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Sample records for materialy pouzite pro

  1. Genie Pro

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2004-05-15

    Genie Pro is a general purpose, interactive, adaptive tool for automatically labeling regions and finding objects in large amounts of image data. Genie Pro uses supervised learning techniques to search for spatio-spectral algorithms that are best able to match exaple labels provided by a user during a training session. After Genie Pro has discovered a useful algorithm, this algorith can then be applied to other similar types of image data, to label regions and objectsmore » similar to those provided during the training session. Genie Pro was originally developed for analyzing multispectral satellite data, but it works equally well with panchromatic (grayscale) and hyperspectral satellite data, aerial imagery, and various kinds of medical imagery. AS a rough guideline, Genie Pro can work with any imagery where the scene being imaged is all approximately at a constant distance fromt he imaging device, and so the scale of imagery is fixed. Applications for Genie Pro include: Crop and terrain type mapping, Road and river network mapping, Broad area search for vehicles and buildings, and Cancer identification in histological images.« less

  2. ProMat

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2008-06-12

    ProMAT is a software tool for statistically analyzing data from enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay microarray experiments. The software estimates standard curves, sample protein concentrations and their uncertainties for multiple assays. ProMAT generates a set of comprehensive figures for assessing results and diagnosing process quality. The tool is available for Windows or Mac, and is distributed as open-source Java and R code

  3. PRO-140 (Progenics).

    PubMed

    Poli, G

    2001-09-01

    PRO-140, a monoclonal antibody against the HIV coreceptor CCR5, is under investigation by Progenics and the Aaron Diamond AIDS Research Center (ADARC) as a potential treatment for HIV infection [211441], [286246], [286247]. Phase I/II trials were expected to commence during 2001 [395621], [409142], despite being initially planned for 2000 [322637], [361819], [365216], [375598], [408483]. In January 1998, ADARC and Progenics reported that the HIV binding site on the CCR5 coreceptor is distinct from betachemokine binding domains, which they claimed may allow for the development of therapeutics with fewer side effects [273391], 421256]. In vitro studies have shown PRO-140 potently blocked all of 17 primary HIV isolates that use CCR5 as a fusion coreceptor [342173]. In October 2000, Progenics was awarded an SBIR grant to fund a 2-year project exploring the breadth, potency and durability of PRO-140 therapy in laboratory and animal models of HIV infection. This project was a collaboration between Progenics, Weill Medical College of Cornell University and the Scripps Research Institute [385982]. In May 1999, the company entered into an agreement with Protein Design Labs (PDL) for the humanization by PDL of PRO-140 [325445]. In November 1997, Progenics was awarded a 600,000 dollars grant from the NIAID for the examination of new approaches to HIV vaccine design based on CCR5 [268407]. PMID:15965853

  4. TOXIRAE PRO PID

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ToxiRAE Pro PID measures total volatile organic compounds (VOCs) using a photoionization detector (PID). This sensor can be programmed to measure concentrations of a specified compound automatically and has a real time reading of VOC concentrations in parts per million (ppm) ...

  5. The angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory tripeptides Ile-Pro-Pro and Val-Pro-Pro show increasing permeabilities with increasing physiological relevance of absorption models.

    PubMed

    Foltz, Martin; Cerstiaens, Anja; van Meensel, Ans; Mols, Raf; van der Pijl, Pieter C; Duchateau, Guus S M J E; Augustijns, Patrick

    2008-08-01

    Transepithelial transport of the ACE inhibitory peptides Ile-Pro-Pro and Val-Pro-Pro was studied in different models of absorption. Apparent permeability (P(app)) values for absorptive transport across Caco-2 monolayers were 1.0+/-0.9 x 10(-8) (Ile-Pro-Pro) and 0.5+/-0.1 x 10(-8)cms(-1) (Val-Pro-Pro). Ex vivo transport across jejunal segments in the Ussing chamber was 5-times (Ile-Pro-Pro) to 10-times (Val-Pro-Pro) higher with no significant differences (p>0.05) observed between both peptides. The peptidase inhibitor bestatin increased permeability for the absorptive direction for Ile-Pro-Pro by twofold. Neither a transepithelial pH gradient nor increased apical tripeptide concentration nor longitudinal localization of the intestinal segment influenced P(app) in the ex vivo experiments. Val-Pro-Pro transport across Peyer's patches, however, was 4-times higher (P(app)=21.0+/-9.3 x10(-8)cms(-1)) as compared to duodenum (P(app)=4.8+/-1.4 x 10(-8)cms(-1)). In the in situ perfusion experiments P(app) values varied greatly among different animals ranging from 0.5 to 24.0 x10(-8)cms(-1) (Ile-Pro-Pro) and from 1.0 to 15.6 x 10(-8)cms(-1) (Val-Pro-Pro). In summary, Caco-2 and ex vivo absorption models differ considerably regarding their peptide permeability. The in situ model seems to be less appropriate because of the observed large variability in peptide permeability. The results of this study demonstrate that the ACE inhibitory peptides Ile-Pro-Pro and Val-Pro-Pro are absorbed partially undegraded. PMID:18490081

  6. Backpack Smarts from A Pro

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160665.html Backpack Smarts From a Pro Overloaded carryalls injure thousands ... SATURDAY, Aug. 27, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Ill-fitting backpacks may put school children at risk for muscle ...

  7. ProC: Process Coordinator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hovest, Wolfgang; Knoche, Jörg; Hell, Reinhard; Doerl, Uwe; Riller, Thomas; Matthai, Frank; Ensslin, Torsten; Rachen, Jörg; Robbers, Georg; Adorf, Hans-Martin; Reinecke, Martin; Bartelmann, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    ProC (short for Process Coordinator) is a versatile workflow engine that allows the user to build, run and manage workflows with just a few clicks. It automatically documents every processing step, making every modification to data reproducible. ProC provides a graphical user interface for constructing complex data processing workflows out of a given set of computer programs. The user can, for example, specify that only data products which are affected by a change in the input data are updated selectively, avoiding unnecessary computations. The ProC suite is flexible and satisfies basic needs of data processing centers that have to be able to restructure their data processing along with the development of a project.

  8. Corner Office: ProQuest's Marty Kahn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fialkoff, Francine; Oder, Norman

    2009-01-01

    In a scant three years at ProQuest, Marty Kahn, CEO, has moved a company coming out of a financial morass back onto solid ground. He came on board after the purchase of ProQuest Information and Learning by the (mostly) privately owned Cambridge Information Group in late 2006 and the merger of ProQuest and CSA to form ProQuest CSA. (It's now just…

  9. BNP and NT-proBNP Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... Peptides Formal name: B-type Natriuretic Peptide; N-terminal pro b-type Natriuretic Peptide Related tests: Cardiac ... for B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) or N-terminal pro b-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) is ...

  10. ProMAT: protein microarray analysis tool

    SciTech Connect

    White, Amanda M.; Daly, Don S.; Varnum, Susan M.; Anderson, Kevin K.; Bollinger, Nikki; Zangar, Richard C.

    2006-04-04

    Summary: ProMAT is a software tool for statistically analyzing data from ELISA microarray experiments. The software estimates standard curves, sample protein concentrations and their uncertainties for multiple assays. ProMAT generates a set of comprehensive figures for assessing results and diagnosing process quality. The tool is available for Windows or Mac, and is distributed as open-source Java and R code. Availability: ProMAT is available at http://www.pnl.gov/statistics/ProMAT. ProMAT requires Java version 1.5.0 and R version 1.9.1 (or more recent versions) which are distributed with the tool.

  11. Integrated Programs and Pro-Environmental Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Tiffany

    2008-01-01

    Research suggested that "nature experience as an education method played a role in developing environmental value and attitudes, and was influential in pro-environmental behaviour." Few of these studies however, assessed the long-term influences of outdoor education experiences on participants' pro-environmental behaviour. The Outward Bound Canada…

  12. Conformational Plasticity of proNGF

    PubMed Central

    Paoletti, Francesca; Malerba, Francesca; Kelly, Geoff; Noinville, Sylvie; Lamba, Doriano; Cattaneo, Antonino; Pastore, Annalisa

    2011-01-01

    Nerve Growth Factor is an essential protein that supports neuronal survival during development and influences neuronal function throughout adulthood, both in the central and peripheral nervous system. The unprocessed precursor of NGF, proNGF, seems to be endowed with biological functions distinct from those of the mature protein, such as chaperone-like activities and apoptotic and/or neurotrophic properties. We have previously suggested, based on Small Angle X-ray Scattering data, that recombinant murine proNGF has features typical of an intrinsically unfolded protein. Using complementary biophysical techniques, we show here new evidence that clarifies and widens this hypothesis through a detailed comparison of the structural properties of NGF and proNGF. Our data provide direct information about the dynamic properties of the pro-peptide and indicate that proNGF assumes in solution a compact globular conformation. The N-terminal pro-peptide extension influences the chemical environment of the mature protein and protects the protein from proteolytic digestion. Accordingly, we observe that unfolding of proNGF involves a two-steps mechanism. The distinct structural properties of proNGF as compared to NGF agree with and rationalise a different functional role of the precursor. PMID:21818348

  13. Pro-Anorexia and Pro-Recovery Photo Sharing: A Tale of Two Warring Tribes

    PubMed Central

    Yom-Tov, Elad; Weber, Ingmar; Crain, Steven P

    2012-01-01

    Background There is widespread use of the Internet to promote anorexia as a lifestyle choice. Pro-anorexia content can be harmful for people affected or at risk of having anorexia. That movement is actively engaged in sharing photos on social networks such as Flickr. Objective To study the characteristics of the online communities engaged in disseminating content that encourages eating disorders (known as “pro-anorexia”) and to investigate if the posting of such content is discouraged by the posting of recovery-oriented content. Methods The extraction of pro-anorexia and pro-recovery photographs from the photo sharing site Flickr pertaining to 242,710 photos from 491 users and analyzing four separate social networks therein. Results Pro-anorexia and pro-recovery communities interact to a much higher degree among themselves than what is expected from the distribution of contacts (only 59-72% of contacts but 74-83% of comments are made to members inside the community). Pro-recovery users employ similar words to those used by pro-anorexia users to describe their photographs, possibly in order to ensure that their content appears when pro-anorexia users search for images. Pro-anorexia users who are exposed to comments from the opposite camp are less likely to cease posting pro-anorexia photographs than those who do not receive such comments (46% versus 61%), and if they cease, they do so approximately three months later. Our observations show two highly active communities, where most interaction is within each community. However, the pro-recovery community takes steps to ensure that their content is visible to the pro-anorexia community, both by using textual descriptions of their photographs that are similar to those used by the pro-anorexia group and by commenting to pro-anorexia content. The latter activity is, however, counterproductive, as it entrenches pro-anorexia users in their stance. Conclusions Our results highlight the nature of pro-anorexia and pro

  14. Pro-sociality without empathy

    PubMed Central

    Vasconcelos, Marco; Hollis, Karen; Nowbahari, Elise; Kacelnik, Alex

    2012-01-01

    Empathy, the capacity to recognize and share feelings experienced by another individual, is an important trait in humans, but is not the same as pro-sociality, the tendency to behave so as to benefit another individual. Given the importance of understanding empathy's evolutionary emergence, it is unsurprising that many studies attempt to find evidence for it in other species. To address the question of what should constitute evidence for empathy, we offer a critical comparison of two recent studies of rescuing behaviour that report similar phenomena but are interpreted very differently by their authors. In one of the studies, rescue behaviour in rats was interpreted as providing evidence for empathy, whereas in the other, rescue behaviour in ants was interpreted without reference to sharing of emotions. Evidence for empathy requires showing that actor individuals possess a representation of the receiver's emotional state and are driven by the psychological goal of improving its wellbeing. Proving psychological goal-directedness by current standards involves goal-devaluation and causal sensitivity protocols, which, in our view, have not been implemented in available publications. Empathy has profound significance not only for cognitive and behavioural sciences but also for philosophy and ethics and, in our view, remains unproven outside humans. PMID:22859561

  15. Pro-sociality without empathy.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, Marco; Hollis, Karen; Nowbahari, Elise; Kacelnik, Alex

    2012-12-23

    Empathy, the capacity to recognize and share feelings experienced by another individual, is an important trait in humans, but is not the same as pro-sociality, the tendency to behave so as to benefit another individual. Given the importance of understanding empathy's evolutionary emergence, it is unsurprising that many studies attempt to find evidence for it in other species. To address the question of what should constitute evidence for empathy, we offer a critical comparison of two recent studies of rescuing behaviour that report similar phenomena but are interpreted very differently by their authors. In one of the studies, rescue behaviour in rats was interpreted as providing evidence for empathy, whereas in the other, rescue behaviour in ants was interpreted without reference to sharing of emotions. Evidence for empathy requires showing that actor individuals possess a representation of the receiver's emotional state and are driven by the psychological goal of improving its wellbeing. Proving psychological goal-directedness by current standards involves goal-devaluation and causal sensitivity protocols, which, in our view, have not been implemented in available publications. Empathy has profound significance not only for cognitive and behavioural sciences but also for philosophy and ethics and, in our view, remains unproven outside humans. PMID:22859561

  16. Pro-choice: a new militancy.

    PubMed

    Davis, S E

    1989-01-01

    Davis, a pro-choice advocate, describes the reactions of the abortion rights movement to the U.S. Supreme Court's opinion in the 1989 Webster v. Reproductive Health Services case. Viewing the decision that allows individual states to set some restrictions on abortion as a threat to women's reproductive rights, pro-choice advocates have responded "with a new sense of defiance and commitment." Davis describes the demonstrations, sit-ins, and coalitions that give evidence of the new activism of the pro-choice movement. PMID:2606658

  17. Manduca sexta proprophenoloxidase activating proteinase-3 (PAP3) stimulates melanization by activating proPAP3, proSPHs, and proPOs

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yang; Lu, Zhiqiang; Jiang, Haobo

    2014-01-01

    Melanization participates in various insect physiological processes including antimicrobial immune responses. Phenoloxidase (PO), a critical component of the enzyme system catalyzing melanin formation, is produced as an inactive precursor prophenoloxidase (proPO) and becomes active via specific proteolytic cleavage by proPO activating proteinase (PAP). In Manduca sexta, three PAPs can activate proPOs in the presence of two serine proteinase homologs (SPH1 and SPH2). While the hemolymph proteinases (HPs) that generate the active PAPs are known, it is unclear how the proSPHs (especially proSPH1) are activated. In this study, we isolated from plasma of bar-stage M. sexta larvae an Ile-Glu-Ala-Arg-p-nitroanilide hydrolyzing enzyme that cleaved the proSPHs. This proteinase, PAP3, generated active SPH1 and SPH2, which function as cofactors for PAP3 in proPO activation. Cleavage of the purified recombinant proSPHs by PAP3 yielded 38 kDa bands similar in mobility to the SPHs formed in vivo. Surprisingly, PAP3 also can activate proPAP3 to stimulate melanization in a direct positive feedback loop. The enhanced proPO activation concurred with the cleavage activation of proHP6, proHP8, proPAP1, proPAP3, proSPH1, proSPH2, proPOs, but not proHP14 or proHP21. These results indicate that PAP3, like PAP1, is a key factor of the self-reinforcing mechanism in the proPO activation system, which is linked to other immune responses in M. sexta. PMID:24768974

  18. Technology evaluation: PRO-542, Progenics Pharmaceuticals inc.

    PubMed

    Mukhtar, M; Parveen, Z; Pomerantz, R J

    2000-12-01

    Progenics's rCD4-IgG2 (PRO-542) is a recombinant fusion protein, which has been developed using the company's Universal Antiviral Binding (UnAB) technology, and is in phase I/II clinical trials for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-1) infection [273391]. At the beginning of 1997, Progenics received a Phase II Small Business Innovation Research Program (SBIR) grant from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious diseases (NIAID) to fund the development of PRO-542 [236048]. A further grant of $2.7 million was awarded in August 1998 for the clinical evaluation of PRO-542 and other anti-HIV therapies [294200]. Progenics is collaborating with the Aaron Diamond AIDS Research Center (ADARC) in New York and the Center for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta [178410]. In February 2000, Progenics and Genzyme Transgenics Corp signed an agreement to continue the development of a transgenic source of PRO-542. Genzyme will develop transgenic goats that produce PRO-542 in their milk in exchange for undisclosed fees and milestone payments. Genzyme will supply PRO-542 to Progenics for clinical trials with a possibility for eventual commercial supply [357291]. Following on from this, in October 2000, Progenics received an SBIR grant to fund a two-year project with Genzyme Transgenics into the development of cost-effective methods for the manufacture of PRO-542, by optimization of the production of the drug in the milk of transgenic dairy animals [385982]. In August 2000, Punk, Ziegel & Company predicted that Progenics Pharmaceuticals will become sustainably profitable in 2003 following the launch of PRO-542 and GMK (Progenics Pharmaceuticals) in 2002 [390063]. PMID:11249748

  19. Protein ProQ Influences Osmotic Activation of Compatible Solute Transporter ProP in Escherichia coli K-12

    PubMed Central

    Kunte, H. Jörg; Crane, Rebecca A.; Culham, Doreen E.; Richmond, Deborah; Wood, Janet M.

    1999-01-01

    ProP is an osmoregulatory compatible solute transporter in Escherichia coli K-12. Mutation proQ220::Tn5 decreased the rate constant for and the extent of ProP activation by an osmotic upshift but did not alter proP transcription or the ProP protein level. Allele proQ220::Tn5 was isolated, and the proQ sequence was determined. Locus proQ is upstream from prc (tsp) at 41.2 centisomes on the genetic map. The proQ220::Tn5 and prc phenotypes were different, however. Gene proQ is predicted to encode a 232-amino-acid, basic, hydrophilic protein (molecular mass, 25,876 Da; calculated isoelectric point, 9.66; 32% D, E, R, or K; 54.5% polar amino acids). The insertion of PCR-amplified proQ into vector pBAD24 produced a plasmid containing the wild-type proQ open reading frame, the expression of which yielded a soluble protein with an apparent molecular mass of 30 kDa. Antibodies raised against the overexpressed ProQ protein detected cross-reactive material in proQ+ bacteria but not in proQ220::Tn5 bacteria. ProQ may be a structural element that influences the osmotic activation of ProP at a posttranslational level. PMID:10049386

  20. 31 CFR 50.92 - Determination of pro rata share.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Determination of pro rata share. 50... INSURANCE PROGRAM Cap on Annual Liability § 50.92 Determination of pro rata share. (a) Pro rata loss... compliance with pro rata payments in accordance with the effective date of the PRLP. (2) Determine an...

  1. Human melioidosis reported by ProMED

    PubMed Central

    Nasner-Posso, Katherinn Melissa; Cruz-Calderón, Stefania; Montúfar-Andrade, Franco E.; Dance, David A.B.; Rodriguez-Morales, Alfonso J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Objective There are limited sources describing the global burden of emerging diseases. A review of human melioidosis reported by ProMED was performed and the reliability of the data retrieved assessed in comparison to published reports. The effectiveness of ProMED was evaluated as a source of epidemiological data by focusing on melioidosis. Methods Using the keyword ‘melioidosis’ in the ProMED search engine, all of the information from the reports and collected data was reviewed using a structured form, including the year, country, gender, occupation, number of infected individuals, and number of fatal cases. Results One hundred and twenty-four entries reported between January 1995 and October 2014 were identified. A total of 4630 cases were reported, with death reported in 505 cases, suggesting a misleadingly low overall case fatality rate (CFR) of 11%. Of 20 cases for which the gender was reported, 12 (60%) were male. Most of the cases were reported from Australia, Thailand, Singapore, Vietnam, and Malaysia, with sporadic reports from other countries. Conclusions Internet-based reporting systems such as ProMED are useful to gather information and synthesize knowledge on emerging infections. Although certain areas need to be improved, ProMED provided good information about melioidosis. PMID:25975651

  2. Pocahontas: Problematizing the Pro-Social.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aidman, Amy; Reese, Debbie

    The Disney film "Pocahontas" appears to be an attempt to respond to growing cultural diversity, calls for multiculturalism, and strong female role models in the United States. This paper provides an analysis of the film, examining how Disney's claims to the creation of positive, pro-social representations of women and Native Americans in…

  3. 26 CFR 1.1377-1 - Pro rata share.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pro rata share. 1.1377-1 Section 1.1377-1...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Small Business Corporations and Their Shareholders § 1.1377-1 Pro rata share. (a) Computation of pro rata shares—(1) In general. For purposes of subchapter S of chapter 1 of the...

  4. 31 CFR 50.93 - Application of pro rata share.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Application of pro rata share. 50.93... PROGRAM Cap on Annual Liability § 50.93 Application of pro rata share. An insurer shall apply the PRLP to determine the pro rata share of each insured loss to be paid by the insurer on all insured losses...

  5. 31 CFR 50.93 - Application of pro rata share.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Application of pro rata share. 50.93... PROGRAM Cap on Annual Liability § 50.93 Application of pro rata share. An insurer shall apply the PRLP to determine the pro rata share of each insured loss to be paid by the insurer on all insured losses...

  6. Cryogenic system for BERLinPro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anders, W.; Hellwig, A.; Knobloch, J.; Pflückhahn, D.; Rotterdam, S.

    2014-01-01

    In 2010 Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin (HZB) received funding to design and build the Berlin Energy Recovery Linac Project BERLinPro. The goal of this compact Energy recovery linac (ERL) is to develop the accelerator physics and technology required to generate and accelerate a 100-mA, 1-mm mrad emittance electron beam. The BERLinPro know-how can then be transferred to various ERL-based applications. All accelerating RF cavities including the electron source are based on superconducting technology operated at 1.8 K. A Linde L700 helium liquefier is supplying 4.5 K helium. The subatmospheric pressure of 16 mbar of the helium bath of the cavities will be achieved by pumping with a set of cold compressors and warm vacuum pumps. While the L700 is already in operating, the 1.8 K system and the helium transfer system are in design phase.

  7. [Radiation Anticarcinogenesis by Thiazolidine Pro-drug

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warters, Raymond L.; Roberts, Jeanette C.; Fain, Heidi

    1999-01-01

    The original goal of this work was to determine the capacity of selected aminothiols to modulate radiation induced cytotoxicity, mutagenesis and carcinogenesis in a human mammary epithelial cell line. The conclusions from this work are that WR-1065 is the "gold standard" for protection against radiation induced cytotoxicity, mutagenesis and carcinogenesis. While a potent radiation protector, WR-1065 is cytotoxic in vitro and in vivo. Our rationale for a study of the thiazolidine pro-drugs was that these compounds are neither toxic in vitro or in vivo. The results obtained during this funding period indicate that the thiazolidine pro-drugs are as potent as WR-1065 as protectors against radiation induced mutation induction, and thus presumably against radiation induced carcinogenesis. Our results indicate that the thiazolidine prodrugs are excellent candidates to test as non-toxic anticarcinogens for protecting astronauts from cancer induction during space travel.

  8. Cryogenic system for BERLinPro

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, W.; Hellwig, A.; Knobloch, J.; Pflückhahn, D.; Rotterdam, S.

    2014-01-29

    In 2010 Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin (HZB) received funding to design and build the Berlin Energy Recovery Linac Project BERLinPro. The goal of this compact Energy recovery linac (ERL) is to develop the accelerator physics and technology required to generate and accelerate a 100-mA, 1-mm mrad emittance electron beam. The BERLinPro know-how can then be transferred to various ERL-based applications. All accelerating RF cavities including the electron source are based on superconducting technology operated at 1.8 K. A Linde L700 helium liquefier is supplying 4.5 K helium. The subatmospheric pressure of 16 mbar of the helium bath of the cavities will be achieved by pumping with a set of cold compressors and warm vacuum pumps. While the L700 is already in operating, the 1.8 K system and the helium transfer system are in design phase.

  9. The ProSeal laryngeal mask airway.

    PubMed

    Brimacombe, Joseph; Keller, Christian

    2002-12-01

    The ProSeal LMA is a major advance over the Classic LMA because of the following reasons: it allows ventilation at much higher airway pressures; it protects the lungs from aspiration and the stomach from gastric insufflation; it facilitates passage of a gastric tube and monitoring devices into the esophagus; it can be inserted like the Classic or Intubating LMA; it has its own built-in bite block; malposition is detected more readily; and, through use of techniques such as gum elastic bougie-guided insertion, correct positioning is almost guaranteed. The ProSeal can be considered a replacement device for the Classic LMA, but the Flexible LMA is still preferable for most intraoral procedures, and the Intubating LMA is still preferable whenever intubation is required. Limitations are that it is slightly more difficult to insert and requires more careful thought to use optimally. PMID:12512267

  10. Cognitive Obstacles to Pro-Vaccination Beliefs.

    PubMed

    Miton, Helena; Mercier, Hugo

    2015-11-01

    Two frameworks--cultural attraction theory and epistemic vigilance--predict a cultural disadvantage for counter-intuitive beliefs. We review several cognitive mechanisms that conspire to render pro-vaccination beliefs counter-intuitive. Trust and argumentation can spread counter-intuitive beliefs, but only under some conditions. We discuss the hurdles that trust and argumentation face in the case of vaccination. PMID:26522341

  11. Some problems with pro-competition reforms.

    PubMed

    Agich, G J; Begley, C E

    1985-01-01

    As the search for effective cost-containment policies continues, health care reform along pro-competition lines has gained considerable backing in the United States. By offering market competition to achieve allocational efficiency and vouchers and tax credits to achieve distributional equity, pro-competition reforms appear to satisfy what many believed were incommensurable goals. A critical review of this strategy reveals two practical difficulties, however. The first concerns the ambiguity arising from the proposals' reliance on the concept of equal access to some basic level of health care as its distributional objective and the second concerns the ethical dilemma arising from the proposals' reliance on physicians as rationers of health care. In considering the distributional goal of guaranteeing access to a basic minimum of health care, we argue that, despite its theoretical attractiveness, there exists no acceptable way of determining or justifying its content, and without a clear definition of the basic minimum there is no guarantee that any equity objective will be achieved under the pro-competition strategy. With regard to the use of physicians and other providers as society's gatekeepers, we point out that this role is in direct conflict with traditional responsibilities that patients expect providers to assume. Requiring doctors to ration services in response to market incentives may further erode the trust relationship between physicians and patients, and clearly puts the more seriously ill at a disadvantage. PMID:4059946

  12. Calibrating the Prominence Magnetometer (ProMag)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, Lewis; Casini, R.

    2013-07-01

    The Prominence Magnetometer (ProMag) is a dual-channel, dual-beam, slit-scanning, full Stokes spectro-polarimeter designed by the High Altitude Observatory at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (HAO/NCAR) for the study of the magnetism of solar prominences and filaments. It was deployed in August 2009 at the 40 cm coronagraph of the Evans Solar Facility (ESF) of the National Solar Observatory on Sacramento Peak (NSO/SP). In its standard mode of operation it acquires spectro-polarimetric maps of solar targets simultaneously in the two chromospheric lines of He I at 587.6 nm and 1083.0 nm. Since August 2011 ProMag has operated in “patrol mode” with a dedicated observer. We aim to routinely measure the vector magnetic field in prominences. The electro-optic modulator and polarization analyzer are integrated into a single mechanical unit located at the coude feed of the telescope. This location was necessary for proper co-alignment of the dual beams, but complicates the precise polarimeter calibration necessary to achieve the sensitivity required for prominence measurements (< 10^-3). At this sensitivity, small variations in optical alignment can become significant. We present a calibration method for ProMag, using a polarizer and retarder at coronagraph prime focus. Calibrations are recorded before and after observations. We discuss the success of this method and its limitations.

  13. Perl Embedded in PTC's Pro/ENGINEER, Version 1

    SciTech Connect

    2003-12-22

    Pro-PERL (AKA Pro/PERL) is a Perl extension to the PTC Pro/TOOLKIT API to the PTC Pro/ENGINEER CAD application including an embedded interpreter. It can be used to automate and customize Pro/ENGINEER, create Vendor Neutral Archive (VNA) format files and re-create CAD models from the VNA files. This has applications in sanitizing classified CAD models created in a classified environment for transfer to an open environment, creating template models for modification to finished models by non-expert users, and transfer of design intent data to other modeling technologies.

  14. Perl Embedded in PTC's Pro/ENGINEER, Version 1

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2003-12-22

    Pro-PERL (AKA Pro/PERL) is a Perl extension to the PTC Pro/TOOLKIT API to the PTC Pro/ENGINEER CAD application including an embedded interpreter. It can be used to automate and customize Pro/ENGINEER, create Vendor Neutral Archive (VNA) format files and re-create CAD models from the VNA files. This has applications in sanitizing classified CAD models created in a classified environment for transfer to an open environment, creating template models for modification to finished models by non-expertmore » users, and transfer of design intent data to other modeling technologies.« less

  15. Potential risks of pro-eating disorder websites.

    PubMed

    Rouleau, Codie R; von Ranson, Kristin M

    2011-06-01

    Although dangers of pro-eating disorder (pro-ED) websites have recently been discussed in the popular press, no integration of research findings on this topic yet exists. After completing a systematic search for peer-reviewed articles about pro-ED websites, we identified three possible risks as themes: operation under the guise of "support," reinforcement of disordered eating, and prevention of help-seeking and recovery. Pro-ED websites tend to be perceived as supportive by users, but instead appear to exacerbate or maintain users' eating disorder symptoms. We discuss research and clinical implications of these dangers. Future research should clarify how specific features of pro-ED websites contribute to the development, exacerbation, and maintenance of eating pathology, e.g., by employing experimental techniques and prospective designs with clinical samples and various ages. Despite limited empirical research on the topic, existing findings should prompt clinicians, parents, and researchers to remain vigilant about potential negative influences of pro-ED websites on users. PMID:21272967

  16. BDNF pro-peptide regulates dendritic spines via caspase-3.

    PubMed

    Guo, J; Ji, Y; Ding, Y; Jiang, W; Sun, Y; Lu, B; Nagappan, G

    2016-01-01

    The precursor of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) (proBDNF) is enzymatically cleaved, by either intracellular (furin/PC1) or extracellular proteases (tPA/plasmin/MMP), to generate mature BDNF (mBDNF) and its pro-peptide (BDNF pro-peptide). Little is known about the function of BDNF pro-peptide. We have developed an antibody that specifically detects cleaved BDNF pro-peptide, but not proBDNF or mBDNF. Neuronal depolarization elicited a marked increase in extracellular BDNF pro-peptide, suggesting activity-dependent regulation of its extracellular levels. Exposure of BDNF pro-peptide to mature hippocampal neurons in culture dramatically reduced dendritic spine density. This effect was mediated by caspase-3, as revealed by studies with pharmacological inhibitors and genetic knockdown. BDNF pro-peptide also increased the number of 'elongated' mitochondria and cytosolic cytochrome c, suggesting the involvement of mitochondrial-caspase-3 pathway. These results, along with BDNF pro-peptide effects recently reported on growth cones and long-term depression (LTD), suggest that BDNF pro-peptide is a negative regulator of neuronal structure and function. PMID:27310873

  17. The pro-adhesive and pro-survival effects of glucocorticoid in human ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Yin, Lijuan; Fang, Fang; Song, Xinglei; Wang, Yan; Huang, Gaoxiang; Su, Jie; Hui, Ning; Lu, Jian

    2016-07-01

    Cell adhesion to extracellular matrix (ECM) is controlled by multiple signaling molecules and intracellular pathways, and is pivotal for survival and growth of cells from most solid tumors. Our previous works demonstrated that dexamethasone (DEX) significantly enhances cell adhesion and cell resistance to chemotherapeutics by increasing the levels of integrin β1, α4, and α5 in human ovarian cancer cells. However, it is unclear whether the components of ECM or other membrane molecules are also involved in the pro-adhesive effect of DEX in ovarian cancer cells. In this study, we demonstrated that the treatment of cells with DEX did not change the expression of collagens (I, III, and IV), laminin, CD44, and its principal ligand hyaluronan (HA), but significantly increased the levels of intracellular and secreted fibronectin (FN). Inhibiting the expression of FN with FN1 siRNA or blocking CD44, another FN receptor, with CD44 blocking antibody significantly attenuated the pro-adhesion of DEX, indicating that upregulation of FN mediates the pro-adhesive effect of DEX by its interaction with CD44 besides integrin β1. Moreover, DEX significantly enhanced cell resistance to the chemotherapeutic agent paclitaxel (PTX) by activating PI-3K-Akt pathway. Finally, we found that DEX also significantly upregulated the expression of MUC1, a transmembrane glycoprotein. Inhibiting the expression of MUC1 with MUC1 siRNA significantly attenuated the DEX-induced effects of pro-adhesion, Akt-activation, and pro-survival. In conclusion, these results provide new data that upregulation of FN and MUC1 by DEX contributes to DEX-induced pro-adhesion and protects ovarian cancer cells from chemotherapy. PMID:27151574

  18. Educational Opportunities in Pro-Am Collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fienberg, R. T.; Stencel, R. E.

    2006-08-01

    While many backyard stargazers take up the hobby just for fun, many others are attracted to it because of their keen interest in learning more about the universe. The best way to learn science is to do science. Happily, the technology available to today's amateur astronomers — including computer-controlled telescopes, CCD cameras, powerful astronomical software, and the Internet — gives them the potential to make real contributions to scientific research and to help support local educational objectives. Meanwhile, professional astronomers are losing access to small telescopes as funding is shifted to larger projects, including survey programs that will soon discover countless interesting objects needing follow-up observations. Clearly the field is ripe with opportunities for amateurs, professionals, and educators to collaborate. Amateurs will benefit from mentoring by expert professionals, pros will benefit from observations and data processing by increasingly knowledgeable amateurs, and educators will benefit from a larger pool of skilled talent to help them carry out astronomy-education initiatives. We will look at some successful pro-am collaborations that have already borne fruit and examine areas where the need and/or potential for new partnerships is especially large. In keeping with the theme of this special session, we will focus on how pro-am collaborations in astronomy can contribute to science education both inside and outside the classroom, not only for students of school age but also for adults who may not have enjoyed particularly good science education when they were younger. Because nighttime observations with sophisticated equipment are not always possible in formal educational settings, we will also mention other types of pro-am partnerships, including those involving remote observing, data mining, and/or distributed computing.

  19. The utility of Pro Forma Income Statements.

    PubMed

    Reiboldt, Max; Reiboldt, John

    2002-01-01

    Recent headlines surrounding the financial demise of the nation's seventh largest company, Enron, and its subsequent entanglements with its accounting and consulting firm, Arthur Andersen, have placed a cloud of suspicion upon many reasonable business practices that otherwise are considered standard procedure. The proforma income statement is one of those practices. An oft-used tool in financial management, pro formas play a useful role for projecting financial performance based on predictable forecasts or assumptions. Regardless of the current scrutiny, there is still a valid use for accurately prepared statements. PMID:12389329

  20. ProSAT+: visualizing sequence annotations on 3D structure.

    PubMed

    Stank, Antonia; Richter, Stefan; Wade, Rebecca C

    2016-08-01

    PRO: tein S: tructure A: nnotation T: ool-plus (ProSAT(+)) is a new web server for mapping protein sequence annotations onto a protein structure and visualizing them simultaneously with the structure. ProSAT(+) incorporates many of the features of the preceding ProSAT and ProSAT2 tools but also provides new options for the visualization and sharing of protein annotations. Data are extracted from the UniProt KnowledgeBase, the RCSB PDB and the PDBe SIFTS resource, and visualization is performed using JSmol. User-defined sequence annotations can be added directly to the URL, thus enabling visualization and easy data sharing. ProSAT(+) is available at http://prosat.h-its.org. PMID:27284084

  1. Pro-Anorexia and Anti-Pro-Anorexia Videos on YouTube: Sentiment Analysis of User Responses

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, David; Sirola, Anu; Näsi, Matti; Kaakinen, Markus; Keipi, Teo; Räsänen, Pekka

    2015-01-01

    Background Pro-anorexia communities exist online and encourage harmful weight loss and weight control practices, often through emotional content that enforces social ties within these communities. User-generated responses to videos that directly oppose pro-anorexia communities have not yet been researched in depth. Objective The aim was to study emotional reactions to pro-anorexia and anti-pro-anorexia online content on YouTube using sentiment analysis. Methods Using the 50 most popular YouTube pro-anorexia and anti-pro-anorexia user channels as a starting point, we gathered data on users, their videos, and their commentators. A total of 395 anorexia videos and 12,161 comments were analyzed using positive and negative sentiments and ratings submitted by the viewers of the videos. The emotional information was automatically extracted with an automatic sentiment detection tool whose reliability was tested with human coders. Ordinary least squares regression models were used to estimate the strength of sentiments. The models controlled for the number of video views and comments, number of months the video had been on YouTube, duration of the video, uploader’s activity as a video commentator, and uploader’s physical location by country. Results The 395 videos had more than 6 million views and comments by almost 8000 users. Anti-pro-anorexia video comments expressed more positive sentiments on a scale of 1 to 5 (adjusted prediction [AP] 2.15, 95% CI 2.11-2.19) than did those of pro-anorexia videos (AP 2.02, 95% CI 1.98-2.06). Anti-pro-anorexia videos also received more likes (AP 181.02, 95% CI 155.19-206.85) than pro-anorexia videos (AP 31.22, 95% CI 31.22-37.81). Negative sentiments and video dislikes were equally distributed in responses to both pro-anorexia and anti-pro-anorexia videos. Conclusions Despite pro-anorexia content being widespread on YouTube, videos promoting help for anorexia and opposing the pro-anorexia community were more popular, gaining more

  2. Pro-sociality and strategic reasoning in economic decisions

    PubMed Central

    Arruñada, Benito; Casari, Marco; Pancotto, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    We study the relationship between pro-social preferences and strategic reasoning. These aspects are typically studied separately but little is known about their joint distribution. In an experiment, for each participant we elicit individual concerns toward pro-sociality—inequality aversion and efficiency—as well as the number of steps of reasoning through a guessing game. We report that self-regarding and pro-social participants exhibit similar levels of strategic reasoning, which supports the view that pro-sociality and strategic reasoning can be studied independently. PMID:26074799

  3. InterPro, progress and status in 2005.

    PubMed

    Mulder, Nicola J; Apweiler, Rolf; Attwood, Teresa K; Bairoch, Amos; Bateman, Alex; Binns, David; Bradley, Paul; Bork, Peer; Bucher, Phillip; Cerutti, Lorenzo; Copley, Richard; Courcelle, Emmanuel; Das, Ujjwal; Durbin, Richard; Fleischmann, Wolfgang; Gough, Julian; Haft, Daniel; Harte, Nicola; Hulo, Nicolas; Kahn, Daniel; Kanapin, Alexander; Krestyaninova, Maria; Lonsdale, David; Lopez, Rodrigo; Letunic, Ivica; Madera, Martin; Maslen, John; McDowall, Jennifer; Mitchell, Alex; Nikolskaya, Anastasia N; Orchard, Sandra; Pagni, Marco; Ponting, Chris P; Quevillon, Emmanuel; Selengut, Jeremy; Sigrist, Christian J A; Silventoinen, Ville; Studholme, David J; Vaughan, Robert; Wu, Cathy H

    2005-01-01

    InterPro, an integrated documentation resource of protein families, domains and functional sites, was created to integrate the major protein signature databases. Currently, it includes PROSITE, Pfam, PRINTS, ProDom, SMART, TIGRFAMs, PIRSF and SUPERFAMILY. Signatures are manually integrated into InterPro entries that are curated to provide biological and functional information. Annotation is provided in an abstract, Gene Ontology mapping and links to specialized databases. New features of InterPro include extended protein match views, taxonomic range information and protein 3D structure data. One of the new match views is the InterPro Domain Architecture view, which shows the domain composition of protein matches. Two new entry types were introduced to better describe InterPro entries: these are active site and binding site. PIRSF and the structure-based SUPERFAMILY are the latest member databases to join InterPro, and CATH and PANTHER are soon to be integrated. InterPro release 8.0 contains 11 007 entries, representing 2573 domains, 8166 families, 201 repeats, 26 active sites, 21 binding sites and 20 post-translational modification sites. InterPro covers over 78% of all proteins in the Swiss-Prot and TrEMBL components of UniProt. The database is available for text- and sequence-based searches via a webserver (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/interpro), and for download by anonymous FTP (ftp://ftp.ebi.ac.uk/pub/databases/interpro). PMID:15608177

  4. InterPro, progress and status in 2005

    PubMed Central

    Mulder, Nicola J.; Apweiler, Rolf; Attwood, Teresa K.; Bairoch, Amos; Bateman, Alex; Binns, David; Bradley, Paul; Bork, Peer; Bucher, Phillip; Cerutti, Lorenzo; Copley, Richard; Courcelle, Emmanuel; Das, Ujjwal; Durbin, Richard; Fleischmann, Wolfgang; Gough, Julian; Haft, Daniel; Harte, Nicola; Hulo, Nicolas; Kahn, Daniel; Kanapin, Alexander; Krestyaninova, Maria; Lonsdale, David; Lopez, Rodrigo; Letunic, Ivica; Madera, Martin; Maslen, John; McDowall, Jennifer; Mitchell, Alex; Nikolskaya, Anastasia N.; Orchard, Sandra; Pagni, Marco; Ponting, Chris P.; Quevillon, Emmanuel; Selengut, Jeremy; Sigrist, Christian J. A.; Silventoinen, Ville; Studholme, David J.; Vaughan, Robert; Wu, Cathy H.

    2005-01-01

    InterPro, an integrated documentation resource of protein families, domains and functional sites, was created to integrate the major protein signature databases. Currently, it includes PROSITE, Pfam, PRINTS, ProDom, SMART, TIGRFAMs, PIRSF and SUPERFAMILY. Signatures are manually integrated into InterPro entries that are curated to provide biological and functional information. Annotation is provided in an abstract, Gene Ontology mapping and links to specialized databases. New features of InterPro include extended protein match views, taxonomic range information and protein 3D structure data. One of the new match views is the InterPro Domain Architecture view, which shows the domain composition of protein matches. Two new entry types were introduced to better describe InterPro entries: these are active site and binding site. PIRSF and the structure-based SUPERFAMILY are the latest member databases to join InterPro, and CATH and PANTHER are soon to be integrated. InterPro release 8.0 contains 11 007 entries, representing 2573 domains, 8166 families, 201 repeats, 26 active sites, 21 binding sites and 20 post-translational modification sites. InterPro covers over 78% of all proteins in the Swiss-Prot and TrEMBL components of UniProt. The database is available for text- and sequence-based searches via a webserver (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/interpro), and for download by anonymous FTP (ftp://ftp.ebi.ac.uk/pub/databases/interpro). PMID:15608177

  5. Pro-sociality and strategic reasoning in economic decisions.

    PubMed

    Arruñada, Benito; Casari, Marco; Pancotto, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    We study the relationship between pro-social preferences and strategic reasoning. These aspects are typically studied separately but little is known about their joint distribution. In an experiment, for each participant we elicit individual concerns toward pro-sociality-inequality aversion and efficiency-as well as the number of steps of reasoning through a guessing game. We report that self-regarding and pro-social participants exhibit similar levels of strategic reasoning, which supports the view that pro-sociality and strategic reasoning can be studied independently. PMID:26074799

  6. French Pro/Am collaborations in exoplanet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santerne, A.; Moutou, C.; Vanhuysse, M.; Bouchy, F.; Buil, C.; Cochard, F.; Thizy, O.; Martinez, P.; Desnoux, V.; Pujol, M.; Colas, F.

    2011-10-01

    Amateur astronomers have access to huge telescope time and can reach photometric precision up to a few mmag as well as radial velocity precision up to ˜ 50m.s-1 on brightest stars. We will first present some results of french amateur astronomers in transit photometry and radial velocity and then, we will present an over-view of all the collaborations which can be done between professional and amateur astronomers in the competitive exoplanet domain, and especially the current collaboration between french Pro & Am astronomers which was used in publication in A&A. Finally, we will present a new internet wiki page which goal is to develop such collaboration in different countries.

  7. Peanuts & Crackerjacks: Economics of Pro Team Sports. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Reserve Bank of Boston, MA.

    This teacher's guide presents instructional materials which examine issues in professional sports for students in high school economics and social studies classes. The issues include how the pro sports market evolved; how leagues gained market power; why athletes earn as much as they do; what are the sources of pro sports revenues; why tickets…

  8. 25 CFR 273.32 - Pro rata requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pro rata requirement. 273.32 Section 273.32 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ASSISTANCE ACT PROGRAM EDUCATION CONTRACTS UNDER JOHNSON-O'MALLEY ACT Funding Provisions § 273.32 Pro...

  9. 48 CFR 352.237-70 - Pro-Children Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pro-Children Act. 352.237...-Children Act. As prescribed in 337.103-70(a), the Contracting Officer shall insert the following clause: Pro-Children Act (January 2006) (a) Public Law 103-227, Title X, Part C, also known as the...

  10. 48 CFR 352.237-70 - Pro-Children Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pro-Children Act. 352.237...-Children Act. As prescribed in 337.103-70(a), the Contracting Officer shall insert the following clause: Pro-Children Act (January 2006) (a) Public Law 103-227, Title X, Part C, also known as the...

  11. 48 CFR 352.237-70 - Pro-Children Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pro-Children Act. 352.237...-Children Act. As prescribed in 337.103-70(a), the Contracting Officer shall insert the following clause: Pro-Children Act (January 2006) (a) Public Law 103-227, Title X, Part C, also known as the...

  12. 48 CFR 352.237-70 - Pro-Children Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pro-Children Act. 352.237...-Children Act. As prescribed in 337.103-70(a), the Contracting Officer shall insert the following clause: Pro-Children Act (January 2006) (a) Public Law 103-227, Title X, Part C, also known as the...

  13. 48 CFR 352.237-70 - Pro-Children Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pro-Children Act. 352.237...-Children Act. As prescribed in 337.103-70(a), the Contracting Officer shall insert the following clause: Pro-Children Act (January 2006) (a) Public Law 103-227, Title X, Part C, also known as the...

  14. 25 CFR 273.32 - Pro rata requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pro rata requirement. 273.32 Section 273.32 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ASSISTANCE ACT PROGRAM EDUCATION CONTRACTS UNDER JOHNSON-O'MALLEY ACT Funding Provisions § 273.32 Pro...

  15. Ethical Dilemmas of Providing Pro Bono Art Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moon, Bruce L.

    2011-01-01

    This viewpoint addresses ethical questions regarding the provision of art therapy as a pro bono service, a term from Latin roots that mean "for the public good." Approaches to ethical reasoning are discussed using the case of pro bono art therapy in a residential treatment program for adolescents.

  16. Body composition of transgenic pigs expressing the myostatin pro domain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous results have shown that male mice expressing a myostatin pro domain construct (MLC-Pro) have increased body weight, more total body lean mass, and lower percentage of total body fat. Founder transgenic (TG) pigs were generated by standard pronuclear microinjection techniques using the sam...

  17. 31 CFR 50.92 - Determination of pro rata share.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... INSURANCE PROGRAM Cap on Annual Liability § 50.92 Determination of pro rata share. (a) Pro rata loss... providing property and casualty insurance under the Program if there were no cap on annual liability under... estimates that aggregate insured losses may exceed the cap on annual liability for a Program Year,...

  18. Pro-Market Educational Governance: Is Argentina a Black Swan?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beech, Jason; Barrenechea, Ignacio

    2011-01-01

    In this article we explore ways in which pro-market discourses have been interpreted in policy initiatives in Argentina since the 1970s. Our argument is that even though pro-market discourses have guided reforms in many aspects of public policies in Argentina, the arena of education has overall been resistant to taking them up. The first part of…

  19. Pro-Cite: A Tool for Creating and Updating Bibliographies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aluri, Rao; Bosch, Steve

    1987-01-01

    Describes the Pro-Cite database management system and its uses in searching RLIN, OCLC, DIALOG, BRS, etc.; downloading results on a floppy or hard disk; converting downloaded records into Pro-Cite databases; and editing, selecting, indexing, and printing out the selected records in a variety of bibliographic styles. (DMM)

  20. 20 CFR 416.1133 - What is a pro rata share of household operating expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What is a pro rata share of household....1133 What is a pro rata share of household operating expenses. (a) General. If you pay your pro rata..., we value it under the rule in § 416.1140.) (b) How we determine a pro rata share. Your pro rata...

  1. Intracerebroventricular infusion of the (Pro)renin receptor antagonist PRO20 attenuates deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt-induced hypertension.

    PubMed

    Li, Wencheng; Sullivan, Michelle N; Zhang, Sheng; Worker, Caleb J; Xiong, Zhenggang; Speth, Robert C; Feng, Yumei

    2015-02-01

    We previously reported that binding of prorenin to the (pro)renin receptor (PRR) plays a major role in brain angiotensin II formation and the development of deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt hypertension. Here, we designed and developed an antagonistic peptide, PRO20, to block prorenin binding to the PRR. Fluorescently labeled PRO20 bound to both mouse and human brain tissues with dissociation constants of 4.4 and 1.8 nmol/L, respectively. This binding was blocked by coincubation with prorenin and was diminished in brains of neuron-specific PRR-knockout mice, indicating specificity of PRO20 for PRR. In cultured human neuroblastoma cells, PRO20 blocked prorenin-induced calcium influx in a concentration- and AT(1) receptor-dependent manner. Intracerebroventricular infusion of PRO20 dose-dependently inhibited prorenin-induced hypertension in C57Bl6/J mice. Furthermore, acute intracerebroventricular infusion of PRO20 reduced blood pressure in both DOCA-salt and genetically hypertensive mice. Chronic intracerebroventricular infusion of PRO20 attenuated the development of hypertension and the increase in brain hypothalamic angiotensin II levels induced by DOCA-salt. In addition, chronic intracerebroventricular infusion of PRO20 improved autonomic function and spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity in mice treated with DOCA-salt. In summary, PRO20 binds to both mouse and human PRRs and decreases angiotensin II formation and hypertension induced by either prorenin or DOCA-salt. Our findings highlight the value of the novel PRR antagonist, PRO20, as a lead compound for a novel class of antihypertensive agents and as a research tool to establish the validity of brain PRR antagonism as a strategy for treating hypertension. PMID:25421983

  2. Pro-resolving lipid mediators are leads for resolution physiology.

    PubMed

    Serhan, Charles N

    2014-06-01

    Advances in our understanding of the mechanisms that bring about the resolution of acute inflammation have uncovered a new genus of pro-resolving lipid mediators that include the lipoxin, resolvin, protectin and maresin families, collectively called specialized pro-resolving mediators. Synthetic versions of these mediators have potent bioactions when administered in vivo. In animal experiments, the mediators evoke anti-inflammatory and novel pro-resolving mechanisms, and enhance microbial clearance. Although they have been identified in inflammation resolution, specialized pro-resolving mediators are conserved structures that also function in host defence, pain, organ protection and tissue remodelling. This Review covers the mechanisms of specialized pro-resolving mediators and omega-3 essential fatty acid pathways that could help us to understand their physiological functions. PMID:24899309

  3. Profiling the ‘Pro-environmental Individual’: A Personality Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Markowitz, Ezra M.; Goldberg, Lewis R.; Ashton, Michael C.; Lee, Kibeom

    2011-01-01

    There is considerable scientific interest in the psychological correlates of pro-environmental behaviors. Much research has focused on demographic and social-psychological characteristics of individuals who consistently perform such actions. Here, we report the results of two studies in which we explored relations between broad personality traits and pro-environmental actions. Using a wide variety of behavior and personality measures, we consistently found moderate positive relations between Openness to Experience and pro-environmental activities in both a community sample (Study 1: N = 778) and an undergraduate student sample (Study 2: N = 115). In Study 2 we showed that the effect of Openness on pro-environmental behaviors was fully mediated by individuals’ environmental attitudes and connection to nature. Our findings suggest that high levels of aesthetic appreciation, creativity, and inquisitiveness, but not personality traits associated with altruism, may have motivated the performance of pro-environmental actions among our respondents. Implications for intervention development are discussed. PMID:21241310

  4. The Experience of Bulimic College Students Who Use "Pro-Ana/Pro-Mia" Web Sites: A Two-Phase Mixed-Method Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Blair J.

    2010-01-01

    Eating disorders (EDs) are a serious problem in the U.S. due to their rise in prevalence during the 20th century and high morbidity and mortality rates. A relatively new, controversial phenomenon, "pro-Ana" (pro-anorexia) and "pro-Mia" (pro-bulimia) Web sites, came to the public's attention around 2000. These sites are created by and for people…

  5. Test Reviews: Reynolds, C., & Voress, J. K. (2007). "Test of Memory and Learning: Second Edition." Austin, TX: PRO-ED

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitt, Ara J.; Decker, Scott L.

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews the Test of Memory and Learning: Second Edition (TOMAL-2), published by PRO-ED, which constitutes a recent revision of the Test of Memory and Learning (TOMAL; Reynolds & Bigler, 1994). Advertised as the "single most comprehensive memory battery available for the entire age range of 5 years through 59 years of age", the TOMAL-2…

  6. P5CDH affects the pathways contributing to Pro synthesis after ProDH activation by biotic and abiotic stress conditions

    PubMed Central

    Rizzi, Yanina S.; Monteoliva, Mariela I.; Fabro, Georgina; Grosso, Carola L.; Laróvere, Laura E.; Alvarez, María E.

    2015-01-01

    Plants facing adverse conditions usually alter proline (Pro) metabolism, generating changes that help restore the cellular homeostasis. These organisms synthesize Pro from glutamate (Glu) or ornithine (Orn) by two-step reactions that share Δ1 pyrroline-5-carboxylate (P5C) as intermediate. In the catabolic process, Pro is converted back to Glu using a different pathway that involves Pro dehydrogenase (ProDH), P5C dehydrogenase (P5CDH), and P5C as intermediate. Little is known about the coordination of the catabolic and biosynthetic routes under stress. To address this issue, we analyzed how P5CDH affects the activation of Pro synthesis, in Arabidopsis tissues that increase ProDH activity by transient exposure to exogenous Pro, or infection with Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato. Wild-type (Col-0) and p5cdh mutant plants subjected to these treatments were used to monitor the Pro, Glu, and Orn levels, as well as the expression of genes from Pro metabolism. Col-0 and p5cdh tissues consecutively activated ProDH and Pro biosynthetic genes under both conditions. However, they manifested a different coordination between these routes. When external Pro supply was interrupted, wild-type leaves degraded Pro to basal levels at which point Pro synthesis, mainly via Glu, became activated. Under the same condition, p5cdh leaves sustained ProDH induction without reducing the Pro content but rather increasing it, apparently by stimulating the Orn pathway. In response to pathogen infection, both genotypes showed similar trends. While Col-0 plants seemed to induce both Pro biosynthetic routes, p5cdh mutant plants may primarily activate the Orn route. Our study contributes to the functional characterization of P5CDH in biotic and abiotic stress conditions, by revealing its capacity to modulate the fate of P5C, and prevalence of Orn or Glu as Pro precursors in tissues that initially consumed Pro. PMID:26284090

  7. Novel biomarkers in acute heart failure: MR-pro-adrenomedullin.

    PubMed

    Peacock, W Frank

    2014-10-01

    First isolated from human pheochromocytoma cells, adrenomedullin (ADM) is a peptide hormone with natriuretic, vasodilatory, and hypotensive effects mediated by cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), nitric oxide, and renal prostaglandin systems. ADM expression occurs in many tissues and organ systems, including cardiovascular, renal, pulmonary, cerebrovascular, gastrointestinal, and endocrine tissues where it acts as a circulating hormone and a local autocrine and paracrine hormone. ADM plasma concentrations are increased in hypertension, chronic renal disease, and heart failure. As ADM is unstable in vitro, it is necessary to measure its mid-regional pro-hormone fragment, the levels of which correspond to ADM concentration (MR-proADM). The prognostic potential of MR-proADM was recently demonstrated in the Biomarkers in Acute Heart Failure (BACH) trial. In this trial of 568 acute heart failure patients, MR-proADM was superior to both brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and NT-proBNP in predicting mortality within 14 days. MR-proADM also provided significant additive incremental predictive value for 90-day mortality when added to BNP and NT-proBNP. PMID:24756062

  8. New developments in the InterPro database.

    PubMed

    Mulder, Nicola J; Apweiler, Rolf; Attwood, Teresa K; Bairoch, Amos; Bateman, Alex; Binns, David; Bork, Peer; Buillard, Virginie; Cerutti, Lorenzo; Copley, Richard; Courcelle, Emmanuel; Das, Ujjwal; Daugherty, Louise; Dibley, Mark; Finn, Robert; Fleischmann, Wolfgang; Gough, Julian; Haft, Daniel; Hulo, Nicolas; Hunter, Sarah; Kahn, Daniel; Kanapin, Alexander; Kejariwal, Anish; Labarga, Alberto; Langendijk-Genevaux, Petra S; Lonsdale, David; Lopez, Rodrigo; Letunic, Ivica; Madera, Martin; Maslen, John; McAnulla, Craig; McDowall, Jennifer; Mistry, Jaina; Mitchell, Alex; Nikolskaya, Anastasia N; Orchard, Sandra; Orengo, Christine; Petryszak, Robert; Selengut, Jeremy D; Sigrist, Christian J A; Thomas, Paul D; Valentin, Franck; Wilson, Derek; Wu, Cathy H; Yeats, Corin

    2007-01-01

    InterPro is an integrated resource for protein families, domains and functional sites, which integrates the following protein signature databases: PROSITE, PRINTS, ProDom, Pfam, SMART, TIGRFAMs, PIRSF, SUPERFAMILY, Gene3D and PANTHER. The latter two new member databases have been integrated since the last publication in this journal. There have been several new developments in InterPro, including an additional reading field, new database links, extensions to the web interface and additional match XML files. InterPro has always provided matches to UniProtKB proteins on the website and in the match XML file on the FTP site. Additional matches to proteins in UniParc (UniProt archive) are now available for download in the new match XML files only. The latest InterPro release (13.0) contains more than 13 000 entries, covering over 78% of all proteins in UniProtKB. The database is available for text- and sequence-based searches via a webserver (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/interpro), and for download by anonymous FTP (ftp://ftp.ebi.ac.uk/pub/databases/interpro). The InterProScan search tool is now also available via a web service at http://www.ebi.ac.uk/Tools/webservices/WSInterProScan.html. PMID:17202162

  9. Pro-angiogenic properties of orosomucoid (ORM)

    SciTech Connect

    Irmak, Ster; Oliveira-Ferrer, Leticia; Erguen, Sueleyman; Tilki, Derya

    2009-11-01

    The acute phase protein orosomucoid (ORM), also known as alpha1-acid glycoprotein (AGP), is found to be increased in infection, inflammation and cancer. Recently, we demonstrated that ORM is produced by endothelial cells and detectable in urine samples of patients with bladder cancer. However, it was not clarified yet whether ORM plays a role in new vessel formation. To this aim we performed overexpression and gene silencing for ORM in human microvascular endothelial cells (HDMECs). ORM purified from human plasma was used individually or in combination with VEGF-A in endothelial tube formation, migration and proliferation assay. The in vivo effect of ORM in angiogenesis was studied using the chicken chorionallantois membrane (CAM) with subsequent counting of blood vessels on histological sections from the stimulated areas of CAM tissue. Our data show that ORM alone enhances migration but not proliferation of HDMECs. ORM alone does not induce endothelial tubes in vitro but simultaneous application of ORM with VEGF-A increases the number and the network of VEGF-A-induced endothelial tubes. Remarkably, ORM alone induces new vessel formation in vivo using CAM assay and supports the VEGF-A-induced new vessel formation in this assay. Taken together, our results let assume that ORM has pro-angiogenic properties and supports the angiogenic effect of VEGF-A. Thus, ORM seems to be involved in the regulation of angiogenesis.

  10. ProPortal: A Database for Prochlorococcus

    DOE Data Explorer

    Huang, Katherine [Chisholm lab, MIT

    Prochlorococcus is a marine cyanobacterium that numerically dominates the mid-latitude oceans, and is the smallest known oxygenic phototroph. All isolates described thus far can be assigned to either a tightly clustered high-light (HL) adapted clade, or a more divergent low-light (LL) adapted group. They are closely related to, but distinct from, marine Synechococcus. The genomes of 12 strains have been sequenced and they range in size from 1.6 to 2.6 Mbp. They represent diverse lineages, spanning the rRNA diversity (97 to 99.93% similarity) of cultured representatives of this group. Our analyses of these genomes inform our understanding of how adaptation occurs in the oceans along gradients of light, nutrients, and other environmental factors, providing essential context for interpreting rapidly expanding metagenomic datasets. [Copied from http://proportal.mit.edu/project/prochlorococcus/] ProPortal allows users to browse and search genome date for not only Prochlorococcus, but Cyanophage and Synechococcus. Microarray data, environmental cell concentration data, and metagenome information are also available.

  11. ProCon - PROteomics CONversion tool.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Gerhard; Stephan, Christian; Meyer, Helmut E; Kohl, Michael; Marcus, Katrin; Eisenacher, Martin

    2015-11-01

    With the growing amount of experimental data produced in proteomics experiments and the requirements/recommendations of journals in the proteomics field to publicly make available data described in papers, a need for long-term storage of proteomics data in public repositories arises. For such an upload one needs proteomics data in a standardized format. Therefore, it is desirable, that the proprietary vendor's software will integrate in the future such an export functionality using the standard formats for proteomics results defined by the HUPO-PSI group. Currently not all search engines and analysis tools support these standard formats. In the meantime there is a need to provide user-friendly free-to-use conversion tools that can convert the data into such standard formats in order to support wet-lab scientists in creating proteomics data files ready for upload into the public repositories. ProCon is such a conversion tool written in Java for conversion of proteomics identification data into standard formats mzIdentML and Pride XML. It allows the conversion of Sequest™/Comet .out files, of search results from the popular and often used ProteomeDiscoverer® 1.x (x=versions 1.1 to1.4) software and search results stored in the LIMS systems ProteinScape® 1.3 and 2.1 into mzIdentML and PRIDE XML. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Computational Proteomics. PMID:26182917

  12. Fibrinogen Substrate Recognition by Staphylocoagulase·(Pro)thrombin Complexes*

    PubMed Central

    Panizzi, Peter; Friedrich, Rainer; Fuentes-Prior, Pablo; Richter, Klaus; Bock, Paul E.; Bode, Wolfram

    2008-01-01

    Thrombin generation and fibrinogen (Fbg) clotting are the ultimate proteolytic reactions in the blood coagulation pathway. Staphylocoagulase (SC), a protein secreted by the human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus, activates prothrombin (ProT) without proteolysis. The SC·(pro)thrombin complex recognizes Fbg as a specific substrate, converting it directly into fibrin. The crystal structure of a fully active SC fragment containing residues 1–325 (SC-(1–325)) bound to human prethrombin 2 showed previously that SC inserts its Ile1-Val2 N terminus into the Ile16 pocket of prethrombin 2, inducing a functional active site in the cognate zymogen conformationally. Exosite I of α-thrombin, the Fbg recognition site, and proexosite I on ProT are blocked by domain 2 of SC-(1–325). In the present studies, active site-labeled fluorescent ProT analogs were used to quantitate Fbg binding to the SC-(1–325)·ProT complex. Fbg binding and cleavage are mediated by expression of a new Fbg-binding exosite on the SC-(1–325)·ProT complex, resulting in formation of an (SC-(1–325)·ProT)2·Fbg pentameric complex with a dissociation constant of 8–34 nM. In both crystal structures, the SC-(1–325)·(pre)thrombin complexes form dimers, with both pro-teinases/zymogens facing each other over a large U-shaped cleft, through which the Fbg substrate could thread. On this basis, a molecular model of the pentameric (SC-(1–325)·thrombin)2·Fbg encounter complex was generated, which explains the coagulant properties and efficient Fbg conversion. The results provide new insight into the mechanism that mediates high affinity Fbg binding and cleavage as a substrate of SC·(pro)thrombin complexes, a process that is central to the molecular pathology of S. aureus endocarditis. PMID:16230339

  13. Manduca sexta prophenoloxidase (proPO) activation requires proPO-activating proteinase (PAP) and serine proteinase homologs (SPHs) simultaneously.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Snehalata; Wang, Yang; Jiang, Haobo

    2005-03-01

    In the tobacco hornworm Manduca sexta, proteolytic activation of prophenoloxidase (proPO) is mediated by three proPO-activating proteinases (PAPs) and two serine proteinase homologs (SPHs) (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 95 (1998) 12220-12225; J. Biol. Chem. 278 (2003a) 3552-3561; Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol. 33 (2003b) 1049-1060). While our current data are consistent with the hypothesis that the SPHs serve as a cofactor/anchor for PAPs (Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 33 (2003) 197-208; Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 34 (2004) 731-742), roles of these clip-domain proteins (i.e. PAPs and SPHs) in proPO activation are poorly defined. To better understand this process, we further characterized the activation reaction using proPO, PAP-1 and SPHs. PAP-1 itself cleaved nearly 1/3 of proPO at Arg51 without generating much phenoloxidase (PO) activity. In the presence of SPHs, the cleavage of proPO became more complete while the increase in PO activity was over 20-fold, indicating that the extent of cleavage does not directly correlate with PO activity. Since SPHs and p-amidinophenyl methanesulfonyl fluoride (APMSF)-treated PAP-1 did not generate active PO by interacting with proPO, proteolytic cleavage is critical for proPO activation. After 1/5 of proPO was processed by PAP-1 alone which was then inactivated by M. sexta serpin-1J or APMSF, further incubation of the reaction mixture with SPHs failed to generate active PO either. Thus, SPHs cannot generate PO activity by simply binding to cleaved proPO. M. sexta proPO activation requires active PAP-1 and SPHs at the same time-one for limited proteolysis and the other as a cofactor, perhaps. Gel filtration chromatography and native gel electrophoresis revealed the PAP-SPH, proPO-PAP, and SPH-proPO associations, essential for generating high Mr, active PO at the site of infection. PMID:15705503

  14. Pro/con a precessional geodynamo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanyo, J.

    2003-04-01

    The modest amount of research that exists on the ability, or lack of ability, of mantle precession to power a geodynamo developed mostly during the last half of the 1900s. Papers by Roberts and Stewartson (1965) and by Busse (1968) studied precession generally without a pro/con conclusion. Malkus in the late 1960s attempted to advance a positive role for precession through experiments and analysis. His experiments have survived criticism, but his analyses were discounted, especially by Rochester, Jacobs, Smylie, and Chong (1975) and by Loper (1975). Rochester, et al. critiqued existing analyses of precession, including those of Malkus, but did not reach a strong position either pro or con a precessional geodynamo. Loper argued emphatically that precession was not capable of powering the geodynamo. Explicit analyses that either critique or support Loper’s arguments have yet to appear in the literature. During the 1970s, Vanyo and associates studied energy dissipation during precession of satellite liquid fuels and its effect on satellite attitude stability. Engineers and scientists in every country that has launched satellites completed similar research. Some is published in the aerospace literature, more is available in company and government reports. Beginning in 1981, Vanyo and associates applied this knowledge to the very similar problem of energy dissipation and flow patterns in precessing mechanical models scaled geometrically and dynamically to the Earth’s liquid core. Energy experiments indicate massive amounts of mechanical energy are dissipated at the CMB, and flow experiments show complex motions within the boundary layer and axial flows with helicity throughout the interior. Analysis of Earth core precession also advanced, especially in several papers by Kerswell and by Tilgner in the late 1990s. Detail numerical models have yet to appear. Although progress in understanding the role of precession in Earth core motions has advanced, there remains a

  15. The ProDom database of protein domain families.

    PubMed Central

    Corpet, F; Gouzy, J; Kahn, D

    1998-01-01

    The ProDom database contains protein domain families generated from the SWISS-PROT database by automated sequence comparisons. It can be searched on the World Wide Web (http://protein.toulouse.inra. fr/prodom.html ) or by E-mail (prodom@toulouse.inra.fr) to study domain arrangements within known families or new proteins. Strong emphasis has been put on the graphical user interface which allows for interactive analysis of protein homology relationships. Recent improvements to the server include: ProDom search by keyword; links to PROSITE and PDB entries; more sensitive ProDom similarity search with BLAST or WU-BLAST; alignments of query sequences with homologous ProDom domain families; and links to the SWISS-MODEL server (http: //www.expasy.ch/swissmod/SWISS-MODEL.html ) for homology based 3-D domain modelling where possible. PMID:9399865

  16. Structural requirements for processing of pro-adipokinetic hormone I.

    PubMed

    Rayne, R C; O'Shea, M

    1993-11-01

    We found that a seven-residue sequence in pro-adipokinetic hormone I (proAKH I) which precedes the endopeptidase cleavage site is predicted to form an omega loop. Molecular modelling experiments indicated that a stable omega loop may form at this site, and suggested that loop stability may depend on the C-terminal loop residue, Lys12. The importance of this residue in proAKH I processing was confirmed by the observation that replacement of Lys12 by thialysine, a Lys analog with an altered side chain, prevented processing in vivo. In addition we showed by molecular modelling that this side-chain alteration may prevent formation of an omega loop. Together, these approaches lead us to propose that an omega loop may serve as a recognition motif in proAKH I processing. PMID:8223647

  17. Project ProCEED: A Model for Developing Professional Excellence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Marilyn; Waddell, Michael G.

    1984-01-01

    Project ProCEED is a staff development model for promoting the type of professional excellence recommended in national educational reports. A six-month program designed and implemented by teachers and principals is examined. (DF)

  18. Intensity modulated radiotherapy induces pro-inflammatory and pro-survival responses in prostate cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    EL-SAGHIRE, HOUSSEIN; VANDEVOORDE, CHARLOT; OST, PIET; MONSIEURS, PIETER; MICHAUX, ARLETTE; DE MEERLEER, GERT; BAATOUT, SARAH; THIERENS, HUBERT

    2014-01-01

    Intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) is one of the modern conformal radiotherapies that is widely used within the context of cancer patient treatment. It uses multiple radiation beams targeted to the tumor, however, large volumes of the body receive low doses of irradiation. Using γ-H2AX and global genome expression analysis, we studied the biological responses induced by low doses of ionizing radiation in prostate cancer patients following IMRT. By means of different bioinformatics analyses, we report that IMRT induced an inflammatory response via the induction of viral, adaptive, and innate immune signaling. In response to growth factors and immune-stimulatory signaling, positive regulation in the progression of cell cycle and DNA replication were induced. This denotes pro-inflammatory and pro-survival responses. Furthermore, double strand DNA breaks were induced in every patient 30 min after the treatment and remaining DNA repair and damage signaling continued after 18–24 h. Nine genes belonging to inflammatory responses (TLR3, SH2D1A and IL18), cell cycle progression (ORC4, SMC2 and CCDC99) and DNA damage and repair (RAD17, SMC6 and MRE11A) were confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR. This study emphasizes that the risk assessment of health effects from the out-of-field low doses during IMRT should be of concern, as these may increase the risk of secondary cancers and/or systemic inflammation. PMID:24435511

  19. Robotics Vision for a Scouting Rover - PRoViScout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paar, G.; Woods, M.; Pullan, D.; Proviscout Team

    2011-10-01

    The FP7-SPACE Project ProViScout (Planetary Robotics Vision Scout, scheduled from April 2010 to September 2012) aims to demonstrate the feasibility of vision-based autonomous sample identification & selection in combination with vision-based navigation for a long range scouting/exploration mission on a terrestrial planet along with the robotic elements required. The paper gives an overview of the PRoViScout technical and scientific objectives, envisaged solutions and achievements so far.

  20. Analysis and expansion of the role of the Escherichia coli protein ProQ.

    PubMed

    Sheidy, Daniel T; Zielke, Ryszard A

    2013-01-01

    The decrease in proline transport by the proline porter ProP in a ΔproQ strain has been well documented; however, the reason for this phenotype remains undefined. Previous studies have speculated that ProQ facilitates translation of proP mRNA. Here, we demonstrate that ProQ is enriched in the polysome fractions of sucrose gradient separations of E. coli lysates and the 30S fractions of lysates separated under conditions causing ribosomal subunit dissociation. Thus, ProQ is a bona fide ribosome associated protein. Analysis of proQ constructs lacking predicted structural domains implicates the N-terminal domain in ribosome association. Association with the ribosome appears to be mediated by an interaction with the mRNA being translated, as limited treatment of lysates with Micrococcal Nuclease maintains ribosome integrity but disrupts ProQ localization with polysomes. ProQ also fails to robustly bind to mRNA-free 70S ribosomes in vitro. Interestingly, deletion of proP does not disrupt the localization of ProQ with translating ribosomes, and deletion of proP in combination with the proU operon has no effect on ProQ localization. We also demonstrate that ProQ is necessary for robust biofilm formation, and this phenotype is independent of ProP. Binding studies were carried out using tryptophan fluorescence and in vitro transcribed proP mRNAs. proP is transcribed from two differentially regulated promoters, and ProQ interacts with proP mRNA transcribed from both promoters, as well as a control mRNA with similar affinities. In total, these data suggest that ProQ is positioned to function as a novel translational regulator, and its cellular role extends beyond its effects on proline uptake by ProP. PMID:24205389

  1. Recombinant medaka (Oryzias melastigmus) pro-hepcidin: Multifunctional characterization.

    PubMed

    Cai, Ling; Cai, Jing-Jing; Liu, Hai-Peng; Fan, Dan-Qing; Peng, Hui; Wang, Ke-Jian

    2012-02-01

    Recently, two hepcidin variant genes (Om-hep1 and Om-hep2) were identified in a model fish marine medaka and both were highly induced in vivo with bacterial challenge, suggesting that the medaka hepcidin may have a similar function to other reported teleostean hepcidins. In the present study, the antibacterial, antiviral and antitumor activities of Om-hep1 were determined using its synthetic and recombinant pro-peptides. The recombinant pro-hepcidin1 was expressed in Escherichia coli and an effective method to produce recombinant Pro-Omhep1 was developed in order to obtain a right folded structure. The results showed that both the synthetic mature peptide and recombinant pro-peptide had similar antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and negative bacteria. In particular, both the synthetic mature Om-hep1 and recombinant Pro-Omhep1 inhibited the viral replication of white spot syndrome virus in the hematopoietic tissue cells of the crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus. Om-hep1 also presented antitumor activity on the cultured human hepatocellular carcinoma cells. In addition, the antimicrobial mechanism of Om-hep1 was measured and it was found that Om-hep1 was likely to be non-membranolytic. The recombinant Pro-Omhep1 performed better biological activity compared to the synthetic mature Om-hep1. This study suggested that Om-hep1 was likely to be an important multifunction protein involved in various resistance actions in the marine medaka immune system. PMID:22051539

  2. Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    NASA's Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System experiment (ProSEDS) will demonstrate the use of an electrodynamic tether, basically a long, thin wire, for propulsion. An electrodynamic tether uses the same principles as electric motors in toys, appliances and computer disk drives, and generators in automobiles and power plants. When electrical current is flowing through the tether, a magnetic field is produced that pushes against the magnetic field of the Earth. For ProSEDS, the current in the tether results by virtue of the voltage generated when the tether moves through the Earth's magnetic field at more than 17,000 mph. This approach can produce drag thrust generating useable power. Since electrodynamic tethers require no propellant, they could substantially reduce the weight of the spacecraft and provide a cost-effective method of reboosting spacecraft. The initial flight of ProSEDS is scheduled to fly aboard an Air Force Delta II rocket in the summer of 2002. In orbit, ProSEDS will deploy from a Delta II second stage. It will be a 3.1-mile (5 kilometer) long, ultrathin base-wire cornected with a 6.2-mile (10 kilometer) long nonconducting tether. This photograph shows Less Johnson, a scientist at MSFC inspecting the nonconducting part of a tether as it exits a deployer similar to the one to be used in the ProSEDS experiment. The ProSEDS experiment is managed by the Space Transportation Directorate at MSFC.

  3. AdjudiPro{reg_sign} 2.0

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, D.; Connolly, J.; Simons, B.C.

    1996-12-31

    AdjudiPro, version 2.0, is the latest incarnation of United HealthCare`s patented physician claims adjudication expert system (US patent No. 5,359,509). Its core is an embedded expert system that contains the logic for processing 55% of all physician claim situations reviewed on United HealthCare`s managed care system. Certain physician services are reviewed as part of the claims adjudication process to ensure that submitted charges meet contractual, and other guidelines. In 1995, nearly $20 million in gross savings was realized through use of this system. Since its initial deployment in 1991-1992, there has been a steep increase in AdjudiPro`s processing volume. This increased demand created a number of issues that had to be addressed to ensure AdjudiPro`s continued viability and growth. As a result, much of the past three years was spent rearchitecting AdjudiPro to meet the increasing load placed on it, while achieving acceptable throughput. AdjudiPro is now an essentially real-time application, processing claims twenty-four hours a day, seven days a week. This paper describes the current AdjudiPro application, and the key issues faced during the past three years.

  4. InterPro: the integrative protein signature database.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Sarah; Apweiler, Rolf; Attwood, Teresa K; Bairoch, Amos; Bateman, Alex; Binns, David; Bork, Peer; Das, Ujjwal; Daugherty, Louise; Duquenne, Lauranne; Finn, Robert D; Gough, Julian; Haft, Daniel; Hulo, Nicolas; Kahn, Daniel; Kelly, Elizabeth; Laugraud, Aurélie; Letunic, Ivica; Lonsdale, David; Lopez, Rodrigo; Madera, Martin; Maslen, John; McAnulla, Craig; McDowall, Jennifer; Mistry, Jaina; Mitchell, Alex; Mulder, Nicola; Natale, Darren; Orengo, Christine; Quinn, Antony F; Selengut, Jeremy D; Sigrist, Christian J A; Thimma, Manjula; Thomas, Paul D; Valentin, Franck; Wilson, Derek; Wu, Cathy H; Yeats, Corin

    2009-01-01

    The InterPro database (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/interpro/) integrates together predictive models or 'signatures' representing protein domains, families and functional sites from multiple, diverse source databases: Gene3D, PANTHER, Pfam, PIRSF, PRINTS, ProDom, PROSITE, SMART, SUPERFAMILY and TIGRFAMs. Integration is performed manually and approximately half of the total approximately 58,000 signatures available in the source databases belong to an InterPro entry. Recently, we have started to also display the remaining un-integrated signatures via our web interface. Other developments include the provision of non-signature data, such as structural data, in new XML files on our FTP site, as well as the inclusion of matchless UniProtKB proteins in the existing match XML files. The web interface has been extended and now links out to the ADAN predicted protein-protein interaction database and the SPICE and Dasty viewers. The latest public release (v18.0) covers 79.8% of UniProtKB (v14.1) and consists of 16 549 entries. InterPro data may be accessed either via the web address above, via web services, by downloading files by anonymous FTP or by using the InterProScan search software (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/Tools/InterProScan/). PMID:18940856

  5. New developments in the InterPro database

    PubMed Central

    Mulder, Nicola J.; Apweiler, Rolf; Attwood, Teresa K.; Bairoch, Amos; Bateman, Alex; Binns, David; Bork, Peer; Buillard, Virginie; Cerutti, Lorenzo; Copley, Richard; Courcelle, Emmanuel; Das, Ujjwal; Daugherty, Louise; Dibley, Mark; Finn, Robert; Fleischmann, Wolfgang; Gough, Julian; Haft, Daniel; Hulo, Nicolas; Hunter, Sarah; Kahn, Daniel; Kanapin, Alexander; Kejariwal, Anish; Labarga, Alberto; Langendijk-Genevaux, Petra S.; Lonsdale, David; Lopez, Rodrigo; Letunic, Ivica; Madera, Martin; Maslen, John; McAnulla, Craig; McDowall, Jennifer; Mistry, Jaina; Mitchell, Alex; Nikolskaya, Anastasia N.; Orchard, Sandra; Orengo, Christine; Petryszak, Robert; Selengut, Jeremy D.; Sigrist, Christian J. A.; Thomas, Paul D.; Valentin, Franck; Wilson, Derek; Wu, Cathy H.; Yeats, Corin

    2007-01-01

    InterPro is an integrated resource for protein families, domains and functional sites, which integrates the following protein signature databases: PROSITE, PRINTS, ProDom, Pfam, SMART, TIGRFAMs, PIRSF, SUPERFAMILY, Gene3D and PANTHER. The latter two new member databases have been integrated since the last publication in this journal. There have been several new developments in InterPro, including an additional reading field, new database links, extensions to the web interface and additional match XML files. InterPro has always provided matches to UniProtKB proteins on the website and in the match XML file on the FTP site. Additional matches to proteins in UniParc (UniProt archive) are now available for download in the new match XML files only. The latest InterPro release (13.0) contains more than 13 000 entries, covering over 78% of all proteins in UniProtKB. The database is available for text- and sequence-based searches via a webserver (), and for download by anonymous FTP (). The InterProScan search tool is now also available via a web service at . PMID:17202162

  6. InterPro: the integrative protein signature database

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Sarah; Apweiler, Rolf; Attwood, Teresa K.; Bairoch, Amos; Bateman, Alex; Binns, David; Bork, Peer; Das, Ujjwal; Daugherty, Louise; Duquenne, Lauranne; Finn, Robert D.; Gough, Julian; Haft, Daniel; Hulo, Nicolas; Kahn, Daniel; Kelly, Elizabeth; Laugraud, Aurélie; Letunic, Ivica; Lonsdale, David; Lopez, Rodrigo; Madera, Martin; Maslen, John; McAnulla, Craig; McDowall, Jennifer; Mistry, Jaina; Mitchell, Alex; Mulder, Nicola; Natale, Darren; Orengo, Christine; Quinn, Antony F.; Selengut, Jeremy D.; Sigrist, Christian J. A.; Thimma, Manjula; Thomas, Paul D.; Valentin, Franck; Wilson, Derek; Wu, Cathy H.; Yeats, Corin

    2009-01-01

    The InterPro database (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/interpro/) integrates together predictive models or ‘signatures’ representing protein domains, families and functional sites from multiple, diverse source databases: Gene3D, PANTHER, Pfam, PIRSF, PRINTS, ProDom, PROSITE, SMART, SUPERFAMILY and TIGRFAMs. Integration is performed manually and approximately half of the total ∼58 000 signatures available in the source databases belong to an InterPro entry. Recently, we have started to also display the remaining un-integrated signatures via our web interface. Other developments include the provision of non-signature data, such as structural data, in new XML files on our FTP site, as well as the inclusion of matchless UniProtKB proteins in the existing match XML files. The web interface has been extended and now links out to the ADAN predicted protein–protein interaction database and the SPICE and Dasty viewers. The latest public release (v18.0) covers 79.8% of UniProtKB (v14.1) and consists of 16 549 entries. InterPro data may be accessed either via the web address above, via web services, by downloading files by anonymous FTP or by using the InterProScan search software (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/Tools/InterProScan/). PMID:18940856

  7. The InterPro BioMart: federated query and web service access to the InterPro Resource.

    PubMed

    Jones, Philip; Binns, David; McMenamin, Conor; McAnulla, Craig; Hunter, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    The InterPro BioMart provides users with query-optimized access to predictions of family classification, protein domains and functional sites, based on a broad spectrum of integrated computational models ('signatures') that are generated by the InterPro member databases: Gene3D, HAMAP, PANTHER, Pfam, PIRSF, PRINTS, ProDom, PROSITE, SMART, SUPERFAMILY and TIGRFAMs. These predictions are provided for all protein sequences from both the UniProt Knowledge Base and the UniParc protein sequence archive. The InterPro BioMart is supplementary to the primary InterPro web interface (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/interpro), providing a web service and the ability to build complex, custom queries that can efficiently return thousands of rows of data in a variety of formats. This article describes the information available from the InterPro BioMart and illustrates its utility with examples of how to build queries that return useful biological information. Database URL: http://www.ebi.ac.uk/interpro/biomart/martview. PMID:21785143

  8. Synthesis, DNA recognition and cleavage studies of novel tetrapeptide complexes, Cu(II)/Zn(II)-Ala-Pro-Ala-Pro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arjmand, Farukh; Jamsheera, A.; Mohapatra, D. K.

    2013-05-01

    New tetrapeptide complexes Cu(II)·Ala-Pro-Ala-Pro (1) and Zn(II)·Ala-Pro-Ala-Pro (2) were synthesized from the reaction of tetrapeptide, Ala-Pro-Ala-Pro and CuCl2/ZnCl2 and were thoroughly characterized by elemental analysis, IR,1H and 13C NMR (in case of 2), ESI-MS, UV and molar conductance measurements. The solution stability study was carried out employing UV-vis absorption titrations over a broad range of pH which suggested the stability of the complexes in solution. In vitro interaction of complexes 1 and 2 with CT-DNA was studied employing UV-vis, fluorescence, circular dichroic and viscometry studies. To throw insight into molecular binding event at the target site, UV-vis titrations of 1 and 2 with mononucleotides of interest viz.; 5'-GMP and 5'-TMP were carried out. Cleavage activity of the complexes with pBR322 plasmid DNA was evaluated by agarose gel electrophoresis and, the electrophoresis pattern demonstrated that both the complexes 1 and 2 are efficient cleavage agents. Further, the Cu(II) complex displayed efficient oxidative cleavage of supercoiled DNA while various reactive oxygen species are responsible for the cleavage in Zn(II) complex.

  9. 78 FR 32281 - ProShares Advisors LLC, et al.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-29

    ... COMMISSION ProShares Advisors LLC, et al.; Notice of Application May 21, 2013. AGENCY: Securities and... exemption from sections 12(d)(1)(A) and (B) of the Act. Applicants: ProShares Advisors LLC (``ProShares''), ProShares Trust (the ``Trust''), and SEI Investments Distribution Co. (``SEI''). Summary...

  10. GeoPro: Technology to Enable Scientific Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    C. Juan

    2004-02-09

    Development of the ground-water flow model for the Death Valley Regional Groundwater Flow System (DVRFS) required integration of numerous supporting hydrogeologic investigations. The results from recharge, discharge, hydraulic properties, water level, pumping, model boundaries, and geologic studies were integrated to develop the required conceptual and 3-D framework models, and the flow model itself. To support the complex modeling process and the needs of the multidisciplinary DVRFS team, a hardware and software system called GeoPro (Geoscience Knowledge Integration Protocol) was developed. A primary function of GeoPro is to manage the large volume of disparate data compiled for the 100,000-square-kilometer area of southern Nevada and California. The data are primarily from previous investigations and regional flow models developed for the Nevada Test Site and Yucca Mountain projects. GeoPro utilizes relational database technology (Microsoft SQL Server{trademark}) to store and manage these tabular point data, groundwater flow model ASCII data, 3-D hydrogeologic framework data, 2-D and 2.5-D GIS data, and text documents. Data management consists of versioning, tracking, and reporting data changes as multiple users access the centralized database. GeoPro also supports the modeling process by automating the routine data transformations required to integrate project software. This automation is also crucial to streamlining pre- and post-processing of model data during model calibration. Another function of GeoPro is to facilitate the dissemination and use of the model data and results through web-based documents by linking and allowing access to the underlying database and analysis tools. The intent is to convey to end-users the complex flow model product in a manner that is simple, flexible, and relevant to their needs. GeoPro is evolving from a prototype system to a production-level product. Currently the DVRFS pre- and post-processing modeling tools are being re

  11. Structure and activation of pro-activin A

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xuelu; Fischer, Gerhard; Hyvönen, Marko

    2016-01-01

    Activins are growth factors with multiple roles in the development and homeostasis. Like all TGF-β family of growth factors, activins are synthesized as large precursors from which mature dimeric growth factors are released proteolytically. Here we have studied the activation of activin A and determined crystal structures of the unprocessed precursor and of the cleaved pro-mature complex. Replacing the natural furin cleavage site with a HRV 3C protease site, we show how the protein gains its bioactivity after proteolysis and is as active as the isolated mature domain. The complex remains associated in conditions used for biochemical analysis with a dissociation constant of 5 nM, but the pro-domain can be actively displaced from the complex by follistatin. Our high-resolution structures of pro-activin A share features seen in the pro-TGF-β1 and pro-BMP-9 structures, but reveal a new oligomeric arrangement, with a domain-swapped, cross-armed conformation for the protomers in the dimeric protein. PMID:27373274

  12. Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballance, Judy; Johnson, Les; Rogacki, John R. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS) space experiment will demonstrate the use of an electrodynamic tether propulsion system to generate thrust in space by decreasing the orbital altitude of a Delta II Expendable Launch Vehicle (ELV) second stage. ProSEDS, which is planned to fly in 2001, will use the flight proven Small Expendable Deployer System (SEDS) to deploy a tether (5km bare wire plus 10 km spectra or dyneema) from a Delta II second stage to achieve approximately 0.4N drag thrust. ProSEDS will utilize the tether-generated current to provide limited spacecraft power. The ProSEDs instrumentation includes a Langmuir probe and Differential Ion Flux Probe, which will determine the characteristics of the ambient ionospheric plasma. Two Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers will be used (one on the Delta and one on the endmass) to help determine tether dynamics and to limit transmitter operations to occasions when the spacecraft is over selected ground stations, The flight experiment is a precursor to the more ambitious electrodynamic tether upper stage demonstration mission, which will be capable of orbit raising, lowering and inclination changes-all using electrodynamic thrust. An immediate application of ProSEDS technology is for the deorbit of spent satellites for orbital debris mitigation. In addition to the use of this technology to provide orbit transfer and debris mitigation it may also be an attractive option for future missions to Jupiter and any other planetary body with a magnetosphere.

  13. Structure and activation of pro-activin A.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuelu; Fischer, Gerhard; Hyvönen, Marko

    2016-01-01

    Activins are growth factors with multiple roles in the development and homeostasis. Like all TGF-β family of growth factors, activins are synthesized as large precursors from which mature dimeric growth factors are released proteolytically. Here we have studied the activation of activin A and determined crystal structures of the unprocessed precursor and of the cleaved pro-mature complex. Replacing the natural furin cleavage site with a HRV 3C protease site, we show how the protein gains its bioactivity after proteolysis and is as active as the isolated mature domain. The complex remains associated in conditions used for biochemical analysis with a dissociation constant of 5 nM, but the pro-domain can be actively displaced from the complex by follistatin. Our high-resolution structures of pro-activin A share features seen in the pro-TGF-β1 and pro-BMP-9 structures, but reveal a new oligomeric arrangement, with a domain-swapped, cross-armed conformation for the protomers in the dimeric protein. PMID:27373274

  14. Regulation of autoimmune inflammation by pro-inflammatory cytokines

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eugene Y.; Moudgil, Kamal D.

    2008-01-01

    The pro-inflammatory cytokines play a critical role in the initiation and propagation of autoimmune arthritis and many other disorders resulting from a dysregulated self-directed immune response. These cytokines influence the interplay among the cellular, immunological and biochemical mediators of inflammation at multiple levels. Regulation of the pro-inflammatory activity of these cytokines is generally perceived to be mediated by the anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive cytokines such as IL-4, IL-10, or TGF-β. However, increasing evidence is accumulating in support of the regulatory attributes of the pro-inflammatory cytokines themselves, in studies conducted in animal models of diabetes, multiple sclerosis, uveitis, and lupus. The results of our recent studies have shown that the pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α and IFN-γ, can suppress arthritic inflammation in rats, and also contribute to resistance against arthritis. These results are of paramount significance not only in fully understanding the pathogenesis of autoimmune arthritis, but also in anticipating the full ramifications of the in vivo neutralization of the pro-inflammatory cytokines, including that for therapeutic purposes. PMID:18694783

  15. Milk-Derived Tripeptides IPP (Ile-Pro-Pro) and VPP (Val-Pro-Pro) Promote Adipocyte Differentiation and Inhibit Inflammation in 3T3-F442A Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chakrabarti, Subhadeep; Wu, Jianping

    2015-01-01

    Milk derived tripeptides IPP (Ile-Pro-Pro) and VPP (Val-Pro-Pro) have shown promise as anti-hypertensive agents due to their inhibitory effects on angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE). Due to the key inter-related roles of hypertension, chronic inflammation and insulin resistance in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome, there is growing interest in investigating established anti-hypertensive agents for their effects on insulin sensitivity and inflammation. In this study, we examined the effects of IPP and VPP on 3T3-F442A murine pre-adipocytes, a widely used model for studying metabolic diseases. We found that both IPP and VPP induced beneficial adipogenic differentiation as manifested by intracellular lipid accumulation, upregulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) and secretion of the protective lipid hormone adiponectin by these cells. The observed effects were similar to those induced by insulin, suggesting potential benefits in the presence of insulin resistance. IPP and VPP also inhibited cytokine induced pro-inflammatory changes such as reduction in adipokine levels and activation of the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) pathway. Taken together, our findings suggest that IPP and VPP exert insulin-mimetic adipogenic effects and prevent inflammatory changes in adipocytes, which may offer protection against metabolic disease. PMID:25714093

  16. Motoneuron Programmed Cell Death in Response to proBDNF

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, AR; Gifondorwa, DJ; Robinson, MB; Strupe, JL; Prevette, D; Johnson, JE; Hempstead, BL; Oppenheim, RW; Milligan, CE

    2011-01-01

    Motoneurons (MN) as well as most neuronal populations undergo a temporally and spatially specific period of programmed cell death (PCD). Several factors have been considered to regulate the survival of MNs during this period, including availability of muscle-derived trophic support and activity. The possibility that target-derived factors may also negatively regulate MN survival has been considered, but not pursued. Neurotrophin precursors, through their interaction with p75NTR and sortilin receptors have been shown to induce cell death during development and following injury in the CNS. In this study, we find that muscle cells produce and secrete proBDNF. ProBDNF through its interaction with p75NTR and sortilin, promotes a caspase-dependent death of MNs in culture. We also provide data to suggest that proBDNF regulates MN PCD during development in vivo. PMID:21834083

  17. Empathy and pro-social behavior in rats.

    PubMed

    Ben-Ami Bartal, Inbal; Decety, Jean; Mason, Peggy

    2011-12-01

    Whereas human pro-social behavior is often driven by empathic concern for another, it is unclear whether nonprimate mammals experience a similar motivational state. To test for empathically motivated pro-social behavior in rodents, we placed a free rat in an arena with a cagemate trapped in a restrainer. After several sessions, the free rat learned to intentionally and quickly open the restrainer and free the cagemate. Rats did not open empty or object-containing restrainers. They freed cagemates even when social contact was prevented. When liberating a cagemate was pitted against chocolate contained within a second restrainer, rats opened both restrainers and typically shared the chocolate. Thus, rats behave pro-socially in response to a conspecific's distress, providing strong evidence for biological roots of empathically motivated helping behavior. PMID:22158823

  18. Pro-2-PAM therapy for central and peripheral cholinesterases.

    PubMed

    Demar, James C; Clarkson, Edward D; Ratcliffe, Ruthie H; Campbell, Amy J; Thangavelu, Sonia G; Herdman, Christine A; Leader, Haim; Schulz, Susan M; Marek, Elizabeth; Medynets, Marie A; Ku, Therese C; Evans, Sarah A; Khan, Farhat A; Owens, Roberta R; Nambiar, Madhusoodana P; Gordon, Richard K

    2010-09-01

    Novel therapeutics to overcome the toxic effects of organophosphorus (OP) chemical agents are needed due to the documented use of OPs in warfare (e.g. 1980-1988 Iran/Iraq war) and terrorism (e.g. 1995 Tokyo subway attacks). Standard OP exposure therapy in the United States consists of atropine sulfate (to block muscarinic receptors), the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) reactivator (oxime) pralidoxime chloride (2-PAM), and a benzodiazepine anticonvulsant to ameliorate seizures. A major disadvantage is that quaternary nitrogen charged oximes, including 2-PAM, do not cross the blood brain barrier (BBB) to treat brain AChE. Therefore, we have synthesized and evaluated pro-2-PAM (a lipid permeable 2-PAM derivative) that can enter the brain and reactivate CNS AChE, preventing seizures in guinea pigs after exposure to OPs. The protective effects of the pro-2-PAM after OP exposure were shown using (a) surgically implanted radiotelemetry probes for electroencephalogram (EEG), (b) neurohistopathology of brain, (c) cholinesterase activities in the PNS and CNS, and (d) survivability. The PNS oxime 2-PAM was ineffective at reducing seizures/status epilepticus (SE) in diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP)-exposed animals. In contrast, pro-2-PAM significantly suppressed and then eliminated seizure activity. In OP-exposed guinea pigs, there was a significant reduction in neurological damage with pro-2-PAM but not 2-PAM. Distinct regional areas of the brains showed significantly higher AChE activity 1.5h after OP exposure in pro-2-PAM treated animals compared to the 2-PAM treated ones. However, blood and diaphragm showed similar AChE activities in animals treated with either oxime, as both 2-PAM and pro-2-PAM are PNS active oximes. In conclusion, pro-2-PAM can cross the BBB, is rapidly metabolized inside the brain to 2-PAM, and protects against OP-induced SE through restoration of brain AChE activity. Pro-2-PAM represents the first non-invasive means of administering a CNS therapeutic for

  19. The neuropsychology of infants’ pro-social preferences

    PubMed Central

    Gredebäck, Gustaf; Kaduk, Katharina; Bakker, Marta; Gottwald, Janna; Ekberg, Therese; Elsner, Claudia; Reid, Vincent; Kenward, Ben

    2015-01-01

    The current study is the first to investigate neural correlates of infants’ detection of pro- and antisocial agents. Differences in ERP component P400 over posterior temporal areas were found during 6-month-olds’ observation of helping and hindering agents (Experiment 1), but not during observation of identically moving agents that did not help or hinder (Experiment 2). The results demonstrate that the P400 component indexes activation of infants’ memories of previously perceived interactions between social agents. This leads to suggest that similar processes might be involved in infants’ processing of pro- and antisocial agents and other social perception processes (encoding gaze direction, goal directed grasping and pointing). PMID:25681955

  20. Cancer exosomes trigger mesenchymal stem cell differentiation into pro-angiogenic and pro-invasive myofibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Gurney, Mark; Mason, Malcolm D.; Tabi, Zsuzsanna; Clayton, Aled

    2015-01-01

    Stromal fibroblasts become altered in response to solid cancers, to exhibit myofibroblastic characteristics, with disease promoting influence. Infiltrating mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) may contribute towards these changes, but the factors secreted by cancer cells that impact MSC differentiation are poorly understood. We investigated the role of nano-metre sized vesicles (exosomes), secreted by prostate cancer cells, on the differentiation of bone-marrow MSC (BM-MSC), and the subsequent functional consequences of such changes. Purified exosomes impaired classical adipogenic differentiation, skewing differentiation towards alpha-smooth muscle actin (αSMA) positive myofibroblastic cells. A single exosomes treatment generated myofibroblasts secreting high levels of VEGF-A, HGF and matrix regulating factors (MMP-1, −3 and −13). Differentiated MSC had pro-angiogenic functions and enhanced tumour proliferation and invasivity assessed in a 3D co-culture model. Differentiation was dependent on exosomal-TGFβ, but soluble TGFβ at matched dose could not generate the same phenotype. Exosomes present in the cancer cell secretome were the principal factors driving this phenotype. Prostate cancer exosomes dominantly dictate a programme of MSC differentiation generating myofibroblasts with functional properties consistent with disease promotion. PMID:25596732

  1. Cancer exosomes trigger mesenchymal stem cell differentiation into pro-angiogenic and pro-invasive myofibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Ridwana; Webber, Jason P; Gurney, Mark; Mason, Malcolm D; Tabi, Zsuzsanna; Clayton, Aled

    2015-01-20

    Stromal fibroblasts become altered in response to solid cancers, to exhibit myofibroblastic characteristics, with disease promoting influence. Infiltrating mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) may contribute towards these changes, but the factors secreted by cancer cells that impact MSC differentiation are poorly understood. We investigated the role of nano-metre sized vesicles (exosomes), secreted by prostate cancer cells, on the differentiation of bone-marrow MSC (BM-MSC), and the subsequent functional consequences of such changes. Purified exosomes impaired classical adipogenic differentiation, skewing differentiation towards alpha-smooth muscle actin (αSMA) positive myofibroblastic cells. A single exosomes treatment generated myofibroblasts secreting high levels of VEGF-A, HGF and matrix regulating factors (MMP-1, -3 and -13). Differentiated MSC had pro-angiogenic functions and enhanced tumour proliferation and invasivity assessed in a 3D co-culture model. Differentiation was dependent on exosomal-TGFβ, but soluble TGFβ at matched dose could not generate the same phenotype. Exosomes present in the cancer cell secretome were the principal factors driving this phenotype. Prostate cancer exosomes dominantly dictate a programme of MSC differentiation generating myofibroblasts with functional properties consistent with disease promotion. PMID:25596732

  2. HBpF-proBDNF: A New Tool for the Analysis of Pro-Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor Receptor Signaling and Cell Biology.

    PubMed

    Gaub, Perrine; de Léon, Andrès; Gibon, Julien; Soubannier, Vincent; Dorval, Geneviève; Séguéla, Philippe; Barker, Philip A

    2016-01-01

    Neurotrophins activate intracellular signaling pathways necessary for neuronal survival, growth and apoptosis. The most abundant neurotrophin in the adult brain, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), is first synthesized as a proBDNF precursor and recent studies have demonstrated that proBDNF can be secreted and that it functions as a ligand for a receptor complex containing p75NTR and sortilin. Activation of proBDNF receptors mediates growth cone collapse, reduces synaptic activity, and facilitates developmental apoptosis of motoneurons but the precise signaling cascades have been difficult to discern. To address this, we have engineered, expressed and purified HBpF-proBDNF, an expression construct containing a 6X-HIS tag, a biotin acceptor peptide (BAP) sequence, a PreScission™ Protease cleavage site and a FLAG-tag attached to the N-terminal part of murine proBDNF. Intact HBpF-proBDNF has activities indistinguishable from its wild-type counterpart and can be used to purify proBDNF signaling complexes or to monitor proBDNF endocytosis and retrograde transport. HBpF-proBDNF will be useful for characterizing proBDNF signaling complexes and for deciphering the role of proBDNF in neuronal development, synapse function and neurodegenerative disease. PMID:26950209

  3. HBpF-proBDNF: A New Tool for the Analysis of Pro-Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor Receptor Signaling and Cell Biology

    PubMed Central

    Gaub, Perrine; de Léon, Andrès; Gibon, Julien; Soubannier, Vincent; Dorval, Geneviève; Séguéla, Philippe; Barker, Philip A.

    2016-01-01

    Neurotrophins activate intracellular signaling pathways necessary for neuronal survival, growth and apoptosis. The most abundant neurotrophin in the adult brain, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), is first synthesized as a proBDNF precursor and recent studies have demonstrated that proBDNF can be secreted and that it functions as a ligand for a receptor complex containing p75NTR and sortilin. Activation of proBDNF receptors mediates growth cone collapse, reduces synaptic activity, and facilitates developmental apoptosis of motoneurons but the precise signaling cascades have been difficult to discern. To address this, we have engineered, expressed and purified HBpF-proBDNF, an expression construct containing a 6X-HIS tag, a biotin acceptor peptide (BAP) sequence, a PreScission™ Protease cleavage site and a FLAG-tag attached to the N-terminal part of murine proBDNF. Intact HBpF-proBDNF has activities indistinguishable from its wild-type counterpart and can be used to purify proBDNF signaling complexes or to monitor proBDNF endocytosis and retrograde transport. HBpF-proBDNF will be useful for characterizing proBDNF signaling complexes and for deciphering the role of proBDNF in neuronal development, synapse function and neurodegenerative disease. PMID:26950209

  4. Ionizing radiation modulates human macrophages towards a pro-inflammatory phenotype preserving their pro-invasive and pro-angiogenic capacities

    PubMed Central

    Teresa Pinto, Ana; Laranjeiro Pinto, Marta; Patrícia Cardoso, Ana; Monteiro, Cátia; Teixeira Pinto, Marta; Filipe Maia, André; Castro, Patrícia; Figueira, Rita; Monteiro, Armanda; Marques, Margarida; Mareel, Marc; dos Santos, Susana Gomes; Seruca, Raquel; Adolfo Barbosa, Mário; Rocha, Sónia; José Oliveira, Maria

    2016-01-01

    In order to improve the efficacy of conventional radiotherapy, attention has been paid to immune cells, which not only modulate cancer cell response to therapy but are also highly recruited to tumours after irradiation. Particularly, the effect of ionizing radiation on macrophages, using therapeutically relevant doses, is not well understood. To evaluate how radiotherapy affects macrophage behaviour and macrophage-mediated cancer cell activity, human monocyte derived-macrophages were subjected, for a week, to cumulative ionizing radiation doses, as used during cancer treatment (2 Gy/fraction/day). Irradiated macrophages remained viable and metabolically active, despite DNA damage. NF-kappaB transcription activation and increased Bcl-xL expression evidenced the promotion of pro-survival activity. A significant increase of pro-inflammatory macrophage markers CD80, CD86 and HLA-DR, but not CCR7, TNF and IL1B was observed after 10 Gy cumulative doses, while anti-inflammatory markers CD163, MRC1, VCAN and IL-10 expression decreased, suggesting the modulation towards a more pro-inflammatory phenotype. Moreover, ionizing radiation induced macrophage morphological alterations and increased their phagocytic rate, without affecting matrix metalloproteases (MMP)2 and MMP9 activity. Importantly, irradiated macrophages promoted cancer cell-invasion and cancer cell-induced angiogenesis. Our work highlights macrophage ability to sustain cancer cell activities as a major concern that needs to be addressed to improve radiotherapy efficacy. PMID:26735768

  5. The "Creation-Science" Case and Pro Bono Publico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, Peggy L.

    1982-01-01

    Describes contributions and efforts of New York law firm (Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher, Flom) personnel in developing plaintiff's case in McLean v. Arkansas 590 (balanced treatment of creationism/evolution). Discusses aspects of "Pro Bono Publico" (unpaid public interest service) endeavors in general and those related to this law firm in…

  6. Mexican American Adolescents' Perceptions of a Pro-College Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castillo, Linda G.; Conoley, Collie W.; Cepeda, Lisa M.; Ivy, Karen K.; Archuleta, Debra J.

    2010-01-01

    Three focus groups of ninth-grade Mexican American students explored the factors contributing to a pro-college culture. The students participated in the federal initiative program called "Gaining Early Awareness and Readiness for Undergraduate Programs." Analysis revealed specific student, family, peer, and school personnel influences toward a…

  7. Do Null Subjects (Mis-)Trigger Pro-Drop Grammars?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazier, Lyn

    2015-01-01

    Native speakers of English regularly hear sentences without overt subjects. Nevertheless, they maintain a [[superscript -]pro] grammar that requires sentences to have an overt subject. It is proposed that listeners of English recognize that speakers reduce predictable material and thus attribute null subjects to this process, rather than changing…

  8. Watts Up? Pro AC Power Meter for Automated Energy Recording

    PubMed Central

    Hirst, Jason M.; Miller, Jonathan R.; Kaplan, Brent A.; Reed, Derek D.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to review the Watts up? Pro AC power meter. Evaluations of the meter's reliability for measuring energy consumption by consumer electronics yielded acceptable levels of reliability. Implications and limitations for the use of this product in behavior analytic research and practice are discussed.

  9. The Role of Cyclo(His-Pro) in Neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Grottelli, Silvia; Ferrari, Ilaria; Pietrini, Grazia; Peirce, Matthew J; Minelli, Alba; Bellezza, Ilaria

    2016-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases may have distinct genetic etiologies and pathological manifestations, yet share common cellular mechanisms underpinning neuronal damage and dysfunction. These cellular mechanisms include excitotoxicity, calcium dysregulation, oxidative damage, ER stress and neuroinflammation. Recent data have identified a dual role in these events for glial cells, such as microglia and astrocytes, which are able both to induce and to protect against damage induced by diverse stresses. Cyclo(His-Pro), a cyclic dipeptide derived from the hydrolytic removal of the amino-terminal pyroglutamic acid residue of the hypothalamic thyrotropin-releasing hormone, may be important in regulating the nature of the glial cell contribution. Cyclo(His-Pro) is ubiquitous in the central nervous system and is a key substrate of organic cation transporters, which are strongly linked to neuroprotection. The cyclic dipeptide can also cross the brain-blood-barrier and, once in the brain, can affect diverse inflammatory and stress responses by modifying the Nrf2-NF-κB signaling axis. For these reasons, cyclo(His-Pro) has striking potential for therapeutic application by both parenteral and oral administration routes and may represent an important new tool in counteracting neuroinflammation-based degenerative pathologies. In this review, we discuss the chemistry and biology of cyclo(His-Pro), how it may interact with the biological mechanisms driving neurodegenerative disease, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and thereby act to preserve or restore neuronal function. PMID:27529240

  10. Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This Quick Time movie is of NASA's Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System experiment (ProSEDS). ProSEDS will demonstrate the use of an electrodynamic tether, basically a long, thin wire, for propulsion. An electrodynamic tether uses the same principles as electric motors in toys, appliances and computer disk drives, and generators in automobiles and power plants. When electrical current is flowing through the tether, a magnetic field is produced that pushes against the magnetic field of the Earth. For ProSEDS, the current in the tether results by virtue of the voltage generated when the tether moves through the Earth's magnetic field at more than 17,000 mph. This approach can produce drag thrust generating useable power. Since electrodynamic tethers require no propellant, they could substantially reduce the weight of the spacecraft and provide a cost-effective method of reboosting spacecraft. The tether would be a 3.1-mile (5 kilometer) long, ultrathin base-wire tether connected with a 6.2-mile (10 kilometer) long nonconducting tether. The ProSEDS experiment is managed by the Space Transportation Directorate at the Marshall Space Flight Center.

  11. 31 CFR 50.93 - Application of pro rata share.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Application of pro rata share. 50.93 Section 50.93 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TERRORISM RISK INSURANCE... from a subsequent act of terrorism....

  12. 19 CFR 122.74 - Incomplete (pro forma) manifest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...; Electronic Manifest Requirements for Passengers, Crew Members, and Non-Crew Members Onboard Commercial Aircraft Departing From the United States § 122.74 Incomplete (pro forma) manifest. (a) Application—(1) Shipments to foreign countries. Except for aircraft bound for foreign locations referred to in paragraph...

  13. 19 CFR 122.74 - Incomplete (pro forma) manifest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...; Electronic Manifest Requirements for Passengers, Crew Members, and Non-Crew Members Onboard Commercial Aircraft Departing From the United States § 122.74 Incomplete (pro forma) manifest. (a) Application—(1) Shipments to foreign countries. Except for aircraft bound for foreign locations referred to in paragraph...

  14. 19 CFR 122.74 - Incomplete (pro forma) manifest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...; Electronic Manifest Requirements for Passengers, Crew Members, and Non-Crew Members Onboard Commercial Aircraft Departing From the United States § 122.74 Incomplete (pro forma) manifest. (a) Application—(1) Shipments to foreign countries. Except for aircraft bound for foreign locations referred to in paragraph...

  15. 19 CFR 122.74 - Incomplete (pro forma) manifest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...; Electronic Manifest Requirements for Passengers, Crew Members, and Non-Crew Members Onboard Commercial Aircraft Departing From the United States § 122.74 Incomplete (pro forma) manifest. (a) Application—(1) Shipments to foreign countries. Except for aircraft bound for foreign locations referred to in paragraph...

  16. Pro-Forms as Projective Devices in Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keevallik, Leelo

    2011-01-01

    Cataphoric pronouns have been characterized as being co-referential with a word that comes later. Considering that talk is produced in real time, with little benefit of knowing what is yet to come, participants understand cataphoric pro-forms to be projecting more talk. Projection is a crucial interactive resource, as it enables speakers to align…

  17. Memory for Pro-Social Intentions: When Competing Motives Collide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandimonte, Maria A.; Ferrante, Donatella; Bianco, Carmela; Villani, Maria Grazia

    2010-01-01

    Memory for future actions, or "prospective memory" (PM), often involves remembering to do things "for others". The present article explores the motivational mechanisms underlying memory for pro-social intentions through the manipulation of the social relevance of goals and presence of material rewards during an activity-based PM task. Results…

  18. Affecting Community Change: Involving "Pro Bono" Professionals as Extension Volunteers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Diane T.; Culp, Ken, III

    2013-01-01

    "Pro bono" volunteers provide an effective means for Extension professionals to expand limited financial and human resources. Volunteers recruited from business settings can provide skills, abilities, expertise, leadership, and resources to Extension programs. Allowing professional volunteers to meet their desired leadership goals while…

  19. Virtex-II Pro SEE Test Methods and Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petrick, David; Powell, Wesley; Howard, James W., Jr.; LaBel, Kenneth A.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this coarse Single Event Effect (SEE) test is to determine the suitability of the commercial Virtex-II Pro family for use in spaceflight applications. To this end, this test is primarily intended to determine any Singe Event Latchup (SEL) susceptibilities for these devices. Secondly, this test is intended to measure the level of Single Event Upset (SEU) susceptibilities and in a general sense where they occur. The coarse SEE test was performed on a commercial XC2VP7 device, a relatively small single processor version of the Virtex-II Pro. As the XC2VP7 shares the same functional block design and fabrication process with the larger Virtex-II Pro devices, the results of this test should also be applicable to the larger devices. The XC2VP7 device was tested on a commercial Virtex-II Pro development board. The testing was performed at the Cyclotron laboratories at Texas A&M and Michigan State Universities using ions of varying energy levels and fluences.

  20. Promoting pro-environmental action in climate change deniers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bain, Paul G.; Hornsey, Matthew J.; Bongiorno, Renata; Jeffries, Carla

    2012-08-01

    A sizeable (and growing) proportion of the public in Western democracies deny the existence of anthropogenic climate change. It is commonly assumed that convincing deniers that climate change is real is necessary for them to act pro-environmentally. However, the likelihood of `conversion' using scientific evidence is limited because these attitudes increasingly reflect ideological positions. An alternative approach is to identify outcomes of mitigation efforts that deniers find important. People have strong interests in the welfare of their society, so deniers may act in ways supporting mitigation efforts where they believe these efforts will have positive societal effects. In Study 1, climate change deniers (N=155) intended to act more pro-environmentally where they thought climate change action would create a society where people are more considerate and caring, and where there is greater economic/technological development. Study 2 (N=347) replicated this experimentally, showing that framing climate change action as increasing consideration for others, or improving economic/technological development, led to greater pro-environmental action intentions than a frame emphasizing avoiding the risks of climate change. To motivate deniers' pro-environmental actions, communication should focus on how mitigation efforts can promote a better society, rather than focusing on the reality of climate change and averting its risks.

  1. The Role of Cyclo(His-Pro) in Neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Grottelli, Silvia; Ferrari, Ilaria; Pietrini, Grazia; Peirce, Matthew J.; Minelli, Alba; Bellezza, Ilaria

    2016-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases may have distinct genetic etiologies and pathological manifestations, yet share common cellular mechanisms underpinning neuronal damage and dysfunction. These cellular mechanisms include excitotoxicity, calcium dysregulation, oxidative damage, ER stress and neuroinflammation. Recent data have identified a dual role in these events for glial cells, such as microglia and astrocytes, which are able both to induce and to protect against damage induced by diverse stresses. Cyclo(His-Pro), a cyclic dipeptide derived from the hydrolytic removal of the amino-terminal pyroglutamic acid residue of the hypothalamic thyrotropin-releasing hormone, may be important in regulating the nature of the glial cell contribution. Cyclo(His-Pro) is ubiquitous in the central nervous system and is a key substrate of organic cation transporters, which are strongly linked to neuroprotection. The cyclic dipeptide can also cross the brain-blood-barrier and, once in the brain, can affect diverse inflammatory and stress responses by modifying the Nrf2-NF-κB signaling axis. For these reasons, cyclo(His-Pro) has striking potential for therapeutic application by both parenteral and oral administration routes and may represent an important new tool in counteracting neuroinflammation-based degenerative pathologies. In this review, we discuss the chemistry and biology of cyclo(His-Pro), how it may interact with the biological mechanisms driving neurodegenerative disease, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and thereby act to preserve or restore neuronal function. PMID:27529240

  2. Affordance, Learning Opportunities, and the Lesson Plan Pro Forma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Jason

    2015-01-01

    This article argues that the most commonly used lesson plan pro formas in language teacher education are inappropriately premised on an outcomes-based approach to teaching, one that is in conflict with what we know about how languages are learnt and how experienced teachers teach. It proposes an alternative, affordance-based approach to lesson…

  3. MEMS Pro Design Kit - Parts A, B, and C

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2006-06-15

    Part A: SUMMiT V design Kit components for use with MEMS Pro from SoftMEMS Part B: SUMMiT V remote DRC and gear generator source code for use with autocad visual basic Part C: SUMMiT V DRC rules source and test cases for Calibre DRC engine

  4. Intrinsic structural disorder of mouse proNGF.

    PubMed

    Paoletti, Francesca; Covaceuszach, Sonia; Konarev, Peter V; Gonfloni, Stefania; Malerba, Francesca; Schwarz, Elisabeth; Svergun, Dmitri I; Cattaneo, Antonino; Lamba, Doriano

    2009-06-01

    The unprocessed precursor of the Nerve Growth Factor (NGF), proNGF, has additional functions, besides its initially described role as a chaperone for NGF folding. The precursor protein endows apoptotic and/or neurotrophic properties, in contrast to the mature part. The structural and molecular basis for such distinct activities are presently unknown. Aiming to gain insights into the specific molecular interactions that govern rm-proNGF biological activities versus those of its mature counterpart, a structural study by synchrotron small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) in solution was carried out. The different binding properties of the two proteins were investigated by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) using, as structural probes, a panel of anti-NGF antibodies and the soluble forms of TrkA and p75(NTR) receptors. SAXS measurements revealed the rm-proNGF to be dimeric and anisometric, with the propeptide domain being intrinsically unstructured. Ab initio reconstructions assuming twofold symmetry generated two types of structural models, a globular "crab-like" and an elongated shape that resulted in equally good fits of the scattering data. A novel method accounting for possible coexistence of different conformations contributing to the experimental scattering pattern, with no symmetry constraints, suggests the "crab-like" to be a more likely proNGF conformation. To exploit the potential of chemical stabilizers affecting the existing conformational protein populations, SAXS data were also collected in the presence of ammonium sulphate. An increase of the proNGF compactness was observed. SPR data pinpoints that the propeptide of proNGF may act as an intrinsically unstructured protein domain, characterized by a molecular promiscuity in the interaction/binding to multiple partners (TrkA and p75(NTR) receptors and a panel of neutralizing anti-NGF antibodies) depending on the physiological conditions of the cell. These data provide a first insight into the structural basis

  5. Development of Polymer Coatings for the ProSEDS Tether

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughn, Jason A.; Kamenetsky, Rachel R.; Finckenor, Miria; Wright, Ken

    2000-01-01

    The ProSEDS mission is designed to provide an on-orbit demonstration of the electrodynamic propulsion capabilities of tethers in space. The ProSEDS experiment will be a secondary payload on a Delta 11 unmanned, expendable booster. A 5 km conductive tether is attached to the deployer baseplate on the Delta 11 second stage and collects current from the low Earth orbit (LEO) plasma to facilitate de-orbit of the Delta II second stage. The conductive tether is attached to a 10-15 km non-conductive tether, which in turn is attached to an endmass. A bare metal tether would have the best conductivity but thermal concerns preclude this design. A conductive polymer developed by Triton Systems has been optimized for optimum conductivity and thermo-optical properties. The current design for the ProSEDS conductive tether is seven individually coated strands of 28 AWG aluminum wire, coated with 12.7 micrometers (0.5 mil) atomic oxygen-resistant conductive polymer composed of a mixture of COR and PANi, wrapped around a braided Kevlar 29 core. Extensive testing has been performed at the Marshall Space Flight Center to qualify this material for flight on ProSEDS. Atomic oxygen exposure has been performed, with solar absorptance and infrared emittance measured before and after exposure. Plasma chamber tests have been completed, as well as tether deployment tests. Also developed for the ProSEDS mission was the insulating polymer TOR-BP. Approximately 200 meters of the conductive tether closest to the Delta II second stage is insulated to prevent any electron reconnection to the tether from the plasma contactor. The insulating material is TOR-BP with a dielectric strength of TBD.

  6. Progastrin a new pro-angiogenic factor in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Najib, S; Kowalski-Chauvel, A; Do, C; Roche, S; Cohen-Jonathan-Moyal, E; Seva, C

    2015-06-11

    Angiogenesis is essential in tumor progression and metastatic process, and increased angiogenesis has been associated with poor prognosis and relapse of colorectal cancer (CRC). VEGF has become the main target of anti-angiogenic therapy. However, most patients relapse after an initial response or present a resistance to the treatment. Identification of new pro-angiogenic factors may help to improve anti-angiogenic therapy. In this study, we demonstrated that the pro-hormone progastrin (PG), over-expressed in CRC, recognized as a growth factor, is a potent pro-angiogenic factor. In transgenic mice and human colorectal HPs producing high levels of PG, we correlated PG overexpression with an increased vascularization. In vitro, exogenous PG and conditioned media (CM) from CRC cells producing PG increased endothelial cell proliferation and migration. We also showed that treatment with exogenous PG can increase the ability of endothelial cells to form capillary-like structures. Moreover, we demonstrated that PG enhanced endothelial permeability. The finding that PG stimulated the phosphorylation of vascular endothelial (VE)-cadherin, p125-FAK, paxillin and induced actin remodelling was consistent with a role of these components in PG-stimulated endothelial cell migration and permeability. The pro-angiogenic effects observed with CM were significantly inhibited when CRC cells expressed a PG shRNA. In vivo, we found an important decrease in tumor growth and neovascularization when the CRC cells expressing the PG shRNA were xenografted in mice or in the chick chorioallantoic membrane model. We also observed an increase in the coverage of blood vessels by pericytes and a decrease in endothelial permeability when PG expression was blocked. Our results demonstrate that PG is a new pro-angiogenic factor in CRC and an attractive therapeutic target. PMID:25109333

  7. Using Pro/ENGINEER`s{reg_sign} interface module

    SciTech Connect

    Schulze, J.

    1994-06-01

    When the ACCORD Process introduced Pro/ENGINEER to Sandians several years ago, a new process for design/definition was implemented. Prior to ACCORD, engineers and draftsmen worked in the 2-D mode with a program caned ANVIL{reg_sign}, which had limited capabilities. Although the transition from 2-D modeling to 3-D modeling met with some resistance, most engineers have embraced this new concept with enthusiasm They are now able to work in the 3-D mode and at increased levels of productivity with appropriate time savings never achieved before. One area that Pro/ENGINEER is noted for that this report will concentrate on, is the powerful interface module with its wide selection of transfer file configurations. This allows the engineer to create parts or assemblies and transfer them to many different second party software packages whose vendors can provide the capability for stress analysis, rapid prototypes, virtual reality environments, or many other forms of advanced manufacturing modes of communication. The ACCORD Program has at its core, the Pro/ENGINEER program from Parametric Technology Inc. Included in the ACCORD program, are several supporting programs from other vendors to make this cooperation between software packages a reality. It is possible to create parts in Pro/ENG transfer those parts to another package that has the capability to analyze the parts for deficiencies, then optimize those parts, and allow for changes to be made. Also included in this report, are other packages closely tied to Pro/ENGINEER, but not necessarily supported under the ACCORD program. Some of these packages allow you to create very impressive video productions, or allow you to meander through a virtual reality scenario. All of these new software packages will give you a new perspective on performance. This report will show how some of these interfaces work, and how you can improve your productivity if you utilize the ACCORD program as it is implemented here at Sandia.

  8. Pro-apoptotic Action of Corticosterone in Hippocampal Organotypic Cultures.

    PubMed

    Kurek, Anna; Kucharczyk, Mateusz; Detka, Jan; Ślusarczyk, Joanna; Trojan, Ewa; Głombik, Katarzyna; Bojarski, Bartosz; Ludwikowska, Agnieszka; Lasoń, Władysław; Budziszewska, Bogusława

    2016-08-01

    Elevated levels of glucocorticoids exert neurotoxic effects, and the hippocampus is particularly sensitive to the effects of glucocorticoids. Because some data have indicated that an increased action of glucocorticoids in the perinatal period enhances the susceptibility of brain tissue to adverse substances later in life, the main purpose of the present study was to compare necrotic/apoptotic corticosterone action in hippocampal organotypic cultures obtained from control animals with the effect of this steroid in tissue from prenatally stressed rats. Because the adverse effects of glucocorticoid action on nerve cell viability appear to result mainly from an increase in the intensity of the effects of glutamate and changes in growth factor and pro-inflammatory cytokine synthesis, the involvement of these factors in corticosterone action were also determined. In stress-like concentration (1 μM), corticosterone, when added to hippocampal cultures for 1 and 3 days, alone or jointly with glutamate, did not induce necrosis. In contrast, in 3-day cultures, corticosterone (1 μM) increased caspase-3 activity and the mRNA expression of the pro-apoptotic Bax. Moreover, corticosterone's effect on caspase-3 activity was stronger in hippocampal cultures from prenatally stressed compared to control rats. Additionally, 24 h of exposure to corticosterone and glutamate, when applied separately and together, increased Bdnf, Ngf, and Tnf-α expression. In contrast, after 72 h, a strong decrease in the expression of both growth factors was observed, while the expression of TNF-α remained high. The present study showed that in stress-like concentrations, corticosterone exerted pro-apoptotic but not necrotic effects in hippocampal organotypic cultures. Prenatal stress increased the pro-apoptotic effects of corticosterone. Increased synthesis of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α may be connected with the adverse effects of corticosterone on brain cell viability. PMID:27189478

  9. The 2015-16 Pro-Kid Policy Agenda for California: A Guide to Pro-Kid Policymaking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children Now, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The 2015-16 Pro-Kid Policy Agenda for California is the only comprehensive roadmap at the state level for policymakers, stakeholders, and others who want all children--especially children of color and children from low-income families--to have the opportunity to reach their full potential. A plethora of research shows that investments in quality…

  10. The Effects of Super-Flux (High Performance) Dialyzer on Plasma Glycosylated Pro-B-Type Natriuretic Peptide (proBNP) and Glycosylated N-Terminal proBNP in End-Stage Renal Disease Patients on Dialysis

    PubMed Central

    Nakagawa, Yasuaki; Nishikimi, Toshio; Kuwahara, Koichiro; Yasuno, Shinji; Kinoshita, Hideyuki; Kuwabara, Yoshihiro; Nakao, Kazuhiro; Minami, Takeya; Yamada, Chinatsu; Ueshima, Kenji; Ikeda, Yoshihiro; Okamoto, Hiroyuki; Horii, Kazukiyo; Nagata, Kiyoshi; Kangawa, Kenji; Minamino, Naoto; Nakao, Kazuwa

    2014-01-01

    Background Plasma BNP levels are predictive of prognosis in hemodialysis patients. However, recent studies showed that the current BNP immunoassay cross-reacts with glycosylated proBNP, and the NT-proBNP assay underestimates glycosylated NT-proBNP. In addition, the recently developed high performance dialyzer removes medium-sized molecular solutes such as β2-microgloburin. We therefore investigated the effects of high performance dialysis on measured levels of glycosylated proBNP, glycosylated NT-proBNP and other BNP-related peptides in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients on hemodialysis. Method The relationships between clinical parameters and BNP-related molecule were also investigated. We used our newly developed immunoassay to measure plasma total BNP and proBNP in 105 normal subjects and 36 ESRD patients before and after hemodialysis. Plasma NT-proBNP was measured using Elecsys II after treatment with or without deglycosylating enzymes. We also measured plasma ANP and cGMP using radioimmunoassays. Results All the measured BNP-related peptides were significantly higher in ESRD patients than healthy subjects. Total BNP (−38.9%), proBNP (−29.7%), glycoNT-proBNP (−45.5%), nonglycoNT-proBNP (−53.4%), ANP (−50.4%) and cGMP (−72.1%) were all significantly reduced after hemodialysis, and the magnitude of the reduction appeared molecular weight- dependent. Both the proBNP/total BNP and glycoNT-proBNP/nonglycoNT-proBNP ratios were increased after hemodialysis. The former correlated positively with hemodialysis vintage and negatively with systolic blood pressure, while the latter correlated positively with parathyroid hormone levels. Conclusion These results suggest that hemodialysis using super-flux dialyzer removes BNP-related peptides in a nearly molecular weight-dependent manner. The ProBNP/total BNP and glycoNT-proBNP/nonglycoNT-proBNP ratios appear to be influenced by hemodialysis-related parameters in ESRD patients on hemodialysis. PMID:24667631

  11. Evolution of pro-protamine P2 genes in primates.

    PubMed

    Retief, J D; Dixon, G H

    1993-06-01

    Protamines P1 and P2 form a family of small basic peptides that represent the major sperm proteins in placental mammals. In human and mouse protamine P2 is one of the most abundant sperm proteins. The protamine P2 gene codes for a P2 precursor, pro-P2 which is later processed by proteolytic cleavages in its N-terminal region to form the mature P2 protamines. We have used polymerase chain amplification to directly sequence the pro-P2 genes of the five major primate families: red howler (Alouatta seniculus) is a New World monkey (Cebidae); the two macaque species, Macaca mulatta and M. nemistrina are Old World monkeys (Cercopithecidae), the gibbon, Hylobates lar, represents one branch of the apes (Hylobatidae); the orangutan, Pongo pygmaeus, gorilla, Gorilla gorilla and two species of chimpanzee Pan paniscus and Pan troglodytes represent a second ape family (Pongidae). These pro-P2 genes are compared with that of human [Domenjoud, L., Nussbaum, G., Adham, I. M., Greeske, G. & Engel, W. (1990) Genomics 8, 127-133]. The overall size and organization of the genes are conserved within the group. The mean length of pro-P2 is 101 residues, with an increase to 102 in M. nemistrina and a decrease to 99 residues in red howler (A. seniculus). In gorilla and red howler one of two 79-bp tandem repeats that occurs 3' of the gene is deleted. Of the 101 deduced amino acids examined, an amino acid change occurs in one or more primates at 45 positions. Considering only the most recently diverged group, the human/gorilla/chimpanzee clade, this represents a very high mutation rate of 0.99 changes/100 sites in 10(6) years. This rapid mutation rate is characteristic of both members of the protamine gene family, P1 and P2. Consideration of the variable nature of the sequences at the multiple sites of proteolysis during the processing of the pro-P2 indicates either that there are several processing enzymes of differing specificities, or more likely that the folded structure of the pro-P2

  12. Differences in the autocatalytic cleavage of pro-PC2 and pro-PC3 can be attributed to sequences within the propeptide and Asp310 of pro-PC2.

    PubMed Central

    Scougall, K; Taylor, N A; Jermany, J L; Docherty, K; Shennan, K I

    1998-01-01

    PC2 and PC3 are subtilisin-like proteases involved in the maturation of prohormones and proneuropeptides within neuroendocrine cells. They are synthesized as zymogens that undergo autocatalytic maturation within the secretory pathway. Maturation of pro-PC2 is slow (t12 >8 h), exhibits a pH optimum of 5.5 and is dependent on calcium (K0.5 2 mM), while pro-PC3 maturation is relatively rapid (t12 15 min), exhibits a neutral pH optimum and is not calcium dependent. These differences in the rates and optimal conditions for activation of the proteases may contribute to the diversity of products generated by these proteases in different cell types. Although highly similar, there are two major differences between pro-PC2 and pro-PC3: the presence of an aspartate at position 310 in pro-PC2 compared with asparagine at the equivalent position in pro-PC3 (and all other members of the subtilisin family), and the N-terminal propeptides, which exhibit low sequence identity (30%). With a view to establishing the structural features that might be responsible for these differences in the maturation of pro-PC2 and pro-PC3, Asp310 in pro-PC2 was mutated to Asn, and Asn309 in pro-PC3 was mutated to Asp. Chimaeric proteins were also made consisting of the pro-region of PC2 fused to the mature portion of PC3 and the pro-region of PC3 fused to the mature region of PC2. The wild-type and mutant DNA constructs were then transcribed and translated in an in vitro system capable of supporting maturation of pro-PC2 and pro-PC3. The results demonstrated that Asp310 of pro-PC2 is responsible for the acidic pH optimum for maturation. Thus changing Asp310 to Asn shifted the pH optimum for maturation to pH 7.0. However, changing Asn309 of pro-PC3 to Asp had no effect on the optimum pH for maturation of pro-PC3. A chimaeric construct containing the propeptide of pro-PC2 attached to PC3 shifted the pH optimum for maturation from pH 7.0 to 6.0 and slowed down the rate of maturation (t12 >8 h). When

  13. 24 CFR 203.319 - Pro rata payment of premiums and charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pro rata payment of premiums and... § 203.319 Pro rata payment of premiums and charges. No contract of insurance shall be terminated until the mortgagee has paid to the Commissioner the pro rata portion of the current annual MIP or...

  14. 24 CFR 241.825 - Pro rata refund of insurance premium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pro rata refund of insurance... Projects Without a HUD-Insured or HUD-Held Mortgage Premiums § 241.825 Pro rata refund of insurance premium... Commissioner shall refund to the lender for the account of the borrower an amount equal to the pro rata...

  15. 26 CFR 1.1059(e)-1 - Non-pro rata redemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Non-pro rata redemptions. 1.1059(e)-1 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Special Rules § 1.1059(e)-1 Non-pro rata redemptions. (a) In general... under section 1059(e)(1). For example, if a redemption of stock is not pro rata as to all...

  16. 17 CFR 240.16a-9 - Stock splits, stock dividends, and pro rata rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., and pro rata rights. 240.16a-9 Section 240.16a-9 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND... Government Securities Dealers § 240.16a-9 Stock splits, stock dividends, and pro rata rights. The following... acquisition of rights, such as shareholder or pre-emptive rights, pursuant to a pro rata grant to all...

  17. 24 CFR 203.462 - Pro rata payment of premium before termination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pro rata payment of premium before... Pro rata payment of premium before termination. No contract of insurance shall be terminated until the lender has paid to the Commissioner the pro rata portion of the current annual insurance premium....

  18. 26 CFR 1.355-4 - Non pro rata distributions, etc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Non pro rata distributions, etc. 1.355-4 Section... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Effects on Shareholders and Security Holders § 1.355-4 Non pro rata distributions... not (a) the distribution is pro rata with respect to all of the shareholders of the...

  19. 26 CFR 1.355-4 - Non pro rata distributions, etc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Non pro rata distributions, etc. 1.355-4 Section... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Effects on Shareholders and Security Holders § 1.355-4 Non pro rata distributions... not (a) the distribution is pro rata with respect to all of the shareholders of the...

  20. 20 CFR 416.1133 - What is a pro rata share of household operating expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is a pro rata share of household operating expenses. 416.1133 Section 416.1133 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION....1133 What is a pro rata share of household operating expenses. (a) General. If you pay your pro...

  1. 24 CFR 266.608 - Mortgage insurance premium: Pro rata refund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mortgage insurance premium: Pro... premium: Pro rata refund. If the Contract of Insurance is terminated by payment in full or is terminated... account. In computing the pro rata portion of the annual mortgage insurance premium, the date...

  2. 24 CFR 241.825 - Pro rata refund of insurance premium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pro rata refund of insurance... Projects Without a HUD-Insured or HUD-Held Mortgage Premiums § 241.825 Pro rata refund of insurance premium... Commissioner shall refund to the lender for the account of the borrower an amount equal to the pro rata...

  3. 17 CFR 240.14d-8 - Exemption from statutory pro rata requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exemption from statutory pro... Regulations Under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Regulation 14d § 240.14d-8 Exemption from statutory pro rata requirements. Notwithstanding the pro rata provisions of section 14(d)(6) of the Act, if...

  4. 78 FR 49739 - ProLiance Energy, LLC; Notice for Amendment of Petition for Temporary Waivers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-15

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission ProLiance Energy, LLC; Notice for Amendment of Petition for Temporary Waivers Take notice that on August 8, 2013, ProLiance Energy, LLC filed with the Federal Energy Regulatory...\\ \\1\\ ProLiance Energy, LLC, 144 FERC ] 61,037 (2013). Any person desiring to intervene or to...

  5. 24 CFR 203.319 - Pro rata payment of premiums and charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pro rata payment of premiums and... § 203.319 Pro rata payment of premiums and charges. No contract of insurance shall be terminated until the mortgagee has paid to the Commissioner the pro rata portion of the current annual MIP or...

  6. 24 CFR 203.462 - Pro rata payment of premium before termination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pro rata payment of premium before... Pro rata payment of premium before termination. No contract of insurance shall be terminated until the lender has paid to the Commissioner the pro rata portion of the current annual insurance premium....

  7. 78 FR 49740 - ProLiance Energy, LLC; Notice for Amendment of Petition for Temporary Waivers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-15

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission ProLiance Energy, LLC; Notice for Amendment of Petition for Temporary Waivers Take notice that on August 9, 2013, ProLiance Energy, LLC filed with the Federal Energy Regulatory...\\ \\1\\ ProLiance Energy, LLC, 144 FERC ] 61,075 (2013). Any person desiring to intervene or to...

  8. Solution structures of active and inactive forms of the DP IV (CD26) inhibitor Pro-boroPro determined by NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Sudmeier, J L; Günther, U L; Gutheil, W G; Coutts, S J; Snow, R J; Barton, R W; Bachovchin, W W

    1994-10-18

    Synthesis of the boronic acid analog of the dipeptide Pro-Pro yields a mixture of diastereomers Pro-L-boroPro and Pro-D-boroPro, one of which is a potent inhibitor [Ki = 16 pM; Gutheil, W. G., & Bachovchin, W. W. (1993) Biochemistry 32, 8723-8731] of dipeptidyl amino peptidase type IV (DP IV), also known as CD26. The structures of both diasteremers are determined here in aqueous solution by means of 1D and 2D NMR of 1H, 13C, and 11B, and force-field calculations, and the inhibitor is proven to have the L-L configuration. At low pH values (approximately 2), both diastereomers are trans with respect to the peptide bond. Populations of proline ring conformers are determined by pseudorotation analysis, using vicinal proton spin-coupling constants obtained by computer analysis of 1D1H NMR spectral fine structure. At neutral pH values, the Pro-boroPro inhibitor of DP IV undergoes slow, reversible inactivation (Gutheil & Bachovchin, 1993). By structural determination of the decomposition products of both diasteromers, the process is shown here to involve formation of a six-membered ring between the residues by means of trans-cis conversion and formation of a B-N bond, producing chiral nitrogen atoms in both cases having the S configuration. Analogy to cyclic dipeptides suggests the new compounds be named cyclo(Pro-L-boroPro) and cyclo(Pro-D-boroPro). PMID:7918465

  9. Identifying Parents Who Are Amenable to Pro-Vaccination Conversations

    PubMed Central

    Brunson, Emily K.

    2015-01-01

    While health care providers are often cited as parents’ most trusted source for information and advice about vaccination, parents differ in their level of receptiveness to pro-vaccination conversations. The purpose of this research was to identify points in individual parents’ decision-making processes when parents are particularly open to receiving information and advice from their children’s health care providers. Interview data were collected from 20 mothers and 5 couples. Analysis of these data suggested 3 primary circumstances when parents were particularly open to receiving information and advice: during parents’ initial decision-making, as parents continued to assess vaccination options, and during particular circumstances that prompted parents to reconsider previously made vaccination choices. These results provide a mechanism for providers to identify parents who may be particularly receptive to pro-vaccination conversations. By prioritizing conversations with parents at one of these points, health care providers’ efforts at promoting vaccination may be more effective. PMID:27335987

  10. The PACA Project : Pro-Am Collaborative Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanamandra-Fisher, P. A.

    2014-04-01

    The Pro-Am Collaborative Astronomy (PACA) project is the next stage of evolution of the paradigm developed for the observational campaign of C/2012 S1 or C/ISON. Four different phases of collaboration are identified, and illustrate the integration of scientific investigations with amateur astronomer community via observations, and models; and the rapid dissemination of the results via a multitude of social media for rapid global access. The success of the paradigm shift in scientific research is now implemented in other comet observing campaigns. Both communities (scientific and amateur astronomers) benefit from these collective, collaborative partnerships; while outreach is the instantaneous deliverable that provides both a framework for future data analyses and the dissemination of the results. While PACA identifies a collaborative approach to pro-am collaborations, given the volume of data generated for each campaign, new ways of rapid data analysis, mining access and storage are needed.

  11. Psychological antecedents of heterosexuals' pro-gay activism behavior.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Wayne W; Sagarin, Brad J

    2010-01-01

    Previous research on heterosexuals' attitudes toward gays is characterized by a focus on negative attitudes and minimal use of behavioral dependent variables. In an attempt to rectify this situation, the present study explored the psychological antecedents of heterosexuals' pro-gay activism behavior in an undergraduate sample using the theory of planned behavior (Ajzen, 1991). Findings suggest that intentions predict activism behavior (in the form of signing an online petition supporting the construction of a new lesbian, gay, and bisexual resource center on their campus). In addition, attitudes toward the possible outcomes of the behavior, attitudes toward the behavior itself, and self-identity were found to predict intentions. Directions for future research on pro-gay activism are discussed. PMID:20665329

  12. Online Stigma Resistance in the Pro-Ana Community.

    PubMed

    Yeshua-Katz, Daphna

    2015-10-01

    Media scholars often use concepts from Goffman's dramaturgical approach to study online communities of stigmatized individuals as "backstages," spaces where members take refuge from social disapproval. In this study, I extend this view through an examination of in-depth interviews with bloggers from the "pro-ana" community, an online community for people with eating disorders. To explore how this community uses an online environment that is both anonymous and public, I fuse Goffman's ideas about identity performance and stigma with more recent theories about boundary maintenance. In-depth interviews with "pro-ana" bloggers reveal that to protect this virtual group and resist stigmas associated both with their illness and with their online presence, they construct their own norms and rules in the online realm, and discipline and eject members deemed to be out-group. PMID:25667161

  13. Cervical arthroplasty using ProDisc-C case report.

    PubMed

    Nica, D A; Copaciu, R

    2013-03-15

    Cervical disc replacement is an emerging motion-preserving technology in the surgical treatment of the cervical degenerative disc disorders used as an alternative to the classic interbody fusion. We present a case report of a patient diagnosed with C6-7 right disc herniation who underwent anterior discectomy and received a total disc replacement using ProDisc C artificial disc prosthesis. PMID:23599830

  14. The ProDisc artificial disc: insertion technique.

    PubMed

    Aryan, Henry E; Acosta, Frank L; Ames, Christopher P

    2005-10-01

    The ProDisc artificial lumbar disc was designed for use in treatment of degenerative lumbar disease. The disc is implanted using an anterior approach to the lumbar spine with the assistance of intraoperative fluoroscopy. A variety of insertion instruments guide the surgeon through this process. The disc is implanted via an anterior approach, generally retroperitoneally but on occasion transperitoneally. The different approaches and insertion technique are described in this article. PMID:16326288

  15. Cerebral Lateralization of Pro- and Anti-Social Tendencies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Mounting evidence suggest that the right-hemisphere (RH) has a relative advantage, over the left-hemisphere (LH), in mediating social intelligence - identifying social stimuli, understanding the intentions of other people, awareness of the dynamics in social relationships, and successful handling of social interactions. Furthermore, a review and synthesis of the literature suggest that pro-social attitudes and behaviors are associated with physiological activity in the RH, whereas unsocial and anti-social tendencies are mediated primarily by the LH. This hemispheric asymmetry is rooted in several neurobiological and functional differences between the two hemispheres. (I) Positive social interactions often require inhibiting one's immediate desires and considering the perspectives and needs of others. Given that self-control is mediated by the RH, pro-social emotions and behaviors are, therefore, inherently associated with the RH as it subserves the brain's self-restraint mechanisms. (II) The RH mediates experiences of vulnerability. It registers the relative clumsiness and motor weakness of the left limbs, and it is involved, more than the LH, in processing threats and mediating fear. Emotional states of vulnerability trigger the need for affiliation and sociality, therefore the RH has a greater role in mediating pro-social attitudes and behaviors. (III) The RH mediates a holistic mode of representing the world. Holistic perception emphasizes similarities rather than differences, takes a long-term perspective, is associated with divergent thinking and seeing other points-of-view, and it mediates a personal mode of relating to people. All these features of holistic perception facilitate a more empathetic attitude toward others and pro-social behaviors. PMID:24737936

  16. The Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorenzini, Enrico C.; Cosmo, Mario L.; Curtis, Leslie (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    The summary of activity during this reporting period, most of which was covered by a no-cost extension of the grant, is as follows: 1) Participation in remote and in-situ (at MSFC EDAC facility) mission operation simulations; 2) Analysis of the decay rate of ProSEDS when starting the mission at a lower altitude; 3) Analysis of the deployment control law performance when deploying at a lower altitude.

  17. Cavum Septum Pellucidum in Retired American Pro-Football Players.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Raquel C; Hess, Christopher P; Brus-Ramer, Marcel; Possin, Katherine L; Cohn-Sheehy, Brendan I; Kramer, Joel H; Berger, Mitchel S; Yaffe, Kristine; Miller, Bruce; Rabinovici, Gil D

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies report that cavum septum pellucidum (CSP) is frequent among athletes with a history of repeated traumatic brain injury (TBI), such as boxers. Few studies of CSP in athletes, however, have assessed detailed features of the septum pellucidum in a case-control fashion. This is important because prevalence of CSP in the general population varies widely (2% to 85%) between studies. Further, rates of CSP among American pro-football players have not been described previously. We sought to characterize MRI features of the septum pellucidum in a series of retired pro-football players with a history of repeated concussive/subconcussive head traumas compared with controls. We retrospectively assessed retired American pro-football players presenting to our memory clinic with cognitive/behavioral symptoms in whom structural MRI was available with slice thickness ≤2 mm (n=17). Each player was matched to a memory clinic control patient with no history of TBI. Scans were interpreted by raters blinded to clinical information and TBI/football history, who measured CSP grade (0-absent, 1-equivocal, 2-mild, 3-moderate, 4-severe) and length according to a standard protocol. Sixteen of 17 (94%) players had a CSP graded ≥2 compared with 3 of 17 (18%) controls. CSP was significantly higher grade (p<0.001) and longer in players than controls (mean length±standard deviation: 10.6 mm±5.4 vs. 1.1 mm±1.3, p<0.001). Among patients presenting to a memory clinic, long high-grade CSP was more frequent in retired pro-football players compared with patients without a history of TBI. PMID:25970145

  18. The Pro-inflammatory Effects of Glucocorticoids in the Brain

    PubMed Central

    Duque, Erica de Almeida; Munhoz, Carolina Demarchi

    2016-01-01

    Glucocorticoids are a class of steroid hormones derived from cholesterol. Their actions are mediated by the glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptors, members of the superfamily of nuclear receptors, which, once bound to their ligands, act as transcription factors that can directly modulate gene expression. Through protein–protein interactions with other transcription factors, they can also regulate the activity of many genes in a composite or tethering way. Rapid non-genomic signaling was also demonstrated since glucocorticoids can act through membrane receptors and activate signal transduction pathways, such as protein kinases cascades, to modulate other transcriptions factors and activate or repress various target genes. By all these different mechanisms, glucocorticoids regulate numerous important functions in a large variety of cells, not only in the peripheral organs but also in the central nervous system during development and adulthood. In general, glucocorticoids are considered anti-inflammatory and protective agents due to their ability to inhibit gene expression of pro-inflammatory mediators and other possible damaging molecules. Nonetheless, recent studies have uncovered situations in which these hormones can act as pro-inflammatory agents depending on the dose, chronicity of exposure, and the structure/organ analyzed. In this review, we will provide an overview of the conditions under which these phenomena occur, a discussion that will serve as a basis for exploring the mechanistic foundation of glucocorticoids pro-inflammatory gene regulation in the brain. PMID:27445981

  19. Virtex-II Pro SEE Test Methods and Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petrick, David; Powell, Wesley; Howard, James

    2004-01-01

    The Xilinx Virtex-II Pro is a platform FPGA that embeds multiple microprocessors within the fabric of an SRAM-based reprogrammable FPGA. The variety and quantity of resources provided by this family of devices make them very attractive for spaceflight applications. However, these devices will be susceptible to single event effects (SEE), which must be mitigated. To use the Virtex-II Pro reliably in space applications, these devices must first be tested to determine if they are susceptible to single event latchup (SEL), the degree to which they are susceptible to single event upsets (SEU) and single event transients (SET), and how these effects are manifested in the device. With this information, mitigations schemes can be developed and tested that address the specific susceptiblities of these devices. This initial SEE test uses a commercial off the shelf Virtex-II Pro evaluation board, with a single processor XC2VP7 FPGA. The FPGA on this board is an acid etched device, which can be partially covered with a shield. The shield covers a portion of the logic, routing, and memory resources along with some of the RocketIO transceivers. The processor, along with a large portion of logic, routing, memory, and transceivers are left exposed. This test will be performed at the Cyclotron Laboratories at Texas A&M University and Michigan State University using ions of varying energy levels and fluencies.

  20. ProTherm: Thermodynamic Database for Proteins and Mutants.

    PubMed

    Gromiha, M M; An, J; Kono, H; Oobatake, M; Uedaira, H; Sarai, A

    1999-01-01

    The first release of the Thermodynamic Database for Proteins and Mutants (ProTherm) contains more than 3300 data of several thermodynamic parameters for wild type and mutant proteins. Each entry includes numerical data for unfolding Gibbs free energy change, enthalpy change, heat capacity change, transition temperature, activity etc., which are important for understanding the mechanism of protein stability. ProTherm also includes structural information such as secondary structure and solvent accessibility of wild type residues, and experimental methods and other conditions. A WWW interface enables users to search data based on various conditions with different sorting options for outputs. Further, ProTherm is cross-linked with NCBI PUBMED literature database, Protein Mutant Database, Enzyme Code and Protein Data Bank structural database. Moreover, all the mutation sites associated with each PDB structure are automatically mapped and can be directly viewed through 3DinSight developed in our laboratory. The database is available at the URL, http://www.rtc.riken.go.jp/protherm.htm l PMID:9847203

  1. The Pro-inflammatory Effects of Glucocorticoids in the Brain.

    PubMed

    Duque, Erica de Almeida; Munhoz, Carolina Demarchi

    2016-01-01

    Glucocorticoids are a class of steroid hormones derived from cholesterol. Their actions are mediated by the glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptors, members of the superfamily of nuclear receptors, which, once bound to their ligands, act as transcription factors that can directly modulate gene expression. Through protein-protein interactions with other transcription factors, they can also regulate the activity of many genes in a composite or tethering way. Rapid non-genomic signaling was also demonstrated since glucocorticoids can act through membrane receptors and activate signal transduction pathways, such as protein kinases cascades, to modulate other transcriptions factors and activate or repress various target genes. By all these different mechanisms, glucocorticoids regulate numerous important functions in a large variety of cells, not only in the peripheral organs but also in the central nervous system during development and adulthood. In general, glucocorticoids are considered anti-inflammatory and protective agents due to their ability to inhibit gene expression of pro-inflammatory mediators and other possible damaging molecules. Nonetheless, recent studies have uncovered situations in which these hormones can act as pro-inflammatory agents depending on the dose, chronicity of exposure, and the structure/organ analyzed. In this review, we will provide an overview of the conditions under which these phenomena occur, a discussion that will serve as a basis for exploring the mechanistic foundation of glucocorticoids pro-inflammatory gene regulation in the brain. PMID:27445981

  2. Control of the Immune Response by Pro-Angiogenic Factors

    PubMed Central

    Voron, Thibault; Marcheteau, Elie; Pernot, Simon; Colussi, Orianne; Tartour, Eric; Taieb, Julien; Terme, Magali

    2014-01-01

    The progressive conversion of normal cells into cancer cells is characterized by the acquisition of eight hallmarks. Among these criteria, the capability of the cancer cell to avoid the immune destruction has been noted. Thus, tumors develop mechanisms to become invisible to the immune system, such as the induction of immunosuppressive cells, which are able to inhibit the development of an efficient immune response. Molecules produced in the tumor microenvironment are involved in the occurrence of an immunosuppressive microenvironment. Recently, it has been shown that vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) exhibits immunosuppressive properties in addition to its pro-angiogenic activities. VEGF-A can induce the accumulation of immature dendritic cells, myeloid-derived suppressor cells, regulatory T cells, and inhibit the migration of T lymphocytes to the tumor. Other pro-angiogenic factors such as placental growth factor (PlGF) could also participate in tumor-induced immunosuppression, but only few works have been performed on this point. Here, we review the impact of pro-angiogenic factors (especially VEGF-A) on immune cells. Anti-angiogenic molecules, which target VEGF-A/VEGFR axis, have been developed in the last decades and are commonly used to treat cancer patients. These drugs have anti-angiogenic properties but can also counteract the tumor-induced immunosuppression. Based on these immunomodulatory properties, anti-angiogenic molecules could be efficiently associated with immunotherapeutic strategies in preclinical models. These combinations are currently under investigation in cancer patients. PMID:24765614

  3. The tetrapeptide N-acetyl-Pro-Pro-Tyr-Leu in skin care formulations-Physicochemical and release studies.

    PubMed

    Olejnik, Anna; Schroeder, Grzegorz; Nowak, Izabela

    2015-08-15

    Recently there has been a growth of interest in the novel skin care formulations containing active ingredients such as low molecular weight peptides. In this paper we present new skincare formulations such as hydrogels, oil-in-water emulsions and water-in-oil emulsion containing a tetrapeptide (N-acetyl-Pro-Pro-Tyr-Leu). These formulations were characterized in terms of physicochemical parameters (pH, viscosity), stability and particle size distribution. Additionally, the diffusion parameters of the peptide in the obtained formulations were calculated based on the Einstein-Smoluchowski equation. Furthermore, in order to determine the penetration of the tetrapeptide through membranes its release kinetics were investigated. On the basis of release curves, the release rate constants were determined. The results proved that the properties of the formulations strongly determined the release rate of the tetrapeptide. The higher viscosity of the semisolid, the slower was the permeation through the membrane. PMID:26188319

  4. Potato virus Y HC-Pro Reduces the ATPase Activity of NtMinD, Which Results in Enlarged Chloroplasts in HC-Pro Transgenic Tobacco.

    PubMed

    Tu, Yayi; Zhang, Zhenqian; Li, Daofeng; Li, Heng; Dong, Jiangli; Wang, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Potato virus Y (PVY) is an important plant virus and causes great losses every year. Viral infection often leads to abnormal chloroplasts. The first step of chloroplast division is the formation of FtsZ ring (Z-ring), and the placement of Z-ring is coordinated by the Min system in both bacteria and plants. In our lab, the helper-component proteinase (HC-Pro) of PVY was previously found to interact with the chloroplast division protein NtMinD through a yeast two-hybrid screening assay and a bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assay in vivo. Here, we further investigated the biological significance of the NtMinD/HC-Pro interaction. We purified the NtMinD and HC-Pro proteins using a prokaryotic protein purification system and tested the effect of HC-Pro on the ATPase activity of NtMinD in vitro. We found that the ATPase activity of NtMinD was reduced in the presence of HC-Pro. In addition, another important chloroplast division related protein, NtMinE, was cloned from the cDNA of Nicotiana tabacum. And the NtMinD/NtMinE interaction site was mapped to the C-terminus of NtMinD, which overlaps the NtMinD/HC-Pro interaction site. Yeast three-hybrid assay demonstrated that HC-Pro competes with NtMinE for binding to NtMinD. HC-Pro was previously reported to accumulate in the chloroplasts of PVY-infected tobacco and we confirmed this result in our present work. The NtMinD/NtMinE interaction is very important in the regulation of chloroplast division. To demonstrate the influence of HC-Pro on chloroplast division, we generated HC-Pro transgenic tobacco with a transit peptide to retarget HC-Pro to the chloroplasts. The HC-Pro transgenic plants showed enlarged chloroplasts. Our present study demonstrated that the interaction between HC-Pro and NtMinD interfered with the function of NtMinD in chloroplast division, which results in enlarged chloroplasts in HC-Pro transgenic tobacco. The HC-Pro/NtMinD interaction may cause the formation of abnormal chloroplasts in PVY

  5. Context of action of Proline Dehydrogenase (ProDH) in the Hypersensitive Response of Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Proline (Pro) dehydrogenase (ProDH) potentiates the oxidative burst and cell death of the plant Hypersensitive Response (HR) by mechanisms not yet elucidated. ProDH converts Pro into ∆1 pyrroline-5-carboxylate (P5C) and can act together with P5C dehydrogenase (P5CDH) to produce Glu, or with P5C reductase (P5CR) to regenerate Pro and thus stimulate the Pro/P5C cycle. To better understand the effects of ProDH in HR, we studied the enzyme at three stages of the defense response differing in their ROS and cell death levels. In addition, we tested if ProDH requires P5CDH to potentiate HR. Results Control and infected leaves of wild type and p5cdh plants were used to monitor ProDH activity, in vivo Pro catabolism, amino acid content, and gene expression. Wild type plants activated ProDH at all HR stages. They did not consume Pro during maximal ROS accumulation, and maintained almost basal P5C levels at all conditions. p5cdh mutants activated ProDH as wild type plants. They achieved maximum oxidative burst and cell death levels producing normal HR lesions, but evidenced premature defense activation. Conclusion ProDH activation has different effects on HR. Before the oxidative burst it leads to Pro consumption involving the action of P5CDH. During the oxidative burst, ProDH becomes functionally uncoupled to P5CDH and apparently works with P5CR. The absence of P5CDH does not reduce ROS, cell death, or pathogen resistance, indicating this enzyme is not accompanying ProDH in the potentiation of these defense responses. In contrast, p5cdh infected plants displayed increased ROS burst and earlier initiation of HR cell death. In turn, our results suggest that ProDH may sustain HR by participating in the Pro/P5C cycle, whose action on HR must be formally evaluated in a future. PMID:24410747

  6. Making Women the Subjects of the Abortion Debate: A Class Exercise that Moves beyond "Pro-Choice" and "Pro-Life"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawley, Sara L.; Willman, Rebecca K.; Clark, Leisa; Walsh, Clare

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe a classroom exercise designed to put women (and children and men) back at the center of the abortion debate, avoiding the standard rhetoric and engaging reflection on how everyone might find common political goals among the so-called pro-life and pro-choice sides. The exercise the authors offer in this article…

  7. Capturing Patient-Reported Outcome (PRO) Data Electronically: The Past, Present, and Promise of ePRO Measurement in Clinical Trials.

    PubMed

    Coons, Stephen Joel; Eremenco, Sonya; Lundy, J Jason; O'Donohoe, Paul; O'Gorman, Hannah; Malizia, William

    2015-08-01

    Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) are an important means of evaluating the treatment benefit of new medical products. It is recognized that PRO measures should be used when assessing concepts best known by the patient or best measured from the patient's perspective. As a result, there is growing emphasis on well defined and reliable PRO measures. In addition, advances in technology have significantly increased electronic PRO (ePRO) data collection capabilities and options in clinical trials. The movement from paper-based to ePRO data capture has enhanced the integrity and accuracy of clinical trial data and is encouraged by regulators. A primary distinction in the types of ePRO platforms is between telephone-based interactive voice response systems and screen-based systems. Handheld touchscreen-based devices have become the mainstay for remote (i.e., off-site, unsupervised) PRO data collection in clinical trials. The conventional approach is to provide study subjects with a handheld device with a device-based proprietary software program. However, an emerging alternative for clinical trials is called bring your own device (BYOD). Leveraging study subjects' own Internet-enabled mobile devices for remote PRO data collection (via a downloadable app or a Web-based data collection portal) has become possible due to the widespread use of personal smartphones and tablets. However, there are a number of scientific and operational issues that must be addressed before BYOD can be routinely considered as a practical alternative to conventional ePRO data collection methods. Nevertheless, the future for ePRO data collection is bright and the promise of BYOD opens a new chapter in its evolution. PMID:25300613

  8. proBAMsuite, a Bioinformatics Framework for Genome-Based Representation and Analysis of Proteomics Data*

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaojing; Slebos, Robbert J. C.; Chambers, Matthew C.; Tabb, David L.; Liebler, Daniel C.; Zhang, Bing

    2016-01-01

    To facilitate genome-based representation and analysis of proteomics data, we developed a new bioinformatics framework, proBAMsuite, in which a central component is the protein BAM (proBAM) file format for organizing peptide spectrum matches (PSMs)1 within the context of the genome. proBAMsuite also includes two R packages, proBAMr and proBAMtools, for generating and analyzing proBAM files, respectively. Applying proBAMsuite to three recently published proteomics datasets, we demonstrated its utility in facilitating efficient genome-based sharing, interpretation, and integration of proteomics data. First, the interpretation of proteomics data is significantly enhanced with the rich genomic annotation information. Second, PSMs can be easily reannotated using user-specified gene annotation schemes and assembled into both protein and gene identifications. Third, using the genome as a common reference, proBAMsuite facilitates seamless proteomics and proteogenomics data integration. Finally, proBAM files can be readily visualized in genome browsers and thus bring proteomics data analysis to a general audience beyond the proteomics community. Results from this study establish proBAMsuite as a useful bioinformatics framework for proteomics and proteogenomics research. PMID:26657539

  9. Experimental results from RO-PRO: a next generation system for low-energy desalination.

    PubMed

    Achilli, Andrea; Prante, Jeri L; Hancock, Nathan T; Maxwell, Eric B; Childress, Amy E

    2014-06-01

    A pilot system was designed and constructed to evaluate reverse osmosis (RO) energy reduction that can be achieved using pressure-retarded osmosis (PRO). The RO-PRO experimental system is the first known system to utilize energy from a volume of water transferred from atmospheric pressure to elevated pressure across a semipermeable membrane to prepressurize RO feedwater. In other words, the system demonstrated that pressure could be exchanged between PRO and RO subsystems. Additionally, the first experimental power density data for a RO-PRO system is now available. Average experimental power densities for the RO-PRO system ranged from 1.1 to 2.3 W/m2. This is higher than previous river-to-sea PRO pilot systems (1.5 W/m2) and closer to the goal of 5 W/m2 that would make PRO an economically feasible technology. Furthermore, isolated PRO system testing was performed to evaluate PRO element performance with higher cross-flow velocities and power densities exceeding 8 W/m2 were achieved with a 28 g/L NaCl draw solution. From this empirical data, inferences for future system performance can be drawn that indicate future RO-PRO systems may reduce the specific energy requirements for desalination by ∼1 kWh/m3. PMID:24798068

  10. The neural chaperone proSAAS blocks α-synuclein fibrillation and neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Jarvela, Timothy S; Lam, Hoa A; Helwig, Michael; Lorenzen, Nikolai; Otzen, Daniel E; McLean, Pamela J; Maidment, Nigel T; Lindberg, Iris

    2016-08-01

    Emerging evidence strongly suggests that chaperone proteins are cytoprotective in neurodegenerative proteinopathies involving protein aggregation; for example, in the accumulation of aggregated α-synuclein into the Lewy bodies present in Parkinson's disease. Of the various chaperones known to be associated with neurodegenerative disease, the small secretory chaperone known as proSAAS (named after four residues in the amino terminal region) has many attractive properties. We show here that proSAAS, widely expressed in neurons throughout the brain, is associated with aggregated synuclein deposits in the substantia nigra of patients with Parkinson's disease. Recombinant proSAAS potently inhibits the fibrillation of α-synuclein in an in vitro assay; residues 158-180, containing a largely conserved element, are critical to this bioactivity. ProSAAS also exhibits a neuroprotective function; proSAAS-encoding lentivirus blocks α-synuclein-induced cytotoxicity in primary cultures of nigral dopaminergic neurons, and recombinant proSAAS blocks α-synuclein-induced cytotoxicity in SH-SY5Y cells. Four independent proteomics studies have previously identified proSAAS as a potential cerebrospinal fluid biomarker in various neurodegenerative diseases. Coupled with prior work showing that proSAAS blocks β-amyloid aggregation into fibrils, this study supports the idea that neuronal proSAAS plays an important role in proteostatic processes. ProSAAS thus represents a possible therapeutic target in neurodegenerative disease. PMID:27457957

  11. Effective production of Pro-Gly by mutagenesis of l-amino acid ligase.

    PubMed

    Kino, Haruka; Nakajima, Shota; Arai, Toshinobu; Kino, Kuniki

    2016-08-01

    l-Amino acid ligase (Lal) catalyzes dipeptide synthesis from unprotected l-amino acids by hydrolysis ATP to ADP. Each Lal displays unique substrate specificity, and many different dipeptides can be synthesized by selecting suitable Lal. We have already successfully synthesized Met-Gly selectively by replacing the Pro85 residues of Lal from Bacillus licheniformis (BL00235). From these results, we deduced that the amino acid residue at position 85 had a key role in enzyme activity, and applied these findings to other Lals. When Pro and Gly were used as substrates, TabS from Pseudomonas syringae, synthesized the salt taste enhancing dipeptide Pro-Gly and other three dipeptides (Gly-Pro, Pro-Pro, and Gly-Gly) was hardly synthesized from its substrate specificity. However, the amount of Pro-Gly was low. Therefore, to alter the substrate specificity and increase the amount of Pro-Gly, we selected amino acid residues that might affect the enzyme activity, Ser85 corresponding to Pro85 of BL00235, and His294 on the results from previous studies and the predicted structure of TabS. These residues were replaced with 20 proteogenic amino acids, and Pro-Gly synthesizing reactions were conducted. The S85T and the H294D mutants synthesized more Pro-Gly than wild-type. Furthermore, the S85T/H294D double mutant synthesized considerably more Pro-Gly than the single mutant did. These results showed that the amino acid position 85 of TabS affect the enzyme activity similarly to BL00235. In addition, replacing the amino acid residue positioning around the N-terminal substrate and constructing the double mutant led to increase the amount of Pro-Gly. PMID:27017332

  12. PRoViDE: Planetary Probes' Mass Vision Data Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paar, G.; Muller, J.-P.; Tao, Y.; Barnes, D. P.; Gupta, S.

    2013-09-01

    The FP7-SPACE project PRoViDE will assemble a major portion of the imaging data gathered so far from vehicles and probes on planetary surfaces into a unique database, bringing them into a common planetary geospatial context and providing access to a complete set of 3D vision products. Processing and GIS web access is complemented by a multi-resolution visualisation engine that combines various levels of detail for a seamless and immersive real-time access to dynamically rendered 3D scene representations.

  13. Rotation Manager Pro Version 1.0b1

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2002-02-01

    The Rotation Manager Pro Package maintains databases of instructions to replicate plate tectonic movements. The instructions are in the standard of tectonic plate rotations, including plate identification and location and angle of the rotation pole. Each database is accompanied by various metadata, including information about each rotation pole and the database itself. The package provides a range of tools to actively manage the database using methods specifically required for rotations: rotation pole addition and subtraction,more » viewing of a rotation chain through the rotation hierarchy, and the rotation of data points.« less

  14. Assessment of tennis elbow using the Marcy Wedge-Pro.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, R W; Mani, R; Cawley, M I; Englisch, W; Eckenberger, P

    1993-01-01

    The Marcy Wedge-Pro (MWP), a device used in training by tennis players, was employed in the assessment of tennis elbow. The MWP was used to measure the ability of patients to perform wrist extension exercises, since pain resulting from this specific activity is a prominent symptom of the condition. The MWP results were compared with clinical measures and found to identify accurately patients who responded to treatment (P < 0.05). This study illustrates the potential of the MWP to assess tennis elbow quantitatively. Images Figure 1 PMID:8130959

  15. The Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorenzini, Enrico C.; Estes, Robert D.; Cosmo, Mario L.

    2001-01-01

    This is the Annual Report #2 entitled "The Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS)" prepared by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory for NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. This report covers the period of activity from 1 August 2000 through 30 July 2001. The topics include: 1) Updated System Performance; 2) Mission Analysis; 3) Updated Dynamics Reference Mission; 4) Updated Deployment Control Profiles and Simulations; 5) Comparison of ED tethers and electrical thrusters; 6) Kalman filters for mission estimation; and 7) Delivery of interactive software for ED tethers.

  16. Rotation Manager Pro Version 1.0b1

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, Thomas L.; Scotese, Christopher

    2002-02-01

    The Rotation Manager Pro Package maintains databases of instructions to replicate plate tectonic movements. The instructions are in the standard of tectonic plate rotations, including plate identification and location and angle of the rotation pole. Each database is accompanied by various metadata, including information about each rotation pole and the database itself. The package provides a range of tools to actively manage the database using methods specifically required for rotations: rotation pole addition and subtraction, viewing of a rotation chain through the rotation hierarchy, and the rotation of data points.

  17. idRHa+ProMod - Rail Hardening Control System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferro, L.

    2016-03-01

    idRHa+ProMod is the process control system developed by Primetals Technologies to foresee the thermo-mechanical evolution and micro-structural composition of rail steels subjected to slack quenching into idRHa+ Rail Hardening equipments in a simulation environment. This tool can be used both off-line or in-line, giving the user the chance to test and study the best cooling strategies or letting the automatic control system free to adjust the proper cooling recipe. Optimization criteria have been tailored in order to determine the best cooling conditions according to the metallurgical requirements imposed by the main rail standards and also taking into account the elastoplastic bending phenomena occurring during all stages of the head hardening process. The computational core of idRHa+ProMod is a thermal finite element procedure coupled with special algorithms developed to work out the main thermo-physical properties of steel, to predict the non-isothermal austenite decomposition into all the relevant phases and subsequently to evaluate the amount of latent heat of transformation released, the compound thermal expansion coefficient and the amount of plastic deformation in the material. Air mist and air blades boundary conditions have been carefully investigated by means of pilot plant tests aimed to study the jet impingement on rail surfaces and the cooling efficiency at all working conditions. Heat transfer coefficients have been further checked and adjusted directly on field during commissioning. idRHa+ is a trademark of Primetals Technologies Italy Srl

  18. Do Null Subjects (mis-)Trigger Pro-drop Grammars?

    PubMed

    Frazier, Lyn

    2015-12-01

    Native speakers of English regularly hear sentences without overt subjects. Nevertheless, they maintain a [−pro] grammar that requires sentences to have an overt subject. It is proposed that listeners of English recognize that speakers reduce predictable material and thus attribute null subjects to this process, rather than changing their grammars to a [−pro] setting. Mack et al. (J Memory Lang 67(1):211-223, 2012) showed that sentences with noise covering the subject are analyzed as having null subjects more often with a first person pronoun and with a present tense--properties correlated with more predictable referents--compared to a third person pronoun and past tense. However, those results might in principle have been due to reporting null subjects for verbs that often occur with null subjects. An experiment is reported here in which comparable results are found for sentences containing nonsense verbs. Participants preferred a null subject more often for first person present tense sentences than for third person past tense sentences. The results are as expected if participants are responding to predictability, the likelihood of reduction, rather than to lexical statistics. The results are argued to be important in removing a class of mis-triggering examples from the language acquisition problem. PMID:25086703

  19. The Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorenzini, Enrico C.

    2002-01-01

    This Annual Report covers the following main topics: 1) Updated Reference Mission. The reference ProSEDS (Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System) mission is evaluated for an updated launch date in the Summer of 2002 and for the new 80-s current operating cycle. Simulations are run for nominal solar activity condition at the time of launch and for extreme conditions of dynamic forcing. Simulations include the dynamics of the system, the electrodynamics of the bare tether, the neutral atmosphere and the thermal response of the tether. 2) Evaluation of power delivered by the tether system. The power delivered by the tethered system during the battery charging mode is computed under the assumption of minimum solar activity for the new launch date. 3) Updated Deployment Control Profiles and Simulations. A number of new deployment profiles were derived based on the latest results of the deployment ground tests. The flight profile is then derived based on the friction characteristics obtained from the deployment tests of the F-1 tether. 4) Analysis/estimation of deployment flight data. A process was developed to estimate the deployment trajectory of the endmass with respect to the Delta and the final libration amplitude from the data of the deployer turn counters. This software was tested successfully during the ProSEDS mission simulation at MSFC (Marshall Space Flight Center) EDAC (Environments Data Analysis Center).

  20. PRoViScout: a planetary scouting rover demonstrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paar, Gerhard; Woods, Mark; Gimkiewicz, Christiane; Labrosse, Frédéric; Medina, Alberto; Tyler, Laurence; Barnes, David P.; Fritz, Gerald; Kapellos, Konstantinos

    2012-01-01

    Mobile systems exploring Planetary surfaces in future will require more autonomy than today. The EU FP7-SPACE Project ProViScout (2010-2012) establishes the building blocks of such autonomous exploration systems in terms of robotics vision by a decision-based combination of navigation and scientific target selection, and integrates them into a framework ready for and exposed to field demonstration. The PRoViScout on-board system consists of mission management components such as an Executive, a Mars Mission On-Board Planner and Scheduler, a Science Assessment Module, and Navigation & Vision Processing modules. The platform hardware consists of the rover with the sensors and pointing devices. We report on the major building blocks and their functions & interfaces, emphasizing on the computer vision parts such as image acquisition (using a novel zoomed 3D-Time-of-Flight & RGB camera), mapping from 3D-TOF data, panoramic image & stereo reconstruction, hazard and slope maps, visual odometry and the recognition of potential scientifically interesting targets.

  1. Development of novel cyclic peptides as pro-apoptotic agents.

    PubMed

    Brindisi, Margherita; Maramai, Samuele; Brogi, Simone; Fanigliulo, Emanuela; Butini, Stefania; Guarino, Egeria; Casagni, Alice; Lamponi, Stefania; Bonechi, Claudia; Nathwani, Seema M; Finetti, Federica; Ragonese, Francesco; Arcidiacono, Paola; Campiglia, Pietro; Valenti, Salvatore; Novellino, Ettore; Spaccapelo, Roberta; Morbidelli, Lucia; Zisterer, Daniela M; Williams, Clive D; Donati, Alessandro; Baldari, Cosima; Campiani, Giuseppe; Ulivieri, Cristina; Gemma, Sandra

    2016-07-19

    Our recent finding that paclitaxel behaves as a peptidomimetic of the endogenous protein Nur77 inspired the design of two peptides (PEP1 and PEP2) reproducing the effects of paclitaxel on Bcl-2 and tubulin, proving the peptidomimetic nature of paclitaxel. Starting from these peptide-hits, we herein describe the synthesis and the biological investigation of linear and cyclic peptides structurally related to PEP2. While linear peptides (2a,b, 3a,b, 4, 6a-f) were found inactive in cell-based assays, biological analysis revealed a pro-apoptotic effect for most of the cyclic peptides (5a-g). Cellular permeability of 5a (and also of 2a,b) on HL60 cells was assessed through confocal microscopy analysis. Further cellular studies on a panel of leukemic cell lines (HL60, Jurkat, MEC, EBVB) and solid tumor cell lines (breast cancer MCF-7 cells, human melanoma A375 and 501Mel cells, and murine melanoma B16F1 cells) confirmed the pro-apoptotic effect of the cyclic peptides. Cell cycle analysis revealed that treatment with 5a, 5c, 5d or 5f resulted in an increase in the number of cells in the sub-G0/G1 peak. Direct interaction with tubulin (turbidimetric assay) and with microtubules (immunostaining experiments) was assessed in vitro for the most promising compounds. PMID:27150036

  2. Use of Patient-Reported Outcome (PRO) Measures at Group and Patient Levels: Experiences From the Generic Integrated PRO System, WestChronic

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, Louise Pape; Biering, Karin; Johnsen, Soren Paaske; Riiskjær, Erik; Schougaard, Liv Marit

    2014-01-01

    Background Patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures may be used at a group level for research and quality improvement and at the individual patient level to support clinical decision making and ensure efficient use of resources. The challenges involved in implementing PRO measures are mostly the same regardless of aims and diagnostic groups and include logistic feasibility, high response rates, robustness, and ability to adapt to the needs of patient groups and settings. If generic PRO systems can adapt to specific needs, advanced technology can be shared between medical specialties and for different aims. Objective We describe methodological, organizational, and practical experiences with a generic PRO system, WestChronic, which is in use among a range of diagnostic groups and for a range of purposes. Methods The WestChronic system supports PRO data collection, with integration of Web and paper PRO questionnaires (mixed-mode) and automated procedures that enable adherence to implementation-specific schedules for the collection of PRO. For analysis, we divided functionalities into four elements: basic PRO data collection and logistics, PRO-based clinical decision support, PRO-based automated decision algorithms, and other forms of communication. While the first element is ubiquitous, the others are optional and only applicable at a patient level. Methodological and organizational experiences were described according to each element. Results WestChronic has, to date, been implemented in 22 PRO projects within 18 diagnostic groups, including cardiology, neurology, rheumatology, nephrology, orthopedic surgery, gynecology, oncology, and psychiatry. The aims of the individual projects included epidemiological research, quality improvement, hospital evaluation, clinical decision support, efficient use of outpatient clinic resources, and screening for side effects and comorbidity. In total 30,174 patients have been included, and 59,232 PRO assessments have been collected

  3. 26 CFR 1.1059(e)-1 - Non-pro rata redemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Non-pro rata redemptions. 1.1059(e)-1 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Special Rules § 1.1059(e)-1 Non-pro rata redemptions. (a) In general. Section 1059(d... 1059(e)(1). For example, if a redemption of stock is not pro rata as to all shareholders, any...

  4. N-terminal pro b-type natriuretic peptide (NT-pro-BNP) –based score can predict in-hospital mortality in patients with heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ya-Ting; Tseng, Yuan-Teng; Chu, Tung-Wei; Chen, John; Lai, Min-Yu; Tang, Woung-Ru; Shiao, Chih-Chung

    2016-01-01

    Serum N-terminal pro b-type natriuretic peptide (NT-pro-BNP) testing is recommended in the patients with heart failure (HF). We hypothesized that NT-pro-BNP, in combination with other clinical factors in terms of a novel NT-pro BNP-based score, may provide even better predictive power for in-hospital mortality among patients with HF. A retrospective study enrolled adult patients with hospitalization-requiring HF who fulfilled the predefined criteria during the period from January 2011 to December 2013. We proposed a novel scoring system consisting of several independent predictors including NT-pro-BNP for predicting in-hospital mortality, and then compared the prognosis-predictive power of the novel NT-pro BNP-based score with other prognosis-predictive scores. A total of 269 patients were enrolled in the current study. Factors such as “serum NT-pro-BNP level above 8100 mg/dl,” “age above 79 years,” “without taking angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blocker,” “without taking beta-blocker,” “without taking loop diuretics,” “with mechanical ventilator support,” “with non-invasive ventilator support,” “with vasopressors use,” and “experience of cardio-pulmonary resuscitation” were found as independent predictors. A novel NT-pro BNP-based score composed of these risk factors was proposed with excellent predictability for in-hospital mortality. The proposed novel NT-pro BNP-based score was extremely effective in predicting in-hospital mortality in HF patients. PMID:27411951

  5. N-terminal pro b-type natriuretic peptide (NT-pro-BNP) -based score can predict in-hospital mortality in patients with heart failure.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ya-Ting; Tseng, Yuan-Teng; Chu, Tung-Wei; Chen, John; Lai, Min-Yu; Tang, Woung-Ru; Shiao, Chih-Chung

    2016-01-01

    Serum N-terminal pro b-type natriuretic peptide (NT-pro-BNP) testing is recommended in the patients with heart failure (HF). We hypothesized that NT-pro-BNP, in combination with other clinical factors in terms of a novel NT-pro BNP-based score, may provide even better predictive power for in-hospital mortality among patients with HF. A retrospective study enrolled adult patients with hospitalization-requiring HF who fulfilled the predefined criteria during the period from January 2011 to December 2013. We proposed a novel scoring system consisting of several independent predictors including NT-pro-BNP for predicting in-hospital mortality, and then compared the prognosis-predictive power of the novel NT-pro BNP-based score with other prognosis-predictive scores. A total of 269 patients were enrolled in the current study. Factors such as "serum NT-pro-BNP level above 8100 mg/dl," "age above 79 years," "without taking angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blocker," "without taking beta-blocker," "without taking loop diuretics," "with mechanical ventilator support," "with non-invasive ventilator support," "with vasopressors use," and "experience of cardio-pulmonary resuscitation" were found as independent predictors. A novel NT-pro BNP-based score composed of these risk factors was proposed with excellent predictability for in-hospital mortality. The proposed novel NT-pro BNP-based score was extremely effective in predicting in-hospital mortality in HF patients. PMID:27411951

  6. Inhibitory Properties of Cysteine Protease Pro-Peptides from Barley Confer Resistance to Spider Mite Feeding

    PubMed Central

    Diaz-Mendoza, Mercedes; Martinez, Manuel; Diaz, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    C1A plant cysteine proteases are synthesized as pre-pro-enzymes that need to be processed to become active by the pro-peptide claves off from its cognate enzyme. These pro-sequences play multifunctional roles including the capacity to specifically inhibit their own as well as other C1A protease activities from diverse origin. In this study, it is analysed the potential role of C1A pro-regions from barley as regulators of cysteine proteases in target phytophagous arthropods (coleopteran and acari). The in vitro inhibitory action of these pro-sequences, purified as recombinant proteins, is demonstrated. Moreover, transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing different fragments of HvPap-1 barley gene containing the pro-peptide sequence were generated and the acaricide function was confirmed by bioassays conducted with the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae. Feeding trials resulted in a significant reduction of leaf damage in the transgenic lines expressing the pro-peptide in comparison to non-transformed control and strongly correlated with an increase in mite mortality. Additionally, the analysis of the expression levels of a selection of potential mite targets (proteases and protease inhibitors) revealed a mite strategy to counteract the inhibitory activity produced by the C1A barley pro-prodomain. These findings demonstrate that pro-peptides can control mite pests and could be applied as defence proteins in biotechnological systems. PMID:26039069

  7. An in vitro comparison of torsional stress and cyclic fatigue resistance of ProFile GT and ProFile GT Series X rotary nickel-titanium files.

    PubMed

    Kramkowski, Thomas R; Bahcall, James

    2009-03-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the torsional stress and cyclic fatigue characteristics of ProFile GT (Dentsply Tulsa Dental, Tulsa, OK) and ProFile GT Series X (Dentsply Tulsa Dental). Files of 0.04 and 0.06 taper, 25 mm in length, and ISO sizes of 20 and 30 tips were compared (n = 25 per test group). Torque stress resistance was evaluated by measuring the torque in gram-centimeters (g-cm) and angle of deflection (degrees of rotation) required for instrument separation with use of a torsiometer instrument. Cyclic fatigue was determined by recording the time until breakage of a file rotating in a simulated canal with an applied 45 degrees or 60 degrees curve. The files were operated in a cyclic fatigue instrument that simulated clinical rotary file usage with a constant cyclical axial motion. There was no statistical difference (p > 0.05) when comparing the torque (g-cm) required to induce a torsional failure of ProFile GT and ProFile GT Series X files of identical file sizes. The angle of deflection (degrees of rotation) of ProFile GT was significantly greater (p < or = 0.001) before separation than ProFile GT Series X for all file sizes tested except 20/.04 (p > 0.05). There was no statistical difference (p > 0.05) in cyclic fatigue failure for ProFile GT and ProFile GT Series X in a canal with a curvature of 45 degrees . In the 60 degrees canal curvature, ProFile GT was found to be significantly more resistant (p = 0.005) to fracture because of cyclic fatigue than ProFile GT Series X for file size 30/.06 and significant (p < or = 0.001) for files sizes 20/.06 and 30/.04. There was no difference (p > 0.05) in cyclic fatigue resistance in the 60 degrees canal for ProFile GT and ProFile GT Series X for file size 20/.04. PMID:19249605

  8. Comparison of canal transportation in simulated curved canals prepared with ProTaper Universal and ProTaper Gold systems

    PubMed Central

    Muniz, Brenda Leite; Pires, Frederico; Belladonna, Felipe Gonçalves; Neves, Aline Almeida; Souza, Erick Miranda; De-Deus, Gustavo

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to assess the ability of ProTaper Gold (PTG, Dentsply Maillefer) in maintaining the original profile of root canal anatomy. For that, ProTaper Universal (PTU, Dentsply Maillefer) was used as reference techniques for comparison. Materials and Methods Twenty simulated curved canals manufactured in clear resin blocks were randomly assigned to 2 groups (n = 10) according to the system used for canal instrumentation: PTU and PTG groups, upto F2 files (25/0.08). Color stereomicroscopic images from each block were taken exactly at the same position before and after instrumentation. All image processing and data analysis were performed with an open source program (FIJI). Evaluation of canal transportation was obtained for two independent canal regions: straight and curved levels. Student's t test was used with a cut-off for significance set at α = 5%. Results Instrumentation systems significantly influenced canal transportation (p < 0.0001). A significant interaction between instrumentation system and root canal level (p < 0.0001) was found. PTU and PTG systems produced similar canal transportation at the straight part, while PTG system resulted in lower canal transportation than PTU system at the curved part. Canal transportation was higher at the curved canal portion (p < 0.0001). Conclusions PTG system produced overall less canal transportation in the curved portion when compared to PTU system. PMID:26877984

  9. Molecular and Structural Insight into proNGF Engagement of p75NTR and Sortilin

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Dan; Kim, Taeho; Özkan, Engin; Light, Matthew; Torkin, Risa; Teng, Kenneth K.; Hempstead, Barbara L.; Garcia, K. Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Nerve growth factor is initially synthesized as a precursor, proNGF, which is cleaved to release its C-terminal mature form. Recent studies suggest that proNGF is not an inactive precursor, but acts as a signaling ligand distinct from its mature counterpart. Pro- and mature NGF initiate opposing biological responses by utilizing both distinct and shared receptor components. Here, we carry out a structural and biochemical characterization of proNGF interactions with p75NTR and sortilin. We have crystallized proNGF complexed to p75NTR, and present the structure at 3.75 Å resolution. The structure reveals a 2:2 symmetric binding mode, as compared to the asymmetric structure of a previously reported crystal structure of mature NGF complexed to p75NTR, and the 2:2 symmetric complex of Neurotrophin-3 and p75NTR. Here we discuss the possible origins and implications of the different stoichiometries. In the proNGF/p75NTR complex, the pro regions of proNGF are mostly disordered, and two hairpin loops (L2) at the top of NGF dimer have undergone conformational changes in comparison to mature neurotrophin structures, suggesting possible interactions with the pro-peptide. We further explore the binding characteristics of proNGF to sortilin using surface plasmon resonance and cell-based assays, and determine that calcium ions promote the formation of a stable ternary complex of proNGF/sortilin/p75NTR. These results, together with previous structural and mechanistic studies of neurotrophin-receptor interactions, suggest the potential for distinct signaling activities through p75NTR mediated by different neurotrophin-induced conformational changes. PMID:20036257

  10. Pro-Choice Versus Pro-Life: The Relationship Between State Abortion Policy and Child Well-Being in the United States.

    PubMed

    Medoff, Marshall

    2016-01-01

    In the United States, pro-choice supporters contend that the desire of pro-life supporters to protect the life of the fetus ends at birth and that thereafter they ignore the health and well-being of infants and children. This study examines the question of whether infants and children fare better in U.S. states that have the most restrictive abortion laws. Eighteen indicators of infant/child health, family, economic, and educational status are analyzed. The empirical evidence finds that states with the most antiabortion policies are also the same states that have significantly lower indicators of infant/child well-being. This supports the contention by pro-choice supporters that efforts by pro-life supporters to protect the life of the fetus end at birth. PMID:24245932

  11. Pro-adrenomedullin, pro-endothelin-1, procalcitonin, C-reactive protein and mortality risk in critically ill children: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction We tested the hypothesis that higher mid-regional pro-adrenomedullin (MR-proADM), carboxy-terminal pro-endothelin-1 (CT-proET-1), procalcitonin (PCT) and C-reactive protein (CRP) plasma concentrations would be associated with increased prediction of mortality risk scores. Methods Prospective observational study set in two pediatric intensive care units (PICUs). Two-hundred-thirty-eight patients were included. MR-proADM, CT-proET-1, PCT and CRP levels were compared between children with PRISM III and PIM 2 > p75 (Group A; n = 33) and the rest (Group B; n = 205). Results Median (range) MR-proADM levels were 1.39 nmol/L (0.52–12.67) in group A versus 0.54 (0.15–3.85) in group B (P < 0.001). CT-proET-1 levels were 172 pmol/L (27–500) versus 58 (4–447) (P < 0.001). PCT levels were 7.77 ng/mL (0.34–552.00) versus 0.28 (0.02–107.00) (P < 0.001). CRP levels were 6.23 mg/dL (0.08-28.25) versus 1.30 mg/dL (0.00-42.09) (P = 0.210). The area under the ROC curve (AUC) for the differentiation of group A and B was 0.87 (95% CI:0.81–0.821) for MR-proADM, 0.86 (95% CI:0.79–0.92) for CT-proET-1 and 0.84 (95% CI:0.74–0.94) for PCT. A MR-proADM > 0.79 nmol/L had 93% sensitivity and 76% specificity to differentiate groups, whereas a CT-proET-1 > 123 pmol/L had 77% sensitivity and 84% specificity, and a PCT concentration > 2.05 ng/mL had 80% sensitivity and specificity. Conclusions In critically ill children, high levels of MR-proADM, CT-proET-1 and PCT were associated with increased prediction of mortality risk scores. MR-proADM, CT-proET-1 and PCT concentrations higher than 0.80 nmol/L, 123 pmol/L and 2 ng/mL, respectively, could be used by clinicians to identify critically ill children at higher prediction of risk death scores. PMID:24131732

  12. Influence of pro-algesic foods on chronic pain conditions.

    PubMed

    Cairns, Brian Edwin

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines current knowledge about putative "pro-algesic" dietary components, and discusses whether limiting the intake of these substances can help improve chronic pain. Although there is a common impression that numerous food components, natural and synthetic, can cause or worsen pain symptoms, very few of these substances have been investigated. This article focuses on four substances, monosodium glutamate, aspartame, arachidonic acid, and caffeine, where research shows that overconsumption may induce or worsen pain. For each substance, the mechanism whereby it may act to induce pain is examined, and any clinical trials examining the effectiveness of reducing the intake of the substance discussed. While all four substances are associated with pain, decreased consumption of them does not consistently reduce pain. PMID:26900907

  13. Thermodynamic assessment of the Pr-O system

    DOE PAGESBeta

    McMurray, Jake W.

    2015-12-24

    We found that the Calphad method was used to perform a thermodynamic assessment of the Pr–O system. Compound energy formalism representations were developed for the fluorite α-PrO 2–x and bixbyite σ-Pr 3 O 5 ± x solid solutions while the two-sublattice liquid model was used to describe the binary melt. The series of phases between Pr 2 O 3 and PrO 2 were taken to be stoichiometric. Moreover, the equilibrium oxygen pressure, phase equilibria, and enthalpy data were used to optimize the adjustable parameters of the models for a self-consistent representation of the thermodynamic behavior of the Pr–O system frommore » 298 K to melting.« less

  14. Lumbar disk replacement with the ProDisc prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Mirovsky, Yigal; Shalmon, Ehud; Halpern, Zvi; Halperin, Nahum; Blankstein, Alexander; Peer, Amir

    2008-02-01

    Twenty-two ProDisc II prostheses (Spine Solutions, New York, New York) were implanted in 21 patients with degenerative disk disease at L5-S1 (19 disks) and L4-L5 (3 disks). After mean follow-up of 3.1 years (range, 17-49 months), pain intensity in all but 3 patients had improved from an average of 7.7 preoperatively to 4.6 postoperatively (P< .001) on a visual analog scale. Average Oswestry Disability Index score improved from 61 to 35 (P< .001). Radiographic reconstruction of the disk space height was achieved in all cases. Previous diskectomy at the implanted level and disk degeneration adjacent to previous fusion negatively influenced the results. PMID:19292209

  15. Pro-environmental behavior: rational choice meets moral motivation.

    PubMed

    Turaga, Rama Mohana R; Howarth, Richard B; Borsuk, Mark E

    2010-01-01

    The determinants of individual behaviors that provide shared environmental benefits are a longstanding theme in social science research. Alternative behavioral models yield markedly different predictions and policy recommendations. This paper reviews and compares the literatures from two disciplines that appear to be moving toward a degree of convergence. In social psychology, moral theories of pro-environmental behavior have focused on the influence of personal moral norms while recognizing that external factors, such as costs and incentives, ultimately limit the strength of the norm-behavior relationship. Rational choice models, such as the theory of planned behavior in social psychology and the theories of voluntary provision of public goods in economics, have sought to incorporate the effects of personal norms and to measure their importance in explaining behaviors, such as recycling and the demand for green products. This paper explores the relationship between these approaches and their implications for the theory and practice of ecological economics. PMID:20146771

  16. The Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorenzini, Enrico C.; Cosmo, Mario L.; Estes, Robert D.; Sanmartin, Juan; Pelaez, Jesus; Ruiz, Manuel

    2003-01-01

    This Final Report covers the following main topics: 1) Brief Description of ProSEDS; 2) Mission Analysis; 3) Dynamics Reference Mission; 4) Dynamics Stability; 5) Deployment Control; 6) Updated System Performance; 7) Updated Mission Analysis; 8) Updated Dynamics Reference Mission; 9) Updated Deployment Control Profiles and Simulations; 10) Updated Reference Mission; 11) Evaluation of Power Delivered by the Tether; 12) Deployment Control Profile Ref. #78 and Simulations; 13) Kalman Filters for Mission Estimation; 14) Analysis/Estimation of Deployment Flight Data; 15) Comparison of ED Tethers and Electrical Thrusters; 16) Dynamics Analysis for Mission Starting at a Lower Altitude; 17) Deployment Performance at a Lower Altitude; 18) Satellite Orbit after a Tether Cut; 19) Deployment with Shorter Dyneema Tether Length; 20) Interactive Software for ED Tethers.

  17. Pro-oxidative, genotoxic and cytotoxic properties of uranyl ions.

    PubMed

    Garmash, S A; Smirnova, V S; Karp, O E; Usacheva, A M; Berezhnov, A V; Ivanov, V E; Chernikov, A V; Bruskov, V I; Gudkov, S V

    2014-01-01

    It is demonstrated that hydroxyl radicals and hydrogen peroxide are formed under the action of uranyl ions in aqueous solutions containing no reducing agents. In the presence of uranyl ions, formation of 8-oxoguanine in DNA and long-lived protein radicals are observed in vitro. It is shown that the pro-oxidant properties of uranyl at micromolar concentrations mostly result from the physico-chemical nature of the compound rather than its radioactive decay. Uranyl ions lead to damage in DNA and proteins causing death of HEp-2 cells by necrotic pathway. It is revealed that the uranyl ions enhance radiation-induced oxidative stress and significantly increase a death rate of mice exposed to sublethal doses of X-rays. PMID:23312590

  18. Thermodynamic assessment of the Pr-O system

    SciTech Connect

    McMurray, Jake W.

    2015-12-24

    We found that the Calphad method was used to perform a thermodynamic assessment of the Pr–O system. Compound energy formalism representations were developed for the fluorite α-PrO 2–x and bixbyite σ-Pr 3 O 5 ± x solid solutions while the two-sublattice liquid model was used to describe the binary melt. The series of phases between Pr 2 O 3 and PrO 2 were taken to be stoichiometric. Moreover, the equilibrium oxygen pressure, phase equilibria, and enthalpy data were used to optimize the adjustable parameters of the models for a self-consistent representation of the thermodynamic behavior of the Pr–O system from 298 K to melting.

  19. Pro and antiinflammatory properties of toxins from animal venoms.

    PubMed

    Farsky, Sandra H P; Antunes, Edson; Mello, Suzana B V

    2005-06-01

    Accidents evoked by venomous animals are common in tropical regions. In Brazil, envenomation evoked by snakes, spiders and scorpions are an important public health problem. Their venoms are composed of a great number of toxins, which are capable of acting on tissue and plasma components with consequent toxic and pharmacological effects. On the other hand, the diversity of venom composition makes them important source of toxins that can be employed as scientific tools. Here we describe the mechanisms of anti and pro-inflammatory properties of toxins of Bothrops and Crotalus genus snakes and Loxosceles and Phoneutria genus spider venoms. The emphasis was to summarise, both in vivo and in vitro, studies that focused on the action of phospholipases, metalloproteinases and sphingomyelinase D on vascular and cellular aspects of the process as well as the complex network of chemical mediators involved. PMID:16101549

  20. Pro-apoptotic function of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein

    PubMed Central

    Ianari, Alessandra; Natale, Tiziana; Calo, Eliezer; Ferretti, Elisabetta; Alesse, Edoardo; Screpanti, Isabella; Haigis, Kevin; Gulino, Alberto; Lees, Jacqueline A.

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY The retinoblastoma protein (pRB) tumor suppressor blocks cell proliferation by repressing the E2F transcription factors. This inhibition is relieved through mitogen-induced phosphorylation of pRB, triggering E2F release and activation of cell cycle genes. E2F1 can also activate pro-apoptotic genes in response to genotoxic or oncogenic stress. However, pRB’s role in this context has not been established. Here we show that DNA damage and E1A-induced oncogenic stress promotes formation of a pRB-E2F1 complex even in proliferating cells. Moreover, pRB is bound to pro-apoptotic promoters that are transcriptional active and pRB is required for maximal apoptotic response in vitro and in vivo. Together, these data reveal a direct role for pRB in the induction of apoptosis in response to genotoxic or oncogenic stress. SIGNIFICANCE pRB function is disrupted in many human tumors through either inactivation of the Rb gene or alterations in its upstream regulators. pRB’s tumor suppressive activity is at least partially dependent upon its ability to arrest cells through E2F inhibition. Our data now establish a second role for pRB as a stress-induced activator of apoptosis. Notably, pRB’s ability to promote either arrest versus apoptosis seems to be context dependent, with apoptosis being favored in proliferating cells. This finding has the potential to explain why cells are typically more resistant to apoptosis when in the arrested state. Most importantly, our observations suggest that Rb status will influence tumor response to chemotherapy by impairing both the arrest and apoptotic checkpoint responses. PMID:19249677

  1. The pro-apoptotic role of autophagy in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Suman, S; Das, T P; Reddy, R; Nyakeriga, A M; Luevano, J E; Konwar, D; Pahari, P; Damodaran, C

    2014-01-01

    Background: Autophagy is a catabolic process that has a vital role in cancer progression and treatment. Current chemotherapeutic agents, which target autophagy, result in growth inhibition in many cancer types. In this study, we examined the role of autophagy in breast cancer (BCa) patients as well as BCa cell lines. Methods: Tissue microarray was used to detect the expression of an autophagy marker, LC3B in BCa patients (normal/hyperplasia=8; grade-I=15, grade-II=84, and grade-III=27) and BCa cell lines. To modulate the activation of autophagy, we used novel herbal compound nimocinol acetate (NA) in BCa cell lines and the anticancer activity was measured by phenotypic and molecular analysis. Results: LC3B is highly expressed in tumours as compared with normal tissues. Activation of LC3B in NA-treated BCa (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) cells was evident as compared with other autophagy makers. Further, our results confirmed that NA-transcriptionally regulates LC3B (as confirmed by mRNA levels and reporter assay), which resulted in the formation of acidic autophagy vesicles and autolysosomes in BCa cells. Nimocinol acetate inhibited mTOR-mediated pro-survival signalling that resulted in inhibition of growth in BCa cells without affecting normal breast epithelial cells. Downregulation of LC3B expression by siRNA significantly inhibited the anticancer effects of NA in BCa cells. Conclusions: Together, our results suggest that LC3B is highly expressed in BCa tissues and increasing the threshold of LC3B activation dictates the pro-apoptotic function, which in turn, suppresses the growth of BCa cells. Nimocinol acetate could be a potential agent for treatment of BCa. PMID:24945999

  2. Galectin-8 elicits pro-inflammatory activities in the endothelium.

    PubMed

    Cattaneo, Valentina; Tribulatti, María Virginia; Carabelli, Julieta; Carestia, Agostina; Schattner, Mirta; Campetella, Oscar

    2014-10-01

    Galectins (Gals), a family of mammalian lectins, play diverse roles under physiological and pathological conditions. Here, we analyzed the tandem-repeat Gal-8 synthesis, secretion and effects on the endothelium physiology. Gal-8M and Gal-8L isoforms were secreted under basal conditions by human microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC-1). However, expression and secretion of the Gal-8M isoform, but not Gal-8L, were increased in response to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulus and returned to control values after LPS removal. Similarly, cell surface Gal-8 exposure was increased after stimulation with LPS. To evaluate Gal-8 effects on the endothelium physiology, HMEC-1 cells were incubated in the presence of recombinant Gal-8M. Pretreated HMEC-1 cells became proadhesive to human normal platelets, indicating that Gal-8 actually activates endothelial cells. This effect was specific for lectin activity as it was prevented by the simultaneous addition of lactose, but not by sucrose. Endothelial cells also increased their exposition of von Willebrand factor after Gal-8 treatment, which constitutes another feature of cell activation that could be, in turn, responsible for the observed platelet adhesion. Several pro-inflammatory molecules were abundantly produced by Gal-8 stimulated endothelial cells: CXCL1 (GRO-α), GM-CSF, IL-6 and CCL5 (RANTES), and in a lower degree CCL2 (MCP-1), CXCL3 (GRO-γ) and CXCL8 (IL-8). In agreement, Gal-8M induced nuclear factor kappa B phosphorylation. Altogether, these results not only confirm the pro-inflammatory role we have already proposed for Gal-8 in other cellular systems but also suggest that this lectin is orchestrating the interaction between leukocytes, platelets and endothelial cells. PMID:24957054

  3. Antibacterial activity of cyclo(L-Pro-L-Tyr) and cyclo(D-Pro-L-Tyr) from Streptomyces sp. strain 22-4 against phytopathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Wattana-Amorn, Pakorn; Charoenwongsa, Waranya; Williams, Christopher; Crump, Matthew P; Apichaisataienchote, Busaya

    2016-09-01

    Two bioactive cyclic dipeptides, cyclo(L-Pro-L-Tyr) and cyclo(D-Pro-L-Tyr), were isolated from the culture broth of Streptomyces sp. strain 22-4 and tested against three economically important plant pathogens, Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri, Ralstonia solanacearum and Clavibacter michiganensis. Both cyclic dipeptides were active against X. axonopodis pv. citri and R. Solanacearum with MIC of 31.25 μg/mL. No activity could be observed against C. michiganensis. PMID:26469746

  4. CHI3L1 plays a role in cancer through enhanced production of pro-inflammatory/pro-tumorigenic and angiogenic factors.

    PubMed

    Libreros, Stephania; Garcia-Areas, Ramon; Iragavarapu-Charyulu, Vijaya

    2013-12-01

    Elevated serum levels of a glycoprotein known as chitinase-3-like protein 1 (CHI3L1) have been correlated with poor prognosis and shorter survival of patients with cancer and inflammatory diseases. The biological and physiological functions of CHI3L1 in cancer have not yet been completely elucidated. In this review, we describe the role of CHI3L1 in inducing pro-inflammatory/pro-tumorigenic and angiogenic factors that could promote tumor growth and metastasis. PMID:24222276

  5. Serum Levels of Cardiac Markers NT-proANP and NT-proBNP in Brachycephalic bitches at Different Gestational Stages.

    PubMed

    Feliciano, Mar; Uscategui, R R; Maciel, G S; de Almeida, V T; Silveira, M F; de Oliveira, Gac; Vicente, Wrr

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine serum levels of natriuretic peptide precursors (NT-proANP and NT-proBNP) during pregnancy in brachycephalic bitches. Fifteen healthy multiparous bitches were selected for this prospective study. Serum levels of NT-proANP and NT-proBNP were measured during anoestrous and at 14, 35, 42, 49 and 56 days (2nd, 5th, 6th, 7th and 8th weeks) of pregnancy. Fourteen animals had normal gestations, and one bitch developed single foetus syndrome. The natriuretic peptide levels of this animal were not included in this study; however, it is important to report that its NT-proANP levels were four times greater than those of normal patients. There was no significant difference (p = 0.072) in NT-proBNP levels between anoestrous (0.20 ± 0.10 ng/ml) and the different pregnancy weeks (0.27 ± 0.12 ng/ml). There was a positive correlation (p < 0.0001) between NT-proANP and gestational age, and the levels of this marker increased significantly (p < 0.0001) during the 6th (0.26 ± 0.06 ng/ml), 7th (0.28 ± 0.04 ng/ml) and 8th weeks (0.29 ± 0.05 ng/ml) when compared to anoestrous (0.18 ± 0.02 ng/ml). NT-proANP serum levels are correlated with gestational development and may be indicative of cardiovascular adaptation in canine brachycephalic pregnancy. PMID:26991598

  6. Geological interpretation and analysis of surface based, spatially referenced planetary imagery data using PRoGIS 2.0 and Pro3D.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, R.; Gupta, S.; Giordano, M.; Morley, J. G.; Muller, J. P.; Tao, Y.; Sprinks, J.; Traxler, C.; Hesina, G.; Ortner, T.; Sander, K.; Nauschnegg, B.; Paar, G.; Willner, K.; Pajdla, T.

    2015-10-01

    We apply the capabilities of the geospatial environment PRoGIS 2.0 and the real time rendering viewer PRo3D to geological analysis of NASA's Mars Exploration Rover-B (MER-B Opportunity rover) and Mars Science Laboratory (MSL Curiosity rover) datasets. Short baseline and serendipitous long baseline stereo Pancam rover imagery are used to create 3D point clouds which can be combined with super-resolution images derived from Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter HiRISE orbital data, andsuper-resolution outcrop images derived from MER Pancam, as well as hand-lens scale images for geology and outcrop characterization at all scales. Data within the PRoViDE database are presented and accessed through the PRoGIS interface. Simple geological measurement tools are implemented within the PRoGIS and PRo3D web software to accurately measure the dip and strike of bedding in outcrops, create detailed stratigraphic logs for correlation between the areas investigated, and to develop realistic 3D models for the characterization of planetary surface processes. Annotation tools are being developed to aid discussion and dissemination of the observations within the planetary science community.

  7. Quantitative evaluation of apically extruded debris during root canal instrumentation with ProTaper Universal, ProTaper Next, WaveOne, and self-adjusting file systems

    PubMed Central

    Ozsu, Damla; Karatas, Ertugrul; Arslan, Hakan; Topcu, Meltem C.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the amount of apically extruded debris during preparation with ProTaper Universal (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland), ProTaper Next (Dentsply Maillefer), a reciprocating single-file (WaveOne; VDW GmbH, Munich, Germany), and a self-adjusting file (SAF; ReDent Nova, Ra’anna, Israel). Materials and Methods: Fifty-six intact mandibular premolar teeth were randomly assigned to four groups. The root canals were prepared according to the manufacturers’ instructions using the ProTaper Universal, ProTaper Next, WaveOne, and SAF. Apically extruded debris was collected in preweighted Eppendorf tubes during instrumentation. The net weight of the apically extruded debris was determined by subtracting the preweights and postweights of the tubes. The data were statistically analyzed using the one-way analysis of variance and the least significant difference tests at a significance level of P < 0.05. Results: A measurable amount of debris was apically extruded in all groups, and the amounts of debris extrusion in the groups were statistically significant (P < 0.001). The ProTaper Next and WaveOne groups resulted in less debris extrusion than the ProTaper Universal group (P < 0.05), and the SAF group resulted in the least debris extrusion. Conclusions: Within the limitations of the present study, it can be concluded that all systems extruded debris beyond the apical foramen. PMID:25512732

  8. Striving for Sustainable Development in Higher Education: ProSPER.Net Members Meet in Shanghai

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tabucanon, Mario T.; Tanaka, Aurea Christine; Aipanjiguly, Sampreethi

    2011-01-01

    To celebrate the two-year anniversary of the founding of ProSPER.Net--the Promotion of Sustainability in Postgraduate Education and Research Network--members convened on 5-9 July 2010 in Shanghai, China, at a meeting hosted by Tongji University, a founding member. ProSPER.Net is an alliance of 21 higher education institutions in the Asia-Pacific…

  9. 77 FR 75819 - Death of Senator Daniel K. Inouye, President Pro Tempore of the Senate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-21

    ... America the two hundred and thirty-seventh. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2012-30982 Filed 12-20-12; 11:15... December 21, 2012 Part VI The President Proclamation 8919--Death of Senator Daniel K. Inouye, President Pro... ] Proclamation 8919 of December 18, 2012 Death of Senator Daniel K. Inouye, President Pro Tempore of the...

  10. ProCure21: friend or foe to Trust and patient?

    PubMed

    Smith, Elizabeth

    2009-06-01

    With the current ProCure 21 framework set to be superseded next year, Elizabeth Smith, a former nurse, and now health accounts manager for ProCure21 at construction, civil engineering, and property services company Osborne (pictured), examines the fast-tracking benefits already afforded by a system which, despite its achievements, is still not without its critics today. PMID:19624039

  11. 24 CFR 203.268 - Pro rata payment of periodic MIP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pro rata payment of periodic MIP...-Periodic Payment § 203.268 Pro rata payment of periodic MIP. (a) If the insurance contract is terminated... rata MIP shall not be due or payable where the mortgagee notifies the Commissioner that foreclosure...

  12. 24 CFR 232.825 - Pro rata refund of insurance premium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pro rata refund of insurance... ASSISTED LIVING FACILITIES Contract Rights and Obligations Premiums § 232.825 Pro rata refund of insurance... rata portion of the current annual loan insurance premium theretofore paid which is applicable to...

  13. 26 CFR 1.669(e)-1A - Pro rata portion of taxes deemed distributed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pro rata portion of taxes deemed distributed. 1.669(e)-1A Section 1.669(e)-1A Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... Applicable to Taxable Years Beginning Before January 1, 1969 § 1.669(e)-1A Pro rata portion of taxes...

  14. 24 CFR 266.608 - Mortgage insurance premium: Pro rata refund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... rata refund. 266.608 Section 266.608 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and... premium: Pro rata refund. If the Contract of Insurance is terminated by payment in full or is terminated... account. In computing the pro rata portion of the annual mortgage insurance premium, the date...

  15. 17 CFR 240.14d-8 - Exemption from statutory pro rata requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... rata requirements. 240.14d-8 Section 240.14d-8 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND... rata requirements. Notwithstanding the pro rata provisions of section 14(d)(6) of the Act, if any... taken up and paid for as nearly as may be pro rata, disregarding fractions, according to the number...

  16. Extending the Human Life Span: An Exploratory Study of Pro- and Anti-Longevity Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kogan, Nathan; Tucker, Jennifer; Porter, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    Successful efforts by biologists to substantially increase the life span of non-human animals has raised the possibility of extrapolation to humans, which in turn has given rise to bioethical argumentation, pro and con. The present study converts these arguments into pro- and anti-longevity items on a questionnaire and examines the structure and…

  17. 78 FR 57796 - Safety Zone; Pro Hydro-X Tour, Atlantic Ocean, Islamorada, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-20

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Pro Hydro-X Tour, Atlantic Ocean... Hydro- X Tour. The Pro Hydro-X Tour is a series of Jet Ski races. The race course is in an...

  18. A novel anticancer theranostic pro-prodrug based on hypoxia and photo sequential control.

    PubMed

    Feng, Weipei; Gao, Chunyue; Liu, Wei; Ren, Huihui; Wang, Chao; Ge, Kun; Li, Shenghui; Zhou, Guoqiang; Li, Hongyan; Wang, Shuxiang; Jia, Guang; Li, Zhenhua; Zhang, Jinchao

    2016-08-01

    A novel anticancer pro-prodrug (GMC-CAE-NO2) with diagnosis and therapy functions based on hypoxia and photo sequential control was designed. It provides a platform for constructing theranostic pro-prodrugs to release active drugs controlled by hypoxic status and UV illumination. PMID:27379361

  19. STORED GRAIN ADVISOR PRO: DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM FOR INSECT MANAGEMENT IN COMMERCIAL GRAIN ELEVATORS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A decision support system, Stored Grain Advisor Pro (SGA Pro), was developed to provide insect pest management information for grain stored at commercial elevators. The program uses a model to predict future risk based on current insect density, grain temperature and moisture. A rule-based system wa...

  20. 26 CFR 1.666(c)-1A - Pro rata portion of taxes deemed distributed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pro rata portion of taxes deemed distributed. 1.666(c)-1A Section 1.666(c)-1A Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... Taxable Years Beginning Before January 1, 1969 § 1.666(c)-1A Pro rata portion of taxes deemed...

  1. 26 CFR 1.666(c)-1 - Pro rata portion of taxes deemed distributed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pro rata portion of taxes deemed distributed. 1.666(c)-1 Section 1.666(c)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... Taxable Years Beginning Before January 1, 1969 § 1.666(c)-1 Pro rata portion of taxes deemed...

  2. 24 CFR 232.825 - Pro rata refund of insurance premium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pro rata refund of insurance... ASSISTED LIVING FACILITIES Contract Rights and Obligations Premiums § 232.825 Pro rata refund of insurance..., the Commissioner shall refund to the lender for the account of the borrower an amount equal to the...

  3. 26 CFR 1.669(e)-1A - Pro rata portion of taxes deemed distributed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pro rata portion of taxes deemed distributed. 1.669(e)-1A Section 1.669(e)-1A Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... Taxable Years Beginning Before January 1, 1969 § 1.669(e)-1A Pro rata portion of taxes deemed...

  4. 24 CFR 203.268 - Pro rata payment of periodic MIP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pro rata payment of periodic MIP...-Periodic Payment § 203.268 Pro rata payment of periodic MIP. (a) If the insurance contract is terminated... current annual MIP prorated from the due date of the last annual MIP to the date of termination. (c) A...

  5. InterPro: an integrated documentation resource for protein families, domains and functional sites.

    PubMed

    Mulder, Nicola J; Apweiler, Rolf; Attwood, Terri K; Bairoch, Amos; Bateman, Alex; Binns, David; Biswas, Margaret; Bradley, Paul; Bork, Peer; Bucher, Phillip; Copley, Richard; Courcelle, Emmanuel; Durbin, Richard; Falquet, Laurent; Fleischmann, Wolfgang; Gouzy, Jerome; Griffith-Jones, Sam; Haft, Daniel; Hermjakob, Henning; Hulo, Nicolas; Kahn, Daniel; Kanapin, Alexander; Krestyaninova, Maria; Lopez, Rodrigo; Letunic, Ivica; Orchard, Sandra; Pagni, Marco; Peyruc, David; Ponting, Chris P; Servant, Florence; Sigrist, Christian J A

    2002-09-01

    The exponential increase in the submission of nucleotide sequences to the nucleotide sequence database by genome sequencing centres has resulted in a need for rapid, automatic methods for classification of the resulting protein sequences. There are several signature and sequence cluster-based methods for protein classification, each resource having distinct areas of optimum application owing to the differences in the underlying analysis methods. In recognition of this, InterPro was developed as an integrated documentation resource for protein families, domains and functional sites, to rationalise the complementary efforts of the individual protein signature database projects. The member databases - PRINTS, PROSITE, Pfam, ProDom, SMART and TIGRFAMs - form the InterPro core. Related signatures from each member database are unified into single InterPro entries. Each InterPro entry includes a unique accession number, functional descriptions and literature references, and links are made back to the relevant member database(s). Release 4.0 of InterPro (November 2001) contains 4,691 entries, representing 3,532 families, 1,068 domains, 74 repeats and 15 sites of post-translational modification (PTMs) encoded by different regular expressions, profiles, fingerprints and hidden Markov models (HMMs). Each InterPro entry lists all the matches against SWISS-PROT and TrEMBL (2,141,621 InterPro hits from 586,124 SWISS-PROT and TrEMBL protein sequences). The database is freely accessible for text- and sequence-based searches. PMID:12230031

  6. pep2pro: the high-throughput proteomics data processing, analysis, and visualization tool.

    PubMed

    Hirsch-Hoffmann, Matthias; Gruissem, Wilhelm; Baerenfaller, Katja

    2012-01-01

    The pep2pro database was built to support effective high-throughput proteome data analysis. Its database schema allows the coherent integration of search results from different database-dependent search algorithms and filtering of the data including control for unambiguous assignment of peptides to proteins. The capacity of the pep2pro database has been exploited in data analysis of various Arabidopsis proteome datasets. The diversity of the datasets and the associated scientific questions required thorough querying of the data. This was supported by the relational format structure of the data that links all information on the sample, spectrum, search database, and algorithm to peptide and protein identifications and their post-translational modifications. After publication of datasets they are made available on the pep2pro website at www.pep2pro.ethz.ch. Further, the pep2pro data analysis pipeline also handles data export do the PRIDE database (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/pride) and data retrieval by the MASCP Gator (http://gator.masc-proteomics.org/). The utility of pep2pro will continue to be used for analysis of additional datasets and as a data warehouse. The capacity of the pep2pro database for proteome data analysis has now also been made publicly available through the release of pep2pro4all, which consists of a database schema and a script that will populate the database with mass spectrometry data provided in mzIdentML format. PMID:22701464

  7. 14 CFR 212.5 - Operation of affinity (pro rata) charters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... school. (e) The charter price due the direct air carrier shall be prorated equally among all the charter... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS CHARTER RULES FOR U.S. AND FOREIGN DIRECT AIR CARRIERS § 212.5 Operation of affinity (pro rata) charters. An affinity (pro rata) charter operated by a certificated...

  8. 14 CFR 212.5 - Operation of affinity (pro rata) charters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... school. (e) The charter price due the direct air carrier shall be prorated equally among all the charter... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS CHARTER RULES FOR U.S. AND FOREIGN DIRECT AIR CARRIERS § 212.5 Operation of affinity (pro rata) charters. An affinity (pro rata) charter operated by a certificated...

  9. 14 CFR 212.5 - Operation of affinity (pro rata) charters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... school. (e) The charter price due the direct air carrier shall be prorated equally among all the charter... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS CHARTER RULES FOR U.S. AND FOREIGN DIRECT AIR CARRIERS § 212.5 Operation of affinity (pro rata) charters. An affinity (pro rata) charter operated by a certificated...

  10. 14 CFR 212.5 - Operation of affinity (pro rata) charters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... school. (e) The charter price due the direct air carrier shall be prorated equally among all the charter... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS CHARTER RULES FOR U.S. AND FOREIGN DIRECT AIR CARRIERS § 212.5 Operation of affinity (pro rata) charters. An affinity (pro rata) charter operated by a certificated...

  11. 14 CFR 212.5 - Operation of affinity (pro rata) charters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... school. (e) The charter price due the direct air carrier shall be prorated equally among all the charter... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS CHARTER RULES FOR U.S. AND FOREIGN DIRECT AIR CARRIERS § 212.5 Operation of affinity (pro rata) charters. An affinity (pro rata) charter operated by a certificated...

  12. Portrayals of Pro-Beijing Workers' Night Schools in Hong Kong from 1946 to Post-1997

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Chui Shan

    2011-01-01

    This study focuses on the transformation of pro-Beijing labour education in the socio-political context of Hong Kong. It explores the reasons that Hong Kong pro-Beijing educators initiated Workers' Night Schools for adults; the organisation of schools in many locales and the transformation of labour education that workers received in these…

  13. GoPro as an Ethnographic Tool: A Wayfinding Study in an Academic Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinsley, Kirsten M.; Schoonover, Dan; Spitler, Jasmine

    2016-01-01

    In this study, researchers sought to capture students' authentic experience of finding books in the main library using a GoPro camera and the think-aloud protocol. The GoPro provided a first-person perspective and was an effective ethnographic tool for observing a student's individual experience, while also demonstrating what tools they use to…

  14. Pro-apoptotic gene regulation in the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transcriptional activation of pro-apoptotic genes in response to cytotoxic stimuli is a conserved feature of the cell death pathway proposed for metazoans. However, understanding the extent of this conservation in insects, as well as other organisms, has been limited by the lack of known pro-apoptot...

  15. 17 CFR 240.15c1-9 - Use of pro forma balance sheets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Use of pro forma balance sheets. 240.15c1-9 Section 240.15c1-9 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE... pro forma balance sheets. The term manipulative, deceptive, or other fraudulent device or...

  16. 17 CFR 240.15c1-9 - Use of pro forma balance sheets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Use of pro forma balance sheets. 240.15c1-9 Section 240.15c1-9 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE... pro forma balance sheets. The term manipulative, deceptive, or other fraudulent device or...

  17. 17 CFR 240.15c1-9 - Use of pro forma balance sheets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Use of pro forma balance sheets. 240.15c1-9 Section 240.15c1-9 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE... pro forma balance sheets. The term manipulative, deceptive, or other fraudulent device or...

  18. 17 CFR 240.15c1-9 - Use of pro forma balance sheets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of pro forma balance sheets. 240.15c1-9 Section 240.15c1-9 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE... pro forma balance sheets. The term manipulative, deceptive, or other fraudulent device or...

  19. 17 CFR 240.15c1-9 - Use of pro forma balance sheets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Use of pro forma balance sheets. 240.15c1-9 Section 240.15c1-9 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE... pro forma balance sheets. The term manipulative, deceptive, or other fraudulent device or...

  20. Enhanced Activity of Meprin-α, a Pro-Migratory and Pro-Angiogenic Protease, in Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Noël, Agnès; Blacher, Silvia; Huguenin, Maya; Nievergelt, Alexandra; Niggli, Verena; Kern, Alexander; Müller, Stefan; Seibold, Frank; Friess, Helmut; Becker-Pauly, Christoph; Stöcker, Walter; Sterchi, Erwin E.

    2011-01-01

    Meprin-α is a metalloprotease overexpressed in cancer cells, leading to the accumulation of this protease in a subset of colorectal tumors. The impact of increased meprin-α levels on tumor progression is not known. We investigated the effect of this protease on cell migration and angiogenesis in vitro and studied the expression of meprin-α mRNA, protein and proteolytic activity in primary tumors at progressive stages and in liver metastases of patients with colorectal cancer, as well as inhibitory activity towards meprin-α in sera of cancer patient as compared to healthy controls. We found that the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)- induced migratory response of meprin-transfected epithelial cells was increased compared to wild-type cells in the presence of plasminogen, and that the angiogenic response in organ-cultured rat aortic explants was enhanced in the presence of exogenous human meprin-α. In patients, meprin-α mRNA was expressed in colonic adenomas, primary tumors UICC (International Union Against Cancer) stage I, II, III and IV, as well as in liver metastases. In contrast, the corresponding protein accumulated only in primary tumors and liver metastases, but not in adenomas. However, liver metastases lacked meprin-α activity despite increased expression of the corresponding protein, which correlated with inefficient zymogen activation. Sera from cancer patients exhibited reduced meprin-α inhibition compared to healthy controls. In conclusion, meprin-α activity is regulated differently in primary tumors and metastases, leading to high proteolytic activity in primary tumors and low activity in liver metastases. By virtue of its pro-migratory and pro-angiogenic activity, meprin-α may promote tumor progression in colorectal cancer. PMID:22096485

  1. Aberrant expression of proPTPRN2 in cancer cells confers resistance to apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Sorokin, Alexey V.; Nair, Binoj C.; Wei, Yongkun; Aziz, Kathryn E.; Evdokimova, Valentina; Hung, Mien-Chie; Chen, Junjie

    2015-01-01

    The protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor PTPRN2 is expressed predominantly in endocrine and neuronal cells where it functions in exocytosis. We found that its immature isoform proPTPRN2 is overexpressed in various cancers including breast cancer. High proPTPRN2 expression was associated strongly with lymph node-positive breast cancer and poor clinical outcome. Loss of proPTPRN2 in breast cancer cells promoted apoptosis and blocked tumor formation in mice, while enforced expression of proPTPRN2 in non-transformed human mammary epithelial cells exerted a converse effect. Mechanistic investigations suggested that ProPTPRN2 elicited these effects through direct interaction with TRAF2, a hub scaffold protein for multiple kinase cascades including ones that activate NF-kB. Overall our results suggest PTPRN2 as a novel candidate biomarker and therapeutic target in breast cancer. PMID:25877877

  2. Na+-Translocating Rhodopsin from Dokdonia sp. PRO95 Does Not Contain Carotenoid Antenna.

    PubMed

    Bertsova, Y V; Arutyunyan, A M; Bogachev, A V

    2016-04-01

    Carotenoid-binding properties of Na+-translocating rhodopsin (NaR) from Dokdonia sp. PRO95 were studied. Carotenoids were extracted from Dokdonia sp. PRO95 cells. It was found that zeaxanthin is the predominant carotenoid of this bacterium. Incubation of recombinant NaR purified from Escherichia coli cells with carotenoids from Dokdonia sp. PRO95 did not result in any changes in optical absorption or circular dichroism spectra, indicating the absence of binding of the carotenoids by NaR. The same results were obtained using salinixanthin as the carotenoid. These data along with genome analysis of Dokdonia sp. PRO95 and other flavobacteria indicate that NaR from Dokdonia sp. PRO95 and possibly the other flavobacterial Na+-translocating rhodopsins do not contain a carotenoid antenna. PMID:27293099

  3. (Pro)cambium formation and proliferation: two sides of the same coin?

    PubMed Central

    Jouannet, Virginie; Brackmann, Klaus; Greb, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The body of higher plants is usually pervaded by the (pro)cambium, a reticulate system of meristematic cells harboring the potential for producing vascular tissues at critical times and places. The (pro)cambium thereby provides the basis for the differential modulation of long-distance transport capacities and plant body stability. Distinct regulatory networks responsible for the initiation and proliferation of (pro)cambium cells have been identified. However, although a tight interaction between these networks can be expected, connections have been established only sporadically. Here we highlight recent discoveries of how (pro)cambium development is regulated and discuss possible interfaces between networks regulating two processes: (pro)cambium formation and cambium proliferation. PMID:25449727

  4. Pro-oxidant activity of polyphenols and its implication on cancer chemoprevention and chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    León-González, Antonio J; Auger, Cyril; Schini-Kerth, Valérie B

    2015-12-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a major role in carcinogenesis: pro-oxidant agents like tobacco smoke, asbestos or N-nitrosamines, are known as mutagenic and carcinogenic, and cancer cells show increased levels of ROS and redox deregulation. However, pro-oxidant molecules can also act as selective cytotoxic agents against cancer cells by achieving toxic levels of ROS. Although polyphenols are well-known as potent antioxidants, a pro-oxidant effect has been associated with their pro-apoptotic effect in various types of tumor cells. The aim of the present review is to present the main evidences of the pro-oxidant-related cytotoxic activity of naturally occurring polyphenols and their underlying mechanisms. PMID:26206193

  5. Autocatalytic activity and substrate specificity of the pestivirus N-terminal protease N{sup pro}

    SciTech Connect

    Gottipati, Keerthi; Acholi, Sudheer; Ruggli, Nicolas; Choi, Kyung H.

    2014-03-15

    Pestivirus N{sup pro} is the first protein translated in the viral polypeptide, and cleaves itself off co-translationally generating the N-terminus of the core protein. Once released, N{sup pro} blocks the host's interferon response by inducing degradation of interferon regulatory factor-3. N{sup pro'}s intracellular autocatalytic activity and lack of trans-activity have hampered in vitro cleavage studies to establish its substrate specificity and the roles of individual residues. We constructed N{sup pro}-GFP fusion proteins that carry the authentic cleavage site and determined the autoproteolytic activities of N{sup pro} proteins containing substitutions at the predicted catalytic sites Glu22 and Cys69, at Arg100 that forms a salt bridge with Glu22, and at the cleavage site Cys168. Contrary to previous reports, we show that N{sup pro'}s catalytic activity does not involve Glu22, which may instead be involved in protein stability. Furthermore, N{sup pro} does not have specificity for Cys168 at the cleavage site even though this residue is conserved throughout the pestivirus genus. - Highlights: • N{sup pro'}s autoproteolysis is studied using N{sup pro}-GFP fusion proteins. • N-terminal 17 amino acids are dispensable without loss of protease activity. • The putative catalytic residue Glu22 is not involved in protease catalysis. • No specificity for Cys168 at the cleavage site despite evolutionary conservation. • N{sup pro} prefers small amino acids with non-branched beta carbons at the P1 position.

  6. Plasma pro-atrial natriuretic peptide to indicate fluid balance during cystectomy: a prospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    Rasmussen, Kirsten C; Højskov, Michael; Ruhnau, Birgitte; Salling, Lisbeth; Pedersen, Tom; Goetze, Jens P; Secher, Niels H

    2016-01-01

    Objectives During surgery the volume of administered fluid is debated. Pro-atrial natriuretic peptide (proANP) is released by atrial distension, and we evaluated the relationship between changes in proANP associated with perioperative fluid balance. Design Prospective observational study. Setting One university/tertiary centre. Participants The study included patients who underwent radical cystectomy. Plasma for determination of proANP was obtained before surgery, after resection of the bladder, and at the end of surgery for 20 robotic-assisted radical cystectomy (RARC) and 20 open radical cystectomy (ORC) procedures. Results The blood loss was 1871 (95% CI 1267 to 2475) vs 589 mL (378 to 801) in the ORC and RARC groups (p=0.001), respectively, and fluid balance was positive by 1518 mL (1215 to 1821) during ORC, and by 1858 mL (1461 to 2255) during RARC (p=0.163). Yet, at the end of ORC, plasma proANP was reduced by 23% (14% to 32%, p=0.001), while plasma proANP did not change significantly during RARC. Thus, plasma proANP was associated both with the perioperative blood loss (r= −0.475 (0.632 to −0.101), p=0.002), and with fluid balance (r=0.561 (0.302 to 0.740), p=0.001), indicating that a stable plasma proANP required a fluid surplus by 2.4 L (2.0 to 2.7). Conclusions There was a correlation between intraoperative haemorrhage and a decrease in plasma proANP and, taking plasma proANP to indicate filling of the heart, about 2.5 L surplus volume of lactated Ringer's solution appears to maintain cardiac preload during cystectomy. Trial registration number EudraCT (2012-005040-20), Results. PMID:26908528

  7. Rapid Increases in proBDNF after Pilocarpine-Induced Status Epilepticus in Mice Are Associated with Reduced proBDNF Cleavage Machinery123

    PubMed Central

    Cruz Del Angel, Yasmin; Gonzalez, Marco I.; Carrel, Andrew J.; Carlsen, Jessica; Lam, Philip M.; Hempstead, Barbara L.; Russek, Shelley. J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels are elevated after status epilepticus (SE), leading to activation of multiple signaling pathways, including the janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription pathway that mediates a decrease in GABAA receptor α1 subunits in the hippocampus (Lund et al., 2008). While BDNF can signal via its pro or mature form, the relative contribution of these forms to signaling after SE is not fully known. In the current study, we investigate changes in proBDNF levels acutely after SE in C57BL/6J mice. In contrast to previous reports (Unsain et al., 2008; Volosin et al., 2008; VonDran et al., 2014), our studies found that levels of proBDNF in the hippocampus are markedly elevated as early as 3 h after SE onset and remain elevated for 7 d. Immunohistochemistry studies indicate that seizure-induced BDNF localizes to all hippocampal subfields, predominantly in principal neurons and also in astrocytes. Analysis of the proteolytic machinery that cleaves proBDNF to produce mature BDNF demonstrates that acutely after SE there is a decrease in tissue plasminogen activator and an increase in plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), an inhibitor of extracellular and intracellular cleavage, which normalizes over the first week after SE. In vitro treatment of hippocampal slices from animals 24 h after SE with a PAI-1 inhibitor reduces proBDNF levels. These findings suggest that rapid proBDNF increases following SE are due in part to reduced cleavage, and that proBDNF may be part of the initial neurotrophin response driving intracellular signaling during the acute phase of epileptogenesis. PMID:27057559

  8. NGF and proNGF Reciprocal Interference in Immunoassays: Open Questions, Criticalities, and Ways Forward.

    PubMed

    Malerba, Francesca; Paoletti, Francesca; Cattaneo, Antonino

    2016-01-01

    The homeostasis between mature neurotrophin NGF and its precursor proNGF is thought to be crucial in physiology and in pathological states. Therefore, the measurement of the relative amounts of NGF and proNGF could serve as a footprint for the identification of disease states, for diagnostic purposes. Since NGF is part of proNGF, their selective identification with anti-NGF antibodies is not straightforward. Currently, many immunoassays for NGF measurement are available, while the proNGF assays are few and not validated by published information. The question arises, as to whether the commercially available assays are able to distinguish between the two forms. Also, since in biological samples the two forms coexist, are the measurements of one species affected by the presence of the other? We describe experiments addressing these questions. For the first time, NGF and proNGF were measured together and tested in different immunoassays. Unexpectedly, NGF and proNGF were found to reciprocally interfere with the experimental outcome. The interference also calls into question the widely used NGF ELISA methods, applied to biological samples where NGF and proNGF coexist. Therefore, an immunoassay, able to distinguish between the two forms is needed. We propose possible ways forward, toward the development of a selective assay. In particular, the use of the well validated anti-NGF αD11 antibody in an alphaLISA assay with optimized incubation times would be a solution to avoid the interference in the measurement of a mixed sample containing NGF and proNGF. Furthermore, we explored the possibility of measuring proNGF in a biological sample. But the available commercial kit for the detection of proNGF does not allow the measurement of proNGF in mouse brain tissues. Therefore, we validated an SPR approach for the measurement of proNGF in a biological sample. Our experiments help in understanding the technical limits in the measurement of the NGF/proNGF ratio in biological

  9. NGF and proNGF Reciprocal Interference in Immunoassays: Open Questions, Criticalities, and Ways Forward

    PubMed Central

    Malerba, Francesca; Paoletti, Francesca; Cattaneo, Antonino

    2016-01-01

    The homeostasis between mature neurotrophin NGF and its precursor proNGF is thought to be crucial in physiology and in pathological states. Therefore, the measurement of the relative amounts of NGF and proNGF could serve as a footprint for the identification of disease states, for diagnostic purposes. Since NGF is part of proNGF, their selective identification with anti-NGF antibodies is not straightforward. Currently, many immunoassays for NGF measurement are available, while the proNGF assays are few and not validated by published information. The question arises, as to whether the commercially available assays are able to distinguish between the two forms. Also, since in biological samples the two forms coexist, are the measurements of one species affected by the presence of the other? We describe experiments addressing these questions. For the first time, NGF and proNGF were measured together and tested in different immunoassays. Unexpectedly, NGF and proNGF were found to reciprocally interfere with the experimental outcome. The interference also calls into question the widely used NGF ELISA methods, applied to biological samples where NGF and proNGF coexist. Therefore, an immunoassay, able to distinguish between the two forms is needed. We propose possible ways forward, toward the development of a selective assay. In particular, the use of the well validated anti-NGF αD11 antibody in an alphaLISA assay with optimized incubation times would be a solution to avoid the interference in the measurement of a mixed sample containing NGF and proNGF. Furthermore, we explored the possibility of measuring proNGF in a biological sample. But the available commercial kit for the detection of proNGF does not allow the measurement of proNGF in mouse brain tissues. Therefore, we validated an SPR approach for the measurement of proNGF in a biological sample. Our experiments help in understanding the technical limits in the measurement of the NGF/proNGF ratio in biological

  10. Pro-NGF secreted by astrocytes promotes motor neuron cell death

    PubMed Central

    Domeniconi, Marco; Hempstead, Barbara L.; Chao, Moses V.

    2007-01-01

    It is well established that motor neurons depend for their survival on many trophic factors. In this study, we show that the precursor form of NGF (proNGF) can induce the death of motor neurons via engagement of the p75 neurotrophin receptor. The pro-apoptotic activity was dependent upon the presence of sortilin, a p75 co-receptor expressed on motor neurons. One potential source of proNGF is reactive astrocytes, which upregulate the levels of proNGF in response to peroxynitrite, an oxidant and producer of free radicals. Indeed, motor neuron viability was sensitive to conditioned media from cultured astrocytes treated with peroxynitrite and this effect could be reversed using a specific antibody against the pro-domain of proNGF. These results are consistent with a role for activated astrocytes and proNGF in the induction of motor neuron death and suggest a possible therapeutic target for the treatment of motor neuron disease. PMID:17188890