Science.gov

Sample records for material disposal sites

  1. 78 FR 38672 - Ocean Dumping; Sabine-Neches Waterway (SNWW) Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site Designation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-27

    ...The EPA is proposing to designate four new Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site(s) (ODMDS) located offshore of Texas for the disposal of dredged material from the Sabine-Neches Waterway (SNWW), pursuant to the Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act, as amended (MPRSA). The new sites are needed for the disposal of additional dredged material associated with the SNWW Channel Improvement......

  2. Remediation of a Former USAF Radioactive Material Disposal Site

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, D. E.; Cushman, M; Tupyi, B.; Lambert, J.

    2003-02-25

    This paper describes the remediation of a low-level radiological waste burial site located at the former James Connally Air Force Base in Waco, Texas. Burial activities at the site occurred during the 1950's when the property was under the ownership of the United States Air Force. Included is a discussion of methods and strategies that were used to successfully exhume and characterize the wastes for proper disposal at offsite disposal facilities. Worker and environmental protection measures are also described. Information gained from this project may be used at other similar project sites. A total of nine burial tubes had been identified for excavation, characterization, and removal from the site. The disposal tubes were constructed of 4-ft lengths of concrete pipe buried upright with the upper ends flush with ground surface. Initial ground level observations of the burial tubes indicated that some weathering had occurred; however, the condition of the subsurface portions of the tubes was unknown. Soil excavation occurred in 1-foot lifts in order that the tubes could be inspected and to allow for characterization of the soils at each stage of the excavation. Due to the weight of the concrete pipe and the condition of the piping joints it was determined that special measures would be required to maintain the tubes intact during their removal. Special tube anchoring and handling methods were required to relocate the tubes from their initial positions to a staging area where they could be further characterized. Characterization of the disposal tubes was accomplished using a combination of gamma spectroscopy and activity mapping methods. Important aspects of the project included the use of specialized excavation and disposal tube reinforcement measures to maintain the disposal tubes intact during excavation, removal and subsequent characterization. The non-intrusive gamma spectroscopy and data logging methods allowed for effective characterization of the wastes while

  3. DREDGED MATERIAL TRANSPORT AT DEEP-OCEAN DISPOSAL SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Assessment of environmental impact of dredged material disposal in deep ocean water calls for predictions of water column concentration, exposure time as well as the impacted area of the bottom (footprint). redictions based on vertical willing and horizontal advection of single p...

  4. 78 FR 37759 - Ocean Dumping; Atchafalaya-West Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site Designation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-24

    ...: Comments. The comment period for the proposed rule and draft EIS published May 21, 2013 (78 FR 29687), is... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 228 Ocean Dumping; Atchafalaya-West Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site Designation... designate the Atchafalaya-West Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site pursuant to the draft EIS,...

  5. DREDGED MATERIAL RECLAMATION AT THE JONES ISLAND CONFINED DISPOSAL FACILITY SITE CAPSULE

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this SITE demonstration, phytoremediation technology was applied to contaminated dredged materials from the Jones Island Confined Disposal Facility (CDF) located in Milwaukee Harbor, Wisconsin. The Jones Island CDF receives dredged materials from normal maintenance of Milwauke...

  6. 75 FR 19311 - Ocean Dumping; Guam Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site Designation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-14

    ...The EPA is proposing to designate the Guam Deep Ocean Disposal Site (G-DODS) as a permanent ocean dredged material disposal site (ODMDS) located offshore of Guam. Dredging is essential for maintaining safe navigation at port and naval facilities in Apra Harbor and other locations around Guam. Not all dredged materials are suitable for beneficial re-use (e.g., construction materials, landfill......

  7. Behavior of subaqueous sediment mounds: Effect on dredged material disposal site capacity

    SciTech Connect

    Poindexter, M.E.

    1988-01-01

    Dredging of contaminated sediments and subsequent disposal at legally designated disposal sites is an internationally accepted disposal alternative when adherence to strict disposal practices is maintained. As more highly contaminated sediments in the heavily industrialized harbors of the world must be dredged to maintain navigation and economic viability, use of subaqueous dredged material disposal sites is expected to increase. Use of these subaqueous sites has necessitated development of procedures to analyze disposal site capacity based upon physical, chemical, and biological considerations. A methodology of analysis was developed in this study to investigate the behavior of the crated subaqueous sediment mounds. Emphasis was placed upon the geotechnical engineering aspects of mound behavior although the methodology also includes chemical and biological aspects. This methodology was applied to four field sites at which dredged material mounds have been created. The procedure successfully predicted the geotechnical engineering behavior of the constructed dredged material mounds. This methodology of analysis provides a useful tool for evaluation of subaqueous disposal sites and the dredged materials mounds created within these sites.

  8. 15 CFR Appendix D to Subpart M of... - Dredged Material Disposal Sites Adjacent to the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... disposal site adjacent to the Sanctuary off of the Golden Gate: Point ID No. Latitude Longitude 1 37.76458... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dredged Material Disposal Sites... Subpart M of Part 922—Dredged Material Disposal Sites Adjacent to the Monterey Bay National...

  9. 15 CFR Appendix D to Subpart M of... - Dredged Material Disposal Sites Adjacent to the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... disposal site adjacent to the Sanctuary off of the Golden Gate: Point ID No. Latitude Longitude 1 37.76458... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Dredged Material Disposal Sites... Subpart M of Part 922—Dredged Material Disposal Sites Adjacent to the Monterey Bay National...

  10. FERNANDINA BEACH OCEAN DREDGED MATERIAL DISPOSAL SITE STATUS AND TRENDS, AUGUST 2005.

    EPA Science Inventory

    This EPA Region 4 study documents the current status (2005) of the Fernandina Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site. It includes an assessment of the benthic sediment quality, water quality and benthic bilogical communities. The report is located at the following web site: http...

  11. UTILIZING A CHIRP SONAR TO ACCURATELY CHARACTERIZE NEWLY DEPOSITED MATERIAL AT THE CALCASIEU OCEAN DREDGED MATERIAL DISPOSAL SITE, LOUISIANA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The distribution of dredged sediments is measured at the Calcasieu Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site (ODMDS) using a chirp sonar immediately after disposal and two months later. ubbottom reflection data, generated by a chirp sonar transmitting a 4 to 20 kHz FM sweep, is proces...

  12. Impact of the Charleston Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site on nearby hard bottom reef habitats.

    PubMed

    Crowe, Stacie E; Gayes, Paul T; Viso, Richard F; Bergquist, Derk C; Jutte, Pamela C; Van Dolah, Robert F

    2010-05-01

    The deepening of shipping and entrance channels in Charleston Harbor (South Carolina, USA) was completed in April 2002 and placed an estimated 22 million cubic yards (mcy) of material in the offshore Charleston Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site (ODMDS). To determine if sediments dispersed from the ODMDS were negatively affecting invertebrate and/or finfish communities at hard bottom reef areas around the disposal area, six study sites were established: three close to and downdrift of the ODMDS and three upcurrent and farther from the ODMDS. These sites were monitored biannually from 2000 to 2005 using diver surveys and annually using simultaneous underwater video tows and detailed sidescan-sonar. In general, the sediment characteristics of downdrift sites and reference sites changed similarly over time. Overall, the hard bottom reef areas and their associated communities showed little evidence of degradation resulting from the movement of sediments from the Charleston ODMDS during the study period. PMID:20089285

  13. 10 CFR 40.27 - General license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive material disposal sites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... radioactive material disposal sites. 40.27 Section 40.27 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC... residual radioactive material disposal sites. (a) A general license is issued for the custody of and long... lease any subsurface mineral rights associated with land on which residual radioactive materials...

  14. 10 CFR 40.27 - General license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive material disposal sites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... radioactive material disposal sites. 40.27 Section 40.27 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC... residual radioactive material disposal sites. (a) A general license is issued for the custody of and long... lease any subsurface mineral rights associated with land on which residual radioactive materials...

  15. 10 CFR 40.27 - General license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive material disposal sites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... radioactive material disposal sites. 40.27 Section 40.27 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC... residual radioactive material disposal sites. (a) A general license is issued for the custody of and long... lease any subsurface mineral rights associated with land on which residual radioactive materials...

  16. 10 CFR 40.27 - General license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive material disposal sites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... radioactive material disposal sites. 40.27 Section 40.27 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC... residual radioactive material disposal sites. (a) A general license is issued for the custody of and long... lease any subsurface mineral rights associated with land on which residual radioactive materials...

  17. 10 CFR 40.27 - General license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive material disposal sites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... radioactive material disposal sites. 40.27 Section 40.27 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC... residual radioactive material disposal sites. (a) A general license is issued for the custody of and long... lease any subsurface mineral rights associated with land on which residual radioactive materials...

  18. 78 FR 939 - Notice of Public Meeting: Designation of an Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Sites (ODMDS) in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Notice of Public Meeting: Designation of an Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Sites (ODMDS) in... Potential Designation of One or More Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Sites (ODMDS) to Serve the Eastern...

  19. Recommended Procedures for Measuring Radon Fluxes from Disposal Sites of Residual Radioactive Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Young, J. A.; Thomas, V. W.; Jackson, P. O.

    1983-03-01

    This report recommends instrumentation and methods suitable for measuring radon fluxes emanating from covered disposal sites of residual radioactive materials such as uranium mill tailings. Problems of spatial and temporal variations in radon flux are discussed and the advantages and disadvantages of several instruments are examined. A year-long measurement program and a two month measurement methodology are then presented based on the inherent difficulties of measuring average radon flux over a cover using the recommended instrumentation.

  20. 76 FR 43685 - Designation of an Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site (ODMDS) in the Gulf of Mexico Off the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-21

    ... for Voluntary Preparation of National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Documents (63 FR 58045), and in... AGENCY Designation of an Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site (ODMDS) in the Gulf of Mexico Off the Mouth... Act of 1972 (MPRSA), and 40 CFR Part 228 (Criteria for the Management of Disposal Sites for...

  1. Nuclear waste disposal site

    SciTech Connect

    Mallory, C.W.; Watts, R.E.; Sanner, W.S. Jr.; Paladino, J.B.; Lilley, A.W.; Winston, S.J.; Stricklin, B.C.; Razor, J.E.

    1988-11-15

    This patent describes a disposal site for the disposal of toxic or radioactive waste, comprising: (a) a trench in the earth having a substantially flat bottom lined with a layer of solid, fluent, coarse, granular material having a high hydraulic conductivity for obstructing any capillary-type flow of ground water to the interior of the trench; (b) a non-rigid, radiation-blocking cap formed from a first layer of alluvium, a second layer of solid, fluent, coarse, granular material having a high hydraulic conductivity for blocking any capillary-type flow of water between the layer of alluvium and the rest of the cap, a layer of water-shedding silt for directing surface water away from the trench, and a layer of rip-rap over the silt layer for protecting the silt layer from erosion and for providing a radiation barrier; (c) a solidly-packed array of abutting modules of uniform size and shape disposed in the trench and under the cap for both encapsulating the wastes from water and for structurally supporting the cap, wherein each module in the array is slidable movable in the vertical direction in order to allow the array of modules to flexibly conform to variations in the shape of the flat trench bottom caused by seismic disturbances and to facilitate the recoverability of the modules; (d) a layer of solid, fluent, coarse, granular materials having a high hydraulic conductivity in the space between the side of the modules and the walls of the trench for obstructing any capillary-type flow of ground water to the interior of the trench; and (e) a drain and wherein the layer of silt is sloped to direct surface water flowing over the cap into the drain.

  2. 15 CFR Appendix C to Subpart M of... - Dredged Material Disposal Sites Within the Sanctuary

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Disposal Site 1 36.9625 −122.00056 2 36.9625 −121.99861 3 36.96139 −121.99833 4 36.96139 −122.00083 SF-12 Dredge Disposal Site 1 36.80207 −121.79207 2 36.80157 −121.79218 3 36.80172 −121.79325 4 36.80243 −121.79295 SF-14 Dredge Disposal Site (circle with 500 yard radius) 1 36.79799 −121.81907 Monterey...

  3. 15 CFR Appendix C to Subpart M of... - Dredged Material Disposal Sites Within the Sanctuary

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Disposal Site 1 36.9625 −122.00056 2 36.9625 −121.99861 3 36.96139 −121.99833 4 36.96139 −122.00083 SF-12 Dredge Disposal Site 1 36.80207 −121.79207 2 36.80157 −121.79218 3 36.80172 −121.79325 4 36.80243 −121.79295 SF-14 Dredge Disposal Site (circle with 500 yard radius) 1 36.79799 −121.81907 Monterey...

  4. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediments at dredged material disposal sites around England: concentrations in 2013 and time trend information at selected sites 2008-2013.

    PubMed

    Rumney, Heather S; Bolam, Stefan G; Law, Robin J

    2015-03-15

    The maintenance of navigation channels to ports and the development of their facilities present a need to conduct dredging operations, and the subsequent disposal of dredged material at sea. Contaminant concentrations in candidate dredged material are determined and their possible impacts considered during the licensing process, which can result in the exclusion of some material from sea disposal. Monitoring of disposal sites is conducted in order to ensure that no undesirable impacts are occurring. In this study we consider the levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediments at a number of disposal sites monitored in 2013 and variations in concentrations over time at three sites during the period 2008-2013. These were assessed using established sediment quality guidelines. Elevated PAH concentrations were generally observed only within the boundaries of the disposal sites studied. PMID:25618523

  5. Acoustic mapping of the regional seafloor geology in and around Hawaiian ocean dredged-material disposal sites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Torresan, Michael E.; Gardner, James V.

    2000-01-01

    During January and February 1998 the U.S. Geological Survey Coastal and Marine Geology Team (USGS) conducted regional high-resolution multibeam mapping surveys of the area surrounding EPA-designated ocean disposal sites located offshore of the Hawaiian Islands of Oahu, Kauai, Maui, and Hawaii. The sites are all located within 5 nautical miles of shore on insular shelves or slopes. Regional maps were required of areas much larger than the disposal sites themselves to assess both the regional seafloor geology and the immediate vicinity of the disposal sites. The purpose of the disposal site surveys was to delimit the extent of disposal material by producing detailed bathymetric and backscatter maps of the seafloor with a ± 1 m spatial accuracy and <1% depth error. The advantage of using multibeam over conventional towed, single-beam sidescan sonar is that the multibeam data are accurately georeferenced for precise location of all imaged features. The multibeam produces a coregistered acoustic-backscatter map that is often required to locate individual disposal deposits. These data were collected by the USGS as part of its regional seafloor mapping and in support of ocean disposal site monitoring studies conducted in cooperation with the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the US Army Corps of Engineers (COE).

  6. Physical oceanographic processes at candidate dredged-material disposal sites B1B and 1M offshore San Francisco

    SciTech Connect

    Sherwood, C.R.; Denbo, D.W.; Downing, J.P. ); Coats, D.A. )

    1990-10-01

    The US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), San Francisco District, has identified two candidate sites for ocean disposal of material from several dredging projects in San Francisco Bay. The disposal site is to be designated under Section 103 of the Ocean Dumping Act. One of the specific criteria in the Ocean Dumping Act is that the physical environments of the candidate sites be considered. Toward this goal, the USACE requested that the Pacific Northwest Laboratory conduct a study of physical oceanographic and sediment transport processes at the candidate sites, B1B and 1M. The results of that study are presented in this report. 40 refs., 27 figs., 10 tabs.

  7. 75 FR 22524 - Ocean Dumping; Designation of Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Sites Offshore of the Siuslaw River...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-29

    ... the Federal Register in 1977 (42 FR 2461), a status superseded by later statutory changes to the MPRSA. Mounding at Site A and concern over the potential for ocean currents to move sediments from Site A back..., EPA published a proposed rule at 75 FR 5708 to designate two new ocean dredged material disposal...

  8. DREDGED MATERIAL DISPOSAL MANAGEMENT MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    US Army Corps of Engineers public web site with computer models, available for download, used in evaluating various aspects of dredging and dredged material disposal. (landfill and water Quality models are also available at this site.) The site includes the following dredged mate...

  9. Preliminary evaluation of the use of the greater confinement disposal concept for the disposal of Fernald 11e(2) byproduct material at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Cochran, J.R.; Brown, T.J.; Stockman, H.W.; Gallegos, D.P.; Conrad, S.H.; Price, L.L. |

    1997-09-01

    This report documents a preliminary evaluation of the ability of the greater confinement disposal boreholes at the Nevada Test Site to provide long-term isolation of radionuclides from the disposal of vitrified byproduct material. The byproduct material is essentially concentrated residue from processing uranium ore that contains a complex mixture of radionuclides, many of which are long-lived and present in concentrations greater than 100,000 picoCuries per gram. This material has been stored in three silos at the fernald Environmental Management Project since the early 1950s and will be vitrified into 6,000 yd{sup 3} (4,580 m{sup 3}) of glass gems prior to disposal. This report documents Sandia National Laboratories` preliminary evaluation for disposal of the byproduct material and includes: the selection of quantitative performance objectives; a conceptual model of the disposal system and the waste; results of the modeling; identified issues, and activities necessary to complete a full performance assessment.

  10. 75 FR 39523 - Notice of Intent: Designation of an Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site (ODMDS) Off the Mouth of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-09

    ... policy to prepare a voluntary National Environmental Policy document for all ODMDS designations (63 FR... AGENCY Notice of Intent: Designation of an Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site (ODMDS) Off the Mouth of... Intent to prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the designation of an ODMDS off the...

  11. 15 CFR Appendix D to Subpart M of... - Dredged Material Disposal Sites Adjacent to the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Dredged Material Disposal Sites Adjacent to the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary D Appendix D to Subpart M of Part 922 Commerce and... SANCTUARY PROGRAM REGULATIONS Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary Pt. 922, Subpt. M, App. D Appendix D...

  12. Physical oceanographic processes at candidate dredged-material disposal sites B1B and 1M offshore San Francisco

    SciTech Connect

    Sherwood, C.R.; Denbo, D.W.; Downing, J.P. ); Coats, D.A. )

    1990-10-01

    The US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), San Francisco District, has identified two candidate sites for ocean disposal of material from several dredging projects in San Francisco Bay. The disposal site is to be designated under Section 103 of the Ocean Dumping Act. One of the specific criteria in the Ocean Dumping Act is that the physical environments of the candidate sites be considered. Toward this goal, the USACE requested that the Pacific Northwest Laboratory conduct studies of physical oceanographic and sediment transport processes at the candidate sites. Details of the methods and complete listing or graphical representation of the results are contained in this second volume of the two-volume report. Appendix A describes the methods and results of a pre-disposal bathymetric survey of Site B1B, and provides an analysis of the accuracy and precision of the survey. Appendix B describes the moorings and instruments used to obtain physical oceanographic data at the candidate sites, and also discussed other sources of data used in the analyses. Techniques used to analyze the formation, processed data, and complete results of various analyses are provided in tabular and graphical form. Appendix C provides details of the sediment transport calculations. Appendix D describes the format of the archived current meter data, which is available through the National Oceanographic Data Center. 43 refs., 54 figs., 58 tabs.

  13. DSEM. Disposal Site Economic Model

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, P.R.

    1989-01-01

    The DISPOSAL SITE ECONOMIC MODEL calculates the average generator price, or average price per cubic foot charged by a disposal facility to a waste generator, one measure of comparing the economic attractiveness of different waste disposal site and disposal technology combinations. The generator price is calculated to recover all costs necessary to develop, construct, operate, close, and care for a site through the end of the institutional care period and to provide the necessary financial returns to the site developer and lender (when used). Six alternative disposal technologies, based on either private or public financing, can be considered - shallow land disposal, intermediate depth disposal, above or below ground vaults, modular concrete canister disposal, and earth mounded concrete bunkers - based on either private or public development.

  14. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 545: Dumps, Waste Disposal Sites, and Buried Radioactive Materials Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Wickline, Alfred

    2007-06-01

    Corrective Action Unit 545, Dumps, Waste Disposal Sites, and Buried Radioactive Materials, consists of seven inactive sites located in the Yucca Flat area and one inactive site in the Pahute Mesa area. The eight CAU 545 sites consist of craters used for mud disposal, surface or buried waste disposed within craters or potential crater areas, and sites where surface or buried waste was disposed. The CAU 545 sites were used to support nuclear testing conducted in the Yucca Flat area during the 1950s through the early 1990s, and in Area 20 in the mid-1970s. This Corrective Action Investigation Plan has been developed in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order that was agreed to by the State of Nevada, the U.S. Department of Energy, and the U.S. Department of Defense. Under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, this Corrective Action Investigation Plan will be submitted to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection for approval. Fieldwork will be conducted following approval.

  15. 75 FR 54497 - Ocean Dumping; Guam Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site Designation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-08

    ... Register (FR). Historically, dredged material generated around Guam by the Navy and the Port Authority of... will, wherever feasible, designate ocean dumping sites beyond the edge of the continental shelf and... continental land mass and does not have a continental shelf. In the ] absence of a shelf break,...

  16. Evaluation of geologic materials to limit biological intrusion into low-level radioactive waste disposal sites

    SciTech Connect

    Hakonson, T.E.

    1986-02-01

    This report describes the results of a three-year research program to evaluate the performance of selected soil and rock trench cap designs in limiting biological intrusion into simulated waste. The report is divided into three sections including a discussion of background material on biological interactions with waste site trench caps, a presentation of experimental data from field studies conducted at several scales, and a final section on the interpretation and limitations of the data including implications for the user.

  17. Long-term benthic infaunal monitoring at a deep-ocean dredged material disposal site off Northern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, James A.; Maciolek, Nancy J.; Ota, Allan Y.; Williams, Isabelle P.

    2009-09-01

    One hundred and thirty-five benthic infaunal samples were collected from the San Francisco Deep-Ocean Disposal Site (SF-DODS) over a 10-year period from January 1996 to September 2004. Each sample was 0.1 m 2, cut to a depth of 10 cm, and sieved through a 300-μm mesh. A total of 810 species of benthic invertebrates were identified; the majority of taxa (65.4%) new to science. The fauna represents a rich lower slope infaunal assemblage that rivals similarly studied locations in the western North Atlantic. No regional impact or degradation of benthic infauna due to dredged material disposal was detected. All reference stations and stations on the site boundary maintained high species richness and diversity during the monitoring period. Exceptions included an occasional sample with anomalously high numbers of one or two species that reduced the diversity and/or equitability. Within SF-DODS species richness and diversity were often reduced. Stations within the disposal site were recolonized by the same taxa that normally occurred in adjacent reference areas. Initial colonizers of fresh dredged material included spionid and paraonid polychaetes that were typical dominants at the site. At least one polychaete species, Ophelina sp. 1, sometimes colonized dredged materials containing coarse sand. One sample at Station 13, located in the middle of SF-DODS (September 2002), contained 57 species of benthic invertebrates, suggesting that colonization of fresh dredged material is rapid. It seems unlikely that larval dispersal and settlement account for this rapid recolonization; therefore it is postulated that adult organisms from adjacent areas move to the disturbed sites via boundary layer currents. The steep continental slope adjacent to SF-DODS is subject to turbidity flows and the resident fauna are likely pre-adapted to rapidly colonize disturbed sediments. Larval dispersal, especially by spionid polychaetes such as Prionospio delta, may also be important in colonizing

  18. The cleanup of releases of radioactive materials from commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal sites: Whose jurisdiction?

    SciTech Connect

    Hartnett, C.

    1994-12-31

    There exists an overlap between the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Recovery Act ({open_quotes}CERCLA{close_quotes}) and the Atomic Energy Act ({open_quotes}AEA{close_quotes}) regarding the cleanup of releases of radioactive materials from commercial low-level radioactive waste sites. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission ({open_quotes}NRC{close_quotes}) and Agreement States have jurisdiction under the AEA, and the Environmental Protection Agency ({open_quotes}EPA{close_quotes}) has jurisdiction pursuant to CERCLA. This overlapping jurisdiction has the effect of imposing CERCLA liability on parties who have complied with AEA regulations. However, CERCLA was not intended to preempt existing legislation. This is evidenced by the federally permitted release exemption, which explicitly exempts releases from CERCLA liability pursuant to an AEA license. With little guidance as to the applicability of this exemption, it is uncertain whether CERCLA`s liability is broad enough to supersede the Atomic Energy Act. It is the purpose of this paper to discuss the overlapping jurisdiction for the cleanup of releases of radioactive materials from commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal sites with particular emphasis on the cleanup at the Maxey Flats, West Valley and Sheffield sites.

  19. Three-year summary report of biological monitoring at the Southwest Ocean dredged-material disposal site and additional locations off Grays Harbor, Washington, 1990--1992

    SciTech Connect

    Antrim, L.D.; Shreffler, D.K.; Pearson, W.H.; Cullinan, V.I. )

    1992-12-01

    The Grays Harbor Navigation Improvement Project was initiated to improve navigation by widening and deepening the federal channel at Grays Harbor. Dredged-material disposal sites were selected after an extensive review process that included inter-agency agreements, biological surveys, other laboratory and field studies, and preparation of environmental impact statements The Southwest Site, was designated to receive materials dredged during annual maintenance dredging as well as the initial construction phase of the project. The Southwest Site was located, and the disposal operations designed, primarily to avoid impacts to Dungeness crab. The Final Environmental Impact Statement Supplement for the project incorporated a Site Monitoring Plan in which a tiered approach to disposal site monitoring was recommended. Under Tier I of the Site Monitoring Plan, Dungeness crab densities are monitored to confirm that large aggregations of newly settled Dungeness crab have not moved onto the Southwest Site. Tier 2 entails an increased sampling effort to determine whether a change in disposal operations is needed. Four epibenthic surveys using beam trawls were conducted in 1990, 1991, and 1992 at the Southwest Site and North Reference area, where high crab concentrations were found in the spring of 1985. Survey results during these three years prompted no Tier 2 activities. Epibenthic surveys were also conducted at two nearshore sites where construction of sediment berms has been proposed. This work is summarized in an appendix to this report.

  20. 78 FR 29687 - Ocean Dumping; Atchafalaya-West Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site Designation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-21

    ... permits. Pursuant to its voluntary NEPA policy, published at 63 FR 58045 (October 29, 1998), EPA typically... designation through a rulemaking proposal published in the Federal Register (FR), as here. Formal designation... EPA will, wherever feasible, designate ocean dumping sites beyond the edge of the continental...

  1. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 545: Dumps, Waste Disposal Sites, and Buried Radioactive Materials Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Alfred Wickline

    2008-04-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD)/Closure Report (CR) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 545, Dumps, Waste Disposal Sites, and Buried Radioactive Materials, in Areas 2, 3, 9, and 20 of the Nevada Test Site, Nevada, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order that was agreed to by the State of Nevada; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Management; U.S. Department of Defense; and DOE, Legacy Management (1996, as amended February 2008). Corrective Action Unit 545 is comprised of the following eight Corrective Action Sites (CASs): • 02-09-01, Mud Disposal Area • 03-08-03, Mud Disposal Site • 03-17-01, Waste Consolidation Site 3B • 03-23-02, Waste Disposal Site • 03-23-05, Europium Disposal Site • 03-99-14, Radioactive Material Disposal Area • 09-23-02, U-9y Drilling Mud Disposal Crater • 20-19-01, Waste Disposal Site While all eight CASs are addressed in this CADD/CR, sufficient information was available for the following three CASs; therefore, a field investigation was not conducted at these sites: • For CAS 03-08-03, though the potential for subsidence of the craters was judged to be extremely unlikely, the data quality objective (DQO) meeting participants agreed that sufficient information existed about disposal and releases at the site and that a corrective action of close in place with a use restriction is recommended. Sampling in the craters was not considered necessary. • For CAS 03-23-02, there were no potential releases of hazardous or radioactive contaminants identified. Therefore, the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for CAU 545 concluded that: “Sufficient information exists to conclude that this CAS does not exist as originally identified. Therefore, there is no environmental concern associated with CAS 03-23-02.” This CAS is closed with no further action. • For CAS 03-23-05, existing information about the two buried sources and lead pig was considered to be

  2. Sampling and analysis of sediments in dredged material from Wilma Uplands Disposal Site

    SciTech Connect

    Pinza, M.R.; Karle, L.M.; Mayhew, H.L.; Word, J.Q. )

    1992-09-01

    The Lower Granite Reservoir provides slack-water navigation for the Lewiston, Idaho, and Clarkston, Washington area. The levee system associated with the reservoir protects industrial, commercial, and residential areas from inundation of waters impounded behind the dam. Sediment deposition at the confluence of the Snake and Clearwater rivers has required frequent dredging events In past years, Including two recent events in 1986 and 1987. Dredged material from the 1986 and 1987 events was placed in three containment ponds located on the north bank of the Snake River, near River Mile 134.7. The ponds were used to hold approximately 400,000 cubic yards of dredged material removed from the port areas at the confluence of the Snake and Clearwater rivers. Prior to dredging, the river sediments were tested and found to be typical of non-contaminated sediment. Since that testing, dioxins and furans have been found in the effluent from a Kraft pulp mill in Lewiston that discharges directly into the confluence of the Snake and Clearwater rivers. The US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) believed that dredged material placed in the containment ponds may contain contaminated levels of dioxins and furans. At their request, Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) sampled sediments from these ponds and performed a chemical analysis.

  3. Evaluation of zeolite-sand mixtures as reactive materials protecting groundwater at waste disposal sites.

    PubMed

    Joanna, Fronczyk; Kazimierz, Garbulewski

    2013-09-01

    To recognize properties of a mixture of Vistula sand (medium sand acc. to USCS) with Slovak zeolite as reactive materials suitable for permeable reactive barriers proposed for protection of groundwater environment in vicinity of old landfills comprehensive laboratory investigations were performed. The present study investigates the removal of contaminants specific for landfill leachates onto zeolite-sand mixtures containing 20%, 50% and 80% of zeolite (ZS20, ZS50 and ZS80). Taking into account the results of batch tests it was concluded that the Langmuir isotherm best fitted the data. It was observed that the presence of ammonium, calcium and magnesium decreases the removal efficiency of copper by 32%. Column tests of contaminant migration through the attenuation zone of the reactive materials were interpreted using the software package CXTFIT, which solves a one-dimensional advection-dispersion equation. Column test results also indicate the strong influence of the presence of interfering substances on copper immobilisation; dynamic sorption capacities decrees twofold. Throughout the landfill leachate flow through ZS80 sample, a constant reduction of NH4+ (at 100%), K+ (at 93%) and Fe(total) (at an average of 86%) were observed. There was no reduction in chemical oxygen demand and biochemical oxygen demand. PMID:24520718

  4. Radioactive waste material disposal

    DOEpatents

    Forsberg, Charles W.; Beahm, Edward C.; Parker, George W.

    1995-01-01

    The invention is a process for direct conversion of solid radioactive waste, particularly spent nuclear fuel and its cladding, if any, into a solidified waste glass. A sacrificial metal oxide, dissolved in a glass bath, is used to oxidize elemental metal and any carbon values present in the waste as they are fed to the bath. Two different modes of operation are possible, depending on the sacrificial metal oxide employed. In the first mode, a regenerable sacrificial oxide, e.g., PbO, is employed, while the second mode features use of disposable oxides such as ferric oxide.

  5. Radioactive waste material disposal

    DOEpatents

    Forsberg, C.W.; Beahm, E.C.; Parker, G.W.

    1995-10-24

    The invention is a process for direct conversion of solid radioactive waste, particularly spent nuclear fuel and its cladding, if any, into a solidified waste glass. A sacrificial metal oxide, dissolved in a glass bath, is used to oxidize elemental metal and any carbon values present in the waste as they are fed to the bath. Two different modes of operation are possible, depending on the sacrificial metal oxide employed. In the first mode, a regenerable sacrificial oxide, e.g., PbO, is employed, while the second mode features use of disposable oxides such as ferric oxide. 3 figs.

  6. 10 CFR 61.51 - Disposal site design for land disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Disposal site design for land disposal. 61.51 Section 61.51 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR LAND DISPOSAL OF... disposal. (a) Disposal site design for near-surface disposal. (1) Site design features must be...

  7. 10 CFR 61.51 - Disposal site design for land disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... disposal. (a) Disposal site design for near-surface disposal. (1) Site design features must be directed... with wastes after disposal. (b) Disposal site design for other than near-surface disposal. ... extent practicable water infiltration, to direct percolating or surface water away from the...

  8. 40 CFR 228.11 - Modification in disposal site use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Modification in disposal site use. 228... CRITERIA FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF DISPOSAL SITES FOR OCEAN DUMPING § 228.11 Modification in disposal site use. (a) Modifications in disposal site use which involve the withdrawal of designated disposal sites...

  9. Chemical gradients in sediment cores from an EPA reference site off the Farallon Islands - Assessing chemical indicators of dredged material disposal in the deep sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bothner, Michael H.; Gill, P.W.; Boothman, W.S.; Taylor, B.B.; Karl, Herman A.

    1998-01-01

    Heavy metal and organic contaminants have been determined in undisturbed sediment cores from the US Environmental Protection Agency reference site for dredged material on the continental slope off San Francisco. As expected, the concentrations are significantly lower than toxic effects guidelines, but concentrations of PCBs, PAHs, Hg, Pb, and Clostridium perfringens (a bacterium spore found in sewage) were nearly two or more times greater in the surface sediments than in intervals deeper in the cores. These observations indicate the usefulness of measuring concentration gradients in sediments at the San Francisco deep ocean disposal site (SF-DODS) where a thin (0.5 cm thick) layer of dredged material has been observed beyond the boundary. This thin layer has not been chemically characterized by the common practice of homogenizing over the top 10 cm. An estimated 300 million cubic yards of dredged material from San Francisco Bay are expected to be discharged at the SF-DODS site during the next 50 years. Detailed depth analysis of sediment cores would add significant new information about the fate and effects of dredged material in the deep sea.

  10. 10 CFR 61.50 - Disposal site suitability requirements for land disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Disposal site suitability requirements for land disposal. 61.50 Section 61.50 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR LAND DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE Technical Requirements for Land Disposal Facilities § 61.50 Disposal site suitability requirements for land disposal....

  11. 10 CFR 61.50 - Disposal site suitability requirements for land disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Disposal site suitability requirements for land disposal. 61.50 Section 61.50 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR LAND DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE Technical Requirements for Land Disposal Facilities § 61.50 Disposal site suitability requirements for land disposal....

  12. 10 CFR 61.50 - Disposal site suitability requirements for land disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Disposal site suitability requirements for land disposal. 61.50 Section 61.50 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR LAND DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE Technical Requirements for Land Disposal Facilities § 61.50 Disposal site suitability requirements for land disposal....

  13. SITE MANAGEMENT AND MONITORING PLAN IMPLEMENTATION MANUAL - SAN FRANCISCO DEEP OCEAN DISPOSAL SITE (SF-DODS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA published in 1994 a Final Rule formally designating the San Francisco Deep Ocean Disposal Site (SF-DODS) for the disposal of suitable dredged material removed from the San Francisco Bay region and other nearby harbors or dredging sites. This Final Rule contained an extensive ...

  14. 32 CFR 644.434 - Cottage site disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cottage site disposal. 644.434 Section 644.434... ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Disposal of Fee-Owned Real Property and Easement Interests § 644.434 Cottage site disposal. Disposal of lots for cottage site development and use is authorized by Pub. L....

  15. 32 CFR 644.434 - Cottage site disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Cottage site disposal. 644.434 Section 644.434... ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Disposal of Fee-Owned Real Property and Easement Interests § 644.434 Cottage site disposal. Disposal of lots for cottage site development and use is authorized by Pub. L....

  16. Improving surface coal refuse disposal site inspections

    SciTech Connect

    Meister, R.A.; Hoffman, R.L.

    1980-06-01

    The study on improving surface coal refuse disposal site inspections included surface inspections of 15 refuse disposal sites. Monthly aerial photos were taken of the sites and computer methods were used to determine elevation changes. Photogrammetric techniques that were used are described in detail. A comparison of the results of each of these inspection techniques is included. A detailed evaluation of the photogrammetric techniques was made and conclusions were drawn concerning the advantages and disadvantages of using aerial photography and photogrammetry as part of the inspection procedure. Operators' opinions of the aerial photography methods are included.

  17. 75 FR 5708 - Ocean Dumping; Designation of Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Sites Offshore of the Siuslaw River...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-04

    ... the Federal Register in 1977 (42 FR 2461), a status superseded by later statutory changes to the MPRSA. Mounding at Site A and concern over the potential for ocean currents to move sediments from Site A back... Procedures for Voluntary Preparation of NEPA Documents,'' (Voluntary NEPA Policy), 63 FR 58045, (October...

  18. 40 CFR 228.3 - Disposal site management responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Disposal site management... DUMPING CRITERIA FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF DISPOSAL SITES FOR OCEAN DUMPING § 228.3 Disposal site management responsibilities. (a) Management of a site consists of regulating times, rates, and methods of disposal...

  19. 40 CFR 228.3 - Disposal site management responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Disposal site management... DUMPING CRITERIA FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF DISPOSAL SITES FOR OCEAN DUMPING § 228.3 Disposal site management responsibilities. (a) Management of a site consists of regulating times, rates, and methods of disposal...

  20. 40 CFR 228.3 - Disposal site management responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Disposal site management... DUMPING CRITERIA FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF DISPOSAL SITES FOR OCEAN DUMPING § 228.3 Disposal site management responsibilities. (a) Management of a site consists of regulating times, rates, and methods of disposal...

  1. 40 CFR 228.7 - Regulation of disposal site use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Regulation of disposal site use. 228.7... FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF DISPOSAL SITES FOR OCEAN DUMPING § 228.7 Regulation of disposal site use. Where necessary, disposal site use will be regulated by setting limitations on times of dumping and rates...

  2. 32 CFR 644.434 - Cottage site disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Cottage site disposal. 644.434 Section 644.434 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Disposal of Fee-Owned Real Property and Easement Interests § 644.434 Cottage site disposal. Disposal of lots for...

  3. Dredged material disposal in the ocean

    SciTech Connect

    Kester, D.R.; Ketchum, B.H.; Duedall, I.W.; Park, P.K.

    1983-01-01

    This book presents papers on the marine disposal of wastes. Topics considered include sediment-copper reservoir formation by the burrowing polychaete Nephtys incisa, factors affecting the uptake of cadmium and other trace metals from marine sediments by bottom-dwelling marine invertebrates, and changes in the levels of PCBs in Mytilus edulis associated with dredged-material disposal.

  4. 43 CFR 2743.2 - New disposal sites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false New disposal sites. 2743.2 Section 2743.2... Public Purposes Act: Solid Waste Disposal § 2743.2 New disposal sites. (a) Public lands may be conveyed... determines may include the disposal, placement, or release of any hazardous substance subject to...

  5. 43 CFR 2743.4 - Patented disposal sites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Patented disposal sites. 2743.4 Section... Recreation and Public Purposes Act: Solid Waste Disposal § 2743.4 Patented disposal sites. (a) Upon request... that such land has been used for solid waste disposal or for any other purpose that the...

  6. 32 CFR 644.434 - Cottage site disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cottage site disposal. 644.434 Section 644.434... site disposal. Disposal of lots for cottage site development and use is authorized by Pub. L. 84-999... concerning phasing out of existing cottage site areas is set out in ER 1130-2-400. The DE has...

  7. 32 CFR 644.434 - Cottage site disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Cottage site disposal. 644.434 Section 644.434... site disposal. Disposal of lots for cottage site development and use is authorized by Pub. L. 84-999... concerning phasing out of existing cottage site areas is set out in ER 1130-2-400. The DE has...

  8. Disposal of Hanford site tank wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Kupfer, M.J.

    1993-09-01

    Between 1943 and 1986, 149 single-shell tanks (SSTs) and 28 double-shell tanks (DSTs) were built and used to store radioactive wastes generated during reprocessing of irradiated uranium metal fuel elements at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site in Southeastern Washington state. The 149 SSTs, located in 12 separate areas (tank farms) in the 200 East and 200 West areas, currently contain about 1.4 {times} 10{sup 5} m{sup 3} of solid and liquid wastes. Wastes in the SSTs contain about 5.7 {times} 10{sup 18} Bq (170 MCi) of various radionuclides including {sup 90}Sr, {sup 99}Tc, {sup 137}Cs, and transuranium (TRU) elements. The 28 DSTs also located in the 200 East and West areas contain about 9 {times} 10{sup 4} m{sup 3} of liquid (mainly) and solid wastes; approximately 4 {times} 10{sup 18}Bq (90 MCi) of radionuclides are stored in the DSTs. Important characteristics and features of the various types of SST and DST wastes are described in this paper. However, the principal focus of this paper is on the evolving strategy for final disposal of both the SST and DST wastes. Also provided is a chronology which lists key events and dates in the development of strategies for disposal of Hanford Site tank wastes. One of these strategies involves pretreatment of retrieved tank wastes to separate them into a small volume of high-level radioactive waste requiring, after vitrification, disposal in a deep geologic repository and a large volume of low-level radioactive waste which can be safely disposed of in near-surface facilities at the Hanford Site. The last section of this paper lists and describes some of the pretreatment procedures and processes being considered for removal of important radionuclides from retrieved tank wastes.

  9. 40 CFR 228.9 - Disposal site monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Disposal site monitoring. 228.9 Section 228.9 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING CRITERIA FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF DISPOSAL SITES FOR OCEAN DUMPING § 228.9 Disposal site monitoring. (a) The monitoring program, if deemed necessary by...

  10. 40 CFR 228.9 - Disposal site monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Disposal site monitoring. 228.9 Section 228.9 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING CRITERIA FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF DISPOSAL SITES FOR OCEAN DUMPING § 228.9 Disposal site monitoring. (a) The monitoring program, if deemed necessary by...

  11. 40 CFR 228.3 - Disposal site management responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disposal site management responsibilities. 228.3 Section 228.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING CRITERIA FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF DISPOSAL SITES FOR OCEAN DUMPING § 228.3 Disposal site management responsibilities. (a) Management of a...

  12. 40 CFR 228.3 - Disposal site management responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Disposal site management responsibilities. 228.3 Section 228.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING CRITERIA FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF DISPOSAL SITES FOR OCEAN DUMPING § 228.3 Disposal site management responsibilities. (a) Management of a...

  13. 40 CFR 228.9 - Disposal site monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disposal site monitoring. 228.9 Section 228.9 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING CRITERIA FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF DISPOSAL SITES FOR OCEAN DUMPING § 228.9 Disposal site monitoring. (a)...

  14. 40 CFR 228.11 - Modification in disposal site use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Modification in disposal site use. 228.11 Section 228.11 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING CRITERIA FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF DISPOSAL SITES FOR OCEAN DUMPING § 228.11 Modification in disposal site...

  15. 40 CFR 228.7 - Regulation of disposal site use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 228.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING CRITERIA FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF DISPOSAL SITES FOR OCEAN DUMPING § 228.7 Regulation of disposal site use. Where necessary, disposal site use will be regulated by setting limitations on times of dumping and rates...

  16. Classified Component Disposal at the Nevada National Security Site

    SciTech Connect

    Poling, J.; Arnold, P.; Saad, M.; DiSanza, F.; Cabble, K.

    2012-11-05

    The Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) has added the capability needed for the safe, secure disposal of non-nuclear classified components that have been declared excess to national security requirements. The NNSS has worked with U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration senior leadership to gain formal approval for permanent burial of classified matter at the NNSS in the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Complex owned by the U.S. Department of Energy. Additionally, by working with state regulators, the NNSS added the capability to dispose non-radioactive hazardous and non-hazardous classified components. The NNSS successfully piloted the new disposal pathway with the receipt of classified materials from the Kansas City Plant in March 2012.

  17. 10 CFR 61.52 - Land disposal facility operation and disposal site closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... vertical controls as checked against USGS or NGS record files. (8) A buffer zone of land must be maintained between any buried waste and the disposal site boundary and beneath the disposed waste. The buffer...

  18. 10 CFR 61.52 - Land disposal facility operation and disposal site closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... vertical controls as checked against USGS or NGS record files. (8) A buffer zone of land must be maintained between any buried waste and the disposal site boundary and beneath the disposed waste. The buffer...

  19. 10 CFR 61.52 - Land disposal facility operation and disposal site closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... vertical controls as checked against USGS or NGS record files. (8) A buffer zone of land must be maintained between any buried waste and the disposal site boundary and beneath the disposed waste. The buffer...

  20. 10 CFR 61.52 - Land disposal facility operation and disposal site closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... vertical controls as checked against USGS or NGS record files. (8) A buffer zone of land must be maintained between any buried waste and the disposal site boundary and beneath the disposed waste. The buffer...

  1. Dispersion analysis of Humboldt Bay, California, interim offshore disposal site. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Scheffner, N.W.

    1992-06-01

    The dispersive characteristics of an interim offshore dredged material disposal site located seaward of the entrance to Humboldt Bay, California, are investigated. These characteristics must be known to determine potential impact of the dredging operation on the local environment. Two phases of investigation were employed. A short-term analysis of the disposal operation was conducted to examine the immediate fate of material following release from the barge and subsequent descent to the ocean bottom. The second phase examined the long-term fate to determine whether local ocean currents are capable of eroding and transporting deposited material beyond the designated limits of the site. Results of this study indicate the site to be nondispersive, with little erosion and transport of material indicated under both normal and moderate storm conditions. Disposal site classification, Sediment fate, Disposal site stability, Sediment transport, Dredged material.

  2. Application for Permit to Operate a Class III Solid Waste Disposal Site at the Nevada Test Site - U10c Disposal Site

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Programs

    2010-08-05

    The NTS is located approximately 105 km (65 mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. NNSA/NSO is the federal lands management authority for the NTS and NSTec is the Management & Operations contractor. Access on and off the NTS is tightly controlled, restricted, and guarded on a 24-hour basis. The NTS is posted with signs along its entire perimeter. NSTec is the operator of all solid waste disposal sites on the NTS. The U10C Disposal Site is located in the northwest corner of Area 9 at the NTS (Figure 1) and is located in a subsidence crater created by two underground nuclear events, one in October 1962 and another in April 1964. The disposal site opened in 1971 for the disposal of rubbish, refuse, pathological waste, asbestos-containing material, and industrial solid waste. A Notice of Intent form to operate the disposal site as a Class II site was submitted to the state of Nevada on January 26, 1994, and was acknowledged in a letter to the DOE on February 8, 1994. It operated as a state of Nevada Class II Solid Waste Disposal Site (SWDS) until it closed on October 5, 1995, for retrofit as a Class III SWDS. The retrofit consisted of the installation of a minimum four-foot compacted soil layer to segregate the different waste types and function as a liner to inhibit leachate and water flow into the lower waste zone. Five neutron monitoring tubes were installed in this layer to monitor possible leachate production and water activity. Upon acceptance of the installed barrier and approval of an Operating Plan by NDEP/BFF, the site reopened in January 1996 as a Class III SWDS for the disposal of industrial solid waste and other inert waste.

  3. Mixed waste disposal facilities at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, M.N.; Bailey, L.L.

    1991-12-31

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is a key installation of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The site is managed by DOE`s Savannah River Field Office and operated under contract by the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC). The Site`s waste management policies reflect a continuing commitment to the environment. Waste minimization, recycling, use of effective pre-disposal treatments, and repository monitoring are high priorities at the site. One primary objective is to safely treat and dispose of process wastes from operations at the site. To meet this objective, several new projects are currently being developed, including the M-Area Waste Disposal Project (Y-Area) which will treat and dispose of mixed liquid wastes, and the Hazardous Waste/Mixed Waste Disposal Facility (HW/MWDF), which will store, treat, and dispose of solid mixed and hazardous wastes. This document provides a description of this facility and its mission.

  4. Mixed waste disposal facilities at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, M.N.; Bailey, L.L.

    1991-01-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is a key installation of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The site is managed by DOE's Savannah River Field Office and operated under contract by the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC). The Site's waste management policies reflect a continuing commitment to the environment. Waste minimization, recycling, use of effective pre-disposal treatments, and repository monitoring are high priorities at the site. One primary objective is to safely treat and dispose of process wastes from operations at the site. To meet this objective, several new projects are currently being developed, including the M-Area Waste Disposal Project (Y-Area) which will treat and dispose of mixed liquid wastes, and the Hazardous Waste/Mixed Waste Disposal Facility (HW/MWDF), which will store, treat, and dispose of solid mixed and hazardous wastes. This document provides a description of this facility and its mission.

  5. Specialized Disposal Sites for Different Reprocessing Plant Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Forsberg, Charles W.; Driscoll, Michael J.

    2007-07-01

    Once-through fuel cycles have one waste form: spent nuclear fuel (SNF). In contrast, the reprocessed SNF yields multiple wastes with different chemical, physical, and radionuclide characteristics. The different characteristics of each waste imply that there are potential cost and performance benefits to developing different disposal sites that match the disposal requirements of different waste. Disposal sites as defined herein may be located in different geologies or in a single repository containing multiple sections, each with different characteristics. The paper describes disposal options for specific wastes and the potential for a waste management system that better couples various reprocessing plant wastes with disposal facilities. (authors)

  6. DREDGED MATERIAL RECLAMATION AT THE JONES ISLAND CONFINED DISPOSAL FACILITY - ITER

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this SITE demonstration, phytoremediation technology was applied to contaminated dredged materials from the Jones Island Confined Disposal Facility (CDF) located in Milwaukee Harbor, Wisconsin. The Jones Island CDF receives dredged materials from normal maintenance of Milwauke...

  7. 75 FR 5561 - Information Collection; Disposal of Mineral Materials

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-03

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Information Collection; Disposal of Mineral Materials AGENCY: Forest... on the extension of a currently approved information collection; Disposal of Mineral Materials. DATES... notice should be addressed to Ivette Torres, Liaison Specialist, Minerals and Geology Management,...

  8. Pyramiding tumuli waste disposal site and method of construction thereof

    DOEpatents

    Golden, Martin P.

    1989-01-01

    An improved waste disposal site for the above-ground disposal of low-level nuclear waste as disclosed herein. The disposal site is formed from at least three individual waste-containing tumuli, wherein each tumuli includes a central raised portion bordered by a sloping side portion. Two of the tumuli are constructed at ground level with adjoining side portions, and a third above-ground tumulus is constructed over the mutually adjoining side portions of the ground-level tumuli. Both the floor and the roof of each tumulus includes a layer of water-shedding material such as compacted clay, and the clay layer in the roofs of the two ground-level tumuli form the compacted clay layer of the floor of the third above-ground tumulus. Each tumulus further includes a shield wall, preferably formed from a solid array of low-level handleable nuclear wate packages. The provision of such a shield wall protects workers from potentially harmful radiation when higher-level, non-handleable packages of nuclear waste are stacked in the center of the tumulus.

  9. METHODOLOGY TO INVENTORY, CLASSIFY, AND PRIORITIZE UNCONTROLLED WASTE DISPOSAL SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A comprehensive method to inventory uncontrolled waste disposal sites integrates all available historic, engineering, geologic, land use, water supply, and public agency or private company records in order to develop a complete and accurate site profile. Detailed information on s...

  10. 29 CFR 1926.252 - Disposal of waste materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... fire regulations. (e) All solvent waste, oily rags, and flammable liquids shall be kept in fire... 29 Labor 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Disposal of waste materials. 1926.252 Section 1926.252..., Use, and Disposal § 1926.252 Disposal of waste materials. (a) Whenever materials are dropped more...

  11. 29 CFR 1926.252 - Disposal of waste materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... fire regulations. (e) All solvent waste, oily rags, and flammable liquids shall be kept in fire... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Disposal of waste materials. 1926.252 Section 1926.252..., Use, and Disposal § 1926.252 Disposal of waste materials. (a) Whenever materials are dropped more...

  12. 29 CFR 1926.252 - Disposal of waste materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... fire regulations. (e) All solvent waste, oily rags, and flammable liquids shall be kept in fire... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Disposal of waste materials. 1926.252 Section 1926.252..., Use, and Disposal § 1926.252 Disposal of waste materials. (a) Whenever materials are dropped more...

  13. 29 CFR 1926.252 - Disposal of waste materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... fire regulations. (e) All solvent waste, oily rags, and flammable liquids shall be kept in fire... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Disposal of waste materials. 1926.252 Section 1926.252..., Use, and Disposal § 1926.252 Disposal of waste materials. (a) Whenever materials are dropped more...

  14. REFERENCE AREA DATABASE FOR THE SAN FRANCISCO DEEP OCEAN DISPOSAL SITE (SF-DODS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    In order for a dredging project to be authorized to dispose of dredged material at the San Francisco Deep Ocean Disposal Site (SF-DODS), sediment evaluations (including, as appropriate, physical, chemical, and biological testing) must first be conducted. EPA determines the suita...

  15. Uranium waste disposal at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, J.R.; McDonell, W.R.; Wilhite, E.L.

    1990-01-01

    The Savannah River Site generates waste containing depleted, natural, and enriched uranium residue. The past and current practice for disposal of this waste at the Savannah River Site have been assessed using radionuclide pathway analysis to estimate environmental impact of closure alternatives for existing disposal sites, and to assist in the development of improved disposal facilities in the near future. This paper outlines the status of uranium waste management technology as currently practiced to maintain the environmental impact within an acceptable limit at the Savannah River Site, and indicates those steps being taken to improve future operations.

  16. Uranium waste disposal at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, J.R.; McDonell, W.R.; Wilhite, E.L.

    1990-12-31

    The Savannah River Site generates waste containing depleted, natural, and enriched uranium residue. The past and current practice for disposal of this waste at the Savannah River Site have been assessed using radionuclide pathway analysis to estimate environmental impact of closure alternatives for existing disposal sites, and to assist in the development of improved disposal facilities in the near future. This paper outlines the status of uranium waste management technology as currently practiced to maintain the environmental impact within an acceptable limit at the Savannah River Site, and indicates those steps being taken to improve future operations.

  17. Disposal configuration options for future uses of greater confinement disposal at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Price, L.

    1994-09-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for disposing of a variety of radioactive and mixed wastes, some of which are considered special-case waste because they do not currently have a clear disposal option. The DOE`s Nevada Field Office contracted with Sandia National Laboratories to investigate the possibility of disposing of some of this special-case waste at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). As part of this investigation, a review of a near-surface and subsurface disposal options that was performed to develop alternative disposal configurations for special-case waste disposal at the NTS. The criteria for the review included (1) configurations appropriate for disposal at the NTS; (2) configurations for disposal of waste at least 100 ft below the ground surface; (3) configurations for which equipment and technology currently exist; and (4) configurations that meet the special requirements imposed by the nature of special-case waste. Four options for subsurface disposal of special-case waste are proposed: mined consolidated rock, mined alluvium, deep pits or trenches, and deep boreholes. Six different methods for near-surface disposal are also presented: earth-covered tumuli, above-grade concrete structures, trenches, below-grade concrete structures, shallow boreholes, and hydrofracture. Greater confinement disposal (GCD) in boreholes at least 100 ft deep, similar to that currently practiced at the GCD facility at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site at the NTS, was retained as the option that met the criteria for the review. Four borehole disposal configurations are proposed with engineered barriers that range from the native alluvium to a combination of gravel and concrete. The configurations identified will be used for system analysis that will be performed to determine the disposal configurations and wastes that may be suitable candidates for disposal of special-case wastes at the NTS.

  18. Evaluation of Neutron Poison Materials for DOE SNF Disposal Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Vinson, D.W.; Caskey, G.R. Jr.; Sindelar, R.L.

    1998-09-01

    Aluminum-based spent nuclear fuel (Al-SNF) from foreign and domestic research reactors is being consolidated at the Savannah River Site (SRS) for ultimate disposal in the Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS). Most of the aluminum-based fuel material contains highly enriched uranium (HEU) (more than 20 percent 235U), which challenges the preclusion of criticality events for disposal periods exceeding 10,000 years. Recent criticality analyses have shown that the addition of neutron absorbing materials (poisons) is needed in waste packages containing DOE SNF canisters fully loaded with Al-SNF under flooded and degraded configurations to demonstrate compliance with the requirement that Keff less than 0.95. Compatibility of poison matrix materials and the Al-SNF, including their relative degradation rate and solubility, are important to maintain criticality control. An assessment of the viability of poison and matrix materials has been conducted, and an experimental corrosion program has been initiated to provide data on degradation rates of poison and matrix materials and Al-SNF materials under repository relevant vapor and aqueous environments. Initial testing includes Al6061, Type 316L stainless steel, and A516Gr55 in synthesized J-13 water vapor at 50 degrees C, 100 degrees C, and 200 degrees C and in condensate water vapor at 100 degrees C. Preliminary results are presented herein.

  19. Application for a Permit to Operate a Class III Solid Waste Disposal Site at the Nevada Test Site Area 5 Asbestiform Low-Level Solid Waste Disposal Site

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Programs

    2010-09-14

    for the Disposal of Low-Level Waste with Regulated Asbestos Waste.'' A requirement of the authorization was that on or before October 9, 1999, a permit was required to be issued. Because of NDEP and NNSA/NSO review cycles, the final permit was issued on April 5, 2000, for the operation of the Area 5 Low-Level Waste Disposal Site, utilizing Pit 7 (P07) as the designated disposal cell. The original permit applied only to Pit 7, with a total design capacity of 5,831 cubic yards (yd{sup 3}) (157,437 cubic feet [ft{sup 3}]). NNSA/NSO is expanding the SWDS to include the adjacent Upper Cell of Pit 6 (P06), with an additional capacity of 28,037 yd{sup 3} (756,999 ft{sup 3}) (Figure 3). The proposed total capacity of ALLW in Pit 7 and P06 will be approximately 33,870 yd{sup 3} (0.9 million ft{sup 3}). The site will be used for the disposal of regulated ALLW, small quantities of low-level radioactive hydrocarbon-burdened (LLHB) media and debris, LLW, LLW that contains PCB Bulk Product Waste greater than 50 ppm that leaches at a rate of less than 10 micrograms of PCB per liter of water, and small quantities of LLHB demolition and construction waste (hereafter called permissible waste). Waste containing free liquids, or waste that is regulated as hazardous waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) or state-of-generation hazardous waste regulations, will not be accepted for disposal at the site. The only waste regulated under the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) that will be accepted at the disposal site is regulated asbestos-containing materials (RACM). The term asbestiform is used throughout this document to describe this waste. Other TSCA waste (i.e., polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs]) will not be accepted for disposal at the SWDS. The disposal site will be used as a depository of permissible waste generated both on site and off site. All generators designated by NNSA/NSO will be eligible to dispose regulated ALLW at the Asbestiform Low-Level Waste

  20. Disposal of Draeger Tubes at Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Malik, N.P.

    2000-10-13

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is a Department of Energy (DOE) facility located in Aiken, South Carolina that is operated by the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC). At SRS Draeger tubes are used to identify the amount and type of a particular chemical constituent in the atmosphere. Draeger tubes rely on a chemical reaction to identify the nature and type of a particular chemical constituent in the atmosphere. Disposal practices for these tubes were identified by performing a hazardous waste evaluation per the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Additional investigations were conducted to provide guidance for their safe handling, storage and disposal. A list of Draeger tubes commonly used at SRS was first evaluated to determine if they contained any material that could render them as a RCRA hazardous waste. Disposal techniques for Draeger tubes that contained any of the toxic contaminants listed in South Carolina Hazardous Waste Management Regulations (SCHWMR) R.61-79. 261.24 (b) and/or contained an acid in the liquid form were addressed.

  1. 29 CFR 1926.252 - Disposal of waste materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disposal of waste materials. 1926.252 Section 1926.252 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Materials Handling, Storage, Use, and Disposal § 1926.252 Disposal of...

  2. Long-term surveillance plan for the Mexican Hat disposal site, Mexican Hat, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    This plan describes the long-term surveillance activities for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal site at Mexican Hat, Utah. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal site continues to function as designed. This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive material (RRM). This LTSPC documents the land ownership interests and details how the long-term care of the disposal site will be accomplished.

  3. Long-term surveillance plan for the Bodo Canyon Disposal Site, Durango, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Durango, Colorado, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal site describes the surveillance activities for the Durango (Bodo Canyon) disposal site, which will be referred to as the disposal site throughout this document. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal site continues to function as designed. This LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials (RRM). RRMs include tailings and other uranium ore processing wastes still at the site, which the DOE determines to be radioactive. This LTSP is based on the DOE`s Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program (DOE, 1992).

  4. HANDBOOK FOR REMEDIAL ACTION AT WASTE DISPOSAL SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This handbook is directed toward technical personnel in federal, state, regional, and municipal agencies involved in the cleanup of hazardous waste disposal sites, industrial surface impoundments, and municipal, industrial, and combined landfills. It contains a summary of the flo...

  5. EVALUATION OF ON-SITE WASTEWATER TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL OPTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A literature review of published and unpublished data was conducted to identify all conceivable alternative on-site systems, including wastewater manipulation, treatment and disposal options. Wastewater manipulation options included flow reduction, wasteload reduction and waste s...

  6. Application for Permit to Operate a Class II Solid Waste Disposal Site at the Nevada Test Site - U10c Disposal Site

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Programs

    2010-03-31

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is located approximately 105 km (65 mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) is the federal lands management authority for the NTS and National Security Technologies LLC (NSTec) is the Management and Operations contractor. Access on and off the NTS is tightly controlled, restricted, and guarded on a 24-hour basis. The NTS is posted with signs along its entire perimeter. NSTec is the operator of all solid waste disposal sites on the NTS. The site will be used for the disposal of refuse, rubbish, garbage, sewage sludge, pathological waste, Asbestos-Containing Material (ACM), industrial solid waste, hydrocarbon-burdened soil, hydrocarbon-burdened demolition and construction waste, and other inert waste (hereafter called permissible waste). Waste containing free liquids or regulated under Subtitle C of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) will not be accepted for disposal at the site. Waste regulated under the Toxic Substance Control Act (TSCA), excluding Polychlorinated Biphenyl [PCB], Bulk Product Waste (see Section 6.2.5) and ACM (see Section 6.2.2.2) will not be accepted for disposal at the site. The disposal site will be used as the sole depository of permissible waste which is: (1) Generated by entities covered under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Hazardous Waste Generator Identification Number for the NTS; (2) Generated at sites identified in the Federal Facilities Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO); (3) Sensitive records and media, including documents, vugraphs, computer disks, typewriter ribbons, magnetic tapes, etc., generated by NNSA/NSO or its contractors; (4) ACM generated by NNSA/NSO or its contractors according to Section 6.2.2.2, as necessary; (5) Hydrocarbon-burdened soil and solid waste from areas covered under the EPA Hazardous Waste Generator Identification Number for the NTS; (6) Other waste on a case-by-case concurrence by

  7. Long-term surveillance plan for the Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico disposal site

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Ambrosia Lake disposal site in McKinley County, New Mexico, describes the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) long-term care program for the disposal site. The DOE will carry out this program to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials.

  8. Long-term surveillance plan for the Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico disposal site

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Ambrosia Lake disposal site in McKinley County, New Mexico, describes the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) long-term care program for the disposal site. The DOE will carry out this program to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials.

  9. Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal from MOTBY

    SciTech Connect

    Barrows, E.S.; Mayhew, H.L.; Word, J.Q.

    1996-09-01

    The National Park Service, US Department of the Interior requested U.S. Army Corps of Engineers/New York District (USACE-NYD) to evaluate sediments around the Military Ocean Terminal (MOTBY) in Bayonne, New Jersey for unconfined ocean disposal at the Mud Dump Site. Sediment samples were collected from MOTBY. Tests and analyses were conducted on MOTBY sediment core samples. The evaluation of proposed dredged material from MOTBY included grain size and total organic carbon (TOC) analyses and one acute toxicity test with the amphipod Ampelisca abdita. In addition to this benthic toxicity test, a bioaccumulation test (28-day exposure) was conducted.

  10. Long-term surveillance plan for the Collins Ranch Disposal Site, Lakeview, Oregon. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Lakeview, Oregon, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal site describes the surveillance activities for the Lakeview (Collins Ranch) disposal cell, which will be referred to as the Collins Ranch disposal cell throughout this document. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This final LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials. This LTSP documents whether the land and interests are owned by the United States or an Indian tribe, and details how the long-term care of the disposal site will be carried out. It is based on the DOE`s Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program (DOE, 1992a).

  11. Mitigation action plan for remedial action at the Uranium Mill Tailing Sites and Disposal Site, Rifle, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-01

    The Estes Gulch disposal site is approximately 10 kilometers (6 miles) north of the town of Rifle, off State Highway 13 on Federal land administered by the Bureau of Land Management. The Department of Energy (DOE) will transport the residual radioactive materials (RRM) by truck to the Estes Gulch disposal site via State Highway 13 and place it in a partially below-grade disposal cell. The RRM will be covered by an earthen radon barrier, frost protection layers, and a rock erosion protection layer. A toe ditch and other features will also be constructed to control erosion at the disposal site. After removal of the RRM and disposal at the Estes Gulch site, the disturbed areas at all three sites will be backfilled with clean soils, contoured to facilitate surface drainage, and revegetated. Wetlands areas destroyed at the former Rifle processing sites will be compensated for by the incorporation of now wetlands into the revegetation plan at the New Rifle site. The UMTRA Project Office, supported by the Remedial Action Contractor (RAC) and the Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC), oversees the implementation of the MAP. The RAC executes mitigation measures in the field. The TAC provides monitoring of the mitigation actions in cases where mitigation measures are associated with design features. Site closeout and inspection compliance will be documented in the site completion report.

  12. Long-term Surveillance Plan for the Falls City Disposal Site, Falls City, Texas. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Falls City disposal site, Falls City, Texas, describes the surveillance activities for the disposal site. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials. This LTSP documents whether the land and interests are owned by the United States and details how long-term care of the disposal site will be carried out. It is based on the DOE`s Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program (DOE, 1992a).

  13. Long-term surveillance plan for the Falls City Disposal Site, Falls City, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Falls City disposal site, Falls City, Texas, describes the surveillance activities for the disposal site. DOE will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials. This LTSP documents whether the land and interests are owned by the United States and details how long-term care of the disposal site will be carried out. It is based on the DOE`s Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program (DOE, 1992a).

  14. Contaminant leaching model for dredged material disposal facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, P.R.; Aziz, N.M.

    1999-09-01

    This paper describes the hydrologic evaluation of leachate production and quality model, a screening-level tool to simulate contaminant leaching from a confined disposal facility (CDF) for dredged material. The model combines hydraulics, hydrology, and equilibrium partitioning, using site-specific design specifications, weather data, and equilibrium partitioning coefficients from the literature or from sequential batch or column leach tests of dredged material. The hydraulics and hydrology are modeled using Version 3 of the hydrologic evaluation of landfill performance model. The equilibrium partitioning model includes provisions for estuarine sediments that have variable distribution coefficients resulting from saltwater washout. Model output includes contaminant concentrations in the CDF profile, contaminant concentration and mass releases through the bottom of the CDF, and contaminant concentrations and masses captured by leachate collection systems. The purpose of the model is to provide sound information for evaluating the potential leachate impacts on ground water at dredged material CDFs and the effectiveness of leachate control measures.

  15. 78 FR 24716 - Information Collection: Disposal of Mineral Materials

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-26

    ... Forest Service Information Collection: Disposal of Mineral Materials AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION... currently approved information collection, Disposal of Mineral Materials. DATES: Comments must be received... addressed to Ray TeSoro, Senior Geologist, USDA Forest Service Northern Region, Minerals and ]...

  16. Radionuclide limits for vault disposal at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, J.R.

    1992-02-04

    The Savannah River Site is developing a facility called the E-Area Vaults which will serve as the new radioactive waste disposal facility beginning early in 1992. The facility will employ engineered below-grade concrete vaults for disposal and above-grade storage for certain long-lived mobile radionuclides. This report documents the determination of interim upper limits for radionuclide inventories and concentrations which should be allowed in the disposal structures. The work presented here will aid in the development of both waste acceptance criteria and operating limits for the E-Area Vaults. Disposal limits for forty isotopes which comprise the SRS waste streams were determined. The limits are based on total facility and vault inventories for those radionuclides which impact groundwater, and or waste package concentrations for those radionuclides which could affect intruders.

  17. Mitigation action plan for remedial action at the uranium mill tailings sites and disposal site, Rifle, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    The Old and New Rifle sites cover 66 hectares (164 acres) of private land just outside the town of Rifle, in northwestern Colorado. Approximately 3,161,620 cubic meters (4,135,000 cubic yards) of Residual Radioactive Materials (RRM) contaminates the sites and the adjacent land. The tailings piles at both sites have been partially stabilized, seeded, and irrigated to promote a native vegetation cover. In May 1987, the DOE released its draft EIS on remedial actions at the Rifle sites (DOE, 1987) for public comment. The draft EIS analyzed four alternatives, including: No action; Stabilizing all of the RRM at the New Rifle site; Disposal of all of the RRM at the Estes Guich site, which was the preferred alternative; Disposal of all of the RRM at the Lucas Mesa site.

  18. Long-term surveillance plan for the Shiprock Disposal site, Shiprock, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Shiprock, New Mexico, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal site describes the surveillance activities for the Shiprock disposal cell. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This final LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials (RRM). This LTSP documents the land ownership interests and details how the long-term care of the disposal site will be carried out. It is based on the DOE`s Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program (DOE, 1992a).

  19. Long-term surveillance plan for the Collins Ranch disposal site, Lakeview, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Collins Ranch disposal site, Lakeview, Oregon, describes the surveillance activities for the disposal cell. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This final LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials. This LTSP documents whether the land and interests are owned by the United States and details how long-term care of the disposal site will be carried out. It is based on the DOE`s Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program (DOE, 1992a).

  20. Long-term surveillance plan for the Green River, Utah, disposal site

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    The long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Green River, Utah, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal site describes the surveillance activities for the Green River disposal cell. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This final LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials (RRM). This LTSP documents whether the land and interests are owned by the United States or an Indian tribe and details how the long-term care of the disposal site will be carried out. The Green River, Utah, LTSP is based on the DOE`s Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program (DOE, 1992a).

  1. Long-term surveillance plan for the Green River, Utah disposal site. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    The long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Green River, Utah, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal site describes the surveillance activities for the Green River disposal cell. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This final LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials (RRM). This LTSP documents whether the land and interests are owned by the United States or an Indian tribe and details how the long-term care of the disposal site will be carried out. The Green River, Utah, LTSP is based on the DOE`s Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program (DOE, 1992a).

  2. Long-term surveillance plan for the Green River, Utah disposal site. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    1998-07-01

    The long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Green River, Utah, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal site describes the surveillance activities for the Green River disposal cell. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This final LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials (RRM). This LTSP documents whether the land and interests are owned by the United States or an Indian tribe and details how the long-term care of the disposal site will be carried out.

  3. 43 CFR 3601.14 - When can BLM dispose of mineral materials from unpatented mining claims?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) MINERAL MATERIALS DISPOSAL Mineral Materials Disposal; General Provisions Limitations on Disposal of...) BLM may dispose of mineral materials from unpatented mining claims if disposal does not endanger or.... If the mining claimant refuses to sign a waiver, BLM will make sure that disposal of the...

  4. 43 CFR 3601.14 - When can BLM dispose of mineral materials from unpatented mining claims?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) MINERAL MATERIALS DISPOSAL Mineral Materials Disposal; General Provisions Limitations on Disposal of...) BLM may dispose of mineral materials from unpatented mining claims if disposal does not endanger or.... If the mining claimant refuses to sign a waiver, BLM will make sure that disposal of the...

  5. 43 CFR 3601.14 - When can BLM dispose of mineral materials from unpatented mining claims?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) MINERAL MATERIALS DISPOSAL Mineral Materials Disposal; General Provisions Limitations on Disposal of...) BLM may dispose of mineral materials from unpatented mining claims if disposal does not endanger or.... If the mining claimant refuses to sign a waiver, BLM will make sure that disposal of the...

  6. 43 CFR 3601.14 - When can BLM dispose of mineral materials from unpatented mining claims?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) MINERAL MATERIALS DISPOSAL Mineral Materials Disposal; General Provisions Limitations on Disposal of...) BLM may dispose of mineral materials from unpatented mining claims if disposal does not endanger or.... If the mining claimant refuses to sign a waiver, BLM will make sure that disposal of the...

  7. 43 CFR 2743.4 - Patented disposal sites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Patented disposal sites. 2743.4 Section 2743.4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) RECREATION AND PUBLIC PURPOSES ACT Recreation and Public Purposes Act: Solid...

  8. 43 CFR 2743.4 - Patented disposal sites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Patented disposal sites. 2743.4 Section 2743.4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) RECREATION AND PUBLIC PURPOSES ACT Recreation and Public Purposes Act: Solid...

  9. 43 CFR 2743.4 - Patented disposal sites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Patented disposal sites. 2743.4 Section 2743.4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) RECREATION AND PUBLIC PURPOSES ACT Recreation and Public Purposes Act: Solid...

  10. 43 CFR 2743.3 - Leased disposal sites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (42 U.S.C. 4371) and any other Federal and State laws and regulations... exempt small quantity generators (40 CFR 261.5), and there is a reasonable basis to believe that the contents of the leased disposal site do not threaten human health and the environment; and (5)...

  11. 43 CFR 2743.3 - Leased disposal sites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (42 U.S.C. 4371) and any other Federal and State laws and regulations... exempt small quantity generators (40 CFR 261.5), and there is a reasonable basis to believe that the contents of the leased disposal site do not threaten human health and the environment; and (5)...

  12. 43 CFR 2743.3 - Leased disposal sites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (42 U.S.C. 4371) and any other Federal and State laws and regulations... exempt small quantity generators (40 CFR 261.5), and there is a reasonable basis to believe that the contents of the leased disposal site do not threaten human health and the environment; and (5)...

  13. Site characterization for LIL radioactive waste disposal in Romania

    SciTech Connect

    Diaconu, D. R.; Birdsell, K. H.; Witkowski, M. S.

    2001-01-01

    Recent studies in radioactive waste management in Romania have focussed mainly on the disposal of low and intermediate level waste from the operation of the new nuclear power plant at Cernavoda. Following extensive geological, hydrological, seismological, physical and chemical investigations, a disposal site at Saligny has been selected. This paper presents description of the site at Saligny as well as the most important results of the site characterisation. These are reflected in the three-dimensional, stratigraphical representation of the loess and clay layers and in representative parameter values for the main layers. Based on these data, the simulation of the background, unsaturated-zone water flow at the Saligny site, calculated by the FEHM code, is in a good agreement with the measured moisture profile.

  14. 43 CFR 2743.2-1 - Patent provisions for new disposal sites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Patent provisions for new disposal sites... for new disposal sites. For new disposal sites, each patent will provide that: (a) The patentee shall... the disposal, placement, or release of any hazardous substance....

  15. 43 CFR 2743.2-1 - Patent provisions for new disposal sites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Patent provisions for new disposal sites... PUBLIC PURPOSES ACT Recreation and Public Purposes Act: Solid Waste Disposal § 2743.2-1 Patent provisions for new disposal sites. For new disposal sites, each patent will provide that: (a) The patentee...

  16. On site treatment of NORM for surface waste disposal in Texas under Texas Railroad Commission Rule 94

    SciTech Connect

    Landress, M.R.

    1997-06-01

    Remediation of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM) by surface disposal under the provisions of Texas Railroad Commission Rule 94 and the applicable provisions of the Texas Department of Health Radiation Control Regulations is permitted under current State regulation and represents a viable alternative to commercial disposal under many circumstances. The economic advantages of on-sit disposal compared with commercial disposal can be significant, provided the generator is aware of the limitations of on-site disposal and has enough information and expertise to ensure a successful project. This report examines the experience gained from disposals performed under Rule 94 and summarizes the methods used and the results of actual NORM disposal projects at production sites under varying field conditions.

  17. Chemical pretreatment of Savannah River Site nuclear waste for disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, D.T.; Walker, D.D.

    1992-12-31

    This work describes two processes, Extended Sludge Processing and In-Tank Precipitation, which have been developed and demonstrated at full-scale to pretreat the Savannah River Site High-Level Waste for permanent disposal. These processes will be carried out in waste storage tanks which have been modified for chemical processing. These processes will concentrate the radioactivity into a small volume for vitrification. The bulk of the waste will be sufficiently decontaminated such that it can be disposed of as a low-level waste. The decontaminated waste will be incorporated into a cement wasteform in the Saltstone Facility.

  18. Remediation of Hanford's N-Reactor Liquid Waste Disposal Sites.

    PubMed

    Sitsler, Robert B.; DeMers, Steven K.

    2003-02-01

    Hanford's N-Reactor operated from 1963 to 1987 generating approximately 9 x 10 m of radioactive and hazardous liquid effluent as a result of reactor operations. Two liquid waste disposal sites, essentially large trenches designed to filter contaminants from the water as it percolates through the soil column, were established to dispose of the effluent. The discharges to the sites included cooling water from the reactor primary, spent fuel storage, and periphery systems, along with miscellaneous drainage from reactor support facilities. Today, both sites are classified as Treatment Storage and Disposal Facilities under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976, which makes them priority sites for remediation. The two sites cover approximately 4,100 m and 9,300 m, respectively. Remediation of the sites requires removing a combined total of approximately 2.6 x 10 kg of contaminated soil and debris. Principal radionuclides contained in the soil/debris are Co, Cs, Pu, and Sr. Remediation of these waste sites requires demolishing concrete structures and excavating, hauling, and disposing of contaminated soils in work areas containing high levels of contamination and whole body dose rates in excess of 1 mSv h. The work presents unique radiological control challenges, such as minimizing external dose to workers in a constantly changing outdoor work environment, maintaining contamination control during removal of a water distribution trough filled with highly contaminated sludge, and minimizing outdoor airborne contamination during size reduction of highly contaminated pipelines. Through innovative approaches to dose reduction and contamination control, Hanford's Environmental Restoration Contractor has met the challenge, completing the first phase on schedule and with a total project exposure below the goal of 0.1 person-Sv. PMID:12555036

  19. Remediation of Hanford's N-reactor liquid waste disposal sites.

    PubMed

    Sitsler, Robert B; DeMers, Steven K

    2003-02-01

    Hanford's N-Reactor operated from 1963 to 1987 generating approximately 9 x 10(7) m3 of radioactive and hazardous liquid effluent as a result of reactor operations. Two liquid waste disposal sites, essentially large trenches designed to filter contaminants from the water as it percolates through the soil column, were established to dispose of the effluent. The discharges to the sites included cooling water from the reactor primary, spent fuel storage, and periphery systems, along with miscellaneous drainage from reactor support facilities. Today, both sites are classified as Treatment Storage and Disposal Facilities under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976, which makes them priority sites for remediation. The two sites cover approximately 4,100 m2 and 9,300 m2, respectively. Remediation of the sites requires removing a combined total of approximately 2.6 x 10(8) kg of contaminated soil and debris. Principal radionuclides contained in the soil/debris are 60Co, 137Cs, 239Pu, and 90Sr. Remediation of these waste sites requires demolishing concrete structures and excavating, hauling, and disposing of contaminated soils in work areas containing high levels of contamination and whole body dose rates in excess of 1 mSv h-1. The work presents unique radiological control challenges, such as minimizing external dose to workers in a constantly changing outdoor work environment, maintaining contamination control during removal of a water distribution trough filled with highly contaminated sludge, and minimizing outdoor airborne contamination during size reduction of highly contaminated pipelines. Through innovative approaches to dose reduction and contamination control, Hanford's Environmental Restoration Contractor has met the challenge, completing the first phase on schedule and with a total project exposure below the goal of 0.1 person-Sv. PMID:12564346

  20. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 139: Waste Disposal Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2009-07-31

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 139 is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) as 'Waste Disposal Sites' and consists of the following seven Corrective Action Sites (CASs), located in Areas 3, 4, 6, and 9 of the Nevada Test Site: CAS 03-35-01, Burn Pit; CAS 04-08-02, Waste Disposal Site; CAS 04-99-01, Contaminated Surface Debris; CAS 06-19-02, Waste Disposal Site/Burn Pit; CAS 06-19-03, Waste Disposal Trenches; CAS 09-23-01, Area 9 Gravel Gertie; and CAS 09-34-01, Underground Detection Station. Closure activities were conducted from December 2008 to April 2009 according to the FFACO (1996, as amended February 2008) and the Corrective Action Plan for CAU 139 (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, 2007b). The corrective action alternatives included No Further Action, Clean Closure, and Closure in Place with Administrative Controls. Closure activities are summarized. CAU 139, 'Waste Disposal Sites,' consists of seven CASs in Areas 3, 4, 6, and 9 of the NTS. The closure alternatives included No Further Action, Clean Closure, and Closure in Place with Administrative Controls. This CR provides a summary of completed closure activities, documentation of waste disposal, and confirmation that remediation goals were met. The following site closure activities were performed at CAU 139 as documented in this CR: (1) At CAS 03-35-01, Burn Pit, soil and debris were removed and disposed as LLW, and debris was removed and disposed as sanitary waste. (2) At CAS 04-08-02, Waste Disposal Site, an administrative UR was implemented. No postings or post-closure monitoring are required. (3) At CAS 04-99-01, Contaminated Surface Debris, soil and debris were removed and disposed as LLW, and debris was removed and disposed as sanitary waste. (4) At CAS 06-19-02, Waste Disposal Site/Burn Pit, no work was performed. (5) At CAS 06-19-03, Waste Disposal Trenches, a native soil cover was installed, and a UR was

  1. Long-term surveillance plan for the Tuba City, Arizona disposal site

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal site at Tuba City, Arizona, describes the site surveillance activities. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This final LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials (RRM) (10 CFR {section}40.27).

  2. Technical Analysis of OnSite Disposal of Space Grade Plutonium Waste

    SciTech Connect

    James, COOK

    2004-12-20

    The Risk Based End State Vision Report for the Savannah River Site includes a variance that proposes on-site near surface disposal of waste from the program to produce Pu-238 heat sources for deep space probes. On-site disposal would greatly reduce the risk to workers by eliminating the need to repackage the waste in order to characterize it and ship it to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Significant cost savings can also be realized. A legacy inventory of 6145 m3 containing 590,000 curies of Heat Source plutonium exists at the Savannah River Site. Our plan is to ship as much of this material as possible to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant using currently available facilities and equipment. We estimate that most of the volume can be safely packaged and transported to WIPP. The remainder, 1813 m3 containing 280,000 curies, is proposed to be disposed of at the SRS after demonstrating that all applicable environmental protection regulations can be met. A technical analysis has been done u sing the overall methodology developed for low-level waste disposal performance assessments. The results to date show that groundwater protection will be maintained, but that enhanced engineering measures are needed to meet the performance measures for protection of inadvertent intruders. The release criterion from 40 CFR 191 is achievable. This analysis provides a means of demonstrating the technical basis on-site disposal of Heat Source plutonium to management, stakeholders and regulators.

  3. Long-term surveillance plan for the Mexican Hat Disposal Site, Mexican Hat, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    This plan describes the long-term surveillance activities for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal site at Mexican Hat, Utah. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal site continues to function as designed. This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive material (RRM). This LTSP (based on the DOE`s Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program), documents the land ownership interests and details how the long-term care of the disposal site will be accomplished.

  4. Degradation Of Cementitious Materials Associated With Saltstone Disposal Units

    SciTech Connect

    Flach, G. P; Smith, F. G. III

    2013-03-19

    The Saltstone facilities at the DOE Savannah River Site (SRS) stabilize and dispose of low-level radioactive salt solution originating from liquid waste storage tanks at the site. The Saltstone Production Facility (SPF) receives treated salt solution and mixes the aqueous waste with dry cement, blast furnace slag, and fly ash to form a grout slurry which is mechanically pumped into concrete disposal cells that compose the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF). The solidified grout is termed “saltstone”. Cementitious materials play a prominent role in the design and long-term performance of the SDF. The saltstone grout exhibits low permeability and diffusivity, and thus represents a physical barrier to waste release. The waste form is also reducing, which creates a chemical barrier to waste release for certain key radionuclides, notably Tc-99. Similarly, the concrete shell of an SDF disposal unit (SDU) represents an additional physical and chemical barrier to radionuclide release to the environment. Together the waste form and the SDU compose a robust containment structure at the time of facility closure. However, the physical and chemical state of cementitious materials will evolve over time through a variety of phenomena, leading to degraded barrier performance over Performance Assessment (PA) timescales of thousands to tens of thousands of years. Previous studies of cementitious material degradation in the context of low-level waste disposal have identified sulfate attack, carbonation influenced steel corrosion, and decalcification (primary constituent leaching) as the primary chemical degradation phenomena of most relevance to SRS exposure conditions. In this study, degradation time scales for each of these three degradation phenomena are estimated for saltstone and concrete associated with each SDU type under conservative, nominal, and best estimate assumptions. The nominal value (NV) is an intermediate result that is more probable than the conservative

  5. Voluntary cleanup of the Ames chemical disposal site.

    SciTech Connect

    Taboas, A. L.; Freeman, R.; Peterson, J.; Environmental Assessment; USDOE

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy completed a voluntary removal action at the Ames chemical disposal site, a site associated with the early days of the Manhattan Project. It contained chemical and low-level radioactive wastes from development of the technology to extract uranium from uranium oxide. The process included the preparation of a Remedial Investigation, Feasibility Study, Baseline Risk Assessment, and, ultimately, issuance of a Record of Decision. Various stakeholder groups were involved, including members of the regulatory community, the general public, and the landowner, Iowa State University. The site was restored and returned to the landowner for unrestricted use.

  6. Radioactive waste disposal in Germany: no site decision - Keeping competence

    SciTech Connect

    Kienzler, Bernhard; Geckeis, Horst; Gompper, Klaus; Klenze, Reinhardt

    2007-07-01

    The research programme of the Institut fuer Nukleare Entsorgung (INE) at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe is dedicated to elaborate the fundamental understanding of radionuclide/actinide interactions with various components of the groundwater and with the relevant host rock materials at disposal relevant trace concentrations. INE's research programme was not biased after enactment of the Gorleben moratorium in 2001. This paper presents current R and D with respect to application in performance assessment/safety case of nuclear waste disposal. Focus is given to the leading role of the institute in various projects within EU framework programmes. (authors)

  7. Alternative disposal for Investigation Derived Wastes (IDW) containing low activity source material

    SciTech Connect

    Downey, H.T.; Majer, T.

    2007-07-01

    As part of a Remedial Investigation (RI) at a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Site, approximately 77,111 kg (85 tons) I would use the actual tons of investigation derived wastes (IDW) were generated from exploratory soil borings and as part of removal activities at a former drum burial area. Characterization of these materials indicated elevated concentrations of metals including uranium and thorium (source material). Concentrations of uranium and thorium were at levels less than 0.05% by mass, which is the threshold for exempt source material under Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations. Disposal of this material was evaluated as low-level radioactive waste and as exempt radioactive waste. The NRC has established a process for evaluation and review of exempt source material transfer and direct disposal in a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) landfill. These requests are normally approved if the dose to a member of the general public is unlikely to exceed 0.25 mSv per year (25 milli-rem per year). The soil was evaluated for disposal as exempt radioactive waste at a RCRA landfill, which included dose modeling to workers during transportation and disposal as well as potential dose to members of the public after closure of the disposal facility. These evaluations determined that the potential dose was very small, and review by the agreement state regulatory agency indicated that this disposal process should not result in any undue hazard to public health and safety or property. The advantage of this approach is that disposal of 77,111 kg (85 tons) of IDW at a RCRA landfill is estimated to result in a savings of $80,000 as compared to disposal as low-level radioactive waste. Alternative waste disposal of exempt source material provides more disposal options and can lead to significant cost savings. (authors)

  8. Long-term surveillance plan for the Bodo Canyon Disposal Site, Durango, Colorado. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Act on (UMTRA) Project Bodo Canyon disposal site at Durango, Colorado, describes the surveillance activities for the disposal site. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal call continues to function as designed This LTSP was prepared as a requirement for DOE acceptance under the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials (RRM) from processing uranium ore. This LTSP documents that the land and interests are owned by the United States and details how long-term care of the disposal site will be carried out. It is based on the DOE`s Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program (DOE, 1992a). Following the introduction, contents of this report include the following: site final condition; site drawings and photographs; permanent site surveillance features; ground water monitoring; annual site inspections; unscheduled inspections; custodial maintenance; corrective action; record keeping and reporting requirements; emergency notification and reporting; quality assurance; personal health and safety; list of contributions; and references.

  9. Revegetation of flue gas desulfurization sludge pond disposal sites

    SciTech Connect

    Artiola, J.F.

    1994-12-01

    A comprehensive search of published literature was conducted to summarize research undertaken to date on revegetation of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) waste disposal ponds. A review of the physical and chemical properties of FGD sludges and wastes with similar characteristics is also included in order to determine the advantages and limitations of FGD sludge for plant growth. No specific guidelines have been developed for the revegetation of FGD sludge disposal sites. Survey studies showed that the wide-ranging composition of FGD wastes was determined primarily by the sulfur dioxide and other flue gas scrubbing processes used at powerplants. Sulfate rich (>90%CaSO{sub 4}) FGD sludges are physically and chemically more stable, and thus more amenable to revegetation. Because of lack of macronutrients and extremely limited microbial activity, FBD sludge ponds presented a poor plant growth environment without amendment. Studies showed the natural process of inoculation of the FGD sludge with soil microbes that promote plant growth be can after disposal but proceeded slowly. Revegetation studies reviewed showed that FGD sludges amended with soils supported a wider variety of plant species better and longer than abandoned FGD ponds. Two major types of plants have been successful in revegetation of FGD waste ponds and similar wastes: salt-tolerant plants and aquatic plants. A comprehensive list of plant species with potential for regetation of FGD sludge disposal pond sites is presented along with successful revegetation techniques.

  10. Earth melter and method of disposing of feed materials

    DOEpatents

    Chapman, Christopher C.

    1994-01-01

    An apparatus, and method of operating the apparatus, wherein a feed material is converted into a glassified condition for subsequent use or disposal. The apparatus is particularly useful for disposal of hazardous or noxious waste materials which are otherwise either difficult or expensive to dispose of. The apparatus is preferably constructed by excavating a melt zone in a quantity of soil or rock, and lining the melt zone with a back fill material if refractory properties are needed. The feed material is fed into the melt zone and, preferably, combusted to an ash, whereupon the heat of combustion is used to melt the ash to a molten condition. Electrodes may be used to maintain the molten feed material in a molten condition, and to maintain homogeneity of the molten materials.

  11. Earth melter and method of disposing of feed materials

    DOEpatents

    Chapman, C.C.

    1994-10-11

    An apparatus, and method of operating the apparatus is described, wherein a feed material is converted into a glassified condition for subsequent use or disposal. The apparatus is particularly useful for disposal of hazardous or noxious waste materials which are otherwise either difficult or expensive to dispose of. The apparatus is preferably constructed by excavating a melt zone in a quantity of soil or rock, and lining the melt zone with a back fill material if refractory properties are needed. The feed material is fed into the melt zone and, preferably, combusted to an ash, whereupon the heat of combustion is used to melt the ash to a molten condition. Electrodes may be used to maintain the molten feed material in a molten condition, and to maintain homogeneity of the molten materials. 3 figs.

  12. 43 CFR 2743.3-1 - Patent provisions for leased disposal sites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Patent provisions for leased disposal... PUBLIC PURPOSES ACT Recreation and Public Purposes Act: Solid Waste Disposal § 2743.3-1 Patent provisions for leased disposal sites. Each patent for a leased disposal site will provide that: (a) The...

  13. Myth of nuclear explosions at waste disposal sites

    SciTech Connect

    Stratton, W.R.

    1983-10-01

    Approximately 25 years ago, an event is said to have occurred in the plains immediately west of the southern Ural mountains of the Soviet Union that is being disputed to this very day. One person says it was an explosion of nuclear wastes buried in a waste disposal site; other people say it was an above-ground test of an atomic weapon; still others suspect that an alleged contaminated area (of unknown size or even existence) is the result of a series of careless procedures. Since the event, a number of articles about the disposal-site explosion hypothesis written by a Soviet exile living in the United Kingdom have been published. Although the Soviet scientist's training and background are in the biological sciences and his knowledge of nuclear physics or chemistry is limited, people who oppose the use of nuclear energy seem to want to believe what he says without question. The work of this Soviet biologist has received wide exposure both in the United Kingdom and the United States. This report presents arguments against the disposal-site explosion hypothesis. Included are discussions of the amounts of plutonium that would be in a disposal site, the amounts of plutonium that would be needed to reach criticality in a soil-water-plutonium mixture, and experiments and theoretical calculations on the behavior of such mixtures. Our quantitative analyses show that the postulated nuclear explosion is so improbable that it is essentially impossible and can be found only in the never-never land of an active imagination. 24 references, 14 figures, 5 tables.

  14. COMPLETION OF THE TRANSURANIC GREATER CONFINEMENT DISPOSAL BOREHOLE PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT FOR THE NEVADA TEST SITE

    SciTech Connect

    Colarusso, Angela; Crowe, Bruce; Cochran, John R.

    2003-02-27

    Classified transuranic material that cannot be shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico is stored in Greater Confinement Disposal boreholes in the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site on the Nevada Test Site. A performance assessment was completed for the transuranic inventory in the boreholes and submitted to the Transuranic Waste Disposal Federal Review Group. The performance assessment was prepared by Sandia National Laboratories on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office using an iterative methodology that assessed radiological releases from the intermediate depth disposal configuration against the regulatory requirements of the 1985 version of 40 CFR 191 of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The transuranic materials are stored at 21 to 37 m depth (70 to 120 ft) in large diameter boreholes constructed in the unsaturated alluvial deposits of Frenchman Flat. Hydrologic processes that affect long- term isolation of the radionuclides are dominated by extremely slow upward rates of liquid/vapor advection and diffusion; there is no downward pathway under current climatic conditions and there is no recharge to groundwater under future ''glacial'' climatic conditions. A Federal Review Team appointed by the Transuranic Waste Disposal Federal Review Group reviewed the Greater Confinement Disposal performance assessment and found that the site met the majority of the regulatory criteria of the 1985 and portions of the 1993 versions of 40 CFR 191. A number of technical and procedural issues required development of supplemental information that was incorporated into a final revision of the performance assessment. These issues include inclusion of radiological releases into the complementary cumulative distribution function for the containment requirements associated with drill cuttings from inadvertent human intrusion, verification of mathematical models used in the performance

  15. Management and disposal of waste from sites contaminated by radioactivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Carlyle J.

    1998-06-01

    Various methods of managing and disposing of wastes generated by decontamination and decommissioning (D & D) activities are described. This review of current waste management practices includes a description of waste minimization and volume reduction techniques and their applicability to various categories of radwaste. The importance of the physical properties of the radiation and radioactivity in determining the methodology of choice throughout the D & D process is stressed. The subject is introduced by a survey of the common types of radioactive contamination that must be managed and the more important hazards associated with each type. Comparisons are made among high level, transuranic, low level, and radioactive mixed waste, and technologically-enhanced, naturally-occurring radioactive material (TENORM). The development of appropriate clean-up criteria for each category of contaminated waste is described with the aid of examples drawn from actual practice. This includes a discussion of the application of pathway analysis to the derivation of residual radioactive material guidelines. The choice between interim storage and permanent disposal of radioactive wastes is addressed. Approaches to permanent disposal of each category of radioactive waste are described and illustrated with examples of facilities that have been constructed or are planned for implementation in the near future. Actual experience at older, existing, low-level waste disposal facilities is discussed briefly.

  16. Recommendation to replace PVC disposable shoe cover with alternative materials

    SciTech Connect

    Slaughter, A.E.; Rankin, W.N.

    1992-01-17

    An alternative for disposable shoe covers presently fabricated from PVC (polyvinyl chloride) was investigated to minimize disposal costs. Plans are to incinerate these items for disposal. The exhaust from the incineration of PVC must be processed through a sodium hydroxide scrubber to remove the chlorides. A substantial cost savings ($70OK/yr) would be expected from replacing these supplies with similar items fabricated from a material that contains no chlorides. This report contains evaluations of submitted to the Savannah River Laboratory for testing.

  17. 10 CFR 40.28 - General license for custody and long-term care of uranium or thorium byproduct materials disposal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... or thorium byproduct materials disposal sites. 40.28 Section 40.28 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY... long-term care of uranium or thorium byproduct materials disposal sites. (a) A general license is... in this part for uranium or thorium mill tailings sites closed under title II of the Uranium...

  18. 10 CFR 61.44 - Stability of the disposal site after closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Stability of the disposal site after closure. 61.44... RADIOACTIVE WASTE Performance Objectives § 61.44 Stability of the disposal site after closure. The disposal... site and to eliminate to the extent practicable the need for ongoing active maintenance of the...

  19. 10 CFR 61.44 - Stability of the disposal site after closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Stability of the disposal site after closure. 61.44... RADIOACTIVE WASTE Performance Objectives § 61.44 Stability of the disposal site after closure. The disposal... site and to eliminate to the extent practicable the need for ongoing active maintenance of the...

  20. [Evidence-based management of medical disposable materials].

    PubMed

    Yang, Hai

    2009-03-01

    Evidence-based management of medical disposable materials pays attention to collect evidence comprehensively and systematically, accumulate and create evidence through its own work and also evaluate evidence strictly. This can be used as a function to guide out job. Medical disposable materials evidence system contains product register qualification, product quality certification, supplier's behavior, internal and external communication evidence. Managers can find different ways in creating and using evidence referring to specific inside and outside condition. Evidence-based management can help accelerating the development of management of medical disposable materials from traditional experience pattern to a systematic and scientific pattern. It also has the very important meaning to improve medical quality, control the unreasonable growth of medical expense and make purchase and supply chain be more efficient. PMID:19565800

  1. Evaluation of Dredged Material Proposed for Ocean Disposal from Port Chester, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Barrows, E.S.; Mayhew, H.L.; Word, J.Q.; Tokos, J.J.S.

    1996-08-01

    Port Chester was one of seven waterways that the US Army Corps of Engineers-New York District requested the Battelle Marine Sciences Laboratory to sample and evaluate for dredging and disposal in March 1994. Tests and analyses were conducted on Port Chester sediment core samples. Because the Port Chester area is located on the border between New York and southeast Connecticut, its dredged material may also be considered for disposal at the Central Long Island Sound Disposal Site. The sediment evaluation consisted of bulk sediment chemical analyses, chemical analyses of site water and dredged material elutriate preparations, water-column and benthic acute toxicity tests, and bioaccumulation studies. Individual sediment core samples collected from Port Chester were analyzed for grain size, moisture content, and total organic carbon. In addition, sediment was analyzed for bulk density, specific gravity, metals, chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl congers, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons and 1,4-dichlorobenzene.

  2. New Bedford Harbor Superfund Project, Acushnet River estuary engineering feasibility study of dredging and dredged-material disposal alternatives. Report 11. Evaluation of conceptual dredging and disposal alternatives. Technical report, August 1985-July 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Averett, D.E.; Palermo, M.R.; Otis, M.J.; Rubinoff, P.B.

    1989-07-01

    This report evaluates conceptual dredging and disposal alternatives for the Acushnet River Estuary, a part of the New Bedford Harbor Superfund Site. Dredging for removal of the highly contaminated sediment and subsequent disposal in upland or nearshore confined disposal facilities or disposal in contaminated aquatic disposal facilities are alternative considered in the Engineering Feasibility Study of Dredging and Dredged Material Disposal Alternatives. Sediment testing and sediment-transport modeling performed as earlier tasks of the study form the basis for evaluation of the alternatives. The technical feasibility of conceptual design options is based on site availability, capacity, and characteristics and on sediment physical characteristics and dredged-material settling behavior as defined by laboratory testing. Contamination releases during dredging and disposal operations are estimated for each disposal option. A preliminary cost estimate for implementation of each option evaluated is alo presented.

  3. Automated Monitoring System for Waste Disposal Sites and Groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    S. E. Rawlinson

    2003-03-01

    A proposal submitted to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Science and Technology, Accelerated Site Technology Deployment (ASTD) program to deploy an automated monitoring system for waste disposal sites and groundwater, herein referred to as the ''Automated Monitoring System,'' was funded in fiscal year (FY) 2002. This two-year project included three parts: (1) deployment of cellular telephone modems on existing dataloggers, (2) development of a data management system, and (3) development of Internet accessibility. The proposed concept was initially (in FY 2002) to deploy cellular telephone modems on existing dataloggers and partially develop the data management system at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). This initial effort included both Bechtel Nevada (BN) and the Desert Research Institute (DRI). The following year (FY 2003), cellular modems were to be similarly deployed at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and the early data management system developed at the NTS was to be brought to those locations for site-specific development and use. Also in FY 2003, additional site-specific development of the complete system was to be conducted at the NTS. To complete the project, certain data, depending on site-specific conditions or restrictions involving distribution of data, were to made available through the Internet via the DRI/Western Region Climate Center (WRCC) WEABASE platform. If the complete project had been implemented, the system schematic would have looked like the figure on the following page.

  4. Evaluation of the Acceptability of Potential Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Conversion Products at the Envirocare Disposal Site

    SciTech Connect

    Croff, A.G.

    2001-01-11

    The purpose of this report is to review and document the capability of potential products of depleted UF{sub 6} conversion to meet the current waste acceptance criteria and other regulatory requirements for disposal at the facility in Clive, Utah, owned by Envirocare of Utah, Inc. The investigation was conducted by identifying issues potentially related to disposal of depleted uranium (DU) products at Envirocare and conducting an initial analysis of them. Discussions were then held with representatives of Envirocare, the state of Utah (which is a NRC Agreement State and, thus, is the cognizant regulatory authority for Envirocare), and DOE Oak Ridge Operations. Provisional issue resolution was then established based on the analysis and discussions and documented in a draft report. The draft report was then reviewed by those providing information and revisions were made, which resulted in this document. Issues that were examined for resolution were (1) license receipt limits for U isotopes; (2) DU product classification as Class A waste; (3) use of non-DOE disposal sites for disposal of DOE material; (4) historical NRC views; (5) definition of chemical reactivity; (6) presence of mobile radionuclides; and (7) National Environmental Policy Act coverage of disposal. The conclusion of this analysis is that an amendment to the Envirocare license issued on October 5, 2000, has reduced the uncertainties regarding disposal of the DU product at Envirocare to the point that they are now comparable with uncertainties associated with the disposal of the DU product at the Nevada Test Site that were discussed in an earlier report.

  5. Classified Component Disposal at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) - 13454

    SciTech Connect

    Poling, Jeanne; Arnold, Pat; Saad, Max; DiSanza, Frank; Cabble, Kevin

    2013-07-01

    The Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) has added the capability needed for the safe, secure disposal of non-nuclear classified components that have been declared excess to national security requirements. The NNSS has worked with U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration senior leadership to gain formal approval for permanent burial of classified matter at the NNSS in the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Complex owned by the U.S. Department of Energy. Additionally, by working with state regulators, the NNSS added the capability to dispose non-radioactive hazardous and non-hazardous classified components. The NNSS successfully piloted the new disposal pathway with the receipt of classified materials from the Kansas City Plant in March 2012. (authors)

  6. Studies of Current Circulation at Ocean Waste Disposal Sites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klemas, V. (Principal Investigator); Davis, G.; Henry, R.

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Acid waste plume was observed in LANDSAT imagery fourteen times ranging from during dump up to 54 hours after dump. Circulation processes at the waste disposal site are highly storm-dominated, with the majority of the water transport occurring during strong northeasterlies. There is a mean flow to the south along shore. This appears to be due to the fact that northeasterly winds produce stronger currents than those driven by southeasterly winds and by the thermohaline circulation. During the warm months (May through October), the ocean at the dump site stratifies with a distinct thermocline observed during all summer cruising at depths ranging from 10 to 21 m. During stratified conditions, the near-bottom currents were small. Surface currents responded to wind conditions resulting in rapid movement of surface drogues on windy days. Mid-depth drogues showed an intermediate behavior, moving more rapidly as wind velocities increased.

  7. 10 CFR 61.62 - Funding for disposal site closure and stabilization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Funding for disposal site closure and stabilization. 61.62 Section 61.62 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR LAND DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE Financial Assurances § 61.62 Funding for disposal site closure and stabilization. (a)...

  8. 10 CFR 61.62 - Funding for disposal site closure and stabilization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Funding for disposal site closure and stabilization. 61.62 Section 61.62 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR LAND DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE Financial Assurances § 61.62 Funding for disposal site closure and stabilization. (a)...

  9. 43 CFR 2743.3-1 - Patent provisions for leased disposal sites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... PUBLIC PURPOSES ACT Recreation and Public Purposes Act: Solid Waste Disposal § 2743.3-1 Patent provisions for leased disposal sites. Each patent for a leased disposal site will provide that: (a) The patentee... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Patent provisions for leased...

  10. Importance of geologic characterization of potential low-level radioactive waste disposal sites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weibel, C.P.; Berg, R.C.

    1991-01-01

    Using the example of the Geff Alternative Site in Wayne County, Illinois, for the disposal of low-level radioactive waste, this paper demonstrates, from a policy and public opinion perspective, the importance of accurately determining site stratigraphy. Complete and accurate characterization of geologic materials and determination of site stratigraphy at potential low-level waste disposal sites provides the frame-work for subsequent hydrologic and geochemical investigations. Proper geologic characterization is critical to determine the long-term site stability and the extent of interactions of groundwater between the site and its surroundings. Failure to adequately characterize site stratigraphy can lead to the incorrect evaluation of the geology of a site, which in turn may result in a lack of public confidence. A potential problem of lack of public confidence was alleviated as a result of the resolution and proper definition of the Geff Alternative Site stratigraphy. The integrity of the investigation was not questioned and public perception was not compromised. ?? 1991 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  11. Evaluating off-site disposal of low-level waste at LANL-9498

    SciTech Connect

    Hargis, Kenneth M; French, Sean B; Boyance, Julien A

    2009-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory generates a wide range of waste types, including solid low-level radioactive waste (LL W), in conducting its national security mission and other science and technology activities. Although most ofLANL's LLW has been disposed on-site, limitations on expansion, stakeholder concerns, and the potential for significant volumes from environmental remediation and decontamination and demolition (D&D) have led LANL to evaluate the feasibility of increasing off-site disposal. It appears that most of the LL W generated at LANL would meet the Waste Acceptance Criteria at the Nevada Test Site or the available commercial LL W disposal site. Some waste is considered to be problematic to transport to off-site disposal even though it could meet the off-site Waste Acceptance Criteria. Cost estimates for off-site disposal are being evaluated for comparison to estimated costs under the current plans for continued on-site disposal.

  12. Assessment and analysis of industrial liquid waste and sludge disposal at unlined landfill sites in arid climate

    SciTech Connect

    Al Yaqout, Anwar F

    2003-07-01

    Municipal solid waste disposal sites in arid countries such as Kuwait receive various types of waste materials like sewage sludge, chemical waste and other debris. Large amounts of leachate are expected to be generated due to the improper disposal of industrial wastewater, sewage sludge and chemical wastes with municipal solid waste at landfill sites even though the rainwater is scarce. Almost 95% of all solid waste generated in Kuwait during the last 10 years was dumped in five unlined landfills. The sites accepting liquid waste consist of old sand quarries that do not follow any specific engineering guidelines. With the current practice, contamination of the ground water table is possible due to the close location of the water table beneath the bottom of the waste disposal sites. This study determined the percentage of industrial liquid waste and sludge of the total waste dumped at the landfill sites, analyzed the chemical characteristics of liquid waste stream and contaminated water at disposal sites, and finally evaluated the possible risk posed by the continuous dumping of such wastes at the unlined landfills. Statistical analysis has been performed on the disposal and characterization of industrial wastewater and sludge at five active landfill sites. The chemical analysis shows that all the industrial wastes and sludge have high concentrations of COD, suspended solids, and heavy metals. Results show that from 1993 to 2000, 5.14{+-}1.13 million t of total wastes were disposed per year in all active landfill sites in Kuwait. The share of industrial liquid and sludge waste was 1.85{+-}0.19 million t representing 37.22{+-}6.85% of total waste disposed in all landfill sites. Such wastes contribute to landfill leachate which pollutes groundwater and may enter the food chain causing adverse health effects. Lined evaporation ponds are suggested as an economical and safe solution for industrial wastewater and sludge disposal in the arid climate of Kuwait.

  13. Neptunium Disposal to the Savannah River Site Tank Farm

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, D.D.

    2004-02-26

    Researchers investigated the neutralization of an acidic neptunium solution from a Savannah River Site (SRS) processing canyon and the properties of the resulting slurry to determine the feasibility of disposal in the SRS tank farm. The acidic solution displayed no properties that precluded the proposed disposal route. Neutralization of the acidic neptunium forms a 4 wt per cent slurry of precipitated metal hydroxides. The insoluble solids consist largely of iron (92 per cent) and neptunium hydroxides (2 per cent). The concentration of soluble neptunium remaining after neutralization equaled much less than previous solubility measurements predicted. Researchers used an apparatus similar to an Ostwald-type viscometer to estimate the consistency of the neptunium slurry with the solids present. The yield stress and consistency of the 4 wt per cent slurry will allow transfer through the tank farm, although concentration of the insoluble solids above 4 wt per cent may cause significant problems due to increased consistency and yield stress. The consistency of the 4 wt per cent slurry is 7.6 centipoise (cP) with a yield stress less than 1 Pascal (Pa). The neptunium slurry, when combined with actual washed radioactive sludge, slightly reduces the yield stress and consistency of the sludge and produces a combined slurry with acceptable rheological properties for vitrification.

  14. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 139: Waste Disposal Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2007-07-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 139, Waste Disposal Sites, is listed in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) of 1996 (FFACO, 1996). CAU 139 consists of seven Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Areas 3, 4, 6, and 9 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), which is located approximately 65 miles (mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1). CAU 139 consists of the following CASs: CAS 03-35-01, Burn Pit; CAS 04-08-02, Waste Disposal Site; CAS 04-99-01, Contaminated Surface Debris; CAS 06-19-02, Waste Disposal Site/Burn Pit; CAS 06-19-03, Waste Disposal Trenches; CAS 09-23-01, Area 9 Gravel Gertie; and CAS 09-34-01, Underground Detection Station. Details of the site history and site characterization results for CAU 139 are provided in the approved Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office [NNSA/NSO], 2006) and in the approved Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) (NNSA/NSO, 2007). The purpose of this Corrective Action Plan (CAP) is to present the detailed scope of work required to implement the recommended corrective actions as specified in Section 4.0 of the approved CADD (NNSA/NSO, 2007). The approved closure activities for CAU 139 include removal of soil and debris contaminated with plutonium (Pu)-239, excavation of geophysical anomalies, removal of surface debris, construction of an engineered soil cover, and implementation of use restrictions (URs). Table 1 presents a summary of CAS-specific closure activities and contaminants of concern (COCs). Specific details of the corrective actions to be performed at each CAS are presented in Section 2.0 of this report.

  15. Licensing plan for UMTRA project disposal sites. Final [report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Office developed a plan to define UMTRA Project licensing program objectives and establish a process enabling the DOE to document completion of remedial actions in compliance with 40 CFR 1 92 and the requirements of the NRC general license. This document supersedes the January 1987 Project Licensing Plan (DOE, 1987). The plan summarizes the legislative and regulatory basis for licensing, identifies participating agencies and their roles and responsibilities, defines key activities and milestones in the licensing process, and details the coordination of these activities. This plan provides an overview of the UMTRA Project from the end of remedial actions through the NRC`s acceptance of a disposal site under the general license. The licensing process integrates large phases of the UMTRA Project. Other programmatic UMTRA Project documents listed in Section 6.0 provide supporting information.

  16. Studies of Current Circulation at Ocean Waste Disposal Sites. [Delaware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klemas, V. (Principal Investigator); Davis, G.; Henry, R.

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Circulation processes at the acid waste disposal site are highly event-dominated, with the majority of the water transport occurring during strong northeasters. There is a mean flow to the south alongshore. This appears to be due to the fact that northeasterly winds produce stronger currents than those driven by southeasterly winds and by the thermohaline circulation. During the warm months, the ocean stratifies with warm water over cold water. A distinct thermocline was observed with expendable bathythermographs during all summer cruises at depths ranging from 10 to 21 meters. During stratified conditions, the near-bottom drogues showed very little movements. The duPont waste plume was observed in LANDSAT satellite imagery during dump up to 54 hours after dump.

  17. DRINK: a biogeochemical source term model for low level radioactive waste disposal sites.

    PubMed

    Humphreys, P; McGarry, R; Hoffmann, A; Binks, P

    1997-07-01

    Interactions between element chemistry and the ambient geochemistry play a significant role in the control of radionuclide migration in the geosphere. These same interactions influence radionuclide release from near surface, low level radioactive waste, disposal sites once physical containment has degraded. In situations where LLW contains significant amounts of metal and organic materials such as cellulose, microbial degradation in conjunction with corrosion can significantly perturb the ambient geochemistry. These processes typically produce a transition from oxidising to reducing conditions and can influence radionuclide migration through changes in both the dominant radionuclide species and mineral phases. The DRINK (DRIgg Near field Kinetic) code is a biogeochemical transport code designed to simulate the long term evolution of the UK low level radioactive waste disposal site at Drigg. Drigg is the UK's principal solid low level radioactive waste disposal site and has been receiving waste since 1959. The interaction between microbial activity, the ambient geochemistry and radionuclide chemistry is central to the DRINK approach with the development of the ambient pH, redox potential and bulk geochemistry being directly influenced by microbial activity. This paper describes the microbial aspects of the code, site data underpinning the microbial model, the microbiology/chemistry interface and provides an example of the code in action. PMID:9340003

  18. Application of biological traits to further our understanding of the impacts of dredged material disposal on benthic assemblages.

    PubMed

    Bolam, S G; McIlwaine, P S O; Garcia, C

    2016-04-15

    While the effects of coastal disposal of dredged material on benthic assemblage structure have been well studied, our understanding of the mechanism of such responses, and their potential ecological implications, remain relatively unknown. Data from a licenced disposal site off the northeast coast of England are analysed to address this and improve our ability to make informed licencing decisions for this activity. Assemblages within the disposal site displayed reduced number of species and total invertebrate density, an altered assemblage taxonomic structure, and a shift towards a greater numerical dominance of less-productive individuals. Following separate analyses of biological response and effect traits, a novel approach for marine benthic trait analysis, we identify the traits responsible (i.e. response traits) for the observed structural alterations. Furthermore, analysis of the effect traits revealed that the assemblages characterising the disposal site possess a greater bioturbative capability compared to those not directly impacted by disposal. PMID:26899157

  19. Application for a Permit to Operate a Class III Solid Waste Disposal Site at the Nevada National Security Site Area 5 Asbestiform Low-Level Solid Waste Disposal Site

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Programs

    2010-10-04

    The Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) is located approximately 105 km (65 mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. The U.S. Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) is the federal lands management authority for the NNSS and National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec) is the Management and Operations contractor. Access on and off the NNSS is tightly controlled, restricted, and guarded on a 24-hour basis. The NNSS is posted with signs along its entire perimeter. NSTec is the operator of all solid waste disposal sites on the NNSS. The Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) is the location of the permitted facility for the Solid Waste Disposal Site (SWDS). The Area 5 RWMS is located near the eastern edge of the NNSS (Figure 1), approximately 26 km (16 mi) north of Mercury, Nevada. The Area 5 RWMS is used for the disposal of low-level waste (LLW) and mixed low-level waste. Many areas surrounding the RWMS have been used in conducting nuclear tests. The site will be used for the disposal of regulated Asbestiform Low-Level Waste (ALLW), small quantities of low-level radioactive hydrocarbon-burdened (LLHB) media and debris, LLW, LLW that contains Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) Bulk Product Waste greater than 50 ppm that leaches at a rate of less than 10 micrograms of PCB per liter of water, and small quantities of LLHB demolition and construction waste (hereafter called permissible waste). Waste containing free liquids, or waste that is regulated as hazardous waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) or state-of-generation hazardous waste regulations, will not be accepted for disposal at the site. Waste regulated under the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) that will be accepted at the disposal site is regulated asbestos-containing materials (RACM) and PCB Bulk Product Waste greater than 50 ppm that leaches at a rate of less than 10 micrograms of PCB per liter of water. The term asbestiform is

  20. Site selection and licensing issues: Southwest Compact low-level radioactive waste disposal site

    SciTech Connect

    Grant, J.L.

    1989-11-01

    The low-level radioactive waste disposal site in California is being selected through a three-phase program. Phase 1 is a systematic statewide, regional, and local screening study. This program was conducted during 1986 and 1987, and culminated in the selection of three candidate sites fur further study. The candidate sites are identified as the Panamint, Silurian, and Ward Valley sites. Phase 2 comprises site characterization and environmental and socio-economic impact study activities at the three candidate sites. Based upon the site characterization studies, the candidate sites are ranked according to the desirability and conformance with regulatory requirements. Phase 3 comprises preparation of a license application for the selected candidate site. The license application will include a detailed characterization of the site, detailed design and operations plans for the proposed facility, and assessments of potential impacts of the site upon the environment and the local communities. Five types of siting criteria were developed to govern the site selection process. These types are: technical suitability exclusionary criteria, high-avoidance criteria beyond technical suitability requirements, discretionary criteria, public acceptance, and schedule requirements of the LLWR Policy Act Amendments. This paper discusses the application of the hydrological and geotechnical criteria during the siting and licensing studies in California. These criteria address site location and performance, and the degree to which present and future site behavior can be predicted. Primary regulatory requirements governing the suitability of a site are that the site must be hydrologically and geologically simple enough for the confident prediction of future behavior, and that the site must be stable enough that frequent or intensive maintenance of the closed site will not be required. This paper addresses the methods to measure site suitability at each stage of the process, methods to

  1. 36 CFR 6.4 - Solid waste disposal sites not in operation on September 1, 1984.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Solid waste disposal sites not in operation on September 1, 1984. 6.4 Section 6.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL SITES IN UNITS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 6.4 Solid waste disposal sites not...

  2. 36 CFR 6.5 - Solid waste disposal sites in operation on September 1, 1984.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Solid waste disposal sites in operation on September 1, 1984. 6.5 Section 6.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL SITES IN UNITS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 6.5 Solid waste disposal sites in operation...

  3. Feasibility study for the United Nuclear Corporation Disposal Site at the Oak Ridge Y-12 plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-02-01

    In July 1990, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) directed the Department of Energy Oak Ridge Operations to comply with Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) requirements for the remediation of the United Nuclear Corporation (UNC) Disposal Site located at the Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. EPA, Waste Management Branch, had approved a closure plan in December 1989 for the UNC Disposal Site. This feasibility study (FS) is a fully satisfy the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Contingency Plan (NCP) requirements for support of the selection of a remedial response for closure of the UNC Disposal Site. For two years the UNC Disposal Site accepted and disposed of waste from the decommissioning of a UNC uranium recovery facility in Wood River Junction, Rhode Island. Between June 1982 and November 1984, the UNC Disposal Site received 11,000 55-gal drums of sludge fixed in cement, 18,000 drums of contaminated soil, and 288 wooden boxes of contaminated building and process demolition materials. The FS assembles a wide range of remedial technologies so the most appropriate actions could be selected to remediate potential contamination to below MCLs and/or to below the maximum level of acceptable risk. Technologies were evaluated based on technical effectiveness, ease of implementation, and costs. Applicable technologies were then selected for alternative development. 33 refs., 9 figs., 27 tabs.

  4. Geohydrologic descriptions of selected solid waste disposal sites in Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Torres-Gonzalez, Arturo; Gómez-Gómez, Fernando

    1982-01-01

    General descriptions of the 50 disposal sites are given with their geohydrologic setting. Baseline data consisting of specific conductance, pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen, and common ions were obtained at many of the sites. Such information provides a technical basis for assessing future effects of those solid-waste disposal sites on the quality of water resources.

  5. 36 CFR 6.4 - Solid waste disposal sites not in operation on September 1, 1984.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... in 40 CFR 257.3-1 to 257.3-8, and 40 CFR part 258, subparts B, C, D, E and F; (6) The site will not... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Solid waste disposal sites... PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL SITES IN UNITS OF THE NATIONAL...

  6. Evaluation of potential risks from ash disposal site leachate

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, W.B.; Loh, J.Y.; Bate, M.C.; Johnson, K.M.

    1999-04-01

    A risk-based approach is used to evaluate potential human health risks associated with a discharge from an ash disposal site into a small stream. The RIVRISK model was used to estimate downstream concentrations and corresponding risks. The modeling and risk analyses focus on boron, the constituent of greatest potential concern to public health at the site investigated, in Riddle Run, Pennsylvania. Prior to performing the risk assessment, the model is validated by comparing observed and predicted results. The comparison is good and an uncertainty analysis is provided to explain the comparison. The hazard quotient (HQ) for boron is predicted to be greater than 1 at presently regulated compliance points over a range of flow rates. The reference dose (RfD) currently recommended by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) was used for the analyses. However, the toxicity of boron as expressed by the RfD is now under review by both the U.S. EPA and the World Health Organization. Alternative reference doses being examined would produce predicted boron hazard quotients of less than 1 at nearly all flow conditions.

  7. Assessment of microbial processes on gas production at radioactive low-level waste disposal sites

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, A.J.; Tate, R.L. III; Colombo, P.

    1982-05-01

    Factors controlling gaseous emanations from low level radioactive waste disposal sites are assessed. Importance of gaseous fluxes of methane, carbon dioxide, and possible hydrogen from the site, stems from the inclusion of tritium and/or carbon-14 into the elemental composition of these compounds. In that the primary source of these gases is the biodegradation of organic components of the waste material, primary emphasis of the study involved an examination of the biochemical pathways producing methane, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen, and the environmental parameters controlling the activity of the microbial community involved. Initial examination of the data indicates that the ecosystem is anaerobic. As the result of the complexity of the pathway leading to methane production, factors such as substrate availability, which limit the initial reaction in the sequence, greatly affect the overall rate of methane evolution. Biochemical transformations of methane, hydrogen and carbon dioxide as they pass through the soil profile above the trench are discussed. Results of gas studies performed at three commercial low level radioactive waste disposal sites are reviewed. Methods used to obtain trench and soil gas samples are discussed. Estimates of rates of gas production and amounts released into the atmosphere (by the GASFLOW model) are evaluated. Tritium and carbon-14 gaseous compounds have been measured in these studies; tritiated methane is the major radionuclide species in all disposal trenches studied. The concentration of methane in a typical trench increases with the age of the trench, whereas the concentration of carbon dioxide is similar in all trenches.

  8. Disposal Activities and the Unique Waste Streams at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS)

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, P.

    2012-10-31

    This slide show documents waste disposal at the Nevada National Security Site. Topics covered include: radionuclide requirements for waste disposal; approved performance assessment (PA) for depleted uranium disposal; requirements; program approval; the Waste Acceptance Review Panel (WARP); description of the Radioactive Waste Acceptance Program (RWAP); facility evaluation; recent program accomplishments, nuclear facility safety changes; higher-activity waste stream disposal; and, large volume bulk waste streams.

  9. Disposal of United Nuclear Company materials at the Y-12 Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Butz, T.R.; Stoner, H.H.

    1983-12-19

    The UNC Recovery Systems Company, located at Wood River Junction, Rhode Island, was involved in the recovery of enriched uranium from scrap materials generated primarily in defense program activities of the DOE and its predecessor agencies. Following shutdown of the recovery operations in August 1980, UNC was required to decontaminate facilities and the associated waste lagoon systems and to remove the resultant low-level radioactive waste out of the state of Rhode Island. In view that the waste resulted from the processing of scrap materials generated in DOE Defense Programs activities and due to the lack of adequate capacity at commercial waste disposal facilities, DOE agreed to accept the waste for burial at the Y-12 Plant. Site characterization and well monitoring results are presented of the disposal site.

  10. Groundwater hydrology study of the Ames Chemical Disposal Site

    SciTech Connect

    Stickel, T.

    1996-05-09

    The Ames Laboratory Chemical Disposal Site is located in northwestern Ames, Iowa west of Squaw Creek. From 1957 to 1966, Ames Laboratory conducted research to develop processes to separate uranium and thorium from nuclear power fuel and to separate yttrium from neutron shielding sources. The wastes from these processes, which contained both hazardous and radiological components, were placed into nine burial pits. Metal drums, plywood boxes, and steel pails were used to store the wastes. Uranium was also burned on the ground surface of the site. Monitoring wells were placed around the waste burial pits. Groundwater testing in 1993 revealed elevated levels of Uranium 234, Uranium 238, beta and alpha radiation. The north side of the burial pit had elevated levels of volatile organic compounds. Samples in the East Ravine showed no volatile organics; however, they did contain elevated levels of radionuclides. These analytical results seem to indicate that the groundwater from the burial pit is flowing down hill and causing contamination in the East Ravine. Although there are many avenues for the contamination to spread, the focus of this project is to understand the hydrogeology of the East Ravine and to determine the path of groundwater flow down the East Ravine. The groundwater flow data along with other existing information will be used to assess the threat of chemical migration down the East Ravine and eventually off-site. The primary objectives of the project were as follows: define the geology of the East Ravine; conduct slug tests to determine the hydraulic conductivity of both oxidized and unoxidized till; develop a three-dimensional mathematical model using ModIME and MODFLOW to simulate groundwater flow in the East Ravine.

  11. Geophysical studies at proposed low-level radioactive waste disposal sites in west Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, G.R.; Doser, D.I.; Whitelaw, J.; Miller, K.C.; Hua, F.; Baker, M.R.; Meeks, N. )

    1994-03-01

    Although the disposal of high-level nuclear waste is officially a national problem, the federal government has charged each state with the responsibility of disposing of its own low-level nuclear waste. Texas has considered many possible areas for its disposal facility, but has studied two sites in Hudspeth County extensively. Geophysical methods have been used to study the subsurface structure of these sites, evaluate the earthquake hazards, and set up monitoring of possible leakage from the sites. The structural studies employed the same techniques as used in petroleum exploration, but with a ore balanced reliance between seismic and potential field methods. Since the scale of these investigations was relatively small (a few miles in extent), high-resolution methodology was employed. This aspect of the project mainly impacted the seismic reflection work. The depth to the bedrock was a major concern because the near-surface alluvium is generally a good natural barrier to any potential leakage. The location of any faults near the sites was also a major concern, because faults were both an indicator of potential earthquake hazards and a possible pathway for rapid movement of any material that might leak from the site. Analysis of the tectonic stability of the site involved regional geophysical data on a crustal scale and an evaluation of the historical earthquake record. A network of seismograph stations was established in the region to monitor contemporary seismicity. Compared to typical petroleum applications of geophysical data, these studies involved a wide variety of data and an analysis that required the methodical integration of these data.

  12. 10 CFR 61.51 - Disposal site design for land disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... extent practicable water infiltration, to direct percolating or surface water away from the disposed... must direct surface water drainage away from disposal units at velocities and gradients which will not... be designed to minimize to the extent practicable the contact of water with waste during storage,...

  13. Long-term surveillance plan for the Gunnison, Colorado disposal site

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Gunnison disposal site in Gunnison County, Colorado. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has developed regulations for the issuance of a general license for the custody and long-term care of UMTRA Project disposal sites in 10 CFR Part 40. The purpose of this general license is to ensure that the UMTRA Project disposal sites will be cared for in a manner that protects the public health and safety and the environment. For each disposal site to be licensed, the NRC requires the DOE to submit a site-specific LTSP. The DOE prepared this LTSP to meet this requirement for the Gunnison disposal site. The general license becomes effective when the NRC concurs with the DOE`s determination of completion of remedial action for the Gunnison site and the NRC formally accepts this LTSP. This LTSP describes the long-term surveillance program the DOE will implement to ensure that the Gunnison disposal site performs as designed. The program is based on two distinct activities: (1) site inspections to identify threats to disposal cell integrity, and (2) ground water monitoring to demonstrate disposal cell performance. The LTSP is based on the UMTRA Project long-term surveillance program guidance and meets the requirements of 10 CFR {section}40.27(b) and 40 CFR {section}192.03.

  14. Long-term surveillance plan for the Gunnison, Colorado, disposal site

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Gunnison disposal site in Gunnison County, Colorado. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has developed regulations for the issuance of a general license for the custody and long-term care of UMTRA Project disposal sites in 10 CFR Part 40. The purpose of this general license is to ensure that the UMTRA Project disposal sites will be cared for in a manner that protects the public health and safety and the environment. For each disposal site to be licensed, the NRC requires the DOE to submit a site-specific LTSP. The DOE prepared this LTSP to meet this requirement for the Gunnison disposal site. The general license becomes effective when the NRC concurs with the DOE`s determination of completion of remedial action for the Gunnison site and the NRC formally accepts this LTSP. This LTSP describes the long-term surveillance program the DOE will implement to ensure that the Gunnison disposal site performs as designed. The program is based on two distinct activities: (1) site inspections to identify threats to disposal cell integrity, and (2) ground water monitoring to demonstrate disposal cell performance. The LTSP is based on the UMTRA Project long-term surveillance program guidance and meets the requirements of 10 CFR {section}40.27(b) and 40 CFR {section}192.03.

  15. Long-term surveillance plan for the Gunnison, Colorado, disposal site

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Gunnison disposal site in Gunnison County, Colorado. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has developed regulations for the issuance of a general license for the custody and long-term care of UMTRA Project disposal sites in 10 CFR Part 40. The purpose of this general license is to ensure that the UMTRA Project disposal sites will be cared for in a manner that protects the public health and safety and the environment. Before each disposal site is licensed, the NRC requires the DOE to submit a site-specific LTSP. The DOE prepared this LTSP to meet this requirement for the Gunnison disposal site. The general license becomes effective when the NRC concurs with the DOE`s determination of completion of remedial action for the Gunnison site and the NRC formally accepts this LTSP. This LTSP describes the long-term surveillance program the DOE will implement to ensure that the Gunnison disposal site performs as designed. The program is based on two distinct activities: (1) site inspections to identify threats to disposal cell integrity, and (2) ground water monitoring to demonstrate disposal cell performance. The LTSP is based on the UMTRA Project long-term surveillance program guidance and meets the requirements of 10 CFR {section}40.27(b) and 40 CFR {section}192.03.

  16. Long-term surveillance plan for the Gunnison, Colorado, disposal site

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Gunnison disposal site in Gunnison County, Colorado. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has developed regulations for the issuance of a general license for the custody and long-term care of UMTRA Project disposal sites in 10 CFR Part 40. The purpose of this general license is to ensure that the UMTRA Project disposal sites will be cared for in a manner that protects the public health and safety and the environment. For each disposal site to be licensed, the NRC requires the DOE to submit a site-specific LTSP. The DOE prepared this LTSP to meet this requirement for the Gunnison disposal site. The general license becomes effective when the NRC concurs with the DOE`s determination of completion of remedial action for the Gunnison site and the NRC formally accepts this LTSP. This LTSP describes the long-term surveillance program the DOE will implement to ensure that the Gunnison disposal site performs as designed. The program is based on two distinct activities: (1) site inspections to identify threats to disposal cell integrity, and (2) ground water monitoring to demonstrate disposal cell performance. The LTSP is based on the UMTRA Project long-term surveillance program guidance and meets the requirements of 10 CFR {section}40.27(b) and 40 CFR {section}192.03.

  17. Final long-term surveillance plan for the Spook, Wyoming, disposal site

    SciTech Connect

    1993-01-01

    A general license for the custody and long-term care of DOE Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project permanent disposal sites was issued by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and became effective on November 29, 1990. The general license will be in effect for a specific disposal site when the NRC accepts the disposal site`s long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) and concurs that remedial action is complete at that site. This document describes in detail the long-term surveillance activities for the Spook, Wyoming, disposal site, including monitoring, maintenance, and emergency measures necessary to fulfill the conditions of the general license, and to ensure that the disposal cell continues to comply with the UMTRA design standards.

  18. 43 CFR 3601.10 - Limitations on BLM's discretion to dispose of mineral materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... of mineral materials. 3601.10 Section 3601.10 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL MATERIALS DISPOSAL Mineral Materials Disposal; General Provisions Limitations on Disposal...

  19. 43 CFR 3601.12 - What areas does BLM exclude from disposal of mineral materials?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... of mineral materials? 3601.12 Section 3601.12 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL MATERIALS DISPOSAL Mineral Materials Disposal; General Provisions Limitations on Disposal...

  20. 43 CFR 3601.10 - Limitations on BLM's discretion to dispose of mineral materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... of mineral materials. 3601.10 Section 3601.10 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL MATERIALS DISPOSAL Mineral Materials Disposal; General Provisions Limitations on Disposal...

  1. 43 CFR 3601.12 - What areas does BLM exclude from disposal of mineral materials?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... of mineral materials? 3601.12 Section 3601.12 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL MATERIALS DISPOSAL Mineral Materials Disposal; General Provisions Limitations on Disposal...

  2. 43 CFR 3601.10 - Limitations on BLM's discretion to dispose of mineral materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... of mineral materials. 3601.10 Section 3601.10 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL MATERIALS DISPOSAL Mineral Materials Disposal; General Provisions Limitations on Disposal...

  3. 43 CFR 3601.12 - What areas does BLM exclude from disposal of mineral materials?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... of mineral materials? 3601.12 Section 3601.12 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL MATERIALS DISPOSAL Mineral Materials Disposal; General Provisions Limitations on Disposal...

  4. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 137: Waste Disposal Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.:0

    SciTech Connect

    Wickline, Alfred

    2005-12-01

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains project-specific information including facility descriptions, environmental sample collection objectives, and criteria for conducting site investigation activities at Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 137: Waste Disposal Sites. This CAIP has been developed in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO) (1996) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the U.S. Department of Defense. Corrective Action Unit 137 contains sites that are located in Areas 1, 3, 7, 9, and 12 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), which is approximately 65 miles (mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1-1). Corrective Action Unit 137 is comprised of the eight corrective action sites (CASs) shown on Figure 1-1 and listed below: (1) CAS 01-08-01, Waste Disposal Site; (2) CAS 03-23-01, Waste Disposal Site; (3) CAS 03-23-07, Radioactive Waste Disposal Site; (4) CAS 03-99-15, Waste Disposal Site; (5) CAS 07-23-02, Radioactive Waste Disposal Site; (6) CAS 09-23-07, Radioactive Waste Disposal Site; (7) CAS 12-08-01, Waste Disposal Site; and (8) CAS 12-23-07, Waste Disposal Site. The Corrective Action Investigation (CAI) will include field inspections, radiological surveys, geophysical surveys, sampling of environmental media, analysis of samples, and assessment of investigation results, where appropriate. Data will be obtained to support corrective action alternative evaluations and waste management decisions. The CASs in CAU 137 are being investigated because hazardous and/or radioactive constituents may be present in concentrations that could potentially pose a threat to human health and the environment. Existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives for the CASs. Additional information will be generated by conducting a CAI before evaluating and selecting corrective action

  5. Dungeness crab survey for the Southwest Ocean Disposal Site and addtiional sites off Grays Harbor, Washington, June 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Antrim, L.D.; Cullinan, V.I.; Pearson, W.H. )

    1992-01-01

    As part of the Grays Harbor Navigation Improvement Project, the US Army Corps of Engineers, Seattle District (USACE), has made active use of the Southwest Ocean Disposal Site off Grays Harbor, Washington. Disposal site boundaries were established to avoid an area where high densities of Young-of-the-Year (YOY) Dungeness crab, Cancer magister, were observed during the site selection surveys. To monitor possible impacts of disposal operations on Dungeness crab at the site, USACE recommended a crab distribution survey prior to disposal operations in the February 1989 environmental impact statement supplement (EISS) as part of a tiered monitoring strategy for the site. According to the tiered monitoring strategy, a preliminary survey is conducted to determine if the disposal site contains an exceptionally high density of YOY Dungeness crab. The trigger for moving to a more intensive sampling effort is a YOY crab density within the disposal site that is 100 times higher than the density in the reference area to the north. This report concerns a 1991 survey that was designed to verify that the density of YOY Dungeness crab present at the disposal site was not exceptionally high. Another objective of the survey was to estimate Dungeness crab densities at nearshore areas that are being considered as sediment berm sites by USACE.

  6. 36 CFR 6.4 - Solid waste disposal sites not in operation on September 1, 1984.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... treatment plant, septic system waste, or domestic sewage; (vii) Petroleum, including used crankcase oil from... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Solid waste disposal sites... PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL SITES IN UNITS OF THE NATIONAL...

  7. 36 CFR 6.4 - Solid waste disposal sites not in operation on September 1, 1984.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... treatment plant, septic system waste, or domestic sewage; (vii) Petroleum, including used crankcase oil from... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Solid waste disposal sites... PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL SITES IN UNITS OF THE NATIONAL...

  8. 77 FR 69620 - Casmalia Disposal Site; Notice of Proposed CERCLA Administrative De Minimis Settlement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-20

    ...In accordance with section 122(i) of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, as amended (CERCLA) and section 7003 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), EPA is hereby providing notice of a proposed administrative de minimis settlement concerning the Casmalia Disposal Site in Santa Barbara County, California (the Casmalia Disposal Site). Section......

  9. Operational Strategies for Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Site in Egypt - 13513

    SciTech Connect

    Mohamed, Yasser T.

    2013-07-01

    The ultimate aims of treatment and conditioning is to prepare waste for disposal by ensuring that the waste will meet the waste acceptance criteria of a disposal facility. Hence the purpose of low-level waste disposal is to isolate the waste from both people and the environment. The radioactive particles in low-level waste emit the same types of radiation that everyone receives from nature. Most low-level waste fades away to natural background levels of radioactivity in months or years. Virtually all of it diminishes to natural levels in less than 300 years. In Egypt, The Hot Laboratories and Waste Management Center has been established since 1983, as a waste management facility for LLW and ILW and the disposal site licensed for preoperational in 2005. The site accepts the low level waste generated on site and off site and unwanted radioactive sealed sources with half-life less than 30 years for disposal and all types of sources for interim storage prior to the final disposal. Operational requirements at the low-level (LLRW) disposal site are listed in the National Center for Nuclear Safety and Radiation Control NCNSRC guidelines. Additional procedures are listed in the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility Standards Manual. The following describes the current operations at the LLRW disposal site. (authors)

  10. Closure Strategy for a Waste Disposal Facility with Multiple Waste Types and Regulatory Drivers at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    L. Desotell; D. Wieland; V. Yucel; G. Shott; J. Wrapp

    2008-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) is planning to close the 92-Acre Area of the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), which is about 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Closure planning for this facility must take into account the regulatory requirements for a diversity of waste streams, disposal and storage configurations, disposal history, and site conditions. This paper provides a brief background of the Area 5 RWMS, identifies key closure issues, and presents the closure strategy. Disposals have been made in 25 shallow excavated pits and trenches and 13 Greater Confinement Disposal (GCD) boreholes at the 92-Acre Area since 1961. The pits and trenches have been used to dispose unclassified low-level waste (LLW), low-level mixed waste (LLMW), and asbestiform waste, and to store classified low-level and low-level mixed materials. The GCD boreholes are intermediate-depth disposal units about 10 feet (ft) in diameter and 120 ft deep. Classified and unclassified high-specific activity LLW, transuranic (TRU), and mixed TRU are disposed in the GCD boreholes. TRU waste was also disposed inadvertently in trench T-04C. Except for three disposal units that are active, all pits and trenches are operationally covered with 8-ft thick alluvium. The 92-Acre Area also includes a Mixed Waste Disposal Unit (MWDU) operating under Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Interim Status, and an asbestiform waste unit operating under a state of Nevada Solid Waste Disposal Site Permit. A single final closure cover is envisioned over the 92-Acre Area. The cover is the evapotranspirative-type cover that has been successfully employed at the NTS. Closure, post-closure care, and monitoring must meet the requirements of the following regulations: U.S. Department of Energy Order 435.1, Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 191, Title 40 CFR Part 265, Nevada Administrative

  11. Chemical analyses of dredged spoil disposal sites at the Belgian part of the North Sea.

    PubMed

    De Witte, Bavo; Ruttens, Ann; Ampe, Bart; Waegeneers, Nadia; Gauquie, Johanna; Devriese, Lisa; Cooreman, Kris; Parmentier, Koen

    2016-08-01

    The chemical status of five dredged spoil disposal sites in the Belgian Part of the North Sea is evaluated. A linear mixed-effect model was applied to PCB, PAH and heavy metal data from 2005 to 2014. No decrease in PCB concentrations was found, with even an increase at two disposal sites. Hg/AL ratios increased with 62% at one disposal site (BR&WS2) from 2005 to 2006 to 2013-2014. Cu and Zn concentrations increased at two disposal sites. Additional harbour sampling suggests that the latter is possibly linked to antifouling paints. Based on OSPAR environmental assessment criteria, the current chemical status of the sites suggests no chronic effect of dredged spoil disposal. However, increasing time trend data for PCB, Hg, Cu and Zn demonstrate the importance of monitoring to identify adverse trends. PMID:27176939

  12. Dose and risk assessment for intrusion into mixed waste disposal sites

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Aaberg, R.L.

    1991-10-01

    Sites previously used for disposal of radioactive and hazardous chemical materials have resulted in situations that pose a potential threat to humans from inadvertent intrusion. An example generic scenario analysis was developed to demonstrate the evaluation of potential exposure to either cleanup workers or members of the public who intrude into buried waste containing both radioactive and hazardous chemical contaminants. The example scenarios consist of a collection of exposure routes (or pathways) with specific modeling assumptions for well-drilling and for excavation to construct buildings. These scenarios are used to describe conceptually some potential patterns of activity by non-protected human beings during intrusion into mixed-waste disposal sites. The dose from exposure to radioactive materials is calculated using the GENII software system and converted to risk by using factors from ICRP Publication 60. The hazard assessment for nonradioactive materials is performed using recent guidelines from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The example results are in the form of cancer risk for carcinogens and radiation exposure.

  13. Safety of Disposable Diaper Materials: Extensive Evaluations Validate Use.

    PubMed

    Dey, Swatee; Helmes, C Tucker; White, Jeffrey C; Zhou, Shaoying

    2014-06-24

    Disposable diapers are primarily composed of polymers, such as cellulose, polypropylene, polyester, and polyethylene, which are biologically inert and not bioavailable. They are used in clothes, fabrics, personal hygiene products, and other materials that are commonly in contact with the skin. Each component used throughout the production process must undergo rigorous safety evaluations and assessments and are proven to be well tolerated and safe for their intended uses. No materials are incorporated into a diaper until their safety is confirmed through robust assessments, and additional factors are integrated into the process to compensate for the uncertainty associated with extrapolating toxicity data. After a thorough assessment of the materials and final product, extensive skin compatibility evaluations are conducted as appropriate. This rigorous safety process provides reassurance that consumers can rely on the safety of these diapers. PMID:24961774

  14. Long-term surveillance plan for the Maybell, Colorado Disposal Site

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Maybell disposal site in Moffat County, Colorado. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has developed regulations for the issuance of a general license for the custody and long-term care of UMTRA Project disposal sites in 10 CFR Part 40. The purpose of this general license is to ensure that the UMTRA Project disposal sites are cared for in a manner that protects the public health and safety and the environment. Before each disposal site is licensed, the NRC requires the DOE to submit a site-specific LTSP. The DOE prepared this LTSP to meet this requirement for the Maybell disposal site. The general license becomes effective when the NRC concurs with the DOE`s determination that remedial action is complete for the Maybell site and the NRC formally accepts this LTSP. This document describes the long-term surveillance program the DOE will implement to ensure the Maybell disposal site performs as designed. The program is based on site inspections to identify threats to disposal cell integrity. The LTSP is based on the UMTRA Project long-term surveillance program guidance document and meets the requirements of 10 CFR {section}40.27(b) and 40 CFR {section}192.03.

  15. Long-term surveillance plan for the Maybell, Colorado Disposal Site

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Maybell disposal site in Moffat County, Colorado. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has developed regulations for the issuance of a general license for the custody and long-term care of UMTRA Project disposal sites in 10 CFR Part 40. The purpose of this general license is to ensure that the UMTRA Project disposal sites are cared for in a manner that protects the public health and safety and the environment. Before each disposal site is licensed, the NRC requires the DOE to submit a site-specific LTSP. The DOE prepared this LTSP to meet this requirement for the Maybell disposal site. The general license becomes effective when the NRC concurs with the DOE`s determination that remedial action is complete for the Maybell site and the NRC formally accepts this LTSP. This document describes the long-term surveillance program the DOE will implement to ensure the Maybell disposal site performs as designed. The program is based on site inspections to identify threats to disposal cell integrity. The LTSP is based on the UMTRA Project long-term surveillance program guidance document and meets the requirements of 10 CFR {section}40.27(b) and 40 CFR {section}192.03.

  16. Long-term surveillance plan for the South Clive Disposal Site, Clive, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project South Clive disposal site in Clive, Utah. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has developed regulations for the issuance of a general license for the custody and long-term care of UMTRA Project disposal sites in 10 CRF Part 40. The purpose of this general license is to ensure that the UMTRA Project disposal sites will be cared for in a manner that protects the public health and safety and the environment. For each disposal site to be licensed, the NRC requires the DOE to submit a site-specific LTSP. The DOE prepared this LTSP to meet this requirement for the South Clive disposal site. The general license becomes effective when the NRC concurs with the DOE`s determination of completion of remedial action for the South Clive site and the NRC formally accepts this LTSP. This LTSP describes the long-term surveillance program the DOE will implement to ensure that the South Clive disposal site performs as designed. The program`s primary activity is site inspections to identify threats to disposal cell integrity.

  17. Long-term surveillance plan for the Cheney disposal site near Grand Junction, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Cheney disposal site. The site is in Mesa County near Grand Junction, Colorado. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has developed regulations for the issuance of a general license for the custody and long-term care of UMTRA Project disposal sites in 10 CFR Part 40. The purpose of this general license is to ensure that the UMTRA Project disposal sites are cared for in a manner that protects public health and safety and the environment. Before each disposal site may be licensed, the NRC requires the DOE to submit a site-specific LTSP. The DOE prepared this LTSP to meet this requirement for the Cheney disposal site. The general license becomes effective when the NRC concurs with the DOE`s determination that remedial action is complete and the NRC formally accepts this plan. This document describes the long-term surveillance program the DOE will implement to ensure that the Cheney disposal site performs as designed. The program is based on site inspections to identify potential threats to disposal cell integrity. The LTSP is based on the UMTRA Project long-term surveillance program guidance and meets the requirements of 10 CFR {section}40.27(b) and 40 CFR {section}192.03.

  18. Costs for off-site disposal of nonhazardous oil field wastes: Salt caverns versus other disposal methods

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J.A.

    1997-09-01

    According to an American Petroleum Institute production waste survey reported on by P.G. Wakim in 1987 and 1988, the exploration and production segment of the US oil and gas industry generated more than 360 million barrels (bbl) of drilling wastes, more than 20 billion bbl of produced water, and nearly 12 million bbl of associated wastes in 1985. Current exploration and production activities are believed to be generating comparable quantities of these oil field wastes. Wakim estimates that 28% of drilling wastes, less than 2% of produced water, and 52% of associated wastes are disposed of in off-site commercial facilities. In recent years, interest in disposing of oil field wastes in solution-mined salt caverns has been growing. This report provides information on the availability of commercial disposal companies in oil-and gas-producing states, the treatment and disposal methods they employ, and the amounts they charge. It also compares cavern disposal costs with the costs of other forms of waste disposal.

  19. Long-term surveillance plan for the Cheney disposal site near Grand Junction, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Cheney Disposal Site near Grand Junction, Colorado. This LSTP describes the long-term surveillance program the DOE will implement to ensure the Cheney Disposal Site performs as designed and is cared for in a manner that protects the public health and safety and the environment. Before each disposal site is licensed for custody and long-term care, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requires the DOE to submit such a site-specific LTSP.

  20. Interim long-term surveillance plan for the Cheney disposal site near, Grand Junction, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-01

    This interim long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Cheney Disposal Site in Mesa County near Grand Junction, Colorado. This LSTP describes the long-term surveillance program the DOE will implement to ensure the Cheney disposal site performs as designed and is cared for in a manner that protects the public health and safety and the environment. Before each disposal site is licensed for custody and long-term care, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requires the DOE to submit such a site-specific LTSP.

  1. Long-term surveillance plan for the South Clive disposal site Clive, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project South Clive disposal site in Clive, Utah. This LSTP describes the long-term surveillance program the DOE will implement to ensure the South Clive disposal site performs as designed and is cared for in a manner that protects the public health and safety and the environment. Before each disposal site is licensed for custody and long-term care, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requires the DOE to submit such a site-specific LTSP.

  2. Long-term surveillance plan for the Mexican Hat disposal site Mexican Hat, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Mexican Hat, Utah, disposal site. This LSTP describes the long-term surveillance program the DOE will implement to ensure the Mexican Hat disposal site performs as designed and is cared for in a manner that protects the public health and safety and the environment. Before each disposal site is licensed for custody and long-term care, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requires the DOE to submit such a site-specific LTSP.

  3. Long-term surveillance plan for the Estes Gulch disposal site near Rifle, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Estes Gulch disposal site near Rifle, Colorado. This LSTP describes the long-term surveillance program the DOE will implement to ensure the Estes Gulch disposal site performs as designed and is cared for in a manner that protects the public health and safety and the environment. Before each disposal site is licensed for custody and long-term care, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requires the DOE to submit such a site-specific LTSP.

  4. Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal from Buttermilk Channel, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Gardiner, W.W.; Barrows, E.S.; Antrim, L.D; Gruendell, B.D.; Word, J.Q.; Tokos, J.J.S.

    1996-08-01

    Buttermilk Channel was one of seven waterways that was sampled and evaluated for dredging and sediment disposal. Sediment samples were collected and analyses were conducted on sediment core samples. The evaluation of proposed dredged material from the channel included bulk sediment chemical analyses, chemical analyses of site water and elutriate, water column and benthic acute toxicity tests, and bioaccumulation studies. Individual sediment core samples were analyzed for grain size, moisture content, and total organic carbon. A composite sediment samples, representing the entire area proposed for dredging, was analyzed for bulk density, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, and 1,4-dichlorobenzene. Site water and elutriate were analyzed for metals, pesticides, and PCBs.

  5. EXAMPLE OF A RISK BASED DISPOSAL APPROVAL SOLIDIFICATION OF HANFORD SITE TRANSURANIC (TRU) WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    PRIGNANO AL

    2007-11-14

    The Hanford Site requested, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 10 approved, a Toxic Substances Control Act of 1976 (TSCA) risk-based disposal approval (RBDA) for solidifying approximately four cubic meters of waste from a specific area of one of the K East Basin: the North Loadout Pit (NLOP). The NLOP waste is a highly radioactive sludge that contained polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) regulated under TSCA. The prescribed disposal method for liquid PCB waste under TSCA regulations is either thermal treatment or decontamination. Due to the radioactive nature of the waste, however, neither thermal treatment nor decontamination was a viable option. As a result, the proposed treatment consisted of solidifying the material to comply with waste acceptance criteria at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WPP) in Carlsbad, New Mexico, or possibly the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility at the Hanford Site, depending on the resulting transuranic (TRU) content of the stabilized waste. The RBDA evaluated environmental risks associated with potential airborne PCBs. In addition, the RBDA made use of waste management controls already in place at the treatment unit. The treatment unit, the T Plant Complex, is a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA)-permitted facility used for storing and treating radioactive waste. The EPA found that the proposed activities did not pose an unreasonable risk to human health or the environment. Treatment took place from October 26,2005 to June 9,2006, and 332 208-liter (55-gallon) containers of solidified waste were produced. All treated drums assayed to date are TRU and will be disposed at WIPP.

  6. Example of a Risk-Based Disposal Approval: Solidification of Hanford Site Transuranic Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, B.M.; Hyatt, J.E.; Martin, P.W.; Prignano, A.L.

    2008-07-01

    The Hanford Site requested, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 10 approved, a Toxic Substances Control Act of 1976 (TSCA) risk-based disposal approval (RBDA) for solidifying approximately four cubic meters of waste from a specific area of one of the K East Basin: the North Loadout Pit (NLOP). The NLOP waste is a highly radioactive sludge that contained polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) regulated under TSCA. The prescribed disposal method for liquid PCB waste under TSCA regulations is either thermal treatment or decontamination. Due to the radioactive nature of the waste, however, neither thermal treatment nor decontamination was a viable option. As a result, the proposed treatment consisted of solidifying the material to comply with waste acceptance criteria at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in Carlsbad, New Mexico, or possibly the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility at the Hanford Site, depending on the resulting transuranic (TRU) content of the stabilized waste. The RBDA evaluated environmental risks associated with potential airborne PCBs. In addition, the RBDA made use of waste management controls already in place at the treatment unit. The treatment unit, the T Plant Complex, is a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA)-permitted facility used for storing and treating radioactive waste. The EPA found that the proposed activities did not pose an unreasonable risk to human health or the environment. Treatment took place from October 26, 2005 to June 9, 2006, and 332 208-liter (55-gallon) containers of solidified waste were produced. All treated drums assayed to date are TRU and will be disposed at WIPP. (authors)

  7. Dungeness crab survey for the Southwest Ocean Disposal Site off Grays Harbor, Washington, June 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Higgins, B.J.; Pearson, W.H. )

    1991-09-01

    As part of the Grays Harbor Navigation Improvement Project, the Seattle District of the US Army Corps of Engineers has begun active use of the Southwest Ocean Disposal Site off Grays Harbor, Washington. This survey was to verify that the location of the area of high crab density observed during site selection surveys has not shifted into the Southeast Ocean Disposal Site. In June 1990, mean densities of juvenile Dungeness crab were 146 crab/ha within the disposal site and 609 crab/ha outside ad north of the disposal site. At nearshore locations outside the disposal site, juvenile crab density was 3275 crab/ha. Despite the low overall abundance, the spatial distribution of crab was such that the high crab densities in 1990 have remained outside the Southwest Ocean Disposal Site. The survey data have confirmed the appropriateness of the initial selection of the disposal site boundaries and indicated no need to move to the second monitoring tier. 8 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Performance evaluation of the technical capabilities of DOE sites for disposal of mixed low-level waste: Volume 3, Site evaluations

    SciTech Connect

    Waters, R.D.; Gruebel, M.M.

    1996-03-01

    A team of analysts designed and conducted a performance evaluation to estimate the technical capabilities of fifteen Department of Energy sites for disposal of mixed low-level waste (i.e., waste that contains both low-level radioactive materials and hazardous constituents). Volume 1 summarizes the process for selecting the fifteen sites, the methodology used in the evaluation, and the conclusions derived from the evaluation. Volume 2 provides details about the site-selection process, the performance-evaluation methodology, and the overall results of the analysis. Volume 3 contains detailed evaluations of the fifteen sites and discussion of the results for each site.

  9. Savannah River Site waste vitrification projects initiated throughout the United States: Disposal and recycle options

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C.M.

    2000-04-10

    A vitrification process was developed and successfully implemented by the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) and at the West Valley Nuclear Services (WVNS) to convert high-level liquid nuclear wastes (HLLW) to a solid borosilicate glass for safe long term geologic disposal. Over the last decade, SRS has successfully completed two additional vitrification projects to safely dispose of mixed low level wastes (MLLW) (radioactive and hazardous) at the SRS and at the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). The SRS, in conjunction with other laboratories, has also demonstrated that vitrification can be used to dispose of a wide variety of MLLW and low-level wastes (LLW) at the SRS, at ORR, at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), at Rocky Flats (RF), at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), and at the Hanford Waste Vitrification Project (HWVP). The SRS, in conjunction with the Electric Power Research Institute and the National Atomic Energy Commission of Argentina (CNEA), have demonstrated that vitrification can also be used to safely dispose of ion-exchange (IEX) resins and sludges from commercial nuclear reactors. In addition, the SRS has successfully demonstrated that numerous wastes declared hazardous by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) can be vitrified, e.g. mining industry wastes, contaminated harbor sludges, asbestos containing material (ACM), Pb-paint on army tanks and bridges. Once these EPA hazardous wastes are vitrified, the waste glass is rendered non-hazardous allowing these materials to be recycled as glassphalt (glass impregnated asphalt for roads and runways), roofing shingles, glasscrete (glass used as aggregate in concrete), or other uses. Glass is also being used as a medium to transport SRS americium (Am) and curium (Cm) to the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) for recycle in the ORR medical source program and use in smoke detectors at an estimated value of $1.5 billion to the general public.

  10. Understanding the physical and environmental consequences of dredged material disposal: history in New England and current perspectives.

    PubMed

    Fredette, T J; French, G T

    2004-07-01

    Thirty-five years of research in New England indicates that ocean disposal of dredged material has minimal environmental impacts when carefully managed. This paper summarizes research efforts and resulting conclusions by the US Army Corps of Engineers, New England District, beginning with the Scientific Report Series and continuing with the Disposal Area Monitoring System (DAMOS). Using a tiered approach to monitoring and a wide range of tools, the DAMOS program has monitored short- and long-term physical and biological effects of disposal at designated disposal sites throughout New England waters. The DAMOS program has also helped develop new techniques for safe ocean disposal of contaminated sediments, including capping and confined aquatic disposal (CAD) cells. Monitoring conducted at many sites in New England and around the world has shown that impacts are typically near-field and short-term. Findings such as these need to be disseminated to the general public, whose perception of dredged material disposal is generally negative and is not strongly rooted in current science. PMID:15234878

  11. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 543: Liquid Disposal Units, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2008-01-01

    This Closure Report (CR) documents closure activities for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 543, Liquid Disposal Units, according to the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996) and the Corrective Action Plan (CAP) for CAU 543 (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office [NNSA/NSO], 2007). CAU 543 is located at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada (Figure 1), and consists of the following seven Corrective Action Sites (CASs): CAS 06-07-01, Decon Pad; CAS 15-01-03, Aboveground Storage Tank; CAS 15-04-01, Septic Tank; CAS 15-05-01, Leachfield; CAS 15-08-01, Liquid Manure Tank; CAS 15-23-01, Underground Radioactive Material Area; CAS 15-23-03, Contaminated Sump, Piping; and CAS 06-07-01 is located at the Decontamination Facility in Area 6, adjacent to Yucca Lake. The remaining CASs are located at the former U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Farm in Area 15. The purpose of this CR is to provide a summary of the completed closure activities, to document waste disposal, and to present analytical data confirming that the remediation goals were met. The closure alternatives consisted of closure in place for two of the CASs, and no further action with implementation of best management practices (BMPs) for the remaining five CASs.

  12. Long-term surveillance plan for the Gunnison, Colorado disposal site. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    1997-02-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Gunnison disposal site in Gunnison County, Colorado. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has developed regulations for the issuance of a general license for the custody and long-term care of UMTRA Project disposal sites in 10 CFR Part 40. The purpose of this general license is to ensure that the UMTRA Project disposal sites will be cared for in a manner that protects the public health and safety and the environment. Before each disposal site is licensed, the NRC requires the DOE to submit a site-specific LTSP. This LTSP describes the long-term surveillance program the DOE will implement to ensure that the Gunnison disposal site performs as designed. The program is based on two distinct activities: (1) site inspections to identify threats to disposal cell integrity, and (2) ground water monitoring to demonstrate disposal cell performance.

  13. Selection and investigation of sites for the disposal of radioactive wastes in hydraulically induced subsurface fractures

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, R.J.

    1982-01-01

    Injection of intermediate-level radioactive wastes (specific activity of less than 6 x 10/sup 3/ ..mu..Ci/mL, consisting mainly of radionuclides, such as strontium and cesium, having half-lives of less than 50 years) mixed with cement into a thick shale formation is a promising and feasible disposal method. Hydraulic fracturing provides openings in the shale to accommodate the wastes. Ion exchange and radionuclide-adsorption materials can be added to the grout during mixing to further increase the radionuclide-retaining capacity of the grout. After solidification of the grout, the injected wastes become an integral part of the shale formation, and therefore the wastes will remain at depth and in place as long as the injection zone is not subjected to erosion and dissolution. Problems concerning safety of the disposal method are (1) the potential for inducing vertical fractures, (2) phase separation during and after the injections, (3) the reliability of methods for determining the orientation of induced fractures, (4) the possibility of triggering earthquakes, and (5) radionuclides being leached and transported by ground water. Theoretical considerations about inducing nearly horizontal bedding-plane fractures in shale are discussed, as are field procedures for site selection, safety, and the monitoring and operation of radioactive waste disposal. Case histories are used as examples to demonstrate the application of the theory and techniques of field operations. (JMT)

  14. Selection and investigation of sites for the disposal of radioactive wastes in hydraulically induced subsurface fractures

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, R.J.

    1982-01-01

    Injection of intermediate-level radioactive wastes (specific activity of less than 6 x 10/sup 3/..mu..Ci/mL, consisting mainly of radionuclides, such as strontium and cesium, having half-lives of less than 50 years) mixed with cement into a thick shale formation is a promising and feasible disposal method. Hydraulic fracturing provides openings in the shale to accommodate the wastes. Ion exchange and radionuclide-adsorption materials can be added to the grout during mixing to further increase the radionuclide-retaining capacity of the grout. After solidification of the grout, the injected wastes become an integral part of the shale formation, and therefore the wastes will remain at depth and in place as long as the injection zone is not subjected to erosion or dissolution. Problems concerning safety of the disposal method are: (1) the potential for inducing vertical fractures, (2) phase separation during and after the injections, (3) the reliability of methods for determining the orientation of induced fractures, (4) the possibility of triggering earthquakes, and (5) radionuclides being leached and transported by ground water. Theoretical considerations about inducing nearly horizontal bedding-plane fractures in shale are discussed, as are field procedures for site selection, safety, and the monitoring and operation of radioactive waste disposal. Case histories are used as examples to demonstrate the application of the theory and techniques of field operations.

  15. Framework for DOE mixed low-level waste disposal: Site fact sheets

    SciTech Connect

    Gruebel, M.M.; Waters, R.D.; Hospelhorn, M.B.; Chu, M.S.Y.

    1994-11-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is required to prepare and submit Site Treatment Plans (STPS) pursuant to the Federal Facility Compliance Act (FFCAct). Although the FFCAct does not require that disposal be addressed in the STPS, the DOE and the States recognize that treatment of mixed low-level waste will result in residues that will require disposal in either low-level waste or mixed low-level waste disposal facilities. As a result, the DOE is working with the States to define and develop a process for evaluating disposal-site suitability in concert with the FFCAct and development of the STPS. Forty-nine potential disposal sites were screened; preliminary screening criteria reduced the number of sites for consideration to twenty-six. The DOE then prepared fact sheets for the remaining sites. These fact sheets provided additional site-specific information for understanding the strengths and weaknesses of the twenty-six sites as potential disposal sites. The information also provided the basis for discussion among affected States and the DOE in recommending sites for more detailed evaluation.

  16. Regional hydrogeological screening characteristics used for siting near-surface waste-disposal facilities in Oklahoma, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, K.S.

    1991-01-01

    The Oklahoma Geological Survey has developed several maps and reports for preliminary screening of the state of Oklahoma to identify areas that are generally acceptable or unacceptable for disposal of a wide variety of waste materials. These maps and reports focus on the geologic and hydrogeologic parameters that must be evaluated in the screening process. One map (and report) shows the outcrop distribution of 35 thick shale or clay units that are generally suitable for use as host rocks for surface disposal of wastes. A second map shows the distribution of unconsolidated alluvial and terrace-deposit aquifers, and a third map shows the distribution and hydrologic character of bedrock aquifers and their recharge areas. These latter two maps show the areas in the state where special attention must be exercised in permitting storage or disposal of waste materials that could degrade the quality of groundwater. State regulatory agencies and industry are using these maps and reports in preliminary screening of the state to identify potential disposal sites. These maps in no way replace the need for site-specific investigations to prove (or disprove) the adequacy of a site to safely contain waste materials. ?? 1991 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  17. Description of a Multipurpose Processing and Storage Complex for the Hanford Site`s radioactive material

    SciTech Connect

    Nyman, D.H.; Wolfe, B.A.; Hoertkorn, T.R.

    1993-05-01

    The mission of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Site has changed from defense nuclear materials production to that of waste management/disposal and environmental restoration. ne Multipurpose Processing and Storage Complex (MPSC) is being designed to process discarded waste tank internal hardware contaminated with mixed wastes, failed melters from the vitrification plant, and other Hanford Site high-level solid waste. The MPSC also will provide interim storage of other radioactive materials (irradiated fuel, canisters of vitrified high-level waste [HLW], special nuclear material [SNM], and other designated radioactive materials).

  18. A Probabilistic Performance Assessment Study of Potential Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Sites in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knowlton, R. G.; Arnold, B. W.; Mattie, P. D.; Kuo, M.; Tien, N.

    2006-12-01

    For several years now, Taiwan has been engaged in a process to select a low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal site. Taiwan is generating LLW from operational and decommissioning wastes associated with nuclear power reactors, as well as research, industrial, and medical radioactive wastes. The preliminary selection process has narrowed the search to four potential candidate sites. These sites are to be evaluated in a performance assessment analysis to determine the likelihood of meeting the regulatory criteria for disposal. Sandia National Laboratories and Taiwan's Institute of Nuclear Energy Research have been working together to develop the necessary performance assessment methodology and associated computer models to perform these analyses. The methodology utilizes both deterministic (e.g., single run) and probabilistic (e.g., multiple statistical realizations) analyses to achieve the goals. The probabilistic approach provides a means of quantitatively evaluating uncertainty in the model predictions and a more robust basis for performing sensitivity analyses to better understand what is driving the dose predictions from the models. Two types of disposal configurations are under consideration: a shallow land burial concept and a cavern disposal concept. The shallow land burial option includes a protective cover to limit infiltration potential to the waste. Both conceptual designs call for the disposal of 55 gallon waste drums within concrete lined trenches or tunnels, and backfilled with grout. Waste emplaced in the drums may be solidified. Both types of sites are underlain or placed within saturated fractured bedrock material. These factors have influenced the conceptual model development of each site, as well as the selection of the models to employ for the performance assessment analyses. Several existing codes were integrated in order to facilitate a comprehensive performance assessment methodology to evaluate the potential disposal sites. First, a need

  19. Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal from Shark River Project area

    SciTech Connect

    Antrim, L.D.; Gardiner, W.W.; Barrows, E.S.; Borde, A.B.

    1996-09-01

    The objective of the Shark River Project was to evaluate proposed dredged material to determine its suitability for unconfined ocean disposal at the Mud Dump Site. Tests and analyses were conducted on the Shark River sediments. The evaluation of proposed dredged material consisted of bulk sediment chemical and physical analysis, chemical analyses of dredging site water and elutriate, water-column and benthic acute toxicity tests, and bioaccumulation tests. Individual sediment core samples collected from the Shark River were analyzed for grain size, moisture content, and total organic carbon (TOC). One sediment composite was analyzed for bulk density, specific gravity, metals, chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and 1,4- dichlorobenzene. Dredging site water and elutriate, prepared from suspended-particulate phase (SPP) of the Shark River sediment composite, were analyzed for metals, pesticides, and PCBs. Benthic acute toxicity tests and bioaccumulation tests were performed.

  20. Survey of degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers

    SciTech Connect

    Gdowski, G.E.; Bullen, D.B. )

    1988-08-01

    Three copper-based alloys and three iron- to nickel-based austenitic alloys are being considered as possible materials for fabrication of containers for disposal of high-level radioactive waste. This waste will include spent fuel assemblies from reactors as well as high-level waste in borosilicate glass and will be sent to the prospective site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for disposal. The containers must maintain substantially complete containment for at least 300 yr and perhaps as long as 1000 yr. During the first 50 yr after emplacement, they must be retrievable from the disposal site. Shortly after the containers are emplaced in the repository, they will be exposed to high temperatures and high gamma radiation fields from the decay of the high-level waste. This volume surveys the available data on oxidation and corrosion of the iron- to nickel-based austenitic materials (Types 304L and 316L stainless steels and Alloy 825) and the copper-based alloy materials (CDA 102 (oxygen-free copper), CDA 613 (Cu-7Al), and CDA 715 (Cu-30Ni)), which are the present candidates for fabrication of the containers. Studies that provided a large amount of data are highlighted, and those areas in which little data exists are identified. Examples of successful applications of these materials are given. On the basis of resistance to oxidation and general corrosion, the austenitic materials are ranked as follows: Alloy 825 (best), Type 316L stainless steel, and then Type 304L stainless steel (worst). For the copper-based materials, the ranking is as follows: CDA 715 and CDA 613 (both best), and CDA 102 (worst). 110 refs., 30 figs., 13 tabs.

  1. Identification of sites for the low-level waste disposal development and demonstration program

    SciTech Connect

    Ketelle, R.H.; Lee, D.W.

    1988-04-01

    This report presents the results of site selection studies for potential low-level radioactive waste disposal sites on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). Summaries of the site selection procedures used and results of previous site selection studies on the ORR are included. This report includes recommendations of sites for demonstration of shallow land burial using engineered trench designs and demonstration of above-grade disposal using design concepts similar to those used in tumulus disposal. The site selection study, like its predecessor (ORNL/TM-9717, Use of DOE Site Selection Criteria for Screening Low-Level Waste Disposal Sites on the Oak Ridge Reservation), involved application of exclusionary site screening criteria to the region of interest to eliminate unacceptable areas from consideration. Also like the previous study, the region of interest for this study was limited to the Oak Ridge Department of Energy Reservation. Reconnaissance-level environmental data were used in the study, and field inspections of candidate sites were made to verify the available reconnaissance data. Five candidate sites, all underlain by Knox dolomite residuum and bedrock, were identified for possible development of shallow land burial facilities. Of the five candidate sites, the West Chestnut site was judged to be best suited for deployment of the shallow land burial technology. Three candidate sites, all underlain by the Conasauga Group in Bear Creek Valley, were identified for possible development of above-grade disposal technologies. Of the three sites identified, the Central Bear Creek Valley site lying between State Route 95 and Gum Hollow Road was ranked most favorable for deployment of the above-grade disposal technology.

  2. Contamination by perfluorinated compounds in water near waste recycling and disposal sites in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joon-Woo; Tue, Nguyen Minh; Isobe, Tomohiko; Misaki, Kentaro; Takahashi, Shin; Viet, Pham Hung; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2013-04-01

    There are very few reports on the contamination by perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) in the environment of developing countries, especially regarding their emission from waste recycling and disposal sites. This is the first study on the occurrence of a wide range of PFCs (17 compounds) in ambient water in Vietnam, including samples collected from a municipal dumping site (MD), an e-waste recycling site (ER), a battery recycling site (BR) and a rural control site. The highest PFC concentration was found in a leachate sample from MD (360 ng/L). The PFC concentrations in ER and BR (mean, 57 and 16 ng/L, respectively) were also significantly higher than those detected in the rural control site (mean, 9.4 ng/L), suggesting that municipal solid waste and waste electrical and electronic equipment are potential contamination sources of PFCs in Vietnam. In general, the most abundant PFCs were perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), and perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUDA; <1.4-100, <1.2-100, and <0.5-20 ng/L, respectively). Interestingly, there were specific PFC profiles: perfluoroheptanoic acid and perfluorohexanoic acid (88 and 77 ng/L, respectively) were almost as abundant as PFOA in MD leachate (100 ng/L), whereas PFNA was prevalent in ER and BR (mean, 17 and 6.2 ng/L, respectively) and PFUDA was the most abundant in municipal wastewater (mean, 5.6 ng/L), indicating differences in PFC contents in different waste materials. PMID:22773082

  3. Site selection and investigation for subsurface disposal of radioactive wastes in hydraulically induced fractures

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, R.J.

    1980-01-01

    Injection into a thick shale formation of intermediate-level radioactive wastes (specific activity of less than 6 x 10/sup 3/ ..mu..Ci/ml consisting mainly of radionuclides such as strontium and cesium with half-lives of less than 50 years) mixed with cement is a promising and feasible disposal method. Hydraulic fracturing provides openings in the shale to accommodate the wastes. Ion exchange and radionuclide adsorption materials can be added to the grout during mixing to further increase the radionuclide retaining capacity of the grout. After solidification of the grout, the injected wastes become an integral part of the shale formation and thus the wastes will remain at depth and in place as long as the injection zone is not subjected to erosion or dissolution. Problems concerning safety of the disposal method are: (1) potential of inducing vertical fractures; (2) phase separation during and after injections; (3) reliability of methods for determining orientation of induced fractures; (4) possibility of triggering earthquakes; and (5) radionuclides leaching and transporting by ground water. Waste injections are made in multiple-layer injection stages in an injection well. After the first series of injections are made at the greatest depth, the well is plugged by cement at the injection depth. The depth of the second series of injections is located at a suitable distance above the first injection depth. The repeated use of the injection well distributes the cost of construction of injection and monitoring wells over many injections, thereby making hydraulic fracturing and grout injection economically attractive as a method for disposal of radioactive wastes. Theoretical considerations of inducing nearly horizontal bedding-plane fractures in shale and field procedures for site selection, safety, monitoring and operation of radioactive waste disposal are discussed. Case histories are used as examples to demonstrate the theoretical applications and field operations.

  4. 36 CFR 6.6 - Solid waste disposal sites within new additions to the National Park System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Solid waste disposal sites... NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL SITES IN UNITS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 6.6 Solid waste disposal sites within new additions to the National Park System. (a) An...

  5. 40 CFR 228.13 - Guidelines for ocean disposal site baseline or trend assessment surveys under section 102 of the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Guidelines for ocean disposal site... Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING CRITERIA FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF DISPOSAL SITES FOR OCEAN DUMPING § 228.13 Guidelines for ocean disposal site baseline or trend assessment...

  6. 40 CFR 228.13 - Guidelines for ocean disposal site baseline or trend assessment surveys under section 102 of the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Guidelines for ocean disposal site... Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING CRITERIA FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF DISPOSAL SITES FOR OCEAN DUMPING § 228.13 Guidelines for ocean disposal site baseline or trend assessment...

  7. 40 CFR 228.13 - Guidelines for ocean disposal site baseline or trend assessment surveys under section 102 of the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Guidelines for ocean disposal site... Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING CRITERIA FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF DISPOSAL SITES FOR OCEAN DUMPING § 228.13 Guidelines for ocean disposal site baseline or trend assessment...

  8. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 543: Liquid Disposal Units, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2007-04-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 543: Liquid Disposal Units is listed in Appendix III of the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO) which was agreed to by the state of Nevada, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the U.S. Department of Defense (FFACO, 1996). CAU 543 sites are located in Areas 6 and 15 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), which is approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. CAU 543 consists of the following seven Corrective Action Sites (CASs) (Figure 1): CAS 06-07-01, Decon Pad; CAS 15-01-03, Aboveground Storage Tank; CAS 15-04-01, Septic Tank; CAS 15-05-01, Leachfield; CAS 15-08-01, Liquid Manure Tank; CAS 15-23-01, Underground Radioactive Material Area; and CAS 15-23-03, Contaminated Sump, Piping. All Area 15 CASs are located at the former U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Farm, which operated from 1963 to 1981 and was used to support animal experiments involving the uptake of radionuclides. Each of the Area 15 CASs, except CAS 15-23-01, is associated with the disposal of waste effluent from Building 15-06, which was the primary location of the various tests and experiments conducted onsite. Waste effluent disposal from Building 15-06 involved piping, sumps, outfalls, a septic tank with leachfield, underground storage tanks, and an aboveground storage tank (AST). CAS 15-23-01 was associated with decontamination activities of farm equipment potentially contaminated with radiological constituents, pesticides, and herbicides. While the building structures were removed before the investigation took place, all the original tanks, sumps, piping, and concrete building pads remain in place. The Area 6 CAS is located at the Decontamination Facility in Area 6, a facility which operated from 1971 to 2001 and was used to decontaminate vehicles, equipment, clothing, and other materials that had become contaminated during nuclear testing activities. The CAS includes the effluent collection and distribution systems for Buildings

  9. Long-term surveillance plan for the Mexican Hat disposal site Mexican Hat, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Mexican Hat, Utah, disposal site. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has developed regulations for the issuance of a general license for the custody and long-term care of UMTRA Project disposal sites in 10 CFR Part 40. The purpose of this general license is to ensure that the UMTRA Project disposal sites will be cared for in a manner that protects the public health and safety and the environment. Before each disposal site is licensed, the NRC requires the DOE to submit a site-specific LTSP. The DOE prepared this LTSP to meet this requirement for the Mexican Hat disposal site. The general license becomes effective when the NRC concurs with the DOE`s determination of completion of remedial action for the disposal site and the NRC formally accepts this LTSP. This LTSP describes the long-term surveillance program the DOE will implement to ensure that the Mexican Hat disposal site performs as designed. The program is based on two distinct types of activities: (1) site inspections to identify potential threats to disposal cell integrity, and (2) monitoring of selected seeps to observe changes in flow rates and water quality. The LTSP is based on the UMTRA Project long-term surveillance program guidance and meets the requirements of 10 CFR {section}40.27(b) and 40 CFR {section}192.03. 18 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Methods of using structures including catalytic materials disposed within porous zeolite materials to synthesize hydrocarbons

    DOEpatents

    Rollins, Harry W.; Petkovic, Lucia M.; Ginosar, Daniel M.

    2011-02-01

    Catalytic structures include a catalytic material disposed within a zeolite material. The catalytic material may be capable of catalyzing a formation of methanol from carbon monoxide and/or carbon dioxide, and the zeolite material may be capable of catalyzing a formation of hydrocarbon molecules from methanol. The catalytic material may include copper and zinc oxide. The zeolite material may include a first plurality of pores substantially defined by a crystal structure of the zeolite material and a second plurality of pores dispersed throughout the zeolite material. Systems for synthesizing hydrocarbon molecules also include catalytic structures. Methods for synthesizing hydrocarbon molecules include contacting hydrogen and at least one of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide with such catalytic structures. Catalytic structures are fabricated by forming a zeolite material at least partially around a template structure, removing the template structure, and introducing a catalytic material into the zeolite material.

  11. Conceptual Design Report: Nevada Test Site Mixed Waste Disposal Facility Project

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2009-01-31

    Environmental cleanup of contaminated nuclear weapons manufacturing and test sites generates radioactive waste that must be disposed. Site cleanup activities throughout the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex are projected to continue through 2050. Some of this waste is mixed waste (MW), containing both hazardous and radioactive components. In addition, there is a need for MW disposal from other mission activities. The Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement Record of Decision designates the Nevada Test Site (NTS) as a regional MW disposal site. The NTS has a facility that is permitted to dispose of onsite- and offsite-generated MW until November 30, 2010. There is not a DOE waste management facility that is currently permitted to dispose of offsite-generated MW after 2010, jeopardizing the DOE environmental cleanup mission and other MW-generating mission-related activities. A mission needs document (CD-0) has been prepared for a newly permitted MW disposal facility at the NTS that would provide the needed capability to support DOE's environmental cleanup mission and other MW-generating mission-related activities. This report presents a conceptual engineering design for a MW facility that is fully compliant with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and DOE O 435.1, 'Radioactive Waste Management'. The facility, which will be located within the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the NTS, will provide an approximately 20,000-cubic yard waste disposal capacity. The facility will be licensed by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP).

  12. Long-term surveillance plan for the Lowman, Idaho, Disposal site. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    The long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Lowman, Idaho, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal site describes the surveillance activities for the Lowman disposal site, which will be referred to as the Lowman site throughout this document. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. The radioactive sands at the Lowman site were stabilized on the site. This final LTSP is being submitted to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) as a requirement for issuance of a general license for custody and long-term care for the disposal site. The general license requires that the disposal cell be cared for in accordance with the provisions of this LTSP. The LTSP documents whether the land and interests are owned by the United States or a state, and describes, in detail, how the long-term care of the disposal site will be carried out through the UMTRA Project long-term surveillance program. The Lowman, Idaho, LTSP is based on the DOE`s Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program, (DOE, 1992).

  13. Model and assessment of the contribution of dredged material disposal to sea-surface contamination in Puget Sound

    SciTech Connect

    Hardy, J.T.; Cowan, C.E.

    1986-02-01

    Hydrophobic or floatable materials released to the water column during dredge disposal operations may accumulate in high concentrations on the water surface. If such surface accumulations occur, they could impact the reproduction of fish and shellfish with neustonic (floating) eggs or larvae. Also, floatable surface contaminants could deposit on nearby beaches. In order to examine the potential impacts of such processes, an interactive computer (IBM PC) model was developed. The FORTRAN model allows input of contaminant concentrations on the dredge material, the surface area of the disposal site, the floatable fraction of the contaminated material, and the baseline concentrations of contaminants present in the sea-surface microlayer. The model then computes the resultant concentrations of each contaminant in the microlayer and the potential impact on floating fish eggs. The utility of the model would be greatly improved by empirical data, not yeat available, on the vertical upward and lateral movement of contaminants during dredge material disposal.

  14. The application of magnetic gradiometry and electromagnetic induction at a former radioactive waste disposal site.

    PubMed

    Rucker, Dale Franklin

    2010-04-01

    A former radioactive waste disposal site is surveyed with two non-intrusive geophysical techniques, including magnetic gradiometry and electromagnetic induction. Data were gathered over the site by towing the geophysical equipment mounted to a non-electrically conductive and non-magnetic fibre-glass cart. Magnetic gradiometry, which detects the location of ferromagnetic material, including iron and steel, was used to map the existence of a previously unknown buried pipeline formerly used in the delivery of liquid waste to a number of surface disposal trenches and concrete vaults. The existence of a possible pipeline is reinforced by historical engineering drawing and photographs. The electromagnetic induction (EMI) technique was used to map areas of high and low electrical conductivity, which coincide with the magnetic gradiometry data. The EMI also provided information on areas of high electrical conductivity unrelated to a pipeline network. Both data sets demonstrate the usefulness of surface geophysical surveillance techniques to minimize the risk of exposure in the event of future remediation efforts. PMID:20124318

  15. LINERS FOR SANITARY LANDFILLS AND CHEMICAL AND HAZARDOUS WASTE DISPOSAL SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report lists addresses of sanitary landfills and chemical and hazardous waste disposal sites and holding ponds with some form of impermeable lining. Liners included are polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride, Hypalon R, ethylene propylene diene monomer, butyl rubber, conventional ...

  16. Overview of Nevada Test Site Radioactive and Mixed Waste Disposal Operations

    SciTech Connect

    J.T. Carilli; S.K. Krenzien; R.G. Geisinger; S.J. Gordon; B. Quinn

    2009-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office Environmental Management Program is responsible for carrying out the disposal of on-site and off-site generated low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and low-level radioactive mixed waste (MW) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Core elements of this mission are ensuring safe and cost-effective disposal while protecting workers, the public, and the environment. This paper focuses on the impacts of new policies, processes, and opportunities at the NTS related to LLW and MW. Covered topics include: the first year of direct funding for NTS waste disposal operations; zero tolerance policy for non-compliant packages; the suspension of mixed waste disposal; waste acceptance changes; DOE Consolidated Audit Program (DOECAP) auditing; the 92-Acre Area closure plan; new eligibility requirements for generators; and operational successes with unusual waste streams.

  17. Survey of degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers

    SciTech Connect

    Bullen, D.B.; Gdowski, G.E. )

    1988-08-01

    Three copper-based alloys and three iron- to nickel-based austenitic alloys are being considered as possible materials for fabrication of high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers. The waste will include spent fuel assemblies from reactors as well as high-level waste in borosilicate glass and will be sent to the prospective site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for disposal. The copper-based alloy materials are CDA 102 (oxygen-free copper), CDA 613 (Cu-7Al), and CDA 715 (Cu-30Ni). The austenitic materials are Types 304L and 316L stainless steels and Alloy 825. The waste-package containers must maintain substantially complete containment for at least 300 yr and perhaps as long as 1000 yr, and they must be retrievable from the disposal site during the first 50 yr after emplacement. The containers will be exposed to high temperatures and high gamma radiation fields from the decay of high-level waste. This volume surveys the available data on the phase stability of both groups of candidate alloys. The austenitic alloys are reviewed in terms of the physical metallurgy of the iron-chromium-nickel system, martensite transformations, carbide formation, and intermetallic-phase precipitation. The copper-based alloys are reviewed in terms of their phase equilibria and the possibility of precipitation of the minor alloying constituents. For the austenitic materials, the ranking based on phase stability is: Alloy 825 (best), Type 316L stainless steel, and then Type 304L stainless steel (worst). For the copper-based materials, the ranking is: CDA 102 (oxygen-free copper) (best), and then both CDA 715 and CDA 613. 75 refs., 24 figs., 6 tabs.

  18. Long-term surveillance plan for the Shiprock disposal site, Shiprock, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    The long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Shiprock, New Mexico, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal site describes the surveillance activities for the Shiprock disposal cell. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This final LTSP is being submitted to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) as a requirement for issuance of a general license for custody and long-term care for the disposal site. The general license requires that the disposal cell be cared for in accordance with the provisions of this LTSP. This Shiprock, New Mexico, LTSP documents whether the land and interests are owned by the US or an Indian tribe and describes in detail the long-term care program through the UMTRA Project Office.

  19. Slope and bank erosional stability of the Canonsburg, Pennsylvania, UMTRA disposal site

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-12-01

    This report was prepared in response to US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) comments received in a letter of 8 March 1994. This letter included discussions of the US Department of Energy (DOE) 21 May 1993 geomorphic report for the Canonsburg, Pennsylvania, site. To clarify the NRC`s position, a DOE/NRC conference call was held on 12 April 1994. The NRC clarified that it did not require a preliminary erosion protection design for the Canonsburg site, but directed the DOE to address a ``one-bad-year`` scenario. The NRC wants confirmation that one bad year of stream flooding and landsliding will not release residual radioactive material (RRM) from the Canonsburg site into the creek. The NRC is concerned that a bad year theoretically could occur between postcell-closure inspections. These annual inspections are conducted in September or October. The NRC suggested that the following procedures should be conducted in this analysis: a flooding analysis, including the maximum saturation levels (flood water elevations) anticipated during a 100-year flood; a stream bank erosion analysis to determine how much of the bank adjacent to the site may be removed in a bad year; a slope stability analysis to determine how far back the site would be disturbed by slope instability that could be triggered by a bad year of stream bank erosion; and a ``critical cross section`` study to show the relationship of the RRM located outside the disposal cell to the maximum computer estimated erosion/landslide activity.

  20. Health effects of hazardous chemical waste disposal sites in New Jersey and in the United States: a review.

    PubMed

    Najem, G R; Cappadona, J L

    1991-01-01

    The hazardous chemical waste disposal issue is a widespread problem. Large quantities of chemical wastes have been produced by the chemical industries in the past forty years. Estimates now number disposal sites in the United States at least 30,000. The public and scientists have grown increasingly concerned about the effects of these waste disposal sites not only on the environment, but also on the human body. In this article, we review the number of hazardous chemical waste disposal sites (HCWDS), their construction, difficulties in defining their contents, and the establishment of the Superfund Act. We then discuss various studies in the literature that have attempted to define adverse health effects of HCWDS, particularly those examining Love Canal and sites in New Jersey. In our conclusions, we note the difficulties in establishing direct causal links between HCWDS and dangerous health effects. We suggest that more epidemiological studies are needed, with improved methodology for gathering complete data and studying large samples. Both positive and negative findings of epidemiological studies are important. Positive results will substantiate an association of health effects with HCWDS. Negative results may reduce the concerns of people living near HCWDS. Future investigators need sufficient information about HCWDS materials, possible routes of exposure, and measurements of exposure, as well as sufficient statistical power to detect even modest associations of health effects with HCWDS exposure. PMID:1790043

  1. Health effects of hazardous chemical waste disposal sites in New Jersey and in the United States: a review

    SciTech Connect

    Najem, G.R.; Cappadona, J.L. )

    1991-11-01

    The hazardous chemical waste disposal issue is a widespread problem. Large quantities of chemical wastes have been produced by the chemical industries in the past forty years. Estimates now number disposal sites in the United States at least 30,000. The public and scientists have grown increasingly concerned about the effects of these waste disposal sites not only on the environment, but also on the human body. In this article, we review the number of hazardous chemical waste disposal sites (HCWDS), their construction, difficulties in defining their contents, and the establishment of the Superfund Act. We then discuss various studies in the literature that have attempted to define adverse health effects of HCWDS, particularly those examining Love Canal and sites in New Jersey. In our conclusions, we note the difficulties in establishing direct causal links between HCWDS and dangerous health effects. We suggest that more epidemiological studies are needed, with improved methodology for gathering complete data and studying large samples. Both positive and negative findings of epidemiological studies are important. Positive results will substantiate an association of health effects with HCWDS. Negative results may reduce the concerns of people living near HCWDS. Future investigators need sufficient information about HCWDS materials, possible routes of exposure, and measurements of exposure, as well as sufficient statistical power to detect even modest associations of health effects with HCWDS exposure.71 references.

  2. Strategy for identifying natural analogs of the long-term performance of low-level waste disposal sites

    SciTech Connect

    Chatters, J.C.; Waugh, W.J.; Foley, M.G.; Kincaid, C.T.

    1990-07-01

    The US Department of Energy's Low-Level Waste (LLW) Management Program has asked Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to explore the feasibility of using natural analogs of anticipated waste site and conditions to help validate predictions of the performance of LLW disposal sites. Current regulations require LLW facilities to control the spread of hazardous substances into the environment for at least the next 500 years. Natural analog studies can provide information about processes affecting waste containment that cannot be fully explored through laboratory experimentation and modeling because of the extended period of required performance. For LLW applications, natural analogs include geochemical systems, pedogenic (soil formation) indicators, proxy climate data, and ecological and archaeological settings that portray long-term changes in disposal site environments and the survivability of proposed waste containment materials and structures. Analog data consist of estimates of performance assessment (PA) model input parameters that define possible future environmental states of waste sites, validation parameters that can be predicted by PA models, and descriptive information that can build public confidence in waste disposal practices. This document describes PNL's overall stategy for identifying analogs for LLW disposal systems, reviews lessons learned from past analogs work, outlines the findings of the workshop, and presents examples of analog studies that workshop participants found to be applicable to LLW performance assessment. The lessons from the high-level waste analogs experience and workshop discussions will be used to develop detailed study plans during FY 1990. 39 refs.

  3. 2013 Annual Site Inspection and Monitoring Report for Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act Title II Disposal Sites

    SciTech Connect

    2013-11-01

    This report, in fulfillment of a license requirement, presents the results of long-term surveillance and maintenance activities conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management in 2013 at six uranium mill tailings disposal sites reclaimed under Title II of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978. These activities verified that the UMTRCA Title II disposal sites remain in compliance with license requirements. DOE manages six UMTRCA Title II disposal sites under a general license granted by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) established at Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations Part 40.28. Reclamation and site transition activities continue at other sites, and DOE ultimately expects to manage approximately 27 Title II disposal sites. Long-term surveillance and maintenance activities and services for these disposal sites include inspecting and maintaining the sites; monitoring environmental media and institutional controls; conducting any necessary corrective action; and performing administrative, records, stakeholder services, and other regulatory functions. Annual site inspections and monitoring are conducted in accordance with site-specific long-term surveillance plans (LTSPs) and procedures established by DOE to comply with license requirements. Each site inspection is performed to verify the integrity of visible features at the site; to identify changes or new conditions that may affect the long-term performance of the site; and to determine the need, if any, for maintenance, follow-up inspections, or corrective action. LTSPs and site compliance reports are available online at http://www.lm.doe.gov

  4. Siting Study for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project

    SciTech Connect

    Lisa Harvego; Joan Connolly; Lance Peterson; Brennon Orr; Bob Starr

    2010-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy has identified a mission need for continued disposal capacity for remote-handled low-level waste (LLW) generated at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). An alternatives analysis that was conducted to evaluate strategies to achieve this mission need identified two broad options for disposal of INL generated remote-handled LLW: (1) offsite disposal and (2) onsite disposal. The purpose of this study is to identify candidate sites or locations within INL boundaries for the alternative of an onsite remote handled LLW disposal facility and recommend the highest-ranked locations for consideration in the National Environmental Policy Act process. The study implements an evaluation based on consideration of five key elements: (1) regulations, (2) key assumptions, (3) conceptual design, (4) facility performance, and (5) previous INL siting study criteria, and uses a five-step process to identify, screen, evaluate, score, and rank 34 separate sites located across INL. The result of the evaluation is identification of two recommended alternative locations for siting an onsite remote-handled LLW disposal facility. The two alternative locations that best meet the evaluation criteria are (1) near the Advanced Test Reactor Complex and (2) west of the Idaho Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act Disposal Facility.

  5. Geological site characterization for the proposed Mixed Waste Disposal Facility, Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Reneau, S.L.; Raymond, R. Jr.

    1995-12-01

    This report presents the results of geological site characterization studies conducted from 1992 to 1994 on Pajarito Mesa for a proposed Los Alamos National Laboratory Mixed Waste Disposal Facility (MWDF). The MWDF is being designed to receive mixed waste (waste containing both hazardous and radioactive components) generated during Environmental Restoration Project cleanup activities at Los Alamos. As of 1995, there is no Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) permitted disposal site for mixed waste at the Laboratory, and construction of the MWDF would provide an alternative to transport of this material to an off-site location. A 2.5 km long part of Pajarito Mesa was originally considered for the MWDF, extending from an elevation of about 2150 to 2225 m (7060 to 7300 ft) in Technical Areas (TAs) 15, 36, and 67 in the central part of the Laboratory, and planning was later concentrated on the western area in TA-67. The mesa top lies about 60 to 75 m (200 to 250 ft) above the floor of Pajarito Canyon on the north, and about 30 m (100 ft) above the floor of Threemile Canyon on the south. The main aquifer used as a water supply for the Laboratory and for Los Alamos County lies at an estimated depth of about 335 m (1100 ft) below the mesa. The chapters of this report focus on surface and near-surface geological studies that provide a basic framework for siting of the MWDF and for conducting future performance assessments, including fulfillment of specific regulatory requirements. This work includes detailed studies of the stratigraphy, mineralogy, and chemistry of the bedrock at Pajarito Mesa by Broxton and others, studies of the geological structure and of mesa-top soils and surficial deposits by Reneau and others, geologic mapping and studies of fracture characteristics by Vaniman and Chipera, and studies of potential landsliding and rockfall along the mesa-edge by Reneau.

  6. Survey of degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers

    SciTech Connect

    Gdowski, G.E.; Bullen, D.B. )

    1988-08-01

    Six alloys are being considered as possible materials for the fabrication of containers for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Three of these candidate materials are copper-based alloys: CDA 102 (oxygen-free copper), CDA 613 (Cu-7Al), and CDA 715 (Cu-30Ni). The other three are iron- to nickel-based austenitic materials: Types 304L and 316L stainless steels and Alloy 825. Radioactive waste will include spent-fuel assemblies from reactors as well as waste in borosilicate glass and will be sent to the prospective site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for disposal. The waste-package containers must maintain substantially complete containment for at least 300 yr and perhaps as long as 1000 yr. During the first 50 yr after emplacement, the containers must be retrievable from the disposal site. Shortly after emplacement of the containers in the repository, they will be exposed to high temperatures and high gamma radiation fields from the decay of high-level waste. This radiation will promote the radiolytic decomposition of moist air to hydrogen. This volume surveys the available data on the effects of hydrogen on the six candidate alloys for fabrication of the containers. For copper, the mechanism of hydrogen embrittlement is discussed, and the effects of hydrogen on the mechanical properties of the copper-based alloys are reviewed. The solubilities and diffusivities of hydrogen are documented for these alloys. For the austenitic materials, the degradation of mechanical properties by hydrogen is documented. The diffusivity and solubility of hydrogen in these alloys are also presented. For the copper-based alloys, the ranking according to resistance to detrimental effects of hydrogen is: CDA 715 (best) > CDA 613 > CDA 102 (worst). For the austenitic alloys, the ranking is: Type 316L stainless steel {approx} Alloy 825 > Type 304L stainless steel (worst). 87 refs., 19 figs., 8 tabs.

  7. Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal from Westchester Creek project area, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Pinza, M.R.; Gardiner, W.W.; Barrows, E.S.; Borde, A.B.

    1996-11-01

    The objective of the Westchester Creek project was to evaluate proposed dredged material from this area to determine its suitability for unconfined ocean disposal at the Mud Dump Site. Westchester Creek was one of five waterways that the US Army Corps of Engineers- New York District (USACE-NYD) requested the Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) to sample and evaluate for dredging and disposal in May 1995. The evaluation of proposed dredged material from the Westchester Creek project area consisted of bulk sediment chemical analyses, chemical analyses of dredging site water and elutriate, benthic acute and water-column toxicity tests, and bioaccumulation studies. Thirteen individual sediment core samples were collected from this area and analyzed for grain size, moisture content, and total organic carbon (TOC). One composite sediment sample representing the Westchester Creek area to be dredged, was analyzed for bulk density, specific gravity, metals, chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and 1,4-dichlorobenzene. Dredging site water and elutriate water, which is prepared from the suspended- particulate phase (SPP) of the Westchester Creek sediment composite, was analyzed for metals, pesticides, and PCBS.

  8. Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean Disposal from Shoal Harbor/Compton Creek Project Area

    SciTech Connect

    Gardiner, W.W.; Borde, A.B.; Nieukirk, S.L.; Barrows, E.S.; Gruendell, B.D.; Word, J.Q.

    1996-10-01

    The objective of the Shoal Harbor/Compton Creek Project was to evaluate proposed dredged material from the Shoal harbor/Compton Creek Project Area in Belford and Monmouth, New Jersey to determine its suitability for unconfined ocean disposal at the Mud Dump Site. This was one of five waterways that the US Army Corps of Engineers- New York District requested the Battelle Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) to sample and evaluate for dredging and disposal in May 1995. The evaluation of proposed dredged material from the Shoal Harbor/Compton Creek Project area consisted of bulk chemical analyses, chemical analyses of dredging site water and elutriate, benthic and water-column acute toxicity tests and bioaccumulation studies. Eleven core samples were analyzed or grain size, moisture content, and total organic carbon. Other sediments were evaluated for bulk density, specific gravity, metals, chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congers, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, and 1,4- dichlorobenzene. Dredging site water and elutriate water were analyzed for metals, pesticides, and PCBs.

  9. Use of DOE site selection criteria for screening low-level waste disposal sites on the Oak Ridge Reservation

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, D.W.; Ketelle, R.H.; Stinton, L.H.

    1983-09-01

    The proposed Department of Energy (DOE) site selection criteria were applied to the Oak Ridge Reservation, and the application was evaluated to determine the criteria's usefulness in the selection of a low-level waste disposal site. The application of the criteria required the development of a methodology to provide a framework for evaluation. The methodology is composed of site screening and site characterization stages. The site screening stage relies on reconnaissance data to identify a preferred site capable of satisfying the site selection criteria. The site characterization stage relies on a detailed site investigation to determine site acceptability. The site selection criteria were applied to the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation through the site screening stage. Results of this application were similar to those of a previous siting study on the Oak Ridge Reservation. The DOE site selection criteria when coupled with the methodology that was developed were easily applied and would be adaptable to any region of interest.

  10. Release and disposal of materials during decommissioning of Siemens MOX fuel fabrication plant at Hanau, Germany

    SciTech Connect

    Koenig, Werner; Baumann, Roland

    2007-07-01

    In September 2006, decommissioning and dismantling of the Siemens MOX Fuel Fabrication Plant in Hanau were completed. The process equipment and the fabrication buildings were completely decommissioned and dismantled. The other buildings were emptied in whole or in part, although they were not demolished. Overall, the decommissioning process produced approximately 8500 Mg of radioactive waste (including inactive matrix material); clearance measurements were also performed for approximately 5400 Mg of material covering a wide range of types. All the equipment in which nuclear fuels had been handled was disposed of as radioactive waste. The radioactive waste was conditioned on the basis of the requirements specified for the projected German final disposal site 'Schachtanlage Konrad'. During the pre-conditioning, familiar processes such as incineration, compacting and melting were used. It has been shown that on account of consistently applied activity containment (barrier concept) during operation and dismantling, there has been no significant unexpected contamination of the plant. Therefore almost all the materials that were not a priori destined for radioactive waste were released without restriction on the basis of the applicable legal regulations (chap. 29 of the Radiation Protection Ordinance), along with the buildings and the plant site. (authors)

  11. Long-term surveillance plan for the Gunnison, Colorado, disposal site

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Gunnison disposal site in Gunnison County, Colorado. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has developed regulations for the issuance of a general license for the custody and long-term care of UMTRA Project disposal sites in 10 CFR Part 40. The purpose of this general license is to ensure that the UMTRA Project disposal sites will be cared for in a manner that protects the public health and safety and the environment.For each disposal site to be licensed, the NRC requires the DOE to submit a site-specific LTSP. The DOE prepared this LTSP to meet this requirement for the Gunnison disposal site. The general license becomes effective when the NRC concurs with the DOE`s determination of completion of remedial action for the Gunnison site and the NRC formally accepts this LTSP.

  12. Long-term surveillance plan for the Rifle, Colorado, Disposal site

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Estes Gulch disposal site in Garfield County, Colorado. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has developed regulations for the issuance of a general license by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for the custody and long-term care of UMTRA Project disposal Sites in 10 CFR Part 40. The purpose of this general license is to ensure that the UMTRA Project disposal sites, will be cared for in a manner that protects the public health and safety and the environment. For each disposal site to be licensed, the NRC requires the DOE to submit a site-specific LTSP. The DOE prepared this LTSP to meet this requirement for the Estes Gulch disposal site. The general license becomes effective when the NRC concurs with the DOE`s determination of completion of remedial action for the Estes Gulch site and the NRC formally accepts this LTSP.

  13. Pulp fiction - The volunteer concept (or how not to site additional LLRW disposal capacity)

    SciTech Connect

    Burton, D.A.

    1995-12-31

    Experiences of compacts and of individual states throughout the nation indicate that low-level radioactive waste disposal siting processes, based from the beginning upon the volunteer concept are fraught with problems. Most apparent among these problems is that the volunteer concept does not lead to scientifically and technically based siting endeavors. Ten years have passed since the Amendments Act of 1985, and no compact or state has been - successful in providing for new LLRW disposal capacity. That failure can be traced in part to the reliance upon the volunteer concept in siting attempts. If success is to be achieved, the future direction for LLRW management must focus on three areas: first, a comprehensive evaluation of all LLRW management options, including reduction of waste generated and on-site storage; secondly, a comprehensive evaluation of the current as well as projected waste stream, to determine the amount of disposal capacity actually needed; and, finally, sound scientifically and technically based siting processes.

  14. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 543: Liquid Disposal Units, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2006-09-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 543, Liquid Disposal Units, is listed in Appendix III of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order of 1996. CAU 543 consists of seven Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Areas 6 and 15 of the Nevada Test Site, which is approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. CAU 543 consists of the following seven CASs: {sm_bullet} CAS 06-07-01, Decon Pad {sm_bullet} CAS 15-01-03, Aboveground Storage Tank {sm_bullet} CAS 15-04-01, Septic Tank {sm_bullet} CAS 15-05-01, Leachfield {sm_bullet} CAS 15-08-01, Liquid Manure Tank {sm_bullet} CAS 15-23-01, Underground Radioactive Material Area {sm_bullet} CAS 15-23-03, Contaminated Sump, Piping From January 24, 2005 through April 14, 2005, CAU 543 site characterization activities were conducted, and are reported in Appendix A of the CAU 543 Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office [NNSA/NSO], 2005). The recommended corrective action as stated in the approved CADD is No Further Action for five of the CAU 543 CASs, and Closure In Place for the remaining two CASs.

  15. 2013 Annual Site Inspection and Monitoring Report for Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act Title I Disposal Sites

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2014-03-01

    This report, in fulfillment of a license requirement, presents the results of long-term surveillance and maintenance activities conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) in 2013 at 19 uranium mill tailings disposal sites established under Title I of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978.1 These activities verified that the UMTRCA Title I disposal sites remain in compliance with license requirements. DOE operates 18 UMTRCA Title I sites under a general license granted by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in accordance with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations Part 40.27 (10 CFR 40.27). As required under the general license, a long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for each site was prepared by DOE and accepted by NRC. The Grand Junction, Colorado, Disposal Site, one of the 19 Title I sites, will not be included under the general license until the open, operating portion of the cell is closed. The open portion will be closed either when it is filled or in 2023. This site is inspected in accordance with an interim LTSP. Long-term surveillance and maintenance services for these disposal sites include inspecting and maintaining the sites; monitoring environmental media and institutional controls; conducting any necessary corrective actions; and performing administrative, records, stakeholder relations, and other regulatory stewardship functions. Annual site inspections and monitoring are conducted in accordance with site-specific LTSPs and procedures established by DOE to comply with license requirements. Each site inspection is performed to verify the integrity of visible features at the site; to identify changes or new conditions that may affect the long-term performance of the site; and to determine the need, if any, for maintenance, follow-up or contingency inspections, or corrective action in accordance with the LTSP. LTSPs and site compliance reports are available on the Internet at http://www.lm.doe.gov/.

  16. 40 CFR 194.8 - Approval process for waste shipment from waste generator sites for disposal at the WIPP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-CERTIFICATION OF THE WASTE ISOLATION PILOT PLANT'S COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS General Provisions § 194.8 Approval process for waste shipment from waste generator sites for disposal at... from waste generator sites for disposal at the WIPP. 194.8 Section 194.8 Protection of...

  17. 40 CFR 194.8 - Approval process for waste shipment from waste generator sites for disposal at the WIPP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-CERTIFICATION OF THE WASTE ISOLATION PILOT PLANT'S COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS General Provisions § 194.8 Approval process for waste shipment from waste generator sites for disposal at... from waste generator sites for disposal at the WIPP. 194.8 Section 194.8 Protection of...

  18. 40 CFR 194.8 - Approval process for waste shipment from waste generator sites for disposal at the WIPP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-CERTIFICATION OF THE WASTE ISOLATION PILOT PLANT'S COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS General Provisions § 194.8 Approval process for waste shipment from waste generator sites for disposal at... from waste generator sites for disposal at the WIPP. 194.8 Section 194.8 Protection of...

  19. 40 CFR 194.8 - Approval process for waste shipment from waste generator sites for disposal at the WIPP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-CERTIFICATION OF THE WASTE ISOLATION PILOT PLANT'S COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS General Provisions § 194.8 Approval process for waste shipment from waste generator sites for disposal at... from waste generator sites for disposal at the WIPP. 194.8 Section 194.8 Protection of...

  20. 40 CFR 194.8 - Approval process for waste shipment from waste generator sites for disposal at the WIPP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-CERTIFICATION OF THE WASTE ISOLATION PILOT PLANT'S COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS General Provisions § 194.8 Approval process for waste shipment from waste generator sites for disposal at... from waste generator sites for disposal at the WIPP. 194.8 Section 194.8 Protection of...

  1. Design, construction, and performance of a single geomembrane liner system at a residual waste disposal site in western Pennsylvania

    SciTech Connect

    Khilji, K.H.; Gould, S.E.; Hamel, T.W.; Thomas, W.B.

    1997-11-01

    This paper examines the effectiveness of a single geomembrane-lined deep valley coal ash/coal mine refuse disposal site to maintain ground-water quality after 10 years of operation. The site occupies over 81 hectares (ha) [200 acres (ac)] in western Pennsylvania. The effectiveness of the liner system was evaluated based on an assessment of the site`s ground-water quality. The liner system was designed in 1983. Selection of geosynthetics and drainage materials, interface shear values, and construction control methods were based on laboratory testing, field investigations, slope stability analyses, and construction load analyses. Diligent construction quality control was applied during all aspects of site development. To examine the site`s ground-water quality, the ground-water monitoring network was sampled approximately once every six weeks for one year. Results of statistical analyses show that the liner system is effectively separating disposal site leachate from ground water and that the site is not degrading ground water.

  2. Hydrogeologic setting east of a low-level radioactive-waste disposal site near Sheffield, Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foster, J.B.; Garklavs, George; Mackey, G.W.

    1984-01-01

    Core samples from 45 test wells and 4 borings were used to describe the glacial geology of the area east of the low-level radioactive-waste disposal site near Sheffield, Bureau County, Illinois. Previous work has shown that shallow ground water beneath the disposal site flows east through a pebbly-sand unit of the Toulon Member of the Glasford Formation. The pebbly sand was found in core samples from wells in an area extending northeast from the waste-disposal site to a strip-mine lake and east along the south side of the lake. Other stratigraphic units identified in the study area are correlated with units found on the disposal site. The pebbly-sand unit of the Toulon Member grades from a pebbly sand on site into a coarse gravel with sand and pebbles towards the lake. The Hulick Till Member, a key bed, underlies the Toulon Member throughout most of the study area. A narrow channel-like depression in the Hulick Till is filled with coarse gravelly sand of the Toulon Member. The filled depression extends eastward from near the northeast corner of the waste-disposal site to the strip-mine lake. (USGS)

  3. 43 CFR 2743.3 - Leased disposal sites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... landfill concerning site management and a review of all reports and logs pertaining to the type and amount of solid waste deposited at the landfill; (iii) A visual inspection of the leased site; and (iv) An... exempt small quantity generators (40 CFR 261.5), and there is a reasonable basis to believe that...

  4. 30 CFR 717.15 - Disposal of excess rock and earth materials on surface areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Disposal of excess rock and earth materials on surface areas. 717.15 Section 717.15 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND... STANDARDS § 717.15 Disposal of excess rock and earth materials on surface areas. Excess rock and...

  5. 30 CFR 717.15 - Disposal of excess rock and earth materials on surface areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Disposal of excess rock and earth materials on surface areas. 717.15 Section 717.15 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND... STANDARDS § 717.15 Disposal of excess rock and earth materials on surface areas. Excess rock and...

  6. 30 CFR 717.15 - Disposal of excess rock and earth materials on surface areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Disposal of excess rock and earth materials on surface areas. 717.15 Section 717.15 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND... STANDARDS § 717.15 Disposal of excess rock and earth materials on surface areas. Excess rock and...

  7. 30 CFR 717.15 - Disposal of excess rock and earth materials on surface areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disposal of excess rock and earth materials on surface areas. 717.15 Section 717.15 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND... STANDARDS § 717.15 Disposal of excess rock and earth materials on surface areas. Excess rock and...

  8. 30 CFR 717.15 - Disposal of excess rock and earth materials on surface areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Disposal of excess rock and earth materials on surface areas. 717.15 Section 717.15 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND... STANDARDS § 717.15 Disposal of excess rock and earth materials on surface areas. Excess rock and...

  9. Ground-water quality beneath solid-waste disposal sites at anchorage, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zenone, Chester; Donaldson, D.E.; Grunwaldt, J.J.

    1975-01-01

    Studies at three solid-waste disposal sites in the Anchorage area suggest that differences in local geohydrologic conditions influence ground-water quality. A leachate was detected in ground water within and beneath two sites where the water table is very near land surface and refuse is deposited either at or below the water table in some parts of the filled areas. No leachate was detected in ground water beneath a third site where waste disposal is well above the local water table.

  10. Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal from Bronx River Project Area, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Gruendell, B.D.; Gardiner, W.W.; Antrim, L.D.; Pinza, M.R.; Barrows, E.S.; Borde, A.B.

    1996-12-01

    The objective of the Bronx River project was to evaluate proposed dredged material from the Bronx River project area in Bronx, New York, to determine its suitability for unconfined ocean disposal at the Mud Dump Site. Bronx River was one of five waterways that the US Army Corps of Engineers-New York District (USAGE-NYD) requested the Battelle Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) to sample and to evaluate for dredging and disposal. Sediment samples were submitted for physical and chemical analyses, chemical analyses of dredging site water and elutriate, benthic and water-column acute toxicity tests, and bioaccumulation studies. Fifteen individual sediment core samples collected from the Bronx River project area were analyzed for grain size, moisture content, and total organic carbon (TOC). One composite sediment sample, representing the entire reach of the area proposed for dredging, was analyzed for bulk density, specific gravity, metals, chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and 1,4- dichlorobenzene. Dredging site water and elutriate water, which was prepared from the suspended-particulate phase (SPP) of the Bronx River sediment composite, were analyzed for metals, pesticides, and PCBS.

  11. 36 CFR 6.5 - Solid waste disposal sites in operation on September 1, 1984.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... restrictions and criteria applicable to the site under 40 CFR 257.3 and 40 CFR part 258, or where applicable, 40 CFR part 240, Guidelines for the Thermal Processing of Solid Waste. (d) If the Regional Director... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Solid waste disposal sites...

  12. Western Maryland Power Plant Siting Study: comparison of solid-waste-disposal issues at three candidate sites. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Klauda, R.J.; Portner, E.M.; Lentz, J.J.

    1984-10-01

    This document is one of a series of technical reports prepared for the Western Maryland Power Plant Siting Study. An array of solid-waste-disposal-issues are compared for the three candidate sites (FP-12 in Frederick County, WP-14 and WP-26 in Washington County) remaining after the six- to three-area study phase. An 1890-MW conventional, coal-fired power plant would produce about 46 million cubic yards of solid waste over a 33-year period. The study evaluated potential impacts of a blend of fly ash and fixed scrubber sludge disposed in landfills with a design to maximize waste isolation and minimize permeate or leachate production. All three candidate sites appear to have adequate waste-disposal capacity. Varied ground-water flow directions and potential dilution limitations in the areas draining FP-12 and WP-14 make monitoring, detection, and potential mitigation options more complex and costly than at WP-26.

  13. 10 CFR 61.52 - Land disposal facility operation and disposal site closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... United States Geological Survey (USGS) or National Geodetic Survey (NGS) survey control stations, must be established on the site to facilitate surveys. The USGS or NGS control stations must provide horizontal and vertical controls as checked against USGS or NGS record files. (8) A buffer zone of land must be...

  14. Long-term surveillance plan for the Lowman, Idaho, disposal site

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Lowman, Idaho, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal site describes the surveillance activities for the Lowman disposal cell. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This preliminary final LTSP is being submitted to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) as a requirement for issuance of a general license for custody and long-term care for the disposal site. The general license requires that the disposal cell be cared for in accordance with the provisions of this LTSP. The LTSP documents whether the land and interests are owned by the United States or an Indian tribe, and describes, in detail, how the long-term care of the disposal site will be carried out through the UMTRA Project long-term surveillance program. The Lowman, Idaho, LTSP is based on the DOE`s Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program, (DOE, 1992).

  15. Overview on backfill materials and permeable reactive barriers for nuclear waste disposal facilities.

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, Robert Charles; Hasan, Ahmed Ali Mohamed; Holt, Kathleen Caroline; Hasan, Mahmoud A. (Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo, Egypt)

    2003-10-01

    A great deal of money and effort has been spent on environmental restoration during the past several decades. Significant progress has been made on improving air quality, cleaning up and preventing leaching from dumps and landfills, and improving surface water quality. However, significant challenges still exist in all of these areas. Among the more difficult and expensive environmental problems, and often the primary factor limiting closure of contaminated sites following surface restoration, is contamination of ground water. The most common technology used for remediating ground water is surface treatment where the water is pumped to the surface, treated and pumped back into the ground or released at a nearby river or lake. Although still useful for certain remediation scenarios, the limitations of pump-and-treat technologies have recently been recognized, along with the need for innovative solutions to ground-water contamination. Even with the current challenges we face there is a strong need to create geological repository systems for dispose of radioactive wastes containing long-lived radionuclides. The potential contamination of groundwater is a major factor in selection of a radioactive waste disposal site, design of the facility, future scenarios such as human intrusion into the repository and possible need for retrieving the radioactive material, and the use of backfills designed to keep the radionuclides immobile. One of the most promising technologies for remediation of contaminated sites and design of radioactive waste repositories is the use of permeable reactive barriers (PRBs). PRBs are constructed of reactive material(s) to intercept and remove the radionuclides from the water and decontaminate the plumes in situ. The concept of PRBs is relatively simple. The reactive material(s) is placed in the subsurface between the waste or contaminated area and the groundwater. Reactive materials used thus far in practice and research include zero valent iron

  16. A data base for low-level radioactive waste disposal sites

    SciTech Connect

    Daum, M.L.; Moskowitz, P.D.

    1989-07-01

    A computerized database was developed to assist the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in evaluating methods and data for characterizing health hazards associated with land and ocean disposal options for low-level radioactive wastes. The data cover 1984 to 1987. The types of sites considered include Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) licensed commercial disposal sites, EPA National Priority List (NPL) sites, US Department of Energy (DOE) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Project (FUSRAP) and DOE Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP) sites, inactive US ocean disposal sites, and DOE/Department of Defense facilities. Sources of information include reports from EPA, the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), as well as direct communication with individuals associated with specific programs. The data include site descriptions, waste volumes and activity levels, and physical and radiological characterization of low-level wastes. Additional information on mixed waste, packaging forms, and disposal methods were compiled, but are not yet included in the database. 55 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Fissile Material Disposition Program: Deep Borehole Disposal Facility PEIS data input report for direct disposal. Direct disposal of plutonium metal/plutonium dioxide in compound metal canisters. Version 3.0

    SciTech Connect

    Wijesinghe, A.M.; Shaffer, R.J.

    1996-01-15

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is examining options for disposing of excess weapons-usable nuclear materials [principally plutonium (Pu) and highly enriched uranium (HEU)] in a form or condition that is substantially and inherently more difficult to recover and reuse in weapons production. This report is the data input report for the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS). The PEIS examines the environmental, safety, and health impacts of implementing each disposition alternative on land use, facility operations, and site infrastructure; air quality and noise; water, geology, and soils; biotic, cultural, and paleontological resources; socioeconomics; human health; normal operations and facility accidents; waste management; and transportation. This data report is prepared to assist in estimating the environmental effects associated with the construction and operation of a Deep Borehole Disposal Facility, an alternative currently included in the PEIS. The facility projects under consideration are, not site specific. This report therefore concentrates on environmental, safety, and health impacts at a generic site appropriate for siting a Deep Borehole Disposal Facility.

  18. NWTS program criteria for mined geologic disposal of nuclear wasite: site performance criteria

    SciTech Connect

    1981-02-01

    This report states ten criteria governing the suitability of sites for mined geologic disposal of high-level radioactive waste. The Department of Energy will use these criteria in its search for sites and will reevaluate their use when the Nuclear Regulatory Commission issues radioactive waste repository rules. These criteria encompass site geometry, geohydrology, geochemistry, geologic characteristics, tectonic environment, human intrusion, surface characteristics, environment, and potential socioeconomic impacts. The contents of this document include background discussion, site performance criteria, and appendices. The background section describes the waste disposal system, the application of the site criteria, and applicable criteria from NWTS-33(1) - Program Objectives, Functional Requirements and System Performance Criteria. Appendix A, entitled Comparison with Other Siting Criteria compares the NWTS criteria with those recommended by other agencies. Appendix B contains DOE responses to public comments received on the January 1980 draft of this document. Appendix C is a glossary.

  19. Forming artificial soils from waste materials for mine site rehabilitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yellishetty, Mohan; Wong, Vanessa; Taylor, Michael; Li, Johnson

    2014-05-01

    Surface mining activities often produce large volumes of solid wastes which invariably requires the removal of significant quantities of waste rock (overburden). As mines expand, larger volumes of waste rock need to be moved which also require extensive areas for their safe disposal and containment. The erosion of these dumps may result in landform instability, which in turn may result in exposure of contaminants such as trace metals, elevated sediment delivery in adjacent waterways, and the subsequent degradation of downstream water quality. The management of solid waste materials from industrial operations is also a key component for a sustainable economy. For example, in addition to overburden, coal mines produce large amounts of waste in the form of fly ash while sewage treatment plants require disposal of large amounts of compost. Similarly, paper mills produce large volumes of alkaline rejected wood chip waste which is usually disposed of in landfill. These materials, therefore, presents a challenge in their use, and re-use in the rehabilitation of mine sites and provides a number of opportunities for innovative waste disposal. The combination of solid wastes sourced from mines, which are frequently nutrient poor and acidic, with nutrient-rich composted material produced from sewage treatment and alkaline wood chip waste has the potential to lead to a soil suitable for mine rehabilitation and successful seed germination and plant growth. This paper presents findings from two pilot projects which investigated the potential of artificial soils to support plant growth for mine site rehabilitation. We found that pH increased in all the artificial soil mixtures and were able to support plant establishment. Plant growth was greatest in those soils with the greatest proportion of compost due to the higher nutrient content. These pot trials suggest that the use of different waste streams to form an artificial soil can potentially be used in mine site rehabilitation

  20. Health assessment for Fadrowski Drum Disposal Site, Franklin, Wisconsin, Region 5. CERCLIS No. WID980901227. Preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-06-06

    The Fadrowski Drum Disposal Site is listed on the National Priorities List. Virtually no testing has been conducted at the Fadrowski site. Site characterization was only beginning at the time of the site visit. The only testing that had been done was of the contents of drums uncovered during excavations involved in construction. Samples of the contents of the drums - sludges, oily water, and paint waste - showed concentrations of lead (400 - 32,700 ppm), chromium (< 100 - 6,800 ppm), DDT (p.p. DDT - 1,000 ppm; o.p. DDT - 450 ppm), and petroleum distillates. The uncovered wastes were re-covered with clay. At that time, the presence of hazardous materials on site was verified, but the extent and limits of contamination were not and have not yet been determined.

  1. Characterization and remediation of soil prior to construction of an on-site disposal facility at Fernald

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, A.; Jones, G.; Janke, R.; Nelson, K.

    1998-03-01

    During the production years at the Feed Materials Production Center (FMPC), the soil of the site and the surrounding areas was surficially impacted by airborne contamination. The volume of impacted soil is estimated at 2.2 million cubic yards. During site remediation, this contamination will be excavated, characterized, and disposed of. In 1986 the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Department of Energy (DOE) entered into a Federal Facility Compliance Agreement (FFCA) covering environmental impacts associated with the FMPC. A site wide Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) was initiated pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (CERCLA). The DOE has completed the RI/FS process and has received approval of the final Records of Decision. The name of the facility was changed to the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) to emphasize the change in mission to environmental restoration. Remedial actions which address similar scopes of work or types of contaminated media have been grouped into remedial projects for the purpose of managing the remediation of the FEMP. The Soil Characterization and Excavation Project (SCEP) will address the remediation of FEMP soils, certain waste units, at- and below-grade material, and will certify attainment of the final remedial limits (FRLs) for the FEMP. The FEMP will be using an on-site facility for low level radioactive waste disposal. The facility will be an above-ground engineered structure constructed of geological material. The area designated for construction of the base of the on-site disposal facility (OSDF) is referred to as the footprint. Contaminated soil within the footprint must be identified and remediated. Excavation of Phase 1, the first of seven remediation areas, is complete.

  2. Selected hydrologic data from a wastewater spray disposal site on Hilton Head Island, South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Speiran, G.K.; Belval, D.L.

    1985-01-01

    This study presents data collected during a study of the effects on the water table aquifer from wastewater application at rates of up to 5 inches per week on a wastewater spray disposal site on Hilton Head Island, South Carolina. The study was conducted from April 1982 through December 1983. The disposal site covers approximately 14 acres. Water level and water quality data from organic, inorganic, and nutrient analyses from the water table aquifer to a depth of 30 ft and similar water quality data from the wastewater treatment plant are included. (USGS)

  3. Guidance for implementing the long-term surveillance program for UMTRA Project Title I Disposal Sites

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    This guidance document has two purposes: it provides guidance for writing site-specific long-term surveillance plans (LTSP) and it describes site surveillance, monitoring, and long-term care techniques for Title I disposal sites of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) (42 USC Section 7901 et seq.). Long-term care includes monitoring, maintenance, and emergency measures needed to protect public health and safety and the environment after remedial action is completed. This document applies to the UMTRCA-designated Title I disposal sites. The requirements for long-term care of the Title I sites and the contents of the LTSPs are provided in U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations (10 CFR Section 40.27) provided in Attachment 1.

  4. Physical and hydraulic properties of sediments and engineered materials associated with grouted double-shell tank waste disposal at Hanford

    SciTech Connect

    Rockhold, M.L.; Fayer, M.J.; Heller, P.R.

    1993-09-01

    Numerical models are used to predict the fate of contaminants in the environment for durations of 10,000 years and more. At the Hanford Site, these models are being used to evaluate the potential health effects and environmental impacts associated with the disposal of double-shell tank waste in grouted vaults. These models require information on the properties of the earthen and manufactured materials that compose the vault system and its surroundings. This report documents the physical and hydraulic properties of the materials associated with burial of grouted double-shell tank waste at the Hanford Site.

  5. 1993 report on Hanford Site land disposal restrictions for mixed wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Black, D.

    1993-04-01

    Since the early 1940s, the contractors at the Hanford Site have been involved in the production and purification of nuclear defense materials. These production activities have resulted in the generation of large quantities of liquid and solid radioactive mixed waste (RMW). This waste is subject to regulation under authority of both the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976{sup 2}(RCRA) and Atomic Energy Act{sup 3}. This report covers mixed waste only. Hazardous waste that is not contaminated with radionuclides is not addressed in this report. The Washington State Department of Ecology, US Environmental Protection Agency, and US Department of Energy have entered into an agreement, the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order{sup 1} (commonly referred to as the Tri-Party Agreement) to bring the Hanford Site operations into compliance with dangerous waste regulations. The Tri-Party Agreement required development of the original land disposal restrictions (LDR) plan and its annual updates to comply with LDR requirements for RMW. This report is the third update of the plan first issued in 1990. The Tri-Party Agreement requires, and the baseline plan and annual update reports provide, the information that follows: Waste characterization information; storage data; treatment information; waste reduction information; schedule; and progress.

  6. A solid waste disposal site selection procedure based on groundwater vulnerability mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simsek, Celalettin; Kincal, Cem; Gunduz, Orhan

    2006-02-01

    In this study, a new, GIS-based solid waste site selection tool (DUPIT) is introduced to obtain a systematic and unbiased methodology during the evaluation phases of alternative solid waste disposal areas with regards to vulnerability to groundwater pollution. The proposed tool is an index technique based on the linear combination of five different hydrogeological parameters including Depth to groundwater table, Upper layer lithology, Permeability of the unsaturated zone, Impermeable layer thickness and Topographic slope. Five different categories are developed to classify each alternative based on the suitability of the site for a solid waste disposal area. As a result, each site is ranked according to the contamination risks for groundwater resources. The proposed technique is applied to the District of Torbali near Izmir, Turkey to determine the most appropriate solid waste disposal site location. The Torbali application is implemented by using a GIS database developed for the area. Based on the results of this application, the best alternative solid waste disposal site for Torbali is selected to be located in the northern portions of the city where the groundwater table is deep, the permeability is low and the topographic slope is mild.

  7. Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal from Eastchester Project Area, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Antrim, L.D.; Pinza, M.R.; Barrows, E.S.; Gardiner, W.W.; Tokos, J.J.S.; Gruendell, B.D.; Word, J.Q.

    1996-07-01

    The objective of the Eastchester project (Federal Project [FP] No. 6) was to evaluate proposed dredged material from the Eastchester project area in the Hutchinson River to determine its suitability for unconfined ocean disposal at the Mud Dump Site. Eastchester was one of seven waterways that the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers-New York District (USACE-NYD) requested the Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) to sample and evaluate for dredging and disposal in March 1994. The evaluation of proposed dredged material from the Eastchester project area consisted of bulk sediment chemical analyses, chemical analyses of dredging site water and elutriate, water- column and benthic acute toxicity tests, and bioaccumulation studies. Eighteen individual sediment core samples collected from the Eastchester project area were analyzed for grain size, moisture content, and total organic carbon (TOC). Two composite sediment samples, representing the upstream and lower reaches of the area proposed for dredging, were analyzed for bulk density, specific gravity, metals, chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and 1,4- dichlorobenzene. Dredging site water and elutriate water, which is prepared from the suspended-particulate phase (SPP) of the two Eastchester sediment composites, were analyzed for metals, pesticides, and PCBS. An additional 1 1 composite samples were created for the USACE-New England Division (USACE-NED) using the same 18 Eastchester core samples but combined into different composites. These composites were analyzed for metals, chlorinated pesticides, PCB congeners, PAHS, and 1,4-dichlorobenzene. Water-column or SPP toxicity tests were performed along with bioaccumulation tests.

  8. BIOASSESSMENT METHODS FOR DETERMINING THE HAZARDS OF DREDGED MATERIAL DISPOSAL IN THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Approximately 325 million m3 of sediment are dredged annually for navigation purposes in the United States. f this, 46 million m3 are disposed of annually in the ocean (Peddicord, 1987). ecisions regarding the ocean disposal of dredged material result, in large part, from bioasse...

  9. Creative spoil: Design concepts, construction techniques, and disposal of excavated materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLindon, Gerald J.

    1985-03-01

    The author discusses some of the construction methods used in building the Tennessee-Tombigbee Waterway, the disposal of surplus excavated materials, and the reclamation of disposal areas along the waterway Emphasis is placed on the steps taken to assure protection of natural resources and to promote overall environmental quality.

  10. Study of Heavy Metals in a Wetland Area Adjacent to a Waste Disposal Site Near Resolute Bay, Canadian High Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lund, K. E.; Young, K. L.

    2004-05-01

    Heavy metal contamination in High Arctic systems is of growing concern. Studies have been conducted measuring long range and large point source pollutants, but little research has been done on small point sources such as municipal waste disposal sites. Many Arctic communities are coastal, and local people consume marine wildlife in which concentrations of heavy metals can accumulate. Waste disposal sites are often located in very close proximity to the coastline and leaching of these metals could contaminate food sources on a local scale. Cadmium and lead are the metals focussed on by this study, as the Northern Contaminants Program recognizes them as metals of concern. During the summer of 2003 a study was conducted near Resolute, Nunavut, Canada, to determine the extent of cadmium and lead leaching from a local dumpsite to an adjacent wetland. The ultimate fate of these contaminants is approximately 1 km downslope in the ocean. Transects covering an area of 0.3 km2 were established downslope from the point of disposal and water and soil samples were collected and analyzed for cadmium and lead. Only trace amounts of cadmium and lead were found in the water samples. In the soil samples, low uniform concentrations of cadmium were found that were slightly above background levels, except for adjacent to the point of waste input where higher concentrations were found. Lead soil concentrations were higher than cadmium and varied spatially with soil material and moisture. Overall, excessive amounts of cadmium and lead contamination do not appear to be entering the marine ecosystem. However, soil material and moisture should be considered when establishing waste disposal sites in the far north

  11. The Vapor Plume at Material Disposal Are C in Relation to Pajarito Corridor Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Masse, William B.

    2012-04-02

    A vapor plume made up of volatile organic compounds is present beneath Material Disposal Area C (MDA C) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The location and concentrations within the vapor plume are discussed in relation to existing and planned facilities and construction activities along Pajarito Road (the 'Pajarito Corridor') and in terms of worker health and safety. This document provides information that indicates that the vapor plume does not pose a threat to the health of LANL workers nor will it pose a threat to workers during construction of proposed facilities along Pajarito Road. The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Laboratory) monitors emissions, effluents, and environmental media to meet environmental compliance requirements, determine actions to protect the environment, and monitor the long-term health of the local environment. LANL also studies and characterizes 'legacy' waste from past Laboratory operations to make informed decisions regarding eventual corrective actions and the disposition of that waste. Starting in 1969, these activities have been annually reported in the LANL Environmental Report (formerly Environmental Surveillance Report), and are detailed in publicly accessible technical reports meeting environmental compliance requirements. Included among the legacy sites being investigated are several formerly used material disposal areas (MDAs) set aside by the Laboratory for the general on-site disposal of waste from mission-related activities. One such area is MDA C located in Technical Area 50 (TA-50), which was used for waste disposal between 1948 and 1974. The location of TA-50 is depicted in Figure 1. The present paper uses a series of maps and cross sections to address the public concerns raised about the vapor plume at MDA C. As illustrated here, extensive sampling and data interpretation indicate that the vapor plume at MDA C does not pose a threat to the health of LANL workers nor will it pose a threat to workers

  12. Analysis and evaluation of a radioactive waste package retrieved from the Farallon Islands 900-meter disposal site

    SciTech Connect

    Colombo, P.; Kendig, M.W.

    1990-09-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was given a Congressional mandate to develop criteria and regulations governing the ocean disposal of all forms of waste. The EPA taken an active role both nationally and within the international nuclear regulatory community to develop the effective controls necessary to protect the health and safety of man and the marine environment. The EPA Office of Radiation Programs (ORP) first initiated feasibility studies to determine whether current technologies could be applied toward determining the fate of radioactive waste disposed of in the past. After successfully locating actual radioactive waste packages in formerly used disposal sites, in the United States, the Office of Radiation Programs developed an intensive program of site characterization studies to examine biological, chemical and physical characteristics including evaluations of the concentration and distribution of radionuclides within these sites, and has conducted a performance evaluation of past packaging techniques and materials. Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has performed container corrosion and matrix analysis studies on the recovered radioactive waste packages. This report presents the final results of laboratory analyses performed. 17 refs., 40 figs., 7 tabs.

  13. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 3): Douglassville Disposal Site, Berks County, Pennsylvania, September 1985. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-09-27

    The Douglassville Disposal Site occupies approximately 50 acres of land along the southern bank of the Schuylkill River in southeastern Berks County, Union Township, Pennsylvania. Site operations included lubricating-oil recycling in 1941 and waste solvents recycling in the 1950's and 1960's. Wastes generated from these operations were stored in several lagoons located in the northern half of the site until 1972. In November 1970, ten days of heavy rain caused the lagoons to overflow and breach safety dikes releasing 2-3 million gallons of wastes. The dikes were repaired and a Federal decree was issued stating that no more waste material was to be stored in the lagoons. Actions were also initiated to dispose of remaining waste materials. Before the action could be carried out, tropical storm Agnes caused the Schuylkill River to overflow its banks and inundate the entire site. An estimated 6 to 8 million gallons of wastes were released and carried downstream by floodwaters for about 15 miles.

  14. 43 CFR 2743.3-1 - Patent provisions for leased disposal sites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Patent provisions for leased disposal sites. 2743.3-1 Section 2743.3-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) RECREATION AND PUBLIC PURPOSES ACT Recreation and...

  15. 43 CFR 2743.2-1 - Patent provisions for new disposal sites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Patent provisions for new disposal sites. 2743.2-1 Section 2743.2-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) RECREATION AND PUBLIC PURPOSES ACT Recreation and Public...

  16. 43 CFR 2743.3-1 - Patent provisions for leased disposal sites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Patent provisions for leased disposal sites. 2743.3-1 Section 2743.3-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) RECREATION AND PUBLIC PURPOSES ACT Recreation and...

  17. 43 CFR 2743.2-1 - Patent provisions for new disposal sites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Patent provisions for new disposal sites. 2743.2-1 Section 2743.2-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) RECREATION AND PUBLIC PURPOSES ACT Recreation and Public...

  18. 36 CFR 6.5 - Solid waste disposal sites in operation on September 1, 1984.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., septic system waste or domestic sewage; (vii) Petroleum, including used crankcase oil from a motor..., 40 CFR part 240, Guidelines for the Thermal Processing of Solid Waste. (d) If the Regional Director... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Solid waste disposal sites...

  19. 36 CFR 6.5 - Solid waste disposal sites in operation on September 1, 1984.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., septic system waste or domestic sewage; (vii) Petroleum, including used crankcase oil from a motor..., 40 CFR part 240, Guidelines for the Thermal Processing of Solid Waste. (d) If the Regional Director... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Solid waste disposal sites...

  20. NEAR-BOTTOM PELAGIC BACTERIA AT A DEEP-WATER SEWAGE SLUDGE DISPOSAL SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The epibenthic bacterial community at deep-ocean sewage sludge disposal site DWD-106, located approximately 106 miles (ca. 196 km) off the coast of New Jersey, was assessed for changes associated with the introduction of large amounts of sewage sludge. ixed cultures and bacterial...

  1. MONITORING REPORT FOR 1995 AND 1996 - SAN FRANCISCO DEEP OCEAN DISPOSAL SITE (SF-DODS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report documents the findings of Tier 1 monitoring activities at the San Francisco Deep Ocean Disposal Site (SF-DODS) for calendar years 1995 and 1996. The regional monitoring activities included: collection of regional physical oceanographic data; net sampling of plankton ...

  2. Inventory of wells near a former waste-disposal site, Nashua, New Hampshire, June 1993

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flanagan, Sarah M.

    1994-01-01

    Domestic, public-supply, and observation wells near a former waste-disposal site along Gilson Road in Nashua, New Hampshire, were inventoried in June 1993. Data include hydrogeologic information on 13 domestic wells, 11 observation wells in an adjacent municipal landfill, 3 abandoned public-supply wells, 3 observation wells, and l test boring drilled by the U.S. Geological Survey.

  3. RESTORATION OF FAILING ON-SITE WASTEWATER DISPOSAL SYSTEMS USING WATER CONSERVATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study was made to determine the ability of existing water conservation hardware to correct malfunctioning on-site wastewater disposal systems resulting from soil clogging and to document, under actual use conditions, possible reduction of wastewater with water conservation hard...

  4. A sensitivity analysis of hazardous waste disposal site climatic and soil design parameters using HELP3

    SciTech Connect

    Adelman, D.D.; Stansbury, J.

    1997-12-31

    The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Subtitle C, Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, And Liability Act (CERCLA), and subsequent amendments have formed a comprehensive framework to deal with hazardous wastes on the national level. Key to this waste management is guidance on design (e.g., cover and bottom leachate control systems) of hazardous waste landfills. The objective of this research was to investigate the sensitivity of leachate volume at hazardous waste disposal sites to climatic, soil cover, and vegetative cover (Leaf Area Index) conditions. The computer model HELP3 which has the capability to simulate double bottom liner systems as called for in hazardous waste disposal sites was used in the analysis. HELP3 was used to model 54 combinations of climatic conditions, disposal site soil surface curve numbers, and leaf area index values to investigate how sensitive disposal site leachate volume was to these three variables. Results showed that leachate volume from the bottom double liner system was not sensitive to these parameters. However, the cover liner system leachate volume was quite sensitive to climatic conditions and less sensitive to Leaf Area Index and curve number values. Since humid locations had considerably more cover liner system leachate volume than and locations, different design standards may be appropriate for humid conditions than for and conditions.

  5. Tritium migration from a low-level radioactive-waste disposal site near Chicago, Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nicholas, J.R.; Healy, R.W.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a study to determine the geologic and hydrologic factors that control migration of tritium from a closed, low-level radioactive-waste disposal site. The disposal site, which operated from 1943 to mid1949, contains waste generated by research activities at the world's first nuclear reactors. Tritium has migrated horizontally at least 1,300 feet northward in glacial drift and more than 650 feet in the underlying dolomite. Thin, gently sloping sand layers in an otherwise clayey glacial drift are major conduits for ground-water flow and tritium migration in a perched zone beneath the disposal site. Tritium concentrations in the drift beneath the disposal site exceed 100,000 nanocuries per liter. Regional horizontal joints in the dolomite are enlarged by solution and are the major conduits for ground-water flow and tritium migration in the dolomite. A weathered zone at the top of the dolomite also is a pathway for tritium migration. The maximum measured tritium concentration in the dolomite is 29.4 nanocuries per liter. Fluctuations of tritium concentration in the dolomite are the result of dilution by seasonal recharge from the drift.

  6. 1996 Hanford site report on land disposal restrictions for mixed waste

    SciTech Connect

    Black, D.G.

    1996-04-01

    This report was submitted to meet the requirements of Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order milestone M-26-OIF. This milestone requires the preparation of an annual report that covers characterization, treatment, storage, minimization, and other aspects of land disposal-restricted mixed waste management at the Hanford Site.

  7. Application of GIS in site selection for nuclear waste disposal facility

    SciTech Connect

    Sheng, G.; Luginaah, I.N.; Sorrell, J.

    1996-12-01

    Whether designing a new facility or investigating, potential contaminant migration at an existing site, proper characterization of the subsurface conditions and their interaction with surface features is critical to the process. The Atomic Energy Control Board, states in its regulatory document R-104 that, {open_quotes}For the long-term management of radioactive wastes, the preferred approach is disposal, a permanent method of management in which there is no intention of retrieval and which, ideally uses techniques and designs that do not rely for their success on long-term institutional control beyond a reasonable period of time{close_quotes}. Thus although storage is safe, eventually disposal is necessary to avoid long-term reliance on continuing care and attention, such as monitoring and maintenance. In Canada, the concept being proposed by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) involves disposal in deep underground repositories in intrusive igneous rock. The aim of this concept as a disposal method is to build multiple barriers that would protect humans and the natural environment from contaminants in the radioactive waste. The multiple barriers include the geosphere, which consists of the rock, any sediments overlying the rock, and the groundwater. Nevertheless, immediate, as well as long-term, consequences, including, risk involved with technological systems and the inherent uncertainty of any forecast, make the prediction and analysis tasks of increasing importance. This uncertainty in the area of nuclear waste disposal is leading to growing concerns about nuclear waste site selection.

  8. RESULTS OF THE PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT FOR THE CLASSIFIED TRANSURANIC WASTES DISPOSED AT THE NEVADA TEST SITE

    SciTech Connect

    J. COCHRAN; ET AL

    2001-02-01

    Most transuranic (TRU) wastes are destined for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). However, the TRU wastes from the cleanup of US nuclear weapons accidents are classified for national security reasons and cannot be disposed in WIPP. The US Department of Energy (DOE) sought an alternative disposal method for these ''special case'' TRU wastes and from 1984 to 1987, four Greater Confinement Disposal (GCD) boreholes were used to place these special case TRU wastes a minimum of 21 m (70 ft) below the land surface and a minimum of 200 m (650 ft) above the water table. The GCD boreholes are located in arid alluvium at the DOE's Nevada Test Site (NTS). Because of state regulatory concerns, the GCD boreholes have not been used for waste disposal since 1989. DOE requires that TRU waste disposal facilities meet the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) requirements for disposal of TRU wastes, which are contained in 40 CFR 191. This EPA standard sets a number of requirements, including probabilistic limits on the cumulative releases of radionuclides to the accessible environment for 10,000 years. The DOE Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) has contracted with Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) to conduct a performance assessment (PA) to determine if the TRU waste emplaced in the GCD boreholes complies with the EPA's requirements. Sandia has completed the PA using all available information and an iterative PA methodology. This paper overviews the PA of the TRU wastes in the GCD boreholes [1]. As such, there are few cited references in this paper and the reader is referred to [1] and [2] for references. The results of the PA are that disposal of TRU wastes in the GCD boreholes easily complies with the EPA's 40 CFR 191 safety standards for disposal of TRU wastes. The PA is undergoing a DOE Headquarters (DOE/HQ) peer review, and the final PA will be released in FY2001 or FY2002.

  9. Assessment of site conditions for disposal of low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes: a case study in southern China.

    PubMed

    Yi, Shuping; Ma, Haiyi; Zheng, Chunmiao; Zhu, Xiaobin; Wang, Hua'an; Li, Xueshan; Hu, Xueling; Qin, Jianbo

    2012-01-01

    zone has low saturated hydraulic conductivities on the order of 10(-5)cm/s and in this respect is well-suited for the disposal of LILW. The saturated formations are primarily made up of silt and moderately-to-slightly weathered granite, which exhibit even lower hydraulic conductivities, on the order of 10(-6)cm/s, also favorable for restraining the transport of radionuclides. Chemical analyses indicate that the groundwaters at the site are of the HCO(3)-Na · Ca and HCO(3) · SO(4)-Na · Ca types and are weakly corrosive to concrete and steel. Geochemical analyses indicate that the rock and soil materials (particularly weathered granite) at the site contain very small fractions of colloidal particles and exhibit low Cation Exchange Capacities (CEC), and would therefore have limited capacity for sorption of radionuclides. Groundwater flow and solute transport models of the candidate site have been developed using MODFLOW and MT3DMS, incorporating the data obtained during the assessment program. Calibration was based on the available measured groundwater level fluctuations and tracer concentrations from in situ dispersion tests. The longitudinal dispersion coefficient as determined in calibration is equal to 5.0 × 10(-3) m(2)/d. Numerical sensitivity analyses indicate that the hydraulic conductivity and the longitudinal dispersion coefficient are the key parameters controlling the transport of radionuclides, while the numerical model is not sensitive to changes in the effective porosity and the specific yield. Preliminary predictions have been performed with the calibrated model both for the natural setting of the site and the graded site in which the valleys of the site are backfilled with low permeable materials. Results indicate that the proposed site grading increases the safety of the site for disposal of LILW by reducing both the groundwater level and the hydraulic gradient and that radionuclide transport would not likely be a problem or cause groundwater

  10. Assessment of a radioactive waste disposal site at Enewetak Atoll

    SciTech Connect

    Noshkin, V.E.; Robison, W.L.

    1997-07-01

    The 43 nuclear tests conducted at Enewetak Atoll by the United States between 1948 and 1958 produced close-in fallout that contaminated the islands and lagoon of the atoll with radioactive fission and activation products, and unfissioned nuclear fuel. In 1972, the U.S. government announced that it would conduct a cleanup and restoration operation to return the atoll to the Enewetak people. The radiological cleanup began in 1977 and lasted to 1980 and focused on reducing the concentration of the transuranium elements ({sup 238,239,240}Pu and {sup 241}Am = TRU) in soils on some of the islands that might eventually be used for residence or for subsistence agricultural. The cleanup plan called for relocating soil and some other contaminated debris to Runit Island on the eastern perimeter of the Atoll. Some of the contaminated soil was mixed with cement and the mixture placed below the water level in the Cactus Crater that was formed by a nuclear explosion in 1958. The remainder of the contaminated material was mixed with concrete and placed above ground over the crater in the shape of a dome. A concrete cap was constructed over the dome of soil. Concern has been expressed by the people of Enewetak and by others over the possible aquatic impacts from the radionuclides entombed in the crater. Therefore, a surveillance program was started in 1980, in conjunction with other research efforts, to study the radionuclides in samples of fish, groundwater, and lagoon seawater. Our data and conclusions support the findings suggested by the National Academy committee over a decade ago in that any assumption of rapid remobilization of all or any of the dome`s transuranics or other radionuclides is an extreme one. 22 refs., 4 figs., 10 tabs.

  11. NRC Monitoring of Salt Waste Disposal at the Savannah River Site - 13147

    SciTech Connect

    Pinkston, Karen E.; Ridge, A. Christianne; Alexander, George W.; Barr, Cynthia S.; Devaser, Nishka J.; Felsher, Harry D.

    2013-07-01

    As part of monitoring required under Section 3116 of the Ronald W. Reagan National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2005 (NDAA), the NRC staff reviewed an updated DOE performance assessment (PA) for salt waste disposal at the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF). The NRC staff concluded that it has reasonable assurance that waste disposal at the SDF meets the 10 CFR 61 performance objectives for protection of individuals against intrusion (chap.61.42), protection of individuals during operations (chap.61.43), and site stability (chap.61.44). However, based on its evaluation of DOE's results and independent sensitivity analyses conducted with DOE's models, the NRC staff concluded that it did not have reasonable assurance that DOE's disposal activities at the SDF meet the performance objective for protection of the general population from releases of radioactivity (chap.61.41) evaluated at a dose limit of 0.25 mSv/yr (25 mrem/yr) total effective dose equivalent (TEDE). NRC staff also concluded that the potential dose to a member of the public is expected to be limited (i.e., is expected to be similar to or less than the public dose limit in chap.20.1301 of 1 mSv/yr [100 mrem/yr] TEDE) and is expected to occur many years after site closure. The NRC staff used risk insights gained from review of the SDF PA, its experience monitoring DOE disposal actions at the SDF over the last 5 years, as well as independent analysis and modeling to identify factors that are important to assessing whether DOE's disposal actions meet the performance objectives. Many of these factors are similar to factors identified in the NRC staff's 2005 review of salt waste disposal at the SDF. Key areas of interest continue to be waste form and disposal unit degradation, the effectiveness of infiltration and erosion controls, and estimation of the radiological inventory. Based on these factors, NRC is revising its plan for monitoring salt waste disposal at the SDF in coordination with South

  12. Small mammal populations at hazardous waste disposal sites near Houston, Texas, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robbins, C.S.

    1990-01-01

    Small mammals were trapped, tagged and recaptured in 0?45 ha plots at six hazardous industrial waste disposal sites to determine if populations, body mass and age structures were different from paired control site plots. Low numbers of six species of small mammals were captured on industrial waste sites or control sites. Only populations of hispid cotton rats at industrial waste sites and control sites were large enough for comparisons. Overall population numbers, age structure, and body mass of adult male and female cotton rats were similar at industrial waste sites and control sites. Populations of small mammals (particularly hispid cotton rats) may not suffice as indicators of environments with hazardous industrial waste contamination.

  13. Comparative approaches to siting low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Newberry, W.F.

    1994-07-01

    This report describes activities in nine States to select site locations for new disposal facilities for low-level radioactive waste. These nine States have completed processes leading to identification of specific site locations for onsite investigations. For each State, the status, legal and regulatory framework, site criteria, and site selection process are described. In most cases, States and compact regions decided to assign responsibility for site selection to agencies of government and to use top-down mapping methods for site selection. The report discusses quantitative and qualitative techniques used in applying top-down screenings, various approaches for delineating units of land for comparison, issues involved in excluding land from further consideration, and different positions taken by the siting organizations in considering public acceptance, land use, and land availability as factors in site selection.

  14. Should high-level nuclear waste be disposed of at geographically dispersed sites?

    SciTech Connect

    Bassett, G.W. Jr.; Hemphill, R.; Kohout, E.

    1992-07-01

    Consideration of the technical feasibility of Yucca Mountain in Nevada as the site for a high-level nuclear waste repository has led to an intense debate regarding the economic, social, and political impacts of the repository. Impediments to the siting process mean that the nuclear waste problem is being resolved by adhering to the status quo, in which nuclear waste is stored at scattered sites near major population centers. To assess the merits of alternative siting strategies--including both the permanent repository and the status quo- we consider the variables that would be included in a model designed to select (1) the optimal number of disposal facilities, (2) the types of facilities (e.g., permanent repository or monitored retrievable facility), and (3) the geographic location of storage sites. The objective function in the model is an all-inclusive measure of social cost. The intent of the exercise is not to demonstrate the superiority of any single disposal strategy; uncertainties preclude a conclusive proof of optimality for any of the disposal options. Instead, we want to assess the sensitivity of a variety of proposed solutions to variations in the physical, economic, political, and social variables that influence a siting strategy.

  15. Assessment of a radioactive waste disposal site at Enewetak Atoll.

    PubMed

    Noshkin, V E; Robison, W L

    1997-07-01

    The 43 nuclear tests conducted at Enewetak Atoll by the United States between 1948 and 1958 produced close-in fallout that contaminated the islands and lagoon of the atoll with radioactive fission and activation products, and unfissioned nuclear fuel. In 1972, the U.S. government announced that it would conduct a cleanup and restoration operation to return the atoll to the Enewetak people. The radiological cleanup began in 1977 and lasted to 1980 and focused on reducing the concentration of the transuranium elements (238,239,240Pu and 241Am = TRU) in soils on some of the islands that might eventually be used for residence or for subsistence agricultural. The cleanup plan called for relocating soil and some other contaminated debris to Runit Island on the eastern perimeter of the Atoll. Some of the contaminated soil was mixed with cement and the mixture placed below the water level in the Cactus Crater that was formed by a nuclear explosion in 1958. The remainder of the contaminated material was mixed with concrete and placed above ground over the crater in the shape of a dome. A concrete cap was constructed over the dome of soil. Concern has been expressed by the people of Enewetak and by others over the possible aquatic impacts from the radionuclides entombed in the crater. A National Academy of Sciences committee examined the dome and concluded that the containment structure and its contents present no credible health hazard to the people of Enewetak, either now or in the future. The committee suggested that "at least part of the radioactivity contained in the structure is available for transport to the groundwater and subsequently to the lagoon and it is important to determine whether this pathway may be a significant one." Therefore, a surveillance program was started in 1980, in conjunction with other research efforts, to study the radionuclides in samples of fish, groundwater, and lagoon seawater. Our data and conclusions support the findings suggested by the

  16. 36 CFR 6.6 - Solid waste disposal sites within new additions to the National Park System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Solid waste disposal sites within new additions to the National Park System. 6.6 Section 6.6 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL SITES IN UNITS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 6.6 Solid waste disposal...

  17. 36 CFR 6.6 - Solid waste disposal sites within new additions to the National Park System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Solid waste disposal sites within new additions to the National Park System. 6.6 Section 6.6 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL SITES IN UNITS OF THE NATIONAL...

  18. 36 CFR 6.6 - Solid waste disposal sites within new additions to the National Park System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Solid waste disposal sites within new additions to the National Park System. 6.6 Section 6.6 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL SITES IN UNITS OF THE NATIONAL...

  19. 36 CFR 6.6 - Solid waste disposal sites within new additions to the National Park System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Solid waste disposal sites within new additions to the National Park System. 6.6 Section 6.6 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL SITES IN UNITS OF THE NATIONAL...

  20. Trace elements in soil and biota in confined disposal facilities for dredged material.

    PubMed

    Beyer, W N; Miller, G; Simmers, J W

    1990-01-01

    We studied the relation of trace element concentrations in soil to those in house mice (Mus musculus), common reed (Phragmites australis) and ladybugs (Coccinella septempunctata at five disposal facilities for dredged material. The sites had a wide range of soil trace element concentrations, acid soils and a depauperate fauna. They were very poor wildlife habitat because they were dominated by the common reed. Bioassay earthworms exposed to surface soils from three of the five sites died, whereas those exposed to four of five soils collected a meter deep survived, presumably because the deeper, unoxidized soil, was not as acid. Concentrations of Ni and Cr in the biota from each of the sites did not seem to be related to the concentrations of the same elements in soil. Although Pb, Zn and Cu concentrations in biota were correlated with those in soil, the range of concentrations in the biota was quite small compared to that in soil. The concentrations of Pb detected in mice were about as high as the concentrations previously reported in control mice from other studies. Mice from the most contaminated site (530 ppm Pb in soil) contained only slightly more Pb (8 ppm dry wt) than did mice (2-6 ppm dry wt) from sites containing much less Pb (22-92 ppm in soil). Despite the acid soil conditions, very little Cd was incorporated into food chains. Rather, Cd was leaching from the surface soil. We concluded that even the relatively high concentrations of trace elements in the acid dredged material studied did not cause high concentrations of trace elements in the biota. PMID:15092276

  1. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 399: Area 18 Disposal Site

    SciTech Connect

    Navarro Nevada Environmental Services

    2010-08-10

    The closure report for CAU 399 is just a one page summary listing the coordinates of the disposal site which were given at the time (1995) in Nevada State Plan Coordinates - North American Datum of 1983. The drawing of the use restricted site also listed the coordinates in Nevada State Plan Coordinates - North American Datum of 1983. In the ensuing years the reporting of coordinates has been standardized so that all coordinates are reported in the same manner, which is: NAD 27 UTM Zone 11 N, meters. This Errata Sheet updates the coordinate reporting to the currently accepted method and includes an aerial photo showing the disposal site with the coordinates listed showing the use restricted area.

  2. Using performance assessment for radioactive waste disposal decision making -- implementation of the methodology into the third performance assessment iteration of the Greater Confinement Disposal site

    SciTech Connect

    Gallegos, D.P.; Conrad, S.H.; Baer, T.A.

    1993-12-31

    The US Department of Energy is responsible for the disposal of a variety of radioactive wastes. Some of these wastes are prohibited from shallow land burial and also do not meet the waste acceptance criteria for proposed waste repositories at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and Yucca Mountain. These have been termed ``special-case`` waste and require an alternative disposal method. From 1984 to 1989, the Department of Energy disposed of a small quantity of special-case transuranic wastes at the Greater Confinement Disposal (GCD) site at the Nevada Test Site. In this paper, an iterative performance assessment is demonstrated as a useful decision making tool in the overall compliance assessment process for waste disposal. The GCD site has been used as the real-site implementation and test of the performance assessment approach. Through the first two performance assessment iterations for the GCD site, and the transition into the third, we demonstrate how the performance assessment methodology uses probabilistic risk concepts to guide affective decisions about site characterization activities and how it can be used as a powerful tool in bringing compliance decisions to closure.

  3. Site Selection and Geological Research Connected with High Level Waste Disposal Programme in the Czech Republic

    SciTech Connect

    Tomas, J.

    2003-02-25

    Attempts to solve the problem of high-level waste disposal including the spent fuel from nuclear power plants have been made in the Czech Republic for over the 10 years. Already in 1991 the Ministry of Environment entitled The Czech Geological Survey to deal with the siting of the locality for HLW disposal and the project No. 3308 ''The geological research of the safe disposal of high level waste'' had started. Within this project a sub-project ''A selection of perspective HLW disposal sites in the Bohemian Massif'' has been elaborated and 27 prospective areas were identified in the Czech Republic. This selection has been later narrowed to 8 areas which are recently studied in more detail. As a parallel research activity with siting a granitic body Melechov Massif in Central Moldanubian Pluton has been chosen as a test site and the 1st stage of research i.e. evaluation and study of its geological, hydrogeological, geophysical, tectonic and structural properties has been already completed. The Melechov Massif was selected as a test site after the recommendation of WATRP (Waste Management Assessment and Technical Review Programme) mission of IAEA (1993) because it represents an area analogous with the host geological environment for the future HLW and spent fuel disposal in the Czech Republic, i.e. variscan granitoids. It is necessary to say that this site would not be in a locality where the deep repository will be built, although it is a site suitable for oriented research for the sampling and collection of descriptive data using up to date and advanced scientific methods. The Czech Republic HLW and spent fuel disposal programme is now based on The Concept of Radioactive Waste and Spent Nuclear Fuel Management (''Concept'' hereinafter) which has been prepared in compliance with energy policy approved by Government Decree No. 50 of 12th January 2000 and approved by the Government in May 2002. Preparation of the Concept was required, amongst other reasons in

  4. Audit of the deactivation, decontamination, and disposal of surplus facilities at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    1997-10-23

    Westinghouse Savannah River Company (Westinghouse) is responsible for managing the Department of Energy`s (Department) surplus facilities at the Savannah River Site (Site). In Fiscal Year (FY) 1996, the Site had 162 surplus facilities and anticipated that 118 more would become surplus within the next 5 years. The objective of this audit was to determine whether the Savannah River Operations Office (Operations Office) and Westinghouse had economically and promptly deactivated, decontaminated, and disposed of surplus facilities at the Site. Departmental regulations require that surplus facilities be deactivated, decontaminated, and disposed of economically and promptly. However, Westinghouse only disposed of one facility and did not completely deactivate or decontaminate any of the 162 facilities identified as surplus at the Site in FY 1996. This occurred because the Operations Office did not compile a Site-wide list, establish priorities, or provide sufficient funding for the deactivation, decontamination, and disposal of surplus facilities. As a result, the Department incurred unnecessary costs for the surveillance and maintenance of surplus facilities. For example, the Department could have avoided annual costs of about $1.3 million in surveillance and maintenance costs by spending $1.2 million to perform a deactivation project on the P-Reactor process-water storage tanks. The Operations Office could have funded the project out of its unobligated FY 1996 operating funds. However, it returned the unobligated funds to the Department`s Headquarters at the end of the fiscal year. The Operations Office concurred with the finding and recommendations and initiated corrective action.

  5. Accepting Mixed Waste as Alternate Feed Material for Processing and Disposal at a Licensed Uranium Mill

    SciTech Connect

    Frydenland, D. C.; Hochstein, R. F.; Thompson, A. J.

    2002-02-26

    Certain categories of mixed wastes that contain recoverable amounts of natural uranium can be processed for the recovery of valuable uranium, alone or together with other metals, at licensed uranium mills, and the resulting tailings permanently disposed of as 11e.(2) byproduct material in the mill's tailings impoundment, as an alternative to treatment and/or direct disposal at a mixed waste disposal facility. This paper discusses the regulatory background applicable to hazardous wastes, mixed wastes and uranium mills and, in particular, NRC's Alternate Feed Guidance under which alternate feed materials that contain certain types of mixed wastes may be processed and disposed of at uranium mills. The paper discusses the way in which the Alternate Feed Guidance has been interpreted in the past with respect to processing mixed wastes and the significance of recent changes in NRC's interpretation of the Alternate Feed Guidance that sets the stage for a broader range of mixed waste materials to be processed as alternate feed materials. The paper also reviews the le gal rationale and policy reasons why materials that would otherwise have to be treated and/or disposed of as mixed waste, at a mixed waste disposal facility, are exempt from RCRA when reprocessed as alternate feed material at a uranium mill and become subject to the sole jurisdiction of NRC, and some of the reasons why processing mixed wastes as alternate feed materials at uranium mills is preferable to direct disposal. Finally, the paper concludes with a discussion of the specific acceptance, characterization and certification requirements applicable to alternate feed materials and mixed wastes at International Uranium (USA) Corporation's White Mesa Mill, which has been the most active uranium mill in the processing of alternate feed materials under the Alternate Feed Guidance.

  6. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 392: Spill Sites and Construction Materials, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    R. B. Jackson

    2002-02-01

    This Closure Report documents the closure activities that were conducted to close Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 392--Spill Sites and Construction Materials located on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). CAU 392 is listed on in Appendix III of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) (FFACO, 1996) and consists of the following six Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Areas 5 and 6 of the NTS: CAS 05-17-02 Construction Materials/Lead Bricks; CAS 06-17-03 Cement Mud Pit; CAS 06-1 9-01 Cable Pile; Powder Piles (3); CAS 06-44-02 Paint Spill; CAS 06-44-03 Plaster Spill; CAS 06-44-04 Cutting Fluid Discharge Ditch. Closure activities were performed in two phases. Phase 1 activities consisted of collecting waste characterization samples of soil and material present on-site, and where appropriate, performing radiological screening of debris at the six CASs. Results were used to determine how waste generated during closure activities would be handled and disposed of, i.e., as nonhazardous sanitary or hazardous waste, etc. Phase 2 activities consisted of closing each CAS by removing debris and/or soil, disposing of the generated waste, and verifying that each CAS was clean closed by visual inspection and/or by the collecting soil verification samples for laboratory analysis. Copies of the analytical results for the site verification samples are included in Appendix A. Copies of the Sectored Housekeeping Site Closure Verification Form for each of the six CASs are included in Appendix 8. Appendix C contains a copy of the Bechtel Nevada (BN) On-site Waste Transport Manifest for the hazardous waste generated during closure of CAS 06-44-02.

  7. Scoping evaluation of the technical capabilities of DOE sites for disposal of hazardous metals in mixed low-level waste

    SciTech Connect

    Gruebel, M.M.; Waters, R.D.; Langkopf, B.S.

    1997-05-01

    A team of analysts designed and conducted a scoping evaluation to estimate the technical capabilities of fifteen Department of Energy sites for disposal of the hazardous metals in mixed low-level waste (i.e., waste that contains both low-level radioactive materials and hazardous constituents). Eight hazardous metals were evaluated: arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, lead, mercury, selenium, and silver. The analysis considered transport only through the groundwater pathway. The results are reported as site-specific estimates of maximum concentrations of each hazardous metal in treated mixed low-level waste that do not exceed the performance measures established for the analysis. Also reported are site-specific estimates of travel times of each hazardous metal to the point of compliance.

  8. Evaluation of dredged material disposal alternatives for US Navy homeport at Everett, Washington. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Palermo, M.R.; Shafer, R.A.; Brannon, J.M.; Myers, T.E.; Truitt, C.L.

    1989-01-01

    The US Navy has proposed to homeport a carrier battle group at Everett, Wash. Development of the homeport will involve dredging and disposal of approximately 1 million cu yd of contaminated native material. The US Army Engineer District, Seattle, is providing technical assistance in developing a dredging and disposal plan for these sediments from the East Waterway. In addition, the Seattle District is a permitting agency under Section 10 of the River and Harbor Act of 1899 and Section 404 of the Clean Water Act. The purpose of the WES studies was to evaluate the feasibility of alternatives from an environmental and related engineering standpoint. Three major disposal alternatives were evaluated for disposal of the contaminated sediment: confined upland, confined nearshore, and contained aquatic disposal (CAD). The Navy identified CAD as a preferred alternative during the course of the WES study, and also as the selected alternative in all applications for a Section 404 permit.

  9. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 139: Waste Disposal Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    SciTech Connect

    Grant Evenson

    2006-04-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 139 is located in Areas 3, 4, 6, and 9 of the Nevada Test Site, which is 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Corrective Action Unit 139 is comprised of the seven corrective action sites (CASs) listed below: (1) 03-35-01, Burn Pit; (2) 04-08-02, Waste Disposal Site; (3) 04-99-01, Contaminated Surface Debris; (4) 06-19-02, Waste Disposal Site/Burn Pit; (5) 06-19-03, Waste Disposal Trenches; (6) 09-23-01, Area 9 Gravel Gertie; and (7) 09-34-01, Underground Detection Station. These sites are being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives with the exception of CASs 09-23-01 and 09-34-01. Regarding these two CASs, CAS 09-23-01 is a gravel gertie where a zero-yield test was conducted with all contamination confined to below ground within the area of the structure, and CAS 09-34-01 is an underground detection station where no contaminants are present. Additional information will be obtained by conducting a corrective action investigation (CAI) before evaluating corrective action alternatives and selecting the appropriate corrective action for the other five CASs where information is insufficient. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of viable corrective action alternatives that will be presented in the Corrective Action Decision Document. The sites will be investigated based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on January 4, 2006, by representatives of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection; U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture; and Bechtel Nevada. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective actions for CAU 139.

  10. Assessment of compost application to coal ash disposal sites to promote the rapid vegetation establishment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Repmann, F.; Slazak, A.; Babic, M.; Schneider, B. U.; Schaaf, W.; Hüttl, R. F.

    2009-04-01

    In the city of Tuzla, located in Bosnia and Herzegovina, a coal fired thermo electric power plant is operated by the company JP ELEKTROPRIVERDA BIH TERMOELEKTRANA "TUZLA". High amounts of ash are produced by the power plant, which are currently disposed into settlement ponds bordered by dams in natural valleys. A total of four ash disposal sites covering an area of approx. 170 ha have been established during the last decades. Due to the fact that residual ash from coal combustion was found to contain a variety of trace elements (Ni, Cr, As, B), it must be assumed that ash disposal of that magnitude constitutes an environmental problem which is investigated within the EU-FP6 / STREP project "Reintegration of Coal Ash Disposal Sites and Mitigation of Pollution in the West Balkan Area" RECOAL. The main hazards relate to soil and groundwater contamination due to leaching toxins, dust dispersion, and toxins entering the food chain as these disposal sites are used for agricultural purposes. In order to rapidly establish a vegetation cover on barren ash dumps that particularly would prevent dust erosion we assessed the applicability of compost, produced from locally available municipal and industrial organic residues as an amendment to ash to improve substrate fertility. The envisaged remediation technology was considered to be a low cost, easy applicable and rapid method capable of substantially enhancing living conditions of residents in the vicinity of the abandoned disposal sites. Various compost application rates were evaluated in the field on experimental site Divkovici I in Tuzla and additionally in the greenhouse environment at Brandenburg Technical University Cottbus. Field and laboratory tests revealed that plant growth and cover rate can substantially be improved by mixing compost into the upper ash layer to a maximum depth of approx. 20 cm. Besides direct growth observations in the field analysis of soil parameters gave evidence that the fertility of ashy

  11. Inadvertent Intruder Analysis For The Portsmouth On-Site Waste Disposal Facility (OSWDF)

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Frank G.; Phifer, Mark A.

    2014-01-22

    The inadvertent intruder analysis considers the radiological impacts to hypothetical persons who are assumed to inadvertently intrude on the Portsmouth OSWDF site after institutional control ceases 100 years after site closure. For the purposes of this analysis, we assume that the waste disposal in the OSWDF occurs at time zero, the site is under institutional control for the next 100 years, and inadvertent intrusion can occur over the following 1,000 year time period. Disposal of low-level radioactive waste in the OSWDF must meet a requirement to assess impacts on such individuals, and demonstrate that the effective dose equivalent to an intruder would not likely exceed 100 mrem per year for scenarios involving continuous exposure (i.e. chronic) or 500 mrem for scenarios involving a single acute exposure. The focus in development of exposure scenarios for inadvertent intruders was on selecting reasonable events that may occur, giving consideration to regional customs and construction practices. An important assumption in all scenarios is that an intruder has no prior knowledge of the existence of a waste disposal facility at the site. Results of the analysis show that a hypothetical inadvertent intruder at the OSWDF who, in the worst case scenario, resides on the site and consumes vegetables from a garden established on the site using contaminated soil (chronic agriculture scenario) would receive a maximum chronic dose of approximately 7.0 mrem/yr during the 1000 year period of assessment. This dose falls well below the DOE chronic dose limit of 100 mrem/yr. Results of the analysis also showed that a hypothetical inadvertent intruder at the OSWDF who, in the worst case scenario, excavates a basement in the soil that reaches the waste (acute basement construction scenario) would receive a maximum acute dose of approximately 0.25 mrem/yr during the 1000 year period of assessment. This dose falls well below the DOE acute dose limit of 500 mrem/yr. Disposal inventory

  12. Modeling Groundwater Flow and Infiltration at Potential Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Sites in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, B. W.; Lee, C.; Ma, C.; Knowlton, R. G.

    2006-12-01

    Taiwan is evaluating representative sites for the potential disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW), including consideration of shallow land burial and cavern disposal concepts. A representative site for shallow land burial is on a small island in the Taiwan Strait with basalt bedrock. The shallow land burial concept includes an engineered cover to limit infiltration into the waste disposal cell. A representative site for cavern disposal is located on the southeast coast of Taiwan. The tunnel system for this disposal concept would be several hundred meters below the mountainous land surface in argillite bedrock. The LLW will consist of about 966,000 drums, primarily from the operation and decommissioning of four nuclear power plants. Sandia National Laboratories and the Institute of Nuclear Energy Research have collaborated to develop performance assessment models to evaluate the long-term safety of LLW disposal at these representative sites. Important components of the system models are sub-models of groundwater flow in the natural system and infiltration through the engineered cover for the shallow land burial concept. The FEHM software code was used to simulate groundwater flow in three-dimensional models at both sites. In addition, a higher-resolution two-dimensional model was developed to simulate flow through the engineered tunnel system at the cavern site. The HELP software was used to simulate infiltration through the cover at the island site. The primary objective of these preliminary models is to provide a modeling framework, given the lack of site-specific data and detailed engineering design specifications. The steady-state groundwater flow model at the island site uses a specified recharge boundary at the land surface and specified head at the island shoreline. Simulated groundwater flow vectors are extracted from the FEHM model along a cross section through one of the LLW disposal cells for utilization in radionuclide transport simulations in

  13. METHODS/MATERIALS MATRIX OF ULTIMATE DISPOSAL TECHNIQUES FOR SPILLED HAZARDOUS MATERIALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study was undertaken to evaluate conventional and novel methods for the ultimate disposal of spilled or released hazardous substances. Disposal methods studied include incineration, pyrolysis, landfilling, fixation, biological treatment, and chemical treatment. Applications of ...

  14. The Assessment of Future Human Actions at Radioactive Waste Disposal Sites: An international perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, D.R.; Galson, D.A.; Patera, E.S.

    1994-04-01

    For some deep geological disposal systems, the level of confinement provided by the natural and engineered barriers is considered to be so high that the greatest long-term risks associated with waste disposal may arise from the possibility of future human actions breaching the natural and/or engineered barrier systems. Following a Workshop in 1989, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency established a Working Group on Assessment of Future Human Actions (FHA) a Radioactive Waste Disposal Sites. This Group met four times in the period 1991--1993, and has extensively reviewed approaches to and experience of incorporating the effects of FHA into long-term performance assessments (PAs). The Working Group`s report reviews the main issues concerning the treatment of FHA, presents a general framework for the quantitative, consideration of FHA in radioactive waste disposal programmes, and discusses means in reduce the risks associated with FHA. The Working Group concluded that FHA must be considered in PAs, although FHA where the actors were cognizant of the risks could be ignored. Credit can be taken for no more than several hundred years of active site control; additional efforts should therefore be taken to reduce the risks associated with FHA. International agreement on principles for the construction of FHA scenarios would build confidence, as would further discussion concerning regulatory policies for judging risks associated with FHA.

  15. Long-term surveillance plan for the Falls City Disposal Site, Falls City, Texas. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    The need for ground water monitoring at the Falls City disposal site was evaluated in accordance with NRC regulations and guidelines established by the DOE in Guidance for Implementing the Long-term Surveillance Program for UMTRA Project Title 1 Disposal Sites (DOE, 1996). Based on evaluation of site characterization data, it has been determined that a program to monitor ground water for demonstration of disposal cell performance based on a set of concentration limits is not appropriate because ground water in the uppermost aquifer is of limited use, and a narrative supplemental standard has been applied to the site that does not include numerical concentration limits or a point of compliance. The limited use designation is based on the fact that ground water in the uppermost aquifer is not currently or potentially a source of drinking water in the area because it contains widespread ambient contamination that cannot be cleaned up using methods reasonably employed by public water supply systems. Background ground water quality varies by orders of magnitude since the aquifer is in an area of redistribution of uranium mineralization derived from ore bodies. The DOE plans to perform post-closure ground water monitoring in the uppermost aquifer as a best management practice (BMP) as requested by the state of Texas.

  16. Pilot study of dredging and disposal alternatives for the New Bedford Harbor, Massachusetts, Superfund site

    SciTech Connect

    Otis, M.J.

    1992-03-01

    Bottom sediments in New Bedford Harbor are contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and heavy metals to the extent that the site is considered one of the Nation's worst hazardous waste sites and is being studied by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under the Federal Superfund program. At the request of EPA, the Corps of Engineers has evaluated the feasibility of dredging and disposal alternatives for the upper estuary of New Bedford, an area where PCB concentrations in the percent levels have been detected in the sediments. Between May 1988 and February 1989 a pilot study was performed as part of this effort. This study involved the evaluation of three hydraulic pipeline dredges with the contaminated sediments being placed in a confined disposal facility and a contained aquatic disposal cell. This paper provides a comprehensive discussion of our approach and the results of this $6.5 million effort. The study provided for a site-specific technical evaluation of the methods used which has allowed the Corps of Engineers to make recommendations to EPA which will be critical in their final evaluation of remedial alternatives for the site.

  17. Movement of tagged dredged sand at thalweg disposal sites in the upper Mississippi River

    SciTech Connect

    Ditmars, J.D.; McCown, D.L.; Paddock, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    Thalweg disposal experiments have been conducted at three sites on the upper Mississippi River. During normal channel maintenance, hydraulically dredged sand was tagged with sand coated with fluorescent dye prior to disposal as a pile in the thalweg. In postdisposal surveys surficial bottom sediment samples were collected in the disposal area and in the thalweg and border areas downstream to determine the movement of the dredged sand relative to environmentally sensitive river habitats. The experiments were initiated in successive years, and the tagged sand has been tracked for 1 to 3 years, depending on the site. Although the downstream movement of the dredged sand was not the same at each site, the general pattern of behavior was similar. Downstream movement was confined primarily to the main channel and occurred in response to periods of high river discharge. There was no statistically significant evidence of dredged sand dispersing out of the main channel into nearby border areas or sloughs. The distributions of dyed sand in cores from one site suggest that the dredged sand has been incorporated into natural bed forms. 7 refs., 5 figs.

  18. Quantifying Deep Vadose Zone Soil Water Potential Changes at a Waste Disposal Site

    SciTech Connect

    Joel M. Hubbell; Deborah L. McElroy

    2007-08-01

    Recent advances in moisture monitoring using tensiometers has resulted in long-duration, high quality data sets from within the deep vadose zone. A network of about 30 advanced tensiometers in 18 wells provided field-scale data to monitor soil water potential conditions and movement in the subsurface in and around a mixed waste disposal site at depths ranging from 6 to over 67 m below land surface (bls). Sensors are located in both sediments and fractured rock within the geologic profile and some have been in operation for over 10 years. The moisture monitoring was able to detect long term declines in soil water potential in response to lower than normal precipitation and resultant infiltration over the time period from 2000 to 2004. This trend was reversed in 2005 and 2006 in more than half of the monitoring sites over the 6 to 33 m depth interval and in several monitoring sites from 33 to 67 m, in response to above normal precipitation. These tensiometer data have the potential to effectively and rapidly validate that a remedial action such as placement of an ET cover would be successful in reducing the water moisture movement inside the disposal area to levels similar to those in undisturbed sites outside of the disposal area. This paper will describe the instrument design, how the instruments were installed, and the resultant data from this monitoring system.

  19. The Changing Adventures of Mixed Low-Level Waste Disposal at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    DOE /Navarro/NSTec

    2007-02-01

    After a 15-year hiatus, the United States Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) began accepting DOE off-site generated mixed low-level radioactive waste (MLLW) for disposal at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in December 2005. This action was predicated on the acceptance by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) of a waste analysis plan (WAP). The NNSA/NSO agreed to limit mixed waste disposal to 20,000 cubic meters (approximately 706,000 cubic feet) and close the facility by December 2010 or sooner, if the volume limit is reached. The WAP and implementing procedures were developed based on Hanford’s system of verification to the extent possible so the two regional disposal sites could have similar processes. Since the NNSA/NSO does not have a breaching facility to allow the opening of boxes at the site, verification of the waste occurs by visual inspection at the generator/treatment facility or by Real-Time-Radiography (RTR) at the NTS. This system allows the NTS to effectively, efficiently, and compliantly accept MLLW for disposal. The WAP, NTS Waste Acceptance Criteria, and procedures have been revised based on learning experiences. These changes include: RTR expectations; visual inspection techniques; tamper-indicating device selection; void space requirements; and chemical screening concerns. The NNSA/NSO, NDEP, and the generators have been working together throughout the debugging of the verification processes. Additionally, the NNSA/NSO will continue to refine the MLLW acceptance processes and strive for continual improvement of the program.

  20. Elk and Deer Study, Material Disposal Area G, Technical Area 54: Source document

    SciTech Connect

    J. K. Ferenbaugh; P. R. Fresquez; M. H. Ebinger; G. J. Gonzales; P. A. Jordan

    1999-09-01

    As nuclear research has become more prevalent, environmental contamination from the disposal of radioactive waste has become a prominent issue. At Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in northern New Mexico, radioactive contamination from disposal operations has raised some very specific concerns. Material Disposal Area G (Area G) is the primary low-level radioactive waste disposal site at LANL and occupies an area adjacent to land belonging to the Native American community of the Pueblo of San Ildefonso. Analyses of soil and vegetation collected from the perimeter of Area G have shown concentrations of radionuclides greater than background concentrations established for northern New Mexico. As a result, Pueblo residents had become concerned that contaminants from Area G could enter tribal lands through various ecological pathways. The residents specifically questioned the safety of consuming meat from elk and deer that forage near Area G and then migrate onto tribal lands. Consequently, this study addresses the uptake of {sup 3}H, {sup 90}Sr, {sup tot}U, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239}Pu, {sup 241}Am, and {sup 137}Cs by elk (Cervus elaphus) and deer (Odocoileus hemionus) that forage around the perimeter of Area G and the associated doses to the animals and to humans who consume these animals. Radionuclide uptake by and internal dose to animals was estimated using equations modified from National Council on Radiological Protection Report 76. The Residual Radiation computer code was used to estimate the external dose to animals and the dose to humans consuming meat. Soil and water concentrations from the perimeter of Area G and from background regions in northern New Mexico were averaged over 4 years (1993--1996) and used as input data for the models. Concentration estimates generated by the model correspond to the concentration range measured in actual tissue samples from elk and deer collected at LANL. The highest dose estimates for both animals (0.028 mrad/d) and humans

  1. Analysis of core soil and water samples from the Cactus Crater Disposal Site at Enewetak atoll

    SciTech Connect

    Robison, W.L.; Noshkin, V.E.

    1981-02-18

    Core soil samples and water samples were collected from the Cactus Crater Disposal Site at Enewetak for analysis of /sup 137/Cs, /sup 90/Sr, /sup 239 +240/Pu and /sup 241/Am by both gamma spectroscopy and, through a contractor laboratory, by wet chemistry procedures. The samples processing methods, the analytical methods and the analytical quality control are all procedures developed for the continuing Marshall Island radioecology and dose assessment work.

  2. Clinical studies with disposable diapers containing absorbent gelling materials: evaluation of effects on infant skin condition.

    PubMed

    Campbell, R L; Seymour, J L; Stone, L C; Milligan, M C

    1987-12-01

    Disposable infant diapers with absorbent gelling material (cross-linked sodium polyacrylates) incorporated into the core were clinically evaluated for their effect on infant skin condition. Absorbent gelling materials tightly hold water and provide pH control by a buffering capacity as well as by helping to segregate urine apart from feces. Four clinical studies were conducted with each following a rigid protocol that controlled for variables of diet and age in addition to the diaper material that may influence the development of diaper dermatitis and helped to control for any inherent bias in the study. This allowed for the controlled assessment of skin condition with respect to diaper type. Absorbent gelling material-containing disposable, conventional (100% cellulose core) disposable, and home-laundered cloth diapers were test products. In these studies 1614 infants were initially enrolled with 522 of them assigned to absorbent gelling material disposable, 738 to conventional disposable, and 354 to home-laundered cloth diapers. Objective measurements of skin wetness (transepidermal water loss) and skin pH, as well as double-blind grading of diaper dermatitis, were the measures of skin condition. Absorbent gelling material disposable diapers were associated with significantly reduced skin wetness, closer to normal skin pH, and lower degrees of diaper dermatitis when compared to conventional disposable or home-laundered cloth diapers. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that better control in the diaper area of skin wetness, skin pH, and the prevention of the mixing of urine and feces produces a better diaper environment. PMID:3323274

  3. Emission of volatile organic compounds from solid waste disposal sites and importance of heat management.

    PubMed

    Urase, Taro; Okumura, Hiroyuki; Panyosaranya, Samerjai; Inamura, Akihiro

    2008-12-01

    The emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from a solid waste disposal site for municipal solid wastes was quantified. The VOCs contained in the landfill gas taken at the site were benzene, toluene, xylenes, ethyl benzenes, and trimethyl benzenes, while the concentrations of chlorinated compounds were very low. The concentration of benzene in the landfill gas samples ranged from below the detection limit to 20 mg m(-3), and the ratio of benzene to toluene ranged from 0.2 to 8. The higher concentrations of VOCs in landfill gas and in leachates were observed with the samples taken at high temperature areas of the target site. Polystyrene plastic waste was identified as one of the sources of VOCs in solid waste disposal sites at a high temperature condition. The appropriate heat management in landfill sites is an important countermeasure to avoid unusually high emission of VOCs because the heat generated by the biodegradation of organic solid wastes may promote the release of VOCs, especially in the case of sites which receive both biodegradable and plastic wastes. PMID:19039069

  4. An investigation of the presence of methane and other gases at the Uzundere-Izmir solid waste disposal site, Izmir, Turkey

    SciTech Connect

    Onargan, T.; Kucuk, K.; Polat, M

    2003-07-01

    Izmir is a large metropolitan city with a population of 3,114,860. The city consists of 27 townships, each township has a population of not less than 10,000 inhabitants. The two major solid waste disposal sites are in the townships of Uzundere and Harmandali. The amount of solid waste that is disposed at each of these sites is about 800 and 1800 t/day, respectively. In Uzundere, compost is produced from the organic fraction of urban solid wastes while the residual material is deposited at a disposal site with a remaining capacity of 700,000 m{sup 3} as of 2001. Gas monitoring and measurements were carried out at the disposal site in Uzundere. For this purpose, nine sampling wells were drilled on selected locations. Each well was furnished with perforated metal pipes suitable for gas monitoring and measurements. The following gases were monitored: O{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, CO, CO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}S. The most important finding was that the concentrations of CH{sub 4} in the wells ranged from 7 to 57%. Dilution of the CH{sub 4} by O{sub 2} down to the LEL levels (5-15%) is always possible and poses a continuing risk at the site. Furthermore, the levels of O{sub 2} require that access to the site be limited to only authorized personnel.

  5. The effects of preferential flow and soil texture on risk assessments of a NORM waste disposal site.

    PubMed

    Pontedeiro, E M; van Genuchten, M Th; Cotta, R M; Simunek, J

    2010-02-15

    This paper investigates the environmental fate of radionuclide decay chains (specially the (238)U and (232)Th series) being released from a conventional mining installation processing ore containing natural occurring radioactive materials (NORMs). Contaminated waste at the site is being disposed off in an industrial landfill on top of a base of earth material to ensure integrity of the deposit over relatively long geologic times (thousands of years). Brazilian regulations, like those of many other countries, require a performance assessment of the disposal facility using a leaching and off-site transport scenario. We used for this purpose the HYDRUS-1D software package to predict long-term radionuclide transport vertically through both the landfill and the underlying unsaturated zone, and then laterally in groundwater. We assumed that a downgradient well intercepting groundwater was the only source of water for a resident farmer, and that all contaminated water from the well was somehow used in the biosphere. The risk assessment was carried out for both a best-case scenario assuming equilibrium transport in a fine-textured (clay) subsurface, and a worst-case scenario involving preferential flow through a more coarse-textured subsurface. Results show that preferential flow and soil texture both can have a major effect on the results, depending upon the specific radionuclide involved. PMID:19892462

  6. Potential overflow of Mojave Creek near disposal site, Edwards Air Force Base, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dinehart, Randy L.; Harmon, Jerry G.

    1998-01-01

    Sedimentological evidence in Mojave Creek near Edwards, California, indicates that the largest discharge in the last hundred years near the disposal site of the Main Base Landfill at Edwards Air Force Base was a few hundred cubic feet per second. The distal ends of two alluvial fans on the Mojave Creek floodplain near the Main Base Landfill have not been eroded substantially since sediment supply was cut off by a railroad grade completed in 1884. Previous estimates of flood discharges were 4,000 cubic feet per second and larger in this reach; the estimates were calculated by regression equations derived from regional characteristics. However, a 100-year rainfall in 1983 failed to produce erosion in Mojave Creek commensurate with discharges of greater than about 100 cubic feet per second. To test the potential for the creek to overflow and reach the disposal site, a hypothetical discharge was used to determine the depth of flooding at local cross sections. Although the access road from Mojave Boulevard to the Main Base Landfill may be inundated during a flood, the artificial grade at the disposal site would not be reached at a discharge of 2,000 cubic feet per second, which is an order of magnitude greater than the apparent flood discharges that occurred during the past hundred years in Mojave Creek near the present Main Base Landfill.

  7. Possibilities of detecting health effects by studies of populations exposed to chemicals from waste disposal sites.

    PubMed Central

    Buffler, P A; Crane, M; Key, M M

    1985-01-01

    Factors affecting the design of an epidemiologic study assessing possible health effects from chemical waste disposal sites are reviewed. Such epidemiologic studies will most likely be prompted either by a known release of chemicals into the environment around the site, or by an unusual disease cluster in a population near the site. In the latter situation, a method for evaluating the health effects is needed, and one possible approach is discussed. In the former situation, it may not be obvious what health outcomes are relevant. Reported associations between health effects and chemicals in humans were reviewed. Studies from the occupational and environmental literature were classified by chemical and target organ affected and presented in tabular form. No attempt was made to critically evaluate the quality of evidence for each health effect, although bibliographic documentation was provided where possible. Episodes of chemical contamination of food, drinking water and other media were also reviewed and presented in a separate table. The organ sites likely to be affected by toxic chemicals from waste disposal sites depend heavily on the route of exposure and the dose that is received. Ingestion is the most frequently reported route of exposure in episodes of environmental contamination. These have affected the hepatic, renal, hematopoietic, reproductive, and central nervous systems. The type and severity of effects were dose-dependent. Direct skin contact is important in the occupational environment where dermal and central nervous system effects have been reported but seems less likely as a route of exposure for populations around waste disposal sites. Inhalation, unless at relative high concentrations or as a result of fire, is unlikely to be important, although hematopoietic, reproductive, and central nervous system effects have been reported in occupational studies. PMID:3910420

  8. 48 CFR 252.223-7006 - Prohibition on storage and disposal of toxic and hazardous materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... the Contractor's treatment or disposal of non-DoD-owned toxic or hazardous materials on a military... in or a waste generated or resulting from authorized activities, such as servicing, maintenance, or... 102 of CERCLA (42 U.S.C. 9602) (40 CFR part 302); (ii) Materials that are of an explosive,...

  9. Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal from South Brother Island Channel, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Barrows, E.S.; Gardiner, W.W.; Antrim, L.D.; Gruendell, B.D.; Word, J.Q.; Tokos, J.J.S.

    1996-09-01

    South Brother Island Channel was one of seven waterways that the US Army Crops of Engineers-New York District requested the Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory to sample and evaluate for dredging and disposal. Tests and analyses were conducted on South Brother Island Channel sediment core samples and evaluations were performed. The evaluation of proposed dredged material from South Brother Island Channel included bulk sediment chemical analyses, chemical analyses of site water and elutriate, water-column and benthic acute toxicity tests, and bioaccumulation studies. Individual sediment core samples collected from Souther Brother Island Channel were analyzed for grain size, moisture content, and total organic carbon. a composite sediment sample, representing the entire area proposed for dredging, was analyzed for bulk density, specific gravity, metals, chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl congers, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, and 1,4- dichlorobenzene. Site water and elutriate water, prepared from the suspended-particle phase of South Brother Island Channel sediment, were analyzed for metals, pesticides, and PCBs.

  10. Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal from Hudson River, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Gardiner, W.W.; Barrows, E.S.; Antrim, L.D.; Gruendell, B.D.; Word, J.Q.; Tokos, J.J.S.

    1996-09-01

    The Hudson River (Federal Project No. 41) was one of seven waterways that the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers-New York District (USACE-NYD) requested the Battelle Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) to sample and evaluate for dredging and disposal in March 1994. Sediment samples were collected from the Hudson River. Tests and analyses were conducted on Hudson River sediment core samples. The evaluation of proposed dredged material from the Hudson River included bulk sediment chemical analyses, chemical analyses of site water and elutriate, water-column and benthic acute toxicity tests, and bioaccumulation studies. Individual sediment core samples collected from Hudson River were analyzed for grain size, moisture content, and total organic carbon (TOC). A composite sediment sample, representing the entire area proposed for dredging, was analyzed for bulk density, specific gravity, metals, chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and 1,4-dichlorobenzene. Site water and elutriate water, prepared from the suspended-particulate phase (SPP) of Hudson River sediment, were analyzed for metals, pesticides, and PCBS. Water-column or SPP toxicity tests were performed with three species. Benthic acute toxicity tests were performed. Bioaccumulation tests were also conducted.

  11. A Methodology for Characterizing Potential Uranium Transport in Deep Geological Disposal Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dittrich, T. M.; Reimus, P. W.

    2013-12-01

    In order to make safe and reasonable decisions about radioactive waste disposal in deep geologic sites, it is important to understand the fate and potential transport of long half-life transuranic radionuclides over a wide range of time and distance scales. The objective of this study was to evaluate and demonstrate new experimental methods for quantifying the potential for actinide transport in deep fractured crystalline rock formations. We selected a fractured/weathered granodiorite at the Grimsel Test Site (GTS) in Switzerland as a model system because field experiments involving uranium, as well as other actinides, have already been conducted. Working on this system provides a unique opportunity to compare lab experimental results with field-scale observations. Drilled rock cores and weathered fracture fill material (FFM) from the GTS were shipped to Los Alamos National Laboratory, characterized by x-ray diffraction and microscopy, and used in batch sorption/desorption and column breakthrough experiments. Uranium solutions were made by adding uranium to a synthetic Grimsel groundwater that matched the natural water chemistry found in the GTS groundwater. Batch and breakthrough experiments were conducted using solutions between pH 6.9 and 9.0. All column experiments were conducted using syringe pumps at low flow rate (<0.3 ml h-1) in small columns containing 5 g of material with pore volumes of 2-3 ml. These small columns allow rapid and economical evaluation of sorption/desorption behavior under flowing conditions (and in duplicate or triplicate). Solutions were switched to uranium-free synthetic Grimsel groundwater after equilibration in batch experiments or after near-steady uranium breakthrough occurred in column experiments. The measurement of uranium concentrations as a function of time under these conditions allowed interrogation of desorption rates which we believe control uranium fate and transport over long time and distance scales. Uranium transport

  12. Heavy metal bioaccumulation in vegetation and small mammals inhabiting a coal ash disposal site

    SciTech Connect

    Baron, L.A.; Garten, C.T.; Ashwood, T.L.

    1994-12-31

    Coal ash is exempted from treatment as a hazardous waste under RCRA Subtitle C. The US Environmental Protection Agency justifies this exemption contending that coal ash does not possess any of the four RCRA hazardous properties (ignitability, corrosivity, reactivity, or toxicity). However, metals in coal ash may accumulate to toxic levels in biota on ash disposal sites. From 1955 to 1989, the Department of Energy`s Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant sluiced coal ash to a 36-ha earthen retention basin (Filled Coal Ash Pond; FCAP); the basin drains to a small local stream. The FCAP is now revegetated, and a productive terrestrial ecosystem now exists on the site. Vegetation and small mammals were collected from the FCAP and a nearby reference site in September 1992, and June--September 1993. Vegetation and small mammals were analyzed for As, Cd, Cr, Pb, Se, Tl and Hg. Mean concentrations of Se and As for FCAP vs. reference site samples were significantly higher in deciduous tree foliage (18.9 {+-} 19.1 /{mu}g Se/g and 1.6 {+-} 0.69 /{mu}g As/g) and small mammals (2.4 {+-} 1.4 {mu}g Se/g and 0.16 {+-} 0.1 {mu}g As/g) inhabiting the FCAP. Thus, biota living on or near the ash disposal site have bioaccumulated Se and As. Concentrations of these metals in vegetation and small mammals are sufficient to cause toxic effects in their consumers.

  13. Quantifying Deep Vadose Zone Soil Water Potential Changes At A Waste Disposal Site

    SciTech Connect

    Joel M. Hubbell; Deborah L. McElroy

    2007-10-01

    Recent advances in moisture monitoring using tensiometers has allowed long-duration, high quality data sets from within the deep vadose zone. A network of about 30 advanced tensiometers in 18 wells provided field-scale data to monitor moisture conditions and movement in the subsurface in and around a mixed waste disposal site at depths ranging from 6 to over 67 m below land surface (bls). Sensors are located in both sediments and fractured rock within the geologic profile and some have been in operation for over 10 years. The moisture monitoring was able to detect long term declines in moisture content presumably in response to lower than normal precipitation and resultant infiltration over the time period from 2000 to 2004. This trend was reversed in 2005 and 2006 in more than half of the monitoring sites over the 6 to 33 m depth interval and in several monitoring sites from 33 to 67 m, in response to normal to above normal precipitation. This tensiometer data can be used to evaluate the appropriateness of the current conceptual model of flow at this site. It also shows that a moisture monitoring system should be effective to rapidly validate that a proposed remedial action (such as placement of an ET cover) would be effective in reducing the moisture movement to levels similar to those in undisturbed sites outside of the disposal area. This paper will describe the instrument design, how the instruments were installed, and the resultant data from this monitoring system.

  14. Approaches to LLW disposal site selection and current progress of host states

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, J.J.; Kerr, T.A.

    1990-11-01

    In accordance with the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 and under the guidance of 10 CFR 61, States have begun entering into compacts to establish and operate regional disposal facilities for low-level radioactive waste. The progress a state makes in implementing a process to identify a specific location for a disposal site is one indication of the level of a state's commitment to meeting its responsibilities under Federal law and interstate compact agreements. During the past few years, several States have been engaged in site selection processes. The purpose of this report is to summarize the site selection approaches of some of the Host States (California, Michigan, Nebraska, New York, North Carolina, Texas, and Illinois), and their progress to date. An additional purpose of the report is to discern whether the Host States's site selection processes were heavily influenced by any common factors. One factor each state held in common was that political and public processes exerted a powerful influence on the site selection process at virtually every stage. 1 ref.

  15. Assessment of alternatives for upgrading Navy solid waste disposal sites. Volume 2. Final report oct 79-Sep 80

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-08-01

    The Naval Civil Engineering Laboratory as part of the NAVFAC Solid waste R/D Program performed an assessment for upgrading Navy solid waste disposal sites. The purpose of this effort was threefold: (1) to determined the extent of this effort the Navy may have to modify its current solid waste disposal practices to enable compliance with RCRA, (2) define the technological concepts that represent upgrading techniques, and (3) to identify research priorities concerning the technologies for solid waste disposal. This document consists of three volumes. This volume (2) provides a compilation of available technological alternatives for upgrading Navy disposal sites to comply with the criteria and associated costs for implementation of these technologies. The results of this effort are intended to assist engineering field divisions and public works personnel in identifying cost effective technology to upgrade existing land disposal sites.

  16. Alternative Site Technology Deployment-Monitoring System for the U-3ax/bl Disposal Unit at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, J.M.; Levitt, D.G.; Rawlinson, S.E.

    2001-02-01

    In December 2000, a performance monitoring facility was constructed adjacent to the U-3ax/bl mixed waste disposal unit at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Recent studies conducted in the arid southwestern United States suggest that a vegetated monolayer evapotranspiration (ET) closure cover may be more effective at isolating waste than traditional Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) multi-layered designs. The monitoring system deployed next to the U-3ax/bl disposal unit consists of eight drainage lysimeters with three surface treatments: two are left bare; two are revegetated with native species; two are being allowed to revegetate with invader species; and two are reserved for future studies. Soil used in each lysimeter is native alluvium taken from the same location as the soil used for the cover material on U-3ax/bl. The lysimeters were constructed so that any drainage to the bottom can be collected and measured. To provide a detailed evaluation of the cover performance, an ar ray of 16 sensors was installed in each lysimeter to measure soil water content, soil water potential, and soil temperature. Revegetation of the U-3ax/bl closure cover establishes a stable plant community that maximizes water loss through transpiration while at the same time, reduces water and wind erosion and ultimately restores the disposal unit to its surrounding Great Basin Desert environment.

  17. Radiological audit of remedial action activities at the processing site, transfer site, and Cheney disposal site Grand Junction, Colorado: Audit date, August 9--11, 1993. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailing Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project`s Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) performed a radiological audit of the Remedial Action Contractor (RAC), MK-Ferguson and CWM Federal Environmental Services, Inc., at the processing site, transfer site, and Cheney disposal site in Grand Junction, Colorado. Jim Hylko and Bill James of the TAC conducted this audit August 9 through 11, 1993. Bob Cornish and Frank Bosiljevec represented the US Department of Energy (DOE). This report presents one programmatic finding, eleven site-specific observations, one good practice, and four programmatic observations.

  18. Fuzzy multicriteria disposal method and site selection for municipal solid waste.

    PubMed

    Ekmekçioğlu, Mehmet; Kaya, Tolga; Kahraman, Cengiz

    2010-01-01

    The use of fuzzy multiple criteria analysis (MCA) in solid waste management has the advantage of rendering subjective and implicit decision making more objective and analytical, with its ability to accommodate both quantitative and qualitative data. In this paper a modified fuzzy TOPSIS methodology is proposed for the selection of appropriate disposal method and site for municipal solid waste (MSW). Our method is superior to existing methods since it has capability of representing vague qualitative data and presenting all possible results with different degrees of membership. In the first stage of the proposed methodology, a set of criteria of cost, reliability, feasibility, pollution and emission levels, waste and energy recovery is optimized to determine the best MSW disposal method. Landfilling, composting, conventional incineration, and refuse-derived fuel (RDF) combustion are the alternatives considered. The weights of the selection criteria are determined by fuzzy pairwise comparison matrices of Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). It is found that RDF combustion is the best disposal method alternative for Istanbul. In the second stage, the same methodology is used to determine the optimum RDF combustion plant location using adjacent land use, climate, road access and cost as the criteria. The results of this study illustrate the importance of the weights on the various factors in deciding the optimized location, with the best site located in Catalca. A sensitivity analysis is also conducted to monitor how sensitive our model is to changes in the various criteria weights. PMID:20303733

  19. Treatment and disposal of a mixed F006 plating line sludge at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Pickett, J.B.; Musall, J.C.; Martin, H.L.

    1993-05-01

    The Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC), as the operating contractor for the Department of Energy (DOE) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is implementing a program to treat and stabilize approximately 750,000 gallons of an F006 mixed (radioactive/hazardous) plating line wastewater sludge. The uraniun contaminated sludge resulted from nickel plating of depleted uranium targets, which were subsequently irradiated to produce plutonium for the weapons program. With the end of the ``cold war,`` no virgin plutonium weapons production is forecast, and only the currant SRS inventory of stored mixed plating line waste must be treated and disposed. A Life Cycle Cost analysis was used by WSRC to determine that the most cost effective approach was to treat the waste by a hazardous waste management sub-contractor, in a one time campaign. The analysis indicated that {approximately}$40 million could be saved by this approach, vs. the original plan to construct a permanent SRS treatment facility. The sub-contractor will mobilize treatment equipment will be disposed to on-site SRS disposal vaults. This new approach also required a re-negotiation of a federal facility compliance agreement between the DOE and the Environmental Protection Agency.

  20. Treatment and disposal of a mixed F006 plating line sludge at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Pickett, J.B.; Musall, J.C.; Martin, H.L.

    1993-01-01

    The Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC), as the operating contractor for the Department of Energy (DOE) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is implementing a program to treat and stabilize approximately 750,000 gallons of an F006 mixed (radioactive/hazardous) plating line wastewater sludge. The uraniun contaminated sludge resulted from nickel plating of depleted uranium targets, which were subsequently irradiated to produce plutonium for the weapons program. With the end of the cold war,'' no virgin plutonium weapons production is forecast, and only the currant SRS inventory of stored mixed plating line waste must be treated and disposed. A Life Cycle Cost analysis was used by WSRC to determine that the most cost effective approach was to treat the waste by a hazardous waste management sub-contractor, in a one time campaign. The analysis indicated that [approximately]$40 million could be saved by this approach, vs. the original plan to construct a permanent SRS treatment facility. The sub-contractor will mobilize treatment equipment will be disposed to on-site SRS disposal vaults. This new approach also required a re-negotiation of a federal facility compliance agreement between the DOE and the Environmental Protection Agency.

  1. Fuzzy multicriteria disposal method and site selection for municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect

    Ekmekcioglu, Mehmet; Kaya, Tolga; Kahraman, Cengiz

    2010-08-15

    The use of fuzzy multiple criteria analysis (MCA) in solid waste management has the advantage of rendering subjective and implicit decision making more objective and analytical, with its ability to accommodate both quantitative and qualitative data. In this paper a modified fuzzy TOPSIS methodology is proposed for the selection of appropriate disposal method and site for municipal solid waste (MSW). Our method is superior to existing methods since it has capability of representing vague qualitative data and presenting all possible results with different degrees of membership. In the first stage of the proposed methodology, a set of criteria of cost, reliability, feasibility, pollution and emission levels, waste and energy recovery is optimized to determine the best MSW disposal method. Landfilling, composting, conventional incineration, and refuse-derived fuel (RDF) combustion are the alternatives considered. The weights of the selection criteria are determined by fuzzy pairwise comparison matrices of Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). It is found that RDF combustion is the best disposal method alternative for Istanbul. In the second stage, the same methodology is used to determine the optimum RDF combustion plant location using adjacent land use, climate, road access and cost as the criteria. The results of this study illustrate the importance of the weights on the various factors in deciding the optimized location, with the best site located in Catalca. A sensitivity analysis is also conducted to monitor how sensitive our model is to changes in the various criteria weights.

  2. Natural selection of PAH-degrading bacterial guilds at coal-tar disposal sites

    SciTech Connect

    Ghiorse, W.C.; Herrick, J.B.; Sandoli, R.L.; Madsen, E.L.

    1995-06-01

    Microbial activity patterns at buried coal-tar disposal sites have been under investigation for several years to determine the response of naturally occurring microflora to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at the sites. At one site in upstate New York, data have shown enrichment of PAH-degrading bacteria in subsurface contaminated zones but not in uncontaminated zones. Similar work at a Midwestern site showed that the same trends existed in a heterogeneous disposal site except that a borehole outside the plume showed some PAH-mineralization activity. Polymerase chain reaction amplification of DNA extracted from sediment samples from the New York site indicated the presence of naphthalene metabolism genes nahAc and nahR, similar to those found on the NAH7 plasmid of Pseudomonas putida G7. Significant sequence polymorphism was observed in amplified nahAc products, indicating that divergent homologs of nahAc were present in the native community. Protozoan numbers were elevated in sediment samples displaying relatively high PAH-degrading activity, suggesting that a food chain was established based on PAH-degrading bacteria. Removal of the coal-tar source at the site occurred in 1991. In 1992, sampling of three key borehole stations revealed that mixing and backfilling operations had introduced soil microorganisms into the source area and introduced 14C-PAH-mineralization activity into the previously inactive pristine area. Thus removal of the source of the contaminants and restoration at the site have altered the microbial activity patterns outside the contaminant plume as well as in the source area. 15 refs., 3 figs.

  3. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 21: Radioactive Materials Disposal and Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  4. Use of engineered soils and other site modifications for low-level radioactive waste disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission requires that low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facilities be designed to minimize contact between waste and infiltrating water through the use of site design features. The purpose of this investigation is to identify engineered barriers and evaluate their ability to enhance the long-term performance of an LLW disposal facility. Previously used barriers such as concrete overpacks, vaults, backfill, and engineered soil covers, are evaluated as well as state-of-the-art barriers, including an engineered sorptive soil layer underlying a facility and an advanced design soil cover incorporating a double-capillary layer. The purpose of this investigation is also to provide information in incorporating or excluding specific engineered barriers as part of new disposal facility designs. Evaluations are performed using performance assessment modeling techniques. A generic reference disposal facility design is used as a baseline for comparing the improvements in long-term performance offered by designs incorporating engineered barriers in generic and humid environments. These evaluations simulate water infiltration through the facility, waste leaching, radionuclide transport through the facility, and decay and ingrowth. They also calculate a maximum (peak annual) dose for each disposal system design. A relative dose reduction factor is calculated for each design evaluated. The results of this investigation are presented for concrete overpacks, concrete vaults, sorptive backfill, sorptive engineered soil underlying the facility, and sloped engineered soil covers using a single-capillary barrier and a double-capillary barrier. Designs using combinations of barriers are also evaluated. These designs include a vault plus overpacks, sorptive backfill plus overpacks, and overpack with vault plus sorptive backfill, underlying sorptive soil, and engineered soil cover.

  5. Near-bottom pelagic bacteria at a deep-water sewage sludge disposal site

    SciTech Connect

    Takizawa, M.; Straube, W.L.; Hill, R.T.; Colwell, R.R.

    1994-01-01

    The epibenthic bacterial community at deep-ocean sewage sludge disposal site DWD-106, located approximately 106 miles (ca. 196 km) off the coast of New Jersey, was assessed for changes associated with the introduction of large amounts of sewage sludge. Mixed cultures and bacterial isolates obtained from water overlying sediment core samples collected at the deep-water (2,500 m) municipal sewage disposal site were tested for the ability to grow under in situ conditions of temperature and pressure. The responses of cultures collected at a DWD-106 station heavily impacted by sewage sludge were compared with those of samples collected from a station at the same depth which was not contaminated by sewage sludge. Significant differences were observed in the ability of mixed bacterial cultures and isolates from the two sites to grow under deep-sea pressure and temperature conditions. The levels of sludge contamination were established by enumerating Clostridium perfringens, a sewage indicator bacterium, in sediment samples from the two sites. (Copyright (c) 1993, American Society for Microbiology.)

  6. A follow-up study of the community near the McColl waste disposal site.

    PubMed Central

    Lipscomb, J A; Goldman, L R; Satin, K P; Smith, D F; Vance, W A; Neutra, R R

    1991-01-01

    To assess the effect of interim clean-up measures on the current health of a community, we conducted a follow-up survey of 193 residents living near the McColl waste disposal site and a comparison area located approximately 5 miles from the site. Results from this survey were compared with results from a similar survey conducted 7 years earlier. Odors were detected at least once per week by 32.7% of "high-exposed" respondents in 1988 compared with 68.5% in 1981, but prevalence odds ratios (PORs) comparing symptom reporting between "high-exposed" and comparison-area respondents were greater than that of the 1981 survey for 89% of symptoms. PORs comparing symptom reporting between these two areas were greater than 2.0 for 64% of symptoms assessed in the current survey. Symptoms reported in excess did not represent a single organ system or suggest a mechanism of response. PORs comparing respondents who were very worried about the environment and those reporting no worry were greater than 2.0 for 86% of symptoms. These finding, along with environmental data from the area, suggest that living near the waste disposal site and being very worried about the environment, rather than a toxicologic effect of chemical from the site, explain excess symptom reporting found in this follow-up study. PMID:1954927

  7. Technical site characterization of the Mercer County Ash Disposal Facility: A case history

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, R.C.; Walton, C.G.; Zweig, L.T. )

    1993-03-01

    The Waste-Tech Services, Inc., Mercer County Ash Disposal Facility is a proposed Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) permitted hazardous waste treatment, storage and disposal facility located SW of Princeton, Missouri. The facility is to accept, store, treat and landfill ash residues from RCRA-permitted hazardous waste incineration. The site was characterized for a permit application submitted to the Missouri Department of Natural Resource (MDNR). MDNR was involved during all site characterization stages, including MDNR review, input and oversight during the planning, field execution and report-preparation stages. Both parties agreed upon the needs required for characterizing the sites prior field work, and the MDNR ensured that scope of work stipulations were implemented in the field and reported. Three broad characterization categories were defined: (1) physical characteristics; (2) biological characteristics; and, (3) socio-economic considerations. Physical criteria include the geologic, geotechnical, hydrogeologic and hydrologic site conditions. Threatened and Endangered Species and Wetlands comprised the biologic issues. Socio-economics considered cultural resources, such as history and archeology, market proximity, capacity assurance and transportation.

  8. Second performance assessment iteration of the Greater Confinement Disposal facility at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Baer, T.A.; Emery, J.N.; Price, L.L.; Olague, N.E.

    1994-04-01

    The Greater Confinement Disposal (GCD) facility was established in Area 5 at the Nevada Test Site for containment of waste inappropriate for shallow land burial. Some transuranic (TRU) waste has been disposed of at the GCD facility, and compliance of this disposal system with EPA regulation 40 CFR 191 must be evaluated. We have adopted an iterative approach in which performance assessment results guide site data collection, which in turn influences the parameters and models used in performance assessment. The first iteration was based upon readily available data, and indicated that the GCD facility would likely comply with 40 CFR 191 and that the downward flux of water through the vadose zone (recharge) had a major influence on the results. Very large recharge rates, such as might occur under a cooler, wetter climate, could result in noncompliance. A project was initiated to study recharge in Area 5 by use of three environmental tracers. The recharge rate is so small that the nearest groundwater aquifer will not be contaminated in less than 10,000 years. Thus upward liquid diffusion of radionuclides remained as the sole release pathway. This second assessment iteration refined the upward pathway models and updated the parameter distributions based upon new site information. A new plant uptake model was introduced to the upward diffusion pathway; adsorption and erosion were also incorporated into the model. Several modifications were also made to the gas phase radon transport model. Plutonium solubility and sorption coefficient distributions were changed based upon new information, and on-site measurements were used to update the moisture content distributions. The results of the assessment using these models indicate that the GCD facility is likely to comply with all sections of 40 CFR 191 under undisturbed conditions.

  9. Reclamation and revegetation of fly ash disposal sites - Challenges and research needs.

    PubMed

    Haynes, R J

    2009-01-01

    Coal-fired power generation is a principal energy source throughout the world. Approximately, 70-75% of coal combustion residues are fly ash and its utilization worldwide is only slightly above 30%. The remainder is disposed of in landfills and fly ash basins. It is desirable to revegetate these sites for aesthetic purposes, to stabilize the surface ash against wind and water erosion and to reduce the quantity of water leaching through the deposit. Limitations to plant establishment and growth in fly ash can include a high pH (and consequent deficiencies of Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn and P), high soluble salts, toxic levels of elements such as B, pozzalanic properties of ash resulting in cemented/compacted layers and lack of microbial activity. An integrated organic/biotechnological approach to revegetation seems appropriate and should be investigated further. This would include incorporation of organic matter into the surface layer of ash, mycorrhizal inoculation of establishing vegetation and use of inoculated legumes to add N. Leaching losses from ash disposal sites are likely to be site-specific but a sparse number of studies have revealed enriched concentrations of elements such as Ca, Fe, Cd, Pb, and Sb in surrounding groundwater. This aspect deserves further study particularly in the longer-term. In addition, during weathering of the ash and deposition of organic matter during plant growth, a soil will form with properties vastly different to that of the parent ash. In turn, this will influence the effect that the disposal site has on the surrounding environment. Nevertheless, the effects of ash weathering and organic matter accumulation over time on the chemical, physical and biological properties of the developing ash-derived soil are not well understood and require further study. PMID:18706753

  10. Comment and response document for the long-term surveillance plan for the Collins Ranch Disposal Site Lakeview, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    Twenty-nine comments from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and six from the Grand Junction Project Office for the long-term surveillance plan for the Collins Ranch Disposal Site, Lakeview, Oregon are documented along with their corresponding responses.

  11. Comment and response document for the long-term surveillance plan for the Shiprock, New Mexico, disposal site

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    This document contains comments and responses regarding the long-term surveillance plan for the Shiprock, New Mexico uranium mine tailings disposal site. Discrepencies and errors within the plan document are noted and corrections are recorded.

  12. Comment and response document for the long-term surveillance plan for the Bodo Canyon Disposal Site, Durango. Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    This document contains comments made by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission upon their review of the Long-Term Surveillance Plan for the Bodo Canyon Disposal Site, Durango, Colorado. Responses to the comments are also included in the document.

  13. Survey of degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, J.C.; Van Konynenburg, R.A.; McCright, R.D. ); Gdowski, G.E. )

    1988-06-01

    Three copper-based alloys, CDA 102 (oxygen-free, high-purity copper), CDA 613 (aluminum bronze), and CDA 715 (Cu-30Ni), are candidates for the fabrication of high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers. Waste will include spent fuel assemblies from reactors as well as borosilicate glass, and will be sent to the prospective repository site at Yucca Mountain in Nye County, Nevada. The decay of radionuclides will result in the generation of substantial heat and in fluxes of gamma radiation outside the containers. In this environment, container materials might degrade by atmospheric oxidation, general aqueous phase corrosion, localized corrosion (LC), and stress corrosion cracking (SCC). This volume is a critical survey of available data on pitting and crevice corrosion of the copper-based candidates. Pitting and crevice corrosion are two of the most common forms of LC of these materials. Data on the SCC of these alloys is surveyed in Volume 4. Pitting usually occurs in water that contains low concentrations of bicarbonate and chloride anions, such as water from Well J-13 at the Nevada Test Site. Consequently, this mode of degradation might occur in the repository environment. Though few quantitative data on LC were found, a tentative ranking based on pitting corrosion, local dealloying, crevice corrosion, and biofouling is presented. CDA 102 performs well in the categories of pitting corrosion, local dealloying, and biofouling, but susceptibility to crevice corrosion diminishes its attractiveness as a candidate. The cupronickel alloy, CDA 715, probably has the best overall resistance to such localized forms of attack. 123 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. 43 CFR 3602.33 - How will BLM dispose of mineral materials for use in developing Federal mineral leases?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false How will BLM dispose of mineral materials for use in developing Federal mineral leases? 3602.33 Section 3602.33 Public Lands: Interior... MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL MATERIALS DISPOSAL Mineral Materials Sales Noncompetitive Sales §...

  15. 43 CFR 3602.33 - How will BLM dispose of mineral materials for use in developing Federal mineral leases?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false How will BLM dispose of mineral materials for use in developing Federal mineral leases? 3602.33 Section 3602.33 Public Lands: Interior... MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL MATERIALS DISPOSAL Mineral Materials Sales Noncompetitive Sales §...

  16. 43 CFR 3602.33 - How will BLM dispose of mineral materials for use in developing Federal mineral leases?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false How will BLM dispose of mineral materials for use in developing Federal mineral leases? 3602.33 Section 3602.33 Public Lands: Interior... MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL MATERIALS DISPOSAL Mineral Materials Sales Noncompetitive Sales §...

  17. 43 CFR 3602.33 - How will BLM dispose of mineral materials for use in developing Federal mineral leases?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How will BLM dispose of mineral materials for use in developing Federal mineral leases? 3602.33 Section 3602.33 Public Lands: Interior... MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL MATERIALS DISPOSAL Mineral Materials Sales Noncompetitive Sales §...

  18. Managing suspect radioactive material in the DOE system -- A program to establish lower activity disposal criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Pollard, C.G.; Shuman, R.; Rogers, V.

    1994-12-31

    Operations at Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear installations routinely generate radioactively contaminated waste. A large portion of this waste has extremely low levels of radioactive contamination or is suspect waste. Despite these very low levels of contamination, this waste is disposed of as low-level radioactive waste (LLW) or mixed waste. Doing so depleted limited available disposal capacity while providing little or no incremental benefit to the public health and safety. Efforts have been made by federal agencies, states, and industry to establish less rigorous control criteria for waste with low levels of radioactive contamination. The DOE addressed the establishment of lower activity disposal criteria in its threshold limit guidance in the early 1980s, but, to date, nor formal limits have emerged from the Department. A number of DOE installation have calculated suitable site-specific release limits. Efforts by other federal agencies range from proposed dose criteria for Below Regulatory Concern (BRC) waste developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to policy statements by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) on BRC waste which were subsequently withdrawn. Such limits may be developed incrementally, focusing first on waste streams that are easily characterized and that will provide the greatest immediate benefit to the DOE system. Limits may then be developed for waste streams containing more complex mixtures of radionuclides. Separate limits may be developed for each DOE site, taking into account the site-specific disposal conditions, or a single set of limits may be developed for the entire DOE system. Once lower activity disposal limits are established, DOE installations will need to develop waste characterization methods adequate to ensure compliance with the new lower activity disposal criteria.

  19. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 542: Disposal Holes, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    SciTech Connect

    Laura Pastor

    2006-05-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 542 is located in Areas 3, 8, 9, and 20 of the Nevada Test Site, which is 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Corrective Action Unit 542 is comprised of eight corrective action sites (CASs): (1) 03-20-07, ''UD-3a Disposal Hole''; (2) 03-20-09, ''UD-3b Disposal Hole''; (3) 03-20-10, ''UD-3c Disposal Hole''; (4) 03-20-11, ''UD-3d Disposal Hole''; (5) 06-20-03, ''UD-6 and UD-6s Disposal Holes''; (6) 08-20-01, ''U-8d PS No.1A Injection Well Surface Release''; (7) 09-20-03, ''U-9itsy30 PS No.1A Injection Well Surface Release''; and (8) 20-20-02, ''U-20av PS No.1A Injection Well Surface Release''. These sites are being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives. Additional information will be obtained by conducting a corrective action investigation before evaluating corrective action alternatives and selecting the appropriate corrective action for each CAS. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of viable corrective action alternatives that will be presented in the Corrective Action Decision Document. The sites will be investigated based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on January 30, 2006, by representatives of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection; U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture; and Bechtel Nevada. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective actions for CAU 542. Appendix A provides a detailed discussion of the DQO methodology and the DQOs specific to each CAS. The scope of the CAI for CAU 542 includes the following activities: (1) Move surface debris and/or materials, as needed, to facilitate sampling. (2) Conduct radiological surveys. (3) Conduct geophysical surveys to

  20. Environmental monitoring report for commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal sites (1960`s through 1990`s)

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    During the time period covered in this report (1960`s through early 1990`s), six commercial low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) disposal facilities have been operated in the US. This report provides environmental monitoring data collected at each site. The report summarizes: (1) each site`s general design, (2) each site`s inventory, (3) the environmental monitoring program for each site and the data obtained as the program has evolved, and (4) what the program has indicated about releases to off-site areas, if any, including a statement of the actual health and safety significance of any release. A summary with conclusions is provided at the end of each site`s chapter. The six commercial LLRW disposal sites discussed are located near: Sheffield, Illinois; Maxey Flats, Kentucky; Beatty, Nevada; West Valley, New York; Barnwell, South Carolina; Richland, Washington.

  1. Low-level radioactive waste management: transitioning to off-site disposal at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Dorries, Alison M

    2010-11-09

    Facing the closure of nearly all on-site management and disposal capability for low-level radioactive waste (LLW), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is making ready to ship the majority of LLW off-site. In order to ship off-site, waste must meet the Treatment, Storage, and Disposal Facility's (TSDF) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC). In preparation, LANL's waste management organization must ensure LANL waste generators characterize and package waste compliantly and waste characterization documentation is complete and accurate. Key challenges that must be addressed to successfully make the shift to off-site disposal of LLW include improving the detail, accuracy, and quality of process knowledge (PK) and acceptable knowledge (AK) documentation, training waste generators and waste management staff on the higher standard of data quality and expectations, improved WAC compliance for off-site facilities, and enhanced quality assurance throughout the process. Certification of LANL generators will allow direct off-site shipping of LLW from their facilities.

  2. Disposal of low-level radioactive waste at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Sauls, V.W.

    1993-03-01

    An important objective of the Savannah River Site`s low-level radioactive waste management program is to isolate the waste from the environment both now and well into the future. A key element in achieving this is the disposal of low-level radioactive waste in sealed concrete vaults. Historically the Site has disposed of low-level radioactive waste via shallow land burial. In 1987, it was decided that better isolation from the environment was required. At that time several options for achieving this isolation were studied and below grade concrete vaults were chosen as the best method. This paper discusses the performance objectives for the vaults, the current design of the vaults and plans for the design of future vaults, the cost to construct the vaults, and the performance assessment on the vaults. Construction of the first set of vaults is essentially complete and readiness reviews before the start of waste receipt are being performed. Startup is to begin late in calendar year 1992 and continue through early CY 1993. The performance assessment is under way and the first draft is to be completed in early 1993.

  3. Site-specific emergency response concept plans for the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program

    SciTech Connect

    Carnes, S.A.

    1989-12-01

    Site-specific emergency response concept plans were developed to help initiate enhanced emergency preparedness for continued storage of the stockpile and the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP) at the eight army installations storing the unitary chemical stockpile -- Aberdeen Proving Ground, Anniston Army Depot, Lexington-Blue Grass Army Depot, Newport Army Ammunition Plant, Pine Bluff Arsenal, Pueblo Depot Activity, Tooele Army Depot, and Umatilla Depot Activity. This document summarizes the emergency response plans for all the sites and highlights similarities and differences among them. Section 2 summarizes site-specific differences in stockpile hazard and risk by showing differences in planning-basis accident categories and distributions of topographical features, meteorological conditions, and populations at risk. Section 3 presents a summary of the methodology used to identify the emergency planning zones for each site and the actual recommended boundaries of those zones for the eight sites. Section 4 identifies feasible and recommended protective actions for the sites and explains reasons for differences in them. Finally, Section 5 notes the dependence of protective action effectiveness on the development and implementation of command and control and warning systems that can be implemented in a timely manner, it also identifies the differences in recommended lead times (i.e., from the onset of an accidental release) needed at the sites for effective implementation of protective actions. 17 refs., 11 figs. , 12 tabs.

  4. Geohydrologic aspects for siting and design of low-level radioactive-waste disposal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bedinger, M.S.

    1989-01-01

    The objective for siting and design of low-level radioactive-waste repository sites is to isolate the waste from the biosphere until the waste no longer poses an unacceptable hazard as a result of radioactive decay. Low-level radioactive waste commonly is isolated at shallow depths with various engineered features to stabilize the waste and to reduce its dissolution and transport by ground water. The unsaturated zone generally is preferred for isolating the waste. Low-level radioactive waste may need to be isolated for 300 to 500 years. Maintenance and monitoring of the repository site are required by Federal regulations for only the first 100 years. Therefore, geohydrology of the repository site needs to provide natural isolation of the waste for the hazardous period following maintenance of the site. Engineering design of the repository needs to be compatible with the natural geohydrologic conditions at the site. Studies at existing commercial and Federal waste-disposal sites provide information on the problems encountered and the basis for establishing siting guidelines for improved isolation of radioactive waste, engineering design of repository structures, and surveillance needs to assess the effectiveness of the repositories and to provide early warning of problems that may require remedial action. Climate directly affects the hydrology of a site and probably is the most important single factor that affects the suitability of a site for shallow-land burial of low-level radioactive waste. Humid and subhumid regions are not well suited for shallow isolation of low-level radioactive waste in the unsaturated zone; arid regions with zero to small infiltration from precipitation, great depths to the water table, and long flow paths to natural discharge areas are naturally well suited to isolation of the waste. The unsaturated zone is preferred for isolation of low-level radioactive waste. The guiding rationale is to minimize contact of water with the waste and to

  5. Leachate migration from a pesticide waste disposal site in Hardeman County, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sprinkle, C.L.

    1978-01-01

    Between 1964 and 1972, approximately 300,000 drums (55-gallon steel barrels) of waste derived from the manufacturing of pesticides were buried on 45 acres of land in northern Hardemen County, Tennessee. Leachates from these wastes are migrating from the disposal site in surface runoff, through shallow perched water zones, and through the local water-table aquifer. Compounds identified in the leachates included: dieldrin, endrin , chlordene, heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, pentachlorocyclopentadiene, and hexachloro-bicycloheptadiene. The rate of migration of some of the leachate compounds in the water-table aquifer was found to be at least 80 feet per year. (Woodard-USGS)

  6. Radionuclide disequilibria studies for investigating the integrity of potential nuclear waste disposal sites: subseabed studies.

    SciTech Connect

    Laul, J.C.; Thomas, C.W.; Petersen, M.R.; Perkins, R.W.

    1981-09-01

    This study of subseabed sediments indicates that natural radionuclides can be employed to define past long-term migration rates and thereby evaluate the integrity of potential disposal sites in ocean sediments. The study revealed the following conclusions: (1) the sedimentation rate of both the long and short cores collected in the North Pacific is 2.5 mm/1000 yr or 2.5 m/m.yr in the upper 3 meters; (2) the sedimentation rate has been rather constant over the last one million years; and (3) slow diffusive processes dominate within the sediment. Reworking of the sediment by physical processes or organisms is not observed.

  7. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR SITE-GENERATED HAZAROUS NONHAZARDOUS & SANITARY WASTE DISPOSAL SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    J.A. Ziegler

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) site generated hazardous, non-hazardous and sanitary waste disposal system system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  8. MOVING FROM SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL TO MATERIALS MANAGEMENT IN THE UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The desire for less waste and more sustainable use of resources has resulted in the U.S. EPA's Resource Conservation Challenge. This initiative is directed towards helping the U.S. transition from waste disposal towards materials management. Understanding the potential environmen...

  9. SODIUM FLUXING AND IN-SITU GLASSIFICATION FOR HAZARDOUS MATERIALS DISPOSAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Toxic wastes have become a prime consideration in the maintenance of the ecology. Numerous materials of commerce, being unsuitable for landfill and resistance to thermal degradation, pose problems in disposal. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency instituted a project to evalu...

  10. HUMAN HEALTH RISK SCREEN FOR THE PROPOSED OPEN WATER DISPOSAL OF CONTAMINATED DREDGED MATERIALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The laboratory bioaccumulation test has been a standard testing requirement to evaluate the open water disposal dredged materials since the late 1970's. Heretofore, the interpretation of these test results, using the clam, Macoma nasuta, and worm, Nereis virens, has been an ass...

  11. A COMPUTER STUDY OF THE KOH-CHANG MODEL FOR DREDGED MATERIAL DISPOSAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report is on a computer study of the Koh-Chang model for physical fate prediction in dredge material disposal. This computer model can simulate three discharge methods: instantaneous bottom release, jet discharge, and discharge into a wake. Convective descent, dynamic collap...

  12. Materials and degradation modes in an alternative LLW (low-level waste) disposal facility

    SciTech Connect

    Cowgill, M.G.; MacKenzie, D.R.

    1989-01-01

    The materials used in the construction of alternative low-level waste disposal facilities will be subject to interaction with both the internal and the external environments associated with the facilities and unless precautions are taken, may degrade, leading to structural failure. This paper reviews the characteristics of both environments with respect to three alternative disposal concepts, then assesses how reaction with them might affect the properties of the materials, which include concrete, steel-reinforced concrete, structural steel, and various protective coatings and membranes. It identifies and evaluates the probability of reactions occurring which might lead to degradation of the materials and so compromise the structure. The probability of failure (interpreted relative to the ability of the structure to restrict ingress and egress of water) is assessed for each material and precautionary measures, intended to maximize the durability of the facility, are reviewed. 19 refs., 2 tabs.

  13. Using MCDA and GIS for hazardous waste landfill siting considering land scarcity for waste disposal.

    PubMed

    De Feo, Giovanni; De Gisi, Sabino

    2014-11-01

    The main aim of this study was to develop a procedure that minimizes the wasting of space for the siting of hazardous waste landfills as part of a solid waste management system. We wanted to tackle the shortage of land for waste disposal that is a serious and growing problem in most large urban regions. The procedure combines a multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) approach with a geographical information system (GIS). The GIS was utilised to obtain an initial screening in order to eliminate unsuitable areas, whereas the MCDA was developed to select the most suitable sites. The novelty of the proposed siting procedure is the introduction of a new screening phase before the macro-siting step aimed at producing a "land use map of potentially suitable areas" for the siting of solid waste facilities which simultaneously takes into consideration all plant types. The issue of obtaining sites evaluations of a specific facility was coupled with the issue of not wasting land appropriate to facilitate other types of waste management options. In the developed case study, the use of an innovative criteria weighting tool (the "Priority Scale") in combination with the Analytic Hierarchy Process was useful to easier define the priorities of the evaluation criteria in comparison with other classic methods such as the Paired Comparison Technique in combination with the Simple Additive Weighting method. PMID:25002369

  14. Preliminary report of the past and present uses, storage, and disposal of hazardous materials at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Dreicer, M.

    1985-12-01

    This report contains the findings of a records search performed to survey the past and present use, storage, and disposal of hazardous materials and wastes at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) site. This report provides a point of departure for further planning of environmental protection activities at the site. This report was conducted using the LLNL archives and library, documents from the US Navy, old LLNL Plant Engineering blueprint files, published articles and reports, Environmental Protection Program records, employee interviews, and available aerial photographs. Sections I and II of this report provide an introduction to the LLNL site and its environmental characteristics. Several tenants have occupied the site prior to the establishment of LLNL, currently operated by the University of California for the US Department of Energy. Section III of this report contains information on environmentally related operations of early site users, the US Navy and California Research and Development. Section IV of this report contains information on the handling of hazardous materials and wastes by LLNL programs. The information is presented in 12 sub-sections, one for each currently operating LLNL program. General site areas, i.e., garbage trenches, the traffic circle landfill, the taxi strip, and old ammunition bunkers are discussed in Section V. 12 refs., 23 figs., 27 tabs.

  15. Interagency cooperation in the development of a cost-effective transportation and disposal solution for vitrified radium bearing material

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M.L.; Nixon, D.A.; Stone, T.J.; Tope, W.G.; Vogel, R.A.; Allen, R.B.; Schofield, W.D.

    1996-02-01

    Fernald radium bearing ore residue waste, stored within Silos 1 and 2 (K-65) and Silo 3 waste, will be vitrified for disposal at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). A comprehensive, parametric evaluation of waste form, shielding requirements, packaging, and transportation alternatives was completed to identify the safest, most cost-effective approach. The impacts of waste loading, waste form, regulatory requirements, NTS waste acceptance criteria, as-low-as-resonably-achievable principles, and material handling costs were factored into the recommended approach. Through cooperative work between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT), the vitrified K-65 and Silo 3 radioactive material will be classified consistent with the regulations promulgated by DOT in the September 28, 1995 Federal Register. These new regulations adopt International Atomic Energy Agency language to promote a consistent approach for the transportation and management of radioactive material between the international community and the DOT. Use of the new regulations allows classification of the vitrified radioactive material from the Fernald silos under the designation of low specific activity-II and allows the development of a container that is optimized to maximize payload while minimizing internal void space, external surface radiation levels, and external volume. This approach minimizes the required number of containers and shipments, and the related transportation and disposal costs.

  16. Investigations of the unsaturated zone at two radioactive waste disposal sites in Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Skuratovič, Žana; Mažeika, Jonas; Petrošius, Rimantas; Martma, Tõnu

    2016-01-01

    The unsaturated zone is an important part of the water cycle, governed by many hydrological and hydrogeological factors and processes and provide water and nutrients to the terrestrial ecosystem. Besides, the soils of the unsaturated zone are regarded as the first natural barrier to a large extent and are able to limit the spread of contaminants depending on their properties. The unsaturated zone provides a linkage between atmospheric moisture, groundwater, and seepage of groundwater to streams, lakes, or other surface water bodies. The major difference between water flow in saturated and unsaturated soils is that the hydraulic conductivity, which is conventionally assumed to be a constant in saturated soils, is a function of the degree of saturation or matrix suction in the unsaturated soils. In Lithuania, low and intermediate level radioactive wastes generated from medicine, industry and research were accumulated at the Maisiagala radioactive waste repository. Short-lived low and intermediate levels radioactive waste, generated during the operation of the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant (INPP) and arising after the INPP decommissioning will be disposed of in the near surface repository close to the INPP (Stabatiske site). Extensive data sets of the hydraulic properties and water content attributed to unsaturated zone soil profiles of the two radioactive waste disposal sites have been collected and summarized. Globally widespread radionuclide tritium ((3)H) and stable isotope ratio ((18)O/(16)O and (2)H/(1)H) distribution features were determined in precipitation, unsaturated zone soil moisture profiles and groundwater. PMID:26586231

  17. Evaluating Transport and Attenuation of Inorganic Contaminants in the Vadose Zone for Aqueous Waste Disposal Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Truex, Michael J.; Oostrom, Martinus; Tartakovsky, Guzel D.

    2015-09-01

    An approach was developed for evaluating vadose zone transport and attenuation of aqueous wastes containing inorganic (non-volatile) contaminants that were disposed of at the land surface (i.e., directly to the ground in cribs, trenches, tile fields, etc.) and their effect on the underlying groundwater. The approach provides a structured method for estimating transport of contaminants through the vadose zone and the resulting temporal profile of groundwater contaminant concentrations. The intent of the approach is also to provide a means for presenting and explaining the results of the transport analysis in the context of the site-specific waste disposal conditions and site properties, including heterogeneities and other complexities. The document includes considerations related to identifying appropriate monitoring to verify the estimated contaminant transport and associated predictions of groundwater contaminant concentrations. While primarily intended for evaluating contaminant transport under natural attenuation conditions, the approach can also be applied to identify types of, and targets for, mitigation approaches in the vadose zone that would reduce the temporal profile of contaminant concentrations in groundwater, if needed.

  18. Leachates from municipal solid waste disposal sites harbor similar, novel nitrogen-cycling bacterial communities.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Shuang; Chan, Gilbert Y S; Cai, Kai-Long; Qu, Liang-Hu; Huang, Li-Nan

    2007-02-01

    High emissions of nitrous oxide (N(2)O) have recently been documented at municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills. However, the biodiversity of the bacterial populations involved remains unexplored. In this study, we investigated communities of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and denitrifying bacteria associated with the leachates from three MSW disposal sites by examining the diversity of the ammonia monooxygenase structural gene amoA and the nitrous oxide reductase gene nosZ, respectively. Cloning and phylogenetic analysis of the functional genes revealed novel and similar groups of prokaryotes involved in nitrogen cycling in the leachates with different chemical compositions. All amoA sequences recovered grouped within the Nitrosomonas europaea cluster in the Betaproteobacteria, with the vast majority showed only relatively moderate sequence similarities to known AOB but were exclusively most similar to environmental clones previously retrieved from wastewater treatment plants. All nosZ sequences retrieved did not cluster with any hitherto reported nosZ genes and were only remotely related to recognized denitrifiers from the Gammaproteobacteria and thus could not be affiliated. Significant overlap was found for the three denitrifying nosZ leachate communities. Our study suggests a significant selection of the novel N-cycling groups by the unique environment at these MSW disposal sites. PMID:17169002

  19. Sampling and analyses of colloids at the Drigg low level radioactive waste disposal site.

    PubMed

    Warwick, P; Allinson, S; Beckett, K; Eilbeck, A; Fairhurst, A; Russel-Flint, K; Verrall, K

    2002-04-01

    Water samples have been extracted from inside (from standpipes) and from outside (from boreholes) of the trenches at the low level radioactive waste disposal site at Drigg in Cumbria, UK. The samples were taken anaerobically from between 8.5 and 10.0 m below the surface using a submersible pump at low flow rates to ensure that the waters in the standpipes and boreholes were maintained at constant levels. To ensure representative samples, the Eh, pH. conductivity, temperature, iron and dissolved oxygen concentrations of the waters were taken during initial purging and during sampling. The gross tritium, gross non-tritium beta, gross alpha and gamma activities of each sample were determined using suitable sample preparation and counting techniques. Samples were then anaerobically, sequentially filtered through 12 microm, 1 microm, 30 kDa and 500 Da filter membranes. The filtrates were analysed for gross alpha, gross non-tritium beta and gamma activities. SEM and STEM analyses were used to determine the colloid population. An energy dispersive analyser on the SEM was used to determine the major elements present in the colloids. UV-visible spectrophotometry, fluorescence spectrophotometry and high performance size exclusion liquid chromatography were used to analyse the waters before and after treatment with ion exchange materials to determine whether natural organic matter was present in the waters. Results showed that two major types of colloids (iron containing colloids and silicon containing colloids) were present in the waters. There were also a small number of other colloids that contain, as major elements, aluminium, calcium and chromium. Organic colloids were also present. The majority of the radioactivity in the waters was due to tritium. Waters taken from outside the trenches contained low levels of non-tritium beta activities and alpha activities which were lower than the minimum detectable amount. Waters taken from the trenches contained non-tritium beta

  20. Trees as indicators of subterranean water flow from a retired radioactive waste disposal site.

    PubMed

    Rickard, W H; Kirby, L J

    1987-02-01

    Tree sampling helped locate a subterranean flow of tritiated water from a low-level radioactive waste disposal site that had not been detected by well water monitoring alone. Deciduous trees growing in a natural forest on the hillsides downslope from the site were sampled for the presence of tritiated water in sap of maple trees and in leaf water extracted from oak and hickory trees. Elevated concentrations of 3H were detected in the leaf water extracted from several trees located 50 m downslope from the western boundary of the fenced exclusion zone. A 3-m-deep well drilled near these trees indicated that the source of tritiated water was a narrow zone of subterranean flow. PMID:3818287

  1. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 543: Liquid Disposal Units, Nevada Test Site, Nevada: Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

    2004-05-03

    The general purpose of this Corrective Action Investigation Plan is to ensure that adequate data are collected to provide sufficient and reliable information to identify, evaluate, and select technically viable corrective action alternatives (CAAs) for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 543: Liquid Disposal Units, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada. Located in Areas 6 and 15 on the NTS, CAU 543 is comprised of a total of seven corrective action sites (CASs), one in Area 6 and six in Area 15. The CAS in Area 6 consists of a Decontamination Facility and its components which are associated with decontamination of equipment, vehicles, and materials related to nuclear testing. The six CASs in Area 15 are located at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Farm and are related to waste disposal activities at the farm. Sources of possible contamination at Area 6 include potentially contaminated process waste effluent discharged through a process waste system, a sanitary waste stream generated within buildings of the Decon Facility, and radiologically contaminated materials stored within a portion of the facility yard. At Area 15, sources of potential contamination are associated with the dairy operations and the animal tests and experiments involving radionuclide uptake. Identified contaminants of potential concern include volatile organic compounds, semivolatile organic compounds, petroleum hydrocarbons, pesticides, herbicides, polychlorinated biphenyls, metals, and radionuclides. Three corrective action closure alternatives - No Further Action, Close in Place, or Clean Closure - will be recommended for CAU 543 based on an evaluation of all the data quality objective-related data. Field work will be conducted following approval of the plan. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of CAAs that will be presented in the Corrective Action Decision Document.

  2. Modeling of Carbon Tetrachloride Flow and Transport in the Subsurface of the 200 West Disposal Sites: Large-Scale Model Configuration and Prediction of Future Carbon Tetrachloride Distribution Beneath the 216-Z-9 Disposal Site

    SciTech Connect

    Oostrom, Mart; Thorne, Paul D.; Zhang, Z. F.; Last, George V.; Truex, Michael J.

    2008-12-17

    Three-dimensional simulations considered migration of dense, nonaqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) consisting of CT and co disposed organics in the subsurface as a function of the properties and distribution of subsurface sediments and of the properties and disposal history of the waste. Simulations of CT migration were conducted using the Water-Oil-Air mode of Subsurface Transport Over Multiple Phases (STOMP) simulator. A large-scale model was configured to model CT and waste water discharge from the major CT and waste-water disposal sites.

  3. 36 CFR 6.4 - Solid waste disposal sites not in operation on September 1, 1984.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... in 40 CFR 257.3-1 to 257.3-8, and 40 CFR part 258, subparts B, C, D, E and F; (6) The site will not...) Radioactive materials; or (x) Tires; (7) The site is located wholly on nonfederal lands, except for NPS... of leachate generation, composition, flow paths and discharge areas and geochemical fate of...

  4. Assessment of alternatives for upgrading Navy solid waste disposal sites. Volume 1. Final report oct 79-Sep 80

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-08-01

    The Naval Civil Engineering Laboratory as part of the NAVFAC Solid Waste R/D Program performed an assessment for upgrading Navy solid waste disposal sites. The purpose of this effort was threefold: (1) to determine the extent the Navy may have to modify its current solid waste disposal practices to enable compliance with RCRA, (2) define the technological concepts that represent upgrading techniques, and (3) to identify research priorities concerning the technologies for solid waste disposal. This procurement consist of three volumes. This volume (1) contains the criteria for classification of solid waste disposal facilities and practices. These findings are intended to assist engineering field divisions and public works personnel in characterizing the problems facing their disposal facility or practice.

  5. US DOE-EM On-Site Disposal Cell Working Group - Fostering Communication On Performance Assessment Challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Seitz, Roger R.; Suttora, Linda C.; Phifer, Mark

    2014-03-01

    On-site disposal cells are in use and being considered at several U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE) sites as the final disposition for large amounts of waste associated with cleanup of contaminated areas and facilities. These facilities are typically developed with regulatory oversight from States and/or the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) in addition to USDOE. The facilities are developed to meet design standards for disposal of hazardous waste as well as the USDOE performance based standards for disposal of radioactive waste. The involvement of multiple and different regulators for facilities across separate sites has resulted in some differences in expectations for performance assessments and risk assessments (PA/RA) that are developed for the disposal facilities. The USDOE-EM Office of Site Restoration formed a working group to foster improved communication and sharing of information for personnel associated with these Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) disposal cells and work towards more consistent assumptions, as appropriate, for technical and policy considerations related to performance and risk assessments in support of a Record of Decision and Disposal Authorization Statement. The working group holds teleconferences, as needed, focusing on specific topics of interest. The topics addressed to date include an assessment of the assumptions used for performance assessments and risk assessments (PA/RAs) for on-site disposal cells, requirements and assumptions related to assessment of inadvertent intrusion, DOE Manual 435.1-1 requirements, and approaches for consideration of the long-term performance of liners and covers in the context of PAs. The working group has improved communication among the staff and oversight personnel responsible for onsite disposal cells and has provided a forum to identify and resolve common concerns.

  6. Using MCDA and GIS for hazardous waste landfill siting considering land scarcity for waste disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Feo, Giovanni De; Gisi, Sabino De

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • Wasting land for the siting of hazardous waste landfills must be avoided. • The siting procedure is based on a land use map of potentially suitable areas. • All the waste facilities of the management system are simultaneously considered. • A case study is developed considering two multi-criteria techniques. • An innovative criteria weighting tool (PSW) is used in combination with the AHP. - Abstract: The main aim of this study was to develop a procedure that minimizes the wasting of space for the siting of hazardous waste landfills as part of a solid waste management system. We wanted to tackle the shortage of land for waste disposal that is a serious and growing problem in most large urban regions. The procedure combines a multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) approach with a geographical information system (GIS). The GIS was utilised to obtain an initial screening in order to eliminate unsuitable areas, whereas the MCDA was developed to select the most suitable sites. The novelty of the proposed siting procedure is the introduction of a new screening phase before the macro-siting step aimed at producing a “land use map of potentially suitable areas” for the siting of solid waste facilities which simultaneously takes into consideration all plant types. The issue of obtaining sites evaluations of a specific facility was coupled with the issue of not wasting land appropriate to facilitate other types of waste management options. In the developed case study, the use of an innovative criteria weighting tool (the “Priority Scale”) in combination with the Analytic Hierarchy Process was useful to easier define the priorities of the evaluation criteria in comparison with other classic methods such as the Paired Comparison Technique in combination with the Simple Additive Weighting method.

  7. Hanford Site radioactive hazardous materials packaging directory

    SciTech Connect

    McCarthy, T.L.

    1995-12-01

    The Hanford Site Radioactive Hazardous Materials Packaging Directory (RHMPD) provides information concerning packagings owned or routinely leased by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) for offsite shipments or onsite transfers of hazardous materials. Specific information is provided for selected packagings including the following: general description; approval documents/specifications (Certificates of Compliance and Safety Analysis Reports for Packaging); technical information (drawing numbers and dimensions); approved contents; areas of operation; and general information. Packaging Operations & Development (PO&D) maintains the RHMPD and may be contacted for additional information or assistance in obtaining referenced documentation or assistance concerning packaging selection, availability, and usage.

  8. Performance evaluation of the technical capabilities of DOE sites for disposal of mixed low-level waste. Volume 2: Technical basis and discussion of results

    SciTech Connect

    Waters, R.D.; Gruebel, M.M.; Hospelhorn, M.B.

    1996-03-01

    A team of analysts designed and conducted a performance evaluation to estimate the technical capabilities of fifteen Department of Energy sites for disposal of mixed low-level waste (i.e., waste that contains both low-level radioactive materials and hazardous constituents). Volume 1 summarizes the process for selecting the fifteen sites, the methodology used in the evaluation, and the conclusions derived from the evaluation. Volume 2 first describes the screening process used to determine the sites to be considered in the PEs. This volume then provides the technical details of the methodology for conducting the performance evaluations. It also provides a comparison and analysis of the overall results for all sites that were evaluated. Volume 3 contains detailed evaluations of the fifteen sites and discussions of the results for each site.

  9. System tradeoffs in siting a solar photovoltaic material recovery infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Goe, Michele; Gaustad, Gabrielle; Tomaszewski, Brian

    2015-09-01

    The consumption and disposal of rare and hazardous metals contained in electronics and emerging technologies such as photovoltaics increases the material complexity of the municipal waste stream. Developing effective waste policies and material recovery systems is required to inhibit landfilling of valuable and finite resources. This work developed a siting and waste infrastructure configuration model to inform the management and recovery of end-of-life photovoltaics. This model solves the siting and waste location-allocation problem for a New York State case study by combining multi-criteria decision methods with spatial tools, however this methodology is generalizable to any geographic area. For the case study, the results indicate that PV installations are spatially statistically significant (i.e., clustered). At least 9 sites, which are co-located with landfills and current MRFs, were 'highly' suitable for siting according to our criteria. After combining criteria in an average weighted sum, 86% of the study area was deemed unsuitable for siting while less than 5% is characterized as highly suitable. This method implicitly prioritized social and environmental concerns and therefore, these concerns accounted for the majority of siting decisions. As we increased the priority of economic criteria, the likelihood of siting near ecologically sensitive areas such as coastline or socially vulnerable areas such as urban centers increased. The sensitivity of infrastructure configurations to land use and waste policy are analyzed. The location allocation model results suggest current tip fees are insufficient to avoid landfilling of photovoltaics. Scenarios where tip fees were increased showed model results where facilities decide to adopt limited recycling technologies that bypass compositionally complex materials; a result with strong implications for global PV installations as well as other waste streams. We suggest a multi-pronged approach that lowers technology cost

  10. 1997 State-by-State Assessment of Low-Level Radioactive Wastes Received at Commercial Disposal Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Fuchs, R. L.

    1998-08-01

    Each year the National Low-Level Waste Management Program publishes a state-by-state assessment report. This report provides both national and state-specific disposal data on low-level radioactive waste commercially disposed in the United States. Data in this report are categorized according to disposal site, generator category, waste class, volumes, and radionuclide activity. Included in this report are tables showing the distribution of waste by state for 1997 and a comparison of waste volumes and radioactivity by state for 1993 through 1997; also included is a list of all commercial nuclear power reactors in the United States as of December 31, 1997.

  11. Assessment of alternatives for upgrading Navy solid waste disposal sites. Volume 3. Final report oct 79-Sep 80

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-08-01

    The Naval Civil Engineering Laboratory as part of the NAVFAC Solid Waste R/D Program performed an assessment for upgrading Navy solid waste disposal sites. The purpose of this effort was threefold: (1) to determine the extent of this effort the Navy may have to modify its current solid waste disposal practices to enable compliance with RCFA, (2) define the technological concepts that represent upgrading techniques, and (3) to identify research priorities concerning the technology for solid waste disposal. This document consists of three volumes. This volume (3) presents the general observations and findings of the study and projected impact of the Federal regulations on the Navy.

  12. Geotechnical, geological, and selected radionuclide retention characteristics of the radioactive waste disposal site near the Farallon Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Booth, J.S.; Winters, W.J.; Poppe, L.J.; Neiheisel, J.; Dyer, R.S.

    1989-01-01

    A geotechnical and geological investigation of the Farallon Islands low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal area was conducted to qualitatively assess the host sediments' relative effectiveness as a barrier to radionuclide migration, to estimate the portion of the barrier that is in contact with the waste packages at the three primary disposal sites, and to provide a basic physical description of the sediments. Box cores recovered from within the general disposal area at depths of 500, 1000, and 1500 m were subcored to provide samples (~30 cm in length) for detailed descriptions, textural and mineralogical analyses, and a suite of geotechnical tests (index property, CRS consolidation, and CIU triaxial compression). -from Authors

  13. Impact of Construction Waste Disposal Charging Scheme on work practices at construction sites in Hong Kong

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Ann T.W.; Poon, C.S.; Wong, Agnes; Yip, Robin; Jaillon, Lara

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A significant reduction of construction waste was achieved at the first 3 years of CWDCS implementation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer However, the reduction cannot be sustained. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Implementation of the CWDCS has generated positive effects in waste reduction by all main trades. - Abstract: Waste management in the building industry in Hong Kong has become an important environmental issue. Particularly, an increasing amount of construction and demolition (C and D) waste is being disposed at landfill sites. In order to reduce waste generation and encourage reuse and recycling, the Hong Kong Government has implemented the Construction Waste Disposal Charging Scheme (CWDCS) to levy charges on C and D waste disposal to landfills. In order to provide information on the changes in reducing waste generation practice among construction participants in various work trades, a study was conducted after 3 years of implementation of the CWDCS via a structured questionnaire survey in the building industry in Hong Kong. The study result has revealed changes with work flows of the major trades as well as differentiating the levels of waste reduced. Three building projects in the public and private sectors were selected as case studies to demonstrate the changes in work flows and the reduction of waste achieved. The research findings reveal that a significant reduction of construction waste was achieved at the first 3 years (2006-2008) of CWDCS implementation. However, the reduction cannot be sustained. The major trades have been influenced to a certain extent by the implementation of the CWDCS. Slight improvement in waste management practices was observed, but reduction of construction waste in the wet-finishing and dry-finishing trades has undergone little improvement. Implementation of the CWDCS has not yet motivated subcontractors to change their methods of construction so as to reduce C and D waste.

  14. Impact of Construction Waste Disposal Charging Scheme on work practices at construction sites in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ann T W; Poon, C S; Wong, Agnes; Yip, Robin; Jaillon, Lara

    2013-01-01

    Waste management in the building industry in Hong Kong has become an important environmental issue. Particularly, an increasing amount of construction and demolition (C&D) waste is being disposed at landfill sites. In order to reduce waste generation and encourage reuse and recycling, the Hong Kong Government has implemented the Construction Waste Disposal Charging Scheme (CWDCS) to levy charges on C&D waste disposal to landfills. In order to provide information on the changes in reducing waste generation practice among construction participants in various work trades, a study was conducted after 3 years of implementation of the CWDCS via a structured questionnaire survey in the building industry in Hong Kong. The study result has revealed changes with work flows of the major trades as well as differentiating the levels of waste reduced. Three building projects in the public and private sectors were selected as case studies to demonstrate the changes in work flows and the reduction of waste achieved. The research findings reveal that a significant reduction of construction waste was achieved at the first 3 years (2006-2008) of CWDCS implementation. However, the reduction cannot be sustained. The major trades have been influenced to a certain extent by the implementation of the CWDCS. Slight improvement in waste management practices was observed, but reduction of construction waste in the wet-finishing and dry-finishing trades has undergone little improvement. Implementation of the CWDCS has not yet motivated subcontractors to change their methods of construction so as to reduce C&D waste. PMID:23122205

  15. USED NUCLEAR MATERIALS AT SAVANNAH RIVER SITE: ASSET OR WASTE?

    SciTech Connect

    Magoulas, V.

    2013-06-03

    The nuclear industry, both in the commercial and the government sectors, has generated large quantities of material that span the spectrum of usefulness, from highly valuable (“assets”) to worthless (“wastes”). In many cases, the decision parameters are clear. Transuranic waste and high level waste, for example, have no value, and is either in a final disposition path today, or – in the case of high level waste – awaiting a policy decision about final disposition. Other materials, though discardable, have intrinsic scientific or market value that may be hidden by the complexity, hazard, or cost of recovery. An informed decision process should acknowledge the asset value, or lack of value, of the complete inventory of materials, and the structure necessary to implement the range of possible options. It is important that informed decisions are made about the asset value for the variety of nuclear materials available. For example, there is a significant quantity of spent fuel available for recycle (an estimated $4 billion value in the Savannah River Site’s (SRS) L area alone); in fact, SRS has already blended down more than 300 metric tons of uranium for commercial reactor use. Over 34 metric tons of surplus plutonium is also on a path to be used as commercial fuel. There are other radiological materials that are routinely handled at the site in large quantities that should be viewed as strategically important and / or commercially viable. In some cases, these materials are irreplaceable domestically, and failure to consider their recovery could jeopardize our technological leadership or national defense. The inventories of nuclear materials at SRS that have been characterized as “waste” include isotopes of plutonium, uranium, americium, and helium. Although planning has been performed to establish the technical and regulatory bases for their discard and disposal, recovery of these materials is both economically attractive and in the national

  16. Multiple criteria approach to site selection of radioactive waste disposal facility in the Republic of Croatia

    SciTech Connect

    Schaller, A.; Skanata, D.

    1995-12-31

    Site selection approach to radioactive waste disposal facility, which is under way in Croatia, is presented in the paper. This approach is based on application of certain relevant terrestrial and technical criteria in the site selection process. Basic documentation used for this purpose are regional planning documents prepared by the Regional Planning Institute of Croatia. The basic result of research described in the paper is the proposal of several potential areas which are suitable for siting a radioactive waste repository. All relevant conclusions are based on both data groups -- generic and on-field experienced (measured). Out of a dozen potential areas, four have been chosen as representative by the authors. The presented comparative analysis was made by means of the VISA II computer code, developed by the V. Belton and SPV Software Products. The code was donated to the APO by the IAEA. The main objective of the paper is to initiate and facilitate further discussions on possible ways of evaluation and comparison of potential areas for sitting of radioactive waste repository in this country, as well as to provide additional contributions to the current site selection process in the Republic of Croatia.

  17. Introduction to Special Section on Geophysical Investigations of Proposed Radioactive Waste Disposal Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliver, H. W.

    1987-07-01

    A symposium on "Geophysical Investigations of Proposed Radioactive Waste Disposal Sites" was held at the Fall Meeting of the American Geophysical Union, December 13, 1982. Since then, five of the papers presented at the symposium have been published in the Journal of Geophysical Research and an additional six papers are included in this issue. Three of the current papers involve geophysical research at Yucca Mountain, Nevada; two papers are on subsurface structure and fracturing of the Strath-Halladale granite in northern Scotland, a prime candidate for rad waste storage in the United Kingdom; and a general paper is included on the application of various geophysical methods for characterizing all the potential storage sites in the United States under consideration by the U.S. Department of Energy. In 1982, the following nine sites in the United States (Figure 1) were under consideration by the U.S. Department of Energy for the first U.S. repository of high-level radioactive waste (HLW). The host rock at each site is noted in parentheses (from NW to SE): Hanford, Washington (Miocene basalt flows); Yucca Mountain, Nevada (Tertiary tuff); Davis Canyon, Utah, (bedded salt); Lavender Canyon, Utah (bedded salt); Deaf Smith, Texas (Permian bedded salt); Swisher County, Texas (Permian bedded salt); Vacherie dome, Louisiana (domal salt); Richton dome, Mississippi (domal salt); and Cypress Creek dome, Mississippi (domal salt)

  18. Recommended Radiation Protection Practices for Low-Level Waste Disposal Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Hadlock, D. E.; Hooker, C. D.; Herrington, W. N.; Gilchrist, R. L.

    1983-12-01

    The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission contracted with Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to provide technical assistance in estsblishing operational guidelines, with respect to radiation control programs and methods of minimizing occupational radiation exposure, at Low-Level Waste (LLW) dis- posal sites. The PNL, through site visits, evaluated operations at LLW dis- posal sites to determine the adequacy of current practices in maintaining occupational exposures as low as is reasonably achievable (ALARA). The data sought included the specifics of: ALARA programs, training programs, external exposure control , internal exposure control , respiratory protection, survei 1 - lance, radioactive waste management, facilities and equipment, and external dose analysis. The results of the study indicated the following: The Radiation Protection and ALARA programs at the three commercial LLW disposal sites were observed to be adequate in scope and content compared to similar programs at other types of nuclear facilities. However, it should be noted that there were many areas that could be improved upon to help ensure the health and safety of the occupa- tionally exposed individuals. As a result, radiation protection practices were recommended with related rationales in order to reduce occupational exposures as far below specified radiation limits as is reasonably achievable. In addition, recommendations were developed for achieving occupational exposure ALARA under the Regulatory Requirements issued in 10 CFR Part 61.

  19. Regulatory Framework for Salt Waste Disposal and Tank Closure at the Savannah River Site - 13663

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Steve; Dickert, Ginger

    2013-07-01

    The end of the Cold War has left a legacy of approximately 37 million gallons of radioactive waste in the aging waste tanks at the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS). A robust program is in place to remove waste from these tanks, treat the waste to separate into a relatively small volume of high-level waste and a large volume of low-level waste, and to actively dispose of the low-level waste on-site and close the waste tanks and associated ancillary structures. To support performance-based, risk-informed decision making and to ensure compliance with all regulatory requirements, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its current and past contractors have worked closely with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to develop and implement a framework for on-site low-level waste disposal and closure of the SRS waste tanks. The Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended, provides DOE the authority to manage defense-related radioactive waste. DOE Order 435.1 and its associated manual and guidance documents detail this radioactive waste management process. The DOE also has a requirement to consult with the NRC in determining that waste that formerly was classified as high-level waste can be safely managed as either low-level waste or transuranic waste. Once DOE makes a determination, NRC then has a responsibility to monitor DOE's actions in coordination with SCDHEC to ensure compliance with the Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations Part 61 (10CFR61), Subpart C performance objectives. The management of hazardous waste substances or components at SRS is regulated by SCDHEC and the EPA. The foundation for the interactions between DOE, SCDHEC and EPA is the SRS Federal Facility Agreement (FFA). Managing this array of requirements and successfully interacting with regulators, consultants and stakeholders is a challenging task but ensures

  20. Environmental impacts and regulatory policy implications of spray disposal of dredged material in Louisiana wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cahoon, D.R.; Cowan, J.H., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The capabilities of a new wetland dredging technology were assessed along with associated newly developed state and federal regulatory policies to determine if policy expectations realistically match the technological achievement. Current regulatory practices require amelioration of spoil bank impacts upon abandonment of an oil/gas well, but this may not occur for many years or decades, if at all. Recently, a dreding method (high-pressure spray spoil disposal) was developed that does not create a spoil bank in the traditional sense. Its potential for reducing environmental impacts was recognized immediately by regulatory agencies for whom minimizing spoil bank impacts is a major concern. The use of high-pressure spray disposal as a suitable alternative to traditional dreding technology has been adopted as policy even though its value as a management tool has never been tested or verified. A qualitative evaluation at two spoil disposal sites in saline marsh indicates that high-pressure spray disposal may indeed have great potential to minimize impacts, but most of this potential remains unverified. Also, some aspects of current regulatory policy may be based on unrealistic expectations as to the ability of this new technology to minimize or eliminate spoil bank impacts.

  1. Interpretation and Modelling of Data from Site Investigations for a Geological Disposal facility located in the UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, H.; Bailey, L.; Parkes, A.

    2012-04-01

    The Radioactive Waste Management Directorate (RWMD) of the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA) has been given the responsibility for implementing geological disposal in the United Kingdom. The implementation process envisaged is that once a candidate site or sites for a geological disposal facility have been identified, NDA-RWMD will undertake surface-based investigations at the site or sites. The information acquired through these investigations would be used as an input to the development of the safety case, for engineering design of the disposal facility and to demonstrate confidence to the key stakeholders that the potential disposal facility site is adequately understood. NDA-RWMD proposes to develop and present the information derived from site characterisation activities in the form of a single integrated Site Descriptive Model, i.e. a description of the geometry, properties of the bedrock and water, and the associated interacting processes and mechanisms, which will be used to address the information requirements of all the end users (including the safety case). It is anticipated that, in a similar way to the approach adopted by international radioactive waste programmes led by SKB (Sweden) and Posiva (Finland), the integrated Site Descriptive Model will be divided into parts comprising clearly defined disciplines which may form either chapters or discipline-based models such as: • Geology; • Hydrogeology; • Hydrochemistry; • Geotechnical; • Radionuclide Transport Properties; • Thermal Properties; and • Biosphere. The integrated Site Descriptive Model will evolve as understanding of the particular site advances and will describe the current understanding of a specific site and, where relevant, the historical development of conditions at the site where this supports the conceptual understanding. The Site Descriptive Model will not include prediction of the future evolution of the conditions at the site: this will be an important component

  2. Soils, surficial geology, and geomorphology of the Bear Creek Valley Low-Level Waste Disposal Development and Demonstration Program site

    SciTech Connect

    Lietzke, D.A.; Lee, S.Y.; Lambert, R.E.

    1988-04-01

    An intensive soil survey was conducted on the proposed Low-Level Waste Disposal Development and Demonstration Program site (LLWDDD) in Bear Creek Valley. Soils on the site were related to the underlying residuum and to the surficial colluvium and alluvium. Within any particular geologic formation, soils were subdivided based mostly on the degree of weathering, as reflected by saprolite weathering and morphologic features of the soils. Degree of weathering was related both to slope shape and gradient and to the joint-fracture system. Erosion classes were also used to make further subdivisions of any particular soil. Deep pits were dug in each of the major Conasauga Group formations (Pumpkin Valley, Rogersville, Maryville, and Nolichucky) for soil and saprolite characterization. Because of the widespread presence of alluvium and colluvium, which are potential sources of fill and final cover material, pits and trenches were dug to characterize the properties of these soils and to try to understand the past geomorphic history of the site. The results of the soil survey investigation indicated that the deeply weathered Pumpkin Valley residuum has good potential for the construction of tumuli or other types of belowground or aboveground burial of prepackaged compacted waste. 11 refs., 30 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Greater Confinement Disposal Test at the Nevada Test Site, Final Technology Report

    SciTech Connect

    Dickman, P. T.

    1989-01-01

    The Greater Confinement Disposal Test (GCDT) was conducted at the Nevada Test Site to demonstrate an alternative method for management of high-specific-activity (HSA) low-level waste (LLW). The GCDT was initially conceived as a method for managing small volumes of highly concentrated tritium wastes, which, due to their environmental mobiilty, are considered unsuitable for routine shallow land disposal. Later, the scope of the GCDT was increased to address a variety of other "problem" HSA wastes including isotope sources and thermal generating wastes. The basic design for the GCDT evolved from a series of studies and assessments. Operational design objectives were to (1) emplace the wastes at a depth sufficient to minimize or eliminate routine environmental transport mechanisms and instrusion scenarios and (2) provide sufficient protection for operations personnel in the handling of HSA sources. To achieve both objectives, a large diameter borehole was selected. The GCDT consisted of a borehole 3 meters (10 feet) in diameter and 36 meters (120 feet) deep, surrounded by nine monitoring holes at varying radii. The GCDT was instrumented for the measurement of temperature, moisture, and soil-gas content. Over one million curies of HSA LLW were emplaced in GCDT. This report reviews the development of the GCDT project and presents analyses of data collected.

  4. Message development for surface markers at the Hanford Radwaste Disposal sites

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, M.F.

    1984-12-31

    At the Hanford Reservation in Washington, there are sites which received liquid and solid transuranic wastes from the late 1940`s until 1970. Rockwell Hanford Operations (Rockwell) is investigating the feasibility of several options for the permanent disposal of these wastes. One option is to stabilize the wastes in their present locations and to add barriers to minimize water infiltration and root penetration into the wastes. This report forms part of the project to develop a marking system for transuranic wastes on the Hanford Reservation. The focus of this report is the development of the message system to appear on the surface markers. A logical framework is developed to deduce what is required by the message system. Alternatives for each message component are evaluated and justification is provided for the choice of each component. The components are then laid out on the surface marker to provide a legible, comprehensible message system. The surface markers are tall, standing monoliths which ring the perimeter of each disposal area. Based on the logical framework, it is recommended that three domains of representation -- symbols, pictures, and language -- be used in the message system. The warning symbol chosen for the message system is the radiation trefoil. Two other options were considered, including the warning symbol developed by the Human Interference Task Force for a high-level waste repository. The trefoil was preferred because of the widespread usage and international acceptance which is already enjoys.

  5. 1997 Hanford site report on land disposal restrictions for mixed waste

    SciTech Connect

    Black, D.G.

    1997-04-07

    The baseline land disposal restrictions (LDR) plan was prepared in 1990 in accordance with the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (commonly referred to as the Tn-Party Agreement) Milestone M-26-00 (Ecology et al, 1989). The text of this milestone is below. ''LDR requirements include limitations on storage of specified hazardous wastes (including mixed wastes). In accordance with approved plans and schedules, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) shall develop and implement technologies necessary to achieve full compliance with LDR requirements for mixed wastes at the Hanford Site. LDR plans and schedules shall be developed with consideration of other action plan milestones and will not become effective until approved by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (or Washington State Department of Ecology [Ecology]) upon authorization to administer LDRs pursuant to Section 3006 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA). Disposal of LDR wastes at any time is prohibited except in accordance with applicable LDR requirements for nonradioactive wastes at all times. The plan will include, but not be limited to, the following: Waste characterization plan; Storage report; Treatment report; Treatment plan; Waste minimization plan; A schedule depicting the events necessary to achieve full compliance with LDR requirements; and A process for establishing interim milestones.

  6. Chemical hazard evaluation of material disposal area (MDA) B closure project

    SciTech Connect

    Laul, Jagdish C

    2010-04-19

    TA-21, MDA-B (NES) is the 'contaminated dump,' landfill with radionuclides and chemicals from process waste disposed in 1940s. This paper focuses on chemical hazard categorization and hazard evaluation of chemicals of concern (e.g., peroxide, beryllium). About 170 chemicals were disposed in the landfill. Chemicals included products, unused and residual chemicals, spent, waste chemicals, non-flammable oils, mineral oil, etc. MDA-B was considered a High hazard site. However, based on historical records and best engineering judgment, the chemical contents are probably at best 5% of the chemical inventory. Many chemicals probably have oxidized, degraded or evaporated for volatile elements due to some fire and limited shelf-life over 60 yrs, which made it possible to downgrade from High to Low chemical hazard site. Knowing the site history and physical and chemical properties are very important in characterizing a NES site. Public site boundary is only 20 m, which is a major concern. Chemicals of concern during remediation are peroxide that can cause potential explosion and beryllium exposure due to chronic beryllium disease (CBD). These can be prevented or mitigated using engineering control (EC) and safety management program (SMP) to protect the involved workers and public.

  7. Disposal of hazardous materials from TxDOT activities. Final report, September 1992-August 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Stallard, M.; Corapcioglu, M.Y.; Beavers, T.; Beck, B.; Mehevec, A.

    1994-11-01

    The process of purchasing, storing, handling and disposal of hazardous waste is demanding. The Texas Department of Transportation deals with many such compounds every day in performing its duty of maintaining over 70,000 miles of Texas roadway. With the new demands being placed on all users of hazardous materials by the new EPA guidelines, procedures must be enacted to ensure TxDOT`s compliance with these ever-changing regulations. The placement of full-time safety and hazardous materials coordinators in each district office will help to ensure that employees follow reporting procedures and use disposal guidelines. The report will discuss these actions and others that might help TxDOT in this task.

  8. The Site Investigation Of Low-Level Radioactive Waste For Sub-Surface Disposal Facility In Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosoya, S.; Sasaki, T.

    2006-12-01

    [1.Concept of the sub-surface disposal facility] In Japan, the facilities of Low-Level Radioactive West (LLW) for near-surface disposal have already been in operation. Japan Nuclear Fuel Limited (JNFL) has a plan of a new facility of LLW for sub-surface disposal with engineered barrier, for short "the sub-surface disposal facility".This facility can accept the relatively higher low-level waste from unclear power plant operation and in core materials from the decommissioning, estimated about 20 thousands cubic meter in total.In addition, this will accept transuranim (TRU) slightly contaminated waste from reprocessing plant operation and decommissioning. It shall be located at a sufficient depth enough to avoid normal human activities in future. [2.Site investigation] From 2001 to 2006,the site investigation on geology and hydrogeology has been performed in order to acquire the basic data for the design and the safety assessment for the sub-surface disposal facility.The candidate area is located at the site of JNFL, where Rokkasho-mura, Aomori Prefecture in the northern area of the Mainland of Japan.To confirm geology hydraulic conditions and geo-chemistry, 22 boring survey including 6 holes in swamp and marsh have been performed. The 1km long access tunnel (the entrance level EL 8.0m, incline of 1/10) to the altitude of EL -86m underground, around 100m depth from surface, has excavated. During excavating the tunnel, observation of geology, permeability tests, pore water pressure measurements and so on has been performed in situ.And the large size test cavern of 18m diameters was constructed at the end of the tunnel to demonstrate stability of the tunnel. Prior to the excavation, 3 measuring tunnels were excavated surrounding the test cavern to examine the excavation. [3.Geological features] The sedimentary rock called Takahoko formation at the Neogene period is distributed upper than EL-500m in the candidate area.The quaternary stratum about 10m in thickness is

  9. Endocrine disrupting activities of surface water associated with a West Virginia oil and gas industry wastewater disposal site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kassotis, Christopher D.; Iwanowicz, Luke; Akob, Denise M.; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.; Mumford, Adam; Orem, William H.; Nagel, Susan C.

    2016-01-01

    Currently, >95% of end disposal of hydraulic fracturing wastewater from unconventional oil and gas operations in the US occurs via injection wells. Key data gaps exist in understanding the potential impact of underground injection on surface water quality and environmental health. The goal of this study was to assess endocrine disrupting activity in surface water at a West Virginia injection well disposal site. Water samples were collected from a background site in the area and upstream, on, and downstream of the disposal facility. Samples were solid-phase extracted, and extracts assessed for agonist and antagonist hormonal activities for five hormone receptors in mammalian and yeast reporter gene assays. Compared to reference water extracts upstream and distal to the disposal well, samples collected adjacent and downstream exhibited considerably higher antagonist activity for the estrogen, androgen, progesterone, glucocorticoid and thyroid hormone receptors. In contrast, low levels of agonist activity were measured in upstream/distal sites, and were inhibited or absent at downstream sites with significant antagonism. Concurrent analyses by partner laboratories (published separately) describe the analytical and geochemical profiling of the water; elevated conductivity as well as high sodium, chloride, strontium, and barium concentrations indicate impacts due to handling of unconventional oil and gas wastewater. Notably, antagonist activities in downstream samples were at equivalent authentic standard concentrations known to disrupt reproduction and/or development in aquatic animals. Given the widespread use of injection wells for end-disposal of hydraulic fracturing wastewater, these data raise concerns for human and animal health nearby.

  10. Evaluation of temporal and spatial trends of groundwater quality alteration in the area of mining waste disposal site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kmiecik, Ewa; Stefaniak, Sebastian; Szczepanska, Jadwiga; Twardowska, Irena

    2004-12-01

    On the basis of data from long-term monitoring studies carried out in the impact area of the Smolnica coal mining waste disposal site in the Upper Silesia Coal Basin, Poland), the extent and propagation of originally good groundwater quality degradation that resulted from infiltration to the Quaternary aquifer of contaminants leached from the disposal site, as well as major trends of the natural water quality alteration were evaluated. For assessment of spatial and temporal groundwater quality trends in the vicinity of the disposal site, geostatistical methods were applied. Water quality alteration trends were monitored with use of two major constituents: chlorides and sulfates showing significant changes in time and space. The spatial variability was assessed with use of the GeoEas and Surfer models; for data aggregation and trend analysis, the SigmaPlot was used; preliminary data analysis was accomplished with use of the Statgraphics Plus for Windows software. The hydrogeochemical background of two analyzed compounds for each separate hydrogeochemical zone in the waste disposal area was simulated by a probabilistic method. Time- and space-dependent characteristics of chloride and sulfate distribution along with assessed data for the hydrogeochemical background provided a basis for the long-term evaluation of the groundwater chemical composition and deterioration rate variability in the area of the mining waste disposal site.

  11. Endocrine disrupting activities of surface water associated with a West Virginia oil and gas industry wastewater disposal site.

    PubMed

    Kassotis, Christopher D; Iwanowicz, Luke R; Akob, Denise M; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M; Mumford, Adam C; Orem, William H; Nagel, Susan C

    2016-07-01

    Currently, >95% of end disposal of hydraulic fracturing wastewater from unconventional oil and gas operations in the US occurs via injection wells. Key data gaps exist in understanding the potential impact of underground injection on surface water quality and environmental health. The goal of this study was to assess endocrine disrupting activity in surface water at a West Virginia injection well disposal site. Water samples were collected from a background site in the area and upstream, on, and downstream of the disposal facility. Samples were solid-phase extracted, and extracts assessed for agonist and antagonist hormonal activities for five hormone receptors in mammalian and yeast reporter gene assays. Compared to reference water extracts upstream and distal to the disposal well, samples collected adjacent and downstream exhibited considerably higher antagonist activity for the estrogen, androgen, progesterone, glucocorticoid and thyroid hormone receptors. In contrast, low levels of agonist activity were measured in upstream/distal sites, and were inhibited or absent at downstream sites with significant antagonism. Concurrent analyses by partner laboratories (published separately) describe the analytical and geochemical profiling of the water; elevated conductivity as well as high sodium, chloride, strontium, and barium concentrations indicate impacts due to handling of unconventional oil and gas wastewater. Notably, antagonist activities in downstream samples were at equivalent authentic standard concentrations known to disrupt reproduction and/or development in aquatic animals. Given the widespread use of injection wells for end-disposal of hydraulic fracturing wastewater, these data raise concerns for human and animal health nearby. PMID:27073166

  12. Geologic and hydrologic investigations of a potential nuclear waste disposal site at Yucca Mountain, southern Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, M.D.; Yount, J.C.

    1988-12-31

    Yucca Mountain in southern Nye County, Nevada, has been selected by the United States Department of Energy as one of three potential sites for the nation`s first high-level nuclear waste repository. Its deep water table, closed-basin ground-water flow, potentially favorable host rock, and sparse population have made the Yucca Mountain area a viable candidate during the search for a nuclear waste disposal site. Yucca Mountain, however, lies within the southern Great Basin, a region of known contemporary tectonism and young volcanic activity, and the characterization of tectonism and volcanism remains as a fundamental problem for the Yucca Mountain site. The United States Geological Survey has been conducting extensive studies to evaluate the geologic setting of Yucca Mountain, as well as the timing and rates of tectonic and volcanic activity in the region. A workshop was convened by the Geologic Survey in Denver, Colorado, on August 19, 20, and 21, 1985, to review the scientific progress and direction of these studies. Considerable debate resulted. This collection of papers represents the results of some of the studies presented at the workshop, but by no means covers all of the scientific results and viewpoints presented. Rather, the volume is meant to serve as a progress report on some of the studies within the Geological Survey`s continuing research program toward characterizing the tectonic framework of Yucca Mountain. Individual papers were processed separately for the data base.

  13. Performance evaluation of the technical capabilities of DOE sites for disposal of mixed low-level waste. Volume 1: Executive summary

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    A team of analysts designed and conducted a performance evaluation (PE) to estimate the technical capabilities of fifteen Department of Energy sites for disposal of mixed low-level waste (i.e., waste that contains both low-level radioactive materials and hazardous constituents). Volume 1 summarizes the process for selecting the fifteen sites, the methodology used in the evaluation, and the conclusions derived from the evaluation. Volume 1 is an executive summary both of the PE methodology and of the results obtained from the PEs. While this volume briefly reviews the scope and method of analyses, its main objective is to emphasize the important insights and conclusions derived from the conduct of the PEs. Volume 2 provides details about the site-selection process, the performance-evaluation methodology, and the overall results of the analysis. Volume 3 contains detailed evaluations of the fifteen sites and discussions of the results for each site.

  14. Technical Scope and Approach for the 2004 Composite Analysis of Low Level Waste Disposal at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Kincaid, Charles T.; Bryce, Robert W.; Buck, John W.

    2004-07-09

    A composite analysis is required by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Manual 435.1-1 to ensure public safety through the management of active and planned low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities associated with the Hanford Site (DOE/HQ-Manual 435.1-1). A Composite Analysis is defined as ''a reasonably conservative assessment of the cumulative impact from active and planned low-level waste disposal facilities, and all other sources from radioactive contamination that could interact with the low-level waste disposal facility to affect the dose to future members of the public''. At the Hanford Site, a composite analysis is required for continued disposal authorization for the immobilized low-activity waste, tank waste vitrification plant melters, low level waste in the 200 East and 200 West Solid Waste Burial Grounds, and Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) waste in the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility. The 2004 Composite Analysis will be a site-wide analysis, considering final remedial actions for the Columbia River corridor and the Central Plateau at the Hanford Site. The river corridor includes waste sites and facilities in each of the 100 Areas as well as the 300, 400, and 600 Areas. The remedial actions for the river corridor are being conducted to meet residential land use standards with the vision of the river corridor being devoted to a combination of recreation and preservation. The ''Central Plateau'' describes the region associated with operations and waste sites of the 200 Areas. DOE is developing a strategy for closure of the Central Plateau area by 2035. At the time of closure, waste management activities will shrink to a Core Zone within the Central Plateau. The Core Zone will contain the majority of Hanford's permanently disposed waste

  15. Movement of tagged dredged sand at thalweg disposal sites in the Upper Mississippi River. Volume 2. Savanna Bay and Duck Creek sites

    SciTech Connect

    Paddock, R.A.; McCown, D.L.

    1984-12-01

    Experiments were conducted on the Upper Mississippi River at two sites, Savanna Bay and Duck Creek, to investigate the movement of dredged sand after disposal in the thalweg. These experiments are part of a larger study, which includes similar experiments conducted earlier at two other sites on the Upper Mississippi River. At the Savanna Bay site, hydraulically dredged sand was tagged with sand coated with fluorescent dye before being deposited as a pile in the thalweg. Bathymetric surveys and surficial bottom sampling were conducted on five occasions over a nine-month period following disposal to identify changes in the topography of the pile and to detect the presence of dyed sand. At the Duck Creek site, only bathymetric surveys were conducted. The general behavior of the disposal piles at these two new sites was similar to that of the piles at the first two sites. Topographic evidence of the piles disappeared, and bottom conditions similar to the predisposal conditions were reestablished following the first period of high river flows after disposal. At Savanna Bay, as had happened at the first two sites, the tagged sand remained in the main river channel as it moved downstream in response to flood currents and did not migrate into nearby border areas, backwaters, or sloughs. 6 references, 89 figures, 2 tables.

  16. Geologic and hydrologic data collected during 1976-1983 at the Sheffield low-level radioactive waste disposal site and adjacent areas, Sheffield, Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foster, J.B.; Garklavs, George; Mackey, G.W.

    1984-01-01

    Hydrogeologic studies were conducted at the low-level radioactive-waste disposal site near Sheffield, Illinois, from 1976-84. Data in this report include water levels in wells, lake stages, inorganic, organic, and radiometric chemical analyses of ground and surface water, hydraulic conductivities of glacial materials, grain-size distribution, clay and carbonate mineralogy, and cation exchange capacities of the glacial materials. Also included are results of petrographic analyses, physical measurements of wells, stratigraphy and lithology of cores collected from test wells, and horizontal coordinates of wells.

  17. DEVELOPMENT QUALIFICATION AND DISPOSAL OF AN ALTERNATIVE IMMOBILIZED LOW-ACTIVITY WASTE FORM AT THE HANFORD SITE

    SciTech Connect

    SAMS TL; EDGE JA; SWANBERG DJ; ROBBINS RA

    2011-01-13

    Demonstrating that a waste form produced by a given immobilization process is chemically and physically durable as well as compliant with disposal facility acceptance criteria is critical to the success of a waste treatment program, and must be pursued in conjunction with the maturation of the waste processing technology. Testing of waste forms produced using differing scales of processing units and classes of feeds (simulants versus actual waste) is the crux of the waste form qualification process. Testing is typically focused on leachability of constituents of concern (COCs), as well as chemical and physical durability of the waste form. A principal challenge regarding testing immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) forms is the absence of a standard test suite or set of mandatory parameters against which waste forms may be tested, compared, and qualified for acceptance in existing and proposed nuclear waste disposal sites at Hanford and across the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. A coherent and widely applicable compliance strategy to support characterization and disposal of new waste forms is essential to enhance and accelerate the remediation of DOE tank waste. This paper provides a background summary of important entities, regulations, and considerations for nuclear waste form qualification and disposal. Against this backdrop, this paper describes a strategy for meeting and demonstrating compliance with disposal requirements emphasizing the River Protection Project (RPP) Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) at the Hanford Site and the fluidized bed steam reforming (FBSR) mineralized low-activity waste (LAW) product stream.

  18. Proposed plan for the United Nuclear Corporation Disposal Site at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-03-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) in compliance with Section 117(a) of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980, as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986, is releasing the proposed plan for remedial action at the United Nuclear Corporation (UNC) Disposal Site located at the DOE Oak Ridge Operations (ORO) Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The purpose of this document is to present and solicit for comment to the public and all interested parties the preferred plan'' to remediate the UNC Disposal Site. However, comments on all alternatives are invited.

  19. Design and operation of a low-level solid-waste disposal site at Los Alamos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balo, K. A.; Wilson, N. E.; Warren, J. L.

    Approximately 185000 cu m of low level and transuranic radioactive solid waste, were disposed of by onsite shallow land burial. Procedures and facilities were designed and evaluated in the areas of waste acceptance, treatment and storage, disposal, traffic control, and support systems. The methodologies assuring the proper management and disposal of radioactive solid waste are summarized.

  20. 1996 state-by-state assessment of low-level radioactive wastes received at commercial disposal sites

    SciTech Connect

    Fuchs, R.L.

    1997-09-01

    Each year the National Low-Level Waste Management Program publishes a state-by-state assessment report. This report provides both national and state-specific disposal data on low-level radioactive waste commercially disposed in the US. Data in this report are categorized according to disposal site, generator category, waste class, volumes, and radionuclide activity. Included in this report are tables showing the distribution of waste by state for 1996 and a comparison of waste volumes and radioactivity by state for 1992 through 1996; also included is a list of all commercial nuclear power reactors in the US as of December 31, 1996. This report distinguishes between low-level radioactive waste shipped directly for disposal by generators and waste that was handled by an intermediary, a reporting change introduced in the 1988 state-by-state report.

  1. 1995 state-by-state assessment of low-level radioactive wastes received at commercial disposal sites

    SciTech Connect

    Fuchs, R.L.

    1996-09-01

    Each year the National Low-Level Waste Management Program publishes a state-by-state assessment report. This report provides both national and state-specific disposal data on low-level radioactive waste commercially disposed in US. Data in this report are categorized according to disposal site, generator category, waste class, volumes, and radionuclide activity. Included are tables showing the distribution of waste by state for 1995 and a comparison of waste volumes and radioactivity by state for 1991 through 1995; also included is a list of all commercial nuclear power reactors in US as of Dec. 31, 1994. This report distinguishes low-level radioactive waste shipped directly for disposal by generators and waste handled by an intermediary.

  2. Appraisal of a cementitious material for waste disposal: Neutron imaging studies of pore structure and sorptivity

    SciTech Connect

    McGlinn, Peter J.; Beer, Frikkie C. de; Aldridge, Laurence P.; Radebe, Mabuti J.; Nshimirimana, Robert; Brew, Daniel R.M.; Payne, Timothy E.; Olufson, Kylie P.

    2010-08-15

    Cementitious materials are conventionally used in conditioning intermediate and low level radioactive waste. In this study a candidate cement-based wasteform has been investigated using neutron imaging to characterise the wasteform for disposal in a repository for radioactive materials. Imaging showed both the pore size distribution and the extent of the cracking that had occurred in the samples. The rate of the water penetration measured both by conventional sorptivity measurements and neutron imaging was greater than in pastes made from Ordinary Portland Cement. The ability of the cracks to distribute the water through the sample in a very short time was also evident. The study highlights the significant potential of neutron imaging in the investigation of cementitious materials. The technique has the advantage of visualising and measuring, non-destructively, material distribution within macroscopic samples and is particularly useful in defining movement of water through the cementitious materials.

  3. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 137: Waste Disposal Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (Revision 0) with ROTC 1 and 2

    SciTech Connect

    Krauss, Mark J

    2007-03-01

    The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation for closure of CAU 137 with no further corrective action. To achieve this, corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from February 28 through August 17, 2006, as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 137: Waste Disposal Sites. The purpose of the CAI was to fulfill the following data needs as defined during the data quality objective process: • Determine whether contaminants of concern (COCs) are present. • If COCs are present, determine their nature and extent. • Provide sufficient information and data to complete appropriate corrective actions. ROTC-1: Downgrade FFACO UR at CAU 137, CAS 07-23-02, Radioactive Waste Disposal Site to an Administrative UR. ROTC-2: Downgrade FFACO UR at CAU 137, CAS 01-08-01, Waste Disposal Site to an Administrative UR.

  4. Site planning considerations for toxic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, G.

    1989-03-31

    We are developing procedures for controlling emergencies that may arise at sites where toxic materials are used. In our specific example, these materials are semiconductor gases such as phosphine, silane, chlorine, and diborane, but our procedures apply to other operations using toxic materials such as liquid-fueled rocket development and testing. We start by applying or developing Emergency Response Planning Guidelines (ERPGs) for the chemical of interest and we then determine trade offs between gas quantities and other precautions (such as stack heights or flow-limiting orifices) needed to keep ground-level concentrations acceptable during emergencies. We use a version of the widely acknowledged Gaussian-dispersion model (EPIcode) to estimate contaminant levels over 0.1 km from the release point, and we use an adaptation of Wilson's model to estimate concentrations nearer the source. We will discuss these procedures and other considerations (e.g., how we set ERPGs, the relation of ERPGs to other criteria such as Emergency Exposure Limits, and how minimum stack heights are determined) and areas of uncertainty. This paper focuses on planning for emergencies involving toxic materials, routine protection of employees and the public; the normal activities of industrial hygienists and environmental protection personnel are not discussed. 16 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Evaluation of exposure pathways to man from disposal of radioactive materials into sanitary sewer systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Parkhurst, M.A.; Aaberg, R.L.; Rhoads, K.C.; Hill, R.L.; Martin, J.B.

    1992-05-01

    In accordance with 10 CFR 20, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulates licensees` discharges of small quantities of radioactive materials into sanitary sewer systems. This generic study was initiated to examine the potential radiological hazard to the public resulting from exposure to radionuclides in sewage sludge during its treatment and disposal. Eleven scenarios were developed to characterize potential exposures to radioactive materials during sewer system operations and sewage sludge treatment and disposal activities and during the extended time frame following sewage sludge disposal. Two sets of deterministic dose calculations were performed; one to evaluate potential doses based on the radionuclides and quantities associated with documented case histories of sewer system contamination and a second, somewhat more conservative set, based on theoretical discharges at the maximum allowable levels for a more comprehensive list of 63 radionuclides. The results of the stochastic uncertainty and sensitivity analysis were also used to develop a collective dose estimate. The collective doses for the various radionuclides and scenarios range from 0.4 person-rem for {sup 137}Cs in Scenario No. 5 (sludge incinerator effluent) to 420 person-rem for {sup 137}Cs in Scenario No. 3 (sewage treatment plant liquid effluent). None of the 22 scenario/radionuclide combinations considered have collective doses greater than 1000 person-rem/yr. However, the total collective dose from these 22 combinations was found to be about 2100 person-rem.

  6. Preparation of lipid nanoemulsions by premix membrane emulsification with disposable materials.

    PubMed

    Gehrmann, Sandra; Bunjes, Heike

    2016-09-25

    The possibility to prepare nanoemulsions as drug carrier systems on small scale was investigated with disposable materials. For this purpose premix membrane emulsification (premix ME) as a preparation method for nanoemulsions with narrow particle size distributions on small scale was used. The basic principle of premix ME is that the droplets of a coarse pre-emulsion get disrupted by the extrusion through a porous membrane. In order to implement the common preparation setup for premix ME with disposable materials, the suitability of different syringe filters (made from polyethersulfone, cellulose acetate, cellulose ester and nylon) and different pharmaceutically relevant emulsifiers (phospholipids, polysorbate 80 and sucrose laurate) for the preparation of nanoemulsions was investigated. Already the preparation of the premix could be realized by emulsification with the help of two disposable syringes. As shown for a phospholipid-stabilized emulsion, the polyethersulfone filter was the most appropriate one and was used for the study with different emulsifiers. With this syringe filter, the median particle size of all investigated emulsions was below 500nm after 21 extrusion cycles through a 200nm filter and a subsequent extrusion cycle through a 100nm filter. Furthermore, the particle size distribution of the polysorbate 80- and sucrose laurate-stabilized emulsions prepared this way was very narrow (span value of 0.7). PMID:27477104

  7. Interaction of Sr-90 with site candidate soil for demonstration disposal facility at Serpong

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setiawan, Budi; Mila, Oktri; Safni

    2014-03-01

    Interaction of radiostrontium (Sr-90) with site candidate soil for demonstration disposal facility to be constructed in the near future at Serpong has been done. This activity is to anticipate the interim storage facility at Serpong nuclear area becomes full off condition, and show to the public how radioactive waste can be well managed with the existing technology. To ensure that the location is save, a reliability study of site candidate soil becomes very importance to be conducted through some experiments consisted some affected parameters such as contact time, effect of ionic strength, and effect of Sr+ ion in solution. Radiostrontium was used as a tracer on the experiments and has role as radionuclide reference in low-level radioactive waste due to its long half-live and it's easy to associate with organism in nature. So, interaction of radiostrontium and soil samples from site becomes important to be studied. Experiment was performed in batch method, and soil sample-solution containing radionuclide was mixed in a 20 ml of PE vial. Ratio of solid: liquid was 10-2 g/ml. Objective of the experiment is to collect the specific characteristics data of radionuclide sorption onto soil from site candidate. Distribution coefficient value was used as indicator where the amount of initial and final activities of radiostrontium in solution was compared. Result showed that equilibrium condition was reached after contact time 10 days with Kd values ranged from 1600-2350 ml/g. Increased in ionic strength in solution made decreased of Kd value into soil sample due to competition of background salt and radiostrontium into soil samples, and increased in Sr ion in solution caused decreased of Kd value in soil sample due to limitation of sorption capacity in soil samples. Fast condition in saturated of metal ion into soil samples was reached due to a simple reaction was occurred.

  8. Interaction of Sr-90 with site candidate soil for demonstration disposal facility at Serpong

    SciTech Connect

    Setiawan, Budi; Mila, Oktri; Safni

    2014-03-24

    Interaction of radiostrontium (Sr-90) with site candidate soil for demonstration disposal facility to be constructed in the near future at Serpong has been done. This activity is to anticipate the interim storage facility at Serpong nuclear area becomes full off condition, and show to the public how radioactive waste can be well managed with the existing technology. To ensure that the location is save, a reliability study of site candidate soil becomes very importance to be conducted through some experiments consisted some affected parameters such as contact time, effect of ionic strength, and effect of Sr{sup +} ion in solution. Radiostrontium was used as a tracer on the experiments and has role as radionuclide reference in low-level radioactive waste due to its long half-live and it's easy to associate with organism in nature. So, interaction of radiostrontium and soil samples from site becomes important to be studied. Experiment was performed in batch method, and soil sample-solution containing radionuclide was mixed in a 20 ml of PE vial. Ratio of solid: liquid was 10{sup −2} g/ml. Objective of the experiment is to collect the specific characteristics data of radionuclide sorption onto soil from site candidate. Distribution coefficient value was used as indicator where the amount of initial and final activities of radiostrontium in solution was compared. Result showed that equilibrium condition was reached after contact time 10 days with Kd values ranged from 1600-2350 ml/g. Increased in ionic strength in solution made decreased of Kd value into soil sample due to competition of background salt and radiostrontium into soil samples, and increased in Sr ion in solution caused decreased of Kd value in soil sample due to limitation of sorption capacity in soil samples. Fast condition in saturated of metal ion into soil samples was reached due to a simple reaction was occurred.

  9. Results of geophysical surveys of glacial deposits near a former waste-disposal site, Nashua, New Hampshire

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ayotte, Joseph D.; Dorgan, Tracy H.

    1995-01-01

    Geophysical investigations were done near a former waste-disposal site in Nashua, New Hampshire to determine the thickness and infer hydraulic characteristics of the glacial sediments that underlie the area. Approximately 5 miles of ground- penetrating radar (GPR) data were collected in the study area by use of dual-80 Megahertz antennas. Three distinct radar-reflection signatures were evident from the data and are interpreted to represent (1) glacial lake-bottom sediments, (2) coarse sand and gravel and (or) sandy glacial till, and (3) bedrock. The GPR signal penetrated as much as 70 feet of sediment in coarse-grained areas, but penetration depth was generally less than 40 feet in extensive areas of fine-grained deposits. Geologic features were evident in many of the profiles. Glacial-lake-bottom sediments were the most common features identified. Other features include deltas deposited in glacial Lake Nashua and lobate fans of sediment deposited subaqueously at the distal end of deltaic sediments. Cross-bedded sands were often identifiable in the deltaic sediments. Seismic-refraction data were also collected at five of the GPR data sites. In most cases, depths to the water table and to the till and (or) bedrock surface indicated by the seismic-refraction data compared favorably with depths calculated from the GPR data. Test holes were drilled at three locations to determine the true depths to radar reflectors and to determine the types of geologic material represented by the various reflectors.

  10. Native Plant Uptake Model for Radioactive Waste Disposal Areas at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    BROWN,THERESA J.; WIRTH,SHARON

    1999-09-01

    This report defines and defends the basic framework, methodology, and associated input parameters for modeling plant uptake of radionuclides for use in Performance Assessment (PA) activities of Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMS) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). PAs are used to help determine whether waste disposal configurations meet applicable regulatory standards for the protection of human health, the environment, or both. Plants adapted to the arid climate of the NTS are able to rapidly capture infiltrating moisture. In addition to capturing soil moisture, plant roots absorb nutrients, minerals, and heavy metals, transporting them within the plant to the above-ground biomass. In this fashion, plant uptake affects the movement of radionuclides. The plant uptake model presented reflects rooting characteristics important to plant uptake, biomass turnover rates, and the ability of plants to uptake radionuclides from the soil. Parameters are provided for modeling plant uptake and estimating surface contaminant flux due to plant uptake under both current and potential future climate conditions with increased effective soil moisture. The term ''effective moisture'' is used throughout this report to indicate the soil moisture that is available to plants and is intended to be inclusive of all the variables that control soil moisture at a site (e.g., precipitation, temperature, soil texture, and soil chemistry). Effective moisture is a concept used to simplify a number of complex, interrelated soil processes for which there are too little data to model actual plant available moisture. The PA simulates both the flux of radionuclides across the land surface and the potential dose to humans from that flux. Surface flux is modeled here as the amount of soil contamination that is transferred from the soil by roots and incorporated into aboveground biomass. Movement of contaminants to the surface is the only transport mechanism evaluated with the model presented here

  11. Final Environmental Assessment for solid waste disposal, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    New solid waste regulations require that the existing Nevada Test Site (NTS) municipal landfills, which receive less than 20 tons of waste per day, be permitted or closed by October 9, 1995. In order to be permitted, the existing landfills must meet specific location, groundwater monitoring, design, operation, and closure requirements. The issuance of these regulations has resulted in the need of the Department of Energy (DOE) to provide a practical, cost-effective, environmentally sound means of solid waste disposal at the NTS that is in compliance with all applicable federal, state, and local regulations. The current landfills in Areas 9 and 23 on the Nevada Test Site do not meet design requirements specified in new state and federal regulations. The DOE Nevada Operations Office prepared an environmental assessment (EA) to evaluate the potential impacts of the proposal to modify the Area 23 landfill to comply with the new regulations and to close the Area 9 landfill and reopen it as Construction and Demolition debris landfill. Based on information and analyses presented in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action would not constitute a major federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act. Therefore, an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required. This report contains the Environmental Assessment, as well as the Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  12. Environmental geophysics at Kings Creek Disposal Site and 30th Street Landfill, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Davies, B.E.; Miller, S.F.; McGinnis, L.D.; Daudt, C.R.; Thompson, M.D.; Stefanov, J.E.; Benson, M.A.; Padar, C.A.

    1995-01-01

    Geophysical studies on the Bush River Peninsula in the Edgewood Area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, delineate landfill areas and provide diagnostic signatures of the hydrogeologic framework and possible contaminant pathways. These studies indicate that, during the Pleistocene Epoch, alternating stands of high and low seal levels resulted in a complex pattern of shallow channel-fill deposits in the Kings Creek area. Ground-penetrating radar studies reveal a paleochannel greater than 50 ft deep, with a thalweg trending offshore in a southwest direction into Kings Creek. Onshore, the ground-penetrating radar data indicate a 35-ft-deep branch to the main channel, trending to the north-northwest directly beneath the 30th Street Landfill. Other branches are suspected to meet the offshore paleochannel in the wetlands south and east of the 30th Street Landfill. This paleochannel depositional system is environmentally significant because it may control the shallow groundwater flow regime beneath the site. Electromagnetic surveys have delineated the pre-fill lowland area currently occupied by the 30th Street Landfill. Magnetic and conductive anomalies outline surficial and buried debris throughout the study area. On the basis of geophysical data, large-scale dumping has not occurred north of the Kings Creek Disposal Site or east of the 30th Street Landfill.

  13. Qualitative assessment of methane emission inventory from municipal solid waste disposal sites: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sunil; Mondal, A. N.; Gaikwad, S. A.; Devotta, Sukumar; Singh, R. N.

    2004-09-01

    In developing countries like India, urban solid waste (SW) generation is increasing enormously and most of the SWs are disposed off by land filling in low-lying areas, resulting into generation of large quantities of biogas. Methane, the major constituent gas is known to cause global warming due to green house gas (GHG) effect. There is a need to study the ever-increasing contribution of SW to the global GHG effect. To assess the impacts, estimation of GHG emission is must and to avoid misguidance by these emission-data, qualitative assessment of the estimated GHG is a must. In this paper, methane emission is estimated for a particular landfill site, using default methodology and modified triangular methodology. Total methane generation is same for both theoretical methodologies, but the modified triangular method has an upper hand as it provides a time-dependent emission profile that reflects the true pattern of the degradation process. To check the quality of calculated emission-data, extensive sampling is carried out for different seasons in a year. Field results show a different trend as compared to theoretical results, this compels for logical thinking. Each methane emission-data is backed up by the uncertainty associated with it, this further strengthens the quality check of these data. Uncertainty calculation is done using Monte Carlo simulation technique, recommended in IPCC Guideline. In the due course of qualitative assessment of methane emission-data, many site-specific sensitive parameters are discovered and are briefly discussed in this paper.

  14. 1994 Report on Hanford Site land disposal restrictions for mixed waste

    SciTech Connect

    Black, D.G.

    1994-04-01

    The baseline land disposal restrictions (LDR) plan was prepared in 1990 in accordance with the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (commonly referred to as the Tri-Party Agreement) Milestone M-26-00 (Ecology et al. 1992). The text of this milestone is below. LDR requirements include limitations on storage of specified hazardous wastes (including mixed wastes). In accordance with approved plans and schedules, the US Department of Energy (DOE) shall develop and implement technologies necessary to achieve full compliance with LDR requirements for mixed wastes at the Hanford Site. LDR plans and schedules shall be developed with consideration at other action plan milestones and will not become effective until approved by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (or Washington State Department of Ecology [Ecology]) upon authorization to administer LDRs pursuant to Section 3006 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA). Disposal of LDR wastes at any time is prohibited except in accordance with applicable LDR requirements for nonradioactive wastes at all times. The plan will include, but not be limited to, the following: waste characterization plan; storage report; treatment report; treatment plan; waste minimization plan; a schedule depicting the events necessary to achieve full compliance with LDR requirements; a process for establishing interim milestones. The original plan was published in October 1990. This is the fourth of a series of annual updates required by Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-26-01. A Tri-Party Agreement change request approved in March 1992 changed the annual due date from October to April and consolidated this report with a similar one prepared under Milestone M-25-00. The reporting period for this report is from April 1, 1993, to March 31, 1994.

  15. Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal from Red Hook/Bay Ridge project areas, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Pinza, M.R.; Barrows, E.S.; Borde, A.B.

    1996-09-01

    The objective of the Red HookIBay Ridge project was to evaluate proposed dredged material from these two areas to determine its suitability for unconfined ocean disposal at the Mud Dump Site. Sediment samples were collected from the Red Hook/Bay Ridge project areas. Tests and analyses were conducted. The evaluation of proposed dredged material from the Red Hook/Bay Ridge project areas consisted of bulk sediment chemical analyses, chemical analyses of dredging site water and elutriate, water-column and benthic acute toxicity tests. Twenty-four individual sediment core samples were collected from these two areas and analyzed for grain size, moisture content, and total organic carbon (TOC). Three composite sediment samples, representing Red Hook Channel and the two Bay Ridge Reaches to be dredged, were analyzed for bulk density, specific gravity, metals, chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and 1,4-dichlorobenzene. Dredging site water and elutriate water, which is prepared from the suspended-particulate phase (SPP) of the three Red Hook Bay Ridge sediment composites, were analyzed for metals, pesticides, and PCBS. Benthic acute toxicity tests were performed. Water-column or SPP toxicity tests were performed. Bioaccumulation tests were also conducted.

  16. Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal from Hackensack River Project Area, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Gruendell, B.D.; Barrows, E.S.; Borde, A.B.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of the bioassay reevaluation of the Hackensack River Federal Project was to reperform toxicity testing on proposed dredged material with current ammonia reduction protocols. Hackensack River was one of four waterways sampled and evaluated for dredging and disposal in April 1993. Sediment samples were re-collected from the Hackensack River Project area in August 1995. Tests and analyses were conducted according to the manual developed by the USACE and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Evaluation of Dredged Material Proposed for Ocean Disposal (Testing Manual), commonly referred to as the {open_quotes}Green Book,{close_quotes} and the regional manual developed by the USACE-NYD and EPA Region II, Guidance for Performing Tests on Dredged Material to be Disposed of in Ocean Waters. The reevaluation of proposed dredged material from the Hackensack River project area consisted of benthic acute toxicity tests. Thirty-three individual sediment core samples were collected from the Hackensack River project area. Three composite sediments, representing each reach of the area proposed for dredging, were used in benthic acute toxicity testing. Benthic acute toxicity tests were performed with the amphipod Ampelisca abdita and the mysid Mysidopsis bahia. The amphipod and mysid benthic toxicity test procedures followed EPA guidance for reduction of total ammonia concentrations in test systems prior to test initiation. Statistically significant acute toxicity was found in all three Hackensack River composites in the static renewal tests with A. abdita, but not in the static tests with M. bahia. Statistically significant acute toxicity and a greater than 20% increase in mortality over the reference sediment was found in the static renewal tests with A. abdita. Statistically significant mortality 10% over reference sediment was observed in the M. bahia static tests. 5 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal from Arthur Kill Project Area, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Gruendell, B.D.; Barrows, E.S.; Borde, A.B.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of the bioassay reevaluation of Arthur Kill Federal Project was to reperform toxicity testing on proposed dredged material following current ammonia reduction protocols. Arthur Kill was one of four waterways sampled and evaluated for dredging and disposal in April 1993. Sediment samples were recollected from the Arthur Kill Project areas in August 1995. Tests and analyses were conducted according to the manual developed by the USACE and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Evaluation of Dredged Material Proposed for Ocean Disposal (Testing Manual), commonly referred to as the {open_quotes}Green Book,{close_quotes} and the regional manual developed by the USACE-NYD and EPA Region II, Guidance for Performing Tests on Dredged Material to be Disposed of in Ocean Waters. The reevaluation of proposed dredged material from the Arthur Kill project areas consisted of benthic acute toxicity tests. Thirty-three individual sediment core samples were collected from the Arthur Kill project area. Three composite sediments, representing each reach of the area proposed for dredging, was used in benthic acute toxicity testing. Benthic acute toxicity tests were performed with the amphipod Ampelisca abdita and the mysid Mysidopsis bahia. The amphipod and mysid benthic toxicity test procedures followed EPA guidance for reduction of total ammonia concentrations in test systems prior to test initiation. Statistically significant acute toxicity was found in all Arthur Kill composites in the static renewal tests with A. abdita, but not in the static tests with M. bahia. Statistically significant acute toxicity and a greater than 20% increase in mortality over the reference sediment was found in the static renewal tests with A. abdita. M. bahia did not show statistically significant acute toxicity or a greater than 10% increase in mortality over reference sediment in static tests. 5 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 166: Storage Yards and Contaminated Materials, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2009-08-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 166 is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) as 'Storage Yards and Contaminated Materials' and consists of the following seven Corrective Action Sites (CASs), located in Areas 2, 3, 5, and 18 of the Nevada Test Site: CAS 02-42-01, Condo Release Storage Yd - North; CAS 02-42-02, Condo Release Storage Yd - South; CAS 02-99-10, D-38 Storage Area; CAS 03-42-01, Conditional Release Storage Yard; CAS 05-19-02, Contaminated Soil and Drum; CAS 18-01-01, Aboveground Storage Tank; and CAS 18-99-03, Wax Piles/Oil Stain. Closure activities were conducted from March to July 2009 according to the FF ACO (1996, as amended February 2008) and the Corrective Action Plan for CAU 166 (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, 2007b). The corrective action alternatives included No Further Action and Clean Closure. Closure activities are summarized. CAU 166, Storage Yards and Contaminated Materials, consists of seven CASs in Areas 2, 3, 5, and 18 of the NTS. The closure alternatives included No Further Action and Clean Closure. This CR provides a summary of completed closure activities, documentation of waste disposal, and confirmation that remediation goals were met. The following site closure activities were performed at CAU 166 as documented in this CR: (1) At CAS 02-99-10, D-38 Storage Area, approximately 40 gal of lead shot were removed and are currently pending treatment and disposal as MW, and approximately 50 small pieces of DU were removed and disposed as LLW. (2) At CAS 03-42-01, Conditional Release Storage Yard, approximately 7.5 yd{sup 3} of soil impacted with lead and Am-241 were removed and disposed as LLW. As a BMP, approximately 22 ft{sup 3} of asbestos tile were removed from a portable building and disposed as ALLW, approximately 55 gal of oil were drained from accumulators and are currently pending disposal as HW, the portable building was removed and disposed as

  19. Long-Term Performance of Transuranic Waste Inadvertently Disposed in a Shallow Land Burial Trench at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory J. Shott; Vefa Yucel

    2009-07-16

    In 1986, 21 m3 of transuranic (TRU) waste was inadvertently disposed in a shallow land burial trench at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site on the Nevada Test Site. U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) TRU waste must be disposed in accordance with Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 191, Environmental Radiation Protection Standard for Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level, and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant is the only facility meeting these requirements. The National Research Council, however, has found that exhumation of buried TRU waste for disposal in a deep geologic repository may not be warranted when the effort, exposures, and expense of retrieval are not commensurate with the risk reduction achieved. The long-term risks of leaving the TRU waste in-place are evaluated in two probabilistic performance assessments. A composite analysis, assessing the dose from all disposed waste and interacting sources of residual contamination, estimates an annual total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) of 0.01 mSv, or 3 percent of the dose constraint. A 40 CFR 191 performance assessment also indicates there is reasonable assurance of meeting all requirements. The 40 CFR 191.15 annual mean TEDE for a member of the public is estimated to reach a maximum of 0.055 mSv at 10,000 years, or approximately 37 percent of the 0.15 mSv individual protection requirement. In both assessments greater than 99 percent of the dose is from co-disposed low-level waste. The simulated probability of the 40 CFR 191.13 cumulative release exceeding 1 and 10 times the release limit is estimated to be 0.0093 and less than 0.0001, respectively. Site characterization data and hydrologic process modeling support a conclusion of no groundwater pathway within 10,000 years. Monte Carlo uncertainty analysis indicates that there is reasonable assurance of meeting all regulatory requirements. Sensitivity analysis indicates that the results

  20. GUIDANCE FOR THE PROPER CHARACTERIZATION AND CLASSIFICATION OF LOW SPECIFIC ACTIVITY MATERIALS AND SURFACE CONTAMINATED OBJECTS FOR DISPOSAL

    SciTech Connect

    PORTSMOUTH JH; BLACKFORD LT

    2012-02-13

    Regulatory concerns over the proper characterization of certain waste streams led CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) to develop written guidance for personnel involved in Decontamination & Decommissioning (D&D) activities, facility management and Waste Management Representatives (WMRs) involved in the designation of wastes for disposal on and off the Hanford Site. It is essential that these waste streams regularly encountered in D&D operations are properly designated, characterized and classified prior to shipment to a Treatment, Storage or Disposal Facility (TSDF). Shipments of waste determined by the classification process as Low Specific Activity (LSA) or Surface Contaminated Objects (SCO) must also be compliant with all applicable U.S. Department of Transportation (DOE) regulations as well as Department of Energy (DOE) orders. The compliant shipment of these waste commodities is critical to the Hanford Central Plateau cleanup mission. Due to previous problems and concerns from DOE assessments, CHPRC internal critiques as well as DOT, a management decision was made to develop written guidance and procedures to assist CHPRC shippers and facility personnel in the proper classification of D&D waste materials as either LSA or SCO. The guidance provides a uniform methodology for the collection and documentation required to effectively characterize, classify and identify candidate materials for shipping operations. A primary focus is to ensure that waste materials generated from D&D and facility operations are compliant with the DOT regulations when packaged for shipment. At times this can be difficult as the current DOT regulations relative to the shipment of LSA and SCO materials are often not clear to waste generators. Guidance is often sought from NUREG 1608/RAMREG-003 [3]: a guidance document that was jointly developed by the DOT and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and published in 1998. However, NUREG 1608 [3] is now thirteen years old and

  1. Three-dimensional electrical resistivity model of a nuclear waste disposal site

    SciTech Connect

    Rucker, Dale F.; Levitt, Marc T.; Greenwood, William J.

    2009-12-11

    A three-dimensional (3D) modeling study was completed on a very large electrical resistivity survey conducted at a nuclear waste site in eastern Washington. The acquisition included 47 pole-pole two dimensional (2D) resistivity profiles collected along parallel and orthogonal lines over an area of 850 m×570 m. The data were geo-referenced and inverted using EarthImager3D (EI3D). EI3D runs on a Microsoft 32-bit operating system (e.g. WIN-2K, XP) with a maximum usable memory of 2 GB. The memory limits the size of the domain for the inversion model to 200 m×200 m, based on the survey electrode density. Therefore, a series of increasing overlapping models were run to evaluate the effectiveness of dividing the survey area into smaller subdomains. The results of the smaller subdomains were compared to the inversion results of a single domain over a larger area using an upgraded form of EI3D that incorporates multi-processing capabilities and 32 GB of RAM memory. The contours from the smaller subdomains showed discontinuity at the boundaries between the adjacent models, which do not match the hydrogeologic expectations given the nature of disposal at the site. At several boundaries, the contours of the low resistivity areas close, leaving the appearance of disconnected plumes or open contours at boundaries are not met with a continuance of the low resistivity plume into the adjacent subdomain. The model results of the single large domain show a continuous monolithic plume within the central and western portion of the site, directly beneath the elongated trenches. It is recommended that where possible, the domain not be subdivided, but instead include as much of the domain as possible given the memory of available computing resources.

  2. 1998 report on Hanford Site land disposal restrictions for mixed waste

    SciTech Connect

    Black, D.G.

    1998-04-10

    This report was submitted to meet the requirements of Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) Milestone M-26-01H. This milestone requires the preparation of an annual report that covers characterization, treatment, storage, minimization, and other aspects of managing land-disposal-restricted mixed waste at the Hanford Facility. The US Department of Energy, its predecessors, and contractors on the Hanford Facility were involved in the production and purification of nuclear defense materials from the early 1940s to the late 1980s. These production activities have generated large quantities of liquid and solid mixed waste. This waste is regulated under authority of both the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of l976 and the Atomic Energy Act of 1954. This report covers only mixed waste. The Washington State Department of Ecology, US Environmental Protection Agency, and US Department of Energy have entered into the Tri-Party Agreement to bring the Hanford Facility operations into compliance with dangerous waste regulations. The Tri-Party Agreement required development of the original land disposal restrictions (LDR) plan and its annual updates to comply with LDR requirements for mixed waste. This report is the eighth update of the plan first issued in 1990. The Tri-Party Agreement requires and the baseline plan and annual update reports provide the following information: (1) Waste Characterization Information -- Provides information about characterizing each LDR mixed waste stream. The sampling and analysis methods and protocols, past characterization results, and, where available, a schedule for providing the characterization information are discussed. (2) Storage Data -- Identifies and describes the mixed waste on the Hanford Facility. Storage data include the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 dangerous waste codes, generator process knowledge needed to identify the waste and to make LDR determinations, quantities

  3. Comment and response document for the long-term surveillance plan for the Falls City Disposal Site, Falls City, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    This document contains the comments made by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission on the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Long-Term Surveillance Plan for the Falls City Disposal Site, Falls City, Texas. DOE`s responses to the comments are also included.

  4. Susceptibility of the Memphis water supply to contamination from the pesticide waste-disposal site in northeastern Hardeman County, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rima, Donald Robert

    1979-01-01

    Public concern has been expressed over the possiblity that leachates from a pesticide waste-disposal site in northeastern Hardeman County, Tennessee, might eventually reach the Memphis area and endanger the city 's water supply. An examination of the possible pathways and means of transport of these contaminants reveals that, the Memphis area in detectable concentrations is unlikely. (USGS)

  5. Comment and response document for the long-term surveillance plan for the Collins Ranch Disposal Site, Lakeview, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    This document contains comments made by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission addressing their concerns over the long-term monitoring program for the Collins Ranch Disposal Site, UMTRA project. Responses are included as well as plans for implementation of changes, if any are deemed necessary.

  6. Comment and response document for the final long-term surveillance plan for the Green River, Utah, disposal site

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    This document contains comments made by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission addressing their concerns over the long-term monitoring program for the Green River Disposal Site, UMTRA project. Responses are included as well as plans for implementation of changes, if any are deemed necessary.

  7. Work plan for monitor well/groundwater elevation data recorder installation at the Cheney Disposal site, Grand Junction, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    In May 1990, during the excavation for the Grand Junction, Colorado, Cheney Reservoir disposal cell (Cheney), a water bearing paleochannel was encountered along the northern boundary of the excavation (designated the Northwest Paleochannel). To ensure the long-term integrity of the disposal embankment, remedial actions were taken including the excavation of the paleochannel and underlying material to bedrock, backfilling of the trapezoidal trench with granular material, and placement of a geotextile liner above the granular material. Compacted clay backfill was placed above the reconstructed paleochannel trench, and the northwest corner was restored to the designated grade. Investigation of other paleochannels determined that ground water flow terminated before it migrated as far west as the disposal cell. Therefore, flow in these paleochannels would have no impact on the disposal cell. Although characterization efforts did not indicate the presence of a ground water-bearing paleochannel south of the disposal cell, the potential could not be ruled out. As a best management practice for long-term monitoring at Cheney, two monitor wells will be installed within the paleochannels. One well will be installed within 50 feet (ft) west of the reconstructed Northwest Paleochannel. The second well will be installed near the southwestern (downgradient) corner of the disposal cell. The purposes of these wells are to characterize ground water flow (if any) within the paleochannels and to monitor the potential for water movement (seepage) into or out of the disposal cell. Initial monitoring of the paleochannels will consist of water level elevation measurement collection and trend analysis to evaluate fluctuations in storage. The purpose of this document is to describe the work that will be performed and the procedures that will be followed during installation of two ground water monitor wells and two ground water elevation data recorders (data loggers) at Cheney.

  8. Comment and response document for the long-term surveillance plan for the Falls City disposal site, Falls City, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    This is the Comment and Response Document dated November 1996 for the Long-Term Surveillance Plan for the Falls City Disposal Site in Falls City, Texas. The site is part of the U.S. DOE`s Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRA). Several comments regarding the hydrology and surface erosion described in the Long-Term Surveillance Plan are addressed in this document.

  9. Policy for municipality and municipal solid waste CERCLA settlements at NPL co-disposal sites. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Herman, S.A.

    1998-02-01

    The purpose of this policy is to provide a fair, consistent, and efficient settlement methodology for resolving the potential liability under CERCLA of generators and transporters of municipal sewage sludge and/or municipal solid waste at co-disposal landfills on the National Priorities List (NPL), and municipal owners and operators of such sites. This policy is intended to reduce transaction costs, including those associated with third-party litigation, and to encourage global settlements at sites.

  10. Application of Geographic Information System and Remotesensing in effective solid waste disposal sites selection in Wukro town, Tigray, Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammedshum, A. A.; Gebresilassie, M. A.; Rulinda, C. M.; Kahsay, G. H.; Tesfay, M. S.

    2014-11-01

    Identifying solid waste disposal sites and appropriately managing them is a challenging task to many developing countries. This is a critical problem too in Ethiopia in general and in Wukro town in particular. The existing site for Wukro town is not sufficient in its capacity and it is damaging the environment due to its location, and the type of waste dumped, while the surrounding area is being irrigated. Due to the swift expansion and urbanization developments in Wukro town, it badly needs to develop controlled solid waste dumping site to prevent several contamination problems. This study was conducted first, to assess the existing waste management strategies in Wukro town; and second, to find out the potential waste disposal sites for the town, using GIS and Remote Sensing techniques. The study exploited the Multi-Criteria Evaluation (MCE) methods to combine necessary factors considered for dumping site selection. The selected method also uses various geographical data including remote sensing data, with GIS spatial analysis tools. Accordingly, site suitability maps for each of the factors were developed in a GIS environment. Results indicate that 12 dumping sites were appropriate and they were further ranked against their suitability in terms of wind direction, proximity to settlement area and distance from the center of the town. Finally, two sites are the best suitable for dumping site. This study indicated that the application of Geographic Information System and Remote Sensing techniques are efficient and low cost tools to study and select appropriate dumping site so as to facilitate decision making processes.

  11. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 356: Mud Pits and Disposal Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada with Errata Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    NNSA /NV

    2002-11-12

    This Closure Report (CR) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 356, Mud Pits and Disposal Sites, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. This CAU is located in Areas 3 and 20 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Corrective Action Unit 356 consists of seven Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 03-04-01, Area 3 Change House Septic System; 03-09-01, Mud Pit Spill Over; 03-09-03, Mud Pit; 03-09-04, Mud Pit; 03-09-05, Mud Pit; 20-16-01, Landfill; and 20-22-21, Drums. This CR identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office's (NNSA/NV's) recommendation that no further corrective action and closure in place is deemed necessary for CAU 356. This recommendation is based on the results of field investigation/closure activities conducted November 20, 2001, through January 3, 2002, and March 11 to 14, 2002. These activities were conducted in accordance with the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan (SAFER) for CAU 356. For CASs 03-09-01, 03-09-03, 20-16-01, and 22-20-21, analytes detected in soil during the corrective action investigation were evaluated against Preliminary Action Levels (PALs) and it was determined that no Contaminants of Concern (COCs) were present. Therefore, no further action is necessary for the soil at these CASs. For CASs 03-04-01, 03-09-04, and 03-09-05, analytes detected in soil during the corrective action investigation were evaluated against PALs and identifies total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) and radionuclides (i.e., americium-241 and/or plutonium 239/240) as COCs. The nature, extent, and concentration of the TPH and radionuclide COCs were bounded by sampling and shown to be relatively immobile. Therefore, closure in place is recommended for these CASs in CAU 356. Further, use restrictions are not required at this CAU beyond the NTS use restrictions identified in

  12. Effects of ageing on elution behaviour of nitrogenous compounds in disposed wastes from landfill sites.

    PubMed

    Nishio, Takayuki

    2014-01-01

    Comparative studies of elution and cation exchange capacity (CEC) tests were applied to aged and fresh municipal and industrial solid wastes to examine the effects of ageing on the long-term elution behaviour of nitrogen on leachate in municipal and industrial solid waste landfill sites. Nitrogen in the leachate gradually eluted as organic nitrogen, but not upon transformation of organic nitrogen to elutable inorganic nitrogen compounds in the solid waste. Ammonium in the solid waste, retained similar to its interaction with clay minerals in soil, elutes when exposed to leachate by being replaced with highly concentrated cations or loses its positive charge in high pH in the leachate, which percolates down from the upper layer of the disposed waste. The quantity of ammonium adsorbed into the aged wastes through CEC measurement process by replacement with ammonium acetate was higher than that onto the fresh wastes. That difference in quantities can serve as an index of the ability of the solid waste to withhold ammonium in the leachate that percolates down the landfill layer. Those results demonstrate that ammonification of organic nitrogen in the waste is not the crucial step of the elution of nitrogenous compounds into leachate. PMID:25145199

  13. Retention of manganese by a constructed wetland treating drainage from a coal ash disposal site

    SciTech Connect

    Kerrick, K.H.; Horner, M.

    1998-12-31

    A 3,200 m{sup 2} wetland was constructed in 1988 to treat drainage from an ash disposal site at a coal-fired electricity generating plant in western Pennsylvania. Concentrations of Fe and Mn in the drainage range from 30--80 mg/L and 10--20 mg/L, respectively. Acidity levels of 60--180 mg/L and a pH between 5--5.6 are typical. The wetland has always produced a high quality effluent with respect to Fe concentrations (usually less than 1 mg/L) and pH (about 7). Initial performance of the wetland with respect to Mn was encouraging, with reductions in Mn concentrations of over 50% being common during the first six years of operation. The system was modified in 1994 by adding limestone riprap below some dams and covering diversion dikes with limestone. These alterations were followed by a significant improvement in Mn removal by the system, with effluent concentrations seldom exceeding 1 mg/L. Seasonal observations indicate that Mn removal in the wetland slows during the winter. In laboratory studies, wetland limestone increased Mn removal rates by as much as 6--7 times. These rates exhibited a temperature optimum of 27 C. The rate at near 0 C was about one half that at 27 C and the rate fell to near zero at 43 C. This suggests that biological activity associated with the limestone is an important factor in the success of this wetland.

  14. PORTSMOUTH ON-SITE DISPOSAL CELL HIGH DENSITY POLYETHYLENE GEOMEMBRANE LONGEVITY

    SciTech Connect

    Phifer, M.

    2012-01-31

    It is anticipated that high density polyethylene (HDPE) geomembranes will be utilized within the liner and closure cap of the proposed On-Site Disposal Cell (OSDC) at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The likely longevity (i.e. service life) of HDPE geomembranes in OSDC service is evaluated within the following sections of this report: (1) Section 2.0 provides an overview of HDPE geomembranes, (2) Section 3.0 outlines potential HDPE geomembranes degradation mechanisms, (3) Section 4.0 evaluates the applicability of HDPE geomembrane degradation mechanisms to the Portsmouth OSDC, (4) Section 5.0 provides a discussion of the current state of knowledge relative to the longevity (service life) of HDPE geomembranes, including the relation of this knowledge to the Portsmouth OSDC, and (5) Section 6.0 provides summary and conclusions relative to the anticipated service life of HDPE geomembranes in OSDC service. Based upon this evaluation it is anticipated that the service life of HDPE geomembranes in OSDC service would be significantly greater than the 200 year service life assumed for the OSDC closure cap and liner HDPE geomembranes. That is, a 200 year OSDC HDPE geomembrane service life is considered a conservative assumption.

  15. Low-level liquid waste disposal at the Savannah River Site: A large scale demonstration of saltstone

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, S.B.; Wilhite, E.L.

    1990-12-31

    Lysimeters are large-scale, field experiments used at the Savannah River Site (SRS) to measure the effect of percolating rainfall on the release of contaminants from wasteforms. The saltstone lysimeters described are demonstrations of a disposal concept for a low-level radioactive waste resulting from the processing of high-level defense waste for vitrification. Results from the lysimeters confirm the efficacy of the slag formulation in retaining chromium and technetium. Lysimeter results were also useful in validating mathematical models used in predicting environmental effects of saltstone disposal in engineered vaults. 7 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. Low-level liquid waste disposal at the Savannah River Site: A large scale demonstration of saltstone

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, S.B.; Wilhite, E.L.

    1990-01-01

    Lysimeters are large-scale, field experiments used at the Savannah River Site (SRS) to measure the effect of percolating rainfall on the release of contaminants from wasteforms. The saltstone lysimeters described are demonstrations of a disposal concept for a low-level radioactive waste resulting from the processing of high-level defense waste for vitrification. Results from the lysimeters confirm the efficacy of the slag formulation in retaining chromium and technetium. Lysimeter results were also useful in validating mathematical models used in predicting environmental effects of saltstone disposal in engineered vaults. 7 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Pilot demonstration for containment using in situ soil mixing techniques at a chemical disposal superfund site

    SciTech Connect

    Zarlinski, S.J.; Kingham, N.W.; Semenak, R.

    1997-12-31

    Kiber Environmental Services, Inc. (Kiber), under contract to McLaren-Hart Corporation and the site PRP group, performed technical oversight and on-site sampling and analyses at the confidential site located in Texas. The site consists of 15,000 cubic meters (20,000 cubic yards) of contaminated materials that were to be solidified on-site. The contaminants included heavy metals, PAHs, oil and grease, and volatile organics. Groundwater is less than 1 meter from the surface. Kiber was retained after several unsuccessful efforts to find on-site containment methods that effectively solidified the waste pits while achieving the performance goals. The PRP group then contracted with Kiber to perform the treatability and pilot oversight studies. The full-scale pilot demonstration was performed by Geo-Con. Pilot-scale treatment was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of in situ solidification treatment at achieving the site specific performance criteria, including an unconfined compressive strength of greater than 170 kPa (25 psi) and a permeability of less than 1x10{sup -6} cm/sec. Technical oversight and on-site sampling and analysis were provided to evaluate pilot-scale application of the selected technology and verify treatment effectiveness. The project was divided into several subtasks. First, laboratory treatability testing was conducted to verify that performance specifications were achievable using the proposed reagent formulations. Next, a pilot demonstration was performed by Geo-Con using a Manotowoc 4000 crane equipped with a 1.5-meter diameter auger to evaluate shallow soil mixing. The final task included a comparative study between the performance of test specimens collected using wet sampling techniques versus in situ post-treatment coring.

  18. Designing open water disposal for dredged muddy sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAnally, William H.; Adamec, Stephen A.

    1987-11-01

    Open water disposal of muddy sediments in the estuarine environment is practiced to minimize dredging costs and to preserve contained disposal site capacity. Open water sites are usually either dispersive or retentive. Dispersive sites are used in the expectation that disposed sediments will not remain there, but will be transported out of the site, leaving room for additional disposal. Retentive sites are designed to ensure that disposed sediments mostly remain within the site. Choice of one of these approaches depends on the site character, sediment character, and disposal quantities. Design of disposal management plans for both site types is accomplished by use of field observations, laboratory tests, and numerical modeling. Three disposal site studies illustrate the methods used. At the Alcatraz site in San Francisco Bay, a dispersive condition is maintained by use of constraints on dredged mud characteristics that were developed from laboratory tests on erosion rates and from numerical modeling of the dump process. Field experiments were designed to evaluate the management procedure. In Corpus Christi Bay a numerical model was used to determine how much disposed sediment returns to the navigation channel, and to devise a location for disposal that will minimize that return. In Puget Sound a model has been used to ensure that most of the disposed material remains in the site. New techniques, including a piped disposal through 60 m of water, were investigated.

  19. Hydrogeologic factors in the selection of shallow land burial sites for the disposal of low-level radioactive waste

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fischer, John N.

    1986-01-01

    In the United States, low-level radioactive waste is disposed of by shallow land burial. Commercial low-level radioactive waste has been buried at six sites, and low-level radioactive waste generated by the Federal Government has been buried at nine major and several minor sites. Several existing low-level radioactive waste sites have not provided expected protection of the environment. These shortcomings are related, at least in part, to an inadequate understanding of site hydrogeology at the time the sites were selected. To better understand the natural systems and the effect of hydrogeologic factors on long-term site performance, the U.S. Geological Survey has conducted investigations at five of the six commercial low-level radioactive waste sites and at three Federal sites. These studies, combined with those of other Federal and State agencies, have identified and confirmed important hydrogeologic factors in the effective disposal of low-level radioactive waste by shallow land burial. These factors include precipitation, surface drainage, topography, site stability, geology, thickness of the host soil-rock horizon, soil and sediment permeability, soil and water chemistry, and depth to the water table.

  20. Evaluation of liners for a uranium-mill tailings disposal site: a status report

    SciTech Connect

    Buelt, J.L.; Hale, V.Q.; Barnes, S.M.; Silviera, D.J.

    1981-05-01

    The United States Department of Energy is conducting a program designed to reclaim or stabilize inactive uranium-mill tailings sites. This report presents the status of the Liner Evaluation Program. The purpose of the study was to identify eight prospective lining materials or composites for laboratory testing. The evaluation was performed by 1) reviewing proposed regulatory requirements to define the material performance criteria; 2) reviewing published literature and communicating with industrial and government experts experienced with lining materials and techniques; and 3) characterizing the tailings at three of the sites for calcium concentration, a selection of anions, radionuclides, organic solvents, and acidity levels. The eight materials selected for laboratory testing are: natural soil amended with sodium-saturated montmorillonite (Volclay); locally available clay in conjunction with an asphalt emulsion radon suppression cover; locally available clay in conjunction with a multibarrier radon suppression cover; rubberized asphalt membrane; hydraulic asphalt concrete; chlorosulfonated polyethylene (hypalon) or high-density polyethylene; bentonite, sand and gravel mixture; and catalytic airblown asphalt membrane. The materials will be exposed in test units now being constructed to conditions such as wet/dry cycles, temperature cycles, oxidative environments, ion-exchange elements, etc. The results of the tests will identify the best material for field study. The status report also presents the information gathered during the field studies at Grand Junction, Colorado. Two liners, a bentonite, sand and gravel mixture, and a catalytic airblown asphalt membrane, were installed in a prepared trench and covered with tailings. The liners were instrumented and are being monitored for migration of moisture, radionuclides, and hazardous chemicals. The two liner materials will also be subjected to accelerated laboratory tests for a comparative assessment.