem behaviors among Japanese dogs compared with US dogs suggest that the preference for small breed dogs and poor early development environment influenced the behavioral characteristics of dogs. PMID:26412048

  17. Parasites of sheep herding dogs in central Germany.

    PubMed

    Rehbein, Steffen; Kaulfuß, Karl-heinz; Visser, Martin; Sommer, Maria Franziska; Grimm, Felix; Silaghi, Cornelia

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on endoparasite infections diagnosed in 2012 by standard coproscopical techniques and coproantigen Giardia ELISA in 165 dogs used for sheep herding in 36 farms in central Germany. The overall prevalence of dogs with evidence of endoparasite infections was 27.3% (95% CI 20.6-34.7). The most frequently identified faecal forms were those of ascarids (Toxocara, 6.7%; Toxascaris 3.6%), hookworms (5.5%) and taeniid cestodes (4.2%), followed by those of Trichuris whipworms (3.0%), Capillaria aerophila (1.8%), Angiostrongylus and Crenosoma lungworms (1.2% each) and Cystoisospora canis coccidians (0.6%). Molecular identification demonstrated the seven dogs shedding taeniid eggs positive for Taenia (T.) species tapeworms (five, T. hydatigena; one, T. ovis; one Taenia sp.). Screening of the faeces with the coproantigen ELISA revealed Giardia specific antigen in 5.5% of the samples. The majority of the dogs had evidence of single endoparasite infections (22.4%) while evidence for infection with two or three parasites concurrently was found in six (3.6%) and two (1.2%) of the dogs, respectively. Dogs ≤ 1 year (n = 19) were parasitized more frequently (p < 0.05) with overall gastrointestinal parasites (63.2% vs. 20.5%), ascarids (36.8% vs. 6.8%) and Giardia spp. (21.1% vs. 3.4%) than older dogs (n = 146). Dogs which had been wormed within six months of examination tested less frequently positive for gastrointestinal helminths compared to dogs not wormed (11.1% vs. 25.0%; p = 0.0567). In addition, ear swabs taken from 43 sheep dogs in 2012 were examined, and Otodectes cynotis mites were extracted from one dog. Identification of ectoparasites collected by full body search and combing from 113 sheep dogs in the years 2011 to 2013 revealed infestation of fleas and ticks (each up to five specimens per dog) on 13 and 108 dogs, respectively, with nine dogs carrying both fleas and ticks. Archaeopsylla erinacei, Ctenocephalides (C) canis, C. felis and Pulex irritans

  18. 49 CFR 236.338 - Mechanical locking required in accordance with locking sheet and dog chart.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... locking sheet and dog chart. 236.338 Section 236.338 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... in accordance with locking sheet and dog chart. Mechanical locking shall be in accordance with locking sheet and dog chart currently in effect....

  19. 49 CFR 236.338 - Mechanical locking required in accordance with locking sheet and dog chart.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... locking sheet and dog chart. 236.338 Section 236.338 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... in accordance with locking sheet and dog chart. Mechanical locking shall be in accordance with locking sheet and dog chart currently in effect....

  20. 49 CFR 236.338 - Mechanical locking required in accordance with locking sheet and dog chart.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... locking sheet and dog chart. 236.338 Section 236.338 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... in accordance with locking sheet and dog chart. Mechanical locking shall be in accordance with locking sheet and dog chart currently in effect....

  1. 49 CFR 236.338 - Mechanical locking required in accordance with locking sheet and dog chart.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... locking sheet and dog chart. 236.338 Section 236.338 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... in accordance with locking sheet and dog chart. Mechanical locking shall be in accordance with locking sheet and dog chart currently in effect....

  2. 49 CFR 236.338 - Mechanical locking required in accordance with locking sheet and dog chart.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... locking sheet and dog chart. 236.338 Section 236.338 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... in accordance with locking sheet and dog chart. Mechanical locking shall be in accordance with locking sheet and dog chart currently in effect....

  3. Evidence of an oncogenic gammaherpesvirus in domestic dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Shih-Hung; Kozak, Philip J.; Kim, Jessica; Habineza-Ndikuyeze, Georges; Meade, Charles; Gaurnier-Hausser, Anita; Patel, Reema; Robertson, Erle; and others

    2012-06-05

    In humans, chronic infection with the gammaherpesvirus Epstein-Barr virus is usually asymptomatic; however some infected individuals develop hematological and epithelial malignancies. The exact role of EBV in lymphomagenesis is poorly understood partly because of the lack of clinically relevant animal models. Here we report the detection of serological responses against EBV capsid antigens in healthy dogs and dogs with spontaneous lymphoma and that dogs with the highest antibody titers have B cell lymphoma. Moreover, we demonstrate the presence of EBV-like viral DNA and RNA sequences and Latent Membrane Protein-1 in malignant lymph nodes of dogs with lymphoma. Finally, electron microscopy of canine malignant B cells revealed the presence of classic herpesvirus particles. These findings suggest that dogs can be naturally infected with an EBV-like gammaherpesvirus that may contribute to lymphomagenesis and that dogs might represent a spontaneous model to investigate environmental and genetic factors that influence gammaherpesvirus-associated lymphomagenesis in humans.

  4. Spatial encoding of hidden objects in dogs (Canis familiaris).

    PubMed

    Fiset, S; Gagnon, S; Beaulieu, C

    2000-12-01

    The authors investigated the type of spatial information that controls domestic dogs' (Canis familiaris) search behavior in a situation in which they have to locate a spatial position where they saw an object move and disappear. In Experiments 1 and 2, the authors manipulated all local and global sources of allocentric spatial information surrounding the hiding location. The results revealed that dogs relied on an egocentric frame of reference. Experiment 3 showed that dogs also encoded allocentric information when egocentric information was irrelevant. The authors conclude that dogs simultaneously encode both egocentric and allocentric spatial information to locate a spatial position, but they primarily base their search behavior on an egocentric frame of reference. The authors discuss under which natural conditions dogs might use these 2 sources of spatial information and detail the nature of spatial egocentric information and the circumstances underlying its use by dogs. PMID:11149535

  5. Breed-Predispositions to Cancer in Pedigree Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Dobson, Jane M.

    2013-01-01

    Cancer is a common problem in dogs and although all breeds of dog and crossbred dogs may be affected, it is notable that some breeds of pedigree dogs appear to be at increased risk of certain types of cancer suggesting underlying genetic predisposition to cancer susceptibility. Although the aetiology of most cancers is likely to be multifactorial, the limited genetic diversity seen in purebred dogs facilitates genetic linkage or association studies on relatively small populations as compared to humans, and by using newly developed resources, genome-wide association studies in dog breeds are proving to be a powerful tool for unravelling complex disorders. This paper will review the literature on canine breed susceptibility to histiocytic sarcoma, osteosarcoma, haemangiosarcoma, mast cell tumours, lymphoma, melanoma, and mammary tumours including the recent advances in knowledge through molecular genetic, cytogenetic, and genome wide association studies. PMID:23738139

  6. Lymphangiosarcoma in 12 dogs: a case series (1998-2013).

    PubMed

    Curran, K M; Halsey, C H C; Worley, D R

    2016-06-01

    Lymphangiosarcoma (LAS) is an uncommon malignant neoplasia arising from lymphatic endothelium; little information exists regarding therapy. Single institutional retrospective review for canine LAS histopathology diagnoses over a 15-year period yielded 12 dogs. Ten dogs were presented for a mass and/or swelling at cervical, trunk or limb regions. Prior to diagnosis, 10 dogs received empiric wound therapy. Cytology performed in 10 consisted of mild inflammation. Survival ranged from 60, 168 and 876 days for three dogs with palliation; 90 days with prednisone in one; 182 days with chemotherapy in one; 240, 267, 487, 630 and 941 days for five receiving surgery; and 574 days for one receiving surgery, radiation and chemotherapy. One dog is alive with recurrence at 243 days following surgery and carboplatin chemotherapy. Clinical improvement existed in LAS dogs receiving multimodal therapies. Early tissue biopsies are recommended for progressive oedematous lesions of unknown origin. PMID:24612140

  7. Breed-predispositions to cancer in pedigree dogs.

    PubMed

    Dobson, Jane M

    2013-01-01

    Cancer is a common problem in dogs and although all breeds of dog and crossbred dogs may be affected, it is notable that some breeds of pedigree dogs appear to be at increased risk of certain types of cancer suggesting underlying genetic predisposition to cancer susceptibility. Although the aetiology of most cancers is likely to be multifactorial, the limited genetic diversity seen in purebred dogs facilitates genetic linkage or association studies on relatively small populations as compared to humans, and by using newly developed resources, genome-wide association studies in dog breeds are proving to be a powerful tool for unravelling complex disorders. This paper will review the literature on canine breed susceptibility to histiocytic sarcoma, osteosarcoma, haemangiosarcoma, mast cell tumours, lymphoma, melanoma, and mammary tumours including the recent advances in knowledge through molecular genetic, cytogenetic, and genome wide association studies. PMID:23738139

  8. Radiotherapy of metastatic seminoma in the dog. Case reports

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, R.K.; Walker, M.; Legendre, A.M.; vanEe, R.T.; Gompf, R.E.

    1988-04-01

    Four dogs with metastatic seminoma were treated with cesium 137 teleradiotherapy. Minimum total tumor dose ranged from 17 to 40 gray (Gy) and was usually given through bilateral opposing sublumbar ports in eight to ten fractions, with three fractions given weekly. The tumor regressed in all four dogs. The first dog (case 1) was free of tumor and died of non-tumor related causes at 57 months. The second dog (case 2) was free of tumor but was euthanatized at 37 months for a limb fracture. The third dog (case 3) was euthanatized for undertermined pulmonary disease 43 months after radiotherapy. The fourth dog (case 4) was euthanatized 6 months following radiotherapy because of transitional cell carcinoma and renal failure. No evidence of seminoma was found at necropsy. Radiotherapy was shown to be effective treatment for seminoma with regional metastasis.

  9. Single oral dose safety of D-allulose in dogs

    PubMed Central

    NISHII, Naohito; NOMIZO, Toru; TAKASHIMA, Satoshi; MATSUBARA, Tatsuya; TOKUDA, Masaaki; KITAGAWA, Hitoshi

    2016-01-01

    Healthy dogs were administered acute oral doses of D-allulose (also called D-psicose) to evaluate its toxicity. Six dogs received oral doses of either a placebo or D-allulose solution (1 and 4 g/kg) on three different study days. One dog experienced vomiting, and five dogs showed transient diarrhea when 4 g/kg of D-allulose was administered. All dogs were active and had a good appetite throughout the study period. Blood glucose concentration slightly decreased without a rise in plasma insulin concentration 2 hr after D-allulose administration. Plasma alkaline phosphatase activities showed a mild increase between 12 and 48 hr after D-allulose administration. These data suggested that a single oral dose of D-allulose does not show severe toxicity in dogs. PMID:26972334

  10. Response and adaptation of Beagle dogs to hypergravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oyama, J.

    1975-01-01

    Eight male Beagle dogs, five months old, were centrifuged continuously for three months at progressively increasing loads. Heart rate and deep body temperature were monitored continuously by implant biotelemetry. Initially, centrifuged dogs showed transient decreases in heart rate and body temperature along with changes in their diurnal rhythm patterns. Compared with normal gravity controls, exposed dogs showed a slower growth rate and a reduced amount of body fat. Blood protein, total lipids, cholesterol, calcium, packed cell volume, red blood cell count, and hemoglobin were also decreased significantly. Absolute weights of the leg bones of centrifuged dogs were significantly greater than controls. Photon absorptiometry revealed significant density increases in selective regions of the femur and humerus of centrifuged dogs. In spite of the various changes noted, results from this and other studies affirm the view that dogs can tolerate and adapt to sustained loads as high as 2.5 g without serious impairment of their body structure and function.

  11. Microneurovascular free digital pad transfer in the dog.

    PubMed

    Basher, A W; Fowler, J D; Bowen, C V; Clark, E G; Crosby, N L

    1990-01-01

    By cadaver dissections, the fifth digit of the canine hind limb was determined to have a consistent neurovascular anatomy, and therefore be a suitable donor for an axial pattern digital pad flap. The defined digital pad flap was transferred to the region of an excised metacarpal pad by microneurovascular anastomoses in five operations on four dogs. One flap failure was considered to result from failure of the venous anastomosis. In all four successful transfers, cutaneous sensation was reestablished on average in 78 days. There was histologic evidence of nerve regeneration across the anastomosis in one dog at week 24. The transferred pads of three dogs monitored for 15 months underwent hypertrophic changes. There were no complications in two active dogs. In one dog, superficial ulceration of a region of the flap adjacent to the pad required surgical revision. This dog continued to show mild lameness after daily runs of 3 to 4 km. PMID:1971973

  12. Lameness associated with coxofemoral soft tissue masses in six dogs.

    PubMed

    Layton, C E; Ferguson, H R

    1987-01-01

    Six cases of mechanical lameness involving the coxofemoral joint are presented. All dogs had a history of chronic rear leg pain and lameness, and decreased range of motion of the hip. On physical examination, ventral subluxation of the coxofemoral joint during extension was present in three dogs. A radiographic diagnosis of subluxation was made in five dogs. In each dog, surgical exploration of the area caudal to the coxofemoral joint revealed a fibrous mass between the lesser or third trochanters and the ischium, diagnosed as a nonneoplastic fibrous reaction by microscopic examination. The clinical, radiographic, and histopathologic signs were similar to previously described cases of myositis ossificans. Five dogs returned to normal function after excision of the soft tissue mass, and one dog was normal when lost to follow-up 4 weeks postoperatively. PMID:3507121

  13. Species composition of Malassezia yeasts in dogs in Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Sihelská, Zuzana; Váczi, Peter; Conková, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Malassezia (M.) pachydermatis is the lipophilic yeast, which is normally present on the skin and in the ear canal of dogs but under certain conditions it may cause dermatitis and otitis. There is less known about the occurrence of lipid-dependent Malassezia species in dogs. The aim of this study was to detect whether lipid-dependent yeasts are part of the normal microflora in dogs. Two groups of animals were selected for comparison. The group of healthy dogs contained samples of 118 individuals and the group of dogs with cutaneous lesions or otitis externa comprised 328 dogs. The isolates of Malassezia were identified by using genotypic methods that allow the precise identification. M. pachydermatis was the most frequently isolated species in this study (121 isolates). Only four isolates were identified as M. furfur and one isolate was identified as M. nana. PMID:27529998

  14. Characterization of the dog agouti gene and a nonagouti mutation in german shepherd dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Kerns, Julie A.; Newton, J.; Berryere, Tom G.; Rubin, Edward M.; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Schmutz, Sheila M.; Barsh, Gregory S.

    2004-07-08

    The interaction between two genes, Agouti and Melanocortin-1 receptor (Mc1r), produces diverse pigment patterns in mammals by regulating the type, amount, and distribution pattern of the two pigment types found in mammalian hair: eumelanin (brown/black) and pheomelanin (yellow/red). In domestic dogs (Canis familiaris), there is a tremendous variation in coat color patterns between and within breeds; however, previous studies suggest that the molecular genetics of pigment-type switching in dogs may differ from that of other mammals. Here we report the identification and characterization of the Agouti gene from domestic dogs, predicted to encode a 131-amino-acid secreted protein 98 percent identical to the fox homolog, and which maps to chromosome CFA24 in a region of conserved linkage. Comparative analysis of the Doberman Pinscher Agouti cDNA, the fox cDNA, and 180 kb of Doberman Pinscher genomic DNA suggests that, as with laboratory mice, different pigment-type-switching patterns in the canine family are controlled by alternative usage of different promoters and untranslated first exons. A small survey of Labrador Retrievers, Greyhounds, Australian Shepherds, and German Shepherd Dogs did not uncover any polymorphisms, but we identified a single nucleotide variant in black German Shepherd Dogs predicted to cause an Arg-to-Cys substitution at codon 96, which is likely to account for recessive inheritance of a uniform black coat.

  15. Immunoglobulins in dogs: correspondence and maturation in 15 litters of German shepherd dogs and their dams

    PubMed Central

    Vilson, Åsa; Hedhammar, Åke; Reynolds, Arleigh; Spears, Julie; Satyaraj, Ebenezer; Pelker, Robyn; Rottman, Cari; Björkstén, Bengt; Hansson-Hamlin, Helene

    2016-01-01

    Some dog breeds, including the German shepherd dog (GSD), are predisposed to immune-related disorders. The authors prospectively described development of serum and faecal IgA and serum IgE in GSD from puppies until adulthood and the relationship between mothers and their offspring. Further, the authors tested whether dogs with lower serum IgA also have low faecal IgA and/or serum IgE. To reveal whether any of the parameters could be proven to influence the immune response, the authors also measured serum IgG against canine distemper virus (CDV). To test their hypothesis, the authors used linear mixed models to investigate the relationship of serum IgA, serum IgE and faecal IgA levels in litters and their mothers. Fifteen GSD bitches beginning at 42 days of pregnancy and subsequently all of their offspring (n=83 puppies), reared under well-controlled conditions, were included. All dogs came from the kennel of the Swedish Armed Forces. Serum IgE, serum IgA and faecal IgA levels were lower in seven-week-old puppies than at one year of age. There was no relationship in Ig concentrations between bitches and their puppies at seven weeks of age. Dogs with higher faecal IgA had higher IgG titres against CDV, indicating a favourable systemic immune status. PMID:27547424

  16. Characterization of the dog Agouti gene and a nonagoutimutation in German Shepherd Dogs.

    PubMed

    Kerns, Julie A; Newton, J; Berryere, Tom G; Rubin, Edward M; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Schmutz, Sheila M; Barsh, Gregory S

    2004-10-01

    The interaction between two genes, Agouti and Melanocortin-1 receptor ( Mc1r), produces diverse pigment patterns in mammals by regulating the type, amount, and distribution pattern of the two pigment types found in mammalian hair: eumelanin (brown/black) and pheomelanin (yellow/red). In domestic dogs ( Canis familiaris), there is a tremendous variation in coat color patterns between and within breeds; however, previous studies suggest that the molecular genetics of pigment-type switching in dogs may differ from that of other mammals. Here we report the identification and characterization of the Agouti gene from domestic dogs, predicted to encode a 131-amino-acid secreted protein 98% identical to the fox homolog, and which maps to chromosome CFA24 in a region of conserved linkage. Comparative analysis of the Doberman Pinscher Agouti cDNA, the fox cDNA, and 180 kb of Doberman Pinscher genomic DNA suggests that, as with laboratory mice, different pigment-type-switching patterns in the canine family are controlled by alternative usage of different promoters and untranslated first exons. A small survey of Labrador Retrievers, Greyhounds, Australian Shepherds, and German Shepherd Dogs did not uncover any polymorphisms, but we identified a single nucleotide variant in black German Shepherd Dogs predicted to cause an Arg-to-Cys substitution at codon 96, which is likely to account for recessive inheritance of a uniform black coat. PMID:15520882

  17. Immunoglobulins in dogs: correspondence and maturation in 15 litters of German shepherd dogs and their dams.

    PubMed

    Vilson, Åsa; Hedhammar, Åke; Reynolds, Arleigh; Spears, Julie; Satyaraj, Ebenezer; Pelker, Robyn; Rottman, Cari; Björkstén, Bengt; Hansson-Hamlin, Helene

    2016-01-01

    Some dog breeds, including the German shepherd dog (GSD), are predisposed to immune-related disorders. The authors prospectively described development of serum and faecal IgA and serum IgE in GSD from puppies until adulthood and the relationship between mothers and their offspring. Further, the authors tested whether dogs with lower serum IgA also have low faecal IgA and/or serum IgE. To reveal whether any of the parameters could be proven to influence the immune response, the authors also measured serum IgG against canine distemper virus (CDV). To test their hypothesis, the authors used linear mixed models to investigate the relationship of serum IgA, serum IgE and faecal IgA levels in litters and their mothers. Fifteen GSD bitches beginning at 42 days of pregnancy and subsequently all of their offspring (n=83 puppies), reared under well-controlled conditions, were included. All dogs came from the kennel of the Swedish Armed Forces. Serum IgE, serum IgA and faecal IgA levels were lower in seven-week-old puppies than at one year of age. There was no relationship in Ig concentrations between bitches and their puppies at seven weeks of age. Dogs with higher faecal IgA had higher IgG titres against CDV, indicating a favourable systemic immune status. PMID:27547424

  18. Survival of Skin Graft between Transgenic Cloned Dogs and Non-Transgenic Cloned Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Geon A; Oh, Hyun Ju; Kim, Min Jung; Jo, Young Kwang; Choi, Jin; Park, Jung Eun; Park, Eun Jung; Lim, Sang Hyun; Yoon, Byung Il; Kang, Sung Keun; Jang, Goo; Lee, Byeong Chun

    2014-01-01

    Whereas it has been assumed that genetically modified tissues or cells derived from somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) should be accepted by a host of the same species, their immune compatibility has not been extensively explored. To identify acceptance of SCNT-derived cells or tissues, skin grafts were performed between cloned dogs that were identical except for their mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotypes and foreign gene. We showed here that differences in mtDNA haplotypes and genetic modification did not elicit immune responses in these dogs: 1) skin tissues from genetically-modified cloned dogs were successfully transplanted into genetically-modified cloned dogs with different mtDNA haplotype under three successive grafts over 63 days; and 2) non-transgenic cloned tissues were accepted into transgenic cloned syngeneic recipients with different mtDNA haplotypes and vice versa under two successive grafts over 63 days. In addition, expression of the inserted gene was maintained, being functional without eliciting graft rejection. In conclusion, these results show that transplanting genetically-modified tissues into normal, syngeneic or genetically-modified recipient dogs with different mtDNA haplotypes do not elicit skin graft rejection or affect expression of the inserted gene. Therefore, therapeutically valuable tissue derived from SCNT with genetic modification might be used safely in clinical applications for patients with diseased tissues. PMID:25372489

  19. In Dogs We Trust? Intersubjectivity, Response-Able Relations, and the Making of Mine Detector Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Kirk, Robert G W

    2014-01-01

    The utility of the dog as a mine detector has divided the mine clearance community since dogs were first used for this purpose during the Second World War. This paper adopts a historical perspective to investigate how, why, and to what consequence, the use of minedogs remains contested despite decades of research into their abilities. It explores the changing factors that have made it possible to think that dogs could, or could not, serve as reliable detectors of landmines over time. Beginning with an analysis of the wartime context that shaped the creation of minedogs, the paper then examines two contemporaneous investigations undertaken in the 1950s. The first, a British investigation pursued by the anatomist Solly Zuckerman, concluded that dogs could never be the mine hunter's best friend. The second, an American study led by the parapsychologist J. B. Rhine, suggested dogs were potentially useful for mine clearance. Drawing on literature from science studies and the emerging subdiscipline of “animal studies,” it is argued that cross-species intersubjectivity played a significant role in determining these different positions. The conceptual landscapes of Zuckerman and Rhine's disciplinary backgrounds are shown to have produced distinct approaches to managing cross-species relations, thus explaining how diverse opinions on minedog can coexist. In conclusion, it is shown that the way one structures relationships between humans and animals has profound impact on the knowledge and labor subsequently produced, a process that cannot be separated from ethical consequence. PMID:24318987

  20. Leading the Pack: Dog 3--Fun Activities for You and Your Dog. 4-H Skills for Life Animal Series. National 4-H Curriculum. BU-08168

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National 4-H Council, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Experienced youth investigate responsible breeding, diseases, caring for geriatric dogs, training, service dogs, dog roles and careers related to dogs. This guide provides youth with numerous leadership opportunities. Because youth development programs help build tomorrow's leaders, leadership is a strong theme in Level 3 activities. One will be…

  1. Canine Connection: Dog 2--Fun Activities for You and Your Dog. 4-H Skills for Life Animal Series. National 4-H Curriculum. BU-08167

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National 4-H Council, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Youth explore more about dog health, nutrition, and care, genetic problems, population control, showmanship, training, ethics and budgeting. Youth who engage in this curriculum will develop essential dog project skills such as selecting a dog; investigating breeds; appreciating dogs' places and roles in society; practicing grooming, fitting,…

  2. Registrations of Assistance Dogs in California for Identification Tags: 1999–2012

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Mariko; Lopez, Mayllynne T.; Hart, Lynette A.

    2015-01-01

    Dogs are filling a growing number of roles supporting people with various disabilities, leading to a chaotic situation in the U.S. Although the federal laws allow public access with working dogs only for people with disabilities, no governmental enforcement or management system for such dogs exists. Furthermore, there is no substantive way to confirm whether the dog is an adequately trained assistance dog or not, as neither the handlers nor the dogs are required to carry any particular certification or identification. Therefore, unqualified assistance dogs and incidents such as dog bites by assistance dogs sometimes are problems in the U.S. A governmental oversight system could reduce problems, but no information is available about the current uses of assistance dogs in the U.S. We aimed to investigate the current demographics of registered assistance dogs and the evolving patterns in uses of dogs during 1999–2012 in California. We acquired data on assistance dogs registered by animal control facilities throughout California. We used descriptive statistics to describe the uses of these assistance dogs. The number of assistance dogs sharply increased, especially service dogs, in the past decade. Dogs with small body sizes, and new types of service dogs, such as service dogs for psychiatric and medical assistance, strongly contributed to the increase. The Assistance Dog Identification tags sometimes were mistakenly issued to dogs not fitting the definition of assistance dogs under the law, such as emotional support animals and some cats; this reveals errors in the California governmental registering system. Seemingly inappropriate dogs also were registered, such as those registered for the first time at older than 10 years of age. This study reveals a prevalence of misuse and misunderstanding of regulations and legislation on assistance dogs in California. PMID:26287610

  3. Registrations of Assistance Dogs in California for Identification Tags: 1999-2012.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Mariko; Lopez, Mayllynne T; Hart, Lynette A

    2015-01-01

    Dogs are filling a growing number of roles supporting people with various disabilities, leading to a chaotic situation in the U.S. Although the federal laws allow public access with working dogs only for people with disabilities, no governmental enforcement or management system for such dogs exists. Furthermore, there is no substantive way to confirm whether the dog is an adequately trained assistance dog or not, as neither the handlers nor the dogs are required to carry any particular certification or identification. Therefore, unqualified assistance dogs and incidents such as dog bites by assistance dogs sometimes are problems in the U.S. A governmental oversight system could reduce problems, but no information is available about the current uses of assistance dogs in the U.S. We aimed to investigate the current demographics of registered assistance dogs and the evolving patterns in uses of dogs during 1999-2012 in California. We acquired data on assistance dogs registered by animal control facilities throughout California. We used descriptive statistics to describe the uses of these assistance dogs. The number of assistance dogs sharply increased, especially service dogs, in the past decade. Dogs with small body sizes, and new types of service dogs, such as service dogs for psychiatric and medical assistance, strongly contributed to the increase. The Assistance Dog Identification tags sometimes were mistakenly issued to dogs not fitting the definition of assistance dogs under the law, such as emotional support animals and some cats; this reveals errors in the California governmental registering system. Seemingly inappropriate dogs also were registered, such as those registered for the first time at older than 10 years of age. This study reveals a prevalence of misuse and misunderstanding of regulations and legislation on assistance dogs in California. PMID:26287610

  4. Ancient DNA evidence for Old World origin of New World dogs.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Jennifer A; Wayne, Robert K; Wheeler, Jane; Valadez, Raúl; Guillén, Sonia; Vilà, Carles

    2002-11-22

    Mitochondrial DNA sequences isolated from ancient dog remains from Latin America and Alaska showed that native American dogs originated from multiple Old World lineages of dogs that accompanied late Pleistocene humans across the Bering Strait. One clade of dog sequences was unique to the New World, which is consistent with a period of geographic isolation. This unique clade was absent from a large sample of modern dogs, which implies that European colonists systematically discouraged the breeding of native American dogs. PMID:12446908

  5. Ultrasonographic features of uterus masculinus in six dogs.

    PubMed

    Lim, Chee Kin; Heng, Hock Gan; Hui, Timothy Y; Thompson, Craig A; Childress, Michael O; Adams, Larry G

    2015-01-01

    Uterus masculinus (persistent Mullerian duct) is a vestigial embryological remnant of the paramesonephric duct system in males and has been associated with clinical signs such as dysuria, incontinence, tenesmus and urethral obstruction in dogs. The radiological appearance of cystic uterus masculinus in dogs has been described previously with the aid of retrograde positive or negative contrast cystography. The purpose of this retrospective study was to describe ultrasonographic features of confirmed or presumed uterus masculinus in a group of dogs with confirmed or presumed disease. Ultrasonographic findings were recorded based on a consensus opinion of two readers. A uterus masculinus was defined as cylindrical when no lumen was observed and tubular when it had lumen that was filled with anechoic fluid. Six dogs met the inclusion criterion with a mean age of 8 years and 9 months. Uterus masculinus appeared as single (four dogs) or two (two dogs) horn-like, tubular (four dogs) or cylindrical (two dogs) structures, originating from the craniodorsal aspect of the prostate gland and extending cranially. The walls of the uterus masculinus were isoechoic to the urinary bladder wall. The diameter of the observed uterus masculinus varied from 0.3 cm to 1 cm. The length of the uterus masculinus varied from 2 cm to 6.5 cm but the cranial terminal end was not identified in two dogs. Concomitant prostatomegaly was seen in five dogs (83.3%) and urinary tract infection was noted in three dogs (50%). Findings indicated that uterus masculinus should be included as a differential diagnosis for male dogs with these ultrasonographic characteristics. PMID:25074324

  6. Ultrasonographic characteristics of the abdominal esophagus and cardia in dogs.

    PubMed

    Gory, Guillaume; Rault, Delphine N; Gatel, Laure; Dally, Claire; Belli, Patrick; Couturier, Laurent; Cauvin, Eddy

    2014-01-01

    Differential diagnoses for regurgitation and vomiting in dogs include diseases of the gastroesophageal junction. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to describe ultrasonographic characteristics of the abdominal esophagus and gastric cardia in normal dogs and dogs with clinical disease involving this region. A total of 126 dogs with no clinical signs of gastrointestinal disease and six dogs with clinical diseases involving the gastroesophageal junction were included. For seven euthanized dogs, ultrasonographic features were also compared with gross pathology and histopathology. Cardial and abdominal esophageal wall thicknesses were measured ultrasonographically for all normal dogs and effects of weight, sex, age, and stomach filling were tested. Five layers could be identified in normal esophageal and cardial walls. The inner esophageal layer was echogenic, corresponding to the cornified mucosa and glandular portion of the submucosa. The cardia was characterized by a thick muscularis, and a transitional zone between echogenic esophageal and hypoechoic gastric mucosal layers. Mean (±SD) cardial wall thicknesses for normal dogs were 7.6 mm (±1.6), 9.7 mm (±1.8), 10.8 mm (±1.6), 13.3 mm (±2.5) for dogs in the <10 kg, 10-19.9 kg, 20-29.9 kg and ≥30 kg weight groups, respectively. Mean (±SD) esophageal wall thicknesses were: 4.1 mm (±0.6), 5.1 mm (±1.3), 5.6 mm (±1), and 6.4 mm (±1.1) for the same weight groups, respectively. Measurements of wall thickness were significantly correlated with dog weight group. Ultrasonography assisted diagnosis in all six clinically affected dogs. Findings supported the use of transabdominal ultrasonography as a diagnostic test for dogs with suspected gastroesophageal disease. PMID:24629089

  7. Personality Consistency in Dogs: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Fratkin, Jamie L.; Sinn, David L.; Patall, Erika A.; Gosling, Samuel D.

    2013-01-01

    Personality, or consistent individual differences in behavior, is well established in studies of dogs. Such consistency implies predictability of behavior, but some recent research suggests that predictability cannot be assumed. In addition, anecdotally, many dog experts believe that ‘puppy tests’ measuring behavior during the first year of a dog's life are not accurate indicators of subsequent adult behavior. Personality consistency in dogs is an important aspect of human-dog relationships (e.g., when selecting dogs suitable for substance-detection work or placement in a family). Here we perform the first comprehensive meta-analysis of studies reporting estimates of temporal consistency of dog personality. A thorough literature search identified 31 studies suitable for inclusion in our meta-analysis. Overall, we found evidence to suggest substantial consistency (r = 0.43). Furthermore, personality consistency was higher in older dogs, when behavioral assessment intervals were shorter, and when the measurement tool was exactly the same in both assessments. In puppies, aggression and submissiveness were the most consistent dimensions, while responsiveness to training, fearfulness, and sociability were the least consistent dimensions. In adult dogs, there were no dimension-based differences in consistency. There was no difference in personality consistency in dogs tested first as puppies and later as adults (e.g., ‘puppy tests’) versus dogs tested first as puppies and later again as puppies. Finally, there were no differences in consistency between working versus non-working dogs, between behavioral codings versus behavioral ratings, and between aggregate versus single measures. Implications for theory, practice, and future research are discussed. PMID:23372787

  8. Attacks by packs of dogs involving predation on human beings

    PubMed Central

    Borchelt, Peter L.; Lockwood, Randall; Beck, Alan M.; Voith, Victoria L.

    1983-01-01

    Dog bites are a medical problem for millions of people, children being the most common victims. Human deaths attributable to dog bite injury (not rabies) are relatively infrequent. There have been some epidemiologic reviews, but this study is the first attempt to arrive at an understanding of bites involving predation on human beings by conducting behavioral examinations under controlled conditions of the dogs involved, and by interviewing victims, witnesses, and people familiar with the animals. The three cases studied involved two fatalities and an attack that was nearly fatal. The victims were 11, 14, and 81. In each case, owned pet dogs consumed some human tissue. The severity of the victims' injuries was not the consequence of a single dog bite, but the result of repeated attacks by dogs behaving as a social group. Factors that might contribute to a dog's regarding human beings as potential prey were examined, including hunger, prior predation, group behaviors, defense of territory, previous interactions with people, the presence of estrous female dogs, and environmental stimuli. In two of the cases, it was possible, by using similar stimuli, to duplicate the circumstances at the time of the attack. The results of the observations showed the value of behavioral analysis and simulations methods in evaluating possible factors in dog attacks. Among the many factors probably involved in severe dog attacks are the size, number, and nutritional status of the dogs; the dogs' previous aggressive contacts with people; the victim's age, size, health, and behavior; and the absence of other human beings in the vicinity. Imagesp61-ap61-bp61-c PMID:6828639

  9. A qualitative investigation of the perceptions of female dog-bite victims and implications for the prevention of dog bites

    PubMed Central

    Westgarth, Carri; Watkins, Francine

    2015-01-01

    Preventing dog bites is an increasingly important public health and political issue with implications for both human and animal health and welfare. Expert opinion is that most bites are preventable. Intervention materials have been designed to educate people on how to assess the body language of dogs, evaluate risk, and take appropriate action. The effectiveness of this approach is rarely evaluated and the incidence of dog bites is thought to be increasing. Is the traditional approach to dog bite prevention working as well as it should? In this novel, small scale qualitative study, the perceptions of victims regarding their dog bite experience were explored in-depth. The study recruited 8 female participants who had been bitten by a dog in the past 5 years. In-depth, one-to-one interviews were conducted, transcribed, and analyzed using thematic analysis. The findings indicate that dog bites may not be as easily preventable as previously presumed, and that education about dog body language may not prevent some types of dog bites. The reasons participants were bitten were multifaceted and complex. In some cases, there was no interaction with the dog before the bite so there was no opportunity to assess the situation and modify behavior around the dog accordingly. Identifying who was to blame, and had responsibility for preventing the bite, was straightforward for the participants in hindsight. Those bitten blamed themselves and/or the dog owner, but not the dog. Most participants already felt they had a theoretical knowledge that would allow them to recognize dog aggression before the dog bite, yet participants, especially those who worked regularly with dogs, routinely believed, “it would not happen to me.” We also identified an attitude that bites were “just one of those things,” which could also be a barrier prevention initiatives. Rather than being special to the human-canine relationship, the attitudes discovered mirror those found in other areas of

  10. Cytopathology of parasitic dermatitis in dogs.

    PubMed

    Sood, N K; Mekkib, Berhanu; Singla, L D; Gupta, K

    2012-04-01

    Out of 44 cases of dermatitis in dogs, 11 cases of parasitic origin were analyzed by cytopathology. Histopathologic examination of punch biopsies was also done for correlation with cytologic findings. Sarcoptic dermatitis was recorded in six cases, wherein, besides sarcoptic mites, neutrophils, macrophages, and plasma cells and keratinizing epithelial cells were also seen. Hematology revealed a relative neutrophilia and mild eosinophilia. Four cases of severe and generalized demodicosis complicated with bacteria and/or Malassezia sp. infection were also recorded. Histopathologically numerous Demodex sp. mites in varying stage of maturation were found damaging the hair follicles along with associated pathological changes and foreign body granulomas in one case. In addition, flea allergy dermatitis was also observed in one dog. In nutshell, cytology was found to be unequivocally effective in diagnosing parasitic dermatitis. PMID:23543297

  11. Presumed lipid retinopathy in a diabetic dog.

    PubMed

    Halenda, R.M.; Moore, C.P.

    1998-01-01

    An eight-year-old neutered male diabetic Cardigan Welsh Corgi was presented for bilateral mature cataracts. Phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation were performed routinely, and recovery was uneventful for several months except for lipemic aqueous flare which gradually resolved during the postoperative period. Five months following surgery the owner presented the dog for decreased vision. White retinal deposits were visualized ophthalmoscopically. Serum analysis revealed that the dog was concurrently markedly hyperlipemic. The patient's diet was changed from a high- to a low-fat diet, following which diabetes control improved, hyperlipemia resolved, and the retinal deposits decreased markedly in size. The retinal deposits seen ophthalmoscopically are presumed to be lipid based upon their association with marked hyperlipemia, and the concurrent resolution of hyperlipemia and the fundic lesions. PMID:11397228

  12. Electrophysiology of the chemically sympathectomised dog.

    PubMed

    Godin, D; Guimond, C; Nadeau, R A; Leblanc, A R

    1982-09-01

    The contribution of the sympathetic nervous system in the definition of various electrophysiological variables was studied in chemically sympathectomised dogs. Chemical sympathectomy was obtained following intravenous injection of 50 mg X kg-1 of 6-hydroxydopamine. Sympathectomised dogs presented significant increases in: basic sinus period, sino-atrial conduction time (SACT), AH and HV intervals of the His bundle electrogram, atrial functional (AFRP) and effective (AERP) refractory periods, atrio-ventricular node functional (AVNFRP) and effective (AVNERP) refractory periods, ventricular functional (VFRP) and effective (EVRP) refractory periods and atrial (AMAP) and ventricular (VMAP) monophasic action potential durations. Corrected sinus recovery time (CSRT) was not affected by chemical sympathectomy. Neither was the atrial ERP/MAP duration ratio. This new form of sympathectomy affects all the levels of the cardiac conduction system. Such results are in accordance with those obtained with surgical sympathectomy or the use of beta-blocking agents. PMID:6816469

  13. Renal parameter estimates in unrestrained dogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rader, R. D.; Stevens, C. M.

    1974-01-01

    A mathematical formulation has been developed to describe the hemodynamic parameters of a conceptualized kidney model. The model was developed by considering regional pressure drops and regional storage capacities within the renal vasculature. Estimation of renal artery compliance, pre- and postglomerular resistance, and glomerular filtration pressure is feasible by considering mean levels and time derivatives of abdominal aortic pressure and renal artery flow. Changes in the smooth muscle tone of the renal vessels induced by exogenous angiotensin amide, acetylcholine, and by the anaesthetic agent halothane were estimated by use of the model. By employing totally implanted telemetry, the technique was applied on unrestrained dogs to measure renal resistive and compliant parameters while the dogs were being subjected to obedience training, to avoidance reaction, and to unrestrained caging.

  14. Mycobacterium fortuitum lipoid pneumonia in a dog.

    PubMed

    Leissinger, M K; Garber, J B; Fowlkes, N; Grooters, A M; Royal, A B; Gaunt, S D

    2015-03-01

    A 1-year old female spayed German Shepherd dog was evaluated for acute onset of dyspnea. Pyogranulomatous inflammation and green globoid structures were present on aspirates of the affected lung. Impression smears and histopathology confirmed pyogranulomatous pneumonia, with large amounts of lipid corresponding to the green structures noted cytologically, and identified poorly staining bacterial rods within lipid vacuoles. Special stains confirmed the presence of acid-fast bacterial rods, and polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing identified the organism as Mycobacterium fortuitum. M. fortuitum pneumonia is well described in humans and has previously been reported in 4 dogs and 1 cat. Lipid was a prominent cytologic and histologic feature, as is often described in humans and in the single feline case report. Additionally, this case highlights the variable cytologic appearance of lipid, as well as Mycobacterium spp, which are classically nonstaining with Wright-Giemsa. PMID:24788402

  15. Fentanyl-induced asystole in two dogs.

    PubMed

    Jang, M; Son, W-G; Lee, I

    2015-06-01

    Fentanyl is used in small animals for perioperative analgesia during anaesthesia. Severe bradycardia and asystole were observed on bolus administration of a 3 µg/kg loading dose of fentanyl in two dogs under isoflurane anaesthesia. Premedication with 10 µg/kg glycopyrrolate did not prevent asystole in the first case; and although bradycardia was treated with 5 µg/kg glycopyrrolate administered intravenously in the second case, the heart rate continuously decreased and asystole subsequently developed. Asystole in both cases was quickly corrected by intravenous administration of 0 · 04 mg/kg atropine and closed chest compressions. This case report describes asystole induced by fentanyl administration in isoflurane anaesthetised dogs. Atropine was more effective than glycopyrrolate in the treatment of fentanyl-induced asystole. PMID:25599659

  16. [Regulation factors of stomach emptying in dogs].

    PubMed

    Krejs, G J; Hegglin, J; Säuberli, H; Largiadér, F; Schmid, P; Blum, A L

    1976-03-01

    Gastric emptying of organic acids was studied in 6 healthy mongrel dogs. After chronic esophagostomies were performed according to the method of Komarov, a total of 340 test meals were instilled. Each test meal consisted of 300 ml of 6 different organic acids with decreasing molecular weight and different concentrations. After the experiments were achieved, each dog underwent a proximal gastric vagotomy according to the method of Amdrup, and experiments with citric acid were repeated. The results may be summarized as follows: multiple stepwise regression analysis of the data is consistent with a model in which gastric emptying of organic acids is regulated by 3 receptors. The receptors respond to concentration of the organic acid, the actual volume, and the type of acid. The volume receptor is located in the corpus of the stomach because the effect of volume accelerates the emptying rate after proximal gastric vagotomy while the effects of concentration and type of acid remain unchanged. PMID:1270294

  17. Histiocytic ulcerative colitis in a Boxer dog.

    PubMed

    Hill, F W; Sullivan, N D

    1978-09-01

    A 2-year-old male Boxer dog had passed loose faeces mixed with fresh blood and mucus for 8 months. Tenesmus after defaecation was a feature. Colitis was diagnosed from the proctoscopic appearance of the recto-colonic mucosa and confirmed from a biopsy. The disorder proved unresponsive to sulphasalazine therapy, but oral chloramphenicol, betamethasone and prednisolone enemas administered over a 6-week period produced a satisfactory clinical improvement, which persisted for a further 3 weeks without treatment. However, follow-up proctoscopy showed only a marginal improvement in the appearance of the mucosa and appeared to exacerbate further bloody diarrhoea, which persisted. The dog was destroyed and histiocytic ulcerative colitis confirmed at autopsy. PMID:743058

  18. Leishmaniosis (Leishmania infantum infection) in dogs.

    PubMed

    Gharbi, M; Mhadhbi, M; Rejeb, A; Jaouadi, K; Rouatbi, M; Darghouth, M A

    2015-08-01

    The authors present an overview of canine leishmaniosis due to Leishmania infantum. This protozoan is transmitted by sandflies and the disease is frequently characterised by chronic evolution. Cutaneous and visceral clinical signs appear as the infection progresses. Lymph node enlargement, emaciation and skin lesions are the main signs observed in the classical forms of the disease. Control is difficult since infected dogs remain carriers for years and may relapse at any time. The mass screening of infected animals and their treatment or euthanasia represent the best way to reduce the prevalence of this disease in endemic regions. Further research is needed to improve the efficiency of the vaccines available to protect dogs against infection. This disease is zoonotic; in humans, clinical cases are reported mainly in elderly people, the young and those whose immune systems have been compromised. PMID:26601461

  19. Mandibular ossifying fibroma in a dog.

    PubMed

    Miller, M A; Towle, H A M; Heng, H G; Greenberg, C B; Pool, R R

    2008-03-01

    An aged mongrel dog was admitted for hemimandibulectomy as treatment for a mandibular mass that had been diagnosed as osteosarcoma. The fibro-osseous mass that surrounded the first molar tooth and replaced alveolar and cortical bone was reclassified as ossifying fibroma on the basis of anatomic location and histologic features. The tumor was composed of isomorphic fusiform cells with few mitotic figures. Tumoral stroma contained trabeculae of woven bone that were bordered by a single layer of osteoblasts. Excision was deemed complete with no evidence of extension or metastasis by computed tomography of the skull or thoracic and abdominal radiography. The dog was reportedly healthy 6 months after initial presentation. Though far less common than osteosarcoma as a primary canine bone tumor, ossifying fibroma should be included in the differential diagnosis for fibro-osseous proliferations, especially those of the jaw. Although benign, en bloc excision may be necessary for surgical cure. PMID:18424835

  20. Owned and Unowned Dog Population Estimation, Dog Management and Dog Bites to Inform Rabies Prevention and Response on Lombok Island, Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Mustiana, Ana; Toribio, Jenny-Ann; Abdurrahman, Muktasam; Suadnya, I. Wayan; Hernandez-Jover, Marta; Putra, Anak Agung Gde; Ward, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    Although Indonesia has been rabies-infected since at least the 1880s, some islands remain rabies-free, such as Lombok. However, due to its adjacency to rabies-infected islands such as Bali and Flores, there is considerable risk of a rabies incursion. As part of a rabies risk assessment project, surveys were conducted to estimate the size of the dog population and to describe dog management practices of households belonging to different ethnic groups. A photographic-recapture method was employed and the number of unowned dogs was estimated. A total of 400 dog owning households were interviewed, 300 at an urban site and 100 at a rural site. The majority of the interviewed households belonged to the Balinese ethnic group. Owned dogs were more likely male, and non-pedigree or local breed. These households kept their dogs either fully restricted, semi-free roaming or free-roaming but full restriction was reported only at the urban site. Dog bite cases were reported to be higher at the urban site, and commonly affected children/young adults to 20 years old and males. A higher number of unowned dogs was observed at the urban site than at the rural site. Data generated within these surveys can inform rabies risk assessment models to quantify the probability of rabies being released into Lombok and resulting in the infection of the local dog population. The information gained is critical for efforts to educate dog owners about rabies, as a component of preparedness to prevent the establishment of rabies should an incursion occur. PMID:25932916

  1. Owned and unowned dog population estimation, dog management and dog bites to inform rabies prevention and response on Lombok Island, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Mustiana, Ana; Toribio, Jenny-Ann; Abdurrahman, Muktasam; Suadnya, I Wayan; Hernandez-Jover, Marta; Putra, Anak Agung Gde; Ward, Michael P

    2015-01-01

    Although Indonesia has been rabies-infected since at least the 1880s, some islands remain rabies-free, such as Lombok. However, due to its adjacency to rabies-infected islands such as Bali and Flores, there is considerable risk of a rabies incursion. As part of a rabies risk assessment project, surveys were conducted to estimate the size of the dog population and to describe dog management practices of households belonging to different ethnic groups. A photographic-recapture method was employed and the number of unowned dogs was estimated. A total of 400 dog owning households were interviewed, 300 at an urban site and 100 at a rural site. The majority of the interviewed households belonged to the Balinese ethnic group. Owned dogs were more likely male, and non-pedigree or local breed. These households kept their dogs either fully restricted, semi-free roaming or free-roaming but full restriction was reported only at the urban site. Dog bite cases were reported to be higher at the urban site, and commonly affected children/young adults to 20 years old and males. A higher number of unowned dogs was observed at the urban site than at the rural site. Data generated within these surveys can inform rabies risk assessment models to quantify the probability of rabies being released into Lombok and resulting in the infection of the local dog population. The information gained is critical for efforts to educate dog owners about rabies, as a component of preparedness to prevent the establishment of rabies should an incursion occur. PMID:25932916

  2. Acute oral marijuana poisoning in the dog.

    PubMed

    Godbold, J C; Hawkins, B J; Woodward, M G

    1979-11-15

    Ingestion of marijuana by three dogs in unrelated incidents resulted in depression-type toxicosis in each case. The most evident clinical signs were central nervous system depression and ataxia. Emesis and hypothermia were noted in two of the cases. Symptomatic and supportive treatment was accompanied by clinical improvement. In two cases, recovery was slow, with clinical signs apparent for 36 to 48 hours after onset. In the third case, clinical signs were apparent for only 3 hours. PMID:521354

  3. Evaluation of eight commercial dog diets.

    PubMed

    Daumas, Caroline; Paragon, Bernard-Marie; Thorin, Chantal; Martin, Lucile; Dumon, Henri; Ninet, Samuel; Nguyen, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Estimation of the quality of commercial diets is a topic of interest for the majority of dog owners. Recently, in a French consumer association magazine, an evaluation of eight dog commercial dry diets (from super-premium, basic-nutrition, private-label and economy brands) according to several nutritional criteria was published. The aims of the study were: (1) to evaluate the apparent digestibility of these diets; (2) to score these diets according to digestibility results; and (3) to compare these data with the scoring of the magazine. Six adult Beagle dogs were enrolled for the digestibility trials. Diets were scored according to energy, crude protein and crude fat (CF) apparent digestibility coefficients, digestible protein-to-energy ratios and ash content. Each of the five criteria was scored from 4 to 20 points. The ranges of crude protein, CF, crude fibre and ash content were 20·9-30·6 %, 6·8-19·7 %, 2·2-3·3 % and 4·6-9·7 % on a DM basis, respectively. The ranges of energy, crude protein and CF apparent digestibility coefficients were 72·6-87·7 %, 70·4-82·5 % and 76·1-95·4 %, respectively. The range of the protein-to-energy ratio was 10-14 digestible crude protein per MJ metabolisable energy. Little overlap in the scoring systems was found, but the private-label brand and economy brand diets presented the lowest scores in the two systems. These results showed that the evaluation of commercial diets should take into account multiple nutritional aspects. In particular, analytical and biological (digestibility) criteria should be considered as complementary in the evaluation of dry dog commercial diets. PMID:26101631

  4. Tracheal and airway collapse in dogs.

    PubMed

    Maggiore, Ann Della

    2014-01-01

    Tracheal and airway collapse (bronchomalacia) are common causes of chronic cough in middle-aged to older dogs where weakening of cartilage within the respiratory system leads to narrowing of airways, coughing, wheezing, and other secondary effects. Successful treatment involves correct identification of the problem, recognition of concurrent problems, and appropriate medical therapy. Surgical and noninvasive treatment options are becoming readily available, and it is important to understand indications for such procedures. PMID:24268337

  5. Genotype imputation in the domestic dog.

    PubMed

    Friedenberg, S G; Meurs, K M

    2016-10-01

    Application of imputation methods to accurately predict a dense array of SNP genotypes in the dog could provide an important supplement to current analyses of array-based genotyping data. Here, we developed a reference panel of 4,885,283 SNPs in 83 dogs across 15 breeds using whole genome sequencing. We used this panel to predict the genotypes of 268 dogs across three breeds with 84,193 SNP array-derived genotypes as inputs. We then (1) performed breed clustering of the actual and imputed data; (2) evaluated several reference panel breed combinations to determine an optimal reference panel composition; and (3) compared the accuracy of two commonly used software algorithms (Beagle and IMPUTE2). Breed clustering was well preserved in the imputation process across eigenvalues representing 75 % of the variation in the imputed data. Using Beagle with a target panel from a single breed, genotype concordance was highest using a multi-breed reference panel (92.4 %) compared to a breed-specific reference panel (87.0 %) or a reference panel containing no breeds overlapping with the target panel (74.9 %). This finding was confirmed using target panels derived from two other breeds. Additionally, using the multi-breed reference panel, genotype concordance was slightly higher with IMPUTE2 (94.1 %) compared to Beagle; Pearson correlation coefficients were slightly higher for both software packages (0.946 for Beagle, 0.961 for IMPUTE2). Our findings demonstrate that genotype imputation from SNP array-derived data to whole genome-level genotypes is both feasible and accurate in the dog with appropriate breed overlap between the target and reference panels. PMID:27129452

  6. Calcifying aponeurotic fibroma in a dog.

    PubMed

    Zaki, F A; Liu, S K; Kay, W J

    1975-02-15

    A calcifying aponeurotic fibroma involving the soft tissue and bone of the occipital area compressed and attenuated the cerebellum and brainstem of a 9-year-old female dog of mixed breeding. Clinical signs included a head tilt to the left; gait ataxia; anisocoria, with a midly dilated left pupil; horizontal nystagmus, with the fast phase to the right; and a mild depression of the level of consciousness. The signs were sequential and progressive. PMID:1116957

  7. The healing power of dogs: Cocoa's story.

    PubMed

    Cangelosi, Pamela R; Embrey, Carolyn N

    2006-01-01

    Animals bring a sense of "at homeness" and even normalcy to people who are hospitalized or live in health care facilities. Illnesses, separation from family, fear, loneliness, and even depression may be lessened for those who receive a therapy dog visit by providing a welcome change in routine and something to look forward to. Individuals are often more active and responsive during and after a visit. Just stroking and petting a dog requires the use of hands and arms, as well as the motions of stretching and turning. Dogs are also unconcerned with age or physical ability; they accept people as they are. This alone causes many to reach out and interact with dogs. Animals provide a focus for conversation and a common interest. As Cocoa's human partner can attest, a pet also makes it easier for strangers to talk. Cocoa is known by so many people at the facilities she visits that residents' family members often stop to talk with "Cocoa's mom" when they meet her in the community, asking questions about how Cocoa is doing. When Cocoa is no longer able to perform her services, many in her community will mourn. Cocoa's story, as well as the limited research literature, supports the positive physical and psychological effects of animals, but continued research on the effect of therapy animals on health outcomes is needed. As advocates for clients, nurses are in key positions to facilitate the inclusion of animals in clients' care. Although not for everyone, including those who react negatively to animals or who are allergic, pet therapy offers important possibilities for providing holistic care that extends not only to clients, but also to family members and staff, and to the pets themselves. PMID:16475440

  8. Thunderstorm phobia in dogs: an Internet survey of 69 cases.

    PubMed

    McCobb, E C; Brown, E A; Damiani, K; Dodman, N H

    2001-01-01

    To learn more about predispositions for, signs, and progression of canine thunderstorm phobia, a survey for owners was posted on the Internet. Questions addressed signalment, age of onset, behavior during storms, and treatments tried. Sixty-nine responses were received. Herding dogs and herding crossbreeds accounted for the majority of dogs. Seventeen of 41 dogs with a known age of onset began exhibiting thunderstorm phobia <1 year of age. Various characteristic responses of dogs to storms were described. Improved knowledge of the demographics of thunderstorm phobia, its development, and presentation will assist in understanding the genesis and progression of the condition. PMID:11450831

  9. Apparent tick paralysis by Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae) in dogs.

    PubMed

    Otranto, Domenico; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Tarallo, Viviana Domenica; Ramos, Rafael Antonio do Nascimento; Stanneck, Dorothee; Baneth, Gad; de Caprariis, Donato

    2012-09-10

    Certain tick species including Ixodes holocyclus can inoculate neurotoxins that induce a rapid, ascending flaccid paralysis in animals. Rhipicephalus sanguineus, the most widespread tick of dogs, is recognized as a vector of several pathogens causing diseases in dogs and humans. A single report suggests its role as cause of paralysis in dogs. This study presents the clinical history of 14 young dogs heavily infested by R. sanguineus (intensity of infestation, 63-328) in an endemic area of southern Italy. During May to June of 2011, dogs were presented at the clinical examination with neurological signs of different degrees (e.g., hind limb ataxia, generalized lethargy, and difficulty in movements). All animals were treated with acaricides and by manual tick removal but ten of them died within a day, displaying neurological signs. The other 4 dogs recovered within 3 days with acaricidal and supportive treatment. Twelve dogs were positive by blood smear examination for Hepatozoon canis with a high parasitemia, two also for Babesia vogeli and two were negative for hemoparasites. Low-grade thrombocytopenia, hypoalbuminemia, and pancytopenia were the haematological alterations most frequently recorded. Other causes of neurological disease in dogs were excluded and the diagnosis of tick paralysis by R. sanguineus was confirmed (ex juvantibus) by early and complete recovery of 4 dogs following acaricidal treatment and tick removal. PMID:22546547

  10. HUNT STABLE COMPLEX LOOKING NORTHWEST TOWARD DOG KENNEL RUINS ACROSS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    HUNT STABLE COMPLEX LOOKING NORTHWEST TOWARD DOG KENNEL RUINS ACROSS THE GREAT CIRCUS - Overhills, Fort Bragg Military Reservation, Approximately 15 miles NW of Fayetteville, Overhills, Harnett County, NC

  11. VAC protocol for treatment of dogs with stage III hemangiosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Francisco J; Hosoya, Kenji; Lara-Garcia, Ana; Kisseberth, William; Couto, Guillermo

    2013-01-01

    Hemangiosarcomas (HSAs) are aggressive tumors with a high rate of metastasis. Clinical stage has been considered a negative prognostic factor for survival. The study authors hypothesized that the median survival time (MST) of dogs with metastatic (stage III) HSA treated with a vincristine, doxorubicin, and cyclophosphamide (VAC) chemotherapy protocol would not be different than those with stage I/II HSA. Sixty-seven dogs with HSA in different anatomic locations were evaluated retrospectively. All dogs received the VAC protocol as an adjuvant to surgery (n = 50), neoadjuvant (n = 3), or as the sole treatment modality (n = 14). There was no significant difference (P = 0.97) between the MST of dogs with stage III and stage I/II HSA. For dogs presenting with splenic HSA alone, there was no significant difference between the MST of dogs with stage III and stage I/II disease (P = 0.12). The overall response rate (complete response [CR] and partial response [PR]) was 86%). No unacceptable toxicities were observed. Dogs with stage III HSA treated with the VAC protocol have a similar prognosis to dogs with stage I/II HSA. Dogs with HSA and evidence of metastases at the time of diagnosis should not be denied treatment. PMID:24051260

  12. Whole genome comparison of donor and cloned dogs

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hak-Min; Cho, Yun Sung; Kim, Hyunmin; Jho, Sungwoong; Son, Bongjun; Choi, Joung Yoon; Kim, Sangsoo; Lee, Byeong Chun; Bhak, Jong; Jang, Goo

    2013-01-01

    Cloning is a process that produces genetically identical organisms. However, the genomic degree of genetic resemblance in clones needs to be determined. In this report, the genomes of a cloned dog and its donor were compared. Compared with a human monozygotic twin, the genome of the cloned dog showed little difference from the genome of the nuclear donor dog in terms of single nucleotide variations, chromosomal instability, and telomere lengths. These findings suggest that cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer produced an almost identical genome. The whole genome sequence data of donor and cloned dogs can provide a resource for further investigations on epigenetic contributions in phenotypic differences. PMID:24141358

  13. Perceptual specificity in the alarm calls of Gunnison's prairie dogs.

    PubMed

    Kiriazis, Judith; Slobodchikoff, C N

    2006-07-01

    Gunnison's prairie dogs have a complex alarm communication system. We show that the escape responses of prairie dogs to naturally occurring live predators differed depending upon the species of predator. We also show that playbacks of alarm calls that were elicited originally by the live predators produced the same escape responses as the live predators themselves. The escape responses fell into two qualitatively different categories: running to the burrow and diving inside for hawks and humans, and standing upright outside the burrow for coyotes and dogs. Within these two categories there were differences in response. For hawks, only the prairie dogs that were in the direct flight path of a stooping red-tailed hawk ran to their burrows and dove inside, while for humans and human alarm call playbacks there was a colony-wide running to the burrows and diving inside. For coyotes and coyote alarm call playbacks there was a colony-wide running to the burrows and standing alert at the burrow rims, while for domestic dogs and playbacks of alarm calls for domestic dogs the prairie dogs assumed an alert posture wherever they were feeding, but did not run to their burrows. These responses to both the live predators and to predator-elicited alarm calls suggest that the alarm calls of Gunnison's prairie dogs contain meaningful referential information about the categories of predators that approach a colony of prairie dogs. PMID:16529880

  14. Clinical and ultrasonographic characteristics of salivary mucoceles in 13 dogs.

    PubMed

    Torad, Faisal A; Hassan, Elham A

    2013-01-01

    Salivary mucocele is one of the causes of submandibular swelling in dogs and is due to a collection of mucoid saliva that has leaked from a damaged salivary gland. The purpose of this case series report was to describe the clinical and ultrasonographic characteristics of confirmed salivary mucoceles in 13 dogs admitted to the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine at Cairo University. The final diagnosis of salivary mucocele was based on aspirate cytology for all dogs and additional surgical excision for seven dogs. For dogs admitted from 2 weeks to 1 month from the onset of clinical signs, the cervical mucocele appeared as a round echogenic structure with a large volume of central anechoic content. The wall was a clearly identified hyperechoic structure surrounding the gland. For dogs admitted between 1 to 2 months from the onset of clinical signs, the volume of anechoic material appeared less than that seen in the acute cases. The overall appearance of the salivary mucocele was heterogenous. For dogs admitted after 2 months from the onset of clinical signs, the salivary mucocele appeared grainy or mottled, with a heterogenous appearance and a further decrease in anechoic content. For one dog that presented after 3 months from the onset of clinical signs, the salivary mucocele was hard on palpation and appeared hyperechoic with distal acoustic shadowing. Findings from this study indicated that ultrasonographic characteristics of salivary mucoceles in dogs vary depending on the chronological stage of the disease. PMID:23442204

  15. Respiratory dysfunction in unsedated dogs with golden retriever muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    DeVanna, Justin C; Kornegay, Joe N; Bogan, Daniel J; Bogan, Janet R; Dow, Jennifer L; Hawkins, Eleanor C

    2014-01-01

    Golden retriever muscular dystrophy (GRMD) is a well-established model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. The value of this model would be greatly enhanced with practical tools to monitor progression of respiratory dysfunction during treatment trials. Arterial blood gas analysis, tidal breathing spirometry, and respiratory inductance plethysmography (RIP) were performed to determine if quantifiable abnormalities could be identified in unsedated, untrained, GRMD dogs. Results from 11 dogs with a mild phenotype of GRMD and 11 age-matched carriers were compared. Arterial blood gas analysis was successfully performed in all dogs, spirometry in 21 of 22 (95%) dogs, and RIP in 18 of 20 (90%) dogs. Partial pressure of carbon dioxide and bicarbonate concentration were higher in GRMD dogs. Tidal breathing peak expiratory flows were markedly higher in GRMD dogs. Abnormal abdominal motion was present in 7 of 10 (70%) GRMD dogs. Each technique provided objective, quantifiable measures that will be useful for monitoring respiratory function in GRMD dogs during clinical trials while avoiding the influence of sedation on results. Increased expiratory flows and the pattern of abdominal breathing are novel findings, not reported in people with Duchenne muscular dystrophy, and might be a consequence of hyperinflation. PMID:24295812

  16. Serodetection of Ehrlichia canis amongst dogs in central Namibia.

    PubMed

    Manyarara, Rutendo; Tubbesing, Ulf; Soni, Minty; Noden, Bruce H

    2015-01-01

    Ehrlichia canis is a major pathogen in dogs throughout Africa, yet it has not been reported in Namibia. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of canine ehrlichiosis in central Namibia using the ImmunoComb assay (Biogal, Galed Laboratories). The study included 76 dogs that presented to the Rhino Park Veterinary Clinic in the north-western suburb of Khomasdal, Windhoek, Namibia, as well as 30 stray dogs from the Windhoek branch of the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. Of the 106 dogs tested, 53.8% were seropositive at titres > 1:80. Dogs that presented with symptoms of E. canis infection had a significantly higher seroprevalence (86.6%) compared with apparently healthy dogs (41.6%) (P = 0.00). Location of habitation was significant (P < 0.017), with a high percentage of dogs exposed to E. canis living in the northern or north-western part of Windhoek. As the first study to serologically establish E. canis as a major pathogen in dogs in central Namibia, it is notable that the highest proportion of seropositive dogs came from low-income areas. Further investigation is necessary to describe the ecology of this important tick-borne pathogen of companion animals in Namibia. PMID:26244587

  17. Testing the myth: tolerant dogs and aggressive wolves.

    PubMed

    Range, Friederike; Ritter, Caroline; Virányi, Zsófia

    2015-05-22

    Cooperation is thought to be highly dependent on tolerance. For example, it has been suggested that dog-human cooperation has been enabled by selecting dogs for increased tolerance and reduced aggression during the course of domestication ('emotional reactivity hypothesis'). However, based on observations of social interactions among members of captive packs, a few dog-wolf comparisons found contradictory results. In this study, we compared intraspecies aggression and tolerance of dogs and wolves raised and kept under identical conditions by investigating their agonistic behaviours and cofeeding during pair-wise food competition tests, a situation that has been directly linked to cooperation. We found that in wolves, dominant and subordinate members of the dyads monopolized the food and showed agonistic behaviours to a similar extent, whereas in dogs these behaviours were privileges of the high-ranking individuals. The fact that subordinate dogs rarely challenged their higher-ranking partners suggests a steeper dominance hierarchy in dogs than in wolves. Finally, wolves as well as dogs showed only rare and weak aggression towards each other. Therefore, we suggest that wolves are sufficiently tolerant to enable wolf-wolf cooperation, which in turn might have been the basis for the evolution of dog-human cooperation (canine cooperation hypothesis). PMID:25904666

  18. The Companion Dog as a Model for the Longevity Dividend.

    PubMed

    Creevy, Kate E; Austad, Steven N; Hoffman, Jessica M; O'Neill, Dan G; Promislow, Daniel E L

    2016-01-01

    The companion dog is the most phenotypically diverse species on the planet. This enormous variability between breeds extends not only to morphology and behavior but also to longevity and the disorders that affect dogs. There are remarkable overlaps and similarities between the human and canine species. Dogs closely share our human environment, including its many risk factors, and the veterinary infrastructure to manage health in dogs is second only to the medical infrastructure for humans. Distinct breed-based health profiles, along with their well-developed health record system and high overlap with the human environment, make the companion dog an exceptional model to improve understanding of the physiological, social, and economic impacts of the longevity dividend (LD). In this review, we describe what is already known about age-specific patterns of morbidity and mortality in companion dogs, and then explore whether this existing evidence supports the LD. We also discuss some potential limitations to using dogs as models of aging, including the fact that many dogs are euthanized before they have lived out their natural life span. Overall, we conclude that the companion dog offers high potential as a model system that will enable deeper research into the LD than is otherwise possible. PMID:26729759

  19. Urinary bladder fibromas in dogs: 51 cases (1981-1985).

    PubMed

    Esplin, D G

    1987-02-15

    Between Jan 1, 1981, and June 30, 1985, fibromas were diagnosed in tissues removed from the urinary bladders of 51 dogs. Hematuria, the most common clinical sign, was associated with the fibromas in 47 of 50 cases. Most dogs responded well to surgical excision of the neoplasms, with rapid resolution of the hematuria followed by long periods without abnormal clinical signs. Three dogs were euthanatized because of continuing or recurrent clinical problems, which included bladder dysfunction. One dog required continuing medication with antibiotics and corticosteroids to control hematuria. PMID:3558085

  20. Canine distemper spillover in domestic dogs from urban wildlife.

    PubMed

    Kapil, Sanjay; Yeary, Teresa J

    2011-11-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) causes a major disease of domestic dogs that develops as a serious systemic infection in unvaccinated or improperly vaccinated dogs. Domesticated dogs are the main reservoir of CDV, a multihost pathogen. This virus of the genus Morbillivirus in the family Paramyxoviridae occurs in other carnivorous species including all members of the Canidae and Mustelidae families and in some members of the Procyonidae, Hyaenidae, Ursidae, and Viverridae families. Canine distemper also has been reported in the Felidae family and marine mammals. The spread and incidences of CDV epidemics in dogs and wildlife here and worldwide are increasing. PMID:22041204

  1. Genotypic characterisation of Giardia from domestic dogs in the USA.

    PubMed

    Covacin, C; Aucoin, D P; Elliot, A; Thompson, R C A

    2011-04-19

    The first large-scale urban survey of Giardia infections in dogs was undertaken in the USA. It involved several locations in the Western United States with Giardia isolates from microscopy-positive samples characterised by multi-locus PCR and sequencing. A high prevalence of Giardia was confirmed in asymptomatic domestic dogs, and for the first time, provides evidence that zoonotic assemblages/subgroups of Giardia occur frequently in domestic dogs living in urban environments, and more frequently than the dog specific assemblages. PMID:21146935

  2. RESPIRATORY DYSFUNCTION IN UNSEDATED DOGS WITH GOLDEN RETRIEVER MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY

    PubMed Central

    DeVanna, Justin C.; Kornegay, Joe N.; Bogan, Daniel J.; Bogan, Janet R.; Dow, Jennifer L.; Hawkins, Eleanor C.

    2013-01-01

    Golden retriever muscular dystrophy (GRMD) is a well-established model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. The value of this model would be greatly enhanced with practical tools to monitor progression of respiratory dysfunction during treatment trials. Arterial blood gas analysis, tidal breathing spirometry, and respiratory inductance plethysmography (RIP) were performed to determine if quantifiable abnormalities could be identified in unsedated, untrained, GRMD dogs. Results from 11 dogs with a mild phenotype of GRMD and 11 age-matched carriers were compared. Arterial blood gas analysis was successfully performed in all dogs, spirometry in 21 of 22 (95%) dogs, and RIP in 18 of 20 (90%) dogs. Partial pressure of carbon dioxide and bicarbonate concentration were higher in GRMD dogs. Tidal breathing peak expiratory flows were markedly higher in GRMD dogs. Abnormal abdominal motion was present in 7 of 10 (70%) GRMD dogs. Each technique provided objective, quantifiable measures that will be useful for monitoring respiratory function in GRMD dogs during clinical trials while avoiding the influence of sedation on results. Increased expiratory flows and the pattern of abdominal breathing are novel findings, not reported in people with Duchenne muscular dystrophy, and might be a consequence of hyperinflation. PMID:24295812

  3. A practical dog bed for environmental enrichment for geriatric beagles, with applications for puppies and other small dogs.

    PubMed

    Eisele, P H

    2001-05-01

    A group of 30 older beagle dogs was acquired for aging studies. The dogs were initially housed in kennel runs equipped with elevated benches, but it became apparent that some of the oldest animals had difficulties jumping down from them. To improve animal safety and comfort, practical dog beds were made out of the ends of clean high-density polyethylene barrels. Synthetic fleece bed liners were used for dogs that did not chew them or remove them from the beds. Nine of the beagles regularly were observed to use the beds. We also have found that this easily fashioned dog bed is a useful kennel resting place option for puppies and other small dogs. PMID:11353524

  4. "Not just a dog": an attachment perspective on relationships with assistance dogs.

    PubMed

    Kwong, Marilyn J; Bartholomew, Kim

    2011-09-01

    We explored individuals' relationships with an assistance dog from an attachment-theory perspective. We used both inductive and deductive thematic methods to analyze semi-structured interviews with 25 participants who had lost an assistance dog to retirement or death. Analyses revealed attachment processes of safe haven, secure base, and separation anxiety. Although attachment dynamics were an important feature of these relationships, caregiving was equally important. When confronted with the loss of their dog, almost all participants experienced intense grief. Most grief responses were consistent with the loss of a caregiving relationship. Findings suggest that grief is a natural response to the loss of a beloved companion who fulfilled fundamental needs for attachment and caregiving. PMID:21838644

  5. "Like Owner, Like Dog": Correlation between the Owner's Attachment Profile and the Owner-Dog Bond

    PubMed Central

    Siniscalchi, Marcello; Stipo, Carlo; Quaranta, Angelo

    2013-01-01

    During recent years, several studies have revealed that human-dog relationships are based on a well-established and complex bond. There is now evidence suggesting that the dog–human affectional bond can be characterized as an “attachment”. The present study investigated possible association between the owners' attachment profile assessed throughout a new semi-projective test (the 9 Attachment Profile) and the owner-dog attachment bond evaluated using a modified version of those used in studying human infants: Ainsworth's “strange situation”. The findings represented the first evidence for the presence of a correlation between the owners' attachment profile and the owner-dog attachment bond throughout procedure and behavioural analyses involving controlled observations. PMID:24205235

  6. Pet dog ownership decisions for parents of children with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Carlisle, Gretchen K

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the role of pet dogs in families of children with autism. Sixty-seven percent of families owned dogs and 94% reported that their children were bonded to their dogs. Parents described previous experience with dogs and beliefs in their benefits as influential in their dog ownership decision-making process. Children living with dogs interacted with them in play and/or sharing personal space. Sensory issues of the children impacted their interaction with dogs inside and outside the home. Time and cost of care were identified burdens of dog ownership. Benefits were the opportunity to learn responsibility and companionship. PMID:24183985

  7. Microsatellite characterization of Cimarron Uruguayo dogs

    PubMed Central

    Gagliardi, Rosa; Llambí, Silvia; García, Cristina; Arruga, María Victoria

    2011-01-01

    Various genetic markers, including microsatellites, have been used to analyze the genetic polymorphism and heterozygosity in canine breeds. In this work, we used nine microsatellite markers to investigate the genetic variability in Cimarron Uruguayo dogs, the only officially recognized native canine breed in Uruguay. DNA from 30 Cimarron Uruguayo dogs from northeastern and southern Uruguay was analyzed. The allelic frequencies for each microsatellite, the genetic variability and the consanguinity were calculated, as were the polymorphic information content (PIC) and the probability of exclusion (PE). All of the microsatellites studied were polymorphic. FH 2361, FH 2305 and PEZ 03 were the most informative, with PIC values > 0.7, in agreement with results for other canine breeds. The PE values for the markers were within the ranges previously described and were generally greater for microsatellites with higher PIC values. The heterozygosity value (0.649) was considered high since only nine microsatellites were analyzed. Compared with data for other breeds, the results obtained here indicate that Cimarron Uruguayo dogs have high genetic diversity. PMID:21637561

  8. Cultivable Oral Microbiota of Domestic Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, David R.; Wilson, Michael; Buckley, Catherine M. F.; Spratt, David A.

    2005-01-01

    Bacteria were isolated from the dental plaques of nine dogs and a sample of pooled saliva from five other dogs and were then identified by comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Among 339 isolates, 84 different phylotypes belonging to 37 genera were identified. Approximately half of the phylotypes were identified to the species level, and 28% of these were considered members of the indigenous oral microbiota of humans. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of the remaining 44 phylotypes were not represented in GenBank, and most of these phylotypes were tentatively identified as candidate new species. The genera most frequently isolated from saliva were Actinomyces (26%), Streptococcus (18%), and Granulicatella (17%). The genera most frequently isolated from plaque were Porphyromonas (20%), Actinomyces (12%), and Neisseria (10%). A comparison of the DNA sequences from this study with sequences of the human microbiota available in GenBank showed that, on average, canine and human microbiotas differed by almost 7% in the 16S rRNA gene. In conclusion, this study has shown that the cultivable oral microbiotas of dogs and humans show significant differences. PMID:16272472

  9. Presumed primary muscular lymphoma in a dog.

    PubMed

    Thuilliez, Céline; Watrelot-Virieux, Dorothée; Chanut, Franck; Fournel-Fleury, Corinne; Ponce, Frédérique; Marchal, Thierry

    2008-11-01

    A case of presumed primary muscular lymphoma in an 8-year-old, intact, male Newfoundland dog is reported. The dog was presented for evaluation of an infiltrating ventral cervical mass, respiratory distress, and anorexia of 1-month duration. Fine-needle aspiration of the mass revealed anaplastic large cell lymphoma. Despite chemotherapy, health status declined and the animal was euthanized a few weeks later. At necropsy, the mass infiltrated the cervical muscles and extended ventrally to the left forelimb and cranially to the tongue and laryngeal musculature. Other muscles were infiltrated by the same neoplasm (diaphragm and intercostal, abdominal, and gluteal muscles) indicating a probable multicentric origin. Histological examination confirmed the diagnosis of anaplastic large cell lymphoma, which showed a strong muscular tropism. Immunohistochemical staining revealed neoplastic cell reactivity for cluster of differentiation 3 (CD3) and Ki-67 antigens (70% and 90%, respectively). The neoplastic cells were negative for CD79a. The presumed histological diagnosis in this dog was primary muscular anaplastic large T-cell lymphoma. PMID:18987239

  10. Probable essential thrombocythemia in a dog

    SciTech Connect

    Hopper, P.E.; Mandell, C.P.; Turrel, J.M.; Jain, N.C.; Tablin, F.; Zinkl, J.G.

    1989-04-01

    Essential thrombocythemia (ET), in an 11-year-old dog was characterized by persistently high platelet counts range, 4.19 X 10(6)/microliters to 4.95 X 10(6)/microliters, abnormal platelet morphology, marked megakaryocytic hyperplasia in the bone marrow, absence of circulating megakaryoblasts, and history of splenomegaly and gastrointestinal bleeding. Increased numbers of megakaryocytes and megakaryoblasts (15% to 20%) in the bone marrow were confirmed by a positive acetylcholinesterase reaction. Another significant finding was the presence of a basophilia in blood (4,836/microliters) and bone marrow. The marked persistent thrombocytosis, absence of reactive (secondary) thrombocytosis, abnormal platelet morphology, and quantitative and qualitative changes in the megakaryocytic series in the bone marrow suggested the presence of a myeloproliferative disease. Cytochemical and ultrastructural findings aided in the diagnosis of ET. The dog was treated with radiophosphorus. The results was a rapid decline in the numbers of megakaryoblasts and megakaryocytes in the bone marrow and platelets and basophils in the peripheral blood. The dog died unexpectedly of acute necrotizing pancreatitis and diabetes mellitus before a complete remission was achieved.

  11. Toxicokinetics and toxicity of atorvastatin in dogs.

    PubMed

    Herron, C E; Brueckner, C C; Chism, J P; Kemp, D C; Prescott, J S; Smith, G A; Melich, D H; Oleas, N; Polli, J W

    2015-11-15

    HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (e.g., statins) are an important clinical option to lower cholesterol and treat co-morbidities. Atorvastatin is the most prescribed statin and has obtained generic status. We recently had a clinical development program evaluating a combination of atorvastatin with a GPR119 agonist as a treatment for dyslipidemia, where toxicological evaluations in dogs were completed. There were several challenges related to selecting doses for atorvastatin, including understanding the dose-exposure relationship from different drug forms used by the innovator in their general toxicology studies, bioanalytical assays that did not separate and quantify parent from metabolites, and high variability in the systemic exposures following oral dosing. The studies in this report characterized the toxicokinetics and toxicity of atorvastatin in the dog for up to 13-weeks. Overall, there were no notable differences in the toxicokinetics of atorvastatin or the two active hydroxylated metabolites between the sexes at Week 13. However, systemic exposures were markedly lower at Week 13 compared to that observed at Week 4, suggesting induction of metabolism or reduced absorption from the gastrointestinal tract following oral dosing. Changes in laboratory chemistries included increased liver enzyme levels and lower cholesterol levels. Histopathologic evaluation revealed multifocal minimal to slight hemorrhages in the submucosa of the gallbladder; all findings were reversible. The information from these studies along with the existing clinical experience with atorvastatin can be used to design robust toxicology studies in dogs and reduce animal use. PMID:26386191

  12. Canine kobuvirus infections in Korean dogs.

    PubMed

    Oem, Jae-Ku; Choi, Jeong-Won; Lee, Myoung-Heon; Lee, Kyoung-Ki; Choi, Kyoung-Seong

    2014-10-01

    To investigate canine kobuvirus (CaKoV) infection, fecal samples (n = 59) were collected from dogs with or without diarrhea (n = 21 and 38, respectively) in the Republic of Korea (ROK) in 2012. CaKoV infection was detected in four diarrheic samples (19.0 %) and five non-diarrheic samples (13.2 %). All CaKoV-positive dogs with diarrhea were found to be infected in mixed infections with canine distemper virus and canine parvovirus or canine adenovirus. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of CaKoV in dogs with and without diarrhea. By phylogenetic analysis based on partial 3D genes and complete genome sequences, the Korean isolates were found to be closely related to each other regardless of whether they were associated with diarrhea, and to the canine kobuviruses identified in the USA and UK. This study supports the conclusion that CaKoVs from different countries are not restricted geographically and belong to a single lineage. PMID:24906525

  13. Epulides in the dog: a review.

    PubMed

    Gardner, D G

    1996-01-01

    This article is based on a review of the literature and the study of pathology sections obtained from various veterinary pathology laboratories. Epulis is a non-specific, clinical designation for a localized, exophytic growth on the gingiva. Four reactive epulides occur in human beings, namely focal fibrous hyperplasia (fibrous epulis), pyogenic granuloma, peripheral giant cell granuloma (giant cell epulis), and peripheral ossifying fibroma (calcifying fibrous epulis). The first three also occur in dogs but only focal fibrous hyperplasia appears to be common. The peripheral ossifying fibroma has not yet been reported in dogs. Odontogenic tumors occurring on the gingiva (i.e., as epulides) are referred to as peripheral odontogenic tumors. Three types have been reported in dogs. One, the common fibromatous epulis, is equivalent to the rare peripheral odontogenic fibroma in human beings. Another, the acanthomatous epulis, appears to be a form of ameloblastoma but differs from the peripheral ameloblastoma in human beings in that it invades bone; its biological behavior is therefore that of the human intraosseous ameloblastoma. The third, a rare lesion, has been referred to in the veterinary literature as a calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor, although it is not the canine counterpart of the human CEOT. The term, amyloid-producing odontogenic tumor, has been suggested as being appropriate for this lesion. PMID:8850355

  14. Comparison of the Relationship between Cerebral White Matter and Grey Matter in Normal Dogs and Dogs with Lateral Ventricular Enlargement.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Martin J; Laubner, Steffi; Kolecka, Malgorzata; Failing, Klaus; Moritz, Andreas; Kramer, Martin; Ondreka, Nele

    2015-01-01

    Large cerebral ventricles are a frequent finding in brains of dogs with brachycephalic skull conformation, in comparison with mesaticephalic dogs. It remains unclear whether oversized ventricles represent a normal variant or a pathological condition in brachycephalic dogs. There is a distinct relationship between white matter and grey matter in the cerebrum of all eutherian mammals. The aim of this study was to determine if this physiological proportion between white matter and grey matter of the forebrain still exists in brachycephalic dogs with oversized ventricles. The relative cerebral grey matter, white matter and cerebrospinal fluid volume in dogs were determined based on magnetic-resonance-imaging datasets using graphical software. In an analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) using body mass as the covariate, the adjusted means of the brain tissue volumes of two groups of dogs were compared. Group 1 included 37 mesaticephalic dogs of different sizes with no apparent changes in brain morphology, and subjectively normal ventricle size. Group 2 included 35 brachycephalic dogs in which subjectively enlarged cerebral ventricles were noted as an incidental finding in their magnetic-resonance-imaging examination. Whereas no significant different adjusted means of the grey matter could be determined, the group of brachycephalic dogs had significantly larger adjusted means of lateral cerebral ventricles and significantly less adjusted means of relative white matter volume. This indicates that brachycephalic dogs with subjective ventriculomegaly have less white matter, as expected based on their body weight and cerebral volume. Our study suggests that ventriculomegaly in brachycephalic dogs is not a normal variant of ventricular volume. Based on the changes in the relative proportion of WM and CSF volume, and the unchanged GM proportions in dogs with ventriculomegaly, we rather suggest that distension of the lateral ventricles might be the underlying cause of pressure

  15. Comparison of the Relationship between Cerebral White Matter and Grey Matter in Normal Dogs and Dogs with Lateral Ventricular Enlargement

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Martin J.; Laubner, Steffi; Kolecka, Malgorzata; Failing, Klaus; Moritz, Andreas; Kramer, Martin; Ondreka, Nele

    2015-01-01

    Large cerebral ventricles are a frequent finding in brains of dogs with brachycephalic skull conformation, in comparison with mesaticephalic dogs. It remains unclear whether oversized ventricles represent a normal variant or a pathological condition in brachycephalic dogs. There is a distinct relationship between white matter and grey matter in the cerebrum of all eutherian mammals. The aim of this study was to determine if this physiological proportion between white matter and grey matter of the forebrain still exists in brachycephalic dogs with oversized ventricles. The relative cerebral grey matter, white matter and cerebrospinal fluid volume in dogs were determined based on magnetic-resonance-imaging datasets using graphical software. In an analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) using body mass as the covariate, the adjusted means of the brain tissue volumes of two groups of dogs were compared. Group 1 included 37 mesaticephalic dogs of different sizes with no apparent changes in brain morphology, and subjectively normal ventricle size. Group 2 included 35 brachycephalic dogs in which subjectively enlarged cerebral ventricles were noted as an incidental finding in their magnetic-resonance-imaging examination. Whereas no significant different adjusted means of the grey matter could be determined, the group of brachycephalic dogs had significantly larger adjusted means of lateral cerebral ventricles and significantly less adjusted means of relative white matter volume. This indicates that brachycephalic dogs with subjective ventriculomegaly have less white matter, as expected based on their body weight and cerebral volume. Our study suggests that ventriculomegaly in brachycephalic dogs is not a normal variant of ventricular volume. Based on the changes in the relative proportion of WM and CSF volume, and the unchanged GM proportions in dogs with ventriculomegaly, we rather suggest that distension of the lateral ventricles might be the underlying cause of pressure

  16. Evaluation of serum cobalamin concentrations in dogs of 164 dog breeds (2006-2010).

    PubMed

    Grützner, Niels; Cranford, Shannon M; Norby, Bo; Suchodolski, Jan S; Steiner, Jörg M

    2012-11-01

    Altered serum cobalamin concentrations have been observed in dogs with gastrointestinal disorders such as exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI) or gastrointestinal inflammation. The aims of the current study were 1) to identify breeds with a higher proportion of dogs with a decreased serum cobalamin concentration, 2) to determine whether dogs with such decreased concentrations tend to have serum canine trypsin-like immunoreactivity (cTLI) concentrations diagnostic for EPI, and 3) to compare the number of submissions for serum cobalamin analysis by breed to the American Kennel Club (AKC) breed ranking list of 2009. In this retrospective study, results of 28,675 cobalamin tests were reviewed. Akitas, Chinese Shar-Peis, German Shepherd Dogs, Greyhounds, and Labrador Retrievers had increased proportions of serum cobalamin concentrations below the lower limit of the reference interval (<251 ng/l; all P < 0.0001). Akitas, Chinese Shar-Peis, German Shepherd Dogs, and Border Collies had increased proportions of serum cobalamin concentrations below the detection limit of the assay (<150 ng/l; all P < 0.0001). Akitas, Border Collies, and German Shepherd Dogs with serum cobalamin concentrations <150 ng/l were more likely to have a serum cTLI concentration considered diagnostic for EPI (≤2.5 µg/l; all P ≤ 0.001). The breed with the highest proportion of samples submitted for serum cobalamin analysis in comparison with the AKC ranking list was the Greyhound (odds ratio: 84.6; P < 0.0001). In Akitas and Border Collies, further investigations are warranted to clarify if a potentially breed-specific gastrointestinal disorder is responsible for the increased frequency of decreased serum cobalamin and cTLI concentrations. PMID:23019243

  17. Using the incidence and impact of behavioural conditions in guide dogs to investigate patterns in undesirable behaviour in dogs

    PubMed Central

    Caron-Lormier, Geoffrey; Harvey, Naomi D.; England, Gary C. W.; Asher, Lucy

    2016-01-01

    The domestic dog is one of our most popular companions and longest relationships, occupying different roles, from pet to working guide dog for the blind. As dogs age different behavioural issues occur and in some cases dogs may be relinquished or removed from their working service. Here we analyse a dataset on working guide dogs that were removed from their service between 1994 and 2013. We use the withdrawal reasons as a proxy for the manifestation of undesirable behaviour. More than 7,500 dogs were in the dataset used, 83% of which were retired (due to old age) and 17% were withdrawn for behavioural issues. We found that the main reasons for behaviour withdrawal were environmental anxiety, training, and fear/aggression. Breed and sex had an effect on the odds of dogs being withdrawn under the different reasons. The age at withdrawal for the different withdrawal reasons suggested that dogs were more likely to develop fear/aggression related issues early on, whilst issues related to training could develop at almost any age. We found no evidence for heterosis effecting behaviour. We believe that this work is relevant to the pet dog population and had implications for understanding ageing and genetic influences on behaviour. PMID:27075868

  18. Using the incidence and impact of behavioural conditions in guide dogs to investigate patterns in undesirable behaviour in dogs.

    PubMed

    Caron-Lormier, Geoffrey; Harvey, Naomi D; England, Gary C W; Asher, Lucy

    2016-01-01

    The domestic dog is one of our most popular companions and longest relationships, occupying different roles, from pet to working guide dog for the blind. As dogs age different behavioural issues occur and in some cases dogs may be relinquished or removed from their working service. Here we analyse a dataset on working guide dogs that were removed from their service between 1994 and 2013. We use the withdrawal reasons as a proxy for the manifestation of undesirable behaviour. More than 7,500 dogs were in the dataset used, 83% of which were retired (due to old age) and 17% were withdrawn for behavioural issues. We found that the main reasons for behaviour withdrawal were environmental anxiety, training, and fear/aggression. Breed and sex had an effect on the odds of dogs being withdrawn under the different reasons. The age at withdrawal for the different withdrawal reasons suggested that dogs were more likely to develop fear/aggression related issues early on, whilst issues related to training could develop at almost any age. We found no evidence for heterosis effecting behaviour. We believe that this work is relevant to the pet dog population and had implications for understanding ageing and genetic influences on behaviour. PMID:27075868

  19. Craniomandibular Trauma and Tooth Loss in Northern Dogs and Wolves: Implications for the Archaeological Study of Dog Husbandry and Domestication

    PubMed Central

    Losey, Robert J.; Jessup, Erin; Nomokonova, Tatiana; Sablin, Mikhail

    2014-01-01

    Archaeological dog remains from many areas clearly show that these animals suffered tooth fractures, tooth loss, trauma, and dental defects during their lives. Relatively little research has explored the meanings of these patterns, particularly for ancient dog remains from small-scale societies of the North. One limiting issue is the lack of comparative data on dental health and experiences of trauma among northern wolves and dogs. This paper examines tooth loss, tooth fracture, enamel hypoplasia, and cranial trauma in a large sample of historic dog and wolf remains from North America and Northern Russia. The data indicate that the dogs more commonly experienced tooth loss and tooth fracture than the wolves, despite reportedly being fed mostly soft foods such as blubber and fish. The higher rates observed in the dogs likely is a result of food stress and self-provisioning through scavenging. The ability to self-provision was likely important for the long-term history of dog use in the north. Dogs also more commonly experienced cranial fractures than wolves, particularly depression fractures on their frontal bones, which were likely the result of blows from humans. Hypoplastic lesions are rare in both wolves and dogs, and probably result from multiple causes, including food stress, disease, and trauma. PMID:24941003

  20. Principal intestinal parasites of dogs in Tirana, Albania.

    PubMed

    Xhaxhiu, Dashamir; Kusi, Ilir; Rapti, Dhimitër; Kondi, Elisabeta; Postoli, Rezart; Rinaldi, Laura; Dimitrova, Zlatka M; Visser, Martin; Knaus, Martin; Rehbein, Steffen

    2011-02-01

    From 2004 to 2009, the digestive tracts of 111 dogs from suburban areas around Tirana, Albania, were examined for intestinal helminths. In addition, rectal faecal samples of all dogs were examined for protozoan infections and 48 faecal samples from dogs >6 months of age were processed with the Baermann technique to test for the excretion of lungworm larvae. The heart and pulmonary arteries of 30 dogs >6 months of age also were examined for nematode parasites. The intestinal parasite fauna of the dogs included three protozoan species (Cystoisospora canis, Cystoisospora ohioensis/burrowsi, Sarcocystis spp.), three cestode species (Dipylidium caninum, Taenia hydatigena, Echinococcus granulosus), five nematode species (Ancylostoma caninum, Uncinaria stenocephala, Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonina, Trichuris vulpis) and one acanthocephalan (Centrorhynchus buteonis). Rates of infection were: 15.3% for C. canis, 31.5% for C. ohioensis/burrowsi, 1.8% for Sarcocystis spp., 65.8% for D. caninum, 16.2% for T. hydatigena, 2.7% for E. granulosus (genotype G1), 13.5% for A. caninum, 64.9% for U. stenocephala, 75.7% for T. canis, 0.9% for T. leonina, 21.6% for T. vulpis and 0.9% for C. buteonis. Up to six species of gastrointestinal parasites were found per dog. The 63 ≤ 6-month-old dogs harboured significantly (p<0.001) fewer gastrointestinal parasite species concurrently (mean 2.65 ± 1.25 species per animal) than the 48 older animals (mean 3.77 ± 1.45 species per animal). Dogs >6 months of age harboured significantly (p<0.05) more D. caninum, T. hydatigena, A. caninum, U. stenocephala and T. vulpis compared to younger dogs. Conversely, the younger dogs harboured significantly (p<0.001) more T. canis than the older ones. There was no difference in the male and female dogs' counts of individual intestinal helminth species apart from T. hydatigena in dogs >6 months of age: Male dogs harboured significantly (p<0.05) more tapeworms than female dogs. Based on faecal examination