Science.gov

Sample records for materials nove druhy

  1. Multiwavelength Modeling of Nove Atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huschildt, P. H.

    2001-01-01

    LMC 1988 #1 was a slow, CO type, dust forming classical nova. It was the first extragalactic nova to be observed with the IUE satellite. We have successfully fitted observed ultraviolet and optical spectra of LMC 1988 #1 taken within the first two months of its outburst (when the atmosphere was still optically thick) with synthetic spectra computed using PHOENIX nova model atmospheres. The synthetic spectra reproduce most of the features seen in the spectra and provide V band magnitudes consistent with the observed light curve. The fits are improved by increasing the CNO abundances to 10 times the solar values. The bolometric luminosity of LMC 1988 #1 was approximately constant at 2 x 10(exp 38) ergs per second at a distance of 47.3 kpc for the first 2 months of the outburst until the formation of the dust shell.

  2. Materialism.

    PubMed

    Melnyk, Andrew

    2012-05-01

    Materialism is nearly universally assumed by cognitive scientists. Intuitively, materialism says that a person's mental states are nothing over and above his or her material states, while dualism denies this. Philosophers have introduced concepts (e.g., realization and supervenience) to assist in formulating the theses of materialism and dualism with more precision, and distinguished among importantly different versions of each view (e.g., eliminative materialism, substance dualism, and emergentism). They have also clarified the logic of arguments that use empirical findings to support materialism. Finally, they have devised various objections to materialism, objections that therefore serve also as arguments for dualism. These objections typically center around two features of mental states that materialism has had trouble in accommodating. The first feature is intentionality, the property of representing, or being about, objects, properties, and states of affairs external to the mental states. The second feature is phenomenal consciousness, the property possessed by many mental states of there being something it is like for the subject of the mental state to be in that mental state. WIREs Cogn Sci 2012, 3:281-292. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1174 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:26301463

  3. Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaessgen, Edward H.; Schoeppner, Gregory A.

    2006-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center has successfully developed an electron beam freeform fabrication (EBF3) process, a rapid metal deposition process that works efficiently with a variety of weldable alloys. The EBF3 process can be used to build a complex, unitized part in a layer-additive fashion, although the more immediate payoff is for use as a manufacturing process for adding details to components fabricated from simplified castings and forgings or plate products. The EBF3 process produces structural metallic parts with strengths comparable to that of wrought product forms and has been demonstrated on aluminum, titanium, and nickel-based alloys to date. The EBF3 process introduces metal wire feedstock into a molten pool that is created and sustained using a focused electron beam in a vacuum environment. Operation in a vacuum ensures a clean process environment and eliminates the need for a consumable shield gas. Advanced metal manufacturing methods such as EBF3 are being explored for fabrication and repair of aerospace structures, offering potential for improvements in cost, weight, and performance to enhance mission success for aircraft, launch vehicles, and spacecraft. Near-term applications of the EBF3 process are most likely to be implemented for cost reduction and lead time reduction through addition of details onto simplified preforms (casting or forging). This is particularly attractive for components with protruding details that would require a significantly large volume of material to be machined away from an oversized forging, offering significant reductions to the buy-to-fly ratio. Future far-term applications promise improved structural efficiency through reduced weight and improved performance by exploiting the layer-additive nature of the EBF3 process to fabricate tailored unitized structures with functionally graded microstructures and compositions.

  4. Sustainable materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allwood, Julian M.

    2016-01-01

    Materials influence every aspect of the energy system; therefore, as well as developing new materials for energy generation, materials scientists should engage in public debate about the limitations of future innovations and the conservation of existing materials.

  5. Understanding Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katsioloudis, Petros J.

    2010-01-01

    Almost everything people have ever done has involved materials. Historical evidence indicates that "engineered materials" have been available and utilized for the benefit of humankind since the Neolithic period, beginning about 10,000 BC. Some of these materials have been in existence for thousands of years. At first, materials consisted of wood,…

  6. Hazardous materials

    MedlinePlus

    ... people how to work with hazardous materials and waste. There are many different kinds of hazardous materials, including: Chemicals, like some that are used for cleaning Drugs, like chemotherapy to treat cancer Radioactive material that is used for x-rays or ...

  7. Scintillator material

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, David F.; Kross, Brian J.

    1994-01-01

    An improved scintillator material comprising cerium fluoride is disclosed. Cerium fluoride has been found to provide a balance of good stopping power, high light yield and short decay constant that is superior to known scintillator materials such as thallium-doped sodium iodide, barium fluoride and bismuth germanate. As a result, cerium fluoride is favorably suited for use as a scintillator material in positron emission tomography.

  8. Scintillator material

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, D.F.; Kross, B.J.

    1992-07-28

    An improved scintillator material comprising cerium fluoride is disclosed. Cerium fluoride has been found to provide a balance of good stopping power, high light yield and short decay constant that is superior to known scintillator materials such as thallium-doped sodium iodide, barium fluoride and bismuth germanate. As a result, cerium fluoride is favorably suited for use as a scintillator material in positron emission tomography. 4 figs.

  9. Scintillator material

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, D.F.; Kross, B.J.

    1994-06-07

    An improved scintillator material comprising cerium fluoride is disclosed. Cerium fluoride has been found to provide a balance of good stopping power, high light yield and short decay constant that is superior to known scintillator materials such as thallium-doped sodium iodide, barium fluoride and bismuth germanate. As a result, cerium fluoride is favorably suited for use as a scintillator material in positron emission tomography. 4 figs.

  10. Scintillator material

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, David F.; Kross, Brian J.

    1992-01-01

    An improved scintillator material comprising cerium fluoride is disclosed. Cerium fluoride has been found to provide a balance of good stopping power, high light yield and short decay constant that is superior to known scintillator materials such as thallium-doped sodium iodide, barium fluoride and bismuth germanate. As a result, cerium fluoride is favorably suited for use as a scintillator material in positron emission tomography.

  11. Raw materials.

    PubMed

    Peters, Dietmar

    2007-01-01

    Industrial fermentations need raw materials that fulfill the requirements of the organism (suitable carbon and nitrogen source, minerals and specific nutrients) and that are available in a high quantity and quality. This contribution gives a comprehensive overview, including the new trends and progress of recent years. The use of feedstock based on several raw materials such as sugar, starch, inulin and lignocellulose is discussed. Biomass-based raw materials are by far the most applied feedstocks for fermentation. However, there are also raw materials for fermentations derived from the petrochemical industry. These substrates are especially hydrocarbons, alcohols and carboxylic acids. Some applications are given in this chapter. PMID:17408080

  12. Materials Repurposed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Orvil L.; Townsend, J. Scott

    2008-01-01

    Few teachers find themselves with the support to purchase all of the materials they ideally need to supply their classrooms. Buying one or two simple, ready-made items can put a serious strain on anyone's budget. However, materials for science in the classroom need not be prefabricated or expensive. By looking at the function and purpose of any…

  13. Energy Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Dept. of Public Instruction, Des Moines.

    These resource materials, developed for use by teachers in the elementary and secondary schools, are designed to provide the teacher with a bibliography, questions and answeres, and suggested classroom activities all relating to the energy problem. The materials are designed to develop a conservation ethic and greater understanding of our energy…

  14. Packaging Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frear, Darrel

    This chapter is a high-level overview of the materials used in an electronic package including: metals used as conductors in the package, ceramics and glasses used as dielectrics or insulators and polymers used as insulators and, in a composite form, as conductors. There is a need for new materials to meet the ever-changing requirements for high-speed digital and radio-frequency (RF) applications. There are different requirements for digital and RF packages that translate into the need for unique materials for each application. The interconnect and dielectric (insulating) requirements are presented for each application and the relevant materials properties and characteristics are discussed. The fundamental materials characteristics are: dielectric constant, dielectric loss, thermal and electric conductivity, resistivity, moisture absorption, glass-transition temperature, strength, time-dependent deformation (creep), and fracture toughness. The materials characteristics and properties are dependant on how they are processed to form the electronic package so the fundamentals of electronic packaging processes are discussed including wirebonding, solder interconnects, flip-chip interconnects, underfill for flip chip and overmolding. The relevant materials properties are given along with requirements (including environmentally friendly Pb-free packages) that require new materials to be developed to meet future electronics needs for both digital and RF applications.

  15. Cermet materials

    DOEpatents

    Kong, Peter C.

    2008-12-23

    A self-cleaning porous cermet material, filter and system utilizing the same may be used in filtering particulate and gaseous pollutants from internal combustion engines having intermetallic and ceramic phases. The porous cermet filter may be made from a transition metal aluminide phase and an alumina phase. Filler materials may be added to increase the porosity or tailor the catalytic properties of the cermet material. Additionally, the cermet material may be reinforced with fibers or screens. The porous filter may also be electrically conductive so that a current may be passed therethrough to heat the filter during use. Further, a heating element may be incorporated into the porous cermet filter during manufacture. This heating element can be coated with a ceramic material to electrically insulate the heating element. An external heating element may also be provided to heat the cermet filter during use.

  16. Composite material

    DOEpatents

    Hutchens, Stacy A.; Woodward, Jonathan; Evans, Barbara R.; O'Neill, Hugh M.

    2012-02-07

    A composite biocompatible hydrogel material includes a porous polymer matrix, the polymer matrix including a plurality of pores and providing a Young's modulus of at least 10 GPa. A calcium comprising salt is disposed in at least some of the pores. The porous polymer matrix can comprise cellulose, including bacterial cellulose. The composite can be used as a bone graft material. A method of tissue repair within the body of animals includes the steps of providing a composite biocompatible hydrogel material including a porous polymer matrix, the polymer matrix including a plurality of pores and providing a Young's modulus of at least 10 GPa, and inserting the hydrogel material into cartilage or bone tissue of an animal, wherein the hydrogel material supports cell colonization in vitro for autologous cell seeding.

  17. Insulation Material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Manufactured by Hitco Materials Division of Armco, Inc. a ceramic fiber insulation material known as Refrasil has been used extensively as a heat-absorbing ablative reinforcement for such space systems as rocket motor nozzles, combustion chambers, and re-entry shields. Refrasil fibers are highly porous and do not melt or vaporize until fibers exceed 3,100 degrees Fahrenheit. Due to these and other properties, Refrasil has found utility in a number of industrial high temperature applications where glass, asbestos and other materials fail. Hitco used this insulation to assist Richardson Co., Inc. in the manufacturing of hard rubber and plastic molded battery cases.

  18. Contrast Materials

    MedlinePlus

    ... or other reactions to contrast materials are rare, radiology departments are well-equipped to deal with them. ... is given. However, both the American College of Radiology (ACR) and the European Society of Urogenital Radiology ...

  19. Complex Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, Valentino

    2014-04-17

    Valentino Cooper uses some of the world's most powerful computing to understand how materials work at subatomic levels, studying breakthroughs such as piezoelectrics, which convert mechanical stress to electrical energy.

  20. Complex Materials

    ScienceCinema

    Cooper, Valentino

    2014-05-23

    Valentino Cooper uses some of the world's most powerful computing to understand how materials work at subatomic levels, studying breakthroughs such as piezoelectrics, which convert mechanical stress to electrical energy.

  1. Hazardous materials

    MedlinePlus

    ... should be in a room with good airflow Work Safely If you find a spill, treat it like ... Hazard communication; Material Safety Data Sheet; MSDS References Occupational Safety and Health Administration. Healthcare. Available at: www.osha. ...

  2. CURRICULUM MATERIALS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Jersey State Dept. of Education, Trenton.

    MATERIALS ARE LISTED BY 36 TOPICS ARRANGED IN ALPHABETICAL ORDER. TOPICS INCLUDE APPRENTICE TRAINING, BAKING, DRAFTING, ENGLISH, GLASSBLOWING, HOME ECONOMICS, INDUSTRIAL CHEMISTRY, MACHINE SHOP, NEEDLE TRADES, REFRIGERATION, AND UPHOLSTERY. PRICES ARE GIVEN FOR EACH ITEM. (EL)

  3. Materials considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, H. R.; Nelson, H. G.; Johnson, R. E.; Mcpherson, B.; Howard, F. S.; Swisher, J. H.

    1975-01-01

    Materials problems are examined that may be encountered within a hydrogen energy system. Emphasis is placed on hydrogen embrittlement, corrosion, oxidation, and erosion. Other factors discussed include: degradation of mechanical properties of structural alloys, system reliability, and maintenance costs.

  4. Propulsion materials

    SciTech Connect

    Wall, Edward J.; Sullivan, Rogelio A.; Gibbs, Jerry L.

    2008-01-01

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Office of Vehicle Technologies (OVT) is pleased to introduce the FY 2007 Annual Progress Report for the Propulsion Materials Research and Development Program. Together with DOE national laboratories and in partnership with private industry and universities across the United States, the program continues to engage in research and development (R&D) that provides enabling materials technology for fuel-efficient and environmentally friendly commercial and passenger vehicles.

  5. Parachute materials

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, C.W.; Johnson, D.W.

    1987-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present guidelines for the use of Kevlar and nylon materials in modern parachute systems. Nylon has been used in parachutes for many years, so this discussion will place emphasis upon Kevlar material properties and their application to parachute design and construction. Kevlar-29 is an aramid fiber manufactured by DuPont and is being used on parachute systems requiring high strength-to-weight ratios or sustained strength at high temperatures. Tests of parachutes using Kevlar webbing, braided cords, ribbons, and thread have demonstrated that these Kevlar materials can be used successfully in ribbon parachutes with no detrimental effects on performance. A few changes must be made in the design of a ribbon parachute to accommodate Kevlar's high modulus. Examples of parachutes that use Kevlar suspension lines, radials, ribbons, reefing lines, bridles, and skirt bands are presented to show that they are much lighter and more resistant to aerodynamic heating than all-nylon parachutes. Nylon continues to be an important material for high-performance parachute systems, however. New nylon weaves have resulted in lighter weight, stronger ribbon materials with excellent sewability characteristics.

  6. Materials Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Draper, Robert

    2001-01-01

    The Materials and Structures for High Performance project has made excellent progress in the development of advanced high-temperature materials and computational materials science tools to enable high-performance, hgh-efficiency, and environmentally compatible propulsion systems. Ceramic matrix composite (CMC) systems with 2700 O F temperature capability are initially being developed for low NO, combustor liners and turbine vanes. The feasibility of pushing CMC technologies to 3000 O F through revolutionary concepts is also being pursued. Achieving fuel savings of 8 to 15 percent requires higher turbine inlet temperatures as well as reductions in engine weight. An advanced disk alloy has been evaluated for application in future engines. Advanced thermal barrier coatings (TBC s) will enable 3200 O F turbine rotor inlet temperature capability. Advanced alloy development and the development of computational tools for the design of these future alloys will further enable attainment of these goals. Innovative lightweight materials, and structural and nozzle aerodynamic concepts are also being developed to reduce the weight of engine static structures to contribute toward overall fuel savings. Rig tests will demonstrate long-term durability of CMC linersand vanes and advanced turbine airfoil alloy systems, as well as fabricability of components with the highest payoff potential using the lightweight materials and structures concepts being developed.

  7. Hardfacing material

    DOEpatents

    Branagan, Daniel J.

    2012-01-17

    A method of producing a hard metallic material by forming a mixture containing at least 55% iron and at least one of boron, carbon, silicon and phosphorus. The mixture is formed into an alloy and cooled to form a metallic material having a hardness of greater than about 9.2 GPa. The invention includes a method of forming a wire by combining a metal strip and a powder. The metal strip and the powder are rolled to form a wire containing at least 55% iron and from two to seven additional elements including at least one of C, Si and B. The invention also includes a method of forming a hardened surface on a substrate by processing a solid mass to form a powder, applying the powder to a surface to form a layer containing metallic glass, and converting the glass to a crystalline material having a nanocrystalline grain size.

  8. Layered materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, David; Clarke, Simon; Wiley, John; Koumoto, Kunihito

    2014-06-01

    Layered compounds, materials with a large anisotropy to their bonding, electrical and/or magnetic properties, have been important in the development of solid state chemistry, physics and engineering applications. Layered materials were the initial test bed where chemists developed intercalation chemistry that evolved into the field of topochemical reactions where researchers are able to perform sequential steps to arrive at kinetically stable products that cannot be directly prepared by other approaches. Physicists have used layered compounds to discover and understand novel phenomena made more apparent through reduced dimensionality. The discovery of charge and spin density waves and more recently the remarkable discovery in condensed matter physics of the two-dimensional topological insulating state were discovered in two-dimensional materials. The understanding developed in two-dimensional materials enabled subsequent extension of these and other phenomena into three-dimensional materials. Layered compounds have also been used in many technologies as engineers and scientists used their unique properties to solve challenging technical problems (low temperature ion conduction for batteries, easy shear planes for lubrication in vacuum, edge decorated catalyst sites for catalytic removal of sulfur from oil, etc). The articles that are published in this issue provide an excellent overview of the spectrum of activities that are being pursued, as well as an introduction to some of the most established achievements in the field. Clusters of papers discussing thermoelectric properties, electronic structure and transport properties, growth of single two-dimensional layers, intercalation and more extensive topochemical reactions and the interleaving of two structures to form new materials highlight the breadth of current research in this area. These papers will hopefully serve as a useful guideline for the interested reader to different important aspects in this field and

  9. Squishy Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habdas, Piotr; Weeks, Eric R.; Lynn, David G.

    2006-05-01

    Most people do not realize that many substances they use in the kitchen and the bathroom are not simple liquids or solids. Everyone is familiar with three states of matter: solids, liquids, and gases. However, creams, shampoo, toothpaste, and ketchup all have properties of both liquids and solids. This paper describes demonstrations and laboratory exercises1 that show intriguing properties of squishy substances, defined as materials that are not unambiguously solid, liquid, or gas. Unlike some areas of physics, the concepts behind squishy materials are understandable even by beginning students. Squishy physics can be used to show physics questions arising from everyday life and to convey the excitement of current research.

  10. Creating Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yin, Mary

    1990-01-01

    Describes practical materials that relate to places within the English-as-a-Second-Language learner's own community, such as the supermarket, local fast food restaurants, pharmacy, and library. Each literacy booklet contains approximately 35 pages of activities that can be used as classroom handouts. (LB)

  11. Materials compatibility.

    SciTech Connect

    Somerday, Brian P.

    2010-04-01

    Objectives are to enable development and implementation of codes and standards for H{sub 2} containment components: (1) Evaluate data on mechanical properties of materials in H{sub 2} gas - Technical Reference on Hydrogen Compatibility of Materials; (2) Generate new benchmark data on high-priority materials - Pressure vessel steels, stainless steels; and (3) Establish procedures for reliable materials testing - Sustained-load cracking, fatigue crack propagation. Summary of this presentation are: (1) Completed measurement of cracking thresholds (K{sub TH}) for Ni-Cr-Mo pressure vessel steels in high-pressure H{sub 2} gas - K{sub TH} measurements required in ASME Article KD-10 (2) Crack arrest test methods appear to yield non-conservative results compared to crack initiation test methods - (a) Proposal to insert crack initiation test methods in Article KD-10 will be presented to ASME Project Team on Hydrogen Tanks, and (b) Crack initiation methods require test apparatus designed for dynamic loading of specimens in H{sub 2} gas; and (3) Demonstrated ability to measure fatigue crack growth of pressure vessel steels in high-pressure H{sub 2} gas - (a) Fatigue crack growth data in H{sub 2} required in ASME Article KD-10, and (b) Test apparatus is one of few in U.S. or abroad for measuring fatigue crack growth in >100 MPa H{sub 2} gas.

  12. Classification Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA. Center for Law and Education.

    This packet contains complaints, memoranda, exhibits, orders, regulations, and stipulations in court cases dealing with expulsion or suspension of students from school or assignment of students to selected tracks. The report presents material from cases in which students were excluded from school or classes based on retardation, race, "medical…

  13. BIOBASED MATERIALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biobased materials refer to products that mainly consist of a substance (or substances) derived from living matter (biomass) and either occur naturally or are synthesized, or it may refer to products made by processes that use biomass. Following a strict definition, many common m...

  14. Materials Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The Materials Science Program is structured so that NASA s headquarters is responsible for the program content and selection, through the Enterprise Scientist, and MSFC provides for implementation of ground and flight programs with a Discipline Scientist and Discipline Manager. The Discipline Working Group of eminent scientists from outside of NASA acts in an advisory capacity and writes the Discipline Document from which the NRA content is derived. The program is reviewed approximately every three years by groups such as the Committee on Microgravity Research, the National Materials Advisory Board, and the OBPR Maximization and Prioritization (ReMaP) Task Force. The flight program has had as many as twenty-six principal investigators (PIs) in flight or flight definition stage, with the numbers of PIs in the future dependent on the results of the ReMaP Task Force and internal reviews. Each project has a NASA-appointed Project Scientist, considered a half-time job, who assists the PI in understanding and preparing for internal reviews such as the Science Concept Review and Requirements Definition Review. The Project Scientist also insures that the PI gets the maximum science support from MSFC, represents the PI to the MSFC community, and collaborates with the Project Manager to insure the project is well-supported and remains vital. Currently available flight equipment includes the Materials Science Research Rack (MSRR-1) and Microgravity Science Glovebox. Ground based projects fall into one or more of several categories. Intellectual Underpinning of Flight Program projects include theoretical studies backed by modeling and computer simulations; bring to maturity new research, often by young researchers, and may include preliminary short duration low gravity experiments in the KC-135 aircraft or drop tube; enable characterization of data sets from previous flights; and provide thermophysical property determinations to aid PIs. Radiation Shielding and preliminary In

  15. Prosthesis Material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    In this photograph, Sandra Rossi user her NASA-developed prosthesis for the first time. Derived from foam insulation technology used to protect the Space Shuttle External Tank from excessive heat, FAB/CAD, a subsidiary of the Harshberger Prosthetic and Orthotic Center, utilized the technology to replace the heavy, fragile plaster they used to produce master molds for prosthetics. The new material was lighter, cheaper and easier to manufacture than plaster, resulting in lower costs to the customer.

  16. Prosthesis Material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    In this photograph, James Carden uses a NASA-developed prosthesis to moved planks around his home. Derived from foam insulation technology used to protect the Space Shuttle External Tank from excessive heat, FAB/CAD, a subsidiary of the Harshberger Prosthetic and Orthotic Center, utilized the technology to replace the heavy, fragile plaster they used to produce master molds for prosthetics. The new material was lighter, cheaper and easier to manufacture than plaster, resulting in lower costs to the customer.

  17. Prosthesis Material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    In this photograph, Amputee Amie Bradly uses a NASA-developed prosthesis to paint her fingernails. Derived from foam insulation technology used to protect the Space Shuttle External Tank from excessive heat, FAB/CAD, a subsidiary of the Harshberger Prosthetic and Orthotic Center, utilized the technology to replace the heavy, fragile plaster they used to produce master molds for prosthetics. The new material was lighter, cheaper and easier to manufacture than plaster, resulting in lower costs to the customer.

  18. Fullerene materials

    SciTech Connect

    Malhotra, R.; Ruoff, R.S.; Lorents, D.C.

    1995-04-01

    Fullerenes are all-carbon cage molecules. The most celebrated fullerene is the soccer-ball shaped C{sub 60}, which is composed of twenty hexagons and twelve pentagons. Because its structure is reminiscent of the geodesic domes of architect R. Buckminster Fuller, C{sub 60} is called buckminsterfullerene, and all the materials in the family are designated fullerenes. Huffman and Kraetschmer`s discovery unleashed activity around the world as scientists explored production methods, properties, and potential uses of fullerenes. Within a short period, methods for their production in electric arcs, plasmas, and flames were discovered, and several companies began selling fullerenes to the research market. What is remarkable is that in all these methods, carbon atoms assemble themselves into cage structures. The capability for self-assembly points to some inherent stability of these structures that allows their formation. The unusual structure naturally leads to unusual properties. Among them are ready solubility in solvents and a relatively high vapor pressure for a pure carbon material. The young fullerene field has already produced a surprising array of structures for the development of carbon-base materials having completely new and different properties from any that were previously possible.

  19. FOREWORD: Materials metrology Materials metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, Seton; Valdés, Joaquin

    2010-04-01

    It seems that so much of modern life is defined by the materials we use. From aircraft to architecture, from cars to communications, from microelectronics to medicine, the development of new materials and the innovative application of existing ones have underpinned the technological advances that have transformed the way we live, work and play. Recognizing the need for a sound technical basis for drafting codes of practice and specifications for advanced materials, the governments of countries of the Economic Summit (G7) and the European Commission signed a Memorandum of Understanding in 1982 to establish the Versailles Project on Advanced Materials and Standards (VAMAS). This project supports international trade by enabling scientific collaboration as a precursor to the drafting of standards. The VAMAS participants recognized the importance of agreeing a reliable, universally accepted basis for the traceability of the measurements on which standards depend for their preparation and implementation. Seeing the need to involve the wider metrology community, VAMAS approached the Comité International des Poids et Mesures (CIPM). Following discussions with NMI Directors and a workshop at the BIPM in February 2005, the CIPM decided to establish an ad hoc Working Group on the metrology applicable to the measurement of material properties. The Working Group presented its conclusions to the CIPM in October 2007 and published its final report in 2008, leading to the signature of a Memorandum of Understanding between VAMAS and the BIPM. This MoU recognizes the work that is already going on in VAMAS as well as in the Consultative Committees of the CIPM and establishes a framework for an ongoing dialogue on issues of materials metrology. The question of what is meant by traceability in the metrology of the properties of materials is particularly vexed when the measurement results depend on a specified procedure. In these cases, confidence in results requires not only traceable

  20. Construction material

    DOEpatents

    Wagh, Arun S.; Antink, Allison L.

    2008-07-22

    A structural material of a polystyrene base and the reaction product of the polystyrene base and a solid phosphate ceramic is applied as a slurry which includes one or more of a metal oxide or a metal hydroxide with a source of phosphate to produce a phosphate ceramic and a poly (acrylic acid or acrylate) or combinations or salts thereof and polystyrene or MgO applied to the polystyrene base and allowed to cure so that the dried aqueous slurry chemically bonds to the polystyrene base. A method is also disclosed of applying the slurry to the polystyrene base.

  1. Casting materials

    DOEpatents

    Chaudhry, Anil R.; Dzugan, Robert; Harrington, Richard M.; Neece, Faurice D.; Singh, Nipendra P.

    2011-06-14

    A foam material comprises a liquid polymer and a liquid isocyanate which is mixed to make a solution that is poured, injected or otherwise deposited into a corresponding mold. A reaction from the mixture of the liquid polymer and liquid isocyanate inside the mold forms a thermally collapsible foam structure having a shape that corresponds to the inside surface configuration of the mold and a skin that is continuous and unbroken. Once the reaction is complete, the foam pattern is removed from the mold and may be used as a pattern in any number of conventional casting processes.

  2. Alloy materials

    DOEpatents

    Hans Thieme, Cornelis Leo; Thompson, Elliott D.; Fritzemeier, Leslie G.; Cameron, Robert D.; Siegal, Edward J.

    2002-01-01

    An alloy that contains at least two metals and can be used as a substrate for a superconductor is disclosed. The alloy can contain an oxide former. The alloy can have a biaxial or cube texture. The substrate can be used in a multilayer superconductor, which can further include one or more buffer layers disposed between the substrate and the superconductor material. The alloys can be made a by process that involves first rolling the alloy then annealing the alloy. A relatively large volume percentage of the alloy can be formed of grains having a biaxial or cube texture.

  3. Photovoltaic Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Duty, C.; Angelini, J.; Armstrong, B.; Bennett, C.; Evans, B.; Jellison, G. E.; Joshi, P.; List, F.; Paranthaman, P.; Parish, C.; Wereszczak, A.

    2012-10-15

    The goal of the current project was to help make the US solar industry a world leader in the manufacture of thin film photovoltaics. The overall approach was to leverage ORNL’s unique characterization and processing technologies to gain a better understanding of the fundamental challenges for solar cell processing and apply that knowledge to targeted projects with industry members. ORNL has the capabilities in place and the expertise required to understand how basic material properties including defects, impurities, and grain boundaries affect the solar cell performance. ORNL also has unique processing capabilities to optimize the manufacturing process for fabrication of high efficiency and low cost solar cells. ORNL recently established the Center for Advanced Thin-film Systems (CATS), which contains a suite of optical and electrical characterization equipment specifically focused on solar cell research. Under this project, ORNL made these facilities available to industrial partners who were interested in pursuing collaborative research toward the improvement of their product or manufacturing process. Four specific projects were pursued with industrial partners: Global Solar Energy is a solar industry leader in full scale production manufacturing highly-efficient Copper Indium Gallium diSelenide (CIGS) thin film solar material, cells and products. ORNL worked with GSE to develop a scalable, non-vacuum, solution technique to deposit amorphous or nanocrystalline conducting barrier layers on untextured stainless steel substrates for fabricating high efficiency flexible CIGS PV. Ferro Corporation’s Electronic, Color and Glass Materials (“ECGM”) business unit is currently the world’s largest supplier of metallic contact materials in the crystalline solar cell marketplace. Ferro’s ECGM business unit has been the world's leading supplier of thick film metal pastes to the crystalline silicon PV industry for more than 30 years, and has had operational cells and

  4. PREFACE: Superconducting materials Superconducting materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charfi Kaddour, Samia; Singleton, John; Haddad, Sonia

    2011-11-01

    The discovery of superconductivity in 1911 was a great milestone in condensed matter physics. This discovery has resulted in an enormous amount of research activity. Collaboration among chemists and physicists, as well as experimentalists and theoreticians has given rise to very rich physics with significant potential applications ranging from electric power transmission to quantum information. Several superconducting materials have been synthesized. Crucial progress was made in 1987 with the discovery of high temperature superconductivity in copper-based compounds (cuprates) which have revealed new fascinating properties. Innovative theoretical tools have been developed to understand the striking features of cuprates which have remained for three decades the 'blue-eyed boy' for researchers in superconductor physics. The history of superconducting materials has been notably marked by the discovery of other compounds, particularly organic superconductors which despite their low critical temperature continue to attract great interest regarding their exotic properties. Last but not least, the recent observation of superconductivity in iron-based materials (pnictides) has renewed hope in reaching room temperature superconductivity. However, despite intense worldwide studies, several features related to this phenomenon remain unveiled. One of the fundamental key questions is the mechanism by which superconductivity takes place. Superconductors continue to hide their 'secret garden'. The new trends in the physics of superconductivity have been one of the two basic topics of the International Conference on Conducting Materials (ICoCoM2010) held in Sousse,Tunisia on 3-7 November 2010 and organized by the Tunisian Physical Society. The conference was a nice opportunity to bring together participants from multidisciplinary domains in the physics of superconductivity. This special section contains papers submitted by participants who gave an oral contribution at ICoCoM2010

  5. Superconducting materials

    SciTech Connect

    Ruvalds, J.

    1992-01-01

    Our research on high temperatures superconductors has produced novel insights for the normal state properties of copper oxides that have been discovered in the last few years. Advances in materials preparation have produced singly crystal samples, and sophisticated surface cleavage techniques have unveiled truly metallic behavior in many respects. Thus, the recent confirmation of a Fermi surface in several cuprate superconductors by photoemission spectroscopy has aroused interest in experimental features which heretofore were in apparent contrast to the expectations for a conventional Fermi Liquid. Our group has discovered that nested'' nearly parallel sections of the electron orbits yields an anomalous response which influences the electrical resistivity, optical reflectance, Raman spectrum, and neutron scattering cross section. Our analysis has provided an explanation for seemingly disparate experimental features of high temperature superconductors using consistent values for the electron-electron coupling and the plasma frequency. Our results include the following properties of high temperature superconductors: Nested Fermi Liquid Response in High Temperature Superconductors, Optical Reflectivity and Electron Energy Loss Data, Raman Spectra, Neutron Scattering Cross Section and Scaling, and Prospects for New Superconductors.

  6. Digestive Diseases Materials

    MedlinePlus

    ... NIDDK Health Information NIDDK Home NIDDK Image Library Digestive Disease, Nutrition, and Weight-control Materials Healthy eating, ... Materials Statistics Tip Sheets Catalog Home | Diabetes Materials | Digestive Diseases Materials | Kidney and Urologic Diseases Materials Online ...

  7. Critical Materials Institute

    SciTech Connect

    Alex King

    2013-01-09

    Ames Laboratory Director Alex King talks about the goals of the Critical Materials Institute in diversifying the supply of critical materials, developing substitute materials, developing tools and techniques for recycling critical materials, and forecasting materials needs to avoid future shortages.

  8. Critical Materials Institute

    ScienceCinema

    Alex King

    2013-06-05

    Ames Laboratory Director Alex King talks about the goals of the Critical Materials Institute in diversifying the supply of critical materials, developing substitute materials, developing tools and techniques for recycling critical materials, and forecasting materials needs to avoid future shortages.

  9. Gas storage materials, including hydrogen storage materials

    SciTech Connect

    Mohtadi, Rana F; Wicks, George G; Heung, Leung K; Nakamura, Kenji

    2014-11-25

    A material for the storage and release of gases comprises a plurality of hollow elements, each hollow element comprising a porous wall enclosing an interior cavity, the interior cavity including structures of a solid-state storage material. In particular examples, the storage material is a hydrogen storage material, such as a solid state hydride. An improved method for forming such materials includes the solution diffusion of a storage material solution through a porous wall of a hollow element into an interior cavity.

  10. Gas storage materials, including hydrogen storage materials

    DOEpatents

    Mohtadi, Rana F; Wicks, George G; Heung, Leung K; Nakamura, Kenji

    2013-02-19

    A material for the storage and release of gases comprises a plurality of hollow elements, each hollow element comprising a porous wall enclosing an interior cavity, the interior cavity including structures of a solid-state storage material. In particular examples, the storage material is a hydrogen storage material such as a solid state hydride. An improved method for forming such materials includes the solution diffusion of a storage material solution through a porous wall of a hollow element into an interior cavity.

  11. Geopolymer resin materials, geopolymer materials, and materials produced thereby

    DOEpatents

    Seo, Dong-Kyun; Medpelli, Dinesh; Ladd, Danielle; Mesgar, Milad

    2016-03-29

    A product formed from a first material including a geopolymer resin material, a geopolymer resin, or a combination thereof by contacting the first material with a fluid and removing at least some of the fluid to yield a product. The first material may be formed by heating and/or aging an initial geopolymer resin material to yield the first material before contacting the first material with the fluid. In some cases, contacting the first material with the fluid breaks up or disintegrates the first material (e.g., in response to contact with the fluid and in the absence of external mechanical stress), thereby forming particles having an external dimension in a range between 1 nm and 2 cm.

  12. Materials Project: A Materials Genome Approach

    DOE Data Explorer

    Ceder, Gerbrand [MIT; Persson, Kristin [LBNL

    Technological innovation - faster computers, more efficient solar cells, more compact energy storage - is often enabled by materials advances. Yet, it takes an average of 18 years to move new materials discoveries from lab to market. This is largely because materials designers operate with very little information and must painstakingly tweak new materials in the lab. Computational materials science is now powerful enough that it can predict many properties of materials before those materials are ever synthesized in the lab. By scaling materials computations over supercomputing clusters, this project has computed some properties of over 80,000 materials and screened 25,000 of these for Li-ion batteries. The computations predicted several new battery materials which were made and tested in the lab and are now being patented. By computing properties of all known materials, the Materials Project aims to remove guesswork from materials design in a variety of applications. Experimental research can be targeted to the most promising compounds from computational data sets. Researchers will be able to data-mine scientific trends in materials properties. By providing materials researchers with the information they need to design better, the Materials Project aims to accelerate innovation in materials research.[copied from http://materialsproject.org/about] You will be asked to register to be granted free, full access.

  13. Nuclear materials in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2015-03-01

    The incident at Fukushima Daiichi brought materials in the nuclear industry into the spotlight. Nature Materials talks to Tatsuo Shikama, Director of the International Research Centre for Nuclear Materials, Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, about the current situation.

  14. Transportation of hazardous materials

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-07-01

    This report discusses the following: data and information systems for hazardous-materials; containers for hazardous-materials transportation; hazardous-materials transportation regulation; and training for hazardous-materials transportation enforcement and emergency response.

  15. Composite material dosimeters

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Steven D.

    1996-01-01

    The present invention is a composite material containing a mix of dosimeter material powder and a polymer powder wherein the polymer is transparent to the photon emission of the dosimeter material powder. By mixing dosimeter material powder with polymer powder, less dosimeter material is needed compared to a monolithic dosimeter material chip. Interrogation is done with excitation by visible light.

  16. Method for forming materials

    DOEpatents

    Tolle, Charles R.; Clark, Denis E.; Smartt, Herschel B.; Miller, Karen S.

    2009-10-06

    A material-forming tool and a method for forming a material are described including a shank portion; a shoulder portion that releasably engages the shank portion; a pin that releasably engages the shoulder portion, wherein the pin defines a passageway; and a source of a material coupled in material flowing relation relative to the pin and wherein the material-forming tool is utilized in methodology that includes providing a first material; providing a second material, and placing the second material into contact with the first material; and locally plastically deforming the first material with the material-forming tool so as mix the first material and second material together to form a resulting material having characteristics different from the respective first and second materials.

  17. Transporting particulate material

    DOEpatents

    Aldred, Derek Leslie; Rader, Jeffrey A.; Saunders, Timothy W.

    2011-08-30

    A material transporting system comprises a material transporting apparatus (100) including a material transporting apparatus hopper structure (200, 202), which comprises at least one rotary transporting apparatus; a stationary hub structure (900) constraining and assisting the at least one rotary transporting apparatus; an outlet duct configuration (700) configured to permit material to exit therefrom and comprising at least one diverging portion (702, 702'); an outlet abutment configuration (800) configured to direct material to the outlet duct configuration; an outlet valve assembly from the material transporting system venting the material transporting system; and a moving wall configuration in the material transporting apparatus capable of assisting the material transporting apparatus in transporting material in the material transporting system. Material can be moved from the material transporting apparatus hopper structure to the outlet duct configuration through the at least one rotary transporting apparatus, the outlet abutment configuration, and the outlet valve assembly.

  18. Nanocrystalline ceramic materials

    DOEpatents

    Siegel, Richard W.; Nieman, G. William; Weertman, Julia R.

    1994-01-01

    A method for preparing a treated nanocrystalline metallic material. The method of preparation includes providing a starting nanocrystalline metallic material with a grain size less than about 35 nm, compacting the starting nanocrystalline metallic material in an inert atmosphere and annealing the compacted metallic material at a temperature less than about one-half the melting point of the metallic material.

  19. Introductory Materials Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritter, John E., Jr.

    Described is an introductory materials science laboratory program which emphasizes crystal structure both on the atomistic and microscopic scale and the dependence of materials properties on structure. The content of this program is classified into four major areas: (1) materials science, (2) mechanical behavior of materials, (3) materials testing…

  20. Curriculum Materials 1973.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, Washington, DC.

    This publication catalogs the materials received by the Curriculum Materials Committee for the Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development's 1973 annual conference. The materials referenced offer a broad representation of current curriculum materials issued throughout the nation. Materials are referenced under general curriculum…

  1. Material efficiency: providing material services with less material production

    PubMed Central

    Allwood, Julian M.; Ashby, Michael F.; Gutowski, Timothy G.; Worrell, Ernst

    2013-01-01

    Material efficiency, as discussed in this Meeting Issue, entails the pursuit of the technical strategies, business models, consumer preferences and policy instruments that would lead to a substantial reduction in the production of high-volume energy-intensive materials required to deliver human well-being. This paper, which introduces a Discussion Meeting Issue on the topic of material efficiency, aims to give an overview of current thinking on the topic, spanning environmental, engineering, economics, sociology and policy issues. The motivations for material efficiency include reducing energy demand, reducing the emissions and other environmental impacts of industry, and increasing national resource security. There are many technical strategies that might bring it about, and these could mainly be implemented today if preferred by customers or producers. However, current economic structures favour the substitution of material for labour, and consumer preferences for material consumption appear to continue even beyond the point at which increased consumption provides any increase in well-being. Therefore, policy will be required to stimulate material efficiency. A theoretically ideal policy measure, such as a carbon price, would internalize the externality of emissions associated with material production, and thus motivate change directly. However, implementation of such a measure has proved elusive, and instead the adjustment of existing government purchasing policies or existing regulations— for instance to do with building design, planning or vehicle standards—is likely to have a more immediate effect. PMID:23359746

  2. Material efficiency: providing material services with less material production.

    PubMed

    Allwood, Julian M; Ashby, Michael F; Gutowski, Timothy G; Worrell, Ernst

    2013-03-13

    Material efficiency, as discussed in this Meeting Issue, entails the pursuit of the technical strategies, business models, consumer preferences and policy instruments that would lead to a substantial reduction in the production of high-volume energy-intensive materials required to deliver human well-being. This paper, which introduces a Discussion Meeting Issue on the topic of material efficiency, aims to give an overview of current thinking on the topic, spanning environmental, engineering, economics, sociology and policy issues. The motivations for material efficiency include reducing energy demand, reducing the emissions and other environmental impacts of industry, and increasing national resource security. There are many technical strategies that might bring it about, and these could mainly be implemented today if preferred by customers or producers. However, current economic structures favour the substitution of material for labour, and consumer preferences for material consumption appear to continue even beyond the point at which increased consumption provides any increase in well-being. Therefore, policy will be required to stimulate material efficiency. A theoretically ideal policy measure, such as a carbon price, would internalize the externality of emissions associated with material production, and thus motivate change directly. However, implementation of such a measure has proved elusive, and instead the adjustment of existing government purchasing policies or existing regulations-- for instance to do with building design, planning or vehicle standards--is likely to have a more immediate effect. PMID:23359746

  3. Structural materials and components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gagliani, John (Inventor); Lee, Raymond (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    High density structural (blocking) materials composed of a polyimide filled with glass microballoons and methods for making such materials. Structural components such as panels which have integral edgings and/or other parts made of the high density materials.

  4. Thermoelectric materials and devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Yeonjoon (Inventor); Choi, Sang H. (Inventor); King, Glen C. (Inventor); Elliott, James R. (Inventor); Talcott, Noel A. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    New thermoelectric materials comprise highly [111]-oriented twinned group IV alloys on the basal plane of trigonal substrates, which exhibit a high thermoelectric figure of merit and good material performance, and devices made with these materials.

  5. Nonmetallic materials handbook. Volume 1: Epoxy materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Podlaseck, S. E.

    1979-01-01

    Thermochemical and other properties data is presented for the following types of epoxy materials: adhesives, coatings finishes, inks, electrical insulation, encapsulants, sealants, composite laminates, tapes, and thermal insulators.

  6. Coated ceramic breeder materials

    DOEpatents

    Tam, Shiu-Wing; Johnson, Carl E.

    1987-04-07

    A breeder material for use in a breeder blanket of a nuclear reactor is disclosed. The breeder material comprises a core material of lithium containing ceramic particles which has been coated with a neutron multiplier such as Be or BeO, which coating has a higher thermal conductivity than the core material.

  7. Biological materials by design.

    PubMed

    Qin, Zhao; Dimas, Leon; Adler, David; Bratzel, Graham; Buehler, Markus J

    2014-02-19

    In this topical review we discuss recent advances in the use of physical insight into the way biological materials function, to design novel engineered materials 'from scratch', or from the level of fundamental building blocks upwards and by using computational multiscale methods that link chemistry to material function. We present studies that connect advances in multiscale hierarchical material structuring with material synthesis and testing, review case studies of wood and other biological materials, and illustrate how engineered fiber composites and bulk materials are designed, modeled, and then synthesized and tested experimentally. The integration of experiment and simulation in multiscale design opens new avenues to explore the physics of materials from a fundamental perspective, and using complementary strengths from models and empirical techniques. Recent developments in this field illustrate a new paradigm by which complex material functionality is achieved through hierarchical structuring in spite of simple material constituents. PMID:24451343

  8. Materials Analysis and Modeling of Underfill Materials.

    SciTech Connect

    Wyatt, Nicholas B; Chambers, Robert S.

    2015-08-01

    The thermal-mechanical properties of three potential underfill candidate materials for PBGA applications are characterized and reported. Two of the materials are a formulations developed at Sandia for underfill applications while the third is a commercial product that utilizes a snap-cure chemistry to drastically reduce cure time. Viscoelastic models were calibrated and fit using the property data collected for one of the Sandia formulated materials. Along with the thermal-mechanical analyses performed, a series of simple bi-material strip tests were conducted to comparatively analyze the relative effects of cure and thermal shrinkage amongst the materials under consideration. Finally, current knowledge gaps as well as questions arising from the present study are identified and a path forward presented.

  9. Puncture detecting barrier materials

    DOEpatents

    Hermes, R.E.; Ramsey, D.R.; Stampfer, J.F.; Macdonald, J.M.

    1998-03-31

    A method and apparatus for continuous real-time monitoring of the integrity of protective barrier materials, particularly protective barriers against toxic, radioactive and biologically hazardous materials has been developed. Conductivity, resistivity or capacitance between conductive layers in the multilayer protective materials is measured by using leads connected to electrically conductive layers in the protective barrier material. The measured conductivity, resistivity or capacitance significantly changes upon a physical breach of the protective barrier material. 4 figs.

  10. Materials technology for SIRTF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coulter, D.; Dolgin, B.; Rainen, R.; O'Donnell, T.

    1991-01-01

    A number of studies on materials technologies for the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) intended to enhance SIRTF mission performance are reviewed. Particular attention is given to dewar support straps, dewar structural materials, infrared black coatings, optical mirror materials, cryogenic properties data base, contamination control, and thermal control materials/coatings. It is noted that the alternative to baseline materials offer potential for substantial improvements in reliability, weight, and lifetime.

  11. Nanocrystalline ceramic materials

    DOEpatents

    Siegel, R.W.; Nieman, G.W.; Weertman, J.R.

    1994-06-14

    A method is disclosed for preparing a treated nanocrystalline metallic material. The method of preparation includes providing a starting nanocrystalline metallic material with a grain size less than about 35 nm, compacting the starting nanocrystalline metallic material in an inert atmosphere and annealing the compacted metallic material at a temperature less than about one-half the melting point of the metallic material. 19 figs.

  12. Puncture detecting barrier materials

    DOEpatents

    Hermes, Robert E.; Ramsey, David R.; Stampfer, Joseph F.; Macdonald, John M.

    1998-01-01

    A method and apparatus for continuous real-time monitoring of the integrity of protective barrier materials, particularly protective barriers against toxic, radioactive and biologically hazardous materials has been developed. Conductivity, resistivity or capacitance between conductive layers in the multilayer protective materials is measured by using leads connected to electrically conductive layers in the protective barrier material. The measured conductivity, resistivity or capacitance significantly changes upon a physical breach of the protective barrier material.

  13. Enhanced magnetocaloric effect material

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Laura J. H.

    2006-07-18

    A magnetocaloric effect heterostructure having a core layer of a magnetostructural material with a giant magnetocaloric effect having a magnetic transition temperature equal to or greater than 150 K, and a constricting material layer coated on at least one surface of the magnetocaloric material core layer. The constricting material layer may enhance the magnetocaloric effect by restriction of volume changes of the core layer during application of a magnetic field to the heterostructure. A magnetocaloric effect heterostructure powder comprising a plurality of core particles of a magnetostructural material with a giant magnetocaloric effect having a magnetic transition temperature equal to or greater than 150 K, wherein each of the core particles is encapsulated within a coating of a constricting material is also disclosed. A method for enhancing the magnetocaloric effect within a giant magnetocaloric material including the step of coating a surface of the magnetocaloric material with a constricting material is disclosed.

  14. Joining of dissimilar materials

    DOEpatents

    Tucker, Michael C; Lau, Grace Y; Jacobson, Craig P

    2012-10-16

    A method of joining dissimilar materials having different ductility, involves two principal steps: Decoration of the more ductile material's surface with particles of a less ductile material to produce a composite; and, sinter-bonding the composite produced to a joining member of a less ductile material. The joining method is suitable for joining dissimilar materials that are chemically inert towards each other (e.g., metal and ceramic), while resulting in a strong bond with a sharp interface between the two materials. The joining materials may differ greatly in form or particle size. The method is applicable to various types of materials including ceramic, metal, glass, glass-ceramic, polymer, cermet, semiconductor, etc., and the materials can be in various geometrical forms, such as powders, fibers, or bulk bodies (foil, wire, plate, etc.). Composites and devices with a decorated/sintered interface are also provided.

  15. Martian surface materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, H. J.

    1991-01-01

    A semiquantitative appreciation for the physical properties of the Mars surface materials and their global variations can be gained from the Viking Lander and remote sensing observations. Analyses of Lander data yields estimates of the mechanical properties of the soil-like surface materials and best guess estimates can be made for the remote sensing signatures of the soil-like materials at the landing sites. Results show that significant thickness of powderlike surface materials with physical properties similar to drift material are present on Mars and probably pervasive in the Tharsis region. It also appears likely that soil-like materials similar to crusty to cloddy material are typical for Mars, and that soil-like material similar to blocky material are common on Mars.

  16. Orbital foamed material extruder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, Dennis S. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    This invention is a process for producing foamed material in space comprising the steps of: rotating the material to simulate the force of gravity; heating the rotating material until it is molten; extruding the rotating, molten material; injecting gas into the extruded, rotating, molten material to produce molten foamed material; allowing the molten foamed material to cool to below melting temperature to produce the foamed material. The surface of the extruded foam may be heated to above melting temperature and allowed to cool to below melting temperature. The extruded foam may also be cut to predetermined length. The starting material may be metal or glass. Heating may be accomplished by electrical heating elements or by solar heating.

  17. Materials Test Branch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, Gail

    2012-01-01

    The Materials Test Branch resides at Marshall Space Flight Center's Materials and Processing laboratory and has a long history of supporting NASA programs from Mercury to the recently retired Space Shuttle. The Materials Test Branch supports its customers by supplying materials testing expertise in a wide range of applications. The Materials Test Branch is divided into three Teams, The Chemistry Team, The Tribology Team and the Mechanical Test Team. Our mission and goal is to provide world-class engineering excellence in materials testing with a special emphasis on customer service.

  18. Databases for materials selection

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    The Cambridge Materials Selector (CMS2.0) materials database was developed by the Engineering Dept. at Cambridge University in the United Kingdom. This database makes it possible to select a material for a specific application from essentially all classes of materials. Genera, Predict, and Socrates software programs from CLI International, Houston, Texas, automate materials selection and corrosion problem-solving tasks. They are said to significantly reduce the time necessary to select a suitable material and/or to assess a corrosion problem and reach cost-effective solutions. This article describes both databases and tells how to use them.

  19. Comprehensive Nuclear Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Konings, Dr. Rudy J. M.; Allen, Todd R.; Stoller, Roger E; Yamanaka, Prof. Shinsuke

    2012-01-01

    This book encompasses a rich seam of current information on the vast and multidisciplinary field of nuclear materials employed in fission and prototype fusion systems. Discussion includes both historical and contemporary international research in nuclear materials, from Actinides to Zirconium alloys, from the worlds leading scientists and engineers. Synthesizes pertinent current science to support the selection, assessment, validation and engineering of materials in extreme nuclear environments. The work discusses the major classes of materials suitable for usage in nuclear fission, fusion reactors and high power accelerators, and for diverse functions in fuels, cladding, moderator and control materials, structural, functional, and waste materials.

  20. Nondestructive material characterization

    DOEpatents

    Deason, Vance A.; Johnson, John A.; Telschow, Kenneth L.

    1991-01-01

    A method and apparatus for nondestructive material characterization, such as identification of material flaws or defects, material thickness or uniformity and material properties such as acoustic velocity. The apparatus comprises a pulsed laser used to excite a piezoelectric (PZ) transducer, which sends acoustic waves through an acoustic coupling medium to the test material. The acoustic wave is absorbed and thereafter reflected by the test material, whereupon it impinges on the PZ transducer. The PZ transducer converts the acoustic wave to electrical impulses, which are conveyed to a monitor.

  1. Materials science and engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Lesuer, D.R.

    1997-02-01

    During FY-96, work within the Materials Science and Engineering Thrust Area was focused on material modeling. Our motivation for this work is to develop the capability to study the structural response of materials as well as material processing. These capabilities have been applied to a broad range of problems, in support of many programs at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. These studies are described in (1) Strength and Fracture Toughness of Material Interfaces; (2) Damage Evolution in Fiber Composite Materials; (3) Flashlamp Envelope Optical Properties and Failure Analysis; (4) Synthesis and Processing of Nanocrystalline Hydroxyapatite; and (5) Room Temperature Creep Compliance of Bulk Kel-E.

  2. [Elastomeric impression materials].

    PubMed

    Anagnostopoulos, T; Tsokas, K

    1990-01-01

    A review of the literature on elastomeric impression materials, is presented in this paper. The article mentions the composition and the most important properties of the elastomeric impression materials used in dental practice. The clinical significance of these materials, physical and mechanical properties are also emphasized. In addition some new elastomeric impression materials with improved properties and a new (experimental) light-cured impression material, are mentioned. Another part of this article is the biocompatibility of these materials. In the end the great significance of handling is outlined. PMID:2130039

  3. Materials for breeding blankets

    SciTech Connect

    Mattas, R.F.; Billone, M.C.

    1995-09-01

    There are several candidate concepts for tritium breeding blankets that make use of a number of special materials. These materials can be classified as Primary Blanket Materials, which have the greatest influence in determining the overall design and performance, and Secondary Blanket Materials, which have key functions in the operation of the blanket but are less important in establishing the overall design and performance. The issues associated with the blanket materials are specified and several examples of materials performance are given. Critical data needs are identified.

  4. Materials All Around Us

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobs, James A.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this journal exercise is to determine the properties of the materials in the environment around us, and to relate these properties to the materials systems for which they are used. Students will develop a strong rationale for gaining knowledge of engineering materials. The journal entries will serve as a starting point classroom discussion. Along with the journal, students are required to bring samples to class of 'found' materials and products composed of materials systems. Students are encouraged to be materials observers.

  5. Insulated waterproof drainage material

    SciTech Connect

    Tarko, P.L.

    1988-03-15

    An insulative waterproof drainage material is described comprising: a sheet of rigid material having hills and valleys therein to define a core having opposed surfaces; permeable fabric material attached to one of the opposed surfaces; and a layer of thermally insulative material on the other of the opposed surfaces. The insulative material has first surface covering the hills and valleys and a second surface oppositely disposed from the first surface defining an outer surface. The outer surface is spaced a preselected distance D from the hills of the core. The pre-selected distance D define an insulative material thickness corresponding to a pre-selected thermal value.

  6. Materials science and engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Lesuer, D R

    1998-01-01

    During FY-97, work within the Materials Science and Engineering thrust area was focused on material modeling. Their motivation for this work is to develop the capability to study the structural response of materials as well as materials processing. These capabilities have been applied to a broad range of problems, which support many programs at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Recent examples of structural response problems studied include material fracture (such as interface failure), damage in laser optics, the response of weapons components (such as high explosives) and the failure of composite materials. For materials processing, typical problems studied include metal forming, laser processing, casting, and heat treating. To improve our ability to model material behavior, much of the work involves developing new material models and failure models, as well as applying the codes to new problems. Most investigations involve experimental studies to gather basic information on material response and to validate codes or material models. Projects are inherently multi-disciplinary, involving several investigators with expertise in materials and mechanics. The thrust area studies for FY-97 are described in the following three articles: (1) Evolution of Anisotropic Yield Behavior; (2) Modeling of She Localization in Materials; and (3) Modeling of Casting Microstructures and Defects.

  7. EC Transmission Line Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Bigelow, Tim S

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this document is to identify materials acceptable for use in the US ITER Project Office (USIPO)-supplied components for the ITER Electron cyclotron Heating and Current Drive (ECH&CD) transmission lines (TL), PBS-52. The source of material property information for design analysis shall be either the applicable structural code or the ITER Material Properties Handbook. In the case of conflict, the ITER Material Properties Handbook shall take precedence. Materials selection, and use, shall follow the guidelines established in the Materials Assessment Report (MAR). Materials exposed to vacuum shall conform to the ITER Vacuum Handbook. [Ref. 2] Commercial materials shall conform to the applicable standard (e.g., ASTM, JIS, DIN) for the definition of their grade, physical, chemical and electrical properties and related testing. All materials for which a suitable certification from the supplier is not available shall be tested to determine the relevant properties, as part of the procurement. A complete traceability of all the materials including welding materials shall be provided. Halogenated materials (example: insulating materials) shall be forbidden in areas served by the detritiation systems. Exceptions must be approved by the Tritium System and Safety Section Responsible Officers.

  8. Ultrasonic material property determinations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Serabian, S.

    1986-01-01

    The use and potential offered by ultrasonic velocity and attenuation measurements to determine and/or monitor material properties is explored. The basis for such unique measurements along with examples of materials from a variety of industries are presented.

  9. Structural materials and components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gagliani, John (Inventor); Lee, Raymond (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    High density structural (blocking) materials composed of a polyimide filled with glass microballoons. Structural components such as panels which have integral edgings and/or other parts made of the high density materials.

  10. Improvisation: Teaching Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuzmich, John A., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The past, present and future of music improvisation is discussed. Resources for piano, guitar, elementary general music materials, and electronic music materials are included, along with addresses of publishers. The emphasis is on jazz. (KC)

  11. Bibliography of AV Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedstein, Harriet, Ed.

    1981-01-01

    Lists commercially available audiovisual materials by subject area. Includes title, producer (addresses given), catalog number, format (film, filmstrip, cassette, slides), and prices. Subject areas include: elements; equilibrium; gases; laboratory techniques and experiments; general chemistry; introductory materials (including mathematics); and…

  12. Bridged graphite oxide materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herrera-Alonso, Margarita (Inventor); McAllister, Michael J. (Inventor); Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor); Prud'homme, Robert K. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Bridged graphite oxide material comprising graphite sheets bridged by at least one diamine bridging group. The bridged graphite oxide material may be incorporated in polymer composites or used in adsorption media.

  13. Silicone azide fireproof material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Finely powdered titanium oxide was added to silicone azide as the sintering agent to produce a nonflammable material. Mixing proportions, physical properties, and chemical composition of the fireproofing material are included.

  14. Materials processing in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The feasibility and possible advantages of processing materials in a nongravitational field are considered. Areas of investigation include biomedical applications, the processing of inorganic materials, and flight programs and funding.

  15. Renewable smart materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyun Chan; Mun, Seongcheol; Ko, Hyun-U.; Zhai, Lindong; Kafy, Abdullahil; Kim, Jaehwan

    2016-07-01

    The use of renewable materials is essential in future technologies to harmonize with our living environment. Renewable materials can maintain our resources from the environment so as to overcome degradation of natural environmental services and diminished productivity. This paper reviews recent advancement of renewable materials for smart material applications, including wood, cellulose, chitin, lignin, and their sensors, actuators and energy storage applications. To further improve functionality of renewable materials, hybrid composites of inorganic functional materials are introduced by incorporating carbon nanotubes, titanium dioxide and tin oxide conducting polymers and ionic liquids. Since renewable materials have many advantages of biocompatible, sustainable, biodegradable, high mechanical strength and versatile modification behaviors, more research efforts need to be focused on the development of renewable smart materials.

  16. Materials modelling in London

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciudad, David

    2016-04-01

    Angelos Michaelides, Professor in Theoretical Chemistry at University College London (UCL) and co-director of the Thomas Young Centre (TYC), explains to Nature Materials the challenges in materials modelling and the objectives of the TYC.

  17. Supplements to Textbook Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Ken

    1994-01-01

    Describes the many kinds of materials that English teachers can draw upon to enrich and expand students' experiences with literature. Outlines ancillary materials used to supplement the study of William Shakespeare's "Julius Caesar." (HB)

  18. Cutter for Woven Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammons, J. M.; Keir, A. R.

    1983-01-01

    Simple tool makes accurate square cuts through strips of woven or felted materials, such as high temperature aramid fabric. Pressing handle on Guillotine Cutter forces razor blade through strip of material in slot, cutting strip off squarely.

  19. Impact tolerant material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heyman, Joseph S. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A material is protected from acoustic shock waves generated by impacting projectiles by means of a backing. The backing has an acoustic impedance that efficiently couples the acoustic energy out of the material.

  20. Materials Curriculum Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petty, Evan R.

    1987-01-01

    Presents perspectives on the aims and content of materials science courses and materials engineering courses. Outlines a proposed curriculum for a four-year degree course in engineering and identifies technical and social skills necessary for engineers. (ML)

  1. Structural materials and components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gagliani, John (Inventor); Lee, Raymond (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    High density structural (blocking) materials composed of a polyimide filled with glass microballoons. Structural components such as panels which have integral edgings and/or other parts made of the high density materials.

  2. Lightweight Materials & Structures

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Lightweight Materials and Structures (LMS) project will mature high-payoff structures and materials technologies that have direct application to NASA’s future space exploration needs.One of the...

  3. Nanostructured composite reinforced material

    DOEpatents

    Seals, Roland D.; Ripley, Edward B.; Ludtka, Gerard M.

    2012-07-31

    A family of materials wherein nanostructures and/or nanotubes are incorporated into a multi-component material arrangement, such as a metallic or ceramic alloy or composite/aggregate, producing a new material or metallic/ceramic alloy. The new material has significantly increased strength, up to several thousands of times normal and perhaps substantially more, as well as significantly decreased weight. The new materials may be manufactured into a component where the nanostructure or nanostructure reinforcement is incorporated into the bulk and/or matrix material, or as a coating where the nanostructure or nanostructure reinforcement is incorporated into the coating or surface of a "normal" substrate material. The nanostructures are incorporated into the material structure either randomly or aligned, within grains, or along or across grain boundaries.

  4. Materials and structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venneri, Samuel L.

    1988-01-01

    Information on materials and structures for use in space is given in viewgraph form. Information is given on the Materials and Structures Division of NASA's Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology. The Division's space research and development budget is given. Further information is given on space materials and structures, space environmental effects, radiation effects, high temperature materials research, metal matrix composites, SiC fiber reinforced titanium alloys, structural dynamics, and control of flexible structures.

  5. Smart materials and structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogowski, Robert S.; Heyman, Joseph S.

    1993-01-01

    Embedded optical fibers allow not only the cure-monitoring and in-service lifetime measurements of composite materials, but the NDE of material damage and degradation with aging. The capabilities of such damage-detection systems have been extended to allow the quantitative determination of 2D strain in materials by several different methods, including the interferometric and the numerical. It remains to be seen, what effect the embedded fibers have on the strength of the 'smart' materials created through their incorporation.

  6. Materials Genome Initiative Element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vickers, John

    2015-01-01

    NASA is committed to developing new materials and manufacturing methods that can enable new missions with ever increasing mission demands. Typically, the development and certification of new materials and manufacturing methods in the aerospace industry has required more than 20 years of development time with a costly testing and certification program. To reduce the cost and time to mature these emerging technologies, NASA is developing computational materials tools to improve understanding of the material and guide the certification process.

  7. Electronics materials research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The electronic materials and is aimed at the establishment of quantitative relationships underlying crystal growth parameters, materials properties, electronic characteristics and device applications. The overall program evolves about the following main thrust areas: (1) crystal growth novel approaches to engineering of semiconductor materials; (2) investigation of materials properties and electronic characteristics on a macro and microscale; (3) surface properties and surface interactions with the bulk and ambients; (4) electronic properties controlling device applications and device performance.

  8. Advanced Materials Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blankenship, C. P. (Compiler); Teichman, L. A. (Compiler)

    1982-01-01

    Composites, polymer science, metallic materials (aluminum, titanium, and superalloys), materials processing technology, materials durability in the aerospace environment, ceramics, fatigue and fracture mechanics, tribology, and nondestructive evaluation (NDE) are discussed. Research and development activities are introduced to the nonaerospace industry. In order to provide a convenient means to help transfer aerospace technology to the commercial mainstream in a systematic manner.

  9. Fusion reactor materials

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    1989-01-01

    This paper discuses the following topics on fusion reactor materials: irradiation, facilities, test matrices, and experimental methods; dosimetry, damage parameters, and activation calculations; materials engineering and design requirements; fundamental mechanical behavior; radiation effects; development of structural alloys; solid breeding materials; and ceramics.

  10. Materials for Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, Luke B.; Williams, Martha

    2010-01-01

    Topics include a lab overview, testing and processing equipment, hemochromic hydrogen sensors, antimicrobial materials, wire system materials, CNT ink formulations, CNT ink dust screens, CNT ink printed circuitry, cryogenic materials development, fire and polymers, the importance of lighting, electric lighting systems, LED for plant growth, and carbon nanotube fiber filaments.

  11. Advanced neutron absorber materials

    DOEpatents

    Branagan, Daniel J.; Smolik, Galen R.

    2000-01-01

    A neutron absorbing material and method utilizing rare earth elements such as gadolinium, europium and samarium to form metallic glasses and/or noble base nano/microcrystalline materials, the neutron absorbing material having a combination of superior neutron capture cross sections coupled with enhanced resistance to corrosion, oxidation and leaching.

  12. Paramagnetic and Diamagnetic Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Paramagnetic and diamagnetic materials are now generally known as the "Cinderella" materials of the magnetic world. However, susceptibility measurements made on these materials in the past have revealed many details about the molecular bonding and the atomic structure of the so-called "transition" elements. Indeed, the magnetic moment of neodymium…

  13. Curriculum Materials Examination System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, David J.

    This document is a guideline for selection and evaluation of social studies curriculum materials developed by the Marin Social Studies Project. Questions are presented which will help in the examination of materials so that specific strengths and weaknesses in the materials can be determined. Consideration is given to the objectives and rationale…

  14. Creating Quality Media Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hortin, John A.; Bailey, Gerald D.

    1982-01-01

    Innovation, imagination, and student creativity are key ingredients in creating quality media materials for the small school. Student-produced media materials, slides without a camera, personalized slide programs and copy work, self-made task cards, self-made overhead transparencies, graphic materials, and utilization of the mass media are some of…

  15. Nulcear materials production: Primer

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-09-01

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Nuclear Materials Production (NMP) is responsible for managing the production and recovery of nuclear materials for national defense. NMP oversees the production of radioactive materials for government, commercial, industrial, and medical applications. This Primer is a general introduction to NMP's major activities.

  16. Hierarchical cellular materials

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, L.J.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper a method for estimating the contributions of both the composite and the cellular microstructures to the overall material properties and the mechanical efficiency of natural cellular solids will be described. The method will be demonstrated by focusing on the Young's modulus; similar techniques can be used for other material properties. The results suggest efficient microstructures for engineered cellular materials.

  17. Hierarchical cellular materials

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, L.J.

    1991-12-31

    In this paper a method for estimating the contributions of both the composite and the cellular microstructures to the overall material properties and the mechanical efficiency of natural cellular solids will be described. The method will be demonstrated by focusing on the Young`s modulus; similar techniques can be used for other material properties. The results suggest efficient microstructures for engineered cellular materials.

  18. Evaluating Multiethnic Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Jesus

    The problem of identifying good ethnic studies materials is a result of the large amount of materials produced in the 1960s and of the currently renewed interest in ethnic studies. Four types of materials are available to elementary classroom teachers: ethnic information, single-ethnic approaches, minority or European-ethnic approaches, and…

  19. Survival Learning Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Robert M.; Barnes, Marcia M.

    This booklet is designed to provide some starter ideas for teachers to use in developing their own packet of learning materials. The procedures suggested and the examples included are literally starters. "Introduction to Survival Learning Materials" presents some procedures to help teachers get started in developing materials. "Following…

  20. Energy Education Materials Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Energy Agency, St. Paul.

    This is an annotated bibliography of selected energy education materials. The materials included in this document are indexed according to grade level and according to whether they are background materials or classroom activities. Each of the 100 items listed were evaluated and included into either the "A" list or the "B" list. The "A" list…

  1. Bibliography of Citizenship Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CASAS - Comprehensive Adult Student Assessment Systems (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    The 2008 CASAS "Bibliography of Citizenship Materials" lists available instructional resources for citizenship education. It focuses on materials appropriate for preparing people for the naturalization process and the standardized citizenship examination. Resources include textbooks, audio materials, software and Videos/DVDs. The bibliography also…

  2. [Refugee Materials Center Bibliography].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Kansas City, MO. Regional Office 7.

    The citations in this bibliography include textbooks, other instructional materials, and resource materials that can be used in teaching refugees in the United States. The title entries are grouped in series consisting of: (1) textbooks, workbooks, and other instuctional materials on teaching English to non-English speakers; (2) curricular and…

  3. Safer Aviation Materials Tested

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palaszewski, Bryan A.

    2001-01-01

    A series of thermally stable polymer samples were tested. These materials are called low heat release materials and are designed for aircraft interior decorative materials. The materials are designed to give off a minimum amount of noxious gases when heated, which increases the possibility that people can escape from a burning aircraft. New cabin materials have suitably low heat release so that fire does not spread, toxic chemicals are not given off, and the fire-emergency escape time for crew and passengers is lengthened. These low heat-release materials have a variety of advantages and applications: interiors for ground-based facilities, interiors of space vehicles, and many commercial fire-protection environments. A microscale combustion calorimeter at the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA) Technical Center tested NASA Langley Research Center materials samples. The calorimeter is shown. A sharp, quantitative, and reproducible heat-release-rate peak is obtained in the microscale heat-release-rate test. The newly tested NASA materials significantly reduced the heat release capacity and total heat release. The thermal stability and flammability behavior of the samples was very good. The new materials demonstrated a factor of 4 reduction in total heat release over ULTEM (a currently used material). This information is provided in the following barchart. In other tests, the materials showed greater than a factor 9 reduction in heat-release capacity over ULTEM. The newly tested materials were developed for low dielectric constant, low color, and good solubility. A scale up of the material samples is needed to determine the repeatability of the performance in larger samples. Larger panels composed of the best candidate materials will be tested in a larger scale FAA Technical Center fire facility. The NASA Glenn Research Center, Langley (Jeff Hinkley), and the FAA Technical Center (Richard Lyon) cooperatively tested these materials for the Accident Mitigation

  4. Advances in dental materials.

    PubMed

    Vaderhobli, Ram M

    2011-07-01

    The use of materials to rehabilitate tooth structures is constantly changing. Over the past decade, newer material processing techniques and technologies have significantly improved the dependability and predictability of dental material for clinicians. The greatest obstacle, however, is in choosing the right combination for continued success. Finding predictable approaches for successful restorative procedures has been the goal of clinical and material scientists. This article provides a broad perspective on the advances made in various classes of dental restorative materials in terms of their functionality with respect to pit and fissure sealants, glass ionomers, and dental composites. PMID:21726695

  5. Self-healing materials.

    PubMed

    Hager, Martin D; Greil, Peter; Leyens, Christoph; van der Zwaag, Sybrand; Schubert, Ulrich S

    2010-12-14

    Self-healing materials are able to partially or completely heal damage inflicted on them, e.g., crack formation; it is anticipated that the original functionality can be restored. This article covers the design and generic principles of self-healing materials through a wide range of different material classes including metals, ceramics, concrete, and polymers. Recent key developments and future challenges in the field of self-healing materials are summarised, and generic, fundamental material-independent principles and mechanism are discussed and evaluated. PMID:20839257

  6. Thermal Protection Materials Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selvaduray, Guna; Cox, Michael

    1998-01-01

    The main portion of this contract year was spent on the development of materials for high temperature applications. In particular, thermal protection materials were constantly tested and evaluated for thermal shock resistance, high-temperature dimensional stability, and tolerance to hostile environmental effects. The analytical laboratory at the Thermal Protection Materials Branch (TPMB), NASA-Ames played an integral part in the process of materials development of high temperature aerospace applications. The materials development focused mainly on the determination of physical and chemical characteristics of specimens from the various research programs.

  7. Tailored Porous Materials

    SciTech Connect

    BARTON,THOMAS J.; BULL,LUCY M.; KLEMPERER,WALTER G.; LOY,DOUGLAS A.; MCENANEY,BRIAN; MISONO,MAKOTO; MONSON,PETER A.; PEZ,GUIDO; SCHERER,GEORGE W.; VARTULI,JAMES C.; YAGHI,OMAR M.

    1999-11-09

    Tailoring of porous materials involves not only chemical synthetic techniques for tailoring microscopic properties such as pore size, pore shape, pore connectivity, and pore surface reactivity, but also materials processing techniques for tailoring the meso- and the macroscopic properties of bulk materials in the form of fibers, thin films and monoliths. These issues are addressed in the context of five specific classes of porous materials: oxide molecular sieves, porous coordination solids, porous carbons, sol-gel derived oxides, and porous heteropolyanion salts. Reviews of these specific areas are preceded by a presentation of background material and review of current theoretical approaches to adsorption phenomena. A concluding section outlines current research needs and opportunities.

  8. Femtosecond Laser Materials Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Banks, P.S.; Stuart, B.C.; Komashko, A.M.; Feit, M.D.; Rubenchik, A.M.; Perry, M.D.

    2000-03-06

    The use of femtosecond lasers allows materials processing of practically any material with extremely high precision and minimal collateral damage. Advantages over conventional laser machining (using pulses longer than a few tens of picoseconds) are realized by depositing the laser energy into the electrons of the material on a time scale short compared to the transfer time of this energy to the bulk of the material, resulting in increased ablation efficiency and negligible shock or thermal stress. The improvement in the morphology by using femtosecond pulses rather than nanosecond pulses has been studied in numerous materials from biologic materials to dielectrics to metals. During the drilling process, we have observed the onset of small channels which drill faster than the surrounding material.

  9. Materials processing in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waldron, R. D.; Criswell, D. R.

    1982-01-01

    Processing-refining of raw materials from extraterrestrial sources is detailed for a space materials handling facility. The discussion is constrained to those steps necessary to separate desired components from raw or altered input ores, semi-purified feedstocks, or process scrap and convert the material into elements, alloys, and consumables. The materials are regarded as originating from dead satellites and boosters, lunar materials, and asteroids. Strong attention will be given to recycling reagent substances to avoid the necessity of transporting replacements. It is assumed that since no aqueous processes exist on the moon, the distribution of minerals will be homogeneous. The processing-refining scenario will include hydrochemical, pyrochemical, electrochemical, and physical techniques selected for the output mass rate/unit plant mass ratio. Flow charts of the various materials processing operations which could be performed with lunar materials are provided, noting the necessity of delivering several alloying elements from the earth due to scarcities on the moon.

  10. Dealloying and Dealloyed Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCue, Ian; Benn, Ellen; Gaskey, Bernard; Erlebacher, Jonah

    2016-07-01

    A successful working model for nanoporosity evolution during dealloying was introduced 15 years ago. Since that time, the field has rapidly expanded, with research groups from across the world studying dealloying and dealloyed materials. Dealloying has grown into a rich field, with some groups focusing on fundamentals and mechanisms of dealloying, other groups creating new porous metals and alloys, and even more groups studying their properties. Dealloying was originally considered only in the context of corrosion, but now it is considered a facile self-organization technique to fabricate high-surface-area, bicontinuous nanoporous materials. Owing to their high interfacial area and the versatility of metallic materials, nanoporous metals have found application in catalysis, sensing, actuation, electrolytic and ultracapacitor materials, high-temperature templates/scaffolds, battery anodes, and radiation damage–tolerant materials. In this review, we discuss the fundamental materials principles underlying the formation of dealloyed materials and then look at two major applications: catalysis and nanomechanics.

  11. Engineering living functional materials.

    PubMed

    Chen, Allen Y; Zhong, Chao; Lu, Timothy K

    2015-01-16

    Natural materials, such as bone, integrate living cells composed of organic molecules together with inorganic components. This enables combinations of functionalities, such as mechanical strength and the ability to regenerate and remodel, which are not present in existing synthetic materials. Taking a cue from nature, we propose that engineered 'living functional materials' and 'living materials synthesis platforms' that incorporate both living systems and inorganic components could transform the performance and the manufacturing of materials. As a proof-of-concept, we recently demonstrated that synthetic gene circuits in Escherichia coli enabled biofilms to be both a functional material in its own right and a materials-synthesis platform. To demonstrate the former, we engineered E. coli biofilms into a chemical-inducer-responsive electrical switch. To demonstrate the latter, we engineered E. coli biofilms to dynamically organize biotic-abiotic materials across multiple length scales, template gold nanorods, gold nanowires, and metal/semiconductor heterostructures, and synthesize semiconductor nanoparticles (Chen, A. Y. et al. (2014) Synthesis and patterning of tunable multiscale materials with engineered cells. Nat. Mater. 13, 515-523.). Thus, tools from synthetic biology, such as those for artificial gene regulation, can be used to engineer the spatiotemporal characteristics of living systems and to interface living systems with inorganic materials. Such hybrids can possess novel properties enabled by living cells while retaining desirable functionalities of inorganic systems. These systems, as living functional materials and as living materials foundries, would provide a radically different paradigm of materials performance and synthesis-materials possessing multifunctional, self-healing, adaptable, and evolvable properties that are created and organized in a distributed, bottom-up, autonomously assembled, and environmentally sustainable manner. PMID:25592034

  12. Uranium reference materials

    SciTech Connect

    Donivan, S.; Chessmore, R.

    1987-07-01

    The Technical Measurements Center has prepared uranium mill tailings reference materials for use by remedial action contractors and cognizant federal and state agencies. Four materials were prepared with varying concentrations of radionuclides, using three tailings materials and a river-bottom soil diluent. All materials were ground, dried, and blended thoroughly to ensure homogeneity. The analyses on which the recommended values for nuclides in the reference materials are based were performed, using independent methods, by the UNC Geotech (UNC) Chemistry Laboratory, Grand Junction, Colorado, and by C.W. Sill (Sill), Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho. Several statistical tests were performed on the analytical data to characterize the reference materials. Results of these tests reveal that the four reference materials are homogeneous and that no large systematic bias exists between the analytical methods used by Sill and those used by TMC. The average values for radionuclides of the two data sets, representing an unbiased estimate, were used as the recommended values for concentrations of nuclides in the reference materials. The recommended concentrations of radionuclides in the four reference materials are provided. Use of these reference materials will aid in providing uniform standardization among measurements made by remedial action contractors. 11 refs., 9 tabs.

  13. Materials and structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saito, Theodore T.; Langenbeck, Sharon L.; Al-Jamily, Ghanim; Arnold, Joe; Barbee, Troy; Coulter, Dan; Dolgin, Ben; Fichter, Buck; George, Patricia; Gorenstein, Paul

    1992-01-01

    Materials and structures technology covers a wide range of technical areas. Some of the most pertinent issues for the Astrotech 21 missions include dimensionally stable structural materials, advanced composites, dielectric coatings, optical metallic coatings for low scattered light applications, low scattered light surfaces, deployable and inflatable structures (including optical), support structures in 0-g and 1-g environments, cryogenic optics, optical blacks, contamination hardened surfaces, radiation hardened glasses and crystals, mono-metallic telescopes and instruments, and materials characterization. Some specific examples include low coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE) structures (0.01 ppm/K), lightweight thermally stable mirror materials, thermally stable optical assemblies, high reliability/accuracy (1 micron) deployable structures, and characterization of nanometer level behavior of materials/structures for interferometry concepts. Large filled-aperture concepts will require materials with CTE's of 10(exp 9) at 80 K, anti-contamination coatings, deployable and erectable structures, composite materials with CTE's less than 0.01 ppm/K and thermal hysteresis, 0.001 ppm/K. Gravitational detection systems such as LAGOS will require rigid/deployable structures, dimensionally stable components, lightweight materials with low conductivity, and high stability optics. The Materials and Structures panel addressed these issues and the relevance of the Astrotech 21 mission requirements by dividing materials and structures technology into five categories. These categories, the necessary development, and applicable mission/program development phasing are summarized. For each of these areas, technology assessments were made and development plans were defined.

  14. Materials research for fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knaster, J.; Moeslang, A.; Muroga, T.

    2016-05-01

    Fusion materials research started in the early 1970s following the observation of the degradation of irradiated materials used in the first commercial fission reactors. The technological challenges of fusion energy are intimately linked with the availability of suitable materials capable of reliably withstanding the extremely severe operational conditions of fusion reactors. Although fission and fusion materials exhibit common features, fusion materials research is broader. The harder mono-energetic spectrum associated with the deuterium-tritium fusion neutrons (14.1 MeV compared to <2 MeV on average for fission neutrons) releases significant amounts of hydrogen and helium as transmutation products that might lead to a (at present undetermined) degradation of structural materials after a few years of operation. Overcoming the historical lack of a fusion-relevant neutron source for materials testing is an essential pending step in fusion roadmaps. Structural materials development, together with research on functional materials capable of sustaining unprecedented power densities during plasma operation in a fusion reactor, have been the subject of decades of worldwide research efforts underpinning the present maturity of the fusion materials research programme.

  15. Engineering Living Functional Materials

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Natural materials, such as bone, integrate living cells composed of organic molecules together with inorganic components. This enables combinations of functionalities, such as mechanical strength and the ability to regenerate and remodel, which are not present in existing synthetic materials. Taking a cue from nature, we propose that engineered ‘living functional materials’ and ‘living materials synthesis platforms’ that incorporate both living systems and inorganic components could transform the performance and the manufacturing of materials. As a proof-of-concept, we recently demonstrated that synthetic gene circuits in Escherichia coli enabled biofilms to be both a functional material in its own right and a materials-synthesis platform. To demonstrate the former, we engineered E. coli biofilms into a chemical-inducer-responsive electrical switch. To demonstrate the latter, we engineered E. coli biofilms to dynamically organize biotic-abiotic materials across multiple length scales, template gold nanorods, gold nanowires, and metal/semiconductor heterostructures, and synthesize semiconductor nanoparticles (Chen, A. Y. et al. (2014) Synthesis and patterning of tunable multiscale materials with engineered cells. Nat. Mater.13, 515–523.). Thus, tools from synthetic biology, such as those for artificial gene regulation, can be used to engineer the spatiotemporal characteristics of living systems and to interface living systems with inorganic materials. Such hybrids can possess novel properties enabled by living cells while retaining desirable functionalities of inorganic systems. These systems, as living functional materials and as living materials foundries, would provide a radically different paradigm of materials performance and synthesis–materials possessing multifunctional, self-healing, adaptable, and evolvable properties that are created and organized in a distributed, bottom-up, autonomously assembled, and environmentally sustainable manner. PMID

  16. NUCLEAR FUEL MATERIAL

    DOEpatents

    Goeddel, W.V.

    1962-06-26

    An improved method is given for making the carbides of nuclear fuel material. The metal of the fuel material, which may be a fissile and/or fertile material, is transformed into a silicide, after which the silicide is comminuted to the desired particle size. This silicide is then carburized at an elevated temperature, either above or below the melting point of the silicide, to produce an intimate mixture of the carbide of the fuel material and the carbide of silicon. This mixture of the fuel material carbide and the silicon carbide is relatively stable in the presence of moisture and does not exhibit the highly reactive surface condition which is observed with fuel material carbides made by most other known methods. (AEC)

  17. Ultrasonic nondestructive materials characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, R. E., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    A brief review of ultrasonic wave propagation in solid materials is presented with consideration of the altered behavior in anisotropic and nonlinear elastic materials in comparison with isotropic and linear elastic materials. Some experimental results are described in which ultrasonic velocity and attenuation measurements give insight into materials microstructure and associated mechanical properties. Recent developments with laser beam non-contact generation and detection of ultrasound are presented. The results of several years of experimental measurements using high-power ultrasound are discussed, which provide substantial evidence of the inability of presently accepted theories to fully explain the interaction of ultrasound with solid materials. Finally, a special synchrotron X-ray topographic system is described which affords the possibility of observing direct interaction of ultrasonic waves with the microstructural features of real crystalline solid materials for the first time.

  18. Femtosecond laser materials processing

    SciTech Connect

    Stuart, B. C., LLNL

    1998-06-02

    Femtosecond lasers enable materials processing of most any material with extremely high precision and negligible shock or thermal loading to the surrounding area Applications ranging from drilling teeth to cutting explosives to making high-aspect ratio cuts in metals with no heat-affected zone are made possible by this technology For material removal at reasonable rates, we developed a fully computer-controlled 15-Watt average power, 100-fs laser machining system.

  19. Material for Fast Cutting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perez, A.

    1986-01-01

    New material for cutting tools increases productivity of machining processes. Material, called Iscanite (or equivalent), based on silicon nitride contains more than 90 percent silicon. Combines impact resistance close to that of coated carbides with heat and wear resistance close to those of aluminum oxide ceramics. Material used for cutting on old or new machine tools and makes it possible to exploit fully power and speed of machine.

  20. Emerging smart materials systems

    SciTech Connect

    Strock, H.B.

    1996-04-01

    Smart materials systems are nonliving systems that integrate the functions of sensing, actuation, logic and control to respond adaptively to changes in their condition or the environment to which they are exposed, in a useful and usually repetitive manner. Smart materials possess both sensing and actuation capability. They can adaptively respond to changing stimuli, e.g., the variable darkening of photochromic glass or plastic on exposure to sunlight. Such passively smart materials behavior has relatively limited, although marketable, functionality.

  1. Infrared fiber optic materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feigelson, Robert S.

    1987-01-01

    The development of IR fiber optics for use in astronomical and other space applications is summarized. Candidate materials were sought for use in the 1 to 200 micron and the 200 to 1000 micron wavelength range. Synthesis and optical characterization were carried out on several of these materials in bulk form. And the fabrication of a few materials in single crystal fiber optic form were studied.

  2. Research In Thermoelectric Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Charles

    1989-01-01

    Report reviews current research in thermoelectric materials with view towards development of materials of greater energy-conversion efficiency. Emphasis on effort to understand and manipulate microstructure to increase thermoelectric figure of merit, Z. Thermoelectric properties of three broad categories of materials discussed. First category includes alloys of group IV elements like silicon and germanium. Second category is rare-earth chalcogenides. Third category includes narrow-band semiconductors, especially boron carbides.

  3. ANS materials databook

    SciTech Connect

    Marchbanks, M.F.

    1995-08-01

    Technical development in the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) project is dynamic, and a continuously updated information source is necessary to provide readily usable materials data to the designer, analyst, and materials engineer. The Advanced Neutron Source Materials Databook (AMBK) is being developed as a part of the Advanced Neutron Source Materials Information System (AMIS). Its purpose is to provide urgently needed data on a quick-turnaround support basis for those design applications whose schedules demand immediate estimates of material properties. In addition to the need for quick materials information, there is a need for consistent application of data throughout the ANS Program, especially where only limited data exist. The AMBK is being developed to fill this need as well. It is the forerunner to the Advanced Neutron Source Materials Handbook (AMHB). The AMHB, as reviewed and approved by the ANS review process, will serve as a common authoritative source of materials data in support of the ANS Project. It will furnish documented evidence of the materials data used in the design and construction of the ANS system and will serve as a quality record during any review process whose objective is to establish the safety level of the ANS complex. The information in the AMBK and AMHB is also provided in electronic form in a dial-up computer database known as the ANS Materials Database (AMDB). A single consensus source of materials information prepared and used by all national program participants has several advantages. Overlapping requirements and data needs of various sub-projects and subcontractors can be met by a single document which is continuously revised. Preliminary and final safety analysis reports, stress analysis reports, equipment specifications, materials service reports, and many other project-related documents can be substantially reduced in size and scope by appropriate reference to a single data source.

  4. Absolute nuclear material assay

    DOEpatents

    Prasad, Manoj K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.

    2012-05-15

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  5. Absolute nuclear material assay

    DOEpatents

    Prasad, Manoj K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.

    2010-07-13

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  6. Multilayer Insulation Material Guidelines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finckenor, M. M.; Dooling, D.

    1999-01-01

    Multilayer Insulation Material Guidelines provides data on multilayer insulation materials used by previous spacecraft such as Spacelab and the Long-Duration Exposure Facility and outlines other concerns. The data presented in the document are presented for information only. They can be used as guidelines for multilayer insulation design for future spacecraft provided the thermal requirements of each new design and the environmental effects on these materials are taken into account.

  7. Flexible Material Systems Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, John K.; Shook, Lauren S.; Ware, Joanne S.; Welch, Joseph V.

    2010-01-01

    An experimental program has been undertaken to better characterize the stress-strain characteristics of flexible material systems to support a NASA ground test program for inflatable decelerator material technology. A goal of the current study is to investigate experimental methods for the characterization of coated woven material stiffness. This type of experimental mechanics data would eventually be used to define the material inputs of fluid-structure interaction simulation models. The test methodologies chosen for this stress-strain characterization are presented along with the experimental results.

  8. Materials for Slack Diaphragms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Puschmann, Traute

    1940-01-01

    This report deals with systematic experiments carried out on five diaphragm materials with different pretreatment, for the purpose of ascertaining the suitability of such materials for slack diaphragms. The relationship of deflection and load, temperature and moisture, was recorded. Of the explored materials, synthetic leather, balloon cloth, goldbeaters skin, Igelit and Buna, synthetic leather treated with castor oil is the most suitable material for the small pressure range required. Balloon cloth is nearly as good, while goldbeaters skin, Igelit and Buna were found to be below the required standards.

  9. Thermoelectric materials having porosity

    SciTech Connect

    Heremans, Joseph P.; Jaworski, Christopher M.; Jovovic, Vladimir; Harris, Fred

    2014-08-05

    A thermoelectric material and a method of making a thermoelectric material are provided. In certain embodiments, the thermoelectric material comprises at least 10 volume percent porosity. In some embodiments, the thermoelectric material has a zT greater than about 1.2 at a temperature of about 375 K. In some embodiments, the thermoelectric material comprises a topological thermoelectric material. In some embodiments, the thermoelectric material comprises a general composition of (Bi.sub.1-xSb.sub.x).sub.u(Te.sub.1-ySe.sub.y).sub.w, wherein 0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.1, 0.ltoreq.y.ltoreq.1, 1.8.ltoreq.u.ltoreq.2.2, 2.8.ltoreq.w.ltoreq.3.2. In further embodiments, the thermoelectric material includes a compound having at least one group IV element and at least one group VI element. In certain embodiments, the method includes providing a powder comprising a thermoelectric composition, pressing the powder, and sintering the powder to form the thermoelectric material.

  10. Fluorinated elastomeric materials

    DOEpatents

    Lagow, Richard J.; Dumitru, Earl T.

    1986-11-04

    This invention relates to a method of making perfluorinated elastomeric materials, and to materials made by such methods. In the full synthetic scheme, a partially fluorinated polymeric compound, with moieties to prevent crystallization, is created. It is then crosslinked to a desired degree, then perfluorinated. Various intermediate materials, such as partially fluorinated crosslinked polymers, have useful properties, and are or may become commercially available. One embodiment of this invention therefore relates to perfluorination of a selected partially fluorinated, crosslinked material, which is one step of the full synthetic scheme.

  11. Fluorinated elastomeric materials

    DOEpatents

    Lagow, Richard J.; Dumitru, Earl T.

    1990-02-13

    This invention relates to a method of making perfluorinated elastomeric materials, and to materials made by such methods. In the full synthetic scheme, a partially fluorinated polymeric compound, with moieties to prevent crystallization, is created. It is then crosslinked to a desired degree, then perfluorinated. Various intermediate materials, such as partially fluorinated crosslinked polymers, have useful properties, and are or may become commercially available. One embodiment of this invention therefore relates to perfluorination of a selected partially fluorinated, crosslinked material, which is one step of the full synthetic scheme.

  12. Material for radioactive protection

    DOEpatents

    Taylor, R.S.; Boyer, N.W.

    A boron containing burn resistant, low-level radiation protection material useful, for example, as a liner for radioactive waste disposal and storage, a component for neutron absorber, and a shield for a neutron source is described. The material is basically composed of borax in the range of 25 to 50%, coal tar in the range of 25 to 37.5%, with the remainder being an epoxy resin mix. A preferred composition is 50% borax, 25% coal tar and 25% epoxy resin. The material is not susceptible to burning and is about 1/5 the cost of existing radiation protection material utilized in similar applications.

  13. Fireset materials aging study

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, H.M.; Arnold, C.; Bailey, M.E.

    1982-07-01

    A thermally-accelerated aging study of 10 selected organic materials used in a fireset has been conducted. The study included both quantitative and qualitative gas analyses as well as the measurement of physical properties before and after accelerated aging. The test plan involved single material aging, as well as pairs and larger groups to look for synergistic interactions. The material types tested were epoxies, polyurethanes, polysulfides, silicones, phenolics, polyolefins, and diallyl phthalates. Only two of the materials tested showed evidence of degradation as a result of aging.

  14. Materials Science Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Dionne

    2005-01-01

    The NASA Materials Science Laboratory (MSL) provides science and engineering services to NASA and Contractor customers at KSC, including those working for the Space Shuttle. International Space Station. and Launch Services Programs. These services include: (1) Independent/unbiased failure analysis (2) Support to Accident/Mishap Investigation Boards (3) Materials testing and evaluation (4) Materials and Processes (M&P) engineering consultation (5) Metrology (6) Chemical analysis (including ID of unknown materials) (7) Mechanical design and fabrication We provide unique solutions to unusual and urgent problems associated with aerospace flight hardware, ground support equipment and related facilities.

  15. Functional Hybrid Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez-Romero, Pedro; Sanchez, Clément

    2004-04-01

    Functional Hybrid Materials consist of both organic and inorganic components, assembled for the purpose of generating desirable properties and functionalities. The aim is twofold: to bring out or enhance advantageous chemical, electrochemical, magnetic or electronic characteristics and at the same time to reduce or wholly suppress undesirable properties or effects. Another target is the creation of entirely new material behavior. The vast number of hybrid material components available has opened up a wide and diversified field of fascinating research. In this book, a team of highly renowned experts gives an in-depth overview, illustrating the superiority of well-designed hybrid materials and their potential applications.

  16. [Material recovery from waste].

    PubMed

    Wogrolly, E

    1983-09-01

    Reclamation of raw material from refuse is demonstrated by two practical examples. In numerous countries sorting plants were set up at considerable expense for the purpose of reclaiming plastic material from household refuse. Most of these plants are struggling more or less with difficulties as a result of technical and particularly economic problems. A market for reclaimed raw materials scarcely exists. This applies most particularly to the reclamation of plastics from household refuse. As long as the operating costs, especially the energy costs, exceed the proceeds obtained for regranulated material, "recycling" will be to no purpose. At present, reclaiming energy from refuse seems to hold out better prospects of success. PMID:6649995

  17. Ceramic breeder materials

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, C.E.; Kummerer, K.R.; Roth, E.

    1987-01-01

    Ceramic materials are under investigation as potential breeder material in fusion reactors. This paper will review candidate materials with respect to fabrication routes and characterization, properties in as-fabricated and irradiated condition, and experimental results from laboratory and inpile investigations on tritium transport and release. Also discussed are the resources of beryllium, which is being considered as a neutron multiplier. The comparison of ceramic properties that is attempted here aims at the identification of the most-promising material for use in a tritium breeding blanket. 82 refs., 12 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. The Materials Genome Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aourag, H.

    2008-09-01

    In the past, the search for new and improved materials was characterized mostly by the use of empirical, trial- and-error methods. This picture of materials science has been changing as the knowledge and understanding of fundamental processes governing a material's properties and performance (namely, composition, structure, history, and environment) have increased. In a number of cases, it is now possible to predict a material's properties before it has even been manufactured thus greatly reducing the time spent on testing and development. The objective of modern materials science is to tailor a material (starting with its chemical composition, constituent phases, and microstructure) in order to obtain a desired set of properties suitable for a given application. In the short term, the traditional "empirical" methods for developing new materials will be complemented to a greater degree by theoretical predictions. In some areas, computer simulation is already used by industry to weed out costly or improbable synthesis routes. Can novel materials with optimized properties be designed by computers? Advances in modelling methods at the atomic level coupled with rapid increases in computer capabilities over the last decade have led scientists to answer this question with a resounding "yes'. The ability to design new materials from quantum mechanical principles with computers is currently one of the fastest growing and most exciting areas of theoretical research in the world. The methods allow scientists to evaluate and prescreen new materials "in silico" (in vitro), rather than through time consuming experimentation. The Materials Genome Project is to pursue the theory of large scale modeling as well as powerful methods to construct new materials, with optimized properties. Indeed, it is the intimate synergy between our ability to predict accurately from quantum theory how atoms can be assembled to form new materials and our capacity to synthesize novel materials atom

  19. LDEF materials overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stein, Bland A.

    1993-01-01

    The flight and retrieval of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) provided an opportunity for the study of the low-Earth orbit (LEO) environment and long-duration space environmental effects (SEE) on materials that is unparalleled in the history of the U.S. Space Program. The 5-year, 9-month flight of LDEF greatly enhanced the potential value of all materials on LDEF to the international SEE community, compared to that of the original 1-year flight plan. The remarkable flight attitude stability of LDEF enables specific analyses of individual and combined effects of LEO environmental parameters on identical materials on the same space vehicle. NASA recognized this potential by forming the LDEF Space Environmental Effects on Materials Special Investigation Group (MSIG) to address the greatly expanded materials and LEO space environment analysis opportunities available in the LDEF structure, experiment trays, and corollary measurements so that the combined value of all LDEF materials data to current and future space missions will be addressed and documented. An overview of the interim LDEF materials findings of the principal investigators and the Materials Special Investigation Group is provided. These revelations are based on observations of LEO environmental effects on materials made in space during LDEF retrieval and during LDEF tray deintegration at the Kennedy Space Center, and on findings of approximately 1.5 years of laboratory analyses of LDEF materials by the LDEF materials scientists. These findings were extensively reviewed and discussed at the MSIG-sponsored LDEF Materials Workshop '91. The results are presented in a format that categorizes the revelations as 'clear findings' or 'obscure preliminary findings' (and progress toward their resolution), plus resultant needs for new space materials developments and ground simulation testing/analytical modeling, in seven categories: materials

  20. Materials derived from biomass/biodegradable materials.

    PubMed

    Luzier, W D

    1992-02-01

    Interest in biodegradable plastics made from renewable resources has increased significantly in recent years. PHBV (polyhydroxybutyrate-polyhydroxyvalerate) copolymers are good examples of this type of materials. This paper provides an overview of the manufacturing process, properties, biodegradability, and application/commercial issues associated with PHBV copolymers. They are naturally produced by bacteria from agricultural raw materials, and they can be processed to make a variety of useful products, where their biodegradability and naturalness are quite beneficial. PHBV copolymers are still in the first stage of commercialization. But they are presented in this paper as an example of how new technology can help meet society's needs for plastics and a clean environment. PMID:1736301

  1. Biogenic Impact on Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephan, Ina; Askew, Peter; Gorbushina, Anna; Grinda, Manfred; Hertel, Horst; Krumbein, Wolfgang; Müller, Rolf-Joachim; Pantke, Michael; Plarre, Rüdiger (Rudy); Schmitt, Guenter; Schwibbert, Karin

    Materials as constituents of products or components of technical systems rarely exist in isolation and many must cope with exposure in the natural world. This chapter describes methods that simulate how a material is influenced through contact with living systems such as microorganisms and arthropods. Both unwanted and desirable interactions are considered. This biogenic impact on materials is intimately associated with the environment to which the material is exposed (Materials-Environment Interaction, Chap. 15). Factors such as moisture, temperature and availability of food sources all have a significant influence on biological systems. Corrosion (Chap. 12) and wear (Chap. 13) can also be induced or enhanced in the presence of microorganisms. Section 14.1 introduces the categories between desired (biodegradation) and undesired (biodeterioration) biological effects on materials. It also introduces the role of biocides for the protection of materials. Section 14.2 describes the testing of wood as a building material especially against microorganisms and insects. Section 14.3 characterizes the test methodologies for two other groups of organic materials, namely polymers (Sect. 14.3.1) and paper and textiles (Sect. 14.3.2). Section 14.4 deals with the susceptibility of inorganic materials such as metals (Sect. 14.4.1), concrete (Sect. 14.4.2) and ceramics (Sect. 14.4.3) to biogenic impact. Section 14.5 treats the testing methodology concerned with the performance of coatings and coating materials. In many of these tests specific strains of organisms are employed. It is vital that these strains retain their ability to utilize/attack the substrate from which they were isolated, even when kept for many years in the laboratory. Section 14.6 therefore considers the importance of maintaining robust and representative test organisms that are as capable of utilizing a substrate as their counterparts in nature such that realistic predictions of performance can be made.

  2. Materials characterization on efforts for ablative materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tytula, Thomas P.; Schad, Kristin C.; Swann, Myles H.

    1992-01-01

    Experimental efforts to develop a new procedure to measure char depth in carbon phenolic nozzle material are described. Using a Shor Type D Durometer, hardness profiles were mapped across post fired sample blocks and specimens from a fired rocket nozzle. Linear regression was used to estimate the char depth. Results are compared to those obtained from computed tomography in a comparative experiment. There was no significant difference in the depth estimates obtained by the two methods.

  3. Nanoprobes, nanostructured materials and solid state materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Houping

    2005-07-01

    Novel templates have been developed to prepare nanostructured porous materials through nonsurfactant templated pathway. And new applications of these materials, such as drug delivery and molecular imprinting, have been explored. The relationship between template content and pore structure has been investigated. The composition and pore structures were studied in detail using IR, TGA, SEM, TEM, BET and XRD. The obtained mesoporous materials have tunable diameters in the range of 2--12 nm. Due to the many advantages of this nonsurfactant templated pathway, such as environment friendly and biocompatibility, controlled release of antibiotics in the nanoporous materials were studied. The in vitro release properties were found to depend on the silica structures which were well tuned by varying the template content. A controlled long-term release pattern of vancomycin was achieved when the template content was 30 wt% or lower. Nanoscale electrochemical probes with dimensions as small as 50 nm in diameter and 1--2 mum in length were fabricated using electron beam deposition on the apex of conventional micron size electrodes. The electroactive region was limited to the extreme tip of the nanoprobe by coating with an insulating polymer and re-opening of the coating at the extreme tip. The novel nanoelectrodes thus prepared were employed to probe neurons in mouse brain slice and the results suggest that the nanoprobes were capable of recording neuronal excitatory postsynaptic potential signals. Interesting solid state chemistry was found in oxygenated iron phthalocyanine. Their Mossbauer spectra show the formation of four oxygenated species apart from the unoxygenated parent compound. The oxygen-bridged compounds formed in the solid matrix bear no resemblance to the one formed by solution chemistry. Tentative assignment of species has been made with the help of Mossbauer and IR spectroscopy. An effort to modify aniline trimer for potential nanoelectronics applications and to

  4. Measurements and material accounting

    SciTech Connect

    Hammond, G.A. )

    1989-11-01

    The DOE role for the NBL in safeguarding nuclear material into the 21st century is discussed. Development of measurement technology and reference materials supporting requirements of SDI, SIS, AVLIS, pyrochemical reprocessing, fusion, waste storage, plant modernization program, and improved tritium accounting are some of the suggested examples.

  5. Fatigue of restorative materials.

    PubMed

    Baran, G; Boberick, K; McCool, J

    2001-01-01

    Failure due to fatigue manifests itself in dental prostheses and restorations as wear, fractured margins, delaminated coatings, and bulk fracture. Mechanisms responsible for fatigue-induced failure depend on material ductility: Brittle materials are susceptible to catastrophic failure, while ductile materials utilize their plasticity to reduce stress concentrations at the crack tip. Because of the expense associated with the replacement of failed restorations, there is a strong desire on the part of basic scientists and clinicians to evaluate the resistance of materials to fatigue in laboratory tests. Test variables include fatigue-loading mode and test environment, such as soaking in water. The outcome variable is typically fracture strength, and these data typically fit the Weibull distribution. Analysis of fatigue data permits predictive inferences to be made concerning the survival of structures fabricated from restorative materials under specified loading conditions. Although many dental-restorative materials are routinely evaluated, only limited use has been made of fatigue data collected in vitro: Wear of materials and the survival of porcelain restorations has been modeled by both fracture mechanics and probabilistic approaches. A need still exists for a clinical failure database and for the development of valid test methods for the evaluation of composite materials. PMID:11603506

  6. Immediacy of Course Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brook, Chris

    1979-01-01

    The growth of the Open University has led to attempts to increase the efficiency of the whole operation, such as prepackaging of teaching materials and advanced scheduling and planning of new courses. Effects of such policies on tutor-student links and the immediacy of materials are discussed. (AF)

  7. MATERIALS FOR MODERNIZATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    JACKSON, R. GRAHAM

    CHOICES AND ISSUES IN SELECTING MATERIALS FOR MODERNIZATION OF SCHOOL BUILDINGS ARE DISCUSSED IN THIS REPORT. BACKGROUND INFORMATION IS INTRODUCED IN TERMS OF REASONS FOR ABANDONMENT, THE CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF SCHOOL BUILDING OBSOLESCENCE, AND PROBLEMS IN THE MODERNIZATION PROCESS. INTERIOR PARTITIONS ARE DISCUSSED IN TERMS OF BUILDING MATERIALS,…

  8. Environmental materials and interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-11-01

    A workshop that explored materials and interfaces research needs relevant to national environmental concerns was conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The purposes of the workshop were to refine the scientific research directions being planned for the Materials and Interface Program in the Molecular Science Research Center (MSRC) and further define the research and user equipment to the included as part of the proposed Environmental and Molecular Science Laboratory (EMSL). Three plenary information sessions served to outline the background, objectives, and status of the MSRC and EMSL initiatives; selected specific areas with environmentally related materials; and the status of capabilities and facilities planned for the EMSL. Attention was directed to four areas where materials and interface science can have a significant impact on prevention and remediation of environmental problems: in situ detection and characterization of hazardous wastes (sensors), minimization of hazardous waste (separation membranes, ion exchange materials, catalysts), waste containment (encapsulation and barrier materials), and fundamental understanding of contaminant transport mechanisms. During all other sessions, the participants were divided into three working groups for detailed discussion and the preparation of a written report. The working groups focused on the areas of interface structure and chemistry, materials and interface stability, and materials synthesis. These recommendations and suggestions for needed research will be useful for other researchers in proposing projects and for suggesting collaborative work with MSRC researchers. 1 fig.

  9. Nanocrystalline Heterojunction Materials

    DOEpatents

    Elder, Scott H.; Su, Yali; Gao, Yufei; Heald, Steve M.

    2004-02-03

    Mesoporous nanocrystalline titanium dioxide heterojunction materials and methods of making the same are disclosed. In one disclosed embodiment, materials comprising a core of titanium dioxide and a shell of a molybdenum oxide exhibit a decrease in their photoadsorption energy as the size of the titanium dioxide core decreases.

  10. Nanocrystalline heterojunction materials

    DOEpatents

    Elder, Scott H.; Su, Yali; Gao, Yufei; Heald, Steve M.

    2003-07-15

    Mesoporous nanocrystalline titanium dioxide heterojunction materials are disclosed. In one disclosed embodiment, materials comprising a core of titanium dioxide and a shell of a molybdenum oxide exhibit a decrease in their photoadsorption energy as the size of the titanium dioxide core decreases.

  11. Marine Education Materials System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gammisch, Sue; Gray, Kevin

    1980-01-01

    Described is a marine education materials clearinghouse, the Marine Education Materials System (MEMS). MEMS classifies marine education documents and reproduces them on microfiche for distribution. There are 25 distribution centers, each of which has a collection of documents and provides assistance on a request basis to teachers. (Author/DS)

  12. Scintillator materials for calorimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, M.J.

    1994-09-01

    Requirements for fast, dense scintillator materials for calorimetry in high energy physics and approaches to satisfying these requirements are reviewed with respect to possible hosts and luminescent species. Special attention is given to cerium-activated crystals, core-valence luminescence, and glass scintillators. The present state of the art, limitations, and suggestions for possible new scintillator materials are presented.

  13. Sex Education Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer-Magdoff, Laura

    1969-01-01

    After briefly discussing the philosophy of sex education and appraising generally the nature of the instructional methods and materials currently in use in the schools, the author provides brief but incisive reviews of a number of films, filmstrips, and other instructional materials dealing with sex. The reviews are continued in the succeeding…

  14. Gravitation in Material Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ridgely, Charles T.

    2011-01-01

    When two gravitating bodies reside in a material medium, Newton's law of universal gravitation must be modified to account for the presence of the medium. A modified expression of Newton's law is known in the literature, but lacks a clear connection with existing gravitational theory. Newton's law in the presence of a homogeneous material medium…

  15. Detecting Illicit Nuclear Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Kouzes, Richard T.

    2005-09-01

    The threat that weapons of mass destruction might enter the United States has led to a number of efforts for the detection and interdiction of nuclear, radiological, chemical, and biological weapons at our borders. There have been multiple deployments of instrumentation to detect radiation signatures to interdict radiological material, including weapons and weapons material worldwide.

  16. About Learning Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, M. Frances

    This handbook is intended for those persons who have the responsibility for selecting learning materials for student use. The primary emphasis is on learning materials intended for wide distribution, such as those produced by commercial publishers. An annotated listing is provided of approximately 40 resource publications dealing with the…

  17. Hydrocarbonaceous material upgrading method

    SciTech Connect

    Brecher, Lee E.; Mones, Charles G.; Guffey, Frank D.

    2015-06-02

    A hydrocarbonaceous material upgrading method may involve a novel combination of heating, vaporizing and chemically reacting hydrocarbonaceous feedstock that is substantially unpumpable at pipeline conditions, and condensation of vapors yielded thereby, in order to upgrade that feedstock to a hydrocarbonaceous material condensate that meets crude oil pipeline specification.

  18. Thermal Protection Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Sylvia M.

    2011-01-01

    Thermal protection materials and systems (TPS) are required to protect a vehicle returning from space or entering an atmosphere. The selection of the material depends on the heat flux, heat load, pressure, and shear and other mechanical loads imposed on the material, which are in turn determined by the vehicle configuration and size, location on the vehicle, speed, a trajectory, and the atmosphere. In all cases the goal is to use a material that is both reliable and efficient for the application. Reliable materials are well understood and have sufficient test data under the appropriate conditions to provide confidence in their performance. Efficiency relates to the behavior of a material under the specific conditions that it encounters TPS that performs very well at high heat fluxes may not be efficient at lower heat fluxes. Mass of the TPS is a critical element of efficiency. This talk will review the major classes of TPS, reusable or insulating materials and ablators. Ultra high temperature ceramics for sharp leading edges will also be reviewed. The talk will focus on the properties and behavior of these materials.

  19. MULTISCALE PHENOMENA IN MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect

    A. BISHOP

    2000-09-01

    This project developed and supported a technology base in nonequilibrium phenomena underpinning fundamental issues in condensed matter and materials science, and applied this technology to selected problems. In this way the increasingly sophisticated synthesis and characterization available for classes of complex electronic and structural materials provided a testbed for nonlinear science, while nonlinear and nonequilibrium techniques helped advance our understanding of the scientific principles underlying the control of material microstructure, their evolution, fundamental to macroscopic functionalities. The project focused on overlapping areas of emerging thrusts and programs in the Los Alamos materials community for which nonlinear and nonequilibrium approaches will have decisive roles and where productive teamwork among elements of modeling, simulations, synthesis, characterization and applications could be anticipated--particularly multiscale and nonequilibrium phenomena, and complex matter in and between fields of soft, hard and biomimetic materials. Principal topics were: (i) Complex organic and inorganic electronic materials, including hard, soft and biomimetic materials, self-assembly processes and photophysics; (ii) Microstructure and evolution in multiscale and hierarchical materials, including dynamic fracture and friction, dislocation and large-scale deformation, metastability, and inhomogeneity; and (iii) Equilibrium and nonequilibrium phases and phase transformations, emphasizing competing interactions, frustration, landscapes, glassy and stochastic dynamics, and energy focusing.

  20. NBS: materials measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Manning, J.R.

    1981-06-01

    Measurement of materials properties and thermophysical properties is described. The topics discussed are: surface tensions and their variations with temperature, impurities' convection during unidirectional solidification, measurement of high temperature thermophysical properties of liquid and solid tungsten, thermodynamic properties of refractory materials at high temperatures, and experimental and theoretical studies in wetting and multilayer adsorption.

  1. MATERIAL TRACKING USING LANMAS

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, F.

    2010-06-07

    LANMAS is a transaction-based nuclear material accountability software product developed to replace outdated and legacy accountability systems throughout the DOE. The core underlying purpose of LANMAS is to track nuclear materials inventory and report transactions (movement, mixing, splitting, decay, etc.) to the Nuclear Materials Management and Safeguards System (NMMSS). While LANMAS performs those functions well, there are many additional functions provided by the software product. As a material is received onto a site or created at a site, its entire lifecycle can be tracked in LANMAS complete to its termination of safeguards. There are separate functions to track material movements between and within material balance areas (MBAs). The level of detail for movements within a MBA is configurable by each site and can be as high as a site designation or as detailed as building/room/rack/row/position. Functionality exists to track the processing of materials, either as individual items or by modeling a bulk process as an individual item to track inputs and outputs from the process. In cases where sites have specialized needs, the system is designed to be flexible so that site specific functionality can be integrated into the product. This paper will demonstrate how the software can be used to input material into an account and track it to its termination of safeguards.

  2. Materials Science and Engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Lesuer, D.R.

    1993-03-01

    Five papers are included: processing/characterization of laminated metal composites, casting process modeling, characterizing the failure of composite materials, fiber-optic Raman spectroscopy for cure monitoring of advanced polymer composites, and modeling superplastic materials. The papers are processed separately for the data base.

  3. Composite structural materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loewy, R. G.; Wiberley, S. E.

    1985-01-01

    Various topics relating to composite structural materials for use in aircraft structures are discussed. The mechanical properties of high performance carbon fibers, carbon fiber-epoxy interface bonds, composite fractures, residual stress in high modulus and high strength carbon fibers, fatigue in composite materials, and the mechanical properties of polymeric matrix composite laminates are among the topics discussed.

  4. Materials Science and Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piippo, Steven W.

    1989-01-01

    Describes a materials science and technology course for high school students, which combines chemistry, physics, engineering, math, technology education, and crafts to introduce students to the atomic make-up and physical properties of materials and to apply this knowledge in creative activities. (SK)

  5. Selection of Music Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luttmann, Stephen

    2004-01-01

    The conscientious selection of music materials requires an understanding of the needs of the public being served at least as much as it requires subject competence on the part of the selector. Online and print resources are available to aid in the selection of music materials in all formats, the most important of which are books, scores, audio and…

  6. Materials inventory management manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This NASA Materials Inventory Management Manual (NHB 4100.1) is issued pursuant to Section 203(c)(1) of the National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958 (42 USC 2473). It sets forth policy, performance standards, and procedures governing the acquisition, management and use of materials. This Manual is effective upon receipt.

  7. NBS: Materials measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manning, J. R.

    1981-01-01

    Measurement of materials properties and thermophysical properties is described. The topics discussed are: surface tensions and their variations with temperature and impurities; convection during unidirectional solidification: measurement of high temperature thermophysical properties of tungsten liquid and solid; thermodynamic properties of refractory materials at high temperatures; and experimental and theoretical studies in wetting and multilayer adsorption.

  8. Composite structural materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ansell, G. S.; Wiberley, S. E.

    1978-01-01

    The purpose of the RPI composites program is to develop advanced technology in the areas of physical properties, structural concepts and analysis, manufacturing, reliability and life prediction. Concommitant goals are to educate engineers to design and use composite materials as normal or conventional materials. A multifaceted program was instituted to achieve these objectives.

  9. Material Fatigue Testing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilley, P. J. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A system for cyclicly applying a varying load to a material under test is described. It includes a load sensor which senses the magnitude of load being applied to a material, and, upon sensing a selected magnitude of loading, causes the load to be maintained for a predetermined time and then cause the system to resume cyclical loading.

  10. Flexible materials technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steurer, W. H.

    1980-01-01

    A survey of all presently defined or proposed large space systems indicated an ever increasing demand for flexible components and materials, primarily as a result of the widening disparity between the stowage space of launch vehicles and the size of advanced systems. Typical flexible components and material requirements were identified on the basis of recurrence and/or functional commonality. This was followed by the evaluation of candidate materials and the search for material capabilities which promise to satisfy the postulated requirements. Particular attention was placed on thin films, and on the requirements of deployable antennas. The assessment of the performance of specific materials was based primarily on the failure mode, derived from a detailed failure analysis. In view of extensive on going work on thermal and environmental degradation effects, prime emphasis was placed on the assessment of the performance loss by meteoroid damage. Quantitative data were generated for tension members and antenna reflector materials. A methodology was developed for the representation of the overall materials performance as related to systems service life. A number of promising new concepts for flexible materials were identified.

  11. 78 FR 42805 - Nixon Presidential Historical Materials: Opening of Materials

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-17

    ... RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Nixon Presidential Historical Materials: Opening of Materials AGENCY: National Archives and Records Administration. ] ACTION: Notice of Opening of Additional Nixon Materials. SUMMARY: This notice announces the opening of additional Nixon Presidential Historical Materials by the...

  12. 76 FR 27092 - Nixon Presidential Historical Materials: Opening of Materials

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    ... RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Nixon Presidential Historical Materials: Opening of Materials AGENCY: National Archives and Records Administration. ACTION: Notice of opening of additional materials. SUMMARY: This notice announces the opening of additional Nixon Presidential Historical Materials by the Richard...

  13. 77 FR 31400 - Nixon Presidential Historical Materials: Opening of Materials

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-25

    ... RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Nixon Presidential Historical Materials: Opening of Materials AGENCY: National Archives and Records Administration. ACTION: Notice of Opening of Additional Materials. SUMMARY: This notice announces the opening of additional Nixon Presidential Historical Materials by the Richard...

  14. 76 FR 35918 - Nixon Presidential Historical Materials; Opening of Materials

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-20

    ... RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Nixon Presidential Historical Materials; Opening of Materials AGENCY: National Archives and Records Administration. ACTION: Notice of Opening of Additional Materials. SUMMARY: This notice announces the opening of additional Nixon Presidential Historical Materials by the Richard...

  15. 77 FR 58179 - Nixon Presidential Historical Materials: Opening of Materials

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-19

    ... RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Nixon Presidential Historical Materials: Opening of Materials AGENCY: National Archives and Records Administration ACTION: Notice of opening of additional materials SUMMARY: This notice announces the opening of additional Nixon Presidential Historical Materials by the Richard...

  16. 76 FR 62856 - Nixon Presidential Historical Materials: Opening of Materials

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-11

    ... RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Nixon Presidential Historical Materials: Opening of Materials AGENCY: National Archives and Records Administration. ACTION: Notice of opening of additional materials. SUMMARY: This notice announces the opening of Nixon Presidential Historical Materials by the Richard Nixon...

  17. 75 FR 68384 - Nixon Presidential Historical Materials: Opening of Materials

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-05

    ... RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Nixon Presidential Historical Materials: Opening of Materials AGENCY: National Archives and Records Administration. ACTION: Notice of Opening of Additional Materials. SUMMARY: This notice announces the opening of additional Nixon Presidential Historical Materials by the Richard...

  18. 75 FR 30863 - Nixon Presidential Historical Materials: Opening of Materials

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-02

    ... RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Nixon Presidential Historical Materials: Opening of Materials AGENCY: National Archives and Records Administration. ACTION: Notice of opening of additional materials. SUMMARY: This notice announces the opening of additional Nixon Presidential Historical Materials by the Richard...

  19. Materials Integrating Photochemical Upconversion.

    PubMed

    McCusker, Catherine E; Castellano, Felix N

    2016-04-01

    This review features recent experimental work focused on the preparation and characterization of materials that integrate photochemical upconversion derived from sensitized triplet-triplet annihilation, resulting in the conversion of low energy photons to higher energy light, thereby enabling numerous wavelength-shifting applications. Recent topical developments in upconversion include encapsulating or rigidifying fluid solutions to give them mechanical strength, adapting inert host materials to enable upconversion, and using photoactive materials that incorporate the sensitizer and/or the acceptor. The driving force behind translating photochemical upconversion from solution into hard and soft materials is the incorporation of upconversion into devices and other applications. At present, some of the most promising applications of upconversion materials include imaging and fluorescence microscopy, photoelectrochemical devices, water disinfection, and solar cell enhancement. PMID:27573144

  20. Fingerprinting of Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Workman, Gary L

    1992-01-01

    Recent issues emerging in our fiscal and ecological environments have promulgated that federal agencies shall promote activities which respond to the improvement of both. In response to these developments, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has undertaken an innovative approach to improve the control of materials used in all NASA manufacturing activities. In concert with this goal, NASA is requiring that its contractors and their sub-contractors perform a more intensive consolidation of technologies that can provide an accounting of materials, which includes in-coming materials, materials in process, end-products and waste materials. The purpose of this handbook is to provide guidelines to NASA and its contractor personnel for the planning and implementation of chemical fingerprinting programs and to illustrate the chemical and statistical fundamentals needed for successful use of chemical fingerprinting.

  1. Architected Cellular Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaedler, Tobias A.; Carter, William B.

    2016-07-01

    Additive manufacturing enables fabrication of materials with intricate cellular architecture, whereby progress in 3D printing techniques is increasing the possible configurations of voids and solids ad infinitum. Examples are microlattices with graded porosity and truss structures optimized for specific loading conditions. The cellular architecture determines the mechanical properties and density of these materials and can influence a wide range of other properties, e.g., acoustic, thermal, and biological properties. By combining optimized cellular architectures with high-performance metals and ceramics, several lightweight materials that exhibit strength and stiffness previously unachievable at low densities were recently demonstrated. This review introduces the field of architected materials; summarizes the most common fabrication methods, with an emphasis on additive manufacturing; and discusses recent progress in the development of architected materials. The review also discusses important applications, including lightweight structures, energy absorption, metamaterials, thermal management, and bioscaffolds.

  2. Extraterrestrial materials processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steurer, W. H.

    1982-01-01

    The first year results of a multi-year study of processing extraterrestrial materials for use in space are summarized. Theoretically, there are potential major advantages to be derived from the use of such materials for future space endeavors. The types of known or postulated starting raw materials are described including silicate-rich mixed oxides on the Moon, some asteroids and Mars; free metals in some asteroids and in small quantities in the lunar soil; and probably volatiles like water and CO2 on Mars and some asteroids. Candidate processes for space materials are likely to be significantly different from their terrestrial counterparts largely because of: absence of atmosphere; lack of of readily available working fluids; low- or micro-gravity; no carbon-based fuels; readily available solar energy; and severe constraints on manned intervention. The extraction of metals and oxygen from lunar material by magma electrolysis or by vapor/ion phase separation appears practical.

  3. Porous Organic Molecular Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, Jian; Thallapally, Praveen K.; McGrail, B. Peter

    2012-01-01

    Most nanoporous materials with molecular-scale pores are extended frameworks composed of directional covalent or coordination bonding, such as porous metal-organic frameworks and organic network polymers. By contrast, nanoporous materials comprised of discrete organic molecules, between which there are only weak non-covalent interactions, are seldom encountered. Indeed, most organic molecules pack efficiently in the solid state to minimize the void volume, leading to non-porous materials. In recent years, a significant number of nanoporous organic molecular materials, which may be either crystalline or amorphous, have been confirmed by the studies of gas adsorption and they are surveyed in this Highlight. In addition, the possible advantages of porous organic molecular materials over porous networks are discussed.

  4. Materials of Gasification

    SciTech Connect

    2005-09-15

    The objective of this project was to accumulate and establish a database of construction materials, coatings, refractory liners, and transitional materials that are appropriate for the hardware and scale-up facilities for atmospheric biomass and coal gasification processes. Cost, fabricability, survivability, contamination, modes of corrosion, failure modes, operational temperatures, strength, and compatibility are all areas of materials science for which relevant data would be appropriate. The goal will be an established expertise of materials for the fossil energy area within WRI. This would be an effort to narrow down the overwhelming array of materials information sources to the relevant set which provides current and accurate data for materials selection for fossil fuels processing plant. A significant amount of reference material on materials has been located, examined and compiled. The report that describes these resources is well under way. The reference material is in many forms including texts, periodicals, websites, software and expert systems. The most important part of the labor is to refine the vast array of available resources to information appropriate in content, size and reliability for the tasks conducted by WRI and its clients within the energy field. A significant has been made to collate and capture the best and most up to date references. The resources of the University of Wyoming have been used extensively as a local and assessable location of information. As such, the distribution of materials within the UW library has been added as a portion of the growing document. Literature from recent journals has been combed for all pertinent references to high temperature energy based applications. Several software packages have been examined for relevance and usefulness towards applications in coal gasification and coal fired plant. Collation of the many located resources has been ongoing. Some web-based resources have been examined.

  5. Materials Research Capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stofan, Andrew J.

    1986-01-01

    Lewis Research Center, in partnership with U.S. industry and academia, has long been a major force in developing advanced aerospace propulsion and power systems. One key aspect that made many of these systems possible has been the availability of high-performance, reliable, and long-life materials. To assure a continuing flow of new materials and processing concepts, basic understanding to guide such innovation, and technological support for development of major NASA systems, Lewis has supported a strong in-house materials research activity. Our researchers have discovered new alloys, polymers, metallic composites, ceramics, coatings, processing techniques, etc., which are now also in use by U.S. industry. This brochure highlights selected past accomplishments of our materials research and technology staff. It also provides many examples of the facilities available with which we can conduct materials research. The nation is now beginning to consider integrating technology for high-performance supersonic/hypersonic aircraft, nuclear space power systems, a space station, and new research areas such as materials processing in space. As we proceed, I am confident that our materials research staff will continue to provide important contributions which will help our nation maintain a strong technology position in these areas of growing world competition. Lewis Research Center, in partnership with U.S. industry and academia, has long been a major force in developing advanced aerospace propulsion and power systems. One key aspect that made many of these systems possible has been the availability of high-performance, reliable, and long-life materials. To assure a continuing flow of new materials and processing concepts, basic understanding to guide such innovation, and technological support for development of major NASA systems, Lewis has supported a strong in-house materials research activity. Our researchers have discovered new alloys, polymers, metallic composites

  6. Materials at LANL

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Antoinette J

    2010-01-01

    Exploring the physics, chemistry, and metallurgy of materials has been a primary focus of Los Alamos National Laboratory since its inception. In the early 1940s, very little was known or understood about plutonium, uranium, or their alloys. In addition, several new ionic, polymeric, and energetic materials with unique properties were needed in the development of nuclear weapons. As the Laboratory has evolved, and as missions in threat reduction, defense, energy, and meeting other emerging national challenges have been added, the role of materials science has expanded with the need for continued improvement in our understanding of the structure and properties of materials and in our ability to synthesize and process materials with unique characteristics. Materials science and engineering continues to be central to this Laboratory's success, and the materials capability truly spans the entire laboratory - touching upon numerous divisions and directorates and estimated to include >1/3 of the lab's technical staff. In 2006, Los Alamos and LANS LLC began to redefine our future, building upon the laboratory's established strengths and promoted by strongly interdependent science, technology and engineering capabilities. Eight Grand Challenges for Science were set forth as a technical framework for bridging across capabilities. Two of these grand challenges, Fundamental Understanding of Materials and Superconductivity and Actinide Science. were clearly materials-centric and were led out of our organizations. The complexity of these scientific thrusts was fleshed out through workshops involving cross-disciplinary teams. These teams refined the grand challenge concepts into actionable descriptions to be used as guidance for decisions like our LDRD strategic investment strategies and as the organizing basis for our external review process. In 2008, the Laboratory published 'Building the Future of Los Alamos. The Premier National Security Science Laboratory,' LA-UR-08

  7. NSUF Irradiated Materials Library

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, James Irvin

    2015-09-01

    The Nuclear Science User Facilities has been in the process of establishing an innovative Irradiated Materials Library concept for maximizing the value of previous and on-going materials and nuclear fuels irradiation test campaigns, including utilization of real-world components retrieved from current and decommissioned reactors. When the ATR national scientific user facility was established in 2007 one of the goals of the program was to establish a library of irradiated samples for users to access and conduct research through competitively reviewed proposal process. As part of the initial effort, staff at the user facility identified legacy materials from previous programs that are still being stored in laboratories and hot-cell facilities at the INL. In addition other materials of interest were identified that are being stored outside the INL that the current owners have volunteered to enter into the library. Finally, over the course of the last several years, the ATR NSUF has irradiated more than 3500 specimens as part of NSUF competitively awarded research projects. The Logistics of managing this large inventory of highly radioactive poses unique challenges. This document will describe materials in the library, outline the policy for accessing these materials and put forth a strategy for making new additions to the library as well as establishing guidelines for minimum pedigree needed to be included in the library to limit the amount of material stored indefinitely without identified value.

  8. Encapsulation materials research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, P. B.

    1984-01-01

    Encapsulation materials for solar cells were investigated. The different phases consisted of: (1) identification and development of low cost module encapsulation materials; (2) materials reliability examination; and (3) process sensitivity and process development. It is found that outdoor photothermal aging devices (OPT) are the best accelerated aging methods, simulate worst case field conditions, evaluate formulation and module performance and have a possibility for life assessment. Outdoor metallic copper exposure should be avoided, self priming formulations have good storage stability, stabilizers enhance performance, and soil resistance treatment is still effective.

  9. Composite Structural Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ansell, G. S.; Loewy, R. G.; Wiberly, S. E.

    1984-01-01

    The development and application of filamentary composite materials, is considered. Such interest is based on the possibility of using relatively brittle materials with high modulus, high strength, but low density in composites with good durability and high tolerance to damage. Fiber reinforced composite materials of this kind offer substantially improved performance and potentially lower costs for aerospace hardware. Much progress has been made since the initial developments in the mid 1960's. There were only limited applied to the primary structure of operational vehicles, mainly as aircrafts.

  10. Material Challenges and Perspectives

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Daiwon; Wang, Wei; Yang, Zhenguo

    2011-12-14

    General history and principals of Li-ion battery, characterization techniques and terminology of its operation will be discussed and explained. Current Li-ion battery applications and comparison to other energy storage and conversion systems will be outlined. Chemistry, material and design of currently commercialized Li-ion batteries will be discussed including various electrode materials for cathodes and anodes. The electrode material candidates and its physical and chemical properties including crystal structure, capacity, cycling stability, cost and safety. Also, current limitations of Li-ion batteries will be discussed.

  11. Composite structural materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loewy, R.; Wiberley, S. E.

    1986-01-01

    Overall emphasis is on basic long-term research in the following categories: constituent materials, composite materials, generic structural elements, processing science technology; and maintaining long-term structural integrity. Research in basic composition, characteristics, and processing science of composite materials and their constituents is balanced against the mechanics, conceptual design, fabrication, and testing of generic structural elements typical of aerospace vehicles so as to encourage the discovery of unusual solutions to present and future problems. Detailed descriptions of the progress achieved in the various component parts of this comprehensive program are presented.

  12. Biomedical materials and devices

    SciTech Connect

    Hanker, J. S. ); Giammara, B. L. )

    1989-01-01

    This conference reports on how biomedical materials and devices are undergoing important changes that require interdisciplinary approaches, innovation expertise, and access to sophisticated preparative and analytical equipment and methodologies. The interaction of materials scientists with biomedical, biotechnological, bioengineering and clinical scientists in the last decade has resulted in major advances in therapy. New therapeutic modalities and bioengineering methods and devices for the continuous removal of toxins or pathologic products present in arthritis, atherosclerosis and malignancy are presented. Novel monitoring and controlled drug delivery systems and discussions of materials such as blood or plasma substitutes, artificial organs, and bone graft substitutes are discussed.

  13. ATS materials/manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Karnitz, M.A.; Wright, I.G.; Ferber, M.K.

    1997-11-01

    The Materials/Manufacturing Technology subelement is a part of the base technology portion of the Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) Program. The work in this subelement is being performed predominantly by industry with assistance from national laboratories and universities. The projects in this subelement are aimed toward hastening the incorporation of new materials and components in gas turbines. Work is currently ongoing on thermal barrier coatings (TBCs), the scale-up of single crystal airfoil manufacturing technologies, materials characterization, and technology information exchange. This paper presents highlights of the activities during the past year. 12 refs., 24 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. Investigating Encrypted Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGrath, Niall; Gladyshev, Pavel; Kechadi, Tahar; Carthy, Joe

    When encrypted material is discovered during a digital investigation and the investigator cannot decrypt the material then s/he is faced with the problem of how to determine the evidential value of the material. This research is proposing a methodology of extracting probative value from the encrypted file of a hybrid cryptosystem. The methodology also incorporates a technique for locating the original plaintext file. Since child pornography (KP) images and terrorist related information (TI) are transmitted in encrypted format the digital investigator must ask the question Cui Bono? - who benefits or who is the recipient? By doing this the scope of the digital investigation can be extended to reveal the intended recipient.

  15. Fissile material detector

    DOEpatents

    Ivanov, Alexander I.; Lushchikov, Vladislav I.; Shabalin, Eugeny P.; Maznyy, Nikita G.; Khvastunov, Michael M.; Rowland, Mark

    2002-01-01

    A detector for fissile materials which provides for integrity monitoring of fissile materials and can be used for nondestructive assay to confirm the presence of a stable content of fissile material in items. The detector has a sample cavity large enough to enable assay of large items of arbitrary configuration, utilizes neutron sources fabricated in spatially extended shapes mounted on the endcaps of the sample cavity, incorporates a thermal neutron filter insert with reflector properties, and the electronics module includes a neutron multiplicity coincidence counter.

  16. RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS SENSORS

    SciTech Connect

    Mayo, Robert M.; Stephens, Daniel L.

    2009-09-15

    Providing technical means to detect, prevent, and reverse the threat of potential illicit use of radiological or nuclear materials is among the greatest challenges facing contemporary science and technology. In this short article, we provide brief description and overview of the state-of-the-art in sensor development for the detection of radioactive materials, as well as an identification of the technical needs and challenges faced by the detection community. We begin with a discussion of gamma-ray and neutron detectors and spectrometers, followed by a description of imaging sensors, active interrogation, and materials development, before closing with a brief discussion of the unique challenges posed in fielding sensor systems.

  17. Materials science and engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Holden, T.M.

    1995-10-01

    The science-based stockpile stewardship program emphasizes a better understanding of how complex components function through advanced computer calculations. Many of the problem areas are in the behavior of materials making up the equipment. The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) can contribute to solving these problems by providing diagnostic tools to examine parts noninvasively and by providing the experimental tools to understand material behavior in terms of both the atomic structure and the microstructure. Advanced computer codes need experimental information on material behavior in response to stress, temperature, and pressure as input, and they need benchmarking experiments to test the model predictions for the finished part.

  18. Gravity and Granular Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behringer, R. P.; Hovell, Daniel; Kondic, Lou; Tennakoon, Sarath; Veje, Christian

    1999-01-01

    We describe experiments that probe a number of different types of granular flow where either gravity is effectively eliminated or it is modulated in time. These experiments include the shaking of granular materials both vertically and horizontally, and the shearing of a 2D granular material. For the shaken system, we identify interesting dynamical phenomena and relate them to standard simple friction models. An interesting application of this set of experiments is to the mixing of dissimilar materials. For the sheared system we identify a new kind of dynamical phase transition.

  19. Materials for syngas coolers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perkins, R. A.; Morse, G.; Coons, W. C.

    1982-08-01

    A technical basis for materials selection and laboratory testing of practical boiler tube materials which will provide reliable long term service in syngas coolers for coal gasification combined cycle power plants is outlined. The resistance of low alloy steel, stainless steels, and aluminum rich coatings to attach by a high sulfur, medium Btu coal gasification atmosphere was evaluated at 300 to 500 deg C. The materials may have adequate resistance for long time service in radiant coolers operating up to 500 deg C on high sulfur medium Btu gas. Performance is analyzed for thermodynamic and kinetic properties and recommendations for long term tests and development of protective coatings are presented.

  20. Electrically conductive composite material

    DOEpatents

    Clough, Roger L.; Sylwester, Alan P.

    1989-01-01

    An electrically conductive composite material is disclosed which comprises a conductive open-celled, low density, microcellular carbon foam filled with a non-conductive polymer or resin. The composite material is prepared in a two-step process consisting of first preparing the microcellular carbon foam from a carbonizable polymer or copolymer using a phase separation process, then filling the carbon foam with the desired non-conductive polymer or resin. The electrically conductive composites of the present invention has a uniform and consistant pattern of filler distribution, and as a result is superior over prior art materials when used in battery components, electrodes, and the like.

  1. Electrically conductive composite material

    DOEpatents

    Clough, R.L.; Sylwester, A.P.

    1988-06-20

    An electrically conductive composite material is disclosed which comprises a conductive open-celled, low density, microcellular carbon foam filled with a non-conductive polymer or resin. The composite material is prepared in a two-step process consisting of first preparing the microcellular carbon foam from a carbonizable polymer or copolymer using a phase separation process, then filling the carbon foam with the desired non-conductive polymer or resin. The electrically conductive composites of the present invention has a uniform and consistent pattern of filler distribution, and as a result is superior over prior art materials when used in battery components, electrodes, and the like. 2 figs.

  2. Phase-change materials handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hale, D. V.; Hoover, M. J.; Oneill, M. J.

    1972-01-01

    Handbook describes relationship between phase-change materials and more conventional thermal control techniques and discusses materials' space and terrestrial applications. Material properties of most promising phase-change materials and purposes and uses of metallic filler materials in phase-change material composites are provided.

  3. Lunar material transport vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, Charles D.; Lyons, Douglas; Wilkins, W. Allen, Jr.; Whitehead, Harry C., Jr.

    1988-03-01

    The proposed vehicle, the Lunar Material Transport Vehicle (LMTV), has a mission objective of efficient lunar soil material transport. The LMTV was designed to meet a required set of performance specifications while operating under a given set of constraints. The LMTV is essentially an articulated steering, double-ended dump truck. The vehicle moves on four wheels and has two identical chassis halves. Each half consists of a chassis frame, a material bucket, two wheels with integral curvilinear synchronous motors, a fuel cell and battery arrangement, an electromechanically actuated dumping mechanism, and a powerful microprocessor. The vehicle, as designed, is capable of transporting up to 200 cu ft of material over a one mile round trip per hour. The LMTV is capable of being operated from a variety of sources. The vehicle has been designed as simply as possible with attention also given to secondary usage of components.

  4. Electrically conductive material

    DOEpatents

    Singh, J.P.; Bosak, A.L.; McPheeters, C.C.; Dees, D.W.

    1993-09-07

    An electrically conductive material is described for use in solid oxide fuel cells, electrochemical sensors for combustion exhaust, and various other applications possesses increased fracture toughness over available materials, while affording the same electrical conductivity. One embodiment of the sintered electrically conductive material consists essentially of cubic ZrO[sub 2] as a matrix and 6-19 wt. % monoclinic ZrO[sub 2] formed from particles having an average size equal to or greater than about 0.23 microns. Another embodiment of the electrically conductive material consists essentially at cubic ZrO[sub 2] as a matrix and 10-30 wt. % partially stabilized zirconia (PSZ) formed from particles having an average size of approximately 3 microns. 8 figures.

  5. Dynamics of Granular Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behringer, Robert P.

    1996-01-01

    Granular materials exhibit a rich variety of dynamical behavior, much of which is poorly understood. Fractal-like stress chains, convection, a variety of wave dynamics, including waves which resemble capillary waves, l/f noise, and fractional Brownian motion provide examples. Work beginning at Duke will focus on gravity driven convection, mixing and gravitational collapse. Although granular materials consist of collections of interacting particles, there are important differences between the dynamics of a collections of grains and the dynamics of a collections of molecules. In particular, the ergodic hypothesis is generally invalid for granular materials, so that ordinary statistical physics does not apply. In the absence of a steady energy input, granular materials undergo a rapid collapse which is strongly influenced by the presence of gravity. Fluctuations on laboratory scales in such quantities as the stress can be very large-as much as an order of magnitude greater than the mean.

  6. Organic materials: Fantastic plastic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaudiana, Russell; Brabec, Christoph

    2008-05-01

    Polymer materials could bring down the cost of electricity production using photovoltaic technology to below $1 per watt for the first time, and enable mass-market, portable applications for photovoltaic technology.

  7. Handling Hazardous Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piper, James; Piverotto, John

    1990-01-01

    Describes a 16-hour course in hazard communication for vocational instructors, which teaches the proper use, storage, and disposal of hazardous materials in the laboratory as well as techniques for teaching safety. (SK)

  8. Ceramic breeder materials

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, C.E.

    1990-01-01

    The breeding blanket is a key component of the fusion reactor because it directly involves tritium breeding and energy extraction, both of which are critical to development of fusion power. The lithium ceramics continue to show promise as candidate breeder materials. This promise was recognized by the International Thermonuclear Reactor (ITER) design team in its selection of ceramics as the first option for the ITER breeder material. Blanket design studies have indicated properties in the candidate materials data base that need further investigation. Current studies are focusing on tritium release behavior at high burnup, changes in thermophysical properties with burnup, compatibility between the ceramic breeder and beryllium multiplier, and phase changes with burnup. Laboratory and in-reactor tests, some as part of an international collaboration for development of ceramic breeder materials, are underway. 32 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  9. Materials research at CMAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zucchiatti, Alessandro

    2013-07-01

    The Centro de Micro Analisis de Materiales (CMAM) is a research centre of the Universidad Autónoma de Madrid dedicated to the modification and analysis of materials using ion beam techniques. The infrastructure, based on a HVEE 5MV tandem accelerator, provided with a coaxial Cockcroft Walton charging system, is fully open to research groups of the UAM, to other public research institutions and to private enterprises. The CMAM research covers a few important lines such as advanced materials, surface science, biomedical materials, cultural heritage, materials for energy production. The Centre gives as well support to university teaching and technical training. A detail description of the research infrastructures and their use statistics will be given. Some of the main research results will be presented to show the progress of research in the Centre in the past few years and to motivate the strategic plans for the forthcoming.

  10. Materials research at CMAM

    SciTech Connect

    Zucchiatti, Alessandro

    2013-07-18

    The Centro de Micro Analisis de Materiales (CMAM) is a research centre of the Universidad Autonoma de Madrid dedicated to the modification and analysis of materials using ion beam techniques. The infrastructure, based on a HVEE 5MV tandem accelerator, provided with a coaxial Cockcroft Walton charging system, is fully open to research groups of the UAM, to other public research institutions and to private enterprises. The CMAM research covers a few important lines such as advanced materials, surface science, biomedical materials, cultural heritage, materials for energy production. The Centre gives as well support to university teaching and technical training. A detail description of the research infrastructures and their use statistics will be given. Some of the main research results will be presented to show the progress of research in the Centre in the past few years and to motivate the strategic plans for the forthcoming.

  11. Building Materials Property Table

    SciTech Connect

    2010-04-16

    This information sheet describes a table of some of the key technical properties of many of the most common building materials taken from ASHRAE Fundamentals - 2001, Moisture Control in Buildings, CMHC, NRC/IRC, IEA Annex 24, and manufacturer data.

  12. Quasicrystals: Making invisible materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boriskina, Svetlana V.

    2015-07-01

    All-dielectric photonic quasicrystals may act as zero-refractive-index homogeneous materials despite their lack of translational symmetry and periodicity, stretching wavelengths to infinity and offering applications in light wavefront sculpting and optical cloaking.

  13. Developments in carbon materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burchell, Timothy D.

    1994-01-01

    The following carbon-based materials are reviewed and their applications discussed: fullerenes; graphite (synthetic and manufactured); activated carbon fibers; and carbon-carbon composites. Carbon R&D activities at ORNL are emphasized.

  14. Photoconductivity in Dirac materials

    SciTech Connect

    Shao, J. M.; Yang, G. W.

    2015-11-15

    Two-dimensional (2D) Dirac materials including graphene and the surface of a three-dimensional (3D) topological insulator, and 3D Dirac materials including 3D Dirac semimetal and Weyl semimetal have attracted great attention due to their linear Dirac nodes and exotic properties. Here, we use the Fermi’s golden rule and Boltzmann equation within the relaxation time approximation to study and compare the photoconductivity of Dirac materials under different far- or mid-infrared irradiation. Theoretical results show that the photoconductivity exhibits the anisotropic property under the polarized irradiation, but the anisotropic strength is different between 2D and 3D Dirac materials. The photoconductivity depends strongly on the relaxation time for different scattering mechanism, just like the dark conductivity.

  15. Unusual spacecraft materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Post, Jonathan V.

    1990-01-01

    For particularly innovative space exploration missions, unusual requirements are levied on the structural components of the spacecraft. In many cases, the preferred solution is the utilization of unusual materials. This trend is forecast to continue. Several hypothetic examples are discussed.

  16. Nuclear material operations manual

    SciTech Connect

    Tyler, R.P.

    1981-02-01

    This manual provides a concise and comprehensive documentation of the operating procedures currently practiced at Sandia National Laboratories with regard to the management, control, and accountability of nuclear materials. The manual is divided into chapters which are devoted to the separate functions performed in nuclear material operations-management, control, accountability, and safeguards, and the final two chapters comprise a document which is also issued separately to provide a summary of the information and operating procedures relevant to custodians and users of radioactive and nuclear materials. The manual also contains samples of the forms utilized in carrying out nuclear material activities. To enhance the clarity of presentation, operating procedures are presented in the form of playscripts in which the responsible organizations and necessary actions are clearly delineated in a chronological fashion from the initiation of a transaction to its completion.

  17. Holographic Recording Materials Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verber, C. M.; Schwerzel, R. E.; Perry, P. J.; Craig, R. A.

    1976-01-01

    Organic photorefractive materials were evaluated for application in a reversible holographic memory system. Representative indigo and thioindigo derivatives and several stilbene derivatives were studied as well as 15, 16-dialkyldihydropyrene derivatives the following goals were achieved: (1) the successful writing of phase holograms in a thioindigo/polymer gel system, (2) the successful writing and erasing of phase holograms in a variety of indigo/polymer gel and indigo/solid polymer systems, and (3) the identification of indigoid dyes and 15, 16-dialkyldihydropyrene derivatives as materials potentially suitable for utilization in an operational system. Photochemical studies of the stilbene, indigo, thioindigo, and dialkyldihydropyrene derivatives in solution and in a variety of polymer matrix materials were conducted with the goal of optimizing the photorefractive behavior of the chemical system as a whole. The spectroscopic properties required of optimal photorefractive materials were identified, and it was shown that both the indigoid dyes and the dialkyldihydropyrenes closely match the required properties.

  18. Indigenous lunar construction materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Wayne; Sture, Stein

    1991-01-01

    The objectives are the following: to investigate the feasibility of the use of local lunar resources for construction of a lunar base structure; to develop a material processing method and integrate the method with design and construction of a pressurized habitation structure; to estimate specifications of the support equipment necessary for material processing and construction; and to provide parameters for systems models of lunar base constructions, supply, and operations. The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: comparison of various lunar structures; guidelines for material processing methods; cast lunar regolith; examples of cast basalt components; cast regolith process; processing equipment; mechanical properties of cast basalt; material properties and structural design; and future work.

  19. Lunar material transport vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Charles D.; Lyons, Douglas; Wilkins, W. Allen, Jr.; Whitehead, Harry C., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The proposed vehicle, the Lunar Material Transport Vehicle (LMTV), has a mission objective of efficient lunar soil material transport. The LMTV was designed to meet a required set of performance specifications while operating under a given set of constraints. The LMTV is essentially an articulated steering, double-ended dump truck. The vehicle moves on four wheels and has two identical chassis halves. Each half consists of a chassis frame, a material bucket, two wheels with integral curvilinear synchronous motors, a fuel cell and battery arrangement, an electromechanically actuated dumping mechanism, and a powerful microprocessor. The vehicle, as designed, is capable of transporting up to 200 cu ft of material over a one mile round trip per hour. The LMTV is capable of being operated from a variety of sources. The vehicle has been designed as simply as possible with attention also given to secondary usage of components.

  20. Cookoff of energetic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Baer, M.R.; Hobbs, M.L.; Gross, R.J.; Schmitt, R.G.

    1998-09-01

    An overview of cookoff modeling at Sandia National Laboratories is presented aimed at assessing the violence of reaction following cookoff of confined energetic materials. During cookoff, the response of energetic materials is known to involve coupled thermal/chemical/mechanical processes which induce thermal damage to the energetic material prior to the onset of ignition. These damaged states enhance shock sensitivity and lead to conditions favoring self-supported accelerated combustion. Thus, the level of violence depends on the competition between pressure buildup and stress release due to the loss of confinement. To model these complex processes, finite element-based analysis capabilities are being developed which can resolve coupled heat transfer with chemistry, quasi-static structural mechanics and dynamic response. Numerical simulations that assess the level of violence demonstrate the importance of determining material damage in pre- and post-ignition cookoff events.

  1. Tough Composite Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vosteen, L. F. (Compiler); Johnson, N. J. (Compiler); Teichman, L. A. (Compiler)

    1984-01-01

    Papers and working group summaries are presented which address composite material behavior and performance improvement. Topic areas include composite fracture toughness and impact characterization, constituent properties and interrelationships, and matrix synthesis and characterization.

  2. CHARACTERIZATION OF DAMAGED MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, P C; Dehaven, M; McClelland, M; Chidester, S; Maienschein, J L

    2006-06-23

    Thermal damage experiments were conducted on LX-04, LX-10, and LX-17 at high temperatures. Both pristine and damaged samples were characterized for their material properties. A pycnometer was used to determine sample true density and porosity. Gas permeability was measured in a newly procured system (diffusion permeameter). Burn rate was measured in the LLNL strand burner. Weight losses upon thermal exposure were insignificant. Damaged pressed parts expanded, resulting in a reduction of bulk density by up to 10%. Both gas permeabilities and burn rates of the damaged samples increased by several orders of magnitude due to higher porosity and lower density. Moduli of the damaged materials decreased significantly, an indication that the materials became weaker mechanically. Damaged materials were more sensitive to shock initiation at high temperatures. No significant sensitization was observed when the damaged samples were tested at room temperature.

  3. Strongly correlated electronic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Bedell, K.; Albers, R.; Balatsky, A.; Bishop, A.; Bonca, J.; Gubernatis, J.; Gulasci, M.; Silver, R.; Trugman, S.

    1996-04-01

    This is the final report of a 3-year project. Novel electronic materials characterized by strong electronic correlations display a number of unexpected, often extraordinary, properties. These are likely to play a major role in purpose-specific high-technology electronic materials of the future developed for electronic, magnetic, and optical applications. This project sought to develop predictive control of the novel properties by formulating, solving and applying many-body models for the underlying microscopic physics. This predictive control required the development of new analytical and numerical many-body techniques and strategies for materials of varying strengths of interactions, dimensionality and geometry. Results are compared with experiment on classes of novel materials, and the robust techniques are used to predict additional properties and motivate key additional experiments.

  4. Composite structural materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ansell, G. S.; Loewy, R. G.; Wiberley, S. E.

    1982-01-01

    The promise of filamentary composite materials, whose development may be considered as entering its second generation, continues to generate intense interest and applications activity. Fiber reinforced composite materials offer substantially improved performance and potentially lower costs for aerospace hardware. Much progress has been achieved since the initial developments in the mid 1960's. Rather limited applications to primary aircraft structure have been made, however, mainly in a material-substitution mode on military aircraft, except for a few experiments currently underway on large passenger airplanes in commercial operation. To fulfill the promise of composite materials completely requires a strong technology base. NASA and AFOSR recognize the present state of the art to be such that to fully exploit composites in sophisticated aerospace structures, the technology base must be improved. This, in turn, calls for expanding fundamental knowledge and the means by which it can be successfully applied in design and manufacture.

  5. Mesoporous carbon materials

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, Sheng; Wang, Xiqing

    2012-02-14

    The invention is directed to a method for fabricating a mesoporous carbon material, the method comprising subjecting a precursor composition to a curing step followed by a carbonization step, the precursor composition comprising: (i) a templating component comprised of a block copolymer, (ii) a phenolic compound or material, (iii) a crosslinkable aldehyde component, and (iv) at least 0.5 M concentration of a strong acid having a pKa of or less than -2, wherein said carbonization step comprises heating the precursor composition at a carbonizing temperature for sufficient time to convert the precursor composition to a mesoporous carbon material. The invention is also directed to a mesoporous carbon material having an improved thermal stability, preferably produced according to the above method.

  6. Degradation of Spacecraft Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dever, Joyce; Banks, Bruce; deGroh, Kim; Miller, Sharon

    2004-01-01

    This chapter includes descriptions of specific space environmental threats to exterior spacecraft materials. The scope will be confined to effects on exterior spacecraft surfaces, and will not, therefore, address environmental effects on interior spacecraft systems, such as electronics. Space exposure studies and laboratory simulations of individual and combined space environemntal threats will be summarized. A significant emphasis is placed on effects of Earth orbit environments, because the majority of space missions have been flown in Earth orbits which have provided a significant amount of data on materials effects. Issues associated with interpreting materials degradation results will be discussed, and deficiencies of ground testing will be identified. Recommendations are provided on reducing or preventing space environmental degradation through appropriate materials selection.

  7. Mesoporous carbon materials

    DOEpatents

    Dai, Sheng; Wang, Xiqing

    2013-08-20

    The invention is directed to a method for fabricating a mesoporous carbon material, the method comprising subjecting a precursor composition to a curing step followed by a carbonization step, the precursor composition comprising: (i) a templating component comprised of a block copolymer, (ii) a phenolic compound or material, (iii) a crosslinkable aldehyde component, and (iv) at least 0.5 M concentration of a strong acid having a pKa of or less than -2, wherein said carbonization step comprises heating the precursor composition at a carbonizing temperature for sufficient time to convert the precursor composition to a mesoporous carbon material. The invention is also directed to a mesoporous carbon material having an improved thermal stability, preferably produced according to the above method.

  8. EDITORIAL: Electroactive polymer materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Kim, Kwang J.; Ryeol Choi, Hyouk; Madden, John D. W.

    2007-04-01

    Imitating nature's mechanisms offers enormous potential for the improvement of our lives and the tools we use. This field of the study and imitation of, and inspiration from, nature's methods, designs and processes is known as biomimetics. Artificial muscles, i.e. electroactive polymers (EAPs), are one of the emerging technologies enabling biomimetics. Polymers that can be stimulated to change shape or size have been known for many years. The activation mechanisms of such polymers include electrical, chemical, pneumatic, optical and magnetic. Electrical excitation is one of the most attractive stimulators able to produce elastic deformation in polymers. The convenience and practicality of electrical stimulation and the continual improvement in capabilities make EAP materials some of the most attractive among activatable polymers (Bar-Cohen Y (ed) 2004 Electroactive Polymer (EAP) Actuators as Artificial Muscles—Reality, Potential and Challenges 2nd edn, vol PM136 (Bellingham, WA: SPIE Press) pp 1-765). As polymers, EAP materials offer many appealing characteristics that include low weight, fracture tolerance and pliability. Furthermore, they can be configured into almost any conceivable shape and their properties can be tailored to suit a broad range of requirements. These capabilities and the significant change of shape or size under electrical stimulation while being able to endure many cycles of actuation are inspiring many potential possibilities for EAP materials among engineers and scientists in many different disciplines. Practitioners in biomimetics are particularly excited about these materials since they can be used to mimic the movements of animals and insects. Potentially, mechanisms actuated by EAPs will enable engineers to create devices previously imaginable only in science fiction. For many years EAP materials received relatively little attention due to their poor actuation capability and the small number of available materials. In the last fifteen

  9. Electrically conductive material

    DOEpatents

    Singh, Jitendra P.; Bosak, Andrea L.; McPheeters, Charles C.; Dees, Dennis W.

    1993-01-01

    An electrically conductive material for use in solid oxide fuel cells, electrochemical sensors for combustion exhaust, and various other applications possesses increased fracture toughness over available materials, while affording the same electrical conductivity. One embodiment of the sintered electrically conductive material consists essentially of cubic ZrO.sub.2 as a matrix and 6-19 wt. % monoclinic ZrO.sub.2 formed from particles having an average size equal to or greater than about 0.23 microns. Another embodiment of the electrically conductive material consists essentially at cubic ZrO.sub.2 as a matrix and 10-30 wt. % partially stabilized zirconia (PSZ) formed from particles having an average size of approximately 3 microns.

  10. Reversible hydrogen storage materials

    DOEpatents

    Ritter, James A.; Wang, Tao; Ebner, Armin D.; Holland, Charles E.

    2012-04-10

    In accordance with the present disclosure, a process for synthesis of a complex hydride material for hydrogen storage is provided. The process includes mixing a borohydride with at least one additive agent and at least one catalyst and heating the mixture at a temperature of less than about 600.degree. C. and a pressure of H.sub.2 gas to form a complex hydride material. The complex hydride material comprises MAl.sub.xB.sub.yH.sub.z, wherein M is an alkali metal or group IIA metal, Al is the element aluminum, x is any number from 0 to 1, B is the element boron, y is a number from 0 to 13, and z is a number from 4 to 57 with the additive agent and catalyst still being present. The complex hydride material is capable of cyclic dehydrogenation and rehydrogenation and has a hydrogen capacity of at least about 4 weight percent.