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Sample records for materiel electronique utilise

  1. 31 CFR 547.301 - Arms or any related materiel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Arms or any related materiel. 547.301... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 547.301 Arms or any related materiel. The term arms or any related materiel means arms or related materiel of all types, including military aircraft and equipment, but excludes:...

  2. 31 CFR 543.301 - Arms or any related materiel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Arms or any related materiel. 543.301... Definitions § 543.301 Arms or any related materiel. The term arms or any related materiel means arms or... of arms and related materiel and technical training and assistance intended solely for support of...

  3. 31 CFR 547.301 - Arms or any related materiel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Arms or any related materiel. 547.301... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 547.301 Arms or any related materiel. The term arms or any related materiel means arms or related materiel of all types, including military aircraft and equipment, but excludes:...

  4. 31 CFR 543.301 - Arms or any related materiel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Arms or any related materiel. 543.301... Definitions § 543.301 Arms or any related materiel. The term arms or any related materiel means arms or... of arms and related materiel and technical training and assistance intended solely for support of...

  5. 31 CFR 543.301 - Arms or any related materiel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Arms or any related materiel. 543.301... Definitions § 543.301 Arms or any related materiel. The term arms or any related materiel means arms or... of arms and related materiel and technical training and assistance intended solely for support of...

  6. 31 CFR 543.301 - Arms or any related materiel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Arms or any related materiel. 543.301... Definitions § 543.301 Arms or any related materiel. The term arms or any related materiel means arms or... of arms and related materiel and technical training and assistance intended solely for support of...

  7. 31 CFR 543.301 - Arms or any related materiel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Arms or any related materiel. 543.301... Definitions § 543.301 Arms or any related materiel. The term arms or any related materiel means arms or... of arms and related materiel and technical training and assistance intended solely for support of...

  8. Computerized materiel management. MMs become increasingly sophisticated.

    PubMed

    Vaughn, J D

    1989-01-01

    The materiel management automation environment is undoubtedly exploding. Hospitals which already rely upon computer systems continue to expand the tasks they perform and department they serve. Even hospitals which have not become reliant upon computers now bring considerable knowledge to the table when negotiating to obtain their first systems. In general, materiel managers continue to grow more sophisticated in hardware and software matters. Most view automation as one the most effective tools they and their hospitals have in controlling expenses. The coming years will surely produce much more system integration as materiel managers begin merging the extensive capabilities of computers with the specific needs and goals of their facilities. PMID:10291639

  9. How is your materiel management audit program?

    PubMed

    Wardle, D R

    1987-08-01

    This article has provided a view from the auditor's eyes of some key components inherent in a sound materiel management system. Every system, however, has its own unique characteristics, some of which may contain internal control situations that are not addressed herein. Although most will apply, not every comment contained in this article will be practical to all systems. The hospital size, utilization, patient mix, service mix, physical outlay, organizational structure, financial condition, and management philosophy will all have an influence on the role of materiel management. Automation of various materiel management functions can be beneficial by providing informational and control enhancements not feasible in a manual system. However, automation also raises new internal-control concerns that need to be addressed. Strong internal control techniques and compliance with adequate policies and procedures will prepare materiel management for its role in future hospital operations. PMID:10283039

  10. Developpement d'un vibrateur acoustique pour precipiter les defauts latents de circuits electroniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lafleur, Francois

    2003-08-01

    Le procede de deverminage, ou Environmental Stress Screening (ESS), est employe principalement dans le domaine de l'electronique pour reduire les mortalites infantiles des produits avant leur livraison. Il utilise usuellement des stimulations environnementales telles que les vibrations ou la temperature produites a l'aide d'equipements conventionnels d'essais qui sont tres couteux et difficiles a implanter. Le but de cette recherche est le developpement d'une nouvelle methode d'excitation vibratoire des plaques de circuits electroniques a moindre cout par l'emploi de l'excitation acoustique. Le projet a mene au developpement d'un vibrateur acoustique pouvant etre utilise lors d'implantations du procede ESS en milieu industriel. L'utilisation de cette nouvelle technologie et des methodes novatrices de personnalisation des spectres ESS proposees dans cette these permettent la precipitation de defaillances latentes presentes dans les produits electroniques de facon efficace et securitaire et ce, a moindre cout par rapport aux technologies concurrentes. La methodologie des travaux presentes dans cette these inclus: (1) La generation acoustique des vibrations sur les circuits; (2) L'analyse modale acoustique des circuits par des methodes a reference unique et a references multiples; (3) La precipitation de defauts latents typiques des circuits electroniques; (4) Une methode d'individualisation des spectres vibratoires tenant compte des caracteristiques structurelles des circuits; (5) La presentation de la configuration de l'equipement acoustique et les resultats d'implantation du procede. Nonobstant la fabrication, l'installation et la mise en service d'un equipement en milieu industriel (depuis le mois de mai 2002), ces travaux ont permis l'obtention de trois familles de brevets et la publication de six articles de conference: trois portant sur l'analyse modale a reference unique, un portant sur l'analyse modale a references multiples, un autre portant sur la

  11. Hazardous Materiel Data File (HMDF), quarterly update. Data file

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-05-01

    The Hazardous Materiel Data File (HMDF) purpose is to provide storage and transportation information on chemical, radioactive and ammunition items in the Army inventory. Data are taken from the Army Central Logistics Data Bank (ACLDB).

  12. PROFILE: Chemical Warfare Materiel: Unique Regulatory Issues.

    PubMed

    Etnier; King; Watson

    2000-04-01

    / The US Army manages an extensive program of environmental restoration that is carried out primarily under authority of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), which establishes response authority for cleanup of inactive waste sites. The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulates the management and cleanup of hazardous materials at active hazardous waste facilities. Based on the definitions found in these acts, and corresponding promulgated regulations, environmental media contaminated with chemical warfare materiel (CWM) can be regulated as CERCLA "pollutants or contaminants" but do not appear to be regulated either as CERCLA hazardous substances or RCRA hazardous wastes.In those states that have not included CWM as hazardous materials in their RCRA programs, the RCRA requirements for management of hazardous waste would not strictly apply to any of the CWM. The Army has historically implemented procedures requiring that chemical warfare agents be managed as RCRA hazardous waste regardless of the concentration, physical form, or configuration of the agent. Such application of strict hazardous waste requirements to management of potentially nonhazardous CWM can result in remedial costs well out of proportion to potential human health and environmental benefits. Recent development of chronic toxicity values for the CWM has opened the door for development of cleanup and waste management standards for waste streams or media containing small residual amounts of CWM. Implementation of this health-based approach to management of CWM remediation wastes may, in part, help to reduce potentially unnecessary hazardous waste management costs for the nonhazardous CWM. PMID:10667941

  13. Mergers of healthcare facilities: impact upon materiel management.

    PubMed

    Carroll, P E

    1993-04-01

    Hospital mergers afford healthcare providers the chance to take advantage of economies of scale, integrate clinical, administrative and support functions, eliminate functional redundancies and redesign patient care delivery. This article explains how such advantages were realized, demonstrated through a hypothetical case based on information obtained from actual mergers. A corporate materiel management division was established, and centralized warehousing, product evaluation and purchasing instituted. Some management positions were eliminated or restructured and patient care services were closed, relocated, or opened among the various entities in the merger. Through these and other changes, the new healthcare system was about to realize about $1.7 million in one-time savings and expects savings in the seven digits over at least the next three years. The article concludes that as hospital mergers continue to increase, the position of corporate director of materiel management will evolve as the next logical career step for materiel management professionals. PMID:10124963

  14. 31 CFR 546.301 - Arms or any related materiel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Arms or any related materiel. 546.301 Section 546.301 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY DARFUR SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 546.301 Arms or any related...

  15. 31 CFR 546.301 - Arms or any related materiel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Arms or any related materiel. 546.301 Section 546.301 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY DARFUR SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 546.301 Arms or any related...

  16. 31 CFR 546.301 - Arms or any related materiel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Arms or any related materiel. 546.301 Section 546.301 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY DARFUR SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 546.301 Arms or any related...

  17. 31 CFR 546.301 - Arms or any related materiel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Arms or any related materiel. 546.301 Section 546.301 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY DARFUR SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 546.301 Arms or any related...

  18. 31 CFR 546.301 - Arms or any related materiel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Arms or any related materiel. 546.301 Section 546.301 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY DARFUR SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 546.301 Arms or any related...

  19. The cost management organization: the next step for materiel management.

    PubMed

    Schuweiler, R C

    1997-06-01

    With Materiel Management's transition over the last decade from simple logistics to analysis and cost management, it has gained recognition as a key part of the management team responsible for supplies, equipment, standards, and associated processes to identify, purchase, store, distribute, issue, and dispose of supplies and equipment. The materiel manager's job consists of putting the right product in the right place at the right time and in the right quantity at the best total delivered cost. In this context, Materiel Management has made powerful impacts to lower costs associated with: Distribution--costs have been lowered by actively adopting advanced supply channel management techniques such as primary suppliers, JIT, stockless programs, case cart/custom kit/procedure based delivery systems, modified stockless programs as well as margin management through cost plus, flat fee, or margins paid per activity. Cost of goods--lowered through aggregated purchasing in the forms of regional and national purchasing alliances and local capitation or other gain/risk share programs. Internal process costs--lowered by out-sourcing and/or integrating supplier processes and personnel into operations via partnership approaches. We have also reduced transactional costs through EDI transaction sets and the emerging use of the inter and intranet/electronic commerce, procurement cards, and evaluated receipt settlement processes. De-layering--We have lowered the operating costs of Materiel Management overhead by re-design/re-engineering, resulting in reduced management and greater front line authority. Quality--We have learned to identify and respond to customer and supplier needs by using quality improvement tools and ongoing measurement and monitoring techniques. Through this we have identified the waste of non-beneficial products and services. We have adopted supplier certification measurers to ensure quality is built into processes and outcomes. With so much already accomplished

  20. 30 CFR 1220.015 - Pricing of materiel purchases, transfers, and dispositions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pricing of materiel purchases, transfers, and... FOR OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF OIL AND GAS LEASES § 1220.015 Pricing of materiel purchases, transfers... shall be priced under the provisions for tubular goods pricing in paragraph (a)(2)(i)(A) of this...

  1. 30 CFR 1220.015 - Pricing of materiel purchases, transfers, and dispositions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pricing of materiel purchases, transfers, and... FOR OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF OIL AND GAS LEASES § 1220.015 Pricing of materiel purchases, transfers... shall be priced under the provisions for tubular goods pricing in paragraph (a)(2)(i)(A) of this...

  2. 30 CFR 1220.015 - Pricing of materiel purchases, transfers, and dispositions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pricing of materiel purchases, transfers, and... FOR OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF OIL AND GAS LEASES § 1220.015 Pricing of materiel purchases, transfers... shall be priced under the provisions for tubular goods pricing in paragraph (a)(2)(i)(A) of this...

  3. CEO expectation: the Star Wars materiel manager of the 1990s, or C-3PO as role model.

    PubMed

    Zenty, T F; Olson, M R

    1993-05-01

    Materiel-intensive expenditures account for a significant portion of all hospital costs, second only to salaries and wages, yet materiel managers may often be overlooked as key members of the management team. This is alarming since the potential exists for materiel managers to impact annual savings of hundreds of thousands of dollars by operating efficient departments. Materiel managers have a tremendous opportunity to enhance their image and improve hospital productivity in the coming decade. The challenges of the 1990s will stretch materiel managers' skills toward enhancing their professionalism and achieving the expectations of themselves and top management. If materiel managers will effectively utilize (C3)PO they will increase their educational levels, continue to learn new skills, maintain a customer-oriented management style, exercise creativity, develop and adhere to standards, and be proactive in their responsibilities. The benefits of their success will be felt by patients, hospitals, the industry, and materiel managers everywhere. PMID:10125274

  4. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 623 - Agreement for Loan of US Army Materiel (DA Form 4881-R)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Agreement for Loan of US Army Materiel (DA Form... ARMY SUPPLIES AND EQUIPMENT LOAN OF ARMY MATERIEL Pt. 623, App. C Appendix C to Part 623—Agreement for Loan of US Army Materiel (DA Form 4881-R) EC24OC91.013 EC24OC91.014 EC24OC91.015 EC24OC91.016...

  5. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 623 - Agreement for Loan of US Army Materiel (DA Form 4881-R)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Agreement for Loan of US Army Materiel (DA Form... ARMY SUPPLIES AND EQUIPMENT LOAN OF ARMY MATERIEL Pt. 623, App. C Appendix C to Part 623—Agreement for Loan of US Army Materiel (DA Form 4881-R) EC24OC91.013 EC24OC91.014 EC24OC91.015 EC24OC91.016...

  6. Integrating MRP (materiel requirements planning) into modern business.

    PubMed

    Lunn, T

    1994-05-01

    Time is the commodity of the '90s. Therefore, we all must learn how to use our manufacturing systems to shorten lead time and increase customer satisfaction. The objective of this article is to discuss practical ways people integrate the techniques of materiel requirements planning (MRP) systems with just-in-time (JIT) execution systems to increase customer satisfaction. Included are examples of new ways people use MRP systems to exemplify the process of continuous improvement--multiple items on work orders, consolidated routings, flexing capacity, and other new developments. Ways that successful companies use MRP II for planning and JIT for execution are discussed. There are many examples of how to apply theory to real life situations and a discussion of techniques that work to keep companies in the mode of continuous improvement. Also included is a look at hands-on, practical methods people use to achieve lead time reduction and simplify bills of material. Total quality management concepts can be applied to the MRP process itself. This in turn helps people improve schedule adherence, which leads to customer satisfaction. PMID:10134155

  7. 30 CFR 220.015 - Pricing of materiel purchases, transfers, and dispositions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pricing of materiel purchases, transfers, and dispositions. 220.015 Section 220.015 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING PROCEDURES FOR DETERMINING NET PROFIT SHARE PAYMENT FOR...

  8. 32 CFR 623.6 - Reimbursement for loan of Army materiel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... finance and accounting office (FAO) supporting the supplying accountable property officer will record all... materiel, will be kept at the accountable property officer level by the supporting finance and accounting... returned for credit, and supporting documentation will be set up by the finance and accounting office....

  9. 30 CFR 1220.015 - Pricing of materiel purchases, transfers, and dispositions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., except line pipe, shall be priced at the current market price in effect on date of movement on a minimum... shall be priced at the current price in effect at date of movement, as listed by a reliable supply store.... (C) Other materiel shall be priced at the current price in effect at date of movement, as listed by...

  10. 32 CFR 623.3 - Submission of requests for loan of Army materiel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... according to § 623.7. (2) Requests to the US Army for loan, or loan extension, will be promptly sent by the... agency, civil authority, or civilian activity desiring the materiel. An exception is that requests from... loan (if known); e.g., public law, US code, executive order, etc. See table 2-1. (H)...

  11. 32 CFR 623.3 - Submission of requests for loan of Army materiel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... according to § 623.7. (2) Requests to the US Army for loan, or loan extension, will be promptly sent by the... agency, civil authority, or civilian activity desiring the materiel. An exception is that requests from... loan (if known); e.g., public law, US code, executive order, etc. See table 2-1. (H)...

  12. 32 CFR 623.3 - Submission of requests for loan of Army materiel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... according to § 623.7. (2) Requests to the US Army for loan, or loan extension, will be promptly sent by the... agency, civil authority, or civilian activity desiring the materiel. An exception is that requests from... loan (if known); e.g., public law, US code, executive order, etc. See table 2-1. (H)...

  13. 32 CFR 623.3 - Submission of requests for loan of Army materiel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... according to § 623.7. (2) Requests to the US Army for loan, or loan extension, will be promptly sent by the... agency, civil authority, or civilian activity desiring the materiel. An exception is that requests from... loan (if known); e.g., public law, US code, executive order, etc. See table 2-1. (H)...

  14. 32 CFR 623.3 - Submission of requests for loan of Army materiel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... according to § 623.7. (2) Requests to the US Army for loan, or loan extension, will be promptly sent by the... agency, civil authority, or civilian activity desiring the materiel. An exception is that requests from... loan (if known); e.g., public law, US code, executive order, etc. See table 2-1. (H)...

  15. A methodology for the quantification of doctrine and materiel approaches in a capability-based assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tangen, Steven Anthony

    Due to the complexities of modern military operations and the technologies employed on today's military systems, acquisition costs and development times are becoming increasingly large. Meanwhile, the transformation of the global security environment is driving the U.S. military's own transformation. In order to meet the required capabilities of the next generation without buying prohibitively costly new systems, it is necessary for the military to evolve across the spectrum of doctrine, organization, training, materiel, leadership and education, personnel, and facilities (DOTMLPF). However, the methods for analyzing DOTMLPF approaches within the early acquisition phase of a capability-based assessment (CBA) are not as well established as the traditional technology design techniques. This makes it difficult for decision makers to decide if investments should be made in materiel or non-materiel solutions. This research develops an agent-based constructive simulation to quantitatively assess doctrine alongside materiel approaches. Additionally, life-cycle cost techniques are provided to enable a cost-effectiveness trade. These techniques are wrapped together in a decision-making environment that brings crucial information forward so informed and appropriate acquisition choices can be made. The methodology is tested on a future unmanned aerial vehicle design problem. Through the implementation of this quantitative methodology on the proof-of-concept study, it is shown that doctrinal changes including fleet composition, asset allocation, and patrol pattern were capable of dramatic improvements in system effectiveness at a much lower cost than the incorporation of candidate technologies. Additionally, this methodology was able to quantify the precise nature of strong doctrine-doctrine and doctrine-technology interactions which have been observed only qualitatively throughout military history. This dissertation outlines the methodology and demonstrates how potential

  16. Materiel availability modeling and analysis for a complex army weapon system.

    SciTech Connect

    Gunther, David W.; Anderson, Dennis James; Martin, Jeffrey A.; Hoffman, Matthew J.

    2010-10-01

    Materiel availability (A{sub m}) is a new US Department of Defense Key Performance Parameter (KPP) implemented through a mandatory Sustainment Metric consisting of an Availability KPP and two supporting Key System Attributes (KSAs), materiel reliability and ownership cost. Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia), in conjunction with several US Army organizations, developed the analytical foundation, assumptions, and brigade-level modeling approach to support lifecycle, fleet-wide A{sub m} modeling and analysis of a complex Army weapon system. Like operational availability (A{sub o}), A{sub m} is dependent on reliability, but A{sub m} is also affected by other factors that do not impact A{sub o}. The largest influences on A{sub m} are technology insertion and reset downtimes. A{sub m} is a different metric from A{sub o}. Whereas A{sub o} is an operational measure, A{sub m} is more of a programmatic measure that spans a much larger timeframe, additional sources of downtime, and additional sources of unscheduled maintenance.

  17. How "the best" companies use MRP (materiel requirements planning) and just-in-time for successful manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Spencer, M S

    1994-08-01

    A study of production planning and control methods used in six leading companies found that a blending strategy is more effective than reliance on a single system. The blending of just-in-time and materiel requirements planning and other approaches allowed companies to select methods that best fit the unique characteristics of their production environments. PMID:10135464

  18. A Comparison of Neutron-Based Non-Destructive Assessment Methods for Chemical Warfare Materiel and High Explosives

    SciTech Connect

    E.H. Seabury; D.L. Chichester; C.J. Wharton; A.J. Caffrey

    2008-08-01

    Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) systems employ neutrons as a probe to interrogate items, e.g. chemical warfare materiel-filled munitions. The choice of a neutron source in field-portable systems is determined by its ability to excite nuclei of interest, operational concerns such as radiological safety and ease-of-use, and cost. Idaho National Laboratory’s PINS Chemical Assay System has traditionally used a Cf-252 isotopic neutron source, but recently a Deuterium-Tritium (DT) Electronic Neutron Generator (ENG) has been tested as an alternate neutron source. This paper presents the results of using both of these neutron sources to interrogate chemical warfare materiel (CWM) and high explosive (HE) filled munitions.

  19. A Comparison of Neutron-Based Non-Destructive Assessment Methods for Chemical Warfare Materiel and High Explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seabury, E. H.; Chichester, D. L.; Wharton, C. J.; Caffrey, A. J.

    2009-03-01

    Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) systems employ neutrons as a probe to interrogate items, e.g. chemical warfare materiel-filled munitions. The choice of a neutron source in field-portable systems is determined by its ability to excite nuclei of interest, operational concerns such as radiological safety and ease-of-use, and cost. Idaho National Laboratory's PINS Chemical Assay System has traditionally used a 252Cf isotopic neutron source, but recently a deuterium-tritium (DT) electronic neutron generator (ENG) has been tested as an alternate neutron source. This paper presents the results of using both of these neutron sources to interrogate chemical warfare materiel (CWM) and high explosive (HE) filled munitions.

  20. Etude ab initio des proprietes electroniques et optiques d'un systeme donneur-accepteur organique utilise dans les cellules photovoltaiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maillard, Arnaud

    The search for new sources of clean and renewable energy has recently been encouraged by the growing energy demand caused by the industrialization of developing countries and by population growth. In this context, the generation of electricity through the exploitation of solar energy with photovoltaic cells is particularly interesting, since this energy source is largely unused compared to its full potential. Nevertheless, large scale electricity generation with the current design of photovoltaic cells based on silicon is hindered by the large manufacturing cost of these devices. A new generation of photovoltaic cells, which includes organic photovoltaic cells that use semiconducting polymers, is under intense development in order to significantly reduce the manufacturing costs. The replacement of conventional materials with conjugated polymers in photovoltaic cells opens the possibility of using large scale manufacturing processes to produce large-area devices at low cost. However, the power conversion efficiency and the lifetime of organic photovoltaic cells are currently too low for these devices to be cost effective. A better understanding of the organic photovoltaic process is therefore necessary to improve the power conversion efficiency of these devices. The operating principle of photovoltaic cells requires the charge transfer between a polymer acting as an electron donor and a molecule acting as an electron acceptor to enable the dissociation of photogenerated excitons into free charge carriers. Furthermore, to ensure that the majority of the photogenerated excitons dissociates, the active region of an organic photovoltaic cell is typically formed by a bulk heterojunction between the donor and the acceptor. Many experimental studies have shown that the power conversion efficiency of these devices, which is proportional to the product of their short-circuit current Isc with their open circuit potential Voc, is strongly governed by the microstructure of the bulk heterojunction defined as the local order of the two phases and the organization of the donor-acceptor interfaces. Even though these studies have helped to increase the efficiency of organic photovoltaic cells, the relations linking the microstructure of the bulk heterojunction to their electronic and optical properties are still to be established. The objective of the research project is to computationally study the electronic and optical properties of organic bulk heterojunctions composed of regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (rrP3HT) and C60, two materials typically used in organic photovoltaic cells. In this study, the microstructure of the donor-acceptor systems can be directly controlled, which facilitates the systematic study of the influence of this parameter on the electronic and optical properties of the organic bulk heterojunctions. The density functional theory (DFT) is used to study the ground state geometric and electronic properties of multiple bulk heterojunction systems, while the time dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) is used to study the optical properties of these systems. The SIESTA software package is used to study periodic systems representing perfectly crystalline materials. The results obtained in this research project show that the power conversion efficiency of organic photovoltaic cells is strongly modulated by the microstructure of the bulk heterojunctions. Indeed, the size of the rrP3HT crystalline domains must be optimized to maximize the efficiency of the photovoltaic devices, since Voc and Isc have opposite behaviors with respect to π-stacking of the rrP3HT chains. In addition, the efficiency of organic photovoltaic cells could be improved by imposing geometrical constraints in the bulk heterojunctions through manufacturing methods in order to increase the value of Voc without altering the value of Isc. (Abstract shortened by UMI.).

  1. Integrating MRP (materiel requirements planning) II and JIT to achieve world-class status.

    PubMed

    Titone, R C

    1994-05-01

    The concepts and principles of using manufacturing resource planning (MRP II) for planning are not new. Their success has been proven in numerous manufacturing companies in America. The concepts and principles of using just-in-time (JIT) inventory for execution, while more recent, have also been available for some time, and their success in Japan well documented. However, it is the effective integration of these two powerful tools that open the way to achieving world-class manufacturing status. This article will utilize a newly developed world-class manufacturing model, which will review the aspects of planning, beginning with a business plan through the production planning process and culminating with a master schedule that drives a materiel/capacity plan. The importance and interrelationship of these functions are reviewed. The model then illustrates the important aspects of executing these plans beginning with people issues, through total quality control (TQC) and pull systems. We will then utilize this new functional model to demonstrate the relationship between these various functions and the importance of integrating them with a total comprehensive manufacturing strategy that will lead to world-class manufacturing and profits. PMID:10134156

  2. Stability of exempt chemical surety materiel (XCSM) in commonly used diluents under routine storage conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, T.L.; Chaffins, S.A.; Kohne, J.W.; Murphy, T.L.; Cunningham, R.I.

    1993-05-13

    Due to either the extreme toxicity of chemical surety materiel (CSM) or the limitations of the experimental facility, it is often required that CSM be diluted before use. The requisite of selecting both a non-toxic diluent and a diluent that does not bias the proposed experiment often results in use of 'non-standard' analytical solvents. These 'nonstandard' solvents include distilled water, drug vehicles, and culture media. The lack of sufficient agent/solvent stability information in these solutions is of major concern to both experimental designers and data reviewers. The objectives of this task were to determine the shelf life of exempt concentrations of GA, GB, GD, VX, and HD in selected diluents at prescribed concentrations and temperatures, and to assemble this information into a database. Efforts included the development of analytical methods necessary to perform these stability experiments and the compilation of results into a working database. The database, once completed, will be made available to XCSM researchers and will be updated as necessary.

  3. Uptake of munitions materiels (TNT, RDX) by crop plants and potential interactions of nitrogen nutrition

    SciTech Connect

    Fellows, R.J.; Harvey, S.D.; Cataldo, D.A.; Mitchell, W.

    1995-12-31

    Munitions materiel such as trinitrotoluene (TNT) and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) and their combustion/decomposition products can accumulate/cycle in terrestrial environs. High soil organic matter and fertility have been previously shown to negatively correlate with both TNT or RDX uptake in plants such as grass, wheat, and bean. The present study was therefore conducted using low fertility soil to assess uptake and distribution patterns of C-radiolabelled TNT and RDX (15 and 30 {micro}g/g) within corn (Zea mays), spinach (Spinacea oleraceae), carrot (Daucus carota), and alfalfa (Medicago sativa) grown to maturity in growth chambers. Uptake by the plants at maturity (90- to 120-days) ranged from 1.8 to 2.7% of total amended {sup 14}C-TNT for carrots and corn respectively and 17 to 33% of total amended {sup 14}C-RDX for corn and carrots respectively. Distribution patterns of total radiolabel indicate that the TNT-derived label was primarily retained within the roots (60 to 85%) while the RDX-derived label was distributed to the shoots (85 to 97%). Less than 0.01 {micro}g/g dry wt. TNT was found in all analyzed shoot tissues with > 90% of the TNT-derived radiolabel in the form of polar metabolites. Concentrations of RDX in shoot tissues of corn exceeded 180 {micro}g/g dry wt. Alfalfa grown in unfertilized, fertilized (NO{sub 3}), or unfertilized-inoculated (Rhizobia) soil exhibited a 70 to 100% increase in dry wt. after 45 days in the TNT-amended (15 {micro}g/g) fertilized and unfertilized-inoculated plants versus the controls. A potential TNT/nitrogen interaction will be discussed.

  4. Air compliance through pollution prevention at Air Force Materiel Command facilities.

    SciTech Connect

    Kolpa, R.; Ryckman, S.J. Jr.; Smith, A.E.

    1999-03-19

    Options for air compliance through pollution prevention (P2) have been identified at 14 facilities of the US Air Force Materiel Command, ranging from depots with significant light industrial activity to laboratories. Previous P2 efforts concentrated on reducing hazardous and solid wastes, with any reduction in air impacts generally being a collateral benefit. This work focused on reducing air emissions and air compliance vulnerabilities. P2 options were identified in three stages. First, potentially applicable P2 options were identified from Internet and published information. Attention was given to identifying the types of sources to which an option could be applied, the option's state of development, and constraints that could limit its application. Traditional P2 options involving technology or equipment changes and material substitution were considered. In addition, newer approaches based on administrative ''controls'' were considered. These included inserting P2 into operating permits in exchange for administrative relief, privatization, derating boilers, and reducing an installation's potential to emit and compliance vulnerability by separating sources not under the Air Force's ''common control.'' Next, criteria and toxic emissions inventories by source category were prepared from inventory data supplied by facilities. The major problems at this stage were differences in the levels of detail provided by facilities and in the categories used by different installations. Emitting categories were matched to P2 option categories to identify candidate options. Candidates were screened to account for local regulations and technical information about sources in the inventories. When possible, emission reductions were estimated to help facility personnel prioritize options. Some options identified are being actively pursued by facilities to determine their site-specific feasibility. Although much work has been done to implement material substitution programs, this

  5. Utilisation of thorium in reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anantharaman, K.; Shivakumar, V.; Saha, D.

    2008-12-01

    India's nuclear programme envisages a large-scale utilisation of thorium, as it has limited deposits of uranium but vast deposits of thorium. The large-scale utilisation of thorium requires the adoption of closed fuel cycle. The stable nature of thoria and the radiological issues associated with thoria poses challenges in the adoption of a closed fuel cycle. A thorium fuel based Advanced Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR) is being planned to provide impetus to development of technologies for the closed thorium fuel cycle. Thoria fuel has been loaded in Indian reactors and test irradiations have been carried out with (Th-Pu) MOX fuel. Irradiated thorium assemblies have been reprocessed and the separated 233U fuel has been used for test reactor KAMINI. The paper highlights the Indian experience with the use of thorium and brings out various issues associated with the thorium cycle.

  6. Imagerie Resolue dans le Temps des Photons et Neutres Metastables Emis D'une Surface Par Stimulation Electronique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leclerc, Gregoire

    L'appareil que nous presentons ici a ete mis au point pour permettre d'accumuler des images numeriques, resolues dans le temps, de la desorption par stimulation electronique (DSE) d'ions positifs et negatifs, de photons et de neutres metastables, tout en conservant des capacites de base de diffraction d'electrons lents (DEL) et de transmission d'electrons lents (TEL). Le spectrometre comporte un monochromateur d'electrons a secteur cylindrique de 127^ circ dont l'optique de sortie permet la focalisation du faisceau d'electrons sur une large gamme d'energies. Le detecteur consiste en un empilement de galettes de microcanaux et d'une anode resistive a encodage de division de charges. La reponse spatiale du detecteur a ete calibree et plusieurs causes de non-linearite ont ete localisees et corrigees. Des methodes de correction materielle et logicielle des distorsions spatiales sont presentees. La resolution temporelle des evenements est obtenue en pulsant le faisceau d'electrons, et de facon synchrone la detection, laquelle est couplee a un micro-ordinateur. La premiere partie de ce travail est consacree a la caracterisation du spectrometre et la presentation de nombreux parametres operationnels, obtenus soit au moment de la conception, soit experimentalement. Suit la presentation de donnees de DEL et de DSE pour le systeme Ar/Pt(111) en films minces a 15K. Les sequences temporelles d'images de metastables d'Ar desorbes ont revele la presence de plusieurs populations distinctes, ayant des distributions angulaires et distributions d'energie cinetique que nous avons pu separer. Les fonctions d'excitation de l'emission de photons et de la desorption de differentes composantes de metastables, ainsi que la dependance de ces signaux sur l'epaisseur des films d'Ar, sont aussi presentees et analysees. Les techniques que nous avons developpees ont permis de cerner les mecanismes en jeu pour la desorption et la luminescence.

  7. Etude de la formation de resonances electroniques et de leur role dans la fragmentation neutre de molecules d'interet biologique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lepage, Martin

    1998-12-01

    Cette these est presentee a la Faculte de medecine de l'Universite de Sherbrooke en vue de l'obtention du grade de Ph.D. en Radiobiologie. Elle contient des resultats experimentaux enregistres avec un spectrometre d'electrons a haute resolution. Ces resultats portent sur la formation de resonances electroniques en phase condensee et de differents canaux pour leur decroissance. En premier lieu, nous presentons des mesures d'excitations vibrationnelles de l'oxygene dilue en matrice d'argon pour des energies des electrons incidents de 1 a 20 eV. Les resultats suggerent que le temps de vie des resonances de l'oxygene est modifie par la densite d'etats d'electrons dans la bande de conduction de l'argon. Nous presentons aussi des spectres de pertes d'energie d'electrons des molecules de tetrahydrofuranne (THF) et d'acetone. Dans les deux cas, la position en energie des pertes associees aux excitations vibrationnelles est en excellent accord avec les resultats trouves dans la litterature. Les fonctions d'excitation de ces modes revelent la presence de plusieurs nouvelles resonances electroniques. Nous comparons les resonances du THF et celles de la molecule de cyclopentane en phase gazeuse. Nous proposons une origine commune aux resonances ce qui implique qu'elles ne sont pas necessairement attribuees a l'excitation des electrons non-apparies de l'oxygene du THF. Nous proposons une nouvelle methode basee sur la spectroscopie par pertes d'energie des electrons pour detecter la production de fragments neutres qui demeurent a l'interieur d'un film mince condense a basse temperature. Cette methode se base sur la detection des excitations electroniques du produit neutre. Nous presentons des resultats de la production de CO dans un film de methanol. Le taux de production de CO en fonction de l'energie incidente des electrons est calibre en termes d'une section efficace totale de diffusion des electrons. Les resultats indiquent une augmentation lineaire du taux de production de

  8. Standard operating procedure for air quality stationary source management at Air Force installations in the Air Force Materiel Command

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, C.M.; Ryckman, S.J.

    1997-12-31

    To sustain compliance and avoid future enforcement actions associated with air quality stationary sources and to provide installation commanders with a certification process for Title V permitting, and Air Force Materiel Command (AFMC) Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) for Stationary Source Management has been developed. The SOP consists of two major sections: Stationary Source Planning and Administration, and Stationary Source Operations These two main sections are further subdivided into twelve subsections which delineate requirements (e.g. maintaining inventories, applying for and maintaining permits, keeping records, reporting and certifying compliance) and assign ownership of processes and responsibilities (e.g. appointing a manager/alternate for each identified stationary air source). In addition, the SOP suggests training that should be provided from operator to commander levels to ensure that all personnel involved with a stationary air source are aware of their responsibilities. Implementation of the SOP should provide for the essential control necessary for installation commanders to eliminate stationary air source non-compliance and to certify compliance in accordance with the Title V Operating Permit requirements. This paper will discuss: the background and purpose for the SOPs content, the twelve subsections of the SOP, the success of implementation at various installations, the relevance or the recommended training, the success of negotiating with various labor unions for SOP implementation and the success of the SOP in reference to its intended purpose.

  9. Fabrication de transistors mono-electroniques en silicium pour le traitement classique et quantique de l'information: une approche nanodamascene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey-Collard, Patrick

    Les transistors mono-electroniques (SETs) sont des dispositifs ayant un grand potentiel d'applications, comme la detection de charge ultra-sensible, la logique a basse consommation de puissance, la memoire ou la metrologie. De plus, la possibilite de pieger un seul electron et de manipuler son etat de spin pourrait permettre des applications en informatique quantique. Le silicium est un materiau interessant pour fabriquer l'ilot d'un SET. Son gap semi-conducteur permet le fonctionnement du dispositif dans le regime a un seul electron ou trou et pourrait permettre d'etendre la plage d'operation du SET en temperature en augmentant l'energie d'addition du diamant central de la valeur du gap. En outre, le silicium beneficie de plus de quarante annees d'expertise en microfabrication et d'une compatibilite avec la technologie metal--oxyde--semi-conducteur complementaire (CMOS). Cependant, la fabrication de ces dispositifs fait face a de serieuses limitations a cause de la taille nanometrique requise pour l'ilot. A ce jour, les procedes de fabrication proposes permettant l'operation a la temperature ambiante sont trop peu reproductibles pour permettre des applications a grande echelle. Dans ce memoire de maitrise, la fabrication de transistors mono-electroniques en silicium (Si-SETs) pour le traitement classique et quantique de l'information est realisee avec un procede nanodamascene. Le polissage chimico-mecanique (CMP) est introduit comme etape clef de la fabrication du transistor, permettant le controle au nanometre pres (nanodamascene) de l'epaisseur du transistor. Cet outil permet la fabrication de dispositifs ayant une geometrie auparavant impossible a realiser et ouvre la porte a l'innovation technologique. De plus, un procede de gravure du silicium par plasma a couplage inductif (ICP) est developpe pour permettre la fabrication de nanostructures de silicium sur une nanotopographie alliant le nano et le 3D. Les Si-SETs fabriques sont caracterises a basse

  10. Utilising inorganic nanocarriers for gene delivery.

    PubMed

    Loh, Xian Jun; Lee, Tung-Chun; Dou, Qingqing; Deen, G Roshan

    2016-01-01

    The delivery of genetic materials into cells to elicit cellular responses has been extensively studied by biomaterials scientists globally. Many materials such as lipids, peptides, viruses, synthetically modified cationic polymers and certain inorganic nanomaterials could be used to complex the negatively charged plasmids and deliver the formed package into cells. The recent literature on the delivery of genetic materials utilising inorganic nanoparticles is carefully examined in this review. We have picked out the most relevant references and concisely summarised the findings with illustrated examples. We further propose alternative approaches and suggest future pathways towards the practical use of multifunctional nanocarriers. PMID:26484365

  11. Utilisation of magnets to enhance gastrointestinal endoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Imdadur; Patel, Praful; Boger, Philip; Thomson, Mike; Afzal, Nadeem Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Methods to assess, access and treat pathology within the gastrointestinal tract continue to evolve with video endoscopy replacing radiology as the gold standard. Whilst endoscope technology develops further with the advent of newer higher resolution chips, an array of adjuncts has been developed to enhance endoscopy in other ways; most notable is the use of magnets. Magnets are utilised in many areas, ranging from endoscopic training, lesion resection, aiding manoeuvrability of capsule endoscopes, to assisting in easy placement of tubes for nutritional feeding. Some of these are still at an experimental stage, whilst others are being increasingly incorporated in our everyday practice. PMID:26722611

  12. Utilisation of specialist medical manpower in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Wong, S L; Mohan, A J; Suleiman, A B

    1998-09-01

    One hundred and twenty specialists from the Ministry of Health, the Universities and the private sector provided information on 4,802 patients seen over a total of two hundred and forty working days. This information was used to classify the patients into four categories based on a disease complexity classification. Each specialist's perception on the appropriateness of utilisation of his expertise was obtained. Complex cases requiring specialist expertise in management made up 69.8%, 73.5% and 19.1% of the cases of the Ministry of Health, University and private sector specialists respectively. Underutilisation was most marked with paediatricians and obstetricians in the private sector. The Specialist Register, the Programme for Accreditation of Hospitals and a National Health Financing Plan can be used to influence positively the case-mix of specialists. PMID:10968161

  13. Environmental assessment of incinerator residue utilisation.

    PubMed

    Toller, S; Kärrman, E; Gustafsson, J P; Magnusson, Y

    2009-07-01

    Incineration ashes may be treated either as a waste to be dumped in landfill, or as a resource that is suitable for re-use. In order to choose the best management scenario, knowledge is needed on the potential environmental impact that may be expected, including not only local, but also regional and global impact. In this study, A life cycle assessment (LCA) based approach was outlined for environmental assessment of incinerator residue utilisation, in which leaching of trace elements as well as other emissions to air and water and the use of resources were regarded as constituting the potential environmental impact from the system studied. Case studies were performed for two selected ash types, bottom ash from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) and wood fly ash. The MSWI bottom ash was assumed to be suitable for road construction or as drainage material in landfill, whereas the wood fly ash was assumed to be suitable for road construction or as a nutrient resource to be recycled on forest land after biofuel harvesting. Different types of potential environmental impact predominated in the activities of the system and the use of natural resources and the trace element leaching were identified as being relatively important for the scenarios compared. The scenarios differed in use of resources and energy, whereas there is a potential for trace element leaching regardless of how the material is managed. Utilising MSWI bottom ash in road construction and recycling of wood ash on forest land saved more natural resources and energy than when these materials were managed according to the other scenarios investigated, including dumping in landfill. PMID:19362462

  14. Perspectives and visions on CO2 capture and utilisation.

    PubMed

    North, M; Styring, P

    2015-01-01

    This article summarises and contextualises the debates which occurred during the Carbon Dioxide Utilisation Faraday Discussion meeting. The utilisation of carbon dioxide is discussed in terms of both conversion to fuel, with a potential impact on atmospheric carbon dioxide levels, and conversion to chemicals with a potential impact on sustainability. PMID:26527125

  15. Utilisation of chip thickness models in grinding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singleton, Roger

    Grinding is now a well established process utilised for both stock removal and finish applications. Although significant research is performed in this field, grinding still experiences problems with burn and high forces which can lead to poor quality components and damage to equipment. This generally occurs in grinding when the process deviates from its safe working conditions. In milling, chip thickness parameters are utilised to predict and maintain process outputs leading to improved control of the process. This thesis looks to further the knowledge of the relationship between chip thickness and the grinding process outputs to provide an increased predictive and maintenance modelling capability. Machining trials were undertaken using different chip thickness parameters to understand how these affect the process outputs. The chip thickness parameters were maintained at different grinding wheel diameters for a constant productivity process to determine the impact of chip thickness at a constant material removal rate.. Additional testing using a modified pin on disc test rig was performed to provide further information on process variables. The different chip thickness parameters provide control of different process outputs in the grinding process. These relationships can be described using contact layer theory and heat flux partitioning. The contact layer is defined as the immediate layer beneath the contact arc at the wheel workpiece interface. The size of the layer governs the force experienced during the process. The rate of contact layer removal directly impacts the net power required from the system. It was also found that the specific grinding energy of a process is more dependent on the productivity of a grinding process

  16. Integrated nuclear data utilisation system for innovative reactors.

    PubMed

    Yamano, N; Hasegawa, A; Kato, K; Igashira, M

    2005-01-01

    A five-year research and development project on an integrated nuclear data utilisation system was initiated in 2002, for developing innovative nuclear energy systems such as accelerator-driven systems. The integrated nuclear data utilisation system will be constructed as a modular code system, which consists of two sub-systems: the nuclear data search and plotting sub-system, and the nuclear data processing and utilisation sub-system. The system will be operated with a graphical user interface in order to enable easy utilisation through the Internet by both nuclear design engineers and nuclear data evaluators. This paper presents an overview of the integrated nuclear data utilisation system, describes the development of a prototype system to examine the operability of the user interface and discusses specifications of the two sub-systems. PMID:16381697

  17. Natural gas development and utilisation pattern in India

    SciTech Connect

    Mulchandani, H.K.; Balakrishnan, M.

    1984-02-01

    In this era of energy consciousness, Natural Gas is destined to play an important role in the economic life of India. The luxury of flaring into atmosphere is over. Rather stocks are being assessed and capital investments are planned for the optimum development and utilisation of gas. In this paper, authors have attempted to tie up various data on different aspects of gas business such as supply, source, production, utilisation pattern and its share in energy and economy. The optimal utilisation plan as discussed here could be of some value to the planners.

  18. Utilisation of Riverine Dom By Coastal Bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rochelle-Newall, E.; Pizay, M.-D.; Gattuso, J.-P.

    % and 69% and was generally highest in the LMW-DOM incubations. These results fur- ther demonstrate the flexibility of bacteria in their ability to utilise different sources of DOM.

  19. Jarosite characteristics and its utilisation potentials.

    PubMed

    Pappu, Asokan; Saxena, Mohini; Asolekar, Shyam R

    2006-04-15

    During metallic zinc extraction from zinc sulphide or sulphide ore, huge quantity of jarosite is being released universally as solid residues. The jarosite mainly contains iron, sulphur, zinc, calcium, lead, cadmium and aluminium. Jarosite released from such industrial process is complex and its quality and quantity make the task more complex for safe disposal. Apart from water contamination, jarosite already accumulated and its increasing annual production is a major source of pollution for surrounding environment including soil, vegetation and aquatic life and hence its disposal leads to major concern because of the stringent environmental protection regulations. An attempt was made to evaluate the characteristics of Indian jarosite with an objectives to understand its potentials for recycling and utilising as raw materials for developing value added products. Sand and Coal Combustion Residues (CCRs) was used as an admixture to attain good workability and detoxify the toxic substance in the jarosite. Result revealed that jarosite is silty clay loam in texture having 63.48% silt sized and 32.35% clay sized particles. The particle size of jarosite (D90=16.21+/-0.20 microm) is finer than the CCRs (D90=19.72+/-0.18 microm). The jarosite is nonuniform in structure and shape as compared to the CCRs having spherical, hollow shaped and some of them are cenosphere in nature. The major mineral phase of jarosite is Potassium Iron Sulphate Hydroxide {KFe3(SO4)2(OH)6}and Iron Sulphate Hydrate {2 Fe2O3SO3 x 5 H2O}. In CCRs the dominant phases are quartz {SiO2}, mullite {3 Al2O3 x 2 SiO2} and hematite {Fe2O3}. The high electrical conductivity of jarosite (13.26+/-0.437 dS/m) indicates that the presence of cations and anions are predominant over CCRs (0.498+/-0.007 dS/m). The major portion of jarosite consists of iron (23.66+/-0.18%), sulphur (12.23+/-0.2%) and zinc (8.243+/-0.075%). But CCRs main constituents are silicon (27.41+/-0.74%), aluminium (15.167+/-0.376%) and iron (4

  20. Regulation of methanol utilisation pathway genes in yeasts

    PubMed Central

    Hartner, Franz S; Glieder, Anton

    2006-01-01

    Methylotrophic yeasts such as Candida boidinii, Hansenula polymorpha, Pichia methanolica and Pichia pastoris are an emerging group of eukaryotic hosts for recombinant protein production with an ever increasing number of applications during the last 30 years. Their applications are linked to the use of strong methanol-inducible promoters derived from genes of the methanol utilisation pathway. These promoters are tightly regulated, highly repressed in presence of non-limiting concentrations of glucose in the medium and strongly induced if methanol is used as carbon source. Several factors involved in this tight control and their regulatory effects have been described so far. This review summarises available data about the regulation of promoters from methanol utilisation pathway genes. Furthermore, the role of cis and trans acting factors (e.g. transcription factors, glucose processing enzymes) in the expression of methanol utilisation pathway genes is reviewed both in the context of the native cell environment as well as in heterologous hosts. PMID:17169150

  1. Redirecting Under-Utilised Computer Laboratories into Cluster Computing Facilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, John S.; Spenneman, Dirk H. R.; Cornforth, David

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To provide administrators at an Australian university with data on the feasibility of redirecting under-utilised computer laboratories facilities into a distributed high performance computing facility. Design/methodology/approach: The individual log-in records for each computer located in the computer laboratories at the university were…

  2. Optimal radiotherapy utilisation rate in developing countries: An IAEA study.

    PubMed

    Rosenblatt, Eduardo; Barton, Michael; Mackillop, William; Fidarova, Elena; Cordero, Lisbeth; Yarney, Joel; Lim, Gerard; Abad, Anthony; Cernea, Valentin; Stojanovic-Rundic, Suzana; Strojan, Primoz; Kobachi, Lotfi; Quarneti, Aldo

    2015-07-01

    Optimal radiotherapy utilisation rate (RTU) is the proportion of all cancer cases that should receive radiotherapy. Optimal RTU was estimated for 9 Middle Income Countries as part of a larger IAEA project to better understand RTU and stage distribution. PMID:26164776

  3. Improving the Utilisation of Management Information Systems in Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosker, R. J.; Branderhorst, E. M.; Visscher, A. J.

    2007-01-01

    Although most secondary schools do use management information systems (MISs), these systems tend not to be used to support higher order managerial activities but are currently primarily used for clerical purposes. This situation is unsatisfactory as MISs fully utilised could offer invaluable support to schools, which are increasingly being granted…

  4. Synthesis, characterisation and microbial utilisation of amorphous polysugars from lactose.

    PubMed

    Daines, Alison M; Smart, Zlatka; Sims, Ian M; Tannock, Gerald W; Hinkley, Simon F R

    2015-03-01

    The melt polymerisations of glucose, galactose, xylose and fucose with citric acid, and mixtures of sugars therein are reported. Characterisation of the citric-acid catalysed reaction products indicated similar degrees of branched polymerisation but differences in the overall molecular weight of the polymers produced. The dairy by-product lactose could not be polymerised in a similar fashion but was shown to be readily hydrolysed using microwave radiation and a polymer generated from the melt condensation of the resultant glucose and galactose monosaccharides. A preliminary assessment of the bifido-bacterial utilisation of the lactose-derived polymerised products demonstrated a significantly different growth profile compared to commercially utilised galactooligosaccharides (GOS). PMID:25498629

  5. The European Space Agency standard for space packet utilisation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufeler, J.-F.; Parkes, A.; Pidgeon, A.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents the ESA concept for the use of CCSDS defined Telemetry and Telecommand Packets at the application level. These Packets are used to monitor and control remotely a space born application. This concept is defined in a Packet Utilisation Standard (PUS) which should become applicable for all ESA missions using Packets. The production of this standard is under the responsibility of an ESA standardization group called 'COES'.

  6. Fish Utilisation of Wetland Nurseries with Complex Hydrological Connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Ben; Johnston, Ross; Baker, Ronald; Sheaves, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    The physical and faunal characteristics of coastal wetlands are driven by dynamics of hydrological connectivity to adjacent habitats. Wetlands on estuary floodplains are particularly dynamic, driven by a complex interplay of tidal marine connections and seasonal freshwater flooding, often with unknown consequences for fish using these habitats. To understand the patterns and subsequent processes driving fish assemblage structure in such wetlands, we examined the nature and diversity of temporal utilisation patterns at a species or genus level over three annual cycles in a tropical Australian estuarine wetland system. Four general patterns of utilisation were apparent based on CPUE and size-structure dynamics: (i) classic nursery utlisation (use by recently settled recruits for their first year) (ii) interrupted peristence (iii) delayed recruitment (iv) facultative wetland residence. Despite the small self-recruiting ‘facultative wetland resident’ group, wetland occupancy seems largely driven by connectivity to the subtidal estuary channel. Variable connection regimes (i.e. frequency and timing of connections) within and between different wetland units (e.g. individual pools, lagoons, swamps) will therefore interact with the diversity of species recruitment schedules to generate variable wetland assemblages in time and space. In addition, the assemblage structure is heavily modified by freshwater flow, through simultaneously curtailing persistence of the ’interrupted persistence’ group, establishing connectivity for freshwater spawned members of both the ‘facultative wetland resident’ and ‘delayed recruitment group’, and apparently mediating use of intermediate nursery habitats for marine-spawned members of the ‘delayed recruitment’ group. The diversity of utilisation pattern and the complexity of associated drivers means assemblage compositions, and therefore ecosystem functioning, is likely to vary among years depending on variations in

  7. Health Services Utilisation in Breast Cancer Survivors in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yong A.; Feng, An-Chen; Ganz, Patricia A.

    2014-01-01

    Surveillance guidelines for breast cancer survivors recommend regular history and physical and mammography, and against routine imaging for detecting distant metastasis. Stage 0, I, II breast cancer cases treated at a major cancer center were identified from the Taiwan Cancer Registry. We used multivariable negative binomial and logistic regression analyses on institutional claims data to examine factors contributing to utilisation patterns of surveillance visits and tests in disease-free survivors. The mean number of surveillance visits during months 13 to 60 after cancer treatment initiation was 18.5 (SD 8.2) among the 2,090 breast cancer survivors followed for at least five years. After adjusting for patient and disease factors, the number of visits was the highest among patients mainly followed by medical oncologists compared to surgeons and radiation oncologists. Patient cohorts treated in more recent years had lower number of visits associated with care coordination effort, the adjusted mean being 19.2 visits for the 2002 cohort, and 16.3 visits for the 2008 cohort (p < 0.0001). Although imaging tests were highly utilised, there was a significant decrease in tumor marker testing from the 2002 to the 2008 treatment cohort (adjusted rate 99.4% to 35.1% respectively, p < 0.0001) in association with an institutional guideline change. PMID:25502076

  8. Self-Assembled Hydrogels Utilising Polymer-Nanoparticle Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Appel, Eric A.; Tibbitt, Mark W.; Webber, Matthew J.; Mattix, Bradley A.; Veiseh, Omid

    2015-01-01

    Mouldable hydrogels that flow upon applied stress and rapidly self-heal are increasingly utilised as they afford minimally invasive delivery and conformal application. Here we report a new paradigm for the fabrication of self-assembled hydrogels with shear-thinning and self-healing properties employing rationally engineered polymer-nanoparticle interactions. Biopolymer derivatives are linked together by selective adsorption to nanoparticles. The transient and reversible interactions between biopolymers and nanoparticles enable flow under applied shear stress, followed by rapid self-healing when the stress is relaxed. We develop a physical description of polymer-nanoparticle gel formation that is utilised to design biocompatible gels for minimally-invasive drug delivery. Owing to the hierarchical structure of the gel, both hydrophilic and hydrophobic drugs can be entrapped and delivered with differential release profiles, both in vitro and in vivo. The work introduces a facile and generalizable class of mouldable hydrogels amenable to a range of biomedical and industrial applications. PMID:25695516

  9. Landscape Utilisation, Animal Behaviour and Hendra Virus Risk.

    PubMed

    Field, H E; Smith, C S; de Jong, C E; Melville, D; Broos, A; Kung, N; Thompson, J; Dechmann, D K N

    2016-03-01

    Hendra virus causes sporadic fatal disease in horses and humans in eastern Australia. Pteropid bats (flying-foxes) are the natural host of the virus. The mode of flying-fox to horse transmission remains unclear, but oro-nasal contact with flying-fox urine, faeces or saliva is the most plausible. We used GPS data logger technology to explore the landscape utilisation of black flying-foxes and horses to gain new insight into equine exposure risk. Flying-fox foraging was repetitious, with individuals returning night after night to the same location. There was a preference for fragmented arboreal landscape and non-native plant species, resulting in increased flying-fox activity around rural infrastructure. Our preliminary equine data logger study identified significant variation between diurnal and nocturnal grazing behaviour that, combined with the observed flying-fox foraging behaviour, could contribute to Hendra virus exposure risk. While we found no significant risk-exposing difference in individual horse movement behaviour in this study, the prospect warrants further investigation, as does the broader role of animal behaviour and landscape utilisation on the transmission dynamics of Hendra virus. PMID:26403793

  10. Clean coal technology. Coal utilisation by-products

    SciTech Connect

    2006-08-15

    The need to remove the bulk of ash contained in flue gas from coal-fired power plants coupled with increasingly strict environmental regulations in the USA result in increased generation of solid materials referred to as coal utilisation by-products, or CUBs. More than 40% of CUBs were sold or reused in the USA in 2004 compared to less than 25% in 1996. A goal of 50% utilization has been established for 2010. The American Coal Ash Association (ACCA) together with the US Department of Energy's Power Plant Improvement Initiative (PPPI) and Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI) sponsor a number of projects that promote CUB utilization. Several are mentioned in this report. Report sections are: Executive summary; Introduction; Where do CUBs come from?; Market analysis; DOE-sponsored CUB demonstrations; Examples of best-practice utilization of CUB materials; Factors limiting the use of CUBs; and Conclusions. 14 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs., 14 photos.

  11. Technologies for the utilisation of biogenic waste in the bioeconomy.

    PubMed

    O'Callaghan, Kenneth

    2016-05-01

    A brief review has been done of technologies involved in the exploitation of biogenic wastes, in order to provide an introduction to the subject from the technological perspective. Biogenic waste materials and biomass have historically been utilised for thousands of years, but a new conversation is emerging on the role of these materials in modern bioeconomies. Due to the nature of the products and commodities now required, a modern bioeconomy is not simply a rerun of former ones. This new dialogue needs to help us understand how technologies for managing and processing biogenic wastes--both established and novel--should be deployed and integrated (or not) to meet the requirements of the sustainability, closed-loop and resource-security agendas that evidently sit behind the bioeconomy aspirations now being voiced in many countries and regions of the world. PMID:26769498

  12. Utilising shade to optimize UV exposure for vitamin D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turnbull, D. J.; Parisi, A. V.

    2008-06-01

    Numerous studies have stated that humans need to utilise full sun radiation, at certain times of the day, to assist the body in synthesising the required levels of vitamin D3. The time needed to be spent in the full sun depends on a number of factors, for example, age, skin type, latitude, solar zenith angle. Current Australian guidelines suggest exposure to approximately 1/6 to 1/3 of a minimum erythemal dose (MED), depending on age, would be appropriate to provide adequate vitamin D3 levels. The aim of the study was to determine the exposure times to diffuse solar UV to receive exposures of 1/6 and 1/3 MED for a changing solar zenith angle in order to assess the possible role that diffuse UV (scattered radiation) may play in vitamin D3 effective UV exposures (UVD3). Diffuse and global erythemal UV measurements were conducted at five minute intervals over a twelve month period for a solar zenith angle range of 4° to 80° at a latitude of 27.6° S. For a diffuse UV exposure of 1/3 MED, solar zenith angles smaller than approximately 50° can be utilised for exposure times of less than 10 min. Spectral measurements showed that, for a solar zenith angle of 40°, the UVA (315-400 nm) in the diffuse component of the solar UV is reduced by approximately 62% compared to the UVA in the global UV, whereas UVD3 wavelengths are only reduced by approximately 43%. At certain latitudes, diffuse UV under shade may play an important role in providing the human body with adequate levels of UVD3 (290-315 nm) radiation without experiencing the high levels of UVA observed in full sun.

  13. Utilising shade to optimize UV exposure for vitamin D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turnbull, D. J.; Parisi, A. V.

    2008-01-01

    Numerous studies have stated that humans need to utilise full sun radiation, at certain times of the day, to assist the body in synthesising the required levels of vitamin D3. The time needed to be spent in the full sun depends on a number of factors, for example, age, skin type, latitude, solar zenith angle. Current Australian guidelines suggest exposure to approximately 1/6 to 1/3 of a minimum erythemal dose (MED), depending on age, would be appropriate to provide adequate vitamin D3 levels. The aim of the study was to determine the exposure times to diffuse solar UV to receive exposures of 1/6 and 1/3 MED for a changing solar zenith angle in order to assess the possible role that diffuse UV (scattered radiation) may play in vitamin D3 effective UV exposures (UVD3). Diffuse and global erythemal UV measurements were conducted at five minute intervals over a twelve month period for a solar zenith angle range of 4° to 80° at a latitude of 27.6° S. For diffuse UV exposures of 1/6 and 1/3 MED, solar zenith angles smaller than 60° and 50° respectively can be utilised for exposure times of less than 10 min. Spectral measurements showed that, for a solar zenith angle of 40°, the UVA (315-400 nm) in the diffuse component of the solar UV is reduced by approximately 62% compared to the UVA in the global UV, whereas UVD3 wavelengths are only reduced by approximately 43%. At certain latitudes, diffuse UV under shade may play an important role in providing the human body with adequate levels of UVD3 (290-330 nm) radiation without experiencing the high levels of damaging UVA observed in full sun.

  14. Possibilities for the efficient utilisation of spent geothermal waters.

    PubMed

    Tomaszewska, Barbara; Szczepański, Andrzej

    2014-10-01

    Waters located at greater depths usually exhibit high mineral content, which necessitates the use of closed systems, i.e. re-injecting them into the formation after recovering the heat. This significantly reduces investment efficiency owing to the need to drill absorption wells and to perform anti-corrosion and anti-clogging procedures. In this paper, possibilities for the efficient utilisation of cooled geothermal waters are considered, particularly with respect to open or mixed geothermal water installations. Where cooled water desalination technologies are used, this allows the water to be demineralised and used to meet local needs (as drinking water and for leisure purposes). The retentate left as a by-product of the process contains valuable ingredients that can be used for balneological and/or leisure purposes. Thus, the technology for desalinating spent geothermal waters with high mineral content allows improved water management on a local scale and makes it possible to minimise the environmental threat resulting from the need to dump these waters into waterways or surface water bodies and/or inject them into the formation. The paper is concerned with Polish geothermal system and provides information about the parameters of Polish geothermal waters. PMID:24903247

  15. Eye care services utilisation among pregnant women in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ibraheem, Waheed A; Ibraheem, Anifat B; Owonikoko, Musliudeen; Tijani, Aramide; Olamoyegun, Michael Adeyemi; AbdSalam, Soliu

    2016-07-01

    One hundred and sixty-five pregnant Nigerian women attending the antenatal clinic of LAUTECH teaching hospital, Ogbomoso, Nigeria between January and April 2014 were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Socio-demographic characteristics of the respondents were obtained. Respondents were also asked: if they had had their eye examined by an eye specialist during the index pregnancy, frequencies of visit to eye care centers and indications for their visitation. A history of previous eye examination by eye care specialist/visit to eye clinic was considered as eye care utilisation. Selection of eligible subjects who consented to participate in the study was done using simple random technique. Logistic regression model was used to control sociodemographic and obstetric factors in order to determine independent covariate factor influencing the use of eye care services. Among the population studied, only 46 (32%) had eye examination during the index pregnancy. Level of education and occupational status of the respondents were found to be statistically significant factors (p = 0.001 and 0.008, respectively). There is a need for a policy that will encourage regular eye care services usage during pregnancy. PMID:27012975

  16. Factors affecting Japanese retirees' healthcare service utilisation in Malaysia: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Kohno, Ayako; Nik Farid, Nik Daliana; Musa, Ghazali; Abdul Aziz, Norlaili; Nakayama, Takeo; Dahlui, Maznah

    2016-01-01

    Objective While living overseas in another culture, retirees need to adapt to a new environment but often this causes difficulties, particularly among those elderly who require healthcare services. This study examines factors affecting healthcare service utilisation among Japanese retirees in Malaysia. Design We conducted 6 focus group discussions with Japanese retirees and interviewed 8 relevant medical services providers in-depth. Guided by the Andersen Healthcare Utilisation Model, we managed and analysed the data, using QSR NVivo 10 software and the directed content analysis method. Setting We interviewed participants at Japan Clubs and their offices. Participants 30 Japanese retirees who live in Kuala Lumpur and Ipoh, and 8 medical services providers. Results We identified health beliefs, medical symptoms and health insurance as the 3 most important themes, respectively, representing the 3 dimensions within the Andersen Healthcare Utilisation Model. Additionally, language barriers, voluntary health repatriation to Japan and psychological support were unique themes that influence healthcare service utilisation among Japanese retirees. Conclusions The healthcare service utilisation among Japanese retirees in Malaysia could be partially explained by the Andersen Healthcare Utilisation Model, together with some factors that were unique findings to this study. Healthcare service utilisation among Japanese retirees in Malaysia could be improved by alleviating negative health beliefs through awareness programmes for Japanese retirees about the healthcare systems and cultural aspects of medical care in Malaysia. PMID:27006344

  17. Utilisation of Wearable Computing for Space Programmes Test Activities Optimasation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basso, V.; Lazzari, D.; Alemanni, M.

    2004-08-01

    New technologies are assuming a relevant importance in the Space business domain also in the Assembly Integration and Test (AIT) activities allowing process optimization and capability that were unthinkable only few years ago. This paper has the aim to describe Alenia Spazio (ALS) gained experience on the remote interaction techniques as a results of collaborations established both on European Communities (EC) initiatives, with Alenia Aeronautica (ALA) and Politecnico of Torino (POLITO). The H/W and S/W components performances increase and costs reduction due to the home computing massive utilization (especially demanded by the games business) together with the network technology possibility (offered by the web as well as the hi-speed links and the wireless communications) allow today to re-think the traditional AIT process activities in the light of the multimedia data exchange: graphical, voice video and by sure more in the future. Aerospace business confirm its innovation vocation which in the year '80 represents the cradle of the CAD systems and today is oriented to the 3D data visualization/ interaction technologies and remote visualisation/ interaction in collaborative way on a much more user friendly bases (i.e. not for specialists). Fig. 1 collects AIT extended scenario studied and adopted by ALS in these years. ALS experimented two possibilities of remote visualization/interaction: Portable [e.g. Fig.2 Personal Digital Assistant (PDA), Wearable] and walls (e.g.VR-Lab) screens as both 2D/3D visualisation and interaction devices which could support many types of traditional (mainly based on EGSE and PDM/CAD utilisation/reports) company internal AIT applications: 1. design review support 2. facility management 3. storage management 4. personnel training 5. integration sequences definition 6. assembly and test operations follow up 7. documentation review and external access to AIT activities for remote operations (e.g. tele-testing) EGSE Portable Clean room

  18. Utilisation of intensive foraging zones by female Australian fur seals.

    PubMed

    Hoskins, Andrew J; Costa, Daniel P; Arnould, John P Y

    2015-01-01

    Within a heterogeneous environment, animals must efficiently locate and utilise foraging patches. One way animals can achieve this is by increasing residency times in areas where foraging success is highest (area-restricted search). For air-breathing diving predators, increased patch residency times can be achieved by altering both surface movements and diving patterns. The current study aimed to spatially identify the areas where female Australian fur seals allocated the most foraging effort, while simultaneously determining the behavioural changes that occur when they increase their foraging intensity. To achieve this, foraging behaviour was successfully recorded with a FastLoc GPS logger and dive behaviour recorder from 29 individual females provisioning pups. Females travelled an average of 118 ± 50 km from their colony during foraging trips that lasted 7.3 ± 3.4 days. Comparison of two methods for calculating foraging intensity (first-passage time and first-passage time modified to include diving behaviour) determined that, due to extended surface intervals where individuals did not travel, inclusion of diving behaviour into foraging analyses was important for this species. Foraging intensity 'hot spots' were found to exist in a mosaic of patches within the Bass Basin, primarily to the south-west of the colony. However, the composition of benthic habitat being targeted remains unclear. When increasing their foraging intensity, individuals tended to perform dives around 148 s or greater, with descent/ascent rates of approximately 1.9 m•s-1 or greater and reduced postdive durations. This suggests individuals were maximising their time within the benthic foraging zone. Furthermore, individuals increased tortuosity and decreased travel speeds while at the surface to maximise their time within a foraging location. These results suggest Australian fur seals will modify both surface movements and diving behaviour to maximise their time within a foraging patch

  19. Utilisation of Intensive Foraging Zones by Female Australian Fur Seals

    PubMed Central

    Hoskins, Andrew J.; Costa, Daniel P.; Arnould, John P. Y.

    2015-01-01

    Within a heterogeneous environment, animals must efficiently locate and utilise foraging patches. One way animals can achieve this is by increasing residency times in areas where foraging success is highest (area-restricted search). For air-breathing diving predators, increased patch residency times can be achieved by altering both surface movements and diving patterns. The current study aimed to spatially identify the areas where female Australian fur seals allocated the most foraging effort, while simultaneously determining the behavioural changes that occur when they increase their foraging intensity. To achieve this, foraging behaviour was successfully recorded with a FastLoc GPS logger and dive behaviour recorder from 29 individual females provisioning pups. Females travelled an average of 118 ± 50 km from their colony during foraging trips that lasted 7.3 ± 3.4 days. Comparison of two methods for calculating foraging intensity (first-passage time and first-passage time modified to include diving behaviour) determined that, due to extended surface intervals where individuals did not travel, inclusion of diving behaviour into foraging analyses was important for this species. Foraging intensity ‘hot spots’ were found to exist in a mosaic of patches within the Bass Basin, primarily to the south-west of the colony. However, the composition of benthic habitat being targeted remains unclear. When increasing their foraging intensity, individuals tended to perform dives around 148 s or greater, with descent/ascent rates of approximately 1.9 m•s-1 or greater and reduced postdive durations. This suggests individuals were maximising their time within the benthic foraging zone. Furthermore, individuals increased tortuosity and decreased travel speeds while at the surface to maximise their time within a foraging location. These results suggest Australian fur seals will modify both surface movements and diving behaviour to maximise their time within a foraging patch

  20. The utilisation of health research in policy-making: concepts, examples and methods of assessment

    PubMed Central

    Hanney, Stephen R; Gonzalez-Block, Miguel A; Buxton, Martin J; Kogan, Maurice

    2003-01-01

    The importance of health research utilisation in policy-making, and of understanding the mechanisms involved, is increasingly recognised. Recent reports calling for more resources to improve health in developing countries, and global pressures for accountability, draw greater attention to research-informed policy-making. Key utilisation issues have been described for at least twenty years, but the growing focus on health research systems creates additional dimensions. The utilisation of health research in policy-making should contribute to policies that may eventually lead to desired outcomes, including health gains. In this article, exploration of these issues is combined with a review of various forms of policy-making. When this is linked to analysis of different types of health research, it assists in building a comprehensive account of the diverse meanings of research utilisation. Previous studies report methods and conceptual frameworks that have been applied, if with varying degrees of success, to record utilisation in policy-making. These studies reveal various examples of research impact within a general picture of underutilisation. Factors potentially enhancing utilisation can be identified by exploration of: priority setting; activities of the health research system at the interface between research and policy-making; and the role of the recipients, or 'receptors', of health research. An interfaces and receptors model provides a framework for analysis. Recommendations about possible methods for assessing health research utilisation follow identification of the purposes of such assessments. Our conclusion is that research utilisation can be better understood, and enhanced, by developing assessment methods informed by conceptual analysis and review of previous studies. PMID:12646071

  1. Floodwater utilisation values of wetland services - a case study in Northeastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lü, S. B.; Xu, S. G.; Feng, F.

    2012-02-01

    Water plays a significant role in wetlands. Floodwater utilisation in wetlands brings a wide range of wetland services, from goods production and water regulation to animal protection and aesthetics related to water supply in wetlands. In this study, the floodwater utilisation values of wetland services were estimated within the Momoge wetland and Xianghai wetland in western Jilin province of northeastern China. From 2003 to 2008, the floodwater diverted from the Nenjiang and Tao'er River is 381 million m3, which translates into a monetary value of approximately 1.35 billion RMB in 2008 (RMB: Chinese Currency, RMB 6.80 = US 1), and the ratio of economic value, eco-environmental value, and social value is 1:12:2. Besides the monetary value of the water itself, excessive floodwater utilisation may bring losses to wetlands; the threshold floodwater utilisation volumes in wetlands are discussed. Floodwater utilisation can alleviate water shortages in wetlands, and the evaluation of floodwater utilisation in wetland services in monetary terms is a guide for the effective use of the floodwater resources and for the conservation of wetlands.

  2. Determinants of postnatal service utilisation among mothers in rural settings of Malawi.

    PubMed

    Phiri, Precious William C; Rattanapan, Cheerawit; Mongkolchati, Aroonsri

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine significant predictors for the utilisation of postnatal service among mothers. A total of 295 postnatal mothers were enrolled in a cross-sectional study design undertaken in six health facilities of Lilongwe District using two-stage cluster sampling with a response rate of 100%. The data were collected by interview from December 2012 to January 2013 using a structured questionnaire. The result showed that over half of the mothers (56.6%) utilised postnatal service within 6 weeks after delivery. A stepwise multiple logistic regression was used to determine significant determinants of utilisation of postnatal service among mothers. After adjusting for confounding factors, utilisation of an alternative local source of care in home after delivery [adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 7.77, 95% CI: 4.14-14.58], women's perception on performance of health workforce during delivery and postnatal service (aOR: 6.56, 95% CI: 3.09-13.94), health education before hospital discharge of postnatal mothers (aOR: 4.08, 95% CI: 2.11-7.92), place of delivery (aOR: 4.32, 95% CI: 1.32-14.12), family income (aOR: 1.89, 95% CI: 1.03-3.46) and the occurrence of no complications during delivery (aOR: 1.90, 95% CI: 1.03-3.50) were significantly associated with the utilisation of postnatal service. Hence, this study suggests that improved health workforce performance coupled with effective health education may increase the utilisation of postnatal service. Furthermore, the utilisation of postnatal service may also be increased through reducing home deliveries, delivery complications and the use of alternative local care at home after delivery. Integration of postnatal service in outreach clinics might also assist through reducing the cost of accessing postnatal service among mothers. PMID:25319930

  3. Impact of continuous Medical Aid utilisation on healthcare utilisation: unique insight using the 2008–2012 Korean Welfare Panel Study (KOWEPS)

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae-Hyun; Kim, Na Rae; Park, Eun-Cheol; Han, Kyu-Tae; Choi, Young; Lee, Sang Gyu

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Although there has been considerable discussion about the social safety net, few studies related to effect of duration of continuous receipt of Medical Aid on healthcare utilisation have been conducted. Therefore, we investigate whether the duration of receiving Medical Aid affected medical care utilisation. Setting Data were collected from the Korean Welfare Panel Study conducted from 2008 to 2012. Participants We included 11 783 samples. Interventions Estimating changes in their healthcare utilisation during specific time intervals (1, 2 and ≥3 years) after they switched from National Health Insurance to Medical Aid. Primary and secondary outcome measures Number of outpatient visits. Results The number of outpatient visits per year was 0.0.051-fold higher (p value: 0.434) among those who were Medical Aid beneficiaries for a continuous period of 1 year, 0.0.267-fold higher (p value: 0.000) among those who were beneficiaries for a continuous period of 2 years, and 0.0.562-fold higher (p value:<0.0001) among those who were beneficiaries for a continuous period of 3 years than it was among those who were beneficiaries of National Health Insurance. Conclusions Our results reflect an association between the number of consecutive years of receiving Medical Aid and number of outpatient visits. Since duration of dependence is correlated with reduced exit rates, limits on length of benefits should be considered to strengthen the incentive to return to work. PMID:27053265

  4. Trends of CT utilisation in an emergency department in Taiwan: a 5-year retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Sung-Yuan; Hsieh, Ming-Shun; Lin, Meng-Yu; Hsu, Chiann-Yi; Lin, Tzu-Chieh; How, Chorng-Kuang; Wang, Chen-Yu; Tsai, Jeffrey Che-Hung; Wu, Yu-Hui; Chang, Yan-Zin

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the association between the trends of CT utilisation in an emergency department (ED) and changes in clinical imaging practice and patients' disposition. Setting A hospital-based retrospective observational study of a public 1520-bed referral medical centre in Taiwan. Participants Adult ED visits (aged ≥18 years) during 2009–2013, with or without receiving CT, were enrolled as the study participants. Main outcome measures For all enrolled ED visits, we retrospectively analysed: (1) demographic characteristics, (2) triage categories, (3) whether CT was performed and the type of CT scan, (4) further ED disposition, (5) ED cost and (6) ED length of stay. Results In all, 269 239 adult ED visits (148 613 male patients and 120 626 female patients) were collected during the 5-year study period, comprising 38 609 CT scans. CT utilisation increased from 11.10% in 2009 to 17.70% in 2013 (trend test, p<0.001). Four in 5 types of CT scan (head, chest, abdomen and miscellaneous) were increasingly utilised during the study period. Also, CT was increasingly ordered annually in all age groups. Although ED CT utilisation rates increased markedly, the annual ED visits did not actually increase. Moreover, the subsequent admission rate, after receiving ED CT, declined (59.9% in 2009 to 48.2% in 2013). Conclusions ED CT utilisation rates increased significantly during 2009–2013. Emergency physicians may be using CT for non-emergent studies in the ED. Further investigation is needed to determine whether increasing CT utilisation is efficient and cost-effective. PMID:27279477

  5. Rural/urban differences in the association between deprivation and healthcare utilisation.

    PubMed

    Gilthorpe, Mark S; Wilson, Richard C

    2003-12-01

    Whilst associations between inequalities in healthcare utilisation and socio-economic deprivation are well established in the UK it is argued that deprivation indices, such as the Townsend index, remain insensitive to rural/urban differences. This study examines how Townsend and its components differ in their association with healthcare utilisation across the rural/urban spectrum of a large health region. Our research was carried out in the West Midlands National Health Service region (population 5.3 million), comprising of a similar geographical population diversity to that of the United Kingdom (UK) using Hospital Episode Statistics (1994/5-1998/9) and 1991 census socio-demographic data. Retrospective multilevel multivariate models compare three ward-level healthcare utilisation measures (standardised episode-, admission-, and bed-rates) in relation to the Townsend index of material deprivation, its components, and four rural/urban characteristics (population density, population potential, electoral ward area and perimeter size). The associations between outcomes and Townsend were generally not attenuated by the rural/urban characteristics. The constituent component of car-ownership was similarly unperturbed, whereas population potential significantly perturbed the home-ownership model and overcrowding was significantly perturbed by all four rural/urban characteristics considered. A deprivation index may encapsulate different meanings to that of its components when used to assess variations in healthcare utilisation. Constituent components may yield considerable perturbation in relation to healthcare utilisation across the rural/urban spectrum, whilst the composite measure does not. In particular, and contrary to anecdotal opinion, car-ownership and unemployment (as recorded in the 1991 UK census) exhibited a stable relationship across different rural/urban areas with respect to healthcare utilisation. PMID:14512237

  6. Utilisation trends of rosiglitazone and pioglitazone in Australia before and after safety warnings

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A see on cardiovascular diseases and bladder cancer. The changes to the patterns of rosiglitazone and pioglitazone utilisation in Australia following the timing of these various health authority warnings such as the Australian Therapeutic Good Administration (TGA), European Medicines Agency (EMA) press releases or U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is unknown. This study investigated the utilisation patterns of rosiglitazone and pioglitazone in Australia before and after warnings of major drug authorities. Methods We evaluated rosiglitazone and pioglitazone dispensing using the Pharmaceutical Benefit Scheme (PBS) subsidised drug dispensing data for the Australian population from February 2004 to July 2012. The World Health Organisation Anatomic Therapeutic Chemical (ATC)/Defined Daily Dose (DDD) system was used to compare the drug utilisation patterns following the announcements of EMA, FDA, and TGA safety warnings, which first occurred in May 2007. The DDD/1000population/day were examined in a series of time-series regression analysis with the drug safety warnings specified as interventions. Results Rosiglitazone utilisation increased steadily from 2004 until reaching a peak at 1.96/1000population/day in January 2007. Then rosiglitazone use decreased significantly after the initial EMA press release and FDA warning on cardiovascular risk in May 2007 (with a 15.04% average monthly decline, p-value <0.001), however use did not significantly decrease after the TGA warning or subsequent EMA and FDA warnings. Pioglitazone utilisation proceeded rosiglitazone in September 2008 and remained above 1.5/1000/day during 2009–2010. However, pioglitazone utilisation has slightly declined after the FDA, EMA, and TGA warnings related to bladder cancer. Conclusions Drug safety warnings were associated with a decrease in rosiglitazone and pioglitazone utilisation in Australia. Rosiglitazone began to decline prior to TGA warnings in December 2007, which suggests

  7. Local cerebral glucose utilisation in chronic alcoholics: a positron tomographic study.

    PubMed Central

    Samson, Y; Baron, J C; Feline, A; Bories, J; Crouzel, C

    1986-01-01

    Using positron tomography, a study of regional cerebral glucose utilisation was performed prospectively in a highly selected group of six neurologically unaffected primary chronic alcoholics. In this group, neuropsychological, behavioural and CT scan anomalies were comparable with those previously reported in more extensive studies. With respect to age-matched control values, cerebral metabolic rate was not significantly modified in the selected cortical, subcortical and cerebellar regions of interest. However, the metabolic regional distribution index, which reflects the distribution pattern of glucose utilisation, was selectively and significantly decreased in the medio-frontal area, pointing to a limbic metabolic dysfunction apparently linked to chronic alcoholism. Images PMID:3491181

  8. Chemical warfare materiel: Unique regulatory issues

    SciTech Connect

    Etnier, E.L.; King, J.F.; Watson, A.P.

    2000-04-01

    The US Army manages an extensive program of environmental restoration that is carried out primarily under authority of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), which establishes response authority for cleanup of inactive waste sites. The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulates the management and cleanup of hazardous materials at active hazardous wastes facilities. Based on the definition found in these acts, and corresponding promulgated regulations, environmental media contaminated with chemical warfare material (CWM) can be regulated as CERCLA pollutants for contaminants but do not appear to be regulated either as CERCLA hazardous substances or RCRA hazardous wastes. in those states that have not included CWM as hazardous materials in their RCRA programs, the RCRA requirements for management of hazardous waste would not strictly apply to any of the CWM. The Army has historically implemented procedures requiring that chemical warfare agents be managed as RCRA hazardous waste regardless of the concentration, physical form, or configuration of the agent. Such application of strict hazardous waste requirements to management of potentially nonhazardous CWM can result in remedial costs well out of proportion to potential human health and environmental benefits. Recent development of chronic toxicity values for the CWM has opened the door for development of cleanup and waste management standards for waste streams or media containing small residual amounts of CWM. Implementation of this health-based approach to management of CWM remediation wastes may, in part, help to reduce potentially unnecessary hazardous waste management costs for the nonhazardous CWM.

  9. Materiel requirements for airborne minefield detection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertsche, Karl A.; Huegle, Helmut

    1997-07-01

    Within the concept study, Material Requirements for an airborne minefield detection systems (AMiDS) the following topics were investigated: (i) concept concerning airborne minefield detection technique sand equipment, (ii) verification analysis of the AMiDS requirements using simulation models and (iii) application concept of AMiDS with regard o tactics and military operations. In a first approach the problems concerning unmanned airborne minefield detection techniques within a well-defined area were considered. The complexity of unmanned airborne minefield detection is a result of the following parameters: mine types, mine deployment methods, tactical requirements, topography, weather conditions, and the size of the area to be searched. In order to perform the analysis, a simulation model was developed to analyze the usability of the proposed remote controlled air carriers. The basic flight patterns for the proposed air carriers, as well as the preparation efforts of military operations and benefits of such a system during combat support missions were investigated. The results of the conceptual study showed that a proposed remote controlled helicopter drone could meet the stated German MOD scanning requirements of mine barriers. Fixed wing air carriers were at a definite disadvantage because of their inherently large turning loops. By implementing a mine detection system like AMiDS minefields can be reconnoitered before an attack. It is therefore possible either to plan, how the minefields can be circumvented or where precisely breaching lanes through the mine barriers are to be cleared for the advancing force.

  10. Closing the Gap between Research Evidence and Clinical Practice: Jordanian Nurses' Perceived Barriers to Research Utilisation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Khalaileh, Murad; Al Qadire, Mohammad; Musa, Ahmad S.; Al-Khawaldeh, Omar A.; Al Qudah, Hani; Alhabahbeh, Atalla

    2016-01-01

    Background: The nursing profession is a combination of theory and practical skill, and nurses are required to generate and develop knowledge through implementing research into clinical practice. Considerable number of barriers could hind implementing research findings into practice. Barriers to research utilisation are not identified in the…

  11. To fractionate municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash: Key for utilisation?

    PubMed

    Sormunen, Laura Annika; Rantsi, Riina

    2015-11-01

    For the past decade, the Finnish waste sector has increasingly moved from the landfilling of municipal solid waste towards waste incineration. New challenges are faced with the growing amounts of municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash, which are mainly landfilled at the moment. Since this is not a sustainable or a profitable solution, finding different utilisation applications for the municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash is crucial. This study reports a comprehensive analysis of bottom ash properties from one waste incineration plant in Finland, which was first treated with a Dutch bottom ash recovery technique called advanced dry recovery. This novel process separates non-ferrous and ferrous metals from bottom ash, generating mineral fractions of different grain sizes (0-2 mm, 2-5 mm, 5-12 mm and 12-50 mm). The main aim of the study was to assess, whether the advanced bottom ash treatment technique, producing mineral fractions of different grain sizes and therefore properties, facilitates the utilisation of municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash in Finland. The results were encouraging; the bottom ash mineral fractions have favourable behaviour against the frost action, which is especially useful in the Finnish conditions. In addition, the leaching of most hazardous substances did not restrict the utilisation of bottom ash, especially for the larger fractions (>5 mm). Overall, this study has shown that the advanced bottom ash recovering technique can be one solution to increase the utilisation of bottom ash and furthermore decrease its landfilling in Finland. PMID:26330401

  12. Utilising Benchmarking to Inform Decision-Making at the Institutional Level: A Research-Informed Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Sara

    2013-01-01

    Benchmarking has traditionally been viewed as a way to compare data only; however, its utilisation as a more investigative, research-informed process to add rigor to decision-making processes at the institutional level is gaining momentum in the higher education sector. Indeed, with recent changes in the Australian quality environment from the…

  13. An Integrated Marine Propulsion System Utilising TRIGA{sup TM} Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Manach, G.; Monnez, J-P.; Freeman, M.J.; Newell, A.; Brushwood, J.M.; Thompson, A.; Collins, C.; Scholes, N.; Hamilton, P.J.; Beeley, P.A.

    2004-07-01

    This paper describes the reactor physics, shielding, thermal hydraulics, reactor dynamics and safety studies conducted to develop a proposed Integrated Marine Propulsion System (IMPS) utilising TRIGA{sup TM} type uranium zirconium hydride fuel. The study has demonstrated that the IMPS plant is feasible and meets the design safety principles and safety criteria imposed on the study. (authors)

  14. Long-term care and hospital utilisation by older people: an analysis of substitution rates.

    PubMed

    Forder, Julien

    2009-11-01

    Older people are intensive users of hospital and long-term care services. This paper explores the extent to which these services are substitutes. A small area analysis was used with both care home and (tariff cost-weighted) hospital utilisation for older people aggregated to electoral wards in England.Health and social-care structural equations were specified using a theoretical model. The estimation accounted for the skewed and censored nature of the data. For health utilisation, both a fixed effects instrumental variables GMM model and a generalised estimating equations (GEE) model were fitted, the later on a log dependent variable with predicted values of social care utilisation used to account for endogeneity (bootstrapping was used to derive standard errors). In addition to a GMM model, the social-care estimation used both two-part and tobit models (also with predicted health utilisation and bootstrapping).The results indicate that for each additional pound1 spent on care homes, hospital expenditure falls by pound0.35. Also, pound1 additional hospital spend corresponds to just over pound0.35 reduction on care home spend. With these cost substitution effects offsetting, a transfer of resources to care homes is efficient if the resultant outcome gain is greater than the outcome loss from reduced hospital use. PMID:19206085

  15. Utilisation of Local Inputs in the Funding and Administration of Education in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akiri, Agharuwhe A.

    2014-01-01

    The article discussed how, why and who is in charge of administering and funding schools in Nigeria. The author utilised the relevant statistical approach which examined and discussed various political and historical trends affecting education. Besides this, relevant documented statistical data were used to both buttress and substantiate related…

  16. Utilising Year Three NAPLAN Results to Improve Queensland Teachers' Mathematical Pedagogical Content Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Klinken, Eduarda

    2010-01-01

    Poor results in Queensland Year Three NAPLAN Numeracy tests have provided a focus to critically review the classroom practices of lower primary mathematics teachers. This paper outlines how pedagogical content knowledge can be strengthened by emphasising conceptual understanding, by utilising dynamic classroom discourse, by an awareness of…

  17. Factors influencing health care utilisation among Aboriginal cardiac patients in central Australia: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Aboriginal Australians suffer from poorer overall health compared to the general Australian population, particularly in terms of cardiovascular disease and prognosis following a cardiac event. Despite such disparities, Aboriginal Australians utilise health care services at much lower rates than the general population. Improving health care utilisation (HCU) among Aboriginal cardiac patients requires a better understanding of the factors that constrain or facilitate use. The study aimed to identify ecological factors influencing health care utilisation (HCU) for Aboriginal cardiac patients, from the time of their cardiac event to 6–12 months post-event, in central Australia. Methods This qualitative descriptive study was guided by an ecological framework. A culturally-sensitive illness narrative focusing on Aboriginal cardiac patients’ “typical” journey guided focus groups and semi-structured interviews with Aboriginal cardiac patients, non-cardiac community members, health care providers and community researchers. Analysis utilised a thematic conceptual matrix and mixed coding method. Themes were categorised into Predisposing, Enabling, Need and Reinforcing factors and identified at Individual, Interpersonal, Primary Care and Hospital System levels. Results Compelling barriers to HCU identified at the Primary Care and Hospital System levels included communication, organisation and racism. Individual level factors related to HCU included language, knowledge of illness, perceived need and past experiences. Given these individual and health system barriers patients were reliant on utilising alternate family-level supports at the Interpersonal level to enable their journey. Conclusion Aboriginal cardiac patients face significant barriers to HCU, resulting in sub-optimal quality of care, placing them at risk for subsequent cardiovascular events and negative health outcomes. To facilitate HCU amongst Aboriginal people, strategies must be implemented

  18. Antenatal Care Utilisation and Content between Low-Risk and High-Risk Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Yeoh, Ping Ling; Hornetz, Klaus; Dahlui, Maznah

    2016-01-01

    Background The purpose of antenatal care is to monitor and improve the wellbeing of the mother and foetus. The World Health Organization recommends risk-oriented strategy that includes: (i) routine care to all women, (ii) additional care for women with moderately severe diseases and complications, (iii) specialised obstetrical and neonatal care for women with severe diseases and complications. Antenatal care is concerned with adequate care in order to be effective. Measurement for adequacy of antenatal care often applies indexes that assess initiation of care and number of visits. In addition, adequacy of care content should also be assessed. Results of studies in developed settings demonstrate that women without risk factors use antenatal services more frequently than recommended. Such over-utilisation is problematic for low-resourced settings. Moreover, studies show that a substantial proportion of high-risk women had utilisation or content of care below the recommended standard. Yet studies in developing countries have seldom included a comparison between low-risk and high-risk women. The purpose of the study was therefore to assess adequacy of care and pregnancy outcomes for the different risk groups. Methods A retrospective study using a multistage sampling technique, at public-funded primary health care clinics was conducted. Antenatal utilisation level was assessed using a modified Adequacy of Prenatal Care Utilisation index that measures the timing for initiation of care and observed-to-expected visits ratio. Adequacy of antenatal care content assessed compliance to routine care based on the local guidelines. Results Intensive or “adequate-plus” antenatal care utilisation as defined by the modified index was noted in over half of the low-risk women. On the other hand, there were 26% of the high-risk women without the expected intensive utilisation. Primary- or non-educated high-risk women were less likely to have a higher antenatal care utilisation

  19. Hospital emergency department utilisation rates among the immigrant population in Barcelona, Spain

    PubMed Central

    Buron, Andrea; Cots, Francesc; Garcia, Oscar; Vall, Oriol; Castells, Xavier

    2008-01-01

    Background The recent increase in the number of immigrants of Barcelona represents a challenge for the public healthcare system, the emergency department being the most used healthcare service by this group. However, utilisation rates in our environment have not yet been studied. We aimed to compare emergency department utilisation rates between Spanish-born and foreign-born residents in a public hospital of Barcelona. Methods The study population included all adults residing in the area of study and visiting the emergency department of Hospital del Mar in 2004. The emergency care episodes were selected from the Emergency Department register, and the population figures from the Statistics Department of Barcelona. Emergency care episodes were classified into five large clinical categories. Adjusted rate ratios (RR) of utilisation among foreign-born vs. Spanish-born residents were assessed through negative binomial regression. Results The overall utilisation rate was 382 emergency contacts per 1,000 persons-years. The RR for foreign-born versus Spanish-born residents was 0.62 (95% CI: 0.52; 0.74%). The RR was also significantly below one in surgery (0.51, 95% CI: 0.42; 0.63), traumatology (0.47, 95% CI: 0.38; 0.59), medicine (0.48, 95% CI: 0.38; 0.59) and psychiatry (0.42, 95% CI: 0.18; 0.97). No differences were found in utilisation of gynaecology and minor emergency services. Conclusion The overall lower utilisation rates obtained for foreign-born residents is consistent with previous studies and is probably due to the "healthy immigrant effect". Thus, the population increase due to immigration does not translate directly into a corresponding increase in the number of emergency contacts. The lack of differences in minor and gynaecological emergency care supports the hypothesis that immigrants overcome certain barriers by using the emergency department to access to health services. The issue of healthcare barriers should therefore be addressed, especially among

  20. Life cycle assessment of biohydrogen and biomethane production and utilisation as a vehicle fuel.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Tim; Esteves, Sandra; Dinsdale, Richard; Guwy, Alan; Maddy, Jon

    2013-03-01

    Environmental burdens for the production and utilisation of biomethane vehicle fuel or a biohydrogen/biomethane blend produced from food waste or wheat feed, based on data from two different laboratory experiments, have been compared. For food waste treated by batch processes the two stage system gave high hydrogen yields (84.2l H2kg(-1) VS added) but a lower overall energy output than the single stage system. Reduction in environmental burdens compared with diesel was achieved, supported by the diversion of waste from landfill. For wheat feed, the semi continuously fed two stage process gave low hydrogen yields (7.5l H2kg(-1) VS added) but higher overall energy output. The process delivers reduction in fossil fuel burdens, and improvements in process efficiencies will lead to reduction in CO2 burdens compared with diesel. The study highlights the importance of understanding and optimising biofuel production parameters according to the feedstock utilised. PMID:23353037

  1. Pella vilya: Near earth objects—Planetary defence through the regulation of resource utilisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goh, Gérardine Meishan

    2010-07-01

    Reactions to near earth objects (NEOs) in the past decade have run the gamut from expectations of Armageddon-type scenarios to Eureka moments of revolutionary scientific ideas. Concerns over the potentially devastating effects of an unmitigated collision jostle with forecasts of untold economic returns from the utilisation of NEO resources. Drawing from recent analogies and examples from the field of international environmental law, this paper proposes the development of a legal framework for the regulation of NEO resource utilisation. The proposed legal framework also includes a mechanism to ensure the political will and economic investment necessary for technological advances in planetary defence. By twinning the threats and opportunities presented by NEOs, this paper also analyses the position of theme-specific space law development in the overall legal framework of space exploration and traffic management.

  2. Utilising copper screen-printed electrodes (CuSPE) for the electroanalytical sensing of sulfide.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Bhawana; Bernalte, Elena; Smith, Jamie P; Foster, Christopher W; Linton, Patricia E; Sawant, Shilpa N; Banks, Craig E

    2016-02-21

    A mediatorless sulfide electrochemical sensing platform utilising a novel nanocopper-oxide screen-printed electrodes (CuSPE) is reported for the first time. The state-of-the-art screen-printed electrochemical sensors demonstrate their capability to quantify sulfide within both the presence and absence of an array of interferents with good levels of sensitivity and repeatability. The direct sensing (using linear sweep voltammetry) of sulfide utilising the CuSPEs provides a mediatorless approach for the detection of sulfide, yielding useful analytical signatures that can be successfully quantified. The proposed novel protocol using the CuSPEs is successfully applied to the sensing of sulfide within drinking water exhibiting a high level of recovery. PMID:26815001

  3. A rapid appraisal of access to and utilisation of psychotropic medicines in Bihar, India

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A major aspect of providing mental healthcare is access to and use of psychotropic medications. Bihar is a state in northeast India with limited mental healthcare provision; consequently access to and utilisation of psychotropic medications are likely to be limited. However, to date there has been no research assessing the situation. This study therefore aims to analyse the psychotropic medications management cycle (selection, procurement, distribution and use), and identify the barriers to access and utilisation, and their underlying causes. Method A rapid appraisal method was used in which primary and secondary data sources were collected and analysed. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with twenty-two stakeholders and twenty-one service users from the government, non-governmental organisation (NGO) and private sectors. The qualitative data collected was analysed using a comparative thematic approach. The research was supported by the NGOs BasicNeeds and Nav Bharat Jagriti Kendra. Results Availability, distance and cost were the main barriers to access and utilisation. At the medical college hospital level a lack of supply appears to be due to a discrepancy between orders made by the hospital and medications supplied by the manufacturers. At the primary health centre and district hospital level the main barrier is a cycle between lack of demand for treatments for mental illness by doctors and patients. Conclusion Further investigation and monitoring is necessary to ensure the availability of psychotropic medications at the medical college hospital level. In addition, implementation of the District Mental Health Programme is likely to address the access and utilisation barriers due to its potential to break the current cycle of lack of demand. PMID:25053976

  4. HIV counselling and testing utilisation and attitudes of male inmates in a South African prison.

    PubMed

    Motshabi, Lelaka C; Pengpid, Supa; Peltzer, Karl

    2011-01-01

    The Department of Correctional Services Policy on the management of HIV and AIDS for offenders include voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) for HIV as one of the priorities in the rehabilitation of inmates. The aim of this study was to determine factors associated with the utilisation of VCT services in the correctional centres in terms of level of satisfaction, their experiences and expectations, and motivating factors and barriers for VCT utilisation at Losperfontein Correctional Centre, South Africa. This was a case control study (cases being those who underwent testing and controls those who did not) examining predictors of HIV VCT utilisation among 200 male adult sentenced inmates serving medium and maximum sentences. Results indicate that a poor health system (OR=0.34, 95%CI: 0.23 - 0.50) was inversely associated with HIV testing acceptance in prison, while age, educational level, population group, marital status, length of incarceration and access to HIV testing in prison were not associated with HIV testing acceptance in prison. Half of the participants (50%) agreed that VCT services are accessible and are promoted at their correctional centre. Most were satisfied with different components of VCT services, ranging from 79% (fair to very good) for 'the way he/she received you' to 62% 'clarified all your concerns'. This study demonstrated some challenges and benefits to the field of health promotion and HIV prevention in the correctional centres especially with regard to VCT services. PMID:23237725

  5. Factors that influence utilisation of HIV/AIDS prevention methods among university students residing at a selected university campus.

    PubMed

    Ndabarora, Eléazar; Mchunu, Gugu

    2014-01-01

    Various studies have reported that university students, who are mostly young people, rarely use existing HIV/AIDS preventive methods. Although studies have shown that young university students have a high degree of knowledge about HIV/AIDS and HIV modes of transmission, they are still not utilising the existing HIV prevention methods and still engage in risky sexual practices favourable to HIV. Some variables, such as awareness of existing HIV/AIDS prevention methods, have been associated with utilisation of such methods. The study aimed to explore factors that influence use of existing HIV/AIDS prevention methods among university students residing in a selected campus, using the Health Belief Model (HBM) as a theoretical framework. A quantitative research approach and an exploratory-descriptive design were used to describe perceived factors that influence utilisation by university students of HIV/AIDS prevention methods. A total of 335 students completed online and manual questionnaires. Study findings showed that the factors which influenced utilisation of HIV/AIDS prevention methods were mainly determined by awareness of the existing university-based HIV/AIDS prevention strategies. Most utilised prevention methods were voluntary counselling and testing services and free condoms. Perceived susceptibility and perceived threat of HIV/AIDS score was also found to correlate with HIV risk index score. Perceived susceptibility and perceived threat of HIV/AIDS showed correlation with self-efficacy on condoms and their utilisation. Most HBM variables were not predictors of utilisation of HIV/AIDS prevention methods among students. Intervention aiming to improve the utilisation of HIV/AIDS prevention methods among students at the selected university should focus on removing identified barriers, promoting HIV/AIDS prevention services and providing appropriate resources to implement such programmes. PMID:25444096

  6. Utilisation of a community-based health facility in a low-income urban community in Ibadan, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Asuzu, Michael C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Primary healthcare is established to ensure that people have access to health services through facilities located in their community. However, utilisation of health facilities in Nigeria remains low in many communities. Aim To assess the utilisation of community-based health facility (CBHF) amongst adults in Ibadan, Nigeria Settings A low-income community in Ibadan North West Local Government Area of Oyo State. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted using a simple random sampling technique to select one adult per household in all 586 houses in the community. A semi-structured interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect information on respondents' sociodemographic characteristics, knowledge and utilisation of the CBHF. Data analysis included descriptive statistics and association testing using the Chi-square test at p = 0.05. Results The mean age of the respondents was 46.5 ± 16.0 years; 46.0% were men and 81.0% married; 26% had no formal education and 38.0% had secondary-level education and above; traders constituted 52.0% of the sample; and 85.2% were of low socioeconomic standing; 90% had patronised the CBHF. The main reasons for non-utilisation were preference for general hospitals (13.8%) and self-medication (12.1%). Respondents who had secondary education and above, were in a higher socioeconomic class, who had good knowledge of the facility and were satisfied with care, utilised the CBHF three months significantly more than their counterparts prior to the study (p < 0.05). However, only satisfaction with care was found to be a significant predictor of utilisation of the CBHF. Conclusion The utilisation of the CBHF amongst adults in the study setting is high, driven mostly by satisfaction with the care received previously. Self-medication, promoted by uncontrolled access to drugs through pharmacies and patent medicine stores, threatens this high utilisation. PMID:26245600

  7. Barriers to utilisation of maternal health services in a semi-urban community in northern Nigeria: The clients’ perspective

    PubMed Central

    Idris, Suleman Hadejia; Sambo, Mohammed Nasir; Ibrahim, Muhammed Sani

    2013-01-01

    Background: Low level of utilisation of maternal health services is a major factor responsible for high maternal mortality in northwestern region of Nigeria. This study was aimed at determining the barriers to utilisation of maternal health services from the perspective of mothers in northwestern Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study of 150 mothers, selected through multistage technique, was conducted. Data were collected using a structured interviewer-administered questionnaire, and analysed using SPSS statistics 17.0. Results: Only 2.7% utilised preconception service, 98.7% antenatal care service (ANC), 24.0% delivery, 35.3% postnatal care and 14.0% utilised family planning service. Major reasons for non-utilisation of delivery service were not having a delivery complication in the past (57% (CI = 47.4-66.1)) and negative provider attitude (23.7% (CI = 16.4-32.7)). For non-utilisation of postnatal care, the major reasons were also not having a postnatal complication in the past (60.8% (CI = 50.4-70.4)) and negative provider attitude (27.8% (CI = 19.4-38.0)). As for non-utilisation of family planning service, the major reason was desire to have more children (32.6% (CI = 24.7-41.4)). Reasons for non-use of preconception care and ANC were not computed because respondents to these questions were not enough; only 6 (4.0%) were aware of preconception care in the first place and only 2 (1.3%) were not using ANC. Conclusion: Despite living near a health facility, most of the mothers were not using maternal health services. It is recommended that while there is the need to raise awareness on the utilisation of maternal health services, bring it closer to the mothers and make it more affordable, there is a more pressing need to improve its quality, especially through the alleviation of negative attitude of health care providers. PMID:23661896

  8. An international review of the patterns and determinants of health service utilisation by adult cancer survivors

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background There is a need to review factors related to health service utilisation by the increasing number of cancer survivors in order to inform care planning and the organisation and delivery of services. Methods Studies were identified via systematic searches of Medline, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Social Science Citation Index and the SEER-MEDICARE library. Methodological quality was assessed using STROBE; and the Andersen Behavioural Model was used as a framework to structure, organise and analyse the results of the review. Results Younger, white cancer survivors were most likely to receive follow-up screening, preventive care, visit their physician, utilise professional mental health services and least likely to be hospitalised. Utilisation rates of other health professionals such as physiotherapists were low. Only studies of health service use conducted in the USA investigated the role of type of health insurance and ethnicity. There appeared to be disparate service use among US samples in terms of ethnicity and socio-demographic status, regardless of type of health insurance provision s- this may be explained by underlying differences in health-seeking behaviours. Overall, use of follow-up care appeared to be lower than expected and barriers existed for particular groups of cancer survivors. Conclusions Studies focussed on the use of a specific type of service rather than adopting a whole-system approach and future health services research should address this shortcoming. Overall, there is a need to improve access to care for all cancer survivors. Studies were predominantly US-based focussing mainly on breast or colorectal cancer. Thus, the generalisability of findings to other health-care systems and cancer sites is unclear. The Andersen Behavioural Model provided an appropriate framework for studying and understanding health service use among cancer survivors. The active involvement of physicians and use of personalised care plans are required in order to ensure

  9. Factors affecting the utilisation of improved ventilated latrines among communities in Mtwara Rural District, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Kema, Koronel; Semali, Innocent; Mkuwa, Serafina; Kagonji, Ignatio; Temu, Florence; Ilako, Festus; Mkuye, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The Tanzania government, working in partnership with other stakeholders implemented a community-based project aimed at increasing access to clean and safe water basic sanitation and promotion of personal hygiene in Mtwara Rural District. Mid-term evaluation revealed that progress had been made towards improved ventilated latrines; however, there was no adequate information on utilisation of these latrines and associated factors. This study was therefore conducted to establish the factors influencing the utilisation of these latrines. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 375 randomly selected households using a pre-tested questionnaire to determine whether the households owned improved ventilated latrines and how they utilised them. Resuls About half (50.5%) of the households had an improved ventilated latrine and households with earnings of more than 50,000 Tanzanian Shillings were two times more likely to own an improved latrine than those that earned less (AOR 2.1, 95% CI=1.1-4.0, p= 0.034). The likelihood of owning an improved latrine was reduced by more than 60 percent for female-headed households (AOR=0.38; 95% CI=0.20-0.71; p=0.002). Furthermore, it was established that all members of a household were more likely to use a latrine if it was an improved ventilated latrine (AOR=2.4; 95% CI=1.1-5.1; p= 0.024). Conclusion Findings suggest adoption of strategies to improve the wellbeing of households and deploying those who had acquired improved ventilated latrines as resource persons to help train others. Furthermore, efforts are needed to increase access to soft loans for disadvantaged members and increasing community participation. PMID:23467697

  10. Integrating payload design, planning, and control in the Dutch Utilisation Centre

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, T. J.

    1993-01-01

    Spacecraft payload design, experiment planning and scheduling, and payload control are traditionally separate areas of activity. This paper describes the development of a prototype software tool--the Activity Scheduling System (ASS)--which integrates these activity areas. ASS is part of a larger project to build a Dutch Utilisation Centre (DUC), intended eventually to support all space utilization activities in The Netherlands. ASS has been tested on the High Performance Capillary Electrophoresis payload. The paper outlines the integrated preparation and operations concept embodied in ASS. It describes the ASS prototype, including a typical session. The results of testing are summarized. Possible enhancement of ASS, including integration into DUC, is sketched.

  11. Estimation of an optimal chemotherapy utilisation rate for cancer: setting an evidence-based benchmark for quality cancer care.

    PubMed

    Jacob, S A; Ng, W L; Do, V

    2015-02-01

    There is wide variation in the proportion of newly diagnosed cancer patients who receive chemotherapy, indicating the need for a benchmark rate of chemotherapy utilisation. This study describes an evidence-based model that estimates the proportion of new cancer patients in whom chemotherapy is indicated at least once (defined as the optimal chemotherapy utilisation rate). The optimal chemotherapy utilisation rate can act as a benchmark for measuring and improving the quality of care. Models of optimal chemotherapy utilisation were constructed for each cancer site based on indications for chemotherapy identified from evidence-based treatment guidelines. Data on the proportion of patient- and tumour-related attributes for which chemotherapy was indicated were obtained, using population-based data where possible. Treatment indications and epidemiological data were merged to calculate the optimal chemotherapy utilisation rate. Monte Carlo simulations and sensitivity analyses were used to assess the effect of controversial chemotherapy indications and variations in epidemiological data on our model. Chemotherapy is indicated at least once in 49.1% (95% confidence interval 48.8-49.6%) of all new cancer patients in Australia. The optimal chemotherapy utilisation rates for individual tumour sites ranged from a low of 13% in thyroid cancers to a high of 94% in myeloma. The optimal chemotherapy utilisation rate can serve as a benchmark for planning chemotherapy services on a population basis. The model can be used to evaluate service delivery by comparing the benchmark rate with patterns of care data. The overall estimate for other countries can be obtained by substituting the relevant distribution of cancer types. It can also be used to predict future chemotherapy workload and can be easily modified to take into account future changes in cancer incidence, presentation stage or chemotherapy indications. PMID:25455844

  12. Utilisation of short rotation forestry for on-site boiler fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Sims, R.E.H.; Lowe, H.T.

    1995-11-01

    A New Zealand meat processing company has planted 100 ha of land adjacent to its plant in short rotation coppice eucalyptus trees for land treatment of the effluent stream (5000+ m{sup 3}/day). To be effective this necessitates removal of the accumulate biomass from the site at regular intervals (every 3-4 years). Using the biomass for fuelwood on site could offset the cost of effluent treatment if it could substitute for the existing energy supplies bought into the plant. A wide range of harvesting, drying, processing, storage and conversion options were identified with the objective of using the biomass produced on site to partly displace the coal currently fuelling a 4.2 MW boiler to provide process steam. A computer model was developed to identify the optimum biomass utilisation system from the variety of combinations of options possible including use of contractors. The objective was to match the work capacity of the various equipment components and to minimise the investment payback period for the company. Boiler options to convert or replace the current boiler or to purchase an additional wood-fired boiler were also included. The model was based around the specific requirements of this particular meat plant but it could be adapted to suit other similar short rotation forestry, biomass utilisation schemes.

  13. Utilisation of Mucin Glycans by the Human Gut Symbiont Ruminococcus gnavus Is Strain-Dependent

    PubMed Central

    Crost, Emmanuelle H.; Tailford, Louise E.; Le Gall, Gwenaelle; Fons, Michel; Henrissat, Bernard; Juge, Nathalie

    2013-01-01

    Commensal bacteria often have an especially rich source of glycan-degrading enzymes which allow them to utilize undigested carbohydrates from the food or the host. The species Ruminococcus gnavus is present in the digestive tract of ≥90% of humans and has been implicated in gut-related diseases such as inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Here we analysed the ability of two R. gnavus human strains, E1 and ATCC 29149, to utilize host glycans. We showed that although both strains could assimilate mucin monosaccharides, only R. gnavus ATCC 29149 was able to grow on mucin as a sole carbon source. Comparative genomic analysis of the two R. gnavus strains highlighted potential clusters and glycoside hydrolases (GHs) responsible for the breakdown and utilization of mucin-derived glycans. Transcriptomic and functional activity assays confirmed the importance of specific GH33 sialidase, and GH29 and GH95 fucosidases in the mucin utilisation pathway. Notably, we uncovered a novel pathway by which R. gnavus ATCC 29149 utilises sialic acid from sialylated substrates. Our results also demonstrated the ability of R. gnavus ATCC 29149 to produce propanol and propionate as the end products of metabolism when grown on mucin and fucosylated glycans. These new findings provide molecular insights into the strain-specificity of R. gnavus adaptation to the gut environment advancing our understanding of the role of gut commensals in health and disease. PMID:24204617

  14. Quality of life, resource utilisation and health economics assessment in advanced neuroendocrine tumours: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Chau, I; Casciano, R; Willet, J; Wang, X; Yao, J C

    2013-11-01

    Neuroendocrine tumours (NET) are often diagnosed at an advanced stage when the prognosis is poor for patients, who often experience diminished quality of life (QoL). As new treatments for NET become available, it is important to characterise the associated outcomes, costs and QoL. A comprehensive search was performed to systematically review available data in advanced NET regarding cost of illness/resource utilisation, economic studies/health technology assessment and QoL. Four rounds of sequential review narrowed the search results to 22 relevant studies. Most focused on surgical procedures and diagnostic tools and contained limited information on the costs and consequences of medical therapies. Multiple tools are used to assess health-related QoL in NET, but few analyses have been conducted to assess the comparative impact of available treatment alternatives on QoL. Limitations include English language and the focus on advanced NET; ongoing terminology and classification changes prevented pooled statistical analyses. This systematic review suggests a lack of comparative economic and outcomes data associated with NET treatments. Further research on disease costs, resource utilisation and QoL for patients with advanced NET is warranted. PMID:23895457

  15. Drug utilisation study in a tertiary care center: recommendations for improving hospital drug dispensing policies.

    PubMed

    Mittal, Niti; Mittal, R; Singh, I; Shafiq, Nusrat; Malhotra, S

    2014-07-01

    Drug therapy accounts for a major portion of health expenditure. A useful strategy for achieving cost efficient healthcare is drug utilisation research as it forms the basis for making amendments in drug policies and helps in rational drug use. The present observational study was conducted to generate data on drug utilization in inpatients of our tertiary care hospital to identify potential targets for improving drug prescribing patterns. Data was collected retrospectively from randomly selected 231 medical records of patients admitted in various wards of the hospital. WHO Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical/Defined Daily Dose methodology was used to assess drug utilisation data and drug prescriptions were analysed by WHO core drug indicators. Antibiotics were prescribed most frequently and also accounted for majority of drug costs. The prescribed daily dose for most of the antibiotics corresponded to defined daily dose reflecting adherence to international recommendations. Brand name prescribing and polypharmacy was very common.78% of the total drugs prescribed were from the National List of Essential Medicines 2003. Restricting the use of newer and costlier antibiotics, branded drugs and number of drugs per prescription could be considered as targets to cut down the cost of drug therapysignificantly. PMID:25284928

  16. The utilisation of two detectors for the determination of water in honey using headspace gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Frink, Lillian A; Armstrong, Daniel W

    2016-08-15

    A headspace gas chromatography (HSGC) method was developed for the determination of water content in honey. This method was shown to work with five different honey varieties which had a range of water from 14-16%. It also utilised two different detectors, the thermal conductivity detector (TCD) and the barrier discharge ionisation detector (BID). This method needs no heating pretreatment step as in the current leading method, (i.e. the measurement of refractive index). The solvent-free procedure negates the possibility of solvent-compound interactions as well as solubility limitations, as is common with Karl Fischer titrations. It was also apparent that the classic loss on drying method consistently and substantially produced results that were lower than the correct values. This approach is shown to be rapid, with an analysis time of 4 min when using the TCD detector and under 3 min when utilising the BID detector. HSGC is feasible for the determination of water due to the new PEG-linked geminal dicationic ionic-liquid-coated GC capillary column. In addition it provides accurate and precise determinations of the water content in honey. When using the sensitive BID detector, other trace volatile compounds are observed as well. PMID:27006209

  17. Cumulative metal leaching from utilisation of secondary building materials in river engineering.

    PubMed

    Leuven, R S E W; Willems, F H G

    2004-01-01

    The present paper estimates the utilisation of bulky wastes (minestone, steel slag, phosphorus slag and demolition waste) in hydraulic engineering structures in Dutch parts of the rivers Rhine, Meuse and Scheldt over the period 1980-2025. Although they offer several economic, technical and environmental benefits, these secondary building materials contain various metals that may leach into river water. A leaching model was used to predict annual emissions of arsenic, cadmium, copper, chromium, lead, mercury, nickel and zinc. Under the current utilisation and model assumptions, the contribution of secondary building materials to metal pollution in Dutch surface waters is expected to be relatively low compared to other sources (less than 0.1% and 0.2% in the years 2000 and 2025, respectively). However, continued and widespread large-scale applications of secondary building materials will increase pollutant leaching and may require further cuts to be made in emissions from other sources to meet emission reduction targets and water quality standards. It is recommended to validate available leaching models under various field conditions. Complete registration of secondary building materials will be required to improve input data for leaching models. PMID:15053116

  18. Carbon substrate utilisation profile of a high concentration effluent degrading microbial consortium.

    PubMed

    Jena, S; Jeanmeure, L F C; Wichukorn, S D; Wright, P C

    2006-08-01

    This paper presents the carbon substrate utilisation profile of a group of microorganisms responsible for the biodegradation of a highly concentrated industrial effluent. A 1 litre bioreactor was used to study this consortium's biodegradation potential, with the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of the waste being reduced by 90% from 24000 mg l(-1) within 456 hours. This study also demonstrates that the consortium is capable of degrading organic solvents, such as isopropanol, at concentrations of 260 mg l(-1). The population distribution and biochemical behaviour were also characterised using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and Biolog Eco Plates at various stages of bioreactor operation. The DGGE results indicated that the dominant bands of the microbial population profile were stable at various operational stages, and that only a few bands varied with time. Moreover, four Biolog Eco plates were inoculated with samples drawn from the bioreactor at 0, 24, 72 and 120 hours after inoculation. Based on this Biolog Eco Plate profiling, a carbon source utilisation analysis was conducted to group the substrates according to their colour development patterns. Patterns were quantified via measurement of well optical density. Subsequently, cross-correlation statistical techniques were used to establish the existence of recurrent behavioural responses from each carbon source to the various wastewater samples. From the cross correlation, an attempt was made to classify the metabolic potential for future biodegradation processes. Carbohydrates, amino acids and carboxylic acids were the most predominant groups of sole carbon substrates showing similar growth behaviour in the consortium. PMID:16972382

  19. Quality of life, resource utilisation and health economics assessment in advanced neuroendocrine tumours: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Chau, I; Casciano, R; Willet, J; Wang, X; Yao, JC

    2013-01-01

    Neuroendocrine tumours (NET) are often diagnosed at an advanced stage when the prognosis is poor for patients, who often experience diminished quality of life (QoL). As new treatments for NET become available, it is important to characterise the associated outcomes, costs and QoL. A comprehensive search was performed to systematically review available data in advanced NET regarding cost of illness/resource utilisation, economic studies/health technology assessment and QoL. Four rounds of sequential review narrowed the search results to 22 relevant studies. Most focused on surgical procedures and diagnostic tools and contained limited information on the costs and consequences of medical therapies. Multiple tools are used to assess health-related QoL in NET, but few analyses have been conducted to assess the comparative impact of available treatment alternatives on QoL. Limitations include English language and the focus on advanced NET; ongoing terminology and classification changes prevented pooled statistical analyses. This systematic review suggests a lack of comparative economic and outcomes data associated with NET treatments. Further research on disease costs, resource utilisation and QoL for patients with advanced NET is warranted. PMID:23895457

  20. Utilisation of steviol glycosides from Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) by lactobacilli and bifidobacteria in in vitro conditions.

    PubMed

    Kunová, Gabriela; Rada, Vojtěch; Vidaillac, Adrien; Lisova, Ivana

    2014-05-01

    In the current study, eight strains of bifidobacteria and seven strains of lactobacilli were tested for their ability to grow in the presence of rebaudioside A and steviol glycosides from the sweetener Natusweet M001 originating from herb Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni). Stevia is gaining popularity as a natural, non-caloric sugar substitute, and recently, it was allowed as a food additive by European Union too. Utilisation of steviol glycosides by intestinal microbiota suggests that they might have potential prebiotic effect. Based on the evaluation of bacterial density and pH values in our in vitro study, it was found that lactobacilli and bifidobacteria tested were able to utilise steviol glycosides as a carbon source only to a very limited extent. All strains tested showed significantly lower change in the absorbance A540 (P < 0.05) and pH decrease of the growth media as compared with the positive controls (medium containing glucose as a carbon source and de Man Rogosa Sharpe broth). We concluded that a suggested prebiotic effect was not confirmed either in the case of rebaudioside A or in the case of the sweetener Natusweet M001 containing a mixture of steviol glycosides. PMID:24249153

  1. Evaluation of methane-utilising bacteria products as feed ingredients for monogastric animals.

    PubMed

    Øverland, Margareth; Tauson, Anne-Helene; Shearer, Karl; Skrede, Anders

    2010-06-01

    Bacterial proteins represent a potential future nutrient source for monogastric animal production because they can be grown rapidly on substrates with minimum dependence on soil, water, and climate conditions. This review summarises the current knowledge on methane-utilising bacteria as feed ingredients for animals. We present results from earlier work and recent findings concerning bacterial protein, including the production process, chemical composition, effects on nutrient digestibility, metabolism, and growth performance in several monogastric species, including pigs, broiler chickens, mink (Mustela vison), fox (Alopex lagopus), Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), and Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus). It is concluded that bacterial meal (BM) derived from natural gas fermentation, utilising a bacteria culture containing mainly the methanotroph Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath), is a promising source of protein based on criteria such as amino acid composition, digestibility, and animal performance and health. Future research challenges include modified downstream processing to produce value-added products, and improved understanding of factors contributing to nutrient availability and animal performance. PMID:20578647

  2. Minimisation and utilisation of waste mineral sludge from sodium perborate production.

    PubMed

    Grilc, Viktor; Jersan, Rok

    2002-10-01

    Various approaches to waste minimisation, waste treatment and recycling or safe disposal of the waste mineral sludge from sodium perborate production are presented and critically discussed. Some most promising actions for waste (or its harmful potential) reduction on the production level are identified. These include: a) use of better raw materials (richer boron ore), b) improvement of the ore leaching process, and c) intensification of sludge washing and dewatering. These source reduction measures have already resulted in 50% reduction of boron content in the sludge. Utilisation of the raw or treated (e.g. dried, compacted) waste sludge could be found in agriculture, civil engineering and construction material production. Agricultural use (as a lime substitute) is based on favourable content of calcium-magnesium minerals and alkali pH value of the sludge, and simultaneous absence of heavy metals. Application in civil engineering (as an aggregate) is possible after calcination, which is costly, or as a cement kiln additive. Stabilisation of sludge before disposal, when no utilisation is available, is possible by small addition of commercial binders (e.g. Portland cement) or larger amounts of pozzolanic wastes (e.g. coal fly ash). PMID:12498478

  3. General health care service utilisation: where, when and by whom in a socioeconomically disadvantaged population.

    PubMed

    Achat, Helen M; Thomas, Paul; Close, Glenn R; Moerkerken, Leendert R; Harris, Mark F

    2010-01-01

    This paper aimed to examine the utilisation of and preferences related to health care services by residents of a disadvantaged area and to identify factors associated with levels of current and future use. Data were collected from face-to-face structured interviews of randomly selected residents of a disadvantaged local government area in 2003-04. Information about respondents' health and socioeconomic status and patterns of use and preferred features of health care was analysed in PASW Statistic 17. Chi-square statistics were used to examine differences in utilisation by sex and simple logistic regression provided sex specific age-adjusted odds ratios about frequent visits. Most respondents (95%) attended a 'usual' general practitioner (GP) service and about two-fifths had obtained other health care in the last 12 months. The median number of visits was four and most providers offered bulk billing (83%). Less common were visits to the dentist (32%), emergency department (14%), specialists (29%) and the hospital (5%). Providers' skills and traits, physical access and bulk billing were key considerations for men and women when choosing a health care provider. Disadvantaged communities want skilled practitioners who reflect their demographic mix and are located at convenient and accessible clinics, which preferably bulk bill. Apart from GP visits, this group appears to make only moderate use of specialists and emergency departments, and little routine use of other primary health services. PMID:21128574

  4. Utilisation of joint movement range in arboreal primates compared with human subjects: an evolutionary frame for primary osteoarthritis.

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, C J

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine whether an arboreal lifestyle required full use of movement ranges underutilised in nine joint groups in humans, because under-utilisation of available movement range may be associated with susceptibility to primary osteoarthritis. METHODS--Utilisation of the nine joint groups was studied in two species of primate exercising in a simulated arboreal environment, using 'focal animal' observation techniques supplemented by telephoto photography and by review of archival material from other sources. Fifteen apes were observed over a total observation period of 20.2 man-hours and 152 films were analysed for utilisation of movement range. RESULTS--With one exception, all the movement ranges reported to be under-utilised in humans were fully utilised by the apes in climbing activities. The exception, metacarpophalangeal extension, was an essential component of the chimpanzee ground progression mode of knuckle walking. CONCLUSIONS--The underused movement range in several human joints is explicable as residual capacity from a semiarboreal lifestyle. If the correlation with primary osteoarthritis is confirmed, it suggests that the disease may reflect a disparity between inherited capacity and current need. The significance of the result lies in its implication that primary osteoarthritis may be preventable. Images PMID:7826133

  5. Acceptance and Utilisation of Sulphadoxine-Pyrimethamine and Insecticide-Treated Nets among Pregnant Women in Oyo State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Adeola, Aderonke A.; Okwilagwe, Eugenia A.

    2015-01-01

    The study is an investigation of the acceptance and utilisation of Sulphadoxine-Pyrimethamine (Fansidar), the drug of choice for Intermittent Preventive Treatment in pregnancy, and Insecticide-Treated Nets among pregnant women who access different health facilities in Oyo State, Nigeria. Pregnant women (582) attending government primary healthcare antenatal clinics and 50 attending faith clinics purposively selected responded to structured instruments that were analysed using percentages, t-test correlation, and multiple regression. Acceptance and utilisation of RBM tools were higher in government clinics than faith clinics and in rural areas. Pregnant women in government clinics, 60.8% and 66.8%, and faith clinics, 18% and 38.0%, utilised Roll Back Malaria tools, significant at t(630) = 5.81, p ≤ 0.05, and t(630) = 3.99, p ≤ 0.05, respectively. Pregnant women in rural locations who accessed government clinics utilised Roll Back Malaria tools more than those in urban areas, t(580) = −641, p ≤ 0.05. Number of pregnancies, educational qualification of the pregnant women, and marital status significantly and consistently influenced acceptance and utilisation of these tools. To ensure that set targets are met, the utilization of RBM tools among the two categories of pregnant women can be improved by increasing the supply of the tools and ensuring that treatment is free. PMID:26839732

  6. Utilisation and costs of nursing agencies in the South African public health sector, 2005–2010

    PubMed Central

    Rispel, Laetitia C.; Angelides, George

    2014-01-01

    Background Globally, insufficient information exists on the costs of nursing agencies, which are temporary employment service providers that supply nurses to health establishments and/or private individuals. Objective The aim of the study was to determine the utilisation and direct costs of nursing agencies in the South African public health sector. Design A survey of all nine provincial health departments was conducted to determine utilisation and management of nursing agencies. The costs of nursing agencies were assumed to be equivalent to expenditure. Provincial health expenditure was obtained for five financial years (2005/6–2009/10) from the national Basic Accounting System database, and analysed using Microsoft Excel. Each of the 166,466 expenditure line items was coded. The total personnel and nursing agency expenditure was calculated for each financial year and for each province. Nursing agency expenditure as a percentage of the total personnel expenditure was then calculated. The nursing agency expenditure for South Africa is the total of all provincial expenditure. The 2009/10 annual government salary scales for different categories of nurses were used to calculate the number of permanent nurses who could have been employed in lieu of agency expenditure. All expenditure is expressed in South African rands (R; US$1 ∼ R7, 2010 prices). Results Only five provinces reported utilisation of nursing agencies, but all provinces showed agency expenditure. In the 2009/10 financial year, R1.49 billion (US$212.64 million) was spent on nursing agencies in the public health sector. In the same year, agency expenditure ranged from a low of R36.45 million (US$5.20 million) in Mpumalanga Province (mixed urban-rural) to a high of R356.43 million (US$50.92 million) in the Eastern Cape Province (mixed urban-rural). Agency expenditure as a percentage of personnel expenditure ranged from 0.96% in KwaZulu-Natal Province (mixed urban-rural) to 11.96% in the Northern Cape

  7. Spatial modelling of healthcare utilisation for treatment of fever in Namibia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Health care utilization is affected by several factors including geographic accessibility. Empirical data on utilization of health facilities is important to understanding geographic accessibility and defining health facility catchments at a national level. Accurately defining catchment population improves the analysis of gaps in access, commodity needs and interpretation of disease incidence. Here, empirical household survey data on treatment seeking for fever were used to model the utilisation of public health facilities and define their catchment areas and populations in northern Namibia. Method This study uses data from the Malaria Indicator Survey (MIS) of 2009 on treatment seeking for fever among children under the age of five years to characterize facility utilisation. Probability of attendance of public health facilities for fever treatment was modelled against a theoretical surface of travel times using a three parameter logistic model. The fitted model was then applied to a population surface to predict the number of children likely to use a public health facility during an episode of fever in northern Namibia. Results Overall, from the MIS survey, the prevalence of fever among children was 17.6% CI [16.0-19.1] (401 of 2,283 children) while public health facility attendance for fever was 51.1%, [95%CI: 46.2-56.0]. The coefficients of the logistic model of travel time against fever treatment at public health facilities were all significant (p < 0.001). From this model, probability of facility attendance remained relatively high up to 180 minutes (3 hours) and thereafter decreased steadily. Total public health facility catchment population of children under the age five was estimated to be 162,286 in northern Namibia with an estimated fever burden of 24,830 children. Of the estimated fevers, 8,021 (32.3%) were within 30 minutes of travel time to the nearest health facility while 14,902 (60.0%) were within 1 hour. Conclusion This study

  8. Inter-comparison of safety culture within selected practices in Ghana utilising ionising radiation.

    PubMed

    Faanu, A; Schandorf, C; Darko, E O; Boadu, M; Emi-Reynolds, G; Awudu, A R; Gyekye, P K; Kpeglo, D O

    2010-12-01

    The safety culture of selected practices and facilities in Ghana utilising radiation sources or radiation emitting devices has been assessed using a performance indicator, which provided status information on management and operating staff commitment to safety. The questionnaire was based on the following broad areas: general safety considerations, safety policy at the facility level, safety practices at the facility level, definition of responsibility, staff training, safety of the physical structure of the facility and the emergency plans. The analysis showed that the percentage levels of commitment to safety for the respective practices are as follows: conventional radiography, 23.3-90.0%; research reactor, 73.3%; gamma irradiation facility, 53.3%; radiotherapy, 76.7%; X-ray scanner, 80.0%; gamma scanner, 76.7%; industrial radiography 86.7% and nuclear density practice, 78%. None of the practices or facilities was able to satisfy all the requirements that will ensure a 100% level of safety culture. PMID:20699247

  9. Numerical system utilising a Monte Carlo calculation method for accurate dose assessment in radiation accidents.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, F; Endo, A

    2007-01-01

    A system utilising radiation transport codes has been developed to derive accurate dose distributions in a human body for radiological accidents. A suitable model is quite essential for a numerical analysis. Therefore, two tools were developed to setup a 'problem-dependent' input file, defining a radiation source and an exposed person to simulate the radiation transport in an accident with the Monte Carlo calculation codes-MCNP and MCNPX. Necessary resources are defined by a dialogue method with a generally used personal computer for both the tools. The tools prepare human body and source models described in the input file format of the employed Monte Carlo codes. The tools were validated for dose assessment in comparison with a past criticality accident and a hypothesized exposure. PMID:17510203

  10. Utilising Medicare annual wellness visits to implement interprofessional education in the primary care setting.

    PubMed

    Irons, Brian; Evans, Lance; Bogschutz, Renee; Panasci, Kathryn; Sun, Grace

    2016-07-01

    Interprofessional education (IPE) is an important component of healthcare professional curriculum in order to optimally prepare students for their roles as part of the healthcare team. Integrating IPE activities into direct patient care in the primary care clinic setting can help improve perceptions and student understanding of other healthcare professionals' responsibilities in this ever-evolving practice setting. This report describes the implementation of an interprofessional clinic including a variety of healthcare professionals and students in the context of the Medicare Annual Wellness Visits (AWV). Design of the clinic and general roles of the professionals in optimising preventive care are described. Student perceptions of IPE and their knowledge of other healthcare professionals were also surveyed. Student knowledge of other professionals mildly improved. Student perception of actual cooperation and interprofessional interaction statistically improved, while perception of interprofessional learning slightly worsened. Utilising Medicare AWVs can be a way for various professionals to improve IPE in the primary care setting. PMID:27219719

  11. Human papilloma virus strain detection utilising custom-designed oligonucleotide microarrays.

    PubMed

    Ayers, Duncan; Platt, Mark; Javad, Farzad; Day, Philip J R

    2011-01-01

    Within the past 15 years, the utilisation of microarray technology for the detection of specific pathogen strains has increased rapidly. Presently, it is possible to simply purchase a pre-manufactured "off the shelf " oligonucleotide microarray bearing a wide variety of known signature DNA sequences previously identified in the organism being studied. Consequently, a hybridisation analysis may be used to pinpoint which strain/s is present in any given clinical sample. However, there exists a problem if the study necessitates the identification of novel sequences which are not represented in commercially available microarray chips. Ideally, such investigations require an in situ oligonucleotide microarray platform with the capacity to synthesise microarrays bearing probe sequences designed solely by the researcher. This chapter will focus on the employment of the Combimatrix® B3 CustomArray™ for the synthesis of reusable, bespoke microarrays for the purpose of discerning multiple Human Papilloma Virus strains. PMID:20938834

  12. A community-based intervention programme on hormonal contraceptives: The utilisation of social networks.

    PubMed

    Hidiroglu, S; Topuzoglu, A; Onsuz, M F

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the effects of an intervention programme based on the utilisation of the social learning concept which is practised through social networks among adult women in a suburban population in Turkey. The study was performed in two disadvantaged neighbourhoods of Umraniye, Istanbul. One of the neighbourhoods served as the intervention while the other as the control group. In order to document the efficacy of the intervention, baseline and evaluation surveys were carried out in both neighbourhoods. The most widely known hormonal contraceptive method was oral contraceptives, while emergency contraceptives were determined as the least known methods. The improvement was higher for the least known methods. Education with peer groups is shown to be effective in improving the knowledge of women about contraception. Information transfer through peer groups should be used more frequently particularly for emergency contraception. PMID:26472349

  13. Impact of caprock permeability on vertical ground surface displacements in geological underground utilisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kempka, Thomas; Tillner, Elena

    2015-04-01

    Geological underground utilisation inducing pore pressure changes in underground reservoirs is generally accompanied by hydro-mechanical processes. Thereby, pore pressure increase due to fluid injection may trigger ground surface uplift, while a decrease in pore pressure due to reservoir fluid production is known to induce ground subsidence. Different coupled hydro-mechanical simulation studies (e.g. Klimkowski et al., 2015, Kempka et al., 2014, Tillner et al., 2014) indicate that ground surface displacements can achieve a magnitude of several decimetres, if storage or production operations are being carried out at an industrial scale. Consequently, detailed knowledge on the parameters impacting ground surface uplift or subsidence is of major interest for the success of any geological underground utilisation in order to avoid surface infrastructure damage by spatially varying deformations. Furthermore, ground subsidence may result increased groundwater levels as experienced in different underground coal mining districts. In the present study, we carried out coupled hydro-mechanical simulations to account for the impact of caprock permeability on ground surface displacements resulting from geological underground utilisation. Thereto, different simulation scenarios were investigated using a synthetic 3D coupled numerical simulation model with varying caprock permeability and vertical location of the open well section in the target reservoir. Material property ranges were derived from available literature, while a normal faulting stress state was applied in all simulation scenarios. Our simulation results demonstrate that caprock permeability has a significant impact on the pressure development, and thus on vertical displacements at the ground surface as well as at the reservoir top. An increase in caprock permeability from 1 x 10-20 m2 by two orders of magnitude doubles vertical displacements at the ground surface, whereas vertical displacements at the reservoir top

  14. The possibilities of utilisation of heat from Tattapani Geothermal field, India

    SciTech Connect

    Sarolkar, P.B.; Pitale, U.L.

    1996-12-31

    The Tattapani Geothermal field produces + 1800 1pm thermal water of 100{degrees}C from five production wells. The hot water production can sustain electricity production of 300 kWe by using a binary cycle power plant. The heat energy of effluent water from power plant can be utilized for direct heat utilization on horticulture, aquaculture, cold storage, silviculture etc; to augment the economics of the power plant be spot can be developed as a centre for tourist attraction by constructing botanical park, greenhouse, geyser show and crocodile farm. The direct heat utilization shemes can be planned in cascading order to achieve maximum utility of thermal water. Additional deep drilling is essential for optimum commercial utilization of the Geothermal energy. The direct heat utilisation shemes along with binary cycle power plant may help in development of the geothermal energy and boosting the economy of this region.

  15. Utilisation of Pangolin (Manis sps) in traditional Yorubic medicine in Ijebu province, Ogun State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Concern about the use of endangered and threatened species in traditional medicine escalated as populations of many species plummeted because of poaching for the medicinal trade. Nigeria is known for a long and valued tradition of using wild animals and plants for medicinal purposes. Despite this, studies on medicinal animals are still scarce when compared to those focusing on medicinal plants. Utilisation of wild animals in traditional Yorubic medical practices was indiscriminate as it involved threatened species. By touting the medicinal properties of these species, traditional medicine fuel continuing demand, thereby subjecting such species to further threats. This paper examined the use and commercialisation of pangolins for traditional medicinal purposes amongst the Ijebus, South-western Nigeria, and the implications of this utilisation for the conservation of this species. Methods Traditional Yorubic medical practitioners (tymps) (16) and dealers in traditional medicinal ingredients (56) in public markets in Ijebu province, Nigeria, were interviewed using open-ended questionnaires. The dynamic stock movement of pangolins in the stalls of dealers was also monitored to determine quantity of pangolins sold into the traditional Yorubic medicinal practices. Specific conditions treated and the parts required were also documented. Results A total of 178 whole pangolin carcasses were sold into traditional medical practices. Above 55% of respondents had just primary education, over 90% of respondents were not aware of either the conservation status of this species or the existence of any legal machinery regulating its trade and utilisation, while 14% admitted to giving contracts to hunters for deliberate search for this animal when needed. More than 98% of respondents have no other means of livelihood. The trade was female dominated while the healing practice had more males. Pangolins were used in various preparations to treat a total of 42 conditions

  16. Improved sugar co-utilisation by encapsulation of a recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain in alginate-chitosan capsules

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Two major hurdles for successful production of second-generation bioethanol are the presence of inhibitory compounds in lignocellulosic media, and the fact that Saccharomyces cerevisiae cannot naturally utilise pentoses. There are recombinant yeast strains that address both of these issues, but co-utilisation of glucose and xylose is still an issue that needs to be resolved. A non-recombinant way to increase yeast tolerance to hydrolysates is by encapsulation of the yeast. This can be explained by concentration gradients occuring in the cell pellet inside the capsule. In the current study, we hypothesised that encapsulation might also lead to improved simultaneous utilisation of hexoses and pentoses because of such sugar concentration gradients. Results In silico simulations of encapsulated yeast showed that the presence of concentration gradients of inhibitors can explain the improved inhibitor tolerance of encapsulated yeast. Simulations also showed pronounced concentration gradients of sugars, which resulted in simultaneous xylose and glucose consumption and a steady state xylose consumption rate up to 220-fold higher than that found in suspension culture. To validate the results experimentally, a xylose-utilising S. cerevisiae strain, CEN.PK XXX, was constructed and encapsulated in semi-permeable alginate-chitosan liquid core gel capsules. In defined media, encapsulation not only increased the tolerance of the yeast to inhibitors, but also promoted simultaneous utilisation of glucose and xylose. Encapsulation of the yeast resulted in consumption of at least 50% more xylose compared with suspended cells over 96-hour fermentations in medium containing both sugars. The higher consumption of xylose led to final ethanol titres that were approximately 15% higher. In an inhibitory dilute acid spruce hydrolysate, freely suspended yeast cells consumed the sugars in a sequential manner after a long lag phase, whereas no lag phase was observed for the

  17. Prospective study of healthcare utilisation and respiratory morbidity due to RSV infection in prematurely born infants

    PubMed Central

    Broughton, S; Roberts, A; Fox, G; Pollina, E; Zuckerman, M; Chaudhry, S; Greenough, A

    2005-01-01

    Background: A study was undertaken to determine the impact of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection, both in hospital and the community, on healthcare utilisation and respiratory morbidity in prematurely born infants and to identify risk factors for symptomatic RSV infection. Methods: A hospital and community follow up study was undertaken of 126 infants born before 32 weeks of gestational age. Healthcare utilisation (hospital admissions and general practitioner attendances) in the first year, respiratory morbidity at follow up (wheeze and cough documented by parent completed diary cards), and RSV positive lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) were documented. Nasopharyngeal aspirates were obtained for immunofluorescence and culture for RSV whenever the infants had an LRTI, either in the community or in hospital. Results: Forty two infants had an RSV positive LRTI (RSV group), 50 had an RSV negative LRTI (RSV negative LRTI group), and 32 infants had no LRTI (no LRTI group). Compared with the RSV negative LRTI and the no LRTI groups, the RSV group required more admissions (p = 0.392, p<0.001) and days in hospital (p = 0.049, p = 0.006) and had more cough (p = 0.05, p = 0.038) and wheeze (p = 0.003, p = 0.003) at follow up. Significant risk factors for symptomatic RSV LRTI were number of siblings (p = 0.035) and maternal smoking in pregnancy (p = 0.005), for cough were number of siblings (p = 0.002) and RSV LRTI (p = 0.02), and for wheeze was RSV LRTI (p = 0.019). Conclusion: RSV infection, even if hospital admission is not required, is associated with increased subsequent respiratory morbidity in prematurely born infants. PMID:16227330

  18. A compilation of research working groups on drug utilisation across Europe

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The assessment of the benefit-risk of medicines needs careful consideration concerning their patterns of utilization. Systems for the monitoring of medicines consumption have been established in many European countries, and several international groups have identified and described them. No other compilation of European working groups has been published. As part of the PROTECT project, as a first step in searching for European data sources on the consumption of five selected groups of medicines, we aimed to identify and describe the main characteristics of the existing collaborative European working groups. Findings Google and bibliographic searches (PubMed) of articles containing information on databases and other sources of drug consumption data were conducted. For each working group the main characteristics were recorded. Nineteen selected groups were identified, focusing on: a) general drug utilisation (DU) research (EuroDURG, CNC, ISPE’S SIG-DUR, EURO-MED-STAT, PIPERSKA Group, NorPEN, ENCePP, DURQUIM), b) specific DU research: b.1) antimicrobial drugs (ARPAC, ESAC, ARPEC, ESGAP, HAPPY AUDIT), b.2) cardiovascular disease (ARITMO, EUROASPIRE), b.3) paediatrics (TEDDY), and b.4) mental health/central nervous system effects (ESEMeD, DRUID, TUPP/EUPoMMe). Information on their aims, methods and activities is presented. Conclusions We assembled and updated information on European working groups in DU research and in the utilisation of five selected groups of drugs for the PROTECT project. This information should be useful for academic researchers, regulatory and health authorities, and pharmaceutical companies conducting and interpreting post-authorisation and safety studies. European health authorities should encourage national research and collaborations in this important field for public health. PMID:24625054

  19. Utilisation of sexual health services by female sex workers in Nepal

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The Nepal Demographic Health Survey (NDHS) in 2006 showed that more than half (56%) of the women with sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV, in Nepal sought sexual health services. There is no such data for female sex workers (FSWs) and the limited studies on this group suggest they do not even use routine health services. This study explores FSWs use of sexual health services and the factors associated with their use and non-use of services. Methods This study aimed to explore the factors associated with utilisation of sexual health services by FSWs in the Kathmandu Valley of Nepal, and it used a mixed-method approach consisting of an interviewer administered questionnaire-based survey and in-depth interviews. Results The questionnaire survey, completed with 425 FSWs, showed that 90% FSWs self-reported sickness, and (30.8%) reported symptoms of STIs. A quarter (25%) of those reporting STIs had never visited any health facilities especially for sexual health services preferring to use non-governmental clinics (72%), private clinics (50%), hospital (27%) and health centres (13%). Multiple regression analysis showed that separated, married and street- based FSWs were more likely to seek health services from the clinics or hospitals. In- depth interviews with 15 FSWs revealed that FSWs perceived that personal, structural and socio-cultural barriers, such as inappropriate clinic opening hours, discrimination, the judgemental attitude of the service providers, lack of confidentiality, fear of public exposure, and higher fees for the services as barriers to their access and utilisation of sexual health services. Conclusion FSWs have limited access to information and to health services, and operate under personal, structural and socio-cultural constraints. The 'education' to change individual behaviour, health worker and community perceptions, as well as the training of the health workers, is necessary. PMID:21501473

  20. Wildlife resource utilisation at Moremi Game Reserve and Khwai community area in the Okavango Delta, Botswana.

    PubMed

    Mbaiwa, Joseph E

    2005-10-01

    This paper uses the concept of sustainable development to examine the utilisation of wildlife resources at Moremi Game Reserve (MGR) and Khwai community area (NG 18/19) in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. Using both secondary and primary data sources, results show that the establishment of MGR in 1963 led to the displacement of Khwai residents from their land; affected Basarwa's hunting and gathering economy; marked the beginning of resource conflicts between Khwai residents and wildlife managers; and, led to the development of negative attitudes of Khwai residents towards wildlife conservation. Since the late 1980s, a predominantly foreign owned tourism industry developed in and around MGR, however, Khwai residents derive insignificant benefits from it and hence resource conflicts increased. In an attempt to address problems of resource conflicts and promote sustainable wildlife utilisation, the Botswana Government adopted the Community-Based Natural Resource Management (CBNRM) programme, which started operating at Khwai village in 2000. The CBNRM programme promotes local participation in natural resource management and rural development through tourism. It is beginning to have benefits to Khwai residents such as income generation, employment opportunities and local participation in wildlife management. These benefits from CBNRM are thus having an impact in the development of positive attitudes of Khwai residents towards wildlife conservation and tourism development. This paper argues that if extended to MGR, CBNRM has the potential of minimising wildlife conflicts between Khwai residents and the wildlife-tourism sectors. This approach may in the process promote the sustainable wildlife use in and around MGR. PMID:16115724

  1. Primary care utilisation patterns among an urban immigrant population in the Spanish National Health System

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background There is evidence suggesting that the use of health services is lower among immigrants after adjusting for age and sex. This study takes a step forward to compare primary care (PC) utilisation patterns between immigrants and the native population with regard to their morbidity burden. Methods This retrospective, observational study looked at 69,067 individuals representing the entire population assigned to three urban PC centres in the city of Zaragoza (Aragon, Spain). Poisson models were applied to determine the number of annual PC consultations per individual based on immigration status. All models were first adjusted for age and sex and then for age, sex and case mix (ACG System®). Results The age and sex adjusted mean number of total annual consultations was lower among the immigrant population (children: IRR = 0.79, p < 0.05; adults: IRR = 0.73, p < 0.05). After adjusting for morbidity burden, this difference decreased among children (IRR = 0.94, p < 0.05) and disappeared among adults (IRR = 1.00). Further analysis considering the PC health service and type of visit revealed higher usage of routine diagnostic tests among immigrant children (IRR = 1.77, p < 0.05) and a higher usage of emergency services among the immigrant adult population (IRR = 1.2, p < 0.05) after adjusting for age, sex and case mix. Conclusions Although immigrants make lower use of PC services than the native population after adjusting the consultation rate for age and sex, these differences decrease significantly when considering their morbidity burden. These results reinforce the 'healthy migration effect' and discount the existence of differences in PC utilisation patterns between the immigrant and native populations in Spain. PMID:21645335

  2. Teaching arms and screens for microscope and fibreoptic nasendoscope: are they effective teaching devices and are we utilising them?

    PubMed

    Ho, Eu Chin; Baker, Lucy Jane; Savage, Hugh; Simmons, Mark

    2010-04-01

    With training time for junior doctors now reduced, it is crucial to optimise training opportunities during elective clinical activities. Teaching ENT examination skills presents unique challenges as often, only the examiner can observe what's going on. We set out to explore the utilisation of microscope and nasendoscope teaching devices for ENT junior doctors. Telephonic survey of 102 English ENT units. ENT junior doctors spent an average of 7 h per week in elective ENT outpatient clinics. 92% of them felt that spending time in outpatient clinics helped improve their confidence in patients' management. 81% of ENT junior doctors stated that being able to observe others or being observed themselves would help to improve their clinical abilities. The availability and utilisation of nasendoscopy and microscopy teaching tools are currently suboptimal. Doctors working in departments that utilised the teaching tools stated that their educational needs were more likely to be met. Most ENT junior doctors found it beneficial to attend elective outpatient clinics although their learning needs were more likely to be met should ENT teaching devices be available. The availability and utilisation of ENT teaching devices are currently suboptimal and needs addressing. PMID:19690879

  3. Impediments to Effective Utilisation of Information and Communication Technology Tools in Selected Universities in the North-Eastern Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Momoh, Mustapha

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the impediments to effective use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) tools in Nigerian universities. Series of research conducted on the factors militating against computerisation indicated that, there were impediments to effective utilisation of ICT tools in most developing countries. In the light of this, the…

  4. Experiences in the Dissemination and Utilisation of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Research Findings from Three Southern African Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaino, Luckson M.; Mtetwa, David; Kasanda, Choshi

    2014-01-01

    The dissemination and utilisation of research knowledge produced at universities has been debated in recent times. Recent changes and developments at universities suggest an entrepreneurial model of academic research production in which universities have the responsibility not only to carry out research and teaching but also to disseminate…

  5. Motivational Strategies and Utilisation of Internet Resources as Determinants of Research Productivity of Lecturers in Universities of Agriculture in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ajegbomogun, Fredrick Olatunji; Popoola, Sunday Olarenwaju

    2013-01-01

    This study examined motivational strategies and utilisation of Internet resources as determinants of research productivity of lecturers in universities of agriculture in Nigeria. One thousand, one hundred and thirty two (1,132) copies of the questionnaire were administered on the lecturers in universities of agriculture in Nigeria. Eight hundred…

  6. Skill Formation and Utilisation in the Post-Soviet Transition: Higher Education Planning in Post-Soviet Georgia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gvaramadze, Irakli

    2010-01-01

    Changes in the former Soviet system had a dramatic influence on higher education in Georgia. The main objective of the current article is to analyse implications of the post-Soviet transition for the skill formation and skill utilisation system in Georgia. In particular, the study analyses recent trends in Georgian higher education including…

  7. Utilisation and Impact of the Essential Electronic Agricultural Database (TEEAL) on Library Services in a Nigerian University of Agriculture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oduwole, A. A.; Sowole, A. O.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the utilisation of the Essential Electronic Agricultural Library database (TEEAL) at the University of Agriculture Library, Abeokuta, Nigeria. Design/methodology/approach: Data collection was by questionnaire following a purposive sampling technique. A total of 104 out 150 (69.3 per cent) responses were received and…

  8. Health insurance determines antenatal, delivery and postnatal care utilisation: evidence from the Ghana Demographic and Health Surveillance data

    PubMed Central

    Browne, Joyce L; Kayode, Gbenga A; Arhinful, Daniel; Fidder, Samuel A J; Grobbee, Diederick E; Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study aims to evaluate the effect of maternal health insurance status on the utilisation of antenatal, skilled delivery and postnatal care. Design A population-based cross-sectional study. Setting and participants We utilised the 2008 Demographic and Health Survey data of Ghana, which included 2987 women who provided information on maternal health insurance status. Primary outcomes Utilisation of antenatal, skilled delivery and postnatal care. Statistical analyses Multivariable logistic regression was applied to determine the independent association between maternal health insurance and utilisation of antenatal, skilled delivery and postnatal care. Results After adjusting for socioeconomic, demographic and obstetric factors, we observed that among insured women the likelihood of having antenatal care increased by 96% (OR 1.96; 95% CI 1.52 to 2.52; p value<0.001) and of skilled delivery by 129% (OR 2.29; 95% CI 1.92 to 2.74; p value<0.001), while postnatal care among insured women increased by 61% (OR 1.61; 95% CI 1.17 to 2.21; p value<0.01). Conclusions This study demonstrated that maternal health insurance status plays a significant role in the uptake of the maternal, neonatal and child health continuum of care service. PMID:26993621

  9. Formal home-care utilisation by older adults in Ireland: evidence from the Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA).

    PubMed

    Murphy, Catriona M; Whelan, Brendan J; Normand, Charles

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to provide a population-based estimate of the utilisation of publicly financed formal home care by older adults in Ireland and to identify the principal characteristics of those utilising formal home care. Data were collected through computer-aided personal interviews from a representative sample of community living older adults in Ireland. The interviews were conducted between 2009 and 2011 as part of the first wave of the Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA). The study is cross-sectional in design and limited to participants aged 65 years and older (n = 3507). Results reveal that 8.2% (95% CI 7.1%-9.3%) of participants utilised publicly financed formal home care in the form of home help and/or personal care. Key determinants of formal home-care utilisation were Instrumental Activity of Daily Living (IADL) difficulty (Adj OR 3.8, 95% CI 2.7-5.3), older age (Adj OR 3.4, 95% CI 2.4-4.8) and living alone (Adj OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.9-3.8). Almost half of those utilising formal care did not self-report an Activity of Daily Living (ADL) difficulty or an IADL difficulty. Government policy aims to reduce the need for long-term residential care by providing formal home care for older adults with low to moderate levels of dependency. This requires an increasing emphasis on personal care provision in the home. No evidence was found in this study to suggest that a shift in emphasis from formal domestic to personal care is taking place in Ireland. The absence of standardised assessment and eligibility criteria are deemed to be barriers to reorientation of the system. From a health services perspective, the current situation is not sustainable into the future and requires a focused policy response. PMID:25442330

  10. In their own words: qualitative study of high-utilising primary care patients with medically unexplained symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Dwamena, Francesca C; Lyles, Judith S; Frankel, Richard M; Smith, Robert C

    2009-01-01

    Background High utilising primary care patients with medically unexplained symptoms (MUS) often frustrate their primary care providers. Studies that elucidate the attitudes of these patients may help to increase understanding and improve confidence of clinicians who care for them. The objective of this study was to describe and analyze perceptions and lived experiences of high utilising primary care patients with MUS. Methods A purposive sample of 19 high utilising primary care patients for whom at least 50% (69.6% in this sample) of visits for two years could not be explained medically, were encouraged to talk spontaneously about themselves and answer semi-structured questions. Verbatim transcripts of interviews were analyzed using an iterative consensus building process. Results Patients with MUS almost universally described current and/or past family dysfunction and were subjected to excessive testing and ineffective empirical treatments. Three distinct groups emerged from the data. 1) Some patients, who had achieved a significant degree of psychological insight and had success in life, primarily sought explanations for their symptoms. 2) Patients who had less psychological insight were more disabled by their symptoms and felt strongly entitled to be excused from normal social obligations. Typically, these patients primarily sought symptom relief, legitimization, and support. 3) Patients who expressed worry about missed diagnoses demanded excessive care and complained when their demands were resisted. Conclusion High utilising primary care patients are a heterogeneous group with similar experiences and different perceptions, behaviours and needs. Recognizing these differences may be critical to effective treatment and reduction in utilisation. PMID:19772582

  11. Impact of technology on the utilisation of positron emission tomography in lymphoma: current and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Visvikis, D; Ell, P J

    2003-06-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) has now gained a place in the management of patients with cancer, including those with Hodgkin's disease and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Restaging studies and those addressing the monitoring of response to treatment are especially in focus. Most of the knowledge gained has been achieved with dedicated BGO-based PET technology, but there are a number of developments that will impact on the use of this metabolic imaging technique in the investigation of patients with lymphoma. The challenges ahead are determined by the need for high-quality whole-body imaging associated with increased patient throughput and the need to investigate the role of new labelled ligands. The latter are likely to yield new insights into tumour cell characterisation, tumour behaviour and tumour outcome assessment. The study of new radiolabelled ligands will impose further demands for rapid dynamic data acquisition and accurate tracer quantification. Current and future developments in PET technology range from the use of new detector materials to different detector geometries and data acquisition modes. The search for alternatives to BGO scintillation materials for PET has led to the development of PET instruments utilising new crystals such as LSO and GSO. The use of these new detectors and the increased sensitivity achieved with 3D data acquisitions represent the most significant current developments in the field. With the increasing demands imposed on the clinical utilisation of PET, issues such as study cost and patient throughput will emerge as significant future factors. As a consequence, low-cost units are being offered by the manufacturers through the utilisation of gamma camera-based SPET systems for PET coincidence imaging. Unfortunately, clinical studies in lymphoma and other cancers have already demonstrated the limitations of this technology, with 20% of lesions <15 mm in size escaping detection. On the other hand, the recent development of combined

  12. Generation and utilisation of quality indicators for satellite-derived atmospheric motion vectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmlund, Kenneth

    The extraction of Atmospheric Motion Vectors (AMVs) from cloud and moisture features from successive geostationary satellite images is an established and important part of the global observing system. One of the main problems in the utilisation of this data is the variable quality of the derived displacement vectors. Furthermore the AMVs are still currently used as single point measurements, even though they are generally based on targets that represent large areas and the height that is assigned to the vectors often represents a layer mean. In the early AMV derivation schemes the derived vector fields were quality controlled by experienced meteorologists and poor vectors were removed. Furthermore any suspect vector showing any kind of deviations in time and space was rejected and hence only about 17% of all possible vectors were disseminated. Today the high production frequency and the increased resolution make manual quality control unfeasible. Furthermore the new assimilation schemes utilised in Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) require qualitative information on the errors of the individual AMVs. This Thesis describes an Automatic Quality Control (AQC) scheme that is based on the statistical properties of the derived AMVs. The properties of the AMVs, i.e. their consistency in time and space, are interpreted with a number of tests. The outcome of each test is normalised such that they can be combined to a Quality Indicator (QI) that gives an estimation of the expected quality of every individual vector as is shown by statistics against radiosondes and verified by the positive impact in data assimilation schemes. The QIs are currently derived and disseminated together with the derived AMVs by several operational AMV derivation centres. Only a small number of vectors are now removed before dissemination. The QIs are used operationally for data selection at various NWT centres and have alleviated some of the problems related to the assimilation of this data in NWT

  13. Comparisons of pastoralists perceptions about rangeland resource utilisation in the Middle Awash Valley of Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Abule, E; Snyman, H A; Smit, G N

    2005-04-01

    Pastoralism is the most dominant land use form in the arid rangelands of Sub-Saharan Africa, but this rangeland-based lifestyle is under threat. As a consequence a study was conducted in the Middle Awash Valley of Ethiopia with the main objectives of assessing and comparing the broad perceptions of two pastoral groups (the Oromo ethnic group living in Kereyu-Fantale and the Afar ethnic group living in Awash-Fantale) on the usage of the existing rangeland resources, and their views on constraints and possible solutions. Data were collected from 90 Oromo and 55 Afar households. Despite the difference in ethnicity both of these groups share common problems. They derive their main income from the sale of animals and animal products, but with the difference that milk products rank first in the case of the Afar and last in the case of the Oromo. Both pastoral groups depend heavily on native grasses for animal feed and to a lesser extent on woody plants as a source of browse. The majority of respondents were of the opinion that the condition of the rangelands is poor, mainly due to overgrazing, droughts and increases in the human population. Availability of water is also regarded as a problem, mainly by the Oromo. Migration is the first measure taken to solve shortages of livestock feed, but many of the pastoralists replied that migration is an undesirable practise which is mostly done out of necessity. Because of the limited resources most respondents of both groups still prefer communal land tenure where resources are shared. It is concluded that the problems facing the pastoralists in the Middle Awash Valley have been created over many years and the solutions will also require time. With the current approach of the communal grazing systems, sustainable utilisation of the rangeland ecosystem is not possible. Solutions to the poor condition of the existing rangelands will require a definite commitment and full participation not only of the pastoralists, but also of

  14. Learning preferences of first year nursing and midwifery students: utilising VARK.

    PubMed

    James, Santhamma; D'Amore, Angelo; Thomas, Theda

    2011-05-01

    The diversity of first year students is increasing with new schemes promoting access to higher education courses. It is important to assess the learning styles of students in order to cater for their differing learning needs. The aim of this study was to profile first year nursing/midwifery students at two campuses of Australian Catholic University, to investigate their learning preferences and the effect demographic background has on these preferences. We designed a survey to collect demographic data and incorporated the VARK (visual, aural, read-write and kinaesthetic) questionnaire to investigate the students' preferred learning modes. The kinaesthetic score of our students was the highest (7.34 ± 2.67), significantly differing from the other three modes (p<0.001). Demographic factors such as gender and age group did not influence mean scores of each sensory modality. The predominant preference was quadmodal utilising all four learning styles. The distribution of students preferring to learn by unimodal, bimodal, trimodal and quadmodal styles varied between demographic groupings. The rural students had significantly higher visual and kinaesthetic scores compared to their metropolitan counterparts. Students attending the rural campus had higher visual and read-write scores. Visual and aural scores were significantly lower for students from non-English speaking backgrounds. These findings have significant teaching and research implications. PMID:20826044

  15. Effects of thermal treatments on the characterisation and utilisation of red mud with sawdust additive.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanju; Naidu, Ravi; Ming, Hui; Dharmarajan, Rajarathnam; Du, Jianhua

    2016-06-01

    Extremely large amounts of red mud (bauxite residue) are generated globally every year from alumina refining industries, which are being disposed of on engineered landfills. The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of thermal treatments on red mud for development of utilisation strategies. Thermal treatments of red mud samples and their characterisations were investigated under inert (N2) and oxidative (air) conditions with and without sawdust addition at 200-600°C. After calcination, the resulting samples were analysed using thermogravimetric-infrared spectroscopy (TG-IR) for functional group transformations, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) for thermal loss profiles and X-ray diffraction (XRD) for mineral transformations. The characterisation results showed that in N2 environment, boehmite in red mud was transferred to transition alumina at around 400°C while losing water from structural components. The addition of sawdust for incubation and calcination of red mud in air increased the surface area, whereas that in nitrogen atmosphere lead to reduction of hematite to magnetite at around 500°C. The incorporated carbon materials played a major role in increasing the surface area especially for pore size less than 2.5 nm. This treated red mud with altered mineral composition and improved properties for binding contaminants can be used for environmental remediation and in the process of metal recovery such as iron. PMID:26951343

  16. Determinants of healthcare utilisation and predictors of outcome in colorectal cancer patients from Northern Iran.

    PubMed

    Semnani, S; Noorafkan, Z; Aryaie, M; Sedaghat, S-M; Moghaddami, A; Kazemnejhad, V; Khorasaninejhad, R; Ghasemi-Kebria, F; Roshandel, G

    2016-03-01

    We aimed to assess healthcare utilisation (HU), its determinants, as well as its relationship with survival in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. This study was conducted on incident CRC cases from Northern Iran. Information on HU was collected using a valid questionnaire, considering eight diagnostic and four therapeutic services. The results were categorised as good and poor HU. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to assess the relationship between HU and other variables. Cox regression analysis was performed to determine major predictors of survival. In total, 227 new cases of CRC were enrolled. HU could be assessed in 218 subjects (96%). Living in rural areas was the strongest variable related to poor HU (adjusted OR, odds ratio = 2.65; CI, confidence interval: 1.30-5.40). The median survival time was 40.5 months. The 1-, 3- and 5-year survival rates were 71%, 52% and 44% respectively. Cox regression analysis showed a significant lower survival rate in patients with poor HU (HR = 2.3; CI: 1.46-3.64). HU was an independent predictor of survival in our CRC patients. Patients' place of residence was a significant determinant of HU. Regarding its effects on patients' outcome, HU and its determinants should be considered in designing CRC controlling programmes in our region and similar high-risk populations. PMID:25801407

  17. A mathematical model of microbial folate biosynthesis and utilisation: implications for antifolate development.

    PubMed

    Salcedo-Sora, J Enrique; Mc Auley, Mark T

    2016-03-01

    The metabolic biochemistry of folate biosynthesis and utilisation has evolved into a complex network of reactions. Although this complexity represents challenges to the field of folate research it has also provided a renewed source for antimetabolite targets. A range of improved folate chemotherapy continues to be developed and applied particularly to cancer and chronic inflammatory diseases. However, new or better antifolates against infectious diseases remain much more elusive. In this paper we describe the assembly of a generic deterministic mathematical model of microbial folate metabolism. Our aim is to explore how a mathematical model could be used to explore the dynamics of this inherently complex set of biochemical reactions. Using the model it was found that: (1) a particular small set of folate intermediates are overrepresented, (2) inhibitory profiles can be quantified by the level of key folate products, (3) using the model to scan for the most effective combinatorial inhibitions of folate enzymes we identified specific targets which could complement current antifolates, and (4) the model substantiates the case for a substrate cycle in the folinic acid biosynthesis reaction. Our model is coded in the systems biology markup language and has been deposited in the BioModels Database (MODEL1511020000), this makes it accessible to the community as a whole. PMID:26794619

  18. Utilisation of CryoSat-2 SAR altimeter in operational ice charting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinne, E.; Similä, M.

    2016-01-01

    We present methods to utilise CryoSat-2 (CS-2) synthetic aperture radar (SAR) mode data in operational ice charting. We compare CS-2 data qualitatively to SAR mosaics over the Barents and Kara seas. Furthermore, we compare the CS-2 to archived operational ice charts. We present distributions of four CS-2 waveform parameters for different ice types as presented in the ice charts. We go on to present an automatic classification method for CS-2 data which, after training with operational ice charts, is capable of determining open ocean from ice with a hit rate of > 90 %. The training data are dynamically updated every 5 days using the most recent 15 days of CS-2 data and operative ice charts. This helps the adaption of the classifier to the evolving ice/snow conditions throughout winter. The classifier is also capable of detecting three different ice classes (thin and thick first-year ice as well as old ice) with success rates good enough for the output to be usable to support operational ice charting. Finally, we present a near-real-time CS-2 product just plotting the waveform characteristics and conclude that even such a simple product is usable for some of the needs of ice charting.

  19. Utilisation of biomass gasification by-products for onsite energy production.

    PubMed

    Vakalis, S; Sotiropoulos, A; Moustakas, K; Malamis, D; Baratieri, M

    2016-06-01

    Small scale biomass gasification is a sector with growth and increasing applications owing to the environmental goals of the European Union and the incentivised policies of most European countries. This study addresses two aspects, which are at the centre of attention concerning the operation and development of small scale gasifiers; reuse of waste and increase of energy efficiency. Several authors have denoted that the low electrical efficiency of these systems is the main barrier for further commercial development. In addition, gasification has several by-products that have no further use and are discarded as waste. In the framework of this manuscript, a secondary reactor is introduced and modelled. The main operating principle is the utilisation of char and flue gases for further energy production. These by-products are reformed into secondary producer gas by means of a secondary reactor. In addition, a set of heat exchangers capture the waste heat and optimise the process. This case study is modelled in a MATLAB-Cantera environment. The model is non-stoichiometric and applies the Gibbs minimisation principle. The simulations show that some of the thermal energy is depleted during the process owing to the preheating of flue gases. Nonetheless, the addition of a secondary reactor results in an increase of the electrical power production efficiency and the combined heat and power (CHP) efficiency. PMID:27118736

  20. Passively cooled 405 W ytterbium fibre laser utilising a novel metal coated active fibre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniel, Jae M. O.; Simakov, Nikita; Hemming, Alexander; Clarkson, W. Andrew; Haub, John

    2016-03-01

    We present a novel metal coated triple clad active fibre design, utilising an all glass inner cladding structure and aluminium outer coating. This metal coated active fibre enables a number of benefits to high power laser design, such as increase robustness and extended operating temperature range. As a demonstration of the advantages of this design a passively cooled ytterbium fibre laser is presented. A 20 m length of active fibre was coiled into a planar arrangement and mounted onto a high emissivity heatsink. Up to 405 W of output power was achieved without the need for active water or forced air cooling. The slope efficiency of this source was 74 % and maximum outer heat sink temperature was ~140°C. This arrangement allowed for significant weight and size savings to be achieved with the active fibre laser head weighing less than 100 g. We will discuss the design choices and trade-offs of metal coated active fibre on high power fibre laser systems as well as the prospects for further power scaling to the kW level.

  1. Towards zero industrial waste: Utilisation of brick dust waste in sustainable construction.

    PubMed

    Kinuthia, J M; Nidzam, R M

    2011-08-01

    Laboratory investigations were carried out to establish the potential utilisation of brick dust (BD) in construction. The dust is a waste material from the cutting of fired clay bricks. Currently, the disposal of the dust is a problem to the brick fabrication company, and hence an environmental pollution concern. The dust was stabilised either used on its own or in combination with Pulverised Fuel Ash (PFA), a by-product material from coal combustion. The traditional stabilisers of lime and/or Portland Cement (PC) were used as controls. The main aim was to use a sustainable stabiliser material, where these stabilisers were partially replaced with Ground Granulated Blastfurnace Slag (GGBS), a by-product material from steel manufacture. Compacted cylinder test specimens were made at typical stabiliser contents and moist cured for up to 56 days prior to testing for compressive and California Bearing Ratio (CBR) strength tests, and to linear expansion during moist curing and subsequent soaking in water. The results obtained showed that partial substitution of the dust with PFA resulted in stronger material compared to using it on its own. The blended stabilisers achieved better performance. These results suggest technological, economic as well as environmental advantages of using the brick dust and similar industrial by-products to achieve sustainable infrastructure development with near zero industrial waste. PMID:21550223

  2. Utilisation of single added fatty acids by consortia of digester sludge in batch culture

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, Andreas Otto; Gstrauntaler, Gudrun; Illmer, Paul

    2010-10-15

    Inocula derived from an anaerobic digester were used to study (i) their potential for methane production and (ii) the utilisation rates of different short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) by the microbial community in defined media with mono-carbon sources (formic-, acetetic-, propionic-, butyric acid) in batch culture. It could be demonstrated that the microbial reactor population could be transferred successfully to the lab, and its ability to build up methane was present even with deteriorating biogas plant performance. Therefore, this reduction in performance of the biogas plant was not due to a decrease in abundance, but due to an inactivity of the microbial community. Generally, the physico-chemical properties of the biogas plant seemed to favour hydrogenotrophic methanogens, as seen by the high metabolisation rates of formate compared with all other carbon sources. In contrast, acetoclastic methanogenesis could be shown to play a minor role in the methane production of the investigated biogas plant, although the origin of up to 66% of methane is generally suggested to be generated through acetoclastic pathway.

  3. Computerised 3-D anatomical modelling using plastinates: an example utilising the human heart.

    PubMed

    Tunali, S; Kawamoto, K; Farrell, M L; Labrash, S; Tamura, K; Lozanoff, S

    2011-08-01

    Computerised modelling methods have become highly useful for generating electronic representations of anatomical structures. These methods rely on crosssectional tissue slices in databases such as the Visible Human Male and Female, the Visible Korean Human, and the Visible Chinese Human. However, these databases are time consuming to generate and require labour-intensive manual digitisation while the number of specimens is very limited. Plastinated anatomical material could provide a possible alternative to data collection, requiring less time to prepare and enabling the use of virtually any anatomical or pathological structure routinely obtained in a gross anatomy laboratory. The purpose of this study was to establish an approach utilising plastinated anatomical material, specifically human hearts, for the purpose computerised 3-D modelling. Human hearts were collected following gross anatomical dissection and subjected to routine plastination procedures including dehydration (-25(o)C), defatting, forced impregnation, and curing at room temperature. A graphics pipeline was established comprising data collection with a hand-held scanner, 3-D modelling, model polishing, file conversion, and final rendering. Representative models were viewed and qualitatively assessed for accuracy and detail. The results showed that the heart model provided detailed surface information necessary for gross anatomical instructional purposes. Rendering tools facilitated optional model manipulation for further structural clarification if selected by the user. The use of plastinated material for generating 3-D computerised models has distinct advantages compared to cross-sectional tissue images. PMID:21866531

  4. Tolerance of pentose utilising yeast to hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Bioethanol fermentations follow traditional beverage fermentations where the yeast is exposed to adverse conditions such as oxidative stress. Lignocellulosic bioethanol fermentations involve the conversion of pentose and hexose sugars into ethanol. Environmental stress conditions such as osmotic stress and ethanol stress may affect the fermentation performance; however, oxidative stress as a consequence of metabolic output can also occur. However, the effect of oxidative stress on yeast with pentose utilising capabilities has yet to be investigated. Results Assaying for the effect of hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress on Candida, Pichia and Scheffersomyces spp. has demonstrated that these yeast tolerate hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress in a manner consistent with that demonstrated by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Pichia guillermondii appears to be more tolerant to hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress when compared to Candida shehatae, Candida succiphila or Scheffersomyces stipitis. Conclusions Sensitivity to hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress increased in the presence of minimal media; however, addition of amino acids and nucleobases was observed to increase tolerance. In particular adenine increased tolerance and methionine reduced tolerance to hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress. PMID:24636079

  5. High-throughput genotyping of hop (Humulus lupulus L.) utilising diversity arrays technology (DArT).

    PubMed

    Howard, E L; Whittock, S P; Jakše, J; Carling, J; Matthews, P D; Probasco, G; Henning, J A; Darby, P; Cerenak, A; Javornik, B; Kilian, A; Koutoulis, A

    2011-05-01

    Implementation of molecular methods in hop (Humulus lupulus L.) breeding is dependent on the availability of sizeable numbers of polymorphic markers and a comprehensive understanding of genetic variation. However, use of molecular marker technology is limited due to expense, time inefficiency, laborious methodology and dependence on DNA sequence information. Diversity arrays technology (DArT) is a high-throughput cost-effective method for the discovery of large numbers of quality polymorphic markers without reliance on DNA sequence information. This study is the first to utilise DArT for hop genotyping, identifying 730 polymorphic markers from 92 hop accessions. The marker quality was high and similar to the quality of DArT markers previously generated for other species; although percentage polymorphism and polymorphism information content (PIC) were lower than in previous studies deploying other marker systems in hop. Genetic relationships in hop illustrated by DArT in this study coincide with knowledge generated using alternate methods. Several statistical analyses separated the hop accessions into genetically differentiated North American and European groupings, with hybrids between the two groups clearly distinguishable. Levels of genetic diversity were similar in the North American and European groups, but higher in the hybrid group. The markers produced from this time and cost-efficient genotyping tool will be a valuable resource for numerous applications in hop breeding and genetics studies, such as mapping, marker-assisted selection, genetic identity testing, guidance in the maintenance of genetic diversity and the directed breeding of superior cultivars. PMID:21243330

  6. Space resource utilisation: a novel indicator to quantify species competitive ability for light

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Pengfei; Zhou, Xiaolong; Li, Junyong; Guo, Zhi; Du, Guozhen

    2015-01-01

    Species richness and productivity are two fundamental aspects of ecosystems. As a result, the relationship between species richness and productivity has been widely studied. A series of fertilisation experiments in an alpine meadow on the Tibetan Plateau were performed to study the relationship between species richness and productivity. In this paper, we present a novel indicator, i.e., space resource utilisation (SRU), which is calculated by a volume formula (Vi  =  hi · Si; hi = plant height of species i, Si = quadrat area × percent cover of species i). SRU more fully reflected species competitive ability for light in both horizontal and vertical dimensions compared with plant height and cover. We used this novel indicator to investigate the effects of SRU on the changes in species richness and productivity following fertilisation. We found that the SRU of the community was correlated with increasing productivity and decreasing species richness following fertilisation and was a better predictor of species richness than productivity. The changes in SRU following fertilisation vary among species. These results demonstrate that SRU can be a more useful tool in explaining plant biodiversity loss and predicting the fate of different species than each of height, cover and productivity. PMID:26593068

  7. Relationship between Health Insurance Status and the Pattern of Traditional Medicine Utilisation in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Gyasi, Razak Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between national health insurance status and the pattern of traditional medicine (TRM) use among the general population in Ghana. A retrospective cross-sectional survey of randomly sampled adults, aged ≥18 years (N = 324), was conducted. The results indicate that TRM use was high with prevalence of over 86%. The study found no statistically significant association between national health insurance status and TRM utilisation (P > 0.05). Paradoxically, major sources of TRM, frequency of TRM use, comedical administration, and disclosure of TRM use to health care professionals differed significantly between the insured and uninsured subgroups (P < 0.001). Whereas effectiveness of TRM predicted its use for both insured [odds ratio (OR) = 4.374 (confidence interval (CI): 1.753–10.913; P = 0.002)] and uninsured [OR = 3.383 CI: 0.869–13.170; P = 0.039)], work experience predicted TRM use for the insured [OR = 1.528 (95% CI: 1.309–1.900; P = 0.019)]. Cultural specific variables and health philosophies rather than health insurance status may influence health care-seeking behaviour and TRM use. The enrollment of herbal-based therapies on the national health insurance medicine plan is exigent to ensure monitoring and rational use of TRM towards intercultural health care system in Ghana. PMID:26347791

  8. Carbon dioxide utilisation of Dunaliella tertiolecta for carbon bio-mitigation in a semicontinuous photobioreactor.

    PubMed

    Farrelly, Damien J; Brennan, Liam; Everard, Colm D; McDonnell, Kevin P

    2014-04-01

    Bio-fixation of carbon dioxide (CO2) by microalgae has been recognised as an attractive approach to offset anthropogenic emissions. Biological carbon mitigation is the process whereby autotrophic organisms, such as microalgae, convert CO2 into organic carbon and O2 through photosynthesis; this process through respiration produces biomass. In this study Dunaliella tertiolecta was cultivated in a semicontinuous culture to investigate the carbon mitigation rate of the system. The algae were produced in 1.2-L Roux bottles with a working volume of 1 L while semicontinuous production commenced on day 4 of cultivation when the carbon mitigation rate was found to be at a maximum for D. tertiolecta. The reduction in CO2 between input and output gases was monitored to predict carbon fixation rates while biomass production and microalgal carbon content are used to calculate the actual carbon mitigation potential of D. tertiolecta. A renewal rate of 45 % of flask volume was utilised to maintain the culture in exponential growth with an average daily productivity of 0.07 g L(-1) day(-1). The results showed that 0.74 g L(-1) of biomass could be achieved after 7 days of semicontinuous production while a total carbon mitigation of 0.37 g L(-1) was achieved. This represented an increase of 0.18 g L(-1) in carbon mitigation rate compared to batch production of D. tertiolecta over the same cultivation period. PMID:24162085

  9. Analysis of glyphosate and glufosinate by capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry utilising a sheathless microelectrospray interface.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, Lee; Startin, James R; Keely, Brendan J; Goodall, David M

    2003-07-01

    The potential of capillary electrophoresis combined with mass spectrometry for the simultaneous determination of two herbicides (glyphosate and glufosinate) and their metabolites (aminomethylphosphonic acid and methylphosphinicopropionic acid) as the native species is demonstrated utilising a simple microelectrospray interface. The interface uses the voltage applied to the CE capillary to drive separation and generate the electrospray, avoiding sample dilution associated with the use of a sheath liquid interface. The chemistry of the internal walls of the capillary has a marked influence on peak shape, and appropriate choice is essential to successful operation of the interface. A linear polyacrylamide coated capillary, which has no electroosmotic flow, gave best reproducibility, with precision of migration time and peak area in the range 1-2 and 7-12% RSD, respectively, for the four analytes. Limits of detection, low-pg on-column, are substantially better than for previous methods and calibration curves over the range 1-100 microM have R2 values greater than 0.97. The observed concentration limit of detection for glyphosate in water is 1 microM and for a water-acetone extract of wheat is 2.5 microM, allowing the underivatised herbicide to be detected at 10% of the maximum residue limit in wheat. PMID:12929967

  10. Measurement of labile copper in wine by medium exchange stripping potentiometry utilising screen printed carbon electrodes.

    PubMed

    Clark, Andrew C; Kontoudakis, Nikolaos; Barril, Celia; Schmidtke, Leigh M; Scollary, Geoffrey R

    2016-07-01

    The presence of copper in wine is known to impact the reductive, oxidative and colloidal stability of wine, and techniques enabling measurement of different forms of copper in wine are of particular interest in understanding these spoilage processes. Electrochemical stripping techniques developed to date require significant pretreatment of wine, potentially disturbing the copper binding equilibria. A thin mercury film on a screen printed carbon electrode was utilised in a flow system for the direct analysis of labile copper in red and white wine by constant current stripping potentiometry with medium exchange. Under the optimised conditions, including an enrichment time of 500s and constant current of 1.0μA, the response range was linear from 0.015 to 0.200mg/L. The analysis of 52 red and white wines showed that this technique generally provided lower labile copper concentrations than reported for batch measurement by related techniques. Studies in a model system and in finished wines showed that the copper sulfide was not measured as labile copper, and that loss of hydrogen sulfide via volatilisation induced an increase in labile copper within the model wine system. PMID:27154696

  11. Utilisation of oral health services, oral health needs and oral health status in a peri-urban informal settlement.

    PubMed

    Westaway, M S; Viljoen, E; Rudolph, M J

    1999-04-01

    Interviews were conducted with 294 black residents (155 females and 138 males) of a peri-urban informal settlement in Gauteng to ascertain utilisation of oral health services, oral health needs and oral health status. Only 37 per cent of the sample had consulted a dentist or medical practitioner, usually for extractions. Teenagers and employed persons were significantly less likely to utilise dentists than the older age groups and unemployed persons. Forty per cent were currently experiencing oral health problems such as a sore mouth, tooth decay and bleeding/painful gums. Two hundred and twelve (73 per cent) interviewees wanted dental treatment or advice. Residents who rated their oral health status as fair or poor appeared to have the greatest need for oral health services. The use of interviews appears to be a cost-effective method of determining oral morbidity. PMID:10518916

  12. Investigation of Matlab® as Platform in Navigation and Control of an Automatic Guided Vehicle Utilising an Omnivision Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Kotze, Ben; Jordaan, Gerrit

    2014-01-01

    Automatic Guided Vehicles (AGVs) are navigated utilising multiple types of sensors for detecting the environment. In this investigation such sensors are replaced and/or minimized by the use of a single omnidirectional camera picture stream. An area of interest is extracted, and by using image processing the vehicle is navigated on a set path. Reconfigurability is added to the route layout by signs incorporated in the navigation process. The result is the possible manipulation of a number of AGVs, each on its own designated colour-signed path. This route is reconfigurable by the operator with no programming alteration or intervention. A low resolution camera and a Matlab® software development platform are utilised. The use of Matlab® lends itself to speedy evaluation and implementation of image processing options on the AGV, but its functioning in such an environment needs to be assessed. PMID:25157548

  13. Accuracy analysis of direct georeferenced UAV images utilising low-cost navigation sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briese, Christian; Wieser, Martin; Verhoeven, Geert; Glira, Philipp; Doneus, Michael; Pfeifer, Norbert

    2014-05-01

    control points should be used to improve the estimated values, especially to decrease the amount of systematic errors. For the bundle block adjustment the calibration of the camera and their temporal stability must be determined additionally. This contribution presents next to the theory a practical study on the accuracy analysis of direct georeferenced UAV imagery by low-cost navigation sensors. The analysis was carried out within the research project ARAP (automated (ortho)rectification of archaeological aerial photographs). The utilized UAS consists of the airplane "MAJA", manufactured by "Bormatec" (length: 1.2 m, wingspan: 2.2 m) equipped with the autopilot "ArduPilot Mega 2.5". For image acquisition the camera "Ricoh GR Digital IV" is utilised. The autopilot includes a GNSS receiver capable of DGPS (EGNOS), an inertial measurement system (INS), a barometer, and a magnetometer. In the study the achieved accuracies for the estimated position and orientation of the images are presented. The paper concludes with a summary of the remaining error sources and their possible corrections by applying further improvements on the utilised equipment and the direct georeferencing process.

  14. The Effect of Urban Basic Medical Insurance on Health Service Utilisation in Shaanxi Province, China: A Comparison of Two Schemes

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Jianmin; Yang, Xiaowei; Yan, Ju'e; Xue, Qinxiang; Chen, Gang

    2014-01-01

    Background Urban population in China is mainly covered by two medical insurance schemes: the Urban Employee Basic Medical Insurance (UEBMI) for urban employees in formal sector and the Urban Resident Basic Medical Insurance (URBMI) for the left urban residents, mainly the unemployed, the elderly and children. This paper studies the effects of UEBMI and URBMI on health services utilisation in Shaanxi Province, Western China. Methods Cross-sectional data from the 4th National Health Services Survey - Shaanxi Province was studied. The propensity score matching and the coarsened exact matching methods have been used to estimate the average medical insurance effect on the insured. Results Compared to the uninsured, robust results suggest that UEBMI had significantly increased the outpatient health services utilisation in the last two weeks (p<0.10), whilst the significant effect on hospitalisation was evident in the CEM method (p<0.10). The effect of URBMI was limited in that although being insured was associated with higher health services utilisation, compared with the uninsured, none of the improvement was statistically significant (p>0.10). It was also found that compared with the uninsured, basic medical insurance enrollees were more likely to purchase inpatient treatments in lower levels of hospitals, consistent with the incentive of the benefit package design. Conclusion Basic Medical insurance schemes have shown a positive but limited effect on increasing health services utilisation in Shaanxi Province. The benefit package design of higher reimbursement rates for lower level hospitals has induced the insured to use medical services in lower level hospitals for inpatient services. PMID:24740282

  15. Low utilisation of diabetes medicines in Iran, despite their affordability (2000–2012): a time-series and benchmarking study

    PubMed Central

    Sarayani, Amir; Rashidian, Arash; Gholami, Kheirollah

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Diabetes is a major public health concern worldwide, particularly in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). Limited data exist on the status of access to diabetes medicines in LMICs. We assessed the utilisation and affordability of diabetes medicines in Iran as a middle-income country. Design We used a retrospective time-series design (2000–2012) and assessed national diabetes medicines’ utilisation using pharmaceuticals wholesale data. Methods We calculated defined daily dose consumptions per population days (DDDs/1000 inhabitants/day; DIDs) indicator. Findings were benchmarked with data from Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries. We also employed Drug Utilization-90% (DU-90) method to compare DU-90s with the Essential Medicines List published by the WHO. We measured affordability using number of minimum daily wage required to purchase a treatment course for 1 month. Results Diabetes medicines’ consumption increased from 4.47 to 33.54 DIDs. The benchmarking showed that medicines’ utilisation in Iran in 2011 was only 54% of the median DIDs of 22 OECD countries. Oral hypoglycaemic agents consisted over 80% of use throughout the study period. Regular and isophane insulin (NPH), glibenclamide, metformin and gliclazide were the DU-90 drugs in 2012. Metformin, glibenclamide and regular/NPH insulin combination therapy were affordable throughout the study period (∼0.4, ∼0.1, ∼0.3 of minimum daily wage, respectively). While the affordability of novel insulin preparations improved over time, they were still unaffordable in 2012. Conclusions The utilisation of diabetes medicines was relatively low, perhaps due to underdiagnosis and inadequate management of patients with diabetes. This had occurred despite affordability of essential diabetes medicines in Iran. Appropriate policies are required to address the underutilisation of diabetes medicines in Iran. PMID:25324322

  16. Challenges in generating costs and utilisation rates associated with castration-resistant prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bourke, Siobhan; Burns, Richéal Maria; Gaynor, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Background Prostate cancer (PCa), the most commonly diagnosed cancer among men in the United States and Europe, is an escalating resource allocation issue across healthcare systems in the Western world. The impact of skeletal-related events, associated with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), is considerable with many new therapies being sought to treat these events in a cost-effective manner. Aims The aim of this paper is to provide insight into the level of constraints associated with devising cost frameworks for economic analysis of CRPC in the Irish healthcare setting. Methods An informal questionnaire was devised to obtain estimates of utilisation to populate a decision tree model; existing parameters from the literature were also employed. Cost parameters included Irish reference costs, and a costs literature review was undertaken; a healthcare payer perspective was adopted. Pharmacy dosages used for modelling costs were calculated for an average 75 kg male. Results The estimated average cost of care associated with adverse events in CRPC was €23,264. Approximately 40% of the costs of CRPC are attributed to skeletal-related events; therefore, reducing the number of skeletal-related events could significantly reduce the cost of care. In attempting to generate accurate and reliable cost parameters, this study highlights the challenges of conducting economic analysis in the Irish healthcare setting. Conclusion This study presents leading treatments and associated costs for CRPC patients in the Republic of Ireland (RoI), which are expected to steadily increase with demographic shifts. Further research is warranted in this area due to the limitations encountered in the study.

  17. Healthcare Resource Utilisation Associated with Herpes Zoster in a Prospective Cohort of Older Australian Adults

    PubMed Central

    Karki, Surendra; Newall, Anthony T.; MacIntyre, C. Raina; Heywood, Anita E.; McIntyre, Peter; Banks, Emily; Liu, Bette

    2016-01-01

    Background Herpes zoster (HZ) is a common condition that increases in incidence with older age but vaccines are available to prevent the disease. However, there are limited data estimating the health system burden attributable to herpes zoster by age. Methods In this study, we quantified excess healthcare resource usage associated with HZ during the acute/sub-acute period of disease (21days before to 90 days after onset) in 5952 cases and an equal number of controls matched on age, sex, and prior healthcare resource usage. Estimates were adjusted for potential confounders in multivariable regression models. Using population-based estimates of HZ incidence, we calculated the age-specific excess number of health service usage events attributable to HZ in the population. Results Per HZ case, there was an average of 0.06 (95% CI 0.04–0.08) excess hospitalisations, 1.61 (95% CI 1.51–1.69) excess general practitioner visits, 1.96 (95% CI 1.86–2.15) excess prescriptions filled and 0.11 (95% CI 0.09–0.13) excess emergency department visits. The average number of healthcare resource use events, and the estimated excess per 100,000 population increased with increasing age but were similar for men and women, except for higher rates of hospitalisation in men. The excess annual HZ associated burden of hospitalisations was highest in adults ≥80 years (N = 2244, 95%CI 1719–2767); GP visits was highest in those 60–69 years (N = 50567, 95%CI 39958–61105), prescriptions and ED visits were highest in 70–79 years (N = 50524, 95%CI 40634–60471 and N = 2891, 95%CI 2319–3449 respectively). Conclusions This study provides important data to establish the healthcare utilisation associated with HZ against which detailed cost-effectiveness analyses of HZ immunisation in older adults can be conducted. PMID:27483007

  18. Increased utilisation of PEPFAR-supported laboratory services by non-HIV patents in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    McNairy, Margaret L.; Gwynn, Charon; Rabkin, Miriam; Antelman, Gretchen; Wu, Yingfeng; Alemayehu, Bereket; Lim, Travis; Imtiaz, Rubina; Mosha, Fausta; Mwasekaga, Michael; Othman, Asha A.; Justman, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    Background It is unknown to what extent the non-HIV population utilises laboratories supported by the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR). Objectives We aimed to describe the number and proportion of laboratory tests performed in 2009 and 2011 for patients referred from HIV and non-HIV services (NHSs) in a convenience sample collected from 127 laboratories supported by PEPFAR in Tanzania. We then compared changes in the proportions of tests performed for patients referred from NHSs in 2009 vs 2011. Methods Haematology, chemistry, tuberculosis and syphilis test data were collected from available laboratory registers. Referral sources, including HIV services, NHSs, or lack of a documented referral source, were recorded. A generalised linear mixed model reported the odds that a test was from a NHS. Results A total of 94 132 tests from 94 laboratories in 2009 and 157 343 tests from 101 laboratories in 2011 were recorded. Half of all tests lacked a documented referral source. Tests from NHSs constituted 42% (66 084) of all tests in 2011, compared with 31% (29 181) in 2009. A test in 2011 was twice as likely to have been referred from a NHS as in 2009 (adjusted odds ratio: 2.0 [95% confidence interval: 2.0–2.1]). Conclusion Between 2009 and 2011, the number and proportion of tests from NHSs increased across all types of test. This finding may reflect increased documentation of NHS referrals or that the laboratory scale-up originally intended to service the HIV-positive population in Tanzania may be associated with a ‘spillover effect’ amongst the general population. PMID:26962475

  19. The POPPY Research Programme protocol: investigating opioid utilisation, costs and patterns of extramedical use in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Degenhardt, Louisa; Blanch, Bianca; Gisev, Natasa; Larance, Briony; Pearson, Sallie

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Opioid prescribing is increasing in many countries. In Australia, there is limited research on patterns of prescribing and access, or the outcomes associated with this use. The aim of this research programme is to use national dispensing data to estimate opioid use and costs, including problematic or extramedical use in the Australian population. Methods and analysis In a cohort of persons dispensed at least one opioid in 2013, we will estimate monthly utilisation and costs of prescribed opioids, overall and according to individual opioid formulations and strengths. In a cohort of new opioid users, commencing therapy between 1 July 2009 and 31 December 2013, we will examine patterns of opioid use including initiation of therapy, duration of treatment and concomitant use of opioids and other prescribed medicines. We will also examine patterns of extramedical opioid use based on indicators including excess dosing, use of more than one opioid concomitantly, doctor/pharmacy shopping and accelerated time to prescription refill. Ethics and dissemination This protocol was approved by the NSW Population and Health Services Ethics Committee (March 2014) and data access approved by the Department of Human Services External Review Evaluation Committee (June 2014). This will be one of the first comprehensive Australian studies with the capability to investigate individual patterns of use and track extramedical use. In the first instance our analysis will be based on 5 years of dispensing data but will be expanded with ongoing annual data updates. This research has the capability to contribute significantly to pharmaceutical policy within Australia and globally. In particular, the trajectory of extramedical prescription-opioid use has been the subject of limited research to date. The results of this research will be published widely in general medical, pharmacoepidemiology, addiction and psychiatry journals. PMID:25631315

  20. Waste generation and utilisation in micro-sized furniture-manufacturing enterprises in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Top, Y

    2015-01-01

    The number of small-scale businesses within most national economies is generally high, especially in developing countries. Often these businesses have a weak economic status and limited environmental awareness. The type and amount of waste produced, and the recycling methods adopted by these businesses during their operation can have negative effects on the environment. This study investigated the types of waste generated and the recycling methods adopted in micro-sized enterprises engaged in the manufacture of furniture. An assessment was also made of whether the characteristics of the enterprise had any effect on the waste recycling methods that were practised. A survey was conducted of 31 enterprises in the furniture industry in Gumushane province, Turkey, which is considered a developing economy. Surveys were undertaken via face-to-face interviews. It was found that medium-density fibreboard (MDF), and to a lesser extent, chipboard, were used in the manufacture of furniture, and two major types of waste in the form of fine dust and small fragments of board are generated during the cutting of these boards. Of the resulting composite board waste, 96.9% was used for heating homes and workplaces, where it was burnt under conditions of incomplete combustion. Enterprises were found to have adopted other methods to utilise their wastes in addition to using them as fuel. Such enterprises include those operating from a basement or first floor of a building in the cities, those continuing production throughout the year, those in need for capital and those enterprises not operating a dust-collection system. PMID:25453314

  1. Light Levels Affect Carbon Utilisation in Tropical Seagrass under Ocean Acidification

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Under future ocean acidification (OA), increased availability of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in seawater may enhance seagrass productivity. However, the ability to utilise additional DIC could be regulated by light availability, often reduced through land runoff. To test this, two tropical seagrass species, Cymodocea serrulata and Halodule uninervis were exposed to two DIC concentrations (447 μatm and 1077 μatm pCO2), and three light treatments (35, 100, 380 μmol m-2 s-1) for two weeks. DIC uptake mechanisms were separately examined by measuring net photosynthetic rates while subjecting C. serrulata and H. uninervis to changes in light and addition of bicarbonate (HCO3-) use inhibitors (carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, acetazolamide) and TRIS buffer (pH 8.0). We observed a strong dependence on energy driven H+-HCO3- co-transport (TRIS, which disrupts H+ extrusion) in C. serrulata under all light levels, indicating greater CO2 dependence in low light. This was confirmed when, after two weeks exposure, DIC enrichment stimulated maximum photosynthetic rates (Pmax) and efficiency (α) more in C. serrulata grown under lower light levels (36–60% increase) than for those in high light (4% increase). However, C. serrulata growth increased with both DIC enrichment and light levels. Growth, NPP and photosynthetic responses in H. uninervis increased with higher light treatments and were independent of DIC availability. Furthermore, H. uninervis was found to be more flexible in HCO3- uptake pathways. Here, light availability influenced productivity responses to DIC enrichment, via both carbon fixation and acquisition processes, highlighting the role of water quality in future responses to OA. PMID:26938454

  2. Agricultural waste utilisation strategies and demand for urban waste compost: Evidence from smallholder farmers in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Nigussie, Abebe; Kuyper, Thomas W; de Neergaard, Andreas

    2015-10-01

    The use of agricultural waste for soil amendment is limited in developing countries. Competition between fuel and feed is the major cause for the insufficient application of agricultural waste on cropland. The aims of this study were therefore (i) to investigate variation in agricultural waste allocation between groups of farmers with different livelihood strategies and link this allocation with the nutrient balances of their production systems, (ii) to identify farm characteristics that influence utilisation of agricultural waste for soil amendment, and (iii) to assess demand for urban waste compost. A total of 220 farmers were selected randomly and interviewed using standardised semi-structured questionnaires. Four groups of farmers, namely (i) field crop farmers, (ii) vegetable producers, (iii) ornamental-plant growers, and (iv) farmers practising mixed farming, were identified using categorical principal component and two-step cluster analyses. Field crop farmers produced the largest quantity of agricultural waste, but they allocated 80% of manure to fuel and 85% of crop residues to feed. Only <10% of manure and crop residues were applied on soils. Farmers also sold manure and crop residues, and this generated 5-10% of their annual income. Vegetable and ornamental-plant growers allocated over 40% of manure and crop residues to soil amendment. Hence, nutrient balances were less negative in vegetable production systems. Education, farm size, land tenure and access to extension services were the variables that impeded allocation of agricultural waste to soil amendment. Replacement of fuel and feed through sustainable means is a viable option for soil fertility management. Urban waste compost should also be used as alternative option for soil amendment. Our results showed variation in compost demand between farmers. Education, landownership, experience with compost and access to extension services explained variation in compost demand. We also demonstrated that

  3. Utilising reinforcement learning to develop strategies for driving auditory neural implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Geoffrey W.; Zambetta, Fabio; Li, Xiaodong; Paolini, Antonio G.

    2016-08-01

    Objective. In this paper we propose a novel application of reinforcement learning to the area of auditory neural stimulation. We aim to develop a simulation environment which is based off real neurological responses to auditory and electrical stimulation in the cochlear nucleus (CN) and inferior colliculus (IC) of an animal model. Using this simulator we implement closed loop reinforcement learning algorithms to determine which methods are most effective at learning effective acoustic neural stimulation strategies. Approach. By recording a comprehensive set of acoustic frequency presentations and neural responses from a set of animals we created a large database of neural responses to acoustic stimulation. Extensive electrical stimulation in the CN and the recording of neural responses in the IC provides a mapping of how the auditory system responds to electrical stimuli. The combined dataset is used as the foundation for the simulator, which is used to implement and test learning algorithms. Main results. Reinforcement learning, utilising a modified n-Armed Bandit solution, is implemented to demonstrate the model’s function. We show the ability to effectively learn stimulation patterns which mimic the cochlea’s ability to covert acoustic frequencies to neural activity. Time taken to learn effective replication using neural stimulation takes less than 20 min under continuous testing. Significance. These results show the utility of reinforcement learning in the field of neural stimulation. These results can be coupled with existing sound processing technologies to develop new auditory prosthetics that are adaptable to the recipients current auditory pathway. The same process can theoretically be abstracted to other sensory and motor systems to develop similar electrical replication of neural signals.

  4. Can silicon isotopes be used to assess anthropogenic impacts and nutrient utilisation in Lake Baikal, Siberia?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swann, G. E. A.; Panizzo, V. N.; Mackay, A. W.; Roberts, S.; Vologina, E.; Horstwood, M. S.

    2014-12-01

    Silicon isotope geochemistry (28Si, 29Si, 30Si) represents a growing field in Earth Sciences providing information to constrain and understand biogeochemical cycling on land and in oceans. Here we present records of δ30Si (30Si/28Si) from the Lake Baikal drainage basin in central Siberia to understand silicon cycling through the dominant river tributaries and into Lake Baikal itself, the world's deepest and most voluminous lake containing one fifth of all freshwater not stored in glaciers and ice caps.Waters were collected along an upstream transect for the five dominant Lake Baikal inflows as well as from the Selenga Delta which account for >50% of the annual riverine flow to the lake. Samples for dissolved silicon (DSi) concentrations and silicon isotopic signatures (δ30SiDSi) were filtered and acidified in the field with isotopic analyses conducted on a Neptune + Multi-Collector ICP-MS using wet plasma mode with Mg doping of samples and standard-sample-standard bracketing. Analytical reproducibility is 0.11‰ (2σ) and blanks are <1% of signal intensity. The DSi concentration of all river inflow samples varies from c. 2.5-6.3 ppm, which contrasts with concentrations of < 1ppm from the Angara River, the lake's only outflow. Combined with river δ30SiDSi values of c. + 0.94 to +1.52‰ and lake water and outflow values of c. +2.50‰, the results show significant (up to 60%) biological utilisation of silicon entering the lake.With the Lake Baikal having been designated a World Heritage Site since 1996, due to its high level of biological endemicity, the work in combination with sediment cores from the lake provides an insight into the transportation and fate of silicon in the basin and an assessment of how climate change and expanding anthropogenic activities in the region including urbanisation, deforestation, agriculture and mining have impacted biogeochemical cycling.

  5. Variabilities in the mortality-related resource utilisation for congenital heart disease

    PubMed Central

    Danford, David A; Karels, Quentin; Kutty, Shelby

    2016-01-01

    Objective Our objective was to characterise the divergence of effort from outcome in congenital heart disease (CHD) care by measuring mortality-related resource utilisation fraction (MRRUF) for various CHD lesions across institutions of differing volumes. Methods Study design was observational analysis of an administrative database, the Pediatric Health Information System (PHIS). The setting was inpatient; 2004–2013. Patients were ≤21 years old with atrial septal defect (ASD), ventricular septal defect (VSD), tetralogy of Fallot (TOF), hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) or other single ventricle (SV). There were no interventions but diagnosis, institution (and volume), age, length of hospitalisation, billed charges and deaths were recorded. The main outcome measure was MRRUF, the ratio of investments during hospitalisations ending in fatality to investments during all hospitalisations. Results There were 50 939 admissions, 1711 deaths, 703 383 inpatient days, and $10 182 000 000 billed charges. MRRUF varied widely by diagnosis: highest in HLHS (21%), but present in ASD (2%) and VSD (4%). Highest among the very young, MRRUF also increased in HLHS and SV during adolescence. MRRUF increased with hospitalisation duration. MRRUF had no relation to institutional volume, and was static over the decade studied. Conclusions Even in the modern era we invest heavily in inpatient CHD care that does not produce the desired outcome. Although its magnitude varies by lesion and age, MRRUF is not limited to complex disease in the very young. MRRUF is not decreasing, and is not isolated to high or low volume institutions. PMID:27175289

  6. Impact of utilisation of uncompleted handouts on power point presentations (PPT) in rural Indian medical institute

    PubMed Central

    BHAISARE, ROSHAN; KAMBLE, BHAVNA

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Note taking while attending a PPT requires high activity of memory and writing process which ultimately leads to what is called “death by power point” referring to boredom and fatigue.  To overcome this we planned to evaluate the impact of utilisation of uncompleted handouts given prior to PPT presentations. Methods Final year MBBS students were divided in 2 batches, batch A and batch B.  For a set of lectures one batch was provided with handouts before lecture while the other batch was given lectures only. Crossover was done to avoid bias, all the lectures being given by the same presenter.  At the end of each lecture, a short questionnaire of 10 Multiple Choice Question (MCQ) was provided to the students. Mean scores were calculated for lectures with handouts and without handouts. Results For a set of lectures, when batch A was provided with handouts, the mean score was 28.2; for batch B to which no handouts were given the mean score was 23.4. Similarly, for batch B when provided with handouts the mean score was 29.1, for batch A which was not provided with handouts the mean score was 24. There was an average increase of 4.2 marks. Actual gain when handouts were provided was 1.2 marks per lecture.  It was more for the batch comprising of repeater students as compared to the batch of fresher students. Increase in attendance was also noted. Conclusion Providing uncompleted handouts before a didactic lecture definitely results in increase in knowledge gain; repeater students benefit more with uncompleted handouts, PMID:27382583

  7. Reference-based pricing schemes: effect on pharmaceutical expenditure, resource utilisation and health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Ioannides-Demos, Lisa L; Ibrahim, Joseph E; McNeil, John J

    2002-01-01

    Pharmaceutical expenditure is rising more rapidly than the general inflation rate in most advanced countries. One strategy that has been introduced to control pharmaceutical costs is reference-based pricing (RBP). Its potential is restricted to those specific segments of the drug market where several drugs (and/or their generic forms) exist without substantial evidence that any particular agent is superior. Three broad approaches have been adopted. These involve the aggregation of drugs into generic groups, related drug groups (e.g. ACE inhibitors) or drugs grouped by therapeutic indication (e.g. antihypertensives). For each drug group, a single reimbursement level or reference price is set. Drugs above the reference price require part or total payment by the patient. The experience with RBP ranges from over 10 years in Germany (involving all levels of RBP) to the more recent implementation of RBP for related drug groups in Australia. This review summarises the current state of knowledge on RBP from the published experiences in the countries where RBP has been adopted. The published systematic reviews of RBP from the countries that have implemented it suggest that RBP has been successful at temporarily capping drug prices for the RBP drug groups and achieving short term cost savings. However, other factors influencing total pharmaceutical expenditure have often occurred simultaneously and make it difficult to isolate specific effects of RBP. Further investigation is required before any valid conclusions can be drawn about the net effect of RBP on healthcare costs. RBP has withstood the initial legal challenges of pharmaceutical companies and the criticisms of some clinicians. Where the reference price is based on the lowest priced drug(s) in the group, RBP appears to be one of the few strategies likely to be effective at encouraging doctors to use the least expensive agents as first-line therapy and utilise more expensive agents in those who experience side effects

  8. Light Levels Affect Carbon Utilisation in Tropical Seagrass under Ocean Acidification.

    PubMed

    Ow, Yan X; Uthicke, Sven; Collier, Catherine J

    2016-01-01

    Under future ocean acidification (OA), increased availability of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in seawater may enhance seagrass productivity. However, the ability to utilise additional DIC could be regulated by light availability, often reduced through land runoff. To test this, two tropical seagrass species, Cymodocea serrulata and Halodule uninervis were exposed to two DIC concentrations (447 μatm and 1077 μatm pCO2), and three light treatments (35, 100, 380 μmol m(-2) s(-1)) for two weeks. DIC uptake mechanisms were separately examined by measuring net photosynthetic rates while subjecting C. serrulata and H. uninervis to changes in light and addition of bicarbonate (HCO3-) use inhibitors (carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, acetazolamide) and TRIS buffer (pH 8.0). We observed a strong dependence on energy driven H+-HCO3- co-transport (TRIS, which disrupts H+ extrusion) in C. serrulata under all light levels, indicating greater CO2 dependence in low light. This was confirmed when, after two weeks exposure, DIC enrichment stimulated maximum photosynthetic rates (Pmax) and efficiency (α) more in C. serrulata grown under lower light levels (36-60% increase) than for those in high light (4% increase). However, C. serrulata growth increased with both DIC enrichment and light levels. Growth, NPP and photosynthetic responses in H. uninervis increased with higher light treatments and were independent of DIC availability. Furthermore, H. uninervis was found to be more flexible in HCO3- uptake pathways. Here, light availability influenced productivity responses to DIC enrichment, via both carbon fixation and acquisition processes, highlighting the role of water quality in future responses to OA. PMID:26938454

  9. Impact of health insurance status changes on healthcare utilisation patterns: a longitudinal cohort study in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae-Hyun; Lee, Sang Gyu; Lee, Kwang-Soo; Jang, Sung-In; Cho, Kyung-Hee; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The study examined medical care utilisation by health insurance status changes. Setting The Korean Welfare Panel Study (KoWePs) was used. Participants This study analysed 14 267 participants at baseline (2006). Interventions The individuals were categorised into four health insurance status groups: continuous health insurance, change from health insurance to Medical Aid, change from Medical Aid to health insurance, or continuous Medical Aid. Primary and secondary outcome measures Three dependent variables were also analysed: days spent in hospital; number of outpatient visits; and hospitalisations per year. Longitudinal data analysis was used to determine whether changes in health insurance status were associated with healthcare utilisation. Results The number of outpatient visits per year was 0.1.363 times higher (p<0.0001) in the continuous Medical Aid than in the continuous health insurance group. The number of hospitalisations per year was 1.560 times higher (p<0.001) in new Medical Aid and −0.636 times lower (p<0.001) in new health insurance than in continuous health insurance group. The number of days spent in hospital per year was −0.567 times lower (p=0.021) in the new health insurance than in the continuous health insurance group. Conclusions Health insurance beneficiaries with a coverage level lower than Medical Aid showed lower healthcare utilisation, as measured by the number of hospitalisations and days spent in hospital per year. PMID:27036140

  10. Mise à jour sur l’utilisation clinique de la buprénorphine

    PubMed Central

    Ducharme, Simon; Fraser, Ronald; Gill, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Examiner les données scientifiques actuelles sur la buprénorphine-naloxone pour le traitement des troubles liés aux opioïdes, en insistant sur le contexte des soins primaires. Qualité des données On a fait une recension dans MEDLINE et la base de données Cochrane des synthèses critiques. Les données probantes sont surtout de niveau I. Message principal La buprénorphine est un agoniste partiel des récepteurs μ des opioïdes et un antagoniste des récepteurs κ des opioïdes ayant une longue demi-vie et un potentiel moins grand que la méthadone d’entraîner un usage abusif. Pour une désintoxication, la buprénorphine est au moins équivalente à la méthadone et supérieure à la clonidine. Comme thérapie de substitution, la buprénorphine est clairement supérieure au placebo. La méthadone comporte de légers avantages en ce qui a trait à la rétention en thérapie, mais une approche par étape en utilisant initialement la buprénorphine-naloxone est aussi efficace. Il est possible, sécuritaire et efficace de recourir à la buprénorphine en milieu de soins primaires. On peut obtenir l’autorisation de prescrire de la buprénorphine après avoir suivi une formation en ligne. Conclusion La buprénorphine est un agent sécuritaire et efficace pour la désintoxication en cas de dépendance aux opioïdes. Elle peut servir d’agent de première intention dans les programmes de thérapie de substitution, en raison de son potentiel plus faible d’usage abusif en comparaison d’autres opioïdes. Son efficacité en milieux de soins primaires en fait un outil thérapeutique utile pour les médecins de famille.

  11. Utilisation and Off-Label Prescriptions of Respiratory Drugs in Children

    PubMed Central

    Schmiedl, Sven; Fischer, Rainald; Ibáñez, Luisa; Fortuny, Joan; Klungel, Olaf H.; Reynolds, Robert; Gerlach, Roman; Tauscher, Martin; Thürmann, Petra; Hasford, Joerg; Rottenkolber, Marietta

    2014-01-01

    Respiratory drugs are widely used in children to treat labeled and non-labeled indications but only some data are available quantifying comprehensively off-label usage. Thus, we aim to analyse drug utilisation and off-label prescribing of respiratory drugs focusing on age- and indication-related off-label use. Patients aged ≤18 years documented in the Bavarian Association of Statutory Health Insurance Physicians database (approx. 2 million children) between 2004 and 2008 were included in our study. Annual period prevalence rates (PPRs) per 10,000 children and the proportion of age- and indication-related off-label prescriptions were calculated and stratified by age and gender. Within the study period, highest PPRs were found for the fixed combination of clenbuterol/ambroxol (between 374–575 per 10,000 children) and the inhaled short acting beta-2-agonist salbutamol (between 378–527 per 10,000 children). Highest relative PPR increase was found for oral salbutamol (approx. 39-fold) whereas the most distinct decrease was found for oral long-acting beta-2-agonist clenbuterol (−97%). Compound classes most frequently involved in off-label prescribing were inhaled bronchodilative compounds (91,402; 37.3%) and oral beta-2-agonists (26,850; 22.5%). The highest absolute number of off-label prescriptions were found for inhaled salbutamol (n = 67,084; 42.0%) and oral clenbuterol/ambroxol (fixed combination, n = 18,897; 20.7%). Off-label prescribing due to indication was of much greater relevance than age-related off-label use. Most frequently, bronchodilative compounds were used off-label to treat respiratory tract infections. Highest off-label prescription rates were found in the youngest patients without relevant gender-related differences. Off-label prescribing of respiratory drugs is common especially in young children. Bronchodilative drugs were most frequently used off-label for treating acute bronchitis or upper respiratory tract infections underlining

  12. Rapakivi Granite: An architectural emblem of St Petersburg and its utilisation in other world cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulakh, Andrey; Gavrilenko, Vladimir; Panova, Helen

    2015-04-01

    The wide-ranging utilisation of Rapakivi Granite in St Petersburg is typified by the the famous Alexander Column, and 114 stone columns of St Isaac's Cathedralas well as the pedestal of the Nicholas I monument, and portals and basements of buildings of the Admiralty, General Staff, Senate and Synod. The stone is also frequently seen among pavement slabs and in parapets of embankments and bridges around the city. This list of examples where Rapakivi Granite has been used could be expanded further. All Rapakivi Granites used in the buildings of St.Petersburg were quarried from the so-called Vyborg massif. At present it has been found that the massif occupies an area of about 18 000 km2. In the past granite of the Vyborg massif was worked from several quarries in the vicinity of Fredrikshamn (Hamina) in Finland for use in St Peterburg. The best known granite quarries are at Piterlaks (Piuterlahti) and Gimmekyul (Hämeenkylä). Sometimes Rapakivi Granite form Finland differs in appearance from typical varieties. Thus columns of a classical portal in the house at N 7 in Pochtamtskaya Street are hewn from this greyish variety. Other examples are the plinth of the General Staff and Trade Store buildings. After the 1960s varieties from the Leningrad district, and Korosten (Ukraine) massifs were used in St Petersburg. Today it is possible to find examples of Rapakivi Granite from Finland in cities in the USA, South Africa, United Kingdom and Germany. It is a long used stone as demonstrated by its cultural heritage. It is also used as an ornamental or decorative stone in modern architecture. References: 1) Bulakh, A.G., Abakumova, N.B., and Romanovsky, J.V. St Petersburg: a History in Stone. 2010. Print House of St Petersburg State University. 173 p. (In English). 2) Tutakova, A.Ya., Romanovskiy, A.Z., Bulakh, A.G., and Leer, V.I. Dimension Stone of the Leningrad Region. Granites of the Karelia Isthmus in Architecture of the Modern St Petersburg. 2011. St Petersburg. 78 p

  13. Impact of headache on sickness absence and utilisation of medical services: a Danish population study.

    PubMed Central

    Rasmussen, B K; Jensen, R; Olesen, J

    1992-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--The aim was to study the extent and type of health service utilisation, medication habits, and sickness absence due to the primary headaches. DESIGN--This was a cross sectional epidemiological survey of headache disorders in a general population. Headache was diagnosed according to a structured interview and a neurological examination using the criteria of the International Headache Society. SETTING--A random sample of 25-64 year-old individuals was drawn from the Danish National Central Person Registry. All subjects were living in the Copenhagen County. PARTICIPANTS--740 subjects participated (76% of the sample); 119 had migraine and 578 had tension type headache. MAIN RESULTS--Among subjects with migraine 56% had, at some time, consulted their general practitioner because of the migraine. The corresponding percentage among subjects with tension type headache was 16. One or more specialists had been consulted by 16% of migraine sufferers and by 4% of subjects with tension type headache. The consultation rates of chiropractors and physiotherapists were 5-8%. Hospital admissions and supplementary laboratory investigations due to headache were rare (< 3%). Half of the migraine sufferers and 83% of subjects with tension type headache in the previous year had managed with at least one type of drug in the current year. Acetylsalicylic acid preparations and paracetamol were the most commonly used analgesics. Prophylaxis of migraine was used by 7%. In the preceding year 43% of employed migraine sufferers and 12% of employed subjects with tension type headache had missed one or more days of work because of headache. Most common was 1-7 days off work. The total loss of workdays per year due to migraine in the general population was estimated at 270 days per 1000 persons. For tension type headache the corresponding figure was 820. Women were more likely to consult a practitioner than men, whereas no significant sex difference emerged as regards absenteeism

  14. GP utilisation by education level among adults with COPD or asthma: a cross-sectional register-based study.

    PubMed

    Hetlevik, Øystein; Melbye, Hasse; Gjesdal, Sturla

    2016-01-01

    There is a marked socioeconomic gradient in the prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma, but a large proportion of patients remain undiagnosed. It is a challenge for general practitioners (GPs) to both identify patients and contribute to equity and high quality in services delivered. The aim of this study was to identify patients with COPD and asthma diagnoses recorded by GPs and explore their utilisation of GP services by education level. This was a cross-sectional, national, register-based study from Norwegian general practice in the period 2009-2011. Based on claims from GPs, the number of patients aged ⩾40 years with a diagnosis of COPD or asthma and their GP services utilisation were estimated and linked to the national education database. Multivariate Poisson and logistic regression models were used to explore the variations in GP utilisation. In the population aged ⩾40 years, 2.8% had COPD and 3.8% had asthma according to GPs' diagnoses. COPD was four times more prevalent in patients with basic education than higher education; this increase was ⩽80% for asthma. Consultation rates were 12% higher (P<0.001) for COPD and 25% higher (P<0.001) for asthma in patients with low versus high education in the age group of 40-59 years after adjusting for comorbidity, and patient and GP characteristics. Approximately 25% of COPD patients and 20% of asthma patients had ⩾1 spirometry test in general practice in 2011, with no significant education differences in adjusted models. The higher consultation rate in lower-education groups indicates that GPs contribute to fair distribution of healthcare. PMID:27279354

  15. Utilisation of helicopter emergency medical services in the early medical response to major incidents: a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Johnsen, Anne Siri; Fattah, Sabina; Sollid, Stephen J M; Rehn, Marius

    2016-01-01

    Objective This systematic review identifies, describes and appraises the literature describing the utilisation of helicopter emergency medical services (HEMS) in the early medical response to major incidents. Setting Early prehospital phase of a major incident. Design Systematic literature review performed according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, the Web of Science, PsycINFO, Scopus, Cinahl, Bibsys Ask, Norart, Svemed and UpToDate were searched using phrases that combined HEMS and ‘major incidents’ to identify when and how HEMS was utilised. The identified studies were subjected to data extraction and appraisal. Results The database search identified 4948 articles. Based on the title and abstract, the full text of 96 articles was obtained; of these, 37 articles were included in the review, and an additional five were identified by searching the reference lists of the 37 articles. HEMS was used to transport medical and rescue personnel to the incident and to transport patients to the hospital, especially when the infrastructure was damaged. Insufficient air traffic control, weather conditions, inadequate landing sites and failing communication were described as challenging in some incidents. Conclusions HEMS was used mainly for patient treatment and to transport patients, personnel and equipment in the early medical management of major incidents, but the optimal utilisation of this specialised resource remains unclear. This review identified operational areas with improvement potential. A lack of systematic indexing, heterogeneous data reporting and weak methodological design, complicated the identification and comparison of incidents, and more systematic reporting is needed. Trial registration number CRD42013004473. PMID:26861938

  16. Factors associated with awareness and utilisation of a community mobilisation intervention for female sex workers in Andhra Pradesh, India

    PubMed Central

    Burroway, Rebekah; Reed, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Examine factors associated with awareness and active utilisation of a community mobilisation intervention (CMI) to address HIV risk in female sex workers (FSWs) in a context characterised by multiple forms of sex work. Design Data came from two rounds, conducted in Spring 2006 and Spring 2007, of a serial cross-sectional survey of FSWs (n=812 in round 1, n=673 in round 2) recruited through respondent-driven sampling in Rajahmundry, Andhra Pradesh, India. Methods Descriptive statistics compared characteristics of programme aware and unaware FSWs and from among the aware, to characterise active program users. Multinomial logistic regression was used to assess factors associated with programme exposure. Results Between Rounds 1 and 2, programme awareness increased from 41.8% to 69.6% of respondents, and active utilisation (among those who were aware) increased from 49.2% to 61.0%. Street-based FSWs were under-represented and brothel-based FSWs overrepresented in both groups and rounds. Geographic proximity and literacy were associated with programme awareness but not utilisation. The most important factor associated with both forms of intervention exposure across rounds was willingness to be identified in public as a FSWs (OR 2.2–4.8). Conclusion Public visibility is a critical component of CMIs. Such interventions should develop strategies for involving FSWs that allow them to remain invisible, while also working to reduce the threat associated with public visibility. In contexts where sex work occurs in multiple venues, it is important to develop CMIs that include and address the needs of FSWs working in them all. PMID:20167735

  17. Out-of-Pocket Payments, Health Care Access and Utilisation in South-Eastern Nigeria: A Gender Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Onah, Michael N.; Govender, Veloshnee

    2014-01-01

    Out-of-pocket (OOP) payments have severe consequences for health care access and utilisation and are especially catastrophic for the poor. Although women comprise the majority of the poor in Nigeria and globally, the implications of OOP payments for health care access from a gender perspective have received little attention. This study seeks to fill this gap by using a combination of quantitative and qualitative analysis to investigate the gendered impact of OOPs on healthcare utilisation in south-eastern Nigeria. 411 households were surveyed and six single-sex Focus Group Discussions conducted. This study confirmed the socioeconomic and demographic vulnerability of female-headed households (FHHs), which contributed to gender-based inter-household differences in healthcare access, cost burden, choices of healthcare providers, methods of funding healthcare and coping strategies. FHHs had higher cost burdens from seeking care and untreated morbidity than male-headed households (MHHs) with affordability as a reason for not seeking care. There is also a high utilisation of patent medicine vendors (PMVs) by both households (PMVs are drug vendors that are unregulated, likely to offer very low-quality treatment and do not have trained personnel). OOP payment was predominantly the means of healthcare payment for both households, and households spoke of the difficulties associated with repaying health-related debt with implications for the medical poverty trap. It is recommended that the removal of user fees, introduction of prepayment schemes, and regulating PMVs be considered to improve access and provide protection against debt for FHHs and MHHs. The vulnerability of widows is of special concern and efforts to improve their healthcare access and broader efforts to empower should be encouraged for them and other poor households. PMID:24728103

  18. Analysis of the Diversity of Substrate Utilisation of Soil Bacteria Exposed to Cd and Earthworm Activity Using Generalised Additive Models

    PubMed Central

    Muñiz, Selene; Lacarta, Juan; Pata, María P.; Jiménez, Juan José; Navarro, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    Biolog EcoPlates™ can be used to measure the carbon substrate utilisation patterns of microbial communities. This method results in a community-level physiological profile (CLPP), which yields a very large amount of data that may be difficult to interpret. In this work, we explore a combination of statistical techniques (particularly the use of generalised additive models [GAMs]) to improve the exploitation of CLPP data. The strength of GAMs lies in their ability to address highly non-linear relationships between the response and the set of explanatory variables. We studied the impact of earthworms (Aporrectodea caliginosa Savigny 1826) and cadmium (Cd) on the CLPP of soil bacteria. The results indicated that both Cd and earthworms modified the CLPP. GAMs were used to assess time-course changes in the diversity of substrate utilisation (DSU) using the Shannon-Wiener index. GAMs revealed significant differences for all treatments (compared to control -S-). The Cd exposed microbial community presented very high metabolic capacities on a few substrata, resulting in an initial acute decrease of DSU (i.e. intense utilization of a few carbon substrata). After 54 h, and over the next 43 h the increase of the DSU suggest that other taxa, less dominant, reached high numbers in the wells containing sources that are less suitable for the Cd-tolerant taxa. Earthworms were a much more determining factor in explaining time course changes in DSU than Cd. Accordingly, Ew and EwCd soils presented similar trends, regardless the presence of Cd. Moreover, both treatments presented similar number of bacteria and higher than Cd-treated soils. This experimental approach, based on the use of DSU and GAMs allowed for a global and statistically relevant interpretation of the changes in carbon source utilisation, highlighting the key role of earthworms on the protection of microbial communities against the Cd. PMID:24416339

  19. Multimorbidity and healthcare utilisation among high-cost patients in the US Veterans Affairs Health Care System

    PubMed Central

    Zulman, Donna M; Pal Chee, Christine; Wagner, Todd H; Yoon, Jean; Cohen, Danielle M; Holmes, Tyson H; Ritchie, Christine; Asch, Steven M

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the relationship between multimorbidity and healthcare utilisation patterns among the highest cost patients in a large, integrated healthcare system. Design In this retrospective cross-sectional study of all patients in the U.S. Veterans Affairs (VA) Health Care System, we aggregated costs of individuals’ outpatient and inpatient care, pharmacy services and VA-sponsored contract care received in 2010. We assessed chronic condition prevalence, multimorbidity as measured by comorbidity count, and multisystem multimorbidity (number of body systems affected by chronic conditions) among the 5% highest cost patients. Using multivariate regression, we examined the association between multimorbidity and healthcare utilisation and costs, adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, marital status, homelessness and health insurance status. Setting USA VA Health Care System. Participants 5.2 million VA patients. Measures Annual total costs; absolute and share of costs generated through outpatient, inpatient, pharmacy and VA-sponsored contract care; number of visits to primary, specialty and mental healthcare; number of emergency department visits and hospitalisations. Results The 5% highest cost patients (n=261 699) accounted for 47% of total VA costs. Approximately two-thirds of these patients had chronic conditions affecting ≥3 body systems. Patients with cancer and schizophrenia were less likely to have documented comorbid conditions than other high-cost patients. Multimorbidity was generally associated with greater outpatient and inpatient utilisation. However, increased multisystem multimorbidity was associated with a higher outpatient share of total costs (1.6 percentage points per affected body system, p<0.01) but a lower inpatient share of total costs (−0.6 percentage points per affected body system, p<0.01). Conclusions Multisystem multimorbidity is common among high-cost VA patients. While some patients might benefit from disease

  20. GP utilisation by education level among adults with COPD or asthma: a cross-sectional register-based study

    PubMed Central

    Hetlevik, Øystein; Melbye, Hasse; Gjesdal, Sturla

    2016-01-01

    There is a marked socioeconomic gradient in the prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma, but a large proportion of patients remain undiagnosed. It is a challenge for general practitioners (GPs) to both identify patients and contribute to equity and high quality in services delivered. The aim of this study was to identify patients with COPD and asthma diagnoses recorded by GPs and explore their utilisation of GP services by education level. This was a cross-sectional, national, register-based study from Norwegian general practice in the period 2009–2011. Based on claims from GPs, the number of patients aged ⩾40 years with a diagnosis of COPD or asthma and their GP services utilisation were estimated and linked to the national education database. Multivariate Poisson and logistic regression models were used to explore the variations in GP utilisation. In the population aged ⩾40 years, 2.8% had COPD and 3.8% had asthma according to GPs’ diagnoses. COPD was four times more prevalent in patients with basic education than higher education; this increase was ⩽80% for asthma. Consultation rates were 12% higher (P<0.001) for COPD and 25% higher (P<0.001) for asthma in patients with low versus high education in the age group of 40–59 years after adjusting for comorbidity, and patient and GP characteristics. Approximately 25% of COPD patients and 20% of asthma patients had ⩾1 spirometry test in general practice in 2011, with no significant education differences in adjusted models. The higher consultation rate in lower-education groups indicates that GPs contribute to fair distribution of healthcare. PMID:27279354

  1. Equality in Maternal and Newborn Health: Modelling Geographic Disparities in Utilisation of Care in Five East African Countries

    PubMed Central

    Ruktanonchai, Nick W.; Nove, Andrea; Lopes, Sofia; Pezzulo, Carla; Bosco, Claudio; Alegana, Victor A.; Burgert, Clara R.; Ayiko, Rogers; Charles, Andrew SEK; Lambert, Nkurunziza; Msechu, Esther; Kathini, Esther; Matthews, Zoë; Tatem, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Geographic accessibility to health facilities represents a fundamental barrier to utilisation of maternal and newborn health (MNH) services, driving historically hidden spatial pockets of localized inequalities. Here, we examine utilisation of MNH care as an emergent property of accessibility, highlighting high-resolution spatial heterogeneity and sub-national inequalities in receiving care before, during, and after delivery throughout five East African countries. Methods We calculated a geographic inaccessibility score to the nearest health facility at 300 x 300 m using a dataset of 9,314 facilities throughout Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania and Uganda. Using Demographic and Health Surveys data, we utilised hierarchical mixed effects logistic regression to examine the odds of: 1) skilled birth attendance, 2) receiving 4+ antenatal care visits at time of delivery, and 3) receiving a postnatal health check-up within 48 hours of delivery. We applied model results onto the accessibility surface to visualise the probabilities of obtaining MNH care at both high-resolution and sub-national levels after adjusting for live births in 2015. Results Across all outcomes, decreasing wealth and education levels were associated with lower odds of obtaining MNH care. Increasing geographic inaccessibility scores were associated with the strongest effect in lowering odds of obtaining care observed across outcomes, with the widest disparities observed among skilled birth attendance. Specifically, for each increase in the inaccessibility score to the nearest health facility, the odds of having skilled birth attendance at delivery was reduced by over 75% (0.24; CI: 0.19–0.3), while the odds of receiving antenatal care decreased by nearly 25% (0.74; CI: 0.61–0.89) and 40% for obtaining postnatal care (0.58; CI: 0.45–0.75). Conclusions Overall, these results suggest decreasing accessibility to the nearest health facility significantly deterred utilisation of all

  2. The utilisation of municipal waste compost for the reclamation of anthropogenic soils: implications on C dynamics.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Said-Pullicino, D.; Bol, R.; Gigliotti, G.

    2009-04-01

    samples show that even after 10 years, amended topsoils were significantly enriched in compost-derived organic matter, confirming that the utilisation of such organic inputs in land reclamation activities has the potential to enhance the C stocks of degraded areas. The addition of compost to the superficial layer also resulted in a significant input of soluble organic compounds subject to leaching along the soil profile. Sorption isotherms for compost-derived water-extractable organic matter onto mineral materials used for landfill covering suggest that sorptive preservation was primarily responsible for the increase in C content and the shift in the C isotopic signature to values similar to that of the applied compost, in the deeper soil horizons over the 10 year experimental period. This was also confirmed by the accumulation of lignin-derived phenolic compounds. Nevertheless, analysis for non-cellulosic carbohydrates in soils samples and their respective water-extractable fractions suggest that a proportion of compost-derived, labile organic matter fraction is leached through the soil profile and potentially lost from the soil system, particularly in the years immediately after compost application.

  3. The effects of China’s urban basic medical insurance schemes on the equity of health service utilisation: evidence from Shaanxi Province

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In order to alleviate the problem of “Kan Bing Nan, Kan Bing Gui” (medical treatment is difficult to access and expensive) and improve the equity of health service utilisation for urban residents in China, the Urban Employee Basic Medical Insurance scheme (UEBMI) and Urban Resident Basic Medical Insurance scheme (URBMI) were established in 1999 and 2007, respectively. This study aims to analyse the effects of UEBMI and URBMI on the equity of outpatient and inpatient utilisation in Shaanxi Province, China. Methods Using the data from the fourth National Health Services Survey in Shaanxi Province, the method of Propensity Score Matching was employed to generate comparable samples between the insured and uninsured residents, through a one-to-one match algorithm. Next, based on the matched data, the method of decomposition of the concentration index was employed to compare the horizontal inequity indexes of health service utilisation between the UEBMI/URBMI insured and the matched uninsured residents. Results For the UEBMI insured and matched uninsured residents, the horizontal inequity indexes of outpatient visits are 0.1256 and -0.0511 respectively, and the horizontal inequity indexes of inpatient visits are 0.1222 and 0.2746 respectively. Meanwhile, the horizontal inequity indexes of outpatient visits are -0.1593 and 0.0967 for the URBMI insured and matched uninsured residents, and the horizontal inequity indexes of inpatient visits are 0.1931 and 0.3199 respectively. Conclusions The implementation of UEBMI increased the pro-rich inequity of outpatient utilisation (rich people utilise outpatient facilities more than the poor people) and the implementation of URBMI increased the pro-poor inequity of outpatient utilisation. Both of these two health insurance schemes reduced the pro-rich inequity of inpatient utilisation. PMID:24606592

  4. Under-reporting of inpatient services utilisation in household surveys – a population-based study in Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Tsui, Eva LH; Leung, Gabriel M; Woo, Pauline PS; Choi, Sarah; Lo, Su-Vui

    2005-01-01

    Background Recognising that household interviews may produce biased estimates of health services utilisation, we examined for under- and over-reporting of hospitalisation episodes in three recent, consecutive population-based household surveys in Hong Kong. Methods Territory-wide inpatient service utilisation volumes as estimated from the 1999, 2001 and 2002 Thematic Household Surveys (THS) were benchmarked against corresponding statistics derived from routine administrative databases. Between-year differences on net under-reporting were quantified by Cohen's d effect size. To assess the potential for systematic biases in under-reporting, age- and sex-specific net under-reporting rates within each survey year were computed and the F-test was performed to evaluate differences between demographic subgroups. We modelled the effects of age and sex on the likelihood of ever hospitalisation through logistic regression to compare the odds ratios respectively derived from survey and administrative data. Results The extent of net under-reporting was moderately large in all three years amounting to about one-third of all inpatient episodes. However, there did not appear to be significant systematic biases in the degree of under-reporting by age or sex on stratified analyses and logistic regression modelling. Conclusion Under-reporting was substantial in Hong Kong's THS. Recall bias was likely most responsible for such reporting inaccuracies. A proper full-design record-check study should be carried out to confirm the present findings. PMID:15860127

  5. Utilisation of health services and geography: deconstructing regional differences in barriers to facility-based delivery in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Hodge, Andrew; Byrne, Abbey; Morgan, Alison; Jimenez-Soto, Eliana

    2015-03-01

    While established that geographical inaccessibility is a key barrier to the utilisation of health services, it remains unknown whether disparities are driven only by limited access to these services, or are also attributable to health behaviour. Significant disparities exist in health outcomes and the coverage of many critical health services between the mountains region of Nepal and the rest of the country, yet the principal factors driving these regional disparities are not well understood. Using national representative data from the 2011 Nepal Demographic and Health Survey, we examine the extent to which observable factors explain the overall differences in the utilisation of maternal health services. We apply nonlinear Blinder-Oaxaca-type decomposition methods to quantify the effect that differences in measurable characteristics have on the regional coverage gap in facility-based delivery. The mean coverage of facility-based deliveries was 18.6 and 36.3 % in the mountains region and the rest of Nepal, respectively. Between 54.8 and 74.1 % of the regional coverage gap was explained by differences in observed characteristics. Factors influencing health behaviours (proxied by mothers' education, TV viewership and tobacco use, and household wealth) and subjective distance to the health facility were the major factors, contributing between 52.9 and 62.5 % of the disparity. Mothers' birth history was also noteworthy. Policies simultaneously addressing access and health behaviours appear necessary to achieve greater coverage and better health outcomes for women and children in isolated areas. PMID:24927787

  6. Discovery, utilisation and analysis of credible threats for 2×2 incomplete information games in the Theory of Moves framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, Jolie; Sen, Sandip

    2014-04-01

    Steven Brams's [(1994). Theory of moves. Cambridge University Press] Theory of Moves (TOM) is an alternative to traditional game theoretic treatment of real-life interactions, in which players choose strategies based on analysis of future moves and counter-moves that arise if game play commences at a specified start state and either player can choose to move first. In repeated play, players using TOM rationality arrive at nonmyopic equilibria. One advantage of TOM is its ability to model scenarios in which power asymmetries exist between players. In particular, threat power, i.e. the ability of one player to threaten and sustain immediate, globally disadvantageous outcomes to force a desirable result long term, can be utilised to induce Pareto optimal states in games such as Prisoner's Dilemma which result in Pareto-dominated outcomes using traditional methods. Unfortunately, prior work on TOM is limited by an assumption of complete information. This paper presents a mechanism that can be used by a player to utilise threat power when playing a strict, ordinal 2×2 game under incomplete information. We also analyse the benefits of threat power and support in this analysis with empirical evidence.

  7. A simple solution to the problem of effective utilisation of the target material for pulsed laser deposition of thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Kuzanyan, A S; Kuzanyan, A A; Petrosyan, V A; Pilosyan, S Kh; Grasiuk, A Z

    2013-12-31

    The factors determining the efficiency of the target material utilisation for pulsed laser deposition of films are considered. The target volume is calculated, which is evaporated in the ablation process by the focused laser radiation having a rectangular form. The new device is suggested and developed for obtaining thin films by the method of laser deposition, which is specific in the employment of a simple optical system mounted outside a deposition chamber that comprises two lenses and the diaphragm and focuses the laser beam onto a target in the form of a sector-like spot. Thin films of CuO and YBaCuO were deposited with this device. Several deposition cycles revealed that the target material is consumed uniformly from the entire surface of the target. A maximal spread of the target thickness was not greater than ±2% both prior to deposition and after it. The device designed provides a high coefficient of the target material utilisation efficiency. (laser deposition of thin films)

  8. Acute fasting decreases the expression of GLUT1 and glucose utilisation involved in mouse oocyte maturation and cumulus cell expansion.

    PubMed

    Han, Yingying; Yan, Jun; Zhou, Jinlian; Teng, Zhen; Bian, Fenghua; Guo, Meng; Mao, Guankun; Li, Junxia; Wang, Jianwei; Zhang, Meijia; Xia, Guoliang

    2012-01-01

    Acute fasting impairs meiotic resumption and glucose consumption in mouse cumulus cell and oocyte complexes (COCs). This study examines the effects of acute fasting on the regulation of glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) expression and glucose consumption in oocyte maturation. Our results indicate that the restriction of glucose utilisation by 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG) mimicked the inhibitory effects of acute fasting on oocyte meiotic resumption and cumulus cell expansion, effects that were rescued by high glucose concentrations in the culture medium. GLUT1 protein levels were higher in cumulus cells compared with oocytes, and GLUT1 expression in COCs increased with FSH treatment in vitro. However, under acute fasting conditions, GLUT1 expression in COCs decreased and the response to FSH disappeared. Exposure to high glucose conditions (27.5mM and 55mM), significantly increased both glucose consumption and GLUT1 levels in COCs. Inhibition of GLUT1 function using an anti-GLUT1 antibody significantly inhibited FSH-induced oocyte meiotic resumption. Taken together, these results suggest that acute fasting decreases GLUT1 expression and glucose utilisation, inhibiting the processes of oocyte maturation and cumulus cell expansion. PMID:22697123

  9. Maltose and maltotriose utilisation by group I strains of the hybrid lager yeast Saccharomyces pastorianus.

    PubMed

    Magalhães, Frederico; Vidgren, Virve; Ruohonen, Laura; Gibson, Brian

    2016-08-01

    Brewer's wort is a challenging environment for yeast as it contains predominantly α-glucoside sugars. There exist two subgroups of the lager yeast Saccharomyces pastorianus which differ in sugar utilisation. We performed wort fermentations and compared representative strains from both groups with respect to their ability to transport and ferment maltose and maltotriose. Additionally, we mapped the transporters MALx1, AGT1, MPHx and MTT1 by Southern blotting. Contrary to previous observations, group I comprises a diverse set of strains, with varying ability to transport and ferment maltotriose. Of the eight group I strains, three efficiently utilised maltotriose, a property enabled by the presence of transmembrane transporters SeAGT1 and MTT1 A58, a variant of the group I type strain (CBS1513) performed particularly well, taking up maltotriose at a higher rate than maltose and retaining significant transport activity at temperatures as low as 0°C. Analysis of transporter distribution in this strain revealed an increased copy number of the MTT1 gene, which encodes the only permease known with higher affinity for maltotriose than maltose and low temperature dependence for transport. We propose that much of the variation in lager yeast fermentation behaviour is determined by the presence or absence of specific transmembrane transporters. PMID:27364826

  10. The path to successful MRP (materiel requirements planning) package selection.

    PubMed

    Hollander, N; Mirlocca, N

    1994-05-01

    The vendor demonstration is usually nothing more than a glorified sales presentation and is of little value in judging how close a fit a software package is to your company's requirements. In order to turn the demonstration from a sales pitch into a tool for determining if the package meets your requirements, you must take control of the demonstration. The way to take control is to tell the vendor exactly what you expect to see during the demonstration and that the package will be judged on whether it is shown to meet each of your requirements. The way to tell the vendor what you want to see is by use of a "script." By using a scripted demonstration, the presentation becomes a tool in the selection process. PMID:10134149

  11. 31 CFR 547.301 - Arms or any related materiel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... use by units of the army and police of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, provided that said units..., of the état-major intégré of the Armed Forces or of the National Police of the Democratic Republic...

  12. 31 CFR 547.301 - Arms or any related materiel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... use by units of the army and police of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, provided that said units..., of the état-major intégré of the Armed Forces or of the National Police of the Democratic Republic...

  13. 31 CFR 547.301 - Arms or any related materiel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...: (1) Have completed the process of their integration; or (2) Operate under the command, respectively... the Congo; (3) Are in the process of their integration in the territory of the Democratic Republic...

  14. MRP (materiel requirements planning) II: successful implementation the hard way.

    PubMed

    Grubbs, S C

    1994-05-01

    Many manufacturing companies embark on MRP II implementation projects as a method for improvement. In spite of an increasing body of knowledge regarding successful implementations, companies continue to attempt new approaches. This article reviews an actual implementation, featuring some of the mistakes made and the efforts required to still achieve "Class A" performance levels. PMID:10134151

  15. Changes in health care utilisation following a reform involving choice and privatisation in Swedish primary care: a five-year follow-up of GP-visits

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The organisation of Swedish primary health care has changed following introduction of free choice of provider for the population in combination with freedom of establishment for private primary care providers. Our aim was to investigate changes in individual health care utilisation following choice and privatisation in Swedish primary care from an equity perspective, in subgroups defined by age, gender and family income. Methods The study is based on register data years 2007 – 2011 from the Skåne Regional Council (population 1.2 million) regarding individual health care utilisation in the form of visits to general practitioner (GP). Health utilisation data was matched with data about individual’s age, gender and family income provided by Statistics Sweden. Multilevel, logistic regression models were constructed to analyse changes in health utilisation in different subgroups and the probability of a GP-visit before and after reform. Results Health care utilisation in terms of both number of individuals that had visited a GP and number of GP-visits per capita increased in all defined subgroups, but to a varying degree. Multilevel logistic regression showed that individuals of both genders aged above 64 and belonging to a family with an income above median had more advantage of the reform, OR 1.25-1.29. Conclusions Reforms involving choice and privatisation in Swedish primary health care improved access to GP-visits generally, but more so for individuals belonging to a family with income above the median. PMID:24171894

  16. Access to and utilisation of GP services among Burmese migrants in London: a cross-sectional descriptive study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background An estimated 10,000 Burmese migrants are currently living in London. No studies have been conducted on their access to health services. Furthermore, most studies on migrants in the United Kingdom (UK) have been conducted at the point of service provision, carrying the risk of selection bias. Our cross-sectional study explored access to and utilisation of General Practice (GP) services by Burmese migrants residing in London. Methods We used a mixed-method approach: a quantitative survey using self-administered questionnaires was complemented by qualitative in-depth interviews for developing the questionnaire and triangulating the findings of the survey. Overall, 137 questionnaires were received (a response rate of 57%) and 11 in-depth interviews conducted. The main outcome variables of the study included GP registration, barriers towards registration, GP consultations, barriers towards consultations, and knowledge on entitlements to health care. Quantitative data were analysed using descriptive statistics, association tests, and a multivariate analysis using logistic regression. The qualitative information was analysed using content analysis. Results The respondents were young, of roughly equal gender (51.5% female), well educated, and had a fair level of knowledge on health services in the UK. Although the GP registration rate was relatively high (80%, 109 out of 136), GP service utilisation during the last episode of illness, at 56.8% (54 out of 95), was low. The statistical analysis showed that age being younger than 35 years, lacking prior overseas experience, having an unstable immigration status, having a shorter duration of stay, and resorting to self-medication were the main barriers hindering Burmese migrants from accessing primary health care services. These findings were corroborated by the in-depth interviews. Conclusions Our study found that having formal access to primary health care was not sufficient to ensure GP registration and health

  17. Differences between mono-generic and mixed diatom silicon isotope compositions trace present and past nutrient utilisation off Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doering, Kristin; Ehlert, Claudia; Grasse, Patricia; Crosta, Xavier; Fleury, Sophie; Frank, Martin; Schneider, Ralph

    2016-03-01

    In this study we combine for the first time silicon (Si) isotope compositions of small mixed diatom species (δ30SibSiO2) and of large handpicked mono-generic (i.e. genus = Coscinodiscus) diatom samples (δ30SiCoscino) with diatom assemblages extracted from marine sediments in the Peruvian upwelling region in order to constrain present and past silicate utilisation. The extension of a previous core-top data set from the Peruvian shelf demonstrates that δ30SiCoscino values record near-complete Si utilisation, as these are similar to the isotopic composition of the subsurface source waters feeding the upwelling. In contrast, the δ30SibSiO2 of small mixed diatom species increase southward along the shelf as well as towards the shore. We attribute highest δ30SibSiO2 values partly to transient iron limitation but primarily to the gradual increase of Si isotope fractionation within the seasonal diatom succession, which are mainly recorded by small diatom species during intense bloom events. In contrast, lower δ30SibSiO2 values are related to initial Si isotope utilisation during periods of weak upwelling, when low Si(OH)4 concentrations do not permit intense blooms and small diatom species record substantially lower δ30Si signatures. As such, we propose that the intensity of the upwelling can be deduced from the offset between δ30SibSiO2 and δ30SiCoscino (Δ30Sicoscino-bSiO2), which is low for strong upwelling conditions and high for prevailing weak upwelling. We apply the information extracted from surface sediments to generate a record of the present-day main upwelling region covering the past 17,700 years and find that this location has also been characterized by a persistent offset (Δ30Sicoscino-bSiO2). By comparison with the diatom assemblages we show that the coastal upwelling system changed markedly between weak and strong upwelling conditions. In addition, our model calculations to quantify species-specific Si isotope fractionation effects based on the

  18. Catalytic dehydrogenation of propane by carbon dioxide: a medium-temperature thermochemical process for carbon dioxide utilisation.

    PubMed

    Du, X; Yao, B; Gonzalez-Cortes, S; Kuznetsov, V L; AlMegren, Hamid; Xiao, T; Edwards, P P

    2015-01-01

    The dehydrogenation of C3H8 in the presence of CO2 is an attractive catalytic route for C3H6 production. In studying the various possibilities to utilise CO2 to convert hydrocarbons using the sustainable energy source of solar thermal energy, thermodynamic calculations were carried out for the dehydrogenation of C3H8 using CO2for the process operating in the temperature range of 300-500 °C. Importantly, the results highlight the enhanced potential of C3H8 as compared to its lighter and heavier homologues (C2H6 and C4H10, respectively). To be utilised in this CO2 utilisation reaction the Gibbs free energy (ΔrGθm) of each reaction in the modelled, complete reacting system of the dehydrogenation of C3H8 in the presence of CO2 also indicate that further cracking of C3H6 will affect the ultimate yield and selectivity of the final products. In a parallel experimental study, catalytic tests of the dehydrogenation of C3H8 in the presence of CO2 over 5 wt%-Cr2O3/ZrO2 catalysts operating at 500 °C, atmospheric pressure, and for various C3H8 partial pressures and various overall GHSV (Gas Hourly Space Velocity) values. The results showed that an increase in the C3H8 partial pressure produced an inhibition of C3H8 conversion but, importantly, a promising enhancement of C3H6 selectivity. This phenomenon can be attributed to competitive adsorption on the catalyst between the generated C3H6 and inactivated C3H8, which inhibits any further cracking effect on C3H6 to produce by-products. As a comparison, the increase of the overall GHSV can also decrease the C3H8 conversion to a similar extent, but the further cracking of C3H6 cannot be limited. PMID:26392020

  19. Unlimited access to health care - impact of psychosomatic co-morbidity on utilisation in German general practices

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The effect of psychosomatic co-morbidity on resource use for systems with unlimited access remains unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact on practice visits, referrals and periods of disability in German general practices and to identify predictors of health care utilisation. Methods Cross sectional observational study in 13 practices in Upper Bavaria. Patients were included consecutively and filled in the Patients Health Questionnaire (PHQ). Numbers of practice visits, referrals and periods of disability within the last twelve months and permanent mental and somatic diagnoses were extracted manually by review of the computerised charts. Physicians in Germany are obliged to document repetitive reasons of encounter as permanent diagnoses in terms of ICD-10-codes. These ICD-10-codes are used for legitimisation of reimbursement in German general practices. Results 1005 patients were included (58.6% female). On average, patients had 15.3 (sd 16.3) practice contacts, 3.8 (sd 4.2) referrals and 7.5 (sd 23.1) days of disability per year. The mean number of coded permanent diagnoses was 0.4 (sd 0.7) for mental and 4.0 (sd 4.0) for somatic diagnoses. Patients with mental diagnoses scored higher in depression, anxiety, panic and somatoform disorder scales of PHQ. Frequent practice visits were associated stronger with coded permanent mental diagnoses (OR 20.0; 95%CI 7.5-53.9) than with coded permanent somatic diagnoses (OR 14.4; 95%CI 5.9-35.4). Frequent referrals were associated stronger with somatic diagnoses (OR 4.9; 95%CI 2.0-11.9) than with mental diagnoses (OR 3.6; 95%CI 1.4-9.8). Periods of disability were predicted by mental diagnoses (OR 5.0; 95%CI 1.6-15.8) but not by somatic diagnoses (OR 2.5; 95%CI 0.7-8.1). Conclusions Psychosomatic co-morbidity has a stronger impact on health care utilisation in German general practices with respect to practice visits and periods of disability whereas somatic disorders play a stronger role for

  20. Accurate dose assessment system for an exposed person utilising radiation transport calculation codes in emergency response to a radiological accident.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, F; Shigemori, Y; Seki, A

    2009-01-01

    A system has been developed to assess radiation dose distribution inside the body of exposed persons in a radiological accident by utilising radiation transport calculation codes-MCNP and MCNPX. The system consists mainly of two parts, pre-processor and post-processor of the radiation transport calculation. Programs for the pre-processor are used to set up a 'problem-dependent' input file, which defines the accident condition and dosimetric quantities to be estimated. The program developed for the post-processor part can effectively indicate dose information based upon the output file of the code. All of the programs in the dosimetry system can be executed with a generally used personal computer and accurately give the dose profile to an exposed person in a radiological accident without complicated procedures. An experiment using a physical phantom was carried out to verify the availability of the dosimetry system with the developed programs in a gamma ray irradiation field. PMID:19181661

  1. The acu-1 gene of Coprinus cinereus is a regulatory gene required for induction of acetate utilisation enzymes.

    PubMed

    Maconochie, M K; Connerton, I F; Casselton, L A

    1992-08-01

    We have isolated a gene from Coprinus cinereus which cross-hybridises to the facA and acu-5 genes of Aspergillus nidulans and Neurospora crassa, respectively. These genes encode acetyl-CoA synthetase, an enzyme which is inducible by acetate and required for growth on acetate as sole carbon source. We have designated the C. cinereus gene acs-1 and have used transformation to demonstrate its functional homology to the ascomycete genes by complementation of an N. crassa acu-5 mutation. The acs-1 gene has never been identified by mutation; mutations leading to loss of acetyl-CoA synthetase function map to another gene, acu-1. Using Northern analyses we have shown that acu-1 has a regulatory function that is required for acetate-induced transcription of acs-1 and of another acetate utilisation gene, acu-7, the isocitrate lyase structural gene. PMID:1354839

  2. Computational Prediction of One-Step Synthesis of Seven-membered Fused Rings by (5+2) Cycloaddition Utilising Cycloalkenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Chen-Chen; Ke, Xiao-Na; Xu, Xiu-Fang

    2015-07-01

    The (5+2) cycloaddition reaction utilising cycloalkenes is rare, although it is one of the most efficient methods of constructing seven-membered fused rings because of its high atom- and step-economy. In this study, we used quantum mechanical calculations to predict the plausibility of using the Rh-catalysed intermolecular (5+2) cycloaddition of 3-acyloxy-1,4-enynes and cycloalkenes to produce fused seven-membered carbocycles. The calculation results suggest a convenient, highly efficient and energetically practical approach. Strained cycloalkenes, such as cyclopropene, have been predicted to be active, and the desired bicyclic product should be favoured, accompanied by the formation of byproducts from rearrangement reactions. The energy barriers of the alkene insertion step were analysed by the distortion/interaction model to disclose the origins of the different reactivities of cycloalkenes with different ring sizes.

  3. Charcoal from a prehistoric copper mine in the Austrian Alps: dendrochronological and dendrological data, demand for wood and forest utilisation

    PubMed Central

    Pichler, Thomas; Nicolussi, Kurt; Goldenberg, Gert; Hanke, Klaus; Kovács, Kristóf; Thurner, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    During prehistory fire-setting was the most appropriate technique for exploiting ore deposits. Charcoal fragments found in the course of archaeological excavations in a small mine called Mauk E in the area of Schwaz/Brixlegg (Tyrol, Austria) are argued to be evidence for the use of this technology. Dendrochronological analyses of the charcoal samples yielded calendar dates for the mining activities showing that the exploitation of the Mauk E mine lasted approximately one decade in the late 8th century BC. Dendrological studies show that the miners utilised stem wood of spruce and fir from forests with high stand density for fire-setting and that the exploitation of the Mauk E mine had only a limited impact on the local forests. PMID:23565025

  4. Understanding where policies and decisions can go wrong: utilising a 360 analysis model as a proactive reputation management strategy.

    PubMed

    Cwiak, Carol L

    2014-01-01

    An organisation's reputation is its most relevant asset. The perceptions of the various audiences with which an organisation interacts both directly and indirectly can enhance or destroy that reputation. Due to the critical role these audiences play in an organisation's reputation, they should be actively considered as a part of an organisation's reputation management strategy. This paper introduces the 360 analysis model, which considers the benefits, detriments and potential fallout in regard to different audiences when creating policy or making important organisational decisions. The model's goal is to foster well-considered policy and decisions that proactively protect an organisation's reputation. The model is also designed to be used as a research construct that can be utilised in the expansion of the reputation management literature in regard to heterogeneity and dynamics within and across audiences that can have an impact on an organisation's reputation. PMID:24854733

  5. Charcoal from a prehistoric copper mine in the Austrian Alps: dendrochronological and dendrological data, demand for wood and forest utilisation.

    PubMed

    Pichler, Thomas; Nicolussi, Kurt; Goldenberg, Gert; Hanke, Klaus; Kovács, Kristóf; Thurner, Andrea

    2013-02-01

    During prehistory fire-setting was the most appropriate technique for exploiting ore deposits. Charcoal fragments found in the course of archaeological excavations in a small mine called Mauk E in the area of Schwaz/Brixlegg (Tyrol, Austria) are argued to be evidence for the use of this technology. Dendrochronological analyses of the charcoal samples yielded calendar dates for the mining activities showing that the exploitation of the Mauk E mine lasted approximately one decade in the late 8th century BC. Dendrological studies show that the miners utilised stem wood of spruce and fir from forests with high stand density for fire-setting and that the exploitation of the Mauk E mine had only a limited impact on the local forests. PMID:23565025

  6. Nitrogen supply in cattle coupled with appropriate supply of utilisable crude protein at the duodenum, a precursor to metabolisable protein.

    PubMed

    Pfeffer, Ernst; Schuba, Jan; Südekum, Karl-Heinz

    2016-08-01

    The overall objective of this study was to calculate the amount of nitrogen (N) that cattle feed must contain in order to utilise the potential supply of utilisable crude protein at the duodenum provided by their energy intake without incurring a negative N balance, that is, without having to break down body protein. For this purpose, the literature was screened for measurements of net degradation and renal excretion of urea as well as N balances (N intake, faecal N and urinary N) in ruminants (cattle, sheep and goats) fed diets with varying N concentrations. Irreversible loss of N from the body urea pool increased with increasing N intake, but net degradation of urea as a proportion of irreversible loss decreased concurrently. Faecal N appeared not to be influenced by N intake and exceeded 11 g/kg dry matter intake (DMI) only in 7% of the data sets available. Urinary non-urea-N rarely exceeded 4 g/kg DMI and appeared independent of N intake. Urinary urea-N showed a clear dependence of N intake, and it is concluded that 1 g N/kg DMI is sufficient for compensating inevitable N losses in the form of urinary urea. In conclusion, ruminant rations should contain the following N concentrations (per kg DM) to account for obligatory losses: 11 g for compensating losses as faecal N, 4 g for compensating losses as urinary non-urea-N and 1 g for compensating inevitable losses as urinary urea-N. The derived recommendations should be helpful for limiting N excretion where this is desirable for ecological reasons. PMID:27216556

  7. Drug utilisation and off-label use of medications in anaesthesia in surgical wards of a teaching hospital

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Amol E; Shetty, Yashashri C; Gajbhiye, Snehalata V; Salgaonkar, Sweta V

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims: When a drug is used in a way that is different from that described in regulatory body approved drug label, it is said to be ‘off label use’. Perioperative phase is sensitive from the point of view of patient safety and off-label drug use in this setup can prove to be hazardous to patient. Hence, it was planned to assess the pattern of drug utilisation and off-label use of perioperative medication during anaesthesia. Methods: Preoperatively, demographic details and adverse events check list were filled from a total of 400 patients from general surgery, paediatric surgery and orthopaedics departments scheduled to undergo surgery. The perioperative assessment form was assessed to record all prescriptions followed by refilling of adverse events checklist in case record form. World Health Organization (WHO) prescribing indicators were used for analysis of drug utilisation data. National Formulary of India 2011 was used as reference material to decide off-label drug use in majority instances along with package insert. Results: A total of 3705 drugs were prescribed to the 400 participants and average number of drugs per patient was 9.26 ± 3.33. Prescriptions by generic name were 68.07% whereas 85.3% drugs were prescribed from hospital schedule. Off-label drugs overall formed 20.19% of the drugs prescribed. At least one off-label drug was prescribed to 82.5% of patients. Inappropriate dose was the most common form of off-label use. There was 1.6 times greater risk of occurrence of adverse events associated with the use of off-label drugs. Conclusion: Prescription indicators were WHO compliant. Off-label drug use was practiced in anaesthesia department with questionable clinical justification in some instances. PMID:26755837

  8. Fecundity regulation in relation to habitat utilisation of two sympatric flounder (Platichtys flesus) populations in the brackish water Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nissling, Anders; Thorsen, Anders; da Silva, Filipa F. G.

    2015-01-01

    Two populations of flounder (Platichtys flesus) with different life history traits inhabit the brackish water Baltic Sea. Both types share feeding areas in coastal waters during summer-autumn but utilise different habitats for spawning in spring, namely offshore spawning with pelagic eggs and coastal spawning with demersal eggs respectively. Fecundity regulation by atresia was assessed as prevalence (portion of fish with atresia) and intensity (calculated as the average intensity of atresia in these fish) during the reproductive cycle following start of gonad development in the autumn up to spawning in spring, and evaluated in relation to fish condition (Fulton's condition factor reflecting energy reserves of the fish) and feeding incidence of the respective population. Peaking in winter (December-February), fecundity regulation was significantly higher for coastal spawning flounder than for flounder spawning offshore. For coastal spawners, the prevalence was 45-90% with an intensity of 6.4-9.3% vs. 0-25% and an intensity of 2.1-3.4% for offshore spawners during winter. Further, fecundity regulation ceased prior to spawning for offshore spawners but continued for coastal spawners. For coastal spawners, the prevalence was 12-29% and an intensity of 2.5-6.1% during spawning. The change in fish condition was strongly related to feeding incidence and differed between populations. As feeding ceased, condition of offshore spawners decreased during winter up to spawning, whereas condition of coastal spawners decreased during autumn but was maintained as feeding started again prior to spawning. Thus, habitat utilisation according to spawning strategy affects the timing of fecundity down-regulation reflecting availability of resources, namely limited food resources in deep areas and higher availability in coastal areas. Offshore spawning flounder display characteristics typical for a capital spawner with ceasing of feeding and oocyte down-regulation well before spawning

  9. The impact of reference pricing on switching behaviour and healthcare utilisation: the case of statins in Germany.

    PubMed

    Stargardt, Tom

    2010-06-01

    This paper analyses (1) the impact of the inclusion of statins in the German reference pricing scheme in 2005 on the statin market, and (2) the effect of switching behaviour subsequent to the policy change on healthcare utilisation and costs. Patients with prescriptions for statins in 2004 were observed for 1 year before and 1 year after the policy change, which went into effect on 1 January 2005. Data on outpatient and inpatient visits, pharmaceutical consumption, and cost to the sickness fund were collected from a sickness fund with more than 5.8 million insured members in 2005. Compared to patients who were not affected by the policy change, patients treated previously with atorvastatin experienced higher non-adherence and increased discontinuation of treatment (P < 0.0001). Compared to patients who continued treatment with atorvastatin (non-switchers), patients who switched to another statin were hospitalised more often (P = 0.0439). However, difference-in-differences in hospitalisation due to coronary heart disease (P = 0.8751) and emergency visits (P = 0.5624) did not differ significantly between the two groups. Patients who switched more than once experienced a significant increase in hospital visits (P = 0.0061) and hospital visits due to cardiovascular disease (P = 0.0096) compared to non-switchers. Difference-in-differences in outpatient healthcare utilisation did not differ between non-switchers and switchers. Total savings resulting from the policy change ranged from 94.4 million to 108.7 million. Although manufacturers usually comply with reference pricing by reducing their retail prices to the reference price, regulators have to be aware of the consequences in cases where manufacturers react as in this situation. PMID:19639351

  10. Utilisation and Further Development of Space Science Results in the ESA SSA Programme Space Weather Service Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glover, Alexi; Luntama, Juha-Pekka; Keil, Ralf

    2016-04-01

    ESA SSA Programme is approaching the end of its second period. Service development activities within the current period aim at advancing the SSA SWE Service Network from the initial utilisation of existing European assets toward development of these and new assets together with the associated coordination infrastructure necessary to provide consistently reliable services. The SSA SWE Service Network is based on a federated architecture where service provision is carried out by Expert Service Centres in the Programme Member States with overall coordination and helpdesk functions provided by a central node and coordination centre located at the Space Pole in Brussels, Belgium. The SSA SWE Service Network builds on the wealth of space weather expertise available within the Member States, and consequently, as the network continues to develop, emphasis will continue to be placed on building services based on demonstrated space science advances in key areas such as those highlighted by the COSPAR-ILWS Space Weather Roadmap, published in 2015. Activities supported by programmes including the ESA technology programmes, EC FP7 and H2020 have all demonstrated promising results, and the SSA SWE Network is actively investigating their potential application to SSA SWE Customer Requirements, and in many cases already adopting these as part of the suite of products provided via the Network to its registered users. This presentation will provide an overview of recent advances in the SSA SWE Service Network, emphasising the utilisation of scientific results within a pre-operational context. The presentation will show the layout of the federated Expert Service Centres, highlighting ongoing and upcoming service developments and provide a perspective on the service development plans for the next phase of the programme.

  11. The Utilisation of the Internet by Palestinian English Language Teachers Focusing on Uses, Practices and Barriers and Overall Contribution to Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kabilan, Muhammad Kamarul; Rajab, Belal Mousa

    2010-01-01

    The paper describes a study designed to investigate the utilisation of the Internet by English Language teachers in Gaza focusing on uses, practices and barriers. A questionnaire was developed based on literature (Kabilan 2003; Kabilan & Mohamed Amin 2002) and was administered to 274 English language teachers in Gaza schools. Data reveal that…

  12. Modelling the Factors that Affect Individuals' Utilisation of Online Learning Systems: An Empirical Study Combining the Task Technology Fit Model with the Theory of Planned Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Tai-Kuei; Yu, Tai-Yi

    2010-01-01

    Understanding learners' behaviour, perceptions and influence in terms of learner performance is crucial to predict the use of electronic learning systems. By integrating the task-technology fit (TTF) model and the theory of planned behaviour (TPB), this paper investigates the online learning utilisation of Taiwanese students. This paper provides a…

  13. Articulating Injustice: An Exploration of Young People's Experiences of Participation in a Conflict Transformation Programme That Utilises the Arts as a Form of Dialogue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Heather

    2014-01-01

    This paper reflects on a study that explores young people's engagement with the Art: a Resource for Reconciliation Over the World (ARROW) programme. The programme utilises the arts to promote critical dialogue amongst young people growing up in divided communities around the world. Dialogue has been criticised for its inability to tackle…

  14. The Effect of Children's Rights Training on Primary School Students' Utilisation and Knowledge Level about Children's Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozmen, Suna Kaymak; Ocal, Tugba; Ozmen, Ahmet

    2014-01-01

    Recently, children's rights issue has taken attention. In this study, main purpose was to investigate the utilisation and knowledge level of 4th and 5th grade primary school students after children's rights training. The participants of this survey study were selected randomly from 10 schools. Results indicated that students had the…

  15. Association between secure patient–clinician email and clinical services utilisation in a US integrated health system: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Di; Palen, Ted E; Tsai, Joanne; McLeod, Melanie; Garrido, Terhilda; Qian, Heather

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess associations between secure patient–clinician email use and clinical services utilisation over time. Design Retrospective cohort study between July 2010 and December 2013. Controlling for a utilisation surge around first secure email use, we analysed difference of differences between propensity score-matched groups of secure patient–clinician email users and non-users for utilisation 1–12 months before and 7–18 months after first email (users) or a randomly assigned index date (non-users). Setting US integrated healthcare delivery system. Participants 9345 adults with first secure email use between July 2011 and July 2012 and continuous enrolment for ≥30 months and 9345 adults without secure email use between July 2010 and July 2012 matched to users on demographics, health status, and baseline utilisation. Primary Outcome Measures Rates of office visits, patient-initiated phone calls, scheduled telephone visits, after-hours clinic visits, emergency department visits, and hospitalisations. Results After controlling for multiple factors, no statistically significant differences in utilisation between secure email users and non-users occurred. Utilisation transiently increased by 88–237% around first email use. Annual rates of patient-initiated phone calls decreased among secure email users, 0.2 fewer calls per person (95% CI −0.3 to −0.1), from a mean of 4.1 calls per person 1–12 months before first use to a mean of 3.8 calls per person 7–18 months after first use. Rates of patient-initiated phone calls also decreased among non-users, 0.1 fewer calls per person (95% CI −0.2 to 0.0), from a mean of 4.2 calls per person 1–12 months before the index date to mean of 4.1 calls per person 7–18 months after the index date. Conclusions Compared with non-users, patient use of secure email with clinicians was not associated with statistically significant differences in clinical services utilisation 7–18

  16. Stroke patients’ utilisation of extrinsic feedback from computer-based technology in the home: a multiple case study realistic evaluation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Evidence indicates that post − stroke rehabilitation improves function, independence and quality of life. A key aspect of rehabilitation is the provision of appropriate information and feedback to the learner. Advances in information and communications technology (ICT) have allowed for the development of various systems to complement stroke rehabilitation that could be used in the home setting. These systems may increase the provision of rehabilitation a stroke survivor receives and carries out, as well as providing a learning platform that facilitates long-term self-managed rehabilitation and behaviour change. This paper describes the application of an innovative evaluative methodology to explore the utilisation of feedback for post-stroke upper-limb rehabilitation in the home. Methods Using the principles of realistic evaluation, this study aimed to test and refine intervention theories by exploring the complex interactions of contexts, mechanisms and outcomes that arise from technology deployment in the home. Methods included focus groups followed by multi-method case studies (n = 5) before, during and after the use of computer-based equipment. Data were analysed in relation to the context-mechanism-outcome hypotheses case by case. This was followed by a synthesis of the findings to answer the question, ‘what works for whom and in what circumstances and respects?’ Results Data analysis reveals that to achieve desired outcomes through the use of ICT, key elements of computer feedback, such as accuracy, measurability, rewarding feedback, adaptability, and knowledge of results feedback, are required to trigger the theory-driven mechanisms underpinning the intervention. In addition, the pre-existing context and the personal and environmental contexts, such as previous experience of service delivery, personal goals, trust in the technology, and social circumstances may also enable or constrain the underpinning theory-driven mechanisms

  17. Detection of Sialic Acid-Utilising Bacteria in a Caecal Community Batch Culture Using RNA-Based Stable Isotope Probing

    PubMed Central

    Young, Wayne; Egert, Markus; Bassett, Shalome A.; Bibiloni, Rodrigo

    2015-01-01

    Sialic acids are monosaccharides typically found on cell surfaces and attached to soluble proteins, or as essential components of ganglioside structures that play a critical role in brain development and neural transmission. Human milk also contains sialic acid conjugated to oligosaccharides, glycolipids, and glycoproteins. These nutrients can reach the large bowel where they may be metabolised by the microbiota. However, little is known about the members of the microbiota involved in this function. To identify intestinal bacteria that utilise sialic acid within a complex intestinal community, we cultured the caecal microbiota from piglets in the presence of 13C-labelled sialic acid. Using RNA-based stable isotope probing, we identified bacteria that consumed 13C-sialic acid by fractionating total RNA in isopycnic buoyant density gradients followed by 16S rRNA gene analysis. Addition of sialic acid caused significant microbial community changes. A relative rise in Prevotella and Lactobacillus species was accompanied by a corresponding reduction in the genera Escherichia/Shigella, Ruminococcus and Eubacterium. Inspection of isotopically labelled RNA sequences suggests that the labelled sialic acid was consumed by a wide range of bacteria. However, species affiliated with the genus Prevotella were clearly identified as the most prolific users, as solely their RNA showed significantly higher relative shares among the most labelled RNA species. Given the relevance of sialic acid in nutrition, this study contributes to a better understanding of their microbial transformation in the intestinal tract with potential implications for human health. PMID:25816158

  18. An observational study of comorbidity and healthcare utilisation among HIV-positive patients aged 50 years and over.

    PubMed

    Patel, Roshani; Moore, Thomas; Cooper, Vanessa; McArdle, Conor; Perry, Nicky; Cheek, Elizabeth; Gainsborough, Nicola; Fisher, Martin

    2016-07-01

    The number of HIV-positive people aged ≥50 years is rising each year. We measured the prevalence of non-infectious illnesses and their risk factors and described healthcare use in this UK population. A cross-sectional, observational study was conducted at an outpatient HIV specialist clinic in south east England. Patients age ≥50 years were invited to complete questionnaires measuring demographics, non-infectious illnesses, medication use, lifestyle and healthcare utilisation. The response rate was 67%. Of 299 participants, 84% reported ≥1 comorbid condition and 61% reported ≥2 (multimorbidity). Most commonly reported were high cholesterol, sexual dysfunction, hypertension and depression. In multivariate analyses, age, number of years HIV-positive and duration of antiretroviral therapy remained significant predictors of comorbidity when controlling for lifestyle factors (exercise, smoking and use of recreational drugs and alcohol). Use of non-HIV healthcare services was associated with increasing comorbidity, a longer duration of HIV and recreational drug use. The majority of HIV-patients aged ≥50 years reported multiple comorbidities and this was associated with polypharmacy and increased use of non-HIV services. Further research examining the quality, safety and patient experience of healthcare is needed to inform development of services to optimally meet the needs of older HIV-positive patients. PMID:26068965

  19. Are racist attitudes related to experiences of racial discrimination? Within sample testing utilising nationally representative survey data.

    PubMed

    Habtegiorgis, Amanuel E; Paradies, Yin C; Dunn, Kevin M

    2014-09-01

    Although the relationship between an individual's racist attitudes and discriminatory behaviours has been widely studied, the association between racist attitudes among perpetrators and experiences of racism among targets has been under-examined. Based on data from the 2001-8 Australian Challenging Racism Project survey, this paper details a novel method to investigate the link between racist attitudes and experiences of discrimination utilising two separate models linked by nomination of cultural or ethnic groups who do not fit into Australian society (i.e., out-groups). Those identified as out-groups were more likely to report experiences of discrimination than those who were not nominated as out-groups. Overall, out-group nomination by those with racist attitudes strongly predict experiences of discrimination among these same target out-groups, OR=2.2, F(6, 12,348)=78.61, p<.001. Racist attitudes are related to racist behaviours among perpetrators that are, in turn, related to experiences of racial discrimination among targets. This study demonstrates that attitudes not only affect majority group behaviour but also drive the resulting experiences of discrimination for minority group members. PMID:24913953

  20. The significance of the host inflammatory response on the therapeutic efficacy of cell therapies utilising human adult stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Navarro, Melba; Pu, Fanrong; Hunt, John A.

    2012-02-15

    Controlling the fate of implanted hMSCs is one of the major drawbacks to be overcome to realize tissue engineering strategies. In particular, the effect of the inflammatory environment on hMSCs behaviour is poorly understood. Studying and mimicking the inflammatory process in vitro is a very complex and challenging task that involves multiple variables. This research addressed the questions using in vitro co-cultures of primary derived hMSCs together with human peripheral blood mononucleated cells (PBMCs); the latter are key agents in the inflammatory process. This work explored the in vitro phenotypic changes of hMSCs in co-culture direct contact with monocytes and lymphocytes isolated from blood using both basal and osteogenic medium. Our findings indicated that hMSCs maintained their undifferentiated phenotype and pluripotency despite the contact with PBMCs. Moreover, hMSCs demonstrated increased proliferation and were able to differentiate specifically down the osteogenic lineage pathway. Providing significant crucial evidence to support the hypothesis that inflammation and host defence mechanisms could be utilised rather than avoided and combated to provide for the successful therapeutic application of stem cell therapies.

  1. Foraging Behaviour and Landscape Utilisation by the Endangered Golden-Crowned Flying Fox (Acerodon jubatus), The Philippines

    PubMed Central

    de Jong, Carol; Field, Hume; Tagtag, Anson; Hughes, Tom; Dechmann, Dina; Jayme, Sarah; Epstein, Jonathan; Smith, Craig; Santos, Imelda; Catbagan, Davinio; Lim, Mundita; Benigno, Carolyn; Daszak, Peter; Newman, Scott

    2013-01-01

    Species of Old World fruit-bats (family Pteropodidae) have been identified as the natural hosts of a number of novel and highly pathogenic viruses threatening livestock and human health. We used GPS data loggers to record the nocturnal foraging movements of Acerodon jubatus, the Golden-crowned flying fox in the Philippines to better understand the landscape utilisation of this iconic species, with the dual objectives of pre-empting disease emergence and supporting conservation management. Data loggers were deployed on eight of 54 A. jubatus (two males and six females) captured near Subic Bay on the Philippine island of Luzon between 22 November and 2 December 2010. Bodyweight ranged from 730 g to 1002 g, translating to a weight burden of 3–4% of bodyweight. Six of the eight loggers yielded useful data over 2–10 days, showing variability in the nature and range of individual bat movements. The majority of foraging locations were in closed forest and most were remote from evident human activity. Forty-six discrete foraging locations and five previously unrecorded roost locations were identified. Our findings indicate that foraging is not a random event, with the majority of bats exhibiting repetitious foraging movements night-to-night, that apparently intact forest provides the primary foraging resource, and that known roost locations substantially underestimate the true number (and location) of roosts. Our initial findings support policy and decision-making across perspectives including landscape management, species conservation, and potentially disease emergence. PMID:24278154

  2. Targeting services to reduce social inequalities in utilisation: an analysis of breast cancer screening in New South Wales

    PubMed Central

    Birch, Stephen; Haas, Marion; Savage, Elizabeth; Van Gool, Kees

    2007-01-01

    Background Many jurisdictions have used public funding of health care to reduce or remove price at the point of delivery of services. Whilst this reduces an important barrier to accessing care, it does nothing to discriminate between groups considered to have greater or fewer needs. In this paper, we consider whether active targeted recruitment, in addition to offering a 'free' service, is associated with a reduction in social inequalities in self-reported utilization of the breast screening services in NSW, Australia. Methods Using the 1997 and 1998 NSW Health Surveys we estimated probit models on the probability of having had a screening mammogram in the last two years for all women aged 40–79. The models examined the relative importance of socio-economic and geographic factors in predicting screening behaviour in three different needs groups – where needs were defined on the basis of a woman's age. Results We find that women in higher socio-economic groups are more likely to have been screened than those in lower groups for all age groups. However, the socio-economic effect is significantly less among women who were in the actively targeted age group. Conclusion This indicates that recruitment and follow-up was associated with a modest reduction in social inequalities in utilisation although significant income differences remain. PMID:17550622

  3. The potential and limitations of utilising head impact injury models to assess the likelihood of significant head injury in infants after a fall.

    PubMed

    Cory, C Z; Jones, M D; James, D S; Leadbeatter, S; Nokes, L D

    2001-12-01

    The use of engineering principles in assessing head injury scenarios is of increasing significance in investigations into suspected child abuse. A fall scenario is often given as the history for a head injury to an infant. This paper addresses the basic engineering principles and factors to be considered when calculating the severity of a head impact after free-fall. The application of head injury models (HIMs) to ascertain the forces involved in childhood head injuries from impact is also discussed. Previous studies including Duhaime et al. [J. Neurosurg. 66 (1987) 409] and Nokes et al. [Forensic Sci. Int. 79 (1995) 85] have utilised HIMs for this purpose: this paper reviews those models most widely documented.The HIM currently considered the 'state-of-the-art' is the head injury criterion (HIC) and it is suggested that this model should be utilised for assessing head impact injury in child abuse cases where appropriate. PMID:11728733

  4. Body weight changes and outpatient medical care utilisation: Results of the MONICA/KORA cohorts S3/F3 and S4/F4

    PubMed Central

    Wolfenstetter, Silke B.; Menn, Petra; Holle, Rolf; Mielck, Andreas; Meisinger, Christa; von Lengerke, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To test the effects of body weight maintenance, gain, and loss on health care utilisation in terms of outpatient visits to different kinds of physicians in the general adult population. Methods: Self-reported utilisation data were collected within two population-based cohorts (baseline surveys: MONICA-S3 1994/95 and KORA-S4 1999/2001; follow-ups: KORA-F3 2004/05 and KORA-F4 2006/08) in the region of Augsburg, Germany, and were pooled for present purposes. N=5,147 adults (complete cases) aged 25 to 64 years at baseline participated. Number of visits to general practitioners (GPs), internists, and other specialists as well as the total number of physician visits at follow-up were compared across 10 groups defined by body mass index (BMI) category maintenance or change. Body weight and height were measured anthropometrically. Hierarchical generalized linear regression analyses with negative binomial distribution adjusted for sex, age, socioeconomic status (SES), survey, and the need factors incident diabetes and first cancer between baseline and follow-up were conducted. Results: In fully adjusted models, compared to the group of participants that maintained normal weight from baseline to follow-up, the following groups had significantly higher GP utilisation rates: weight gain from normal weight (+36%), weight loss from preobesity (+39%), maintained preobesity (+34%), weight gain after preobesity (+43%), maintained moderate obesity (+48%), weight gain from moderate obesity (+107%), weight loss from severe obesity (+114%), and maintained severe obesity (+83%). Regarding internists, those maintaining moderate obesity reported +107% more visits; those with weight gain from moderate obesity reported +91%. The latter group also had +41% more consultations with other physicians. Across all physicians, mean number of visits were estimated at 7.8 per year for maintained normal weight, 9 for maintained preobesity, 11 for maintained moderate obesity, and 12 for

  5. Hospital Utilisation in Indigenous and Non-Indigenous Infants under 12 Months of Age in Western Australia, Prospective Population Based Data Linkage Study

    PubMed Central

    McAullay, Daniel; Strobel, Natalie A.; Marriott, Rhonda; Atkinson, David N.; Marley, Julia V.; Stanley, Fiona J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Indigenous infants (infants aged under 12 months) have the highest hospital admission and emergency department presentation risks in Australia. However, there have been no recent reports comparing hospital utilisation between Indigenous and non-Indigenous infants. Methods Our primary objective was to use a large prospective population-based linked dataset to assess the risk of all-cause hospital admission and emergency department presentation in Indigenous compared to non-Indigenous infants in Western Australia (WA). Secondary objectives were to assess the effect of socio-economic status (Index of Relative Socio-Economic Disadvantage [IRSD]) on hospital utilisation and to understand the causes of hospital utilisation. Findings There were 3,382 (5.4%) Indigenous and 59,583 (94.6%) non-Indigenous live births in WA from 1 January 2010 to 31 December 2011. Indigenous infants had a greater risk of hospital admission (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.90, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.77–2.04, p = <0.001) and emergency department presentation (aOR 2.15, 95% CI 1.98–2.33, p = <0.001) compared to non-Indigenous infants. Fifty nine percent (59.0%) of admissions in Indigenous children were classified as preventable compared to 31.2% of admissions in non-Indigenous infants (aOR 2.12, 95% CI 1.88–2.39). The risk of hospital admission in the most disadvantaged (IRSD 1) infants in the total cohort (35.7%) was similar to the risk in the least disadvantaged (IRSD 5) infants (30.6%) (aOR 1.04, 95% CI 0.96–1.13, p = 0.356). Interpretation WA Indigenous infants have much higher hospital utilisation than non Indigenous infants. WA health services should prioritise Indigenous infants regardless of their socio economic status or where they live. PMID:27120331

  6. Sociodemographic and health behavioural factors associated with access to and utilisation of eye care in Korea: Korea Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008–2012

    PubMed Central

    Rim, Tyler Hyungtaek; Choi, Moonjung; Yoon, Jin Sook; Kim, Sung Soo

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the sociodemographic and health behavioural factors associated with access to and utilisation of eye care in Korea. Design Nationwide cross-sectional study Methods 25 752 Koreans over the age of 30 were assessed from a national representative survey. We analysed independent variables of self-reporting eye clinic visits through multivariable analyses of sociodemographic factors. The time since the last visit to an eye clinic was used to assess access to and utilisation of eye care. Results Of the 25 752 respondents, 8237 (32.0%) visited an eye clinic in the past year, 11 028 (42.8%) were seen more than 1 year ago, while 6487 (25.2%) had never seen an ophthalmologist. Eye clinic utilisation was statistically associated with older age, female sex, higher household income, higher education levels, living in an urban area, and having comorbidities including diabetes and hypertension. Middle-aged men between 30 and 49 years were found to be less likely to receive eye care compared to the rest of the population, and the proportion that did plummeted after the financial crisis of 2007. Conclusions There is a substantial sociodemographic disparity in eye care utilisation in Korea, and men with low financial income and education level are especially at risk. Use of eye care among middle-aged men has decreased since the global financial crisis that began in 2007, and therefore healthcare policies and public interventions should be targeted at vulnerable groups to promote access to medical care. PMID:26185177

  7. Hospital admissions for severe mental illness in England: Changes in equity of utilisation at the small area level between 2006 and 2010

    PubMed Central

    White, Jonathan; Gutacker, Nils; Jacobs, Rowena; Mason, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Severe Mental Illness (SMI) encompasses a range of chronic conditions including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and psychoses. Patients with SMI often require inpatient psychiatric care. Despite equity being a key objective in the English National Health Service (NHS) and in many other health care systems worldwide, little is known about the socio-economic equity of hospital care utilisation for patients with SMI and how it has changed over time. This analysis seeks to address that gap in the evidence base. We exploit a five-year (2006–2010) panel dataset of admission rates at small area level (n = 162,410). The choice of control variables was informed by a systematic literature search. To assess changes in socio-economic equity of utilisation, OLS-based standardisation was first used to conduct analysis of discrete deprivation groups. Geographical inequity was then illustrated by plotting standardised and crude admission rates at local purchaser level. Lastly, formal statistical tests for changes in socio-economic equity of utilisation were applied to a continuous measure of deprivation using pooled negative binomial regression analysis, adjusting for a range of risk factors. Our results suggest that one additional percentage point of area income deprivation is associated with a 1.5% (p < 0.001) increase in admissions for SMI after controlling for population size, age, sex, prevalence of SMI in the local population, as well as other need and supply factors. This finding is robust to sensitivity analyses, suggesting that a pro-poor inequality in utilisation exists for SMI-related inpatient services. One possible explanation is that the supply or quality of primary, community or social care for people with mental health problems is suboptimal in deprived areas. Although there is some evidence that inequity has reduced over time, the changes are small and not always robust to sensitivity analyses. PMID:25262312

  8. UTILISATION ANALYSIS OF ANTIHYPERTENSIVE DRUGS IN BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA FOR THE TIME-PERIOD 2013–2015

    PubMed Central

    Selmanovic, Kenan; Zec, Svjetlana Loga; Vanis, Nenad; Zecevic, Lamija; Setkic, Manja; Rasic, Azra; Zerem, Enver

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Expenditures for drugs are increasingly burdening already insufficient funds for health protection. This is especially evident in less developed European countries such as Bosnia and Herzegovina. The question is whether such analyses can help save funds for financing treatment for diseases, with an emphasis on a more rational choice of drug for appropriate indication, whereby clinical complications of hypertension would be prevented and patients would have quality of their lives improved. Aim: Focus of research has been set on analysis of use of antihypertensive drugs in Bosnia and Herzegovina in the time-period January 2013–March 2015. Use of all drugs for treatment of hypertension in that time-period in the country has been shown in an unbiased manner. Methods: The study is designed as retrospective-prospective comparative research of use of antihypertensive drugs in BiH in a certain time-period. Data are collected from relevant drug utilisation database which has been established in Bosnia and Herzegovina since 2013. Results: We have calculated financial expenditure for prescribed antihypertensives in the time- period of 2013, 2014 and Q1 2015. Use of antihypertensives at the country level for this time-period is BAM 200,242,218. At the country level, physicians are most often opting for combination therapy: ACE inhibitors + diuretics (20.2%) and ACE inhibitors + Ca channel antagonists (18.0%). Conclusion: In this research, it has been shown that modern drugs are used for treatment of hypertension in Bosnia and Herzegovina. These drugs are used in the same order as they are prescribed in developed countries. PMID:27147917

  9. Improving dideoxynucleotide-triphosphate utilisation by the hyper-thermophilic DNA polymerase from the archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Steven J.; Fogg, Mark J.; Mamone, Anthony; Davis, Maria; Pearl, Laurence H.; Connolly, Bernard A.

    2000-01-01

    Polymerases from the Pol-I family which are able to efficiently use ddNTPs have demonstrated a much improved performance when used to sequence DNA. A number of mutations have been made to the gene coding for the Pol-II family DNA polymerase from the archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus with the aim of improving ddNTP utilisation. ‘Rational’ alterations to amino acids likely to be near the dNTP binding site (based on sequence homologies and structural information) did not yield the desired level of selectivity for ddNTPs. However, alteration at four positions (Q472, A486, L490 and Y497) gave rise to variants which incorporated ddNTPs better than the wild type, allowing sequencing reactions to be carried out at lowered ddNTP:dNTP ratios. Wild-type Pfu–Pol required a ddNTP:dNTP ratio of 30:1; values of 5:1 (Q472H), 1:3 (L490W), 1:5 (A486Y) and 5:1 (Y497A) were found with the four mutants; A486Y representing a 150-fold improvement over the wild type. A486, L490 and Y497 are on an α-helix that lines the dNTP binding groove, but the side chains of the three amino acids point away from this groove; Q472 is in a loop that connects this α-helix to a second long helix. None of the four amino acids can contact the dNTP directly. Therefore, the increased selectivity for ddNTPs is likely to arise from two factors: (i) small overall changes in conformation that subtly alter the nucleotide triphosphate binding site such that ddNTPs become favoured; (ii) interference with a conformational change that may be critical both for the polymerisation step and discrimination between different nucleotide triphosphates. PMID:10666444

  10. Utilisation de la mélatonine pour le sommeil chez les enfants en bonne santé

    PubMed Central

    Janjua, Irvin; Goldman, Ran D.

    2016-01-01

    Résumé Question Une maman a amené son garçon de 12 ans me consulter à mon bureau. Elle s’inquiète, car il a de la difficulté à s’endormir presque tous les soirs. Elle travaille par quarts et elle prend elle-même de la mélatonine pour l’aider à s’endormir. Elle m’a demandé si son garçon pouvait aussi prendre de la mélatonine. Quels sont les recommandations et les éléments à considérer avant d’utiliser la mélatonine chez les enfants et les adolescents en bonne santé? Réponse L’insomnie est rapportée chez jusqu’à un quart des enfants en bonne santé et chez les trois quarts des enfants atteints d’une affection psychiatrique ou neurodéveloppementale, ce qui entraîne des conséquences négatives. Pour les enfants atteints du syndrome de retard de phase du sommeil, la mélatonine pourrait s’avérer utile lorsque jumelée à une évaluation de l’insomnie et à un suivi régulier. La mélatonine pourrait être envisagée pour des enfants sans diagnostic d’insomnie qui ont une bonne hygiène du sommeil. Bien qu’elle semble sans danger, il n’existe pas de données probantes en faveur de l’emploi systématique de la mélatonine chez les enfants en bonne santé.

  11. Insights into the Dekkera bruxellensis genomic landscape: comparative genomics reveals variations in ploidy and nutrient utilisation potential amongst wine isolates.

    PubMed

    Borneman, Anthony R; Zeppel, Ryan; Chambers, Paul J; Curtin, Chris D

    2014-02-01

    The yeast Dekkera bruxellensis is a major contaminant of industrial fermentations, such as those used for the production of biofuel and wine, where it outlasts and, under some conditions, outcompetes the major industrial yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In order to investigate the level of inter-strain variation that is present within this economically important species, the genomes of four diverse D. bruxellensis isolates were compared. While each of the four strains was shown to contain a core diploid genome, which is clearly sufficient for survival, two of the four isolates have a third haploid complement of chromosomes. The sequences of these additional haploid genomes were both highly divergent from those comprising the diploid core and divergent between the two triploid strains. Similar to examples in the Saccharomyces spp. clade, where some allotriploids have arisen on the basis of enhanced ability to survive a range of environmental conditions, it is likely these strains are products of two independent hybridisation events that may have involved multiple species or distinct sub-species of Dekkera. Interestingly these triploid strains represent the vast majority (92%) of isolates from across the Australian wine industry, suggesting that the additional set of chromosomes may confer a selective advantage in winery environments that has resulted in these hybrid strains all-but replacing their diploid counterparts in Australian winery settings. In addition to the apparent inter-specific hybridisation events, chromosomal aberrations such as strain-specific insertions and deletions and loss-of-heterozygosity by gene conversion were also commonplace. While these events are likely to have affected many phenotypes across these strains, we have been able to link a specific deletion to the inability to utilise nitrate by some strains of D. bruxellensis, a phenotype that may have direct impacts in the ability for these strains to compete with S. cerevisiae. PMID:24550744

  12. Effect of N fertilisation rate, energy supplementation and supplementation strategy on efficiency of N utilisation in the sheep rumen.

    PubMed

    Fievez, V; Vandeweghe, A; Vlaeminck, B; Mbanzamihigo, L; Carlier, L; Demeyer, D

    2001-01-01

    The effect of nitrogen (N) fertilisation (200 vs. 400 kg N ha-1 year-1) of pasture cut in the beginning (end of May) and the end (end of August) of the grazing season and of simultaneous or separated feeding of maize and grass (400 kg N ha-1 year-1) on efficiency of N utilisation in the rumen has been studied using four rumen cannulated wethers. Doubling N fertiliser rate increased grass CP production by about 60%, but induced extensive excess of rumen degradable N, reflected in high urinary urea excretion (rpearson = 0.747). The latter was lower (74% at the maximum) when feeding less fertilised or older grass or when supplementing with maize silage. Although simultaneous feeding of maize silage with grass changed patterns of rumen ammonia concentrations, no change in urinary excretion of purine derivatives was observed. Hence, faecal or urinary N excretion was unaffected by the supplementation strategy. Microbial growth efficiency was estimated from urinary excretion of purine derivatives and fermented OM. The latter was calculated from total rumen CH4 production, based on rumen fermentation stoichiometry and taking into account proportional concentrations of individual volatile fatty acids. Higher levels of intake tended to improve rumen microbial growth efficiency slightly (rpearson = 0.406), which, however, could not compensate for the reduced effective rumen DM degradability (rpearson = -0.442). The latter was apparently associated with a partial shift of the fermentation from the rumen to the hindgut, as suggested from the negative correlation (rpearson = -0.745) between faecal RNA concentrations and rumen effective degradability. PMID:12098834

  13. Insights into the Dekkera bruxellensis Genomic Landscape: Comparative Genomics Reveals Variations in Ploidy and Nutrient Utilisation Potential amongst Wine Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Borneman, Anthony R.; Zeppel, Ryan; Chambers, Paul J.; Curtin, Chris D.

    2014-01-01

    The yeast Dekkera bruxellensis is a major contaminant of industrial fermentations, such as those used for the production of biofuel and wine, where it outlasts and, under some conditions, outcompetes the major industrial yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In order to investigate the level of inter-strain variation that is present within this economically important species, the genomes of four diverse D. bruxellensis isolates were compared. While each of the four strains was shown to contain a core diploid genome, which is clearly sufficient for survival, two of the four isolates have a third haploid complement of chromosomes. The sequences of these additional haploid genomes were both highly divergent from those comprising the diploid core and divergent between the two triploid strains. Similar to examples in the Saccharomyces spp. clade, where some allotriploids have arisen on the basis of enhanced ability to survive a range of environmental conditions, it is likely these strains are products of two independent hybridisation events that may have involved multiple species or distinct sub-species of Dekkera. Interestingly these triploid strains represent the vast majority (92%) of isolates from across the Australian wine industry, suggesting that the additional set of chromosomes may confer a selective advantage in winery environments that has resulted in these hybrid strains all-but replacing their diploid counterparts in Australian winery settings. In addition to the apparent inter-specific hybridisation events, chromosomal aberrations such as strain-specific insertions and deletions and loss-of-heterozygosity by gene conversion were also commonplace. While these events are likely to have affected many phenotypes across these strains, we have been able to link a specific deletion to the inability to utilise nitrate by some strains of D. bruxellensis, a phenotype that may have direct impacts in the ability for these strains to compete with S. cerevisiae. PMID:24550744

  14. A systematic review of the predictors of health service utilisation by adults with mental disorders in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Twomey, Conal D; Baldwin, David S; Hopfe, Maren; Cieza, Alarcos

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To identify variables that predict health service utilisation (HSU) by adults with mental disorders in the UK, and to determine the evidence level for these predictors. Design A narrative synthesis of peer-reviewed studies published after the year 2000. The search was conducted using four databases (ie, PsycINFO, CINAHL Plus with full text, MEDLINE and EMBASE) and completed on 25 March 2014. Setting The majority of included studies were set in health services across primary, secondary, specialist and inpatient care. Some studies used data from household and postal surveys. Participants Included were UK-based studies that predicted HSU by adults with mental disorders. Participants had a range of mental disorders including psychotic disorders, personality disorders, depression, anxiety disorders, eating disorders and dementia. Primary outcome A wide range of HSU outcomes were examined, including general practitioner (GP) contacts, medication usage, psychiatrist contacts, psychotherapy attendances, inpatient days, accident and emergency admissions and ‘total HSU’. Results Taking into account study quality, 28 studies identified a range of variables with good preliminary evidence supporting their ability to predict HSU. Of these variables, comorbidity, personality disorder, age (heterogeneous age ranges), neurotic symptoms, female gender, a marital status of divorced, separated or widowed, non-white ethnicity, high previous HSU and activities of daily living, were associated with increased HSU. Moreover, good preliminary evidence was found for associations of accessing a primary care psychological treatment service and medication use with decreased HSU. Conclusions The findings can inform decisions about which variables might be used to derive mental health clusters in ‘payment by results’ systems in the UK. The findings also support the need to investigate whether combining broad diagnoses with care pathways is an effective method for mental health

  15. Utilisation of a cryptic non-canonical donor splice site of the gene encoding PARAFIBROMIN is associated with familial isolated primary hyperparathyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, K; Cavaco, B; Bowl, M; Harding, B; Young, A; Thakker, R

    2005-01-01

    More than 99% of all splice sites conform to consensus sequences that usually include the invariant dinucleotides gt and ag at the 5' and 3' ends of the introns, respectively. We report on the utilisation of a non-consensus (non-canonical) donor splice site within exon 1 of the HRPT2 gene in familial isolated primary hyperparathyroidism (FIHP). HRPT2 mutations are more frequently associated with the hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumour syndrome (HPT-JT). Patients with FIHP were identified to have a donor splice site mutation, IVS1+1 g→a, and the consequences of this for RNA processing were investigated. The mutant mRNA lacked 30 bp and DNA sequence analysis revealed this to result from utilisation of an alternative cryptic non-canonical donor splice site (gaatgt) in exon 1 together with the normally occurring acceptor splice site in intron 1. Translation of this mutant mRNA predicted the in-frame loss of 10 amino acids in the encoded protein, termed PARAFIBROMIN. Thus, these FIHP patients are utilising a ga-ag splice site pair, which until recently was considered to be incompatible with splicing but is now known to occur as a rare (<0.02%) normal splicing variant. PMID:16061557

  16. Factors associated with non-utilisation of health service for childbirth in Timor-Leste: evidence from the 2009-2010 Demographic and Health Survey

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Timor-Leste is a young developing country in Asia. Most of its infrastructure was destroyed after a long armed conflict for independence. Despite recent expansion of health facilities and investment in healthcare, maternal mortality remains high with most mothers still giving birth at home. This study investigated factors affecting the non-utilisation of health service for childbirth in the aftermath of the independence conflict. Methods The Timor-Leste Demographic and Health Survey 2009-2010 was the latest two-stage national survey, which used validated questionnaires to obtain information from 26 clusters derived from 13 districts of the country. Factors influencing non-utilisation of health facility for childbirth were investigated using univariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses, accounting for the cluster sampling and sample weight of the survey. Results Of the total 5986 participants included in the study, 4472 (74.8%) did not deliver their last child at a health facility. Lack of education for the mother (adjusted odds ratio (OR): 2.04; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.56 to 2.66) and her partner (OR: 1.45; 95% CI 1.14 to 1.84), low household wealth status (OR: 5.20; 95% CI 3.93 to 6.90), and rural residence (OR: 2.83; 95% CI 2.22 to 3.66), were associated with increased likelihood of non-utilisation of health facility for childbirth. Working mothers (OR: 1.55; 95% CI 1.32 to 1.81), who had high parity (OR: 1.78; 95% CI 1.36 to 2.32) and did not attend antenatal care service (OR: 4.68; 95% CI 2.65 to 8.28) were also vulnerable for not delivering at a health facility. Conversely, the prevalence of non-utilisation of health facility for childbirth reduced with increasing number of service components received during antenatal care visits (OR: 0.72; 95% CI 0.64 to 0.80). Conclusions Only a quarter of Timorese women delivered at a health facility. In order to reduce maternal mortality, future interventions should target disadvantaged

  17. Effects of immigrant status on Emergency Room (ER) utilisation by children under age one: a population-based study in the province of Reggio Emilia (Italy)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The primary aim of this study was to assess the effect of immigrant status on Emergency Room (ER) utilisation by children under age one, considering all, non-urgent, very urgent, and followed by hospitalisation visits. The second aim was to investigate the role played by mother’s educational level in the relationship between citizenship and ER utilisation. Methods The cohort study included all healthy singleton live births in the years 2008–2009 and residing in the province of Reggio Emilia, followed for the first year of life in order to study their ER visits. The outcomes were the ER utilisation rate for all, non-urgent, very urgent, and followed by hospitalisation visits. The main explanatory variable was mother’s citizenship. Other covariates were mother’s educational level, maternal age, parity, and child gender. Multivariate analyses (negative binomial regression and zero inflated when appropriate) were performed. Adjusted utilisation Rate Ratios (RR) and their 95% Confidence Intervals (95% CI) were calculated. Trend for age in months by citizenship is depicted. Results There were 3,191 children (36.4%) with at least one ER visit in the first year of life. Adjusted RR show a significantly greater risk of ER visit for immigrants than for Italians: (RR 1.51; 95% CI 1.39-1.63). Immigrants also had a higher risk of non-urgent visits (RR 1.72; 95% CI 1.48-2.00) and for visits followed by hospitalizations (RR 1.58; 95% CI 1.33-1.89). For very urgent visits, the immigrants had a slightly higher risk compared to Italians (RR 1.25; 95% CI 0.98-1.59). The risk of ER visits is higher in the first two months of life (RR1stvs 3rd-12th 2.08; 95% CI 1.93-2.24 and RR 2ndvs 3rd-12th 1.45; 95% CI 1.33-1.58, respectively). Considering all visits, the ER utilisation rate was inversely related with maternal education only for Italians (low educational level 44.0 and high educational level 73.9 for 100 children; p value for trend test < 0.001). Conclusions

  18. Estimation of utilisable crude protein at the duodenum of dried distillers' grains with solubles using a modified gas test.

    PubMed

    Westreicher-Kristen, Edwin; Steingass, Herbert; Rodehutscord, Markus

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterise the variation of utilisable crude protein at the duodenum (uCP) of dried distillers' grains with solubles (DDGS) for ruminants using a modified gas test and to predict the uCP in DDGS based on chemical composition. Thirteen samples originating from wheat, maize, barley or blends of different substrates were studied. The in vitro uCP was estimated using the modified Hohenheim gas test (moHGT). Samples were incubated in rumen fluid for 8 h, 24 h and 48 h followed by ammonia distillation. The obtained values were compared to reference values of uCP (based on the contents of crude protein (CP), in situ undegraded CP and metabolisable energy). The reference and in vitro values of uCP were calculated according to passage rates of 2, 5 and 8%/h (i.e., uCP2, uCP5 and uCP8, respectively). The in vitro uCP8 ranged from 214 to 320 g/kg DM and reference values from 158 to 302 g/kg DM. The in vitro uCP2 was on average lower (by 7 g/kg DM) and in vitro uCP8 was higher (by 56 g/kg DM) than their respective reference values. The in vitro uCP5 and uCP8 were correlated with reference values and the correlations were improved with increasing passage rates. When the differences of uCP content between in vitro and reference values were related to CP fractions, they increased with increasing content of CP fraction A and decreasing content of CP fraction B3 for uCP8. The prediction of uCP values from chemical composition was not reliable. It was concluded that uCP can be predicted on the basis of the moHGT method and CP fractions. The accuracy of prediction improved upon the inclusion of CP fractions and neutral-detergent insoluble nitrogen. The present study revealed a significant variation in the uCP content of DDGS, which should be considered when formulating rations for dairy cows. PMID:26305384

  19. Utilisation of Blood Components in Cardiac Surgery: A Single-Centre Retrospective Analysis with Regard to Diagnosis-Related Procedures

    PubMed Central

    Geissler, Raoul Georg; Rotering, Heinrich; Buddendick, Hubert; Franz, Dominik; Bunzemeier, Holger; Roeder, Norbert; Kwiecien, Robert; Sibrowski, Walter; Scheld, Hans H.; Martens, Sven; Schlenke, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Background More blood components are required in cardiac surgery than in most other medical disciplines. The overall blood demand may increase as a function of the total number of cardiothoracic and vascular surgical interventions and their level of complexity, and also when considering the demographic ageing. Awareness has grown with respect to adverse events, such as transfusion-related immunomodulation by allogeneic blood supply, which can contribute to morbidity and mortality. Therefore, programmes of patient blood management (PBM) have been implemented to avoid unnecessary blood transfusions and to standardise the indication of blood transfusions more strictly with aim to improve patients' overall outcomes. Methods A comprehensive retrospective analysis of the utilisation of blood components in the Department of Cardiac Surgery at the University Hospital of Münster (UKM) was performed over a 4-year period. Based on a medical reporting system of all medical disciplines, which was established as part of a PBM initiative, all transfused patients in cardiac surgery and their blood components were identified in a diagnosis- and medical procedure-related system, which allows the precise allocation of blood consumption to interventional procedures in cardiac surgery, such as coronary or valve surgery. Results This retrospective single centre study included all in-patients in cardiac surgery at the UKM from 2009 to 2012, corresponding to a total of 1,405-1,644 cases per year. A blood supply was provided for 55.6-61.9% of the cardiac surgery patients, whereas approximately 9% of all in-patients at the UKM required blood transfusions. Most of the blood units were applied during cardiac valve surgery and during coronary surgery. Further surgical activities with considerable use of blood components included thoracic surgery, aortic surgery, heart transplantations and the use of artificial hearts. Under the measures of PBM in 2012 a noticeable decrease in the number of

  20. Feasibility of utilising an infrared-thermographic technique for early detection of subclinical mastitis in dairy camels (Camelus dromedarius).

    PubMed

    Samara, Emad M; Ayadi, Moez; Aljumaah, Riyadh S

    2014-02-01

    Despite the proven ability of infrared thermography (IRT) technology for early detection of subclinical mastitis in dairy cows/sheep/goats, studies on its diagnostic feasibility in dairy camels are lacking. Sixty-five lactating camels in mid lactation, machine milked twice-daily and managed under intensive conditions were screened to evaluate the feasibility of utilising IRT compared with other routine indicators in detecting subclinical mastitis. Immediately before the morning milking, a portable infrared camera was used to obtain thermograms in duplicate for the front and rear left quarters to determine the udder surface temperature (UST). Thereafter, milk samples from quarters were collected, and processed for California mastitis test (CMT) score and somatic cell count (SCC). In the present study, CMT score was used to define subclinical mastitis and the feasibility of IRT to detect subclinical mastitis was compared with CMT and SCC. According to CMT score, subclinical mastitic udders had an average UST of 1·42 °C greater (P<0·0001) than healthy udders. The relationship between UST and CMT was found to be highly correlated (r=0·77; P<0·001), and UST was linearly increased as the CMT increased [UST (°C)=34·86+0·66×CMT score; R 2=0·65; P<0·001]. Additionally, high correlations were obtained between UST and SCC score (r=0·75; P<0·001) and the relationship between UST and SCC was fitted best to a logarithmic equation [UST, °C=33·39+0·88×Log (SCC, ×103 cells/ml), R 2=0·61, P<0·001]. The cut-off value, sensitivity, specificity and area under the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve for UST were 35·15 °C, 0·90, 0·98, and 0·95, respectively, when subclinical mastitis was defined according to CMT score, and were 35·70 °C, 0·89, 0·96 and 0·94, respectively, when categorised according to the obtained SCC threshold (SCC=432 000 cells/ml). In conclusion, IRT, as an indirect non-invasive screening method, was highly feasible for

  1. Preliminary observations on accessibility and utilisation of water in selected villages in Dodoma Rural and Bagamoyo Districts, Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusiluka, L. J. M.; Mlozi, M. R. S.; Munishi, P. K. T.; Karimuribo, E. D.; Luoga, E. J.; Mdegela, R. H.; Kambarage, D. M.

    A study was carried out to establish the availability and utilisation of water in eight villages in Dodoma Rural and Bagamoyo districts, Tanzania. A total of 128 respondents were interviewed, involving 64 people in each district. The study revealed that the main sources of water for domestic and animal uses in Dodoma district were wells and dams, while in Bagamoyo district; the main sources were dams and ponds. Nine percent of the respondents reported water to be ‘readily available’, whereas 50% and 41% reported water to be ‘not easily available’ and ‘problematic’, respectively. Distances travelled to the nearest water source were in the range of 0.5-2.0, 0.25-15.00 and 0.5-14.40 km for the respondents who reported water as “readily available”, “not easily available” and “problematic”, respectively and, the corresponding time taken to the nearest water source was 0.17-2.00; 0.10-6.00 and 0.17-5.00 hours for the three categories of respondents respectively. More than two-thirds of the respondents reported that water sources were shared between households and also 71.9% reported sharing of water sources with animals, particularly cattle, sheep and goats. The proportions of respondents that reported occurrence of enteric or diarrhoeic cases amongst household members within the past three months before the study were 35.9% and 37.5% in Dodoma and Bagamoyo districts, respectively. All respondents in Dodoma district had latrines whereas 84% in Bagamoyo district had these facilities. All except one of the respondents who had no latrines in Bagamoyo district were based in Chamakweza, a village dominated by a Maasai pastoral community. Interestingly, a significantly higher proportion of diarrhoeic cases were reported in this village compared to the other three villages in Bagamoyo district ( p = 0.029). These findings show that availability of safe water is a serious problem in the study areas and that this may have serious consequences on public

  2. Without gaps - 3D photo-reconstruction of gully headcuts by combined utilisation of UAV and close-range photogrammetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stöcker, Claudia; Karrasch, Pierre; Eltner, Anette

    2015-04-01

    Gully erosion is a worldwide phenomenon causing permanent degradation of fertile land. Especially in the Mediterranean, gullies contribute to high soil loss rates which necessitate multi-temporal and high resolution monitoring. Gullies naturally exhibit complex surface morphologies and hence are difficult to measure. Images acquired airborne or terrestrial are possible data sources for digital gully modelling due to availing of photogrammetric methods to achieve 3D models. In this regard unmanned airborne vehicles (UAVs) allow for low cost, flexible and frequent areal gully monitoring, but exhibit limitations as a result of the birds-eye view - i.e. at steep sidewalls and overhanging areas. Terrestrial images offer advantages at local assessments and can be obtained spontaneously as needed. However, images acquired from ground are not able to ensure areal coverage. To integrate the advantages of both data sources and to overcome the above mentioned limitations, this study introduces a methodological approach of combined utilisation of nadir UAV data and oblique terrestrial images for 3D photo reconstruction. Two gully headcuts in Andalusia (Spain) are analysed to confirm the suitability of the synergetic data usage. The results show that the UAV model of the gully, generated from images from flying heights of 15 m, implies inconsistency of data at slope gradients of 50 to 60 °. To eliminate these gaps additional terrestrial images can be integrated, which are geo-referenced solely using information of the already calculated 3D model and orthophoto from the UAV images. Referencing errors of the terrestrial point clouds are fixed by applying fine registration. The final merged digital gully model reveals a resolution of 0.5 cm and an accuracy of 1 cm. Concluding, high density point clouds based on the fusion of UAV and terrestrial image data show a significant improvement of 3D photo-reconstruction of two gully headcuts compared to detached processing of single data

  3. Anthelmintic utilisation practices and prevalence of gastrointestinal helminth infections in sheep kept in the urban and peri-urban areas of Bishoftu Town.

    PubMed

    Datiko, Jallale; Terefe, Getachew; Bekele, Jemere

    2013-02-01

    Assessment of the anthelmintic (AH) utilisation practices and estimation of the prevalence of gastrointestinal helminth infections in sheep were carried out from November 2010 to April 2011 in urban and peri-urban areas of Bishoftu Town, central Ethiopia. A structured questionnaire was employed to assess the AH utilisation practices in sheep of 310 owners/households, while floatation and sedimentation techniques were used to study the prevalence of helminth infections. Faecal examinations revealed that 53.9 % of sheep harboured gastrointestinal helminth infections with a high frequency due to strongyles (77.3 %). The questionnaire survey revealed that sources of AH for sheep were government and private veterinary clinics for 98.5 % of urban and 65.4 % peri-urban respondents. In peri-urban areas, AH were also purchased from open markets and illegal dealers. Albendazole was the most common (75.5 %) drug used in sheep followed by ivermectin (18.7 %) and tetramisole (5.8 %). The criteria for selecting AH were: prescription by veterinarians (51.6 %), efficacy (31.9 %), price (12.3 %) and arbitrary reasons (4.2 %). Treatment frequency was minimal with 51.3, 32.3 and 15.8 % of the owners treating their sheep once, twice and less than once per year, respectively. Treatments mainly depended on manifestations of general (45.8 %) and digestive (23.3 %) symptoms. Irrespective of the body weight of the sheep, albendazole was the only drug reported to be given at half bolus/sheep (14.1 %). Owing to this practice, albendazole faces the risk of reduced efficacy or AH resistance due to its wide spread utilisation, handling by untrained personnel and suspected underdosage, which altogether support the perception of sheep owners on its lower effect on the performance of treated sheep. PMID:23015354

  4. Effects of demand-side financing on utilisation, experiences and outcomes of maternity care in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Demand-side financing, where funds for specific services are channelled through, or to, prospective users, is now employed in health and education sectors in many low- and middle-income countries. This systematic review aimed to critically examine the evidence on application of this approach to promote maternal health in these settings. Five modes were considered: unconditional cash transfers, conditional cash transfers, short-term payments to offset costs of accessing maternity services, vouchers for maternity services, and vouchers for merit goods. We sought to assess the effects of these interventions on utilisation of maternity services and on maternal health outcomes and infant health, the situation of underprivileged women and the healthcare system. Methods The protocol aimed for collection and synthesis of a broad range of evidence from quantitative, qualitative and economic studies. Nineteen health and social policy databases, seven unpublished research databases and 27 websites were searched; with additional searches of Indian journals and websites. Studies were included if they examined demand-side financing interventions to increase consumption of services or goods intended to impact on maternal health, and met relevant quality criteria. Quality assessment, data extraction and analysis used Joanna Briggs Institute standardised tools and software. Outcomes of interest included maternal and infant mortality and morbidity, service utilisation, factors required for successful implementation, recipient and provider experiences, ethical issues, and cost-effectiveness. Findings on Effectiveness, Feasibility, Appropriateness and Meaningfulness were presented by narrative synthesis. Results Thirty-three quantitative studies, 46 qualitative studies, and four economic studies from 17 countries met the inclusion criteria. Evidence on unconditional cash transfers was scanty. Other demand-side financing modes were found to increase utilisation of maternal

  5. Effects of Pre-Natal Vitamin D Supplementation with Partial Correction of Vitamin D Deficiency on Early Life Healthcare Utilisation: A Randomised Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, Chris; Shaheen, Seif O.; Martineau, Adrian; Cross, Louise; Robinson, Stephen; Warner, John O.; Devine, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Background Some observational studies have suggested that higher prenatal Vitamin D intake may be associated with improved health outcomes in childhood. However there have been mixed results in this area with some negative studies, especially for effects on atopic and respiratory outcomes. We examined the effect of prenatal Vitamin D on healthcare utilisation in the first three years of life. Methods In an ethnically stratified randomised controlled trial conducted at St Mary’s Hospital London, 180 women at 27 weeks gestation were allocated to no Vitamin D, 800 IU ergocalciferol daily until delivery, or a single oral bolus of 200,000 IU cholecalciferol. Participants were randomised in blocks of 15 using computer-generated numbers and investigators were blinded to group assignment. Supplementation increased maternal and cord blood 25(OH) vitamin D concentrations, but levels remained lower than current recommendations. Primary health economic outcome was overall cost of unscheduled healthcare utilisation in the first three years of life as documented in the child’s electronic health record. Secondary outcomes included cost attributable to: primary and secondary healthcare visits, respiratory and atopic complaints, cost in years 1, 2 and 3 of life and cost and frequency of prescribed medication. All costs were calculated as pounds sterling. Differences between groups were analysed using unpaired t-test or Mann-Whitney U test, and analysis of variance for adjusted analyses. Results We assessed 99/180 (55%) complete electronic health records, control (n = 31), daily (n = 36) and bolus (n = 32). We found no difference in total healthcare utilisation costs between the control and daily (mean difference in costs in pounds sterling 1.02, 95%CI -1.60, 1.65; adjusted 1.07, 95%CI -1.62, 1.86) or control and bolus groups (mean difference -1.58, 95%CI -2.63, 1.06; adjusted –1.40, 95%CI -2.45, 1.24). There were no adverse effects of supplementation reported during the trial

  6. Early primary care physician contact and health service utilisation in a large sample of recently released ex-prisoners in Australia: prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Arnold-Reed, Diane; Preen, David; Bulsara, Max; Lennox, Nick; Kinner, Stuart A

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe the association between ex-prisoner primary care physician contact within 1 month of prison release and health service utilisation in the 6 months following release. Design A cohort from the Passports study with a mean follow-up of 219 (±44) days postrelease. Associations were assessed using a multivariate Andersen-Gill model, controlling for a range of other factors. Setting Face-to-face, baseline interviews were conducted in a sample of prisoners within 6 weeks of expected release from seven prisons in Queensland, Australia, from 2008 to 2010, with telephone follow-up interviews 1, 3 and 6 months postrelease. Participants From an original population-based sample of 1325 sentenced adult (≥18 years) prisoners, 478 participants were excluded due to not being released from prison during follow-up (n=7, 0.5%), loss to follow-up (n=257, 19.4%), or lacking exposure data (n=214, 16.2%). A total of 847 (63.9%) participants were included in the analyses. Exposure Primary care physician contact within 1 month of follow-up as a dichotomous measure. Main outcome measures Adjusted time-to-event hazard rates for hospital, mental health, alcohol and other drug and subsequent primary care physician service utilisations assessed as multiple failure time-interval data. Results Primary care physician contact prevalence within 1 month of follow-up was 46.5%. One-month primary care physician contact was positively associated with hospital (adjusted HR (AHR)=2.07; 95% CI 1.39 to 3.09), mental health (AHR=1.65; 95% CI 1.24 to 2.19), alcohol and other drug (AHR=1.48; 95% CI 1.15 to 1.90) and subsequent primary care physician service utilisation (AHR=1.47; 95% CI 1.26 to 1.72) over 6 months of follow-up. Conclusions Engagement with primary care physician services soon after prison release increases health service utilisation during the critical community transition period for ex-prisoners. Trial registration number Australian New Zealand Clinical

  7. Utilising climate research to inform the insurance industry: Can we use dynamically simulated storms for risk assessment?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strachan, Jane; Vidale, Pier Luigi; Vitolo, Renato; Stevenson, David

    2010-05-01

    Risk assessment, in the form if catastrophe modelling, is used by the insurance industry to estimate potential loss from hazardous events, such as tropical cyclones (TCs). Probability distributions of potential loss are generated using available information about the location, severity and frequency of the hazard in question, coupled with information about the vulnerability of insured assets. Hazard information for climate-related events is typically derived from limited observational data. TC data, for example, are only available for approximately the last 50 years, beyond which the data becomes less and less consistent and reliable. Basing statistics on a limited period of historical data neglects the non-stationary nature of the climate system and its influence on TC activity, and hence does not necessarily capture the full array of possible storm scenarios. This is particularly true when considering the influence of natural climate variability operating on longer time scales, such as multi-decadal variability, which are known to have an impact on TCs. High resolution dynamical climate modelling, has the potential to provide highly relevant information to the risk assessment process. Simulating extreme events in a global climate context is increasingly possible with improved general circulation model (GCM) resolution, physics, and simulation length; this has the potential to improve understanding of the impact of natural variability on climate-related hazards. Although catastrophe models already utilise output from numerical models, closer integration between stochastic event modelling approach undertaken in industry and dynamical modelling undertaken in academia has the potential to further improve risk assessment. We propose a new approach to the creation of a TC event set, for use in the catastrophe modelling process, based on both available observational data (IBTrACS) and a database of dynamically simulated TCs, extracted from over 200 years of current

  8. Effect of graded levels of rapeseed oil in isonitrogenous diets on the development of the gastrointestinal tract, and utilisation of protein, fat and energy in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, Henry; Zhao, Xin Quan; Theil, Peter Kappel; Jakobsen, Kirsten

    2008-08-01

    The effect of feeding 0, 4, 8 and 16% rapeseed oil from 12-42 days of age was studied in broiler chickens on performance, digestibility of nutrients, and development of gastrointestinal tract, protein and energy metabolism. Thirty six female chickens (Ross 208) with initial body weight average 246 g were allocated to the four groups and kept pair-wise in metabolism cages. The chickens were fed similar amounts of metabolisable energy (ME) per day and similar amounts of essential amino acids relative to ME by adjusting with crystalline amino acids. The chickens were subjected to four balance periods each of five days with two 24 h measurements of gas exchange in two open-air-circuit respiration chambers inserted on the second and third day of each period. The addition of rapeseed oil increased the amount of gutfill indicating a reduced rate of passage and causing a hypertrophy of the gastrointestinal tract. There was a positive effect on feed utilisation as well as on digestibility especially of dietary fat together with higher utilisation of protein with addition of rapeseed oil. The partial fat digestibility of rapeseed oil estimated by regression was 91.1% and the partial metabolisability (ME/GE) of the rapeseed oil was estimated to 85% yielding an apparent metabolisable energy value of 34.30 MJ/kg. PMID:18763627

  9. Access and utilisation of healthcare services in rural Tanzania: A comparison of public and non-public facilities using quality, equity, and trust dimensions.

    PubMed

    Shayo, Elizabeth H; Senkoro, Kesheni P; Momburi, Romanus; Olsen, Øystein E; Byskov, Jens; Makundi, Emmanuel A; Kamuzora, Peter; Mboera, Leonard E G

    2016-01-01

    This study compared the access and utilisation of health services in public and non-public health facilities in terms of quality, equity and trust in the Mbarali district, Tanzania. Interviews, focus group discussions, and informal discussions were used to generate data. Of the 1836 respondents, 1157 and 679 respondents sought healthcare services on their last visit at public or non-public health facilities, respectively. While 45.5% rated the quality of services to be good in both types of facilities, reported medicine shortages were more pronounced among those who visited public rather than non-public health facilities (OR = 1.7, 95% CI 1.4, 2.1). Respondents who visited public facilities were 4.9 times less likely than those who visited non-public facilities to emphasise the influence of cost in accessing and utilising health care (OR = 4.9, CI 3.9-6.1). A significant difference was also found in the provider-client relationship satisfaction level between non-public (89.1%) and public facilities (74.7%) (OR = 2.8, CI: 1.5-5.0), indicating a level of lower trust in the later. Revised strategies are needed to ensure availability of medicines in public facilities, which are used by the majority of the population, while strengthening private-public partnerships to harmonise healthcare costs. PMID:26883021

  10. Good Practice Chaplaincy: An Exploratory Study Identifying the Appropriate Skills, Attitudes and Practices for the Selection, Training and Utilisation of Chaplains.

    PubMed

    Carey, Lindsay B; Rumbold, Bruce

    2015-08-01

    This article presents an overview of exploratory research regarding the skills, knowledge, attitudes and practices considered necessary for chaplains to be highly competent in providing holistic care to clients and staff. Utilising a qualitative methodology, two focus groups comprising Salvation Army chaplains and their managers provided data about their expectations of chaplaincy personnel and about the pastoral care interventions undertaken by chaplains. The results indicated that while there were some differences in opinion, nevertheless, in overall terms, there was general agreement between chaplains and their managers about particular personal and professional qualities necessary for chaplains to be considered appropriate and proficient. Evidence was also obtained indicating a need for change with regard to the organisational attitude and culture of The Salvation Army towards chaplaincy. Recommendations are presented concerning (1) the selection criteria for chaplaincy, (2) training and utilisation of chaplains plus (3) issues relating to organizational cultural change necessary to develop a future-ready chaplaincy more suitable for the twenty-first century. PMID:25371346

  11. Impact Evaluation of a System-Wide Chronic Disease Management Program on Health Service Utilisation: A Propensity-Matched Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Billot, Laurent; Corcoran, Kate; Feyer, Anne-Marie

    2016-01-01

    Background The New South Wales Health (NSW Health) Chronic Disease Management Program (CDMP) delivers interventions to adults at risk of hospitalisation for five target chronic conditions that respond well to ambulatory care: diabetes, hypertension, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, congestive heart failure, and coronary artery disease. The intervention consists of two main components: (1) care coordination across sectors (acute, ambulatory, and community care from both public and private sectors) and clinical specialties, facilitated by program care coordinators, and (2) health coaching including management of lifestyle risk factors and medications and self-management. These components were broadly prescribed by the head office of NSW Health, which funded the program, and were implemented by regional health services (local health districts) in ways that best suited their own history, environment, workforce, and patient need. We used a propensity-matched cohort study to evaluate health service utilisation after enrolment in the CDMP. Methods and Findings The evaluation cohort included 41,303 CDMP participants enrolled between 1 January 2011 and 31 December 2013 who experienced at least one hospital admission or emergency department (ED) presentation for a target condition in the 12 mo preceding enrolment. Potential controls were selected from patients not enrolled in the CDMP but experiencing at least one hospital admission or ED presentation over the same period. Each CDMP patient in the evaluation cohort was matched to one control using 1:1 propensity score matching. The primary outcome was avoidable hospitalisations. Secondary outcomes included avoidable readmissions, avoidable bed days, unplanned hospitalisations, unplanned readmissions, unplanned bed days, ED presentations, and all-cause death. The primary analysis consisted of 30,057 CDMP participants and 30,057 matched controls with a median follow-up of 15 mo. Of those, 25,638 (85.3%) and 25,597 (85

  12. A comparison of the Greenland Ice-Core and IntCal timescales through the Laschamp geomagnetic excursion, utilising new 14c data from Tenaghi Philippon, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staff, Richard A.; Hardiman, Mark; Bronk Ramsey, Christopher; Koutsodendris, Andreas; Pross, Jörg

    2016-04-01

    Cosmogenic radionuclides, such as 10Be and 14C, share a common production signal, with their formation in the Earth's upper atmosphere modulated by changes to the geomagnetic field, as well as variations in the intensity of the solar wind. Here, we present 54 new 14C measurements from a terrestrial fen peat core extracted from the classical site of Tenaghi Philippon, NE Greece, contiguously spanning the time period between ~48,000 and 39,000 cal. BP. Utilising the most pronounced cosmogenic production peak of the last 100,000 years - that associated with the Laschamp geomagnetic excursion circa 41,000 years ago - we exploit this common production signal, comparing Greenland 10Be with our Tenaghi Philippon 14C record, thereby providing a means to assess the concordance between the radiocarbon (IntCal) and Greenland ice-core (GICC05) timescales themselves for this, the oldest portion of the radiocarbon technique.

  13. How Specific Microbial Communities Benefit the Oil Industry: Significant Contribution of Methyl/Methanol-Utilising Methanogenic Pathway in a Subsurface Biogas Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strąpoć, Dariusz; Ashby, Matt; Wood, Ladonna; Levinson, Rick; Huizinga, Bradley

    Methanogenesis is considered the main terminal process of subsurface anaerobic organic-matter degradation. Previous geochemical studies have reported CO2-reducing and acetoclastic methanogenesis as the predominant subsurface methanogenic pathways for primary and secondary biogenic gas generation (i.e. in oil biodegradation or coalbed methane settings). In lab-scale experiments and microbiology literature, however, methanogens have been shown to be able to utilise a wider variety of substrates, typically containing methyl groups, i.e. dimethyl sulphide (DMS), methyl amines (e.g. TMA), formate, and methanol. Additional methanogenic substrates include CO and other primary alcohols and secondary alcohols (Whitman et al., 2006; Fig. 25.1). Here, we describe a volumetrically important natural biogenic gas field in which these methylotrophic pathways have contributed significantly to biomethane formation.

  14. Increased utilisation of primary healthcare in persons exposed to severe stress in prenatal life: a national population-based study in Denmark

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jiong; Yang, Hu; Guldin, Mai-Britt; Vedsted, Peter; Vestergaard, Mogens

    2015-01-01

    Objective Recent studies have suggested that stress in a pregnant mother may affect the future health of the unborn child negatively. An excellent proxy for health problems is the use of healthcare resources. Using nationwide data, we examined whether persons born to mothers who lost a close relative during pregnancy have more contacts to general practice. Design Population-based cohort study. Setting Denmark. Participants We included all children born in Denmark from 1973 to 2002 (N=2 032 528). Exposure of prenatal stress was defined as maternal bereavement by the death of a close relative during the antenatal period. The outcome of interest was contact with general practice between 2003 and 2009 when the participants were between 1 and 35 years of age. Poisson regression was used to assess the association between exposure and outcome. Outcome measures Contacts to general practitioner. Results Overall, persons exposed to prenatal stress had 2% more GP contacts than those not exposed, primarily due to increased utilisation of healthcare services during late adolescence and early adulthood. The exposed persons born to mothers who had lost a spouse had a higher risk (relative risk (RR) 1.12, 95% CI 1.10 to 1.14) and so did those born to mothers who had lost a close relative due to unexpected death (RR 1.06, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.06). Exposed persons had more contacts to general practice in daytime and more psychometric tests, talk therapies and C reactive protein tests than unexposed persons. Conclusions Prenatal stress following maternal bereavement was associated with a slightly increased utilisation of primary healthcare, mainly due to increased healthcare needs related to mental health and infections. Understanding how stress during pregnancy influences the future health of the child is an important aspect of prenatal care. PMID:25573520

  15. Health service utilisation for anogenital warts in Ontario, Canada prior to the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine programme introduction: a retrospective longitudinal population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Guerra, Fiona M; Rosella, Laura C; Dunn, Sheila; Wilson, Sarah E; Chen, Cynthia; Deeks, Shelley L

    2016-01-01

    Objective Trends in occurrence of anogenital warts (AGWs) can provide early evidence of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination programme impact on preventing HPV infection and HPV-induced lesions. The objective of this study was to provide a baseline of AGW epidemiology in Ontario prior to the introduction of the publicly-funded school-based HPV vaccination programme in September 2007. Setting and participants As a retrospective longitudinal population-based study, we used health administrative data as a proxy to estimate incident AGWs and total health service utilisation (HSU) for AGWs for all Ontario residents 15 years and older with valid health cards between 1 April 2003 and 31 March 2007. Outcome measures The outcome of interest was AGW healthcare utilisation identified using the International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision (ICD-10) diagnostic code for AGWs, as well as an algorithm for identifying AGW physician office visits in a database with a unique system of diagnostic and procedural codes. An AGW case was considered incident if preceded by 12 months without HSU for AGWs. Time trends by age group and sex were analysed. Results Between fiscal years 2003 and 2006, we identified 123 247 health service visits for AGWs by 51 436 Ontario residents 15 years and older. Incident AGWs peaked in females and males in the 21–23 year age group, at 3.74 per 1000 and 2.81 per 1000, respectively. HSU for AGWs peaked in females and males within the 21–23 year age group, at 9.34 per 1000 and 7.22 per 1000, respectively. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, this is the first population-based study of AGW incidence and HSU in Ontario. The sex and age distribution of individuals with incident and prevalent AGWs in Ontario was similar to that of other provinces before HPV vaccine programme implementation in Canada. PMID:26966057

  16. Impact of immune system stimulation on the ileal nutrient digestibility and utilisation of methionine plus cysteine intake for whole-body protein deposition in growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Rakhshandeh, Anoosh; Htoo, John K; Karrow, Neil; Miller, Stephen P; de Lange, Cornelis F M

    2014-01-14

    The impact of immune system stimulation (ISS) on the ileal nutrient digestibility and utilisation of dietary methionine plus cysteine (SAA) intake for whole-body protein deposition (PD) was evaluated in growing pigs. For this purpose, sixty barrows were used in two experiments: thirty-six pigs in Expt I and twenty-four pigs in Expt II. Pigs were feed restricted and assigned to five levels of dietary SAA allowance (three and two levels in Expt I and II, respectively) from SAA-limiting diets. Following adaptation, pigs at each dietary SAA level were injected with either increasing amounts of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (ISS+; eight and six pigs per dietary SAA level in Expt I and II, respectively) or saline (ISS - ; four and six pigs in Expt I and II, respectively) while measuring the whole-body nitrogen (N) balance. After N-balance observations, pigs were euthanised, organs were removed and ileal digesta were collected for determining nutrient digestibility. Ileal digestibility of gross energy, crude protein and amino acids was not affected by ISS (P>0·20). ISS reduced PD at all levels of dietary SAA intake (P< 0·01). The linear relationship between daily dietary SAA intake and PD observed at the three lowest dietary SAA intake levels indicated that ISS increased extrapolated maintenance SAA requirements (P< 0·05), but had no effect on the partial efficiency of the utilisation of dietary SAA intake for PD (P>0·20). Physiological and metabolic changes associated with systemic ISS had no effect on the ileal digestibility of nutrients per se, but altered SAA requirements for PD in growing pigs. PMID:23803219

  17. 'Sometimes they fail to keep their faith in us': community health worker perceptions of structural barriers to quality of care and community utilisation of services in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Puett, Chloe; Alderman, Harold; Sadler, Kate; Coates, Jennifer

    2015-10-01

    Community health workers (CHWs) have strong potential to extend health and nutrition services to underserved populations. However, CHWs face complex challenges when working within weak health systems and among communities with limited abilities to access and utilise CHW services. It is crucial to understand these challenges to improve programme support mechanisms. This study describes the results of qualitative investigations into CHW perceptions of barriers to quality of care among two groups of workers implementing community case management of acute respiratory infection, diarrhoea and severe acute malnutrition in southern Bangladesh. We explored systemic barriers to service delivery, pertaining to communities and health systems, which limited the usefulness and effectiveness of CHW services. Focus group discussions (n = 10) were conducted in March 2010. Discussions were analysed for themes related to CHWs' work challenges. Findings highlight several perceived barriers to effective service provision, including community poverty constraining uptake of recommended practices, irregular supplies of medicine from the health facility and poor quality of care for CHW referrals sent there. This study further documents interactions between demand-side and supply-side constraints including the influence of health system resource constraints on community trust in CHW services, and the influence of community resource constraints on the utilisation and effectiveness of CHW services. By documenting service delivery challenges from the perspective of the frontline workers themselves, this article contributes evidence to help identify appropriate support mechanisms for these workers, in order to develop scalable and sustainable CHW programmes in countries with under-resourced public health care infrastructure. PMID:23941290

  18. Feed utilisation of Ethiopian Highland lambs on a basal diet of Eleucine coracana straw and supplemented with variously sourced protein mixed with wheat bran.

    PubMed

    Alem, Mulat; Tamir, Berhan; Kurtu, Mohammed Y

    2011-01-01

    The study investigated the effect of supplementation of a basal diet of Eleucine coracana (finger millet) straw with different protein sources mixed with wheat bran on feed utilisation in Ethiopian Highland lambs. Twenty yearling intact male lambs (14.9 ± 0.30 kg; mean ± SD) were used in a randomised complete block design. Dietary treatments included a basal diet of E. coracana straw ad libitum (T1); basal diet supplemented with a mixture of 222 g noug seed (Guizotia abyssinica) cake (NSC) and 78 g wheat bran (WB) (T2); basal diet with a mixture of 234 g cotton seedcake (CSC) and 66 g WB (T3); and basal diet with a mixture of 5.4 g urea (U) and 294.6 g WB (T4). The supplements were offered at the daily rate of 300 g dry matter (DM) per lamb in two equal portions at 0800 and 1600 hours. Supplementation of Ethiopian Highland lambs on E. coracana straw basal diet with varied protein sources increased (P < 0.01) the total DM, OM and CP intake and improved (P < 0.01) the daily body weight gain and feed conversion efficiency. Lambs in T2, T3 and T4 gained weight at the rate of 22.7, 21.9 and 14.1 g/day, respectively, while lambs on the control diet lost weight at a rate of -24.9 g/day. Supplementation also improved (P < 0.01) the digestibility of DM, OM, CP and NDF of the total diet. It was concluded that supplementation of E. coracana straw with NSC, CSC and U mixed with WB improves feed utilisation, body weight gain and digestibility in Ethiopian Highland lambs. PMID:20661642

  19. Utilisation of MSWI bottom ash as sub-base in road construction: first results from a large-scale test site.

    PubMed

    Hjelmar, Ole; Holm, Jesper; Crillesen, Kim

    2007-01-31

    The preferred management option for municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) bottom ash in Denmark is utilisation rather than landfilling, but the current environmental quality criteria for bottom ash to be utilised in bulk quantities are rather strict. To evaluate the impact and risk assessments, upon which those criteria are based, a large-scale test site has been established. Three different MSWI bottom ashes have been used as sub-base in six test units ranging from 100 to 200 m2 with top covers of asphalt, flagstones and pebbles, respectively. All units, except one, are equipped with bottom liners and leachate collection equipment. The test site provides information on the leachate quality and quantity as a function of time under different conditions and on the flow pattern in asphalt and flagstone covered roads and squares with MSWI bottom ash sub-base. In addition, the leaching behaviour of the bottom ashes has been studied in the laboratory. The test site was established in October 2002 and the project is still ongoing. Water balance results indicate that the water flow distribution is strongly influenced by lateral flow on or in the upper part of the bottom ash layer and possibly by preferential flow. Comparisons between eluates from laboratory leaching tests on the bottom ashes and observations of the leachate from the site as a function of L/S show fairly good agreement for salts but less agreement for some trace elements. Most likely, this is partly due to the fact that the pH observed in the leachate from the field sites is lower than that observed in the eluates from the laboratory leaching tests. PMID:16621249

  20. In vitro fermentation characteristics and effective utilisable crude protein in leaves and green pods of Moringa stenopetala and Moringa oleifera cultivated at low and mid-altitudes.

    PubMed

    Melesse, A; Steingass, H; Boguhn, J; Rodehutscord, M

    2013-06-01

    This study was conducted to assess the in vitro nutrient digestibility and utilisation of leaves and green pods of two Moringa species in supplementing the feed of ruminant animals during the dry season. Samples were analysed for proximate nutrients using official methods. The metabolisable energy (ME), organic matter digestibility (OMD) and effective utilisable crude protein (uCP) were estimated using the Hohenheim in vitro gas test method. Gas volume in Moringa stenopetala leaves and green pods was generally higher than those of Moringa oleifera. Gas volume for leaves was similar between low and mid-altitudes but was higher for green pods at mid-altitude. M. stenopetala leaves contained significantly higher ME (9.8 MJ/kg DM) and OMD (75%) than those of M. oleifera. Similarly, M. stenopetala green pods had higher ME and OMD values than those of M. oleifera. For green pods, the ME and OMD values were significantly higher at mid-altitude than those at low altitude although these values for leaves were similar between both altitudes. Moringa oleifera leaves had higher effective uCP than those of M. stenopetala. Nevertheless, the effective uCP was higher for green pods of M. stenopetala than those of M. oleifera. The effective uCP for leaves cultivated at mid-altitude was slightly higher than those at low altitude. This study suggested that leaves and green pods could be used as alternative energy and protein supplements for tropical ruminants, particularly during dry periods. It was further concluded that leaves were generally better in nutrient compositions and in vitro nutrient digestibility characteristics than green pods. PMID:22497540

  1. Effect of glycine supplementation in low protein diets with amino acids from soy protein isolate or free amino acids on broiler growth and nitrogen utilisation.

    PubMed

    Siegert, W; Wild, K J; Schollenberger, M; Helmbrecht, A; Rodehutscord, M

    2016-06-01

    Here, it was investigated whether substitution of amino acids (AA) from soy protein isolate with free AA in low crude protein diets influences the growth performance and N utilisation in broilers, and whether interactions with dietary glycine equivalent (Glyequi) concentration exist. Birds were distributed in two 2 × 2 factorial arrangements of 48 floor pens containing 10 birds each, plus 48 metabolism cages containing two birds each. Experimental feed was provided for ad libitum consumption from d 7 to 22. Diets contained either a soy protein isolate at 79 g/kg or a mix of free AA, which supplied the same amount of 18 proteinogenic AA. A mix of free glycine and l-serine was used to obtain low and high (12.0 and 20.5 g/kg dry matter) levels of dietary Glyequi. Substitution of soy protein isolate with free AA reduced the average daily gain and feed efficiency, mainly due to reduced feed intake. Efficiency of N accretion was not influenced by the AA source or Glyequi concentration on d 21, possibly due to the lower AA digestibility of soy protein isolate and higher urinary excretion of nitrogenous substances in the treatments with the AA mix. The average daily weight gain of the treatments with high Glyequi concentration was higher for both AA sources. This increase was due to higher average daily feed intake by broilers in the treatments with soy protein isolate and due to the increased feed efficiency in the treatments with the AA mix. Broilers exhibited different growth responses to dietary Glyequi between the AA sources; however, these responses could not be attributed to the different utilisation of Glyequi for uric acid synthesis. PMID:26955743

  2. Utilisation of a thoracic oncology database to capture radiological and pathological images for evaluation of response to chemotherapy in patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma

    PubMed Central

    Carey, George B; Kazantsev, Stephanie; Surati, Mosmi; Rolle, Cleo E; Kanteti, Archana; Sadiq, Ahad; Bahroos, Neil; Raumann, Brigitte; Madduri, Ravi; Dave, Paul; Starkey, Adam; Hensing, Thomas; Husain, Aliya N; Vokes, Everett E; Vigneswaran, Wickii; Armato, Samuel G; Kindler, Hedy L; Salgia, Ravi

    2012-01-01

    Objective An area of need in cancer informatics is the ability to store images in a comprehensive database as part of translational cancer research. To meet this need, we have implemented a novel tandem database infrastructure that facilitates image storage and utilisation. Background We had previously implemented the Thoracic Oncology Program Database Project (TOPDP) database for our translational cancer research needs. While useful for many research endeavours, it is unable to store images, hence our need to implement an imaging database which could communicate easily with the TOPDP database. Methods The Thoracic Oncology Research Program (TORP) imaging database was designed using the Research Electronic Data Capture (REDCap) platform, which was developed by Vanderbilt University. To demonstrate proof of principle and evaluate utility, we performed a retrospective investigation into tumour response for malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) patients treated at the University of Chicago Medical Center with either of two analogous chemotherapy regimens and consented to at least one of two UCMC IRB protocols, 9571 and 13473A. Results A cohort of 22 MPM patients was identified using clinical data in the TOPDP database. After measurements were acquired, two representative CT images and 0–35 histological images per patient were successfully stored in the TORP database, along with clinical and demographic data. Discussion We implemented the TORP imaging database to be used in conjunction with our comprehensive TOPDP database. While it requires an additional effort to use two databases, our database infrastructure facilitates more comprehensive translational research. Conclusions The investigation described herein demonstrates the successful implementation of this novel tandem imaging database infrastructure, as well as the potential utility of investigations enabled by it. The data model presented here can be utilised as the basis for further development of other larger

  3. Vers des boites quantiques a base de graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Branchaud, Simon

    Le graphene est un materiau a base de carbone qui est etudie largement depuis 2004. De tres nombreux articles ont ete publies tant sur les proprietes electroniques, qu'optiques ou mecaniques de ce materiel. Cet ouvrage porte sur l'etude des fluctuations de conductance dans le graphene, et sur la fabrication et la caracterisation de nanostructures gravees dans des feuilles de ce cristal 2D. Des mesures de magnetoresistance a basse temperature ont ete faites pres du point de neutralite de charge (PNC) ainsi qu'a haute densite electronique. On trouve deux origines aux fluctuations de conductance pres du PNC, soit des oscillations mesoscopiques provenant de l'interference quantique, et des fluctuations dites Hall quantique apparaissant a plus haut champ (>0.5T), semblant suivre les facteurs de remplissage associes aux monocouches de graphene. Ces dernieres fluctuations sont attribuees a la charge d'etats localises, et revelent un precurseur a l'effet Hall quantique, qui lui, ne se manifeste pas avant 2T. On arrive a extraire les parametres caracterisant l'echantillon a partir de ces donnees. A la fin de cet ouvrage, on effectue des mesures de transport dans des constrictions et ilots de graphene, ou des boites quantiques sont formees. A partir de ces mesures, on extrait les parametres importants de ces boites quantiques, comme leur taille et leur energie de charge.

  4. The experience of palliative patients and their families of a family meeting utilised as an instrument for spiritual and psychosocial care: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background This study explores the experience of palliative patients and their family members of a family meeting model, utilised as an instrument for the provision of spiritual and psychosocial care. In doing so the study embraces a broad understanding of spirituality which may or may not include formal religious practice and a concept of psychosocial care that includes: social and emotional well-being, communication, self esteem, mental health and adaptation to illness. The meeting of spiritual and psychosocial needs is considered to be an important aspect of palliative care. Methods This qualitative study, philosophically underpinned by hermeneutic phenomenology, investigates the participatory experience of palliative care patients and their significant family members of such a family meeting. People registered with two large metropolitan palliative care services, who met selection criteria, were referred by medical staff. Twelve of the 66 referred took part in family meetings which also included significant others invited by the patient. A total of 36 family members participated. The number of participants of individual family meetings ranged from two to eleven. After the family meeting every participant was invited to take part in an individual in-depth interview about their experience of the meeting. Forty seven interviews were conducted. These were audio recorded and transcribed. Results Data analysis, utilising Ricoeur's theory of interpretation, revealed seven main themes: personal experience of the meeting, personal outcomes, observation of others' experience, observation of experience and outcomes for the family unit, meeting facilitation, how it could have been different and general applicability of the family meeting. Throughout these themes were numerous references to aspects of the web of relationships which describe the concept of spirituality as it is defined for the purpose of this study. Conclusions The findings indicate the potential of the type

  5. Health Facility Utilisation Changes during the Introduction of Community Case Management of Malaria in South Western Uganda: An Interrupted Time Series Approach

    PubMed Central

    Lal, Sham; Ndyomugenyi, Richard; Alexander, Neal D.; Lagarde, Mylene; Paintain, Lucy; Magnussen, Pascal; Chandramohan, Daniel; Clarke, Siân E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Malaria endemic countries have scaled-up community health worker (CHW) interventions, to diagnose and treat malaria in communities with limited access to public health systems. The evaluations of these programmes have centred on CHW’s compliance to guidelines, but the broader changes at public health centres including utilisation and diagnoses made, has received limited attention. Methods This analysis was conducted during a CHW–intervention for malaria in Rukungiri District, Western Uganda. Outpatient department (OPD) visit data were collected for children under-5 attending three health centres one year before the CHW-intervention started (pre-intervention period) and for 20 months during the intervention (intervention-period). An interrupted time series analysis with segmented regression models was used to compare the trends in malaria, non-malaria and overall OPD visits during the pre-intervention and intervention-period. Results The introduction of a CHW-intervention suggested the frequency of diagnoses of diarrhoeal diseases, pneumonia and helminths increased, whilst the frequency of malaria diagnoses declined at health centres. In May 2010 when the intervention began, overall health centre utilisation decreased by 63% compared to the pre-intervention period and the health centres saw 32 fewer overall visits per month compared to the pre-intervention period (p<0.001). Malaria visits also declined shortly after the intervention began and there were 27 fewer visits per month during the intervention-period compared with the pre-intervention period (p<0.05). The declines in overall and malaria visits were sustained for the entire intervention-period. In contrast, there were no observable changes in trends of non-malarial visits between the pre-intervention and intervention-period. Conclusions This analysis suggests introducing a CHW-intervention can reduce the number of child malaria visits and change the profile of cases presenting at health

  6. Learning styles of first-year undergraduate nursing and midwifery students: a cross-sectional survey utilising the Kolb Learning Style Inventory.

    PubMed

    D'Amore, Angelo; James, Santhamma; Mitchell, Eleanor K L

    2012-07-01

    It is important that educators understand their students' learning styles. In this study we investigate the learning styles of first-year undergraduate nursing and midwifery university students and whether these learning styles are influenced by student demographic characteristics. A cross-sectional survey including demographic questions and the Kolb Learning Style Inventory was utilised. There was a 78% response rate (n=345). The majority of first-year students investigated in this study were divergers (29.5%), followed by assimilators (28.8%), accommodators (23.9%) and convergers (17.9%). Female students had a higher reflective observation (RO) score than male students (p=0.0078). Those with English as first language showed a higher active experimentation score (p=0.0543) and a lower concrete experience (CE) score (p=0.0038). Australian citizens and permanent residents had a higher RO score (p=0.0560) and a lower CE score (p=0.0100) than migrants and international students. Nursing/arts students had a higher abstract conceptualisation (AC) score than nursing students (p=0.0013). Students enrolled in 4-5 subject units had a higher AC score than those enrolled in 1-2 units (p=0.0244). Nursing and midwifery students are mainly of the diverger and assimilating learning styles. Some student demographic characteristics show a significant influence on learning styles. This study has teaching and research implications. PMID:21889237

  7. Cloning of the cbhI and cbhII genes involved in cellulose utilisation by the straw mushroom Volvariella volvacea.

    PubMed

    Jia, J; Dyer, P S; Buswell, J A; Peberdy, J F

    1999-07-01

    The straw mushroom Volvariella volvacea is cultivated on substrates rich in cellulose and has been shown to produce a family of cellulolytic enzymes. A PCR-based strategy was adopted to clone genes involved in cellulose utilisation, using degenerate primers designed to amplify conserved catalytic domain sequences of cellobiohydrolases (CBHs). PCR with these primers produced two DNA fragments with sequence similarity to the cbhI and cbhII gene families detected in Trichoderma, Phanerochaete and Agaricus species. Full-length clones of these genes were obtained from an EMBL3 genomic library, and RACE-PCR was used to verify the presence of introns. The cbhI homologue has a coding region of 1722 bp, containing two introns, generating a 536 amino acid polypeptide product. The cbhII gene has a coding region of 1693 bp, containing five introns, and gives rise to a 470-amino acid polypeptide product. Northern and PCR analyses were used to study the expression of the genes. These revealed that transcripts of both genes were induced on medium containing cellulose with cbhI being expressed more strongly than cbhII - but were repressed on medium containing glucose. PMID:10485290

  8. Accuracy verification of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technology for lower-limb prosthetic research: utilising animal soft tissue specimen and common socket casting materials.

    PubMed

    Safari, Mohammad Reza; Rowe, Philip; Buis, Arjan

    2012-01-01

    Lower limb prosthetic socket shape and volume consistency can be quantified using MRI technology. Additionally, MRI images of the residual limb could be used as an input data for CAD-CAM technology and finite element studies. However, the accuracy of MRI when socket casting materials are used has to be defined. A number of six, 46 mm thick, cross-sections of an animal leg were used. Three specimens were wrapped with Plaster of Paris (POP) and the other three with commercially available silicone interface liner. Data was obtained by utilising MRI technology and then the segmented images compared to corresponding calliper measurement, photographic imaging, and water suspension techniques. The MRI measurement results were strongly correlated with actual diameter, surface area, and volume measurements. The results show that the selected scanning parameters and the semiautomatic segmentation method are adequate enough, considering the limit of clinical meaningful shape and volume fluctuation, for residual limb volume and the cross-sectional surface area measurements. PMID:22619599

  9. Social work practice in the donation of human tissue for transplantation: utilising social work values and competencies to achieve effective outcomes for transplant patients and donor families.

    PubMed

    Forbe-Smith, Lyndall; Haire, Mary; Doneley, Mary

    2002-01-01

    In Queensland, Australia, senior social workers have pioneered the coordination of tissue donation at coronial autopsies, seeking consent for the donation of heart valve, bone and eye tissue after sudden deaths which have been reported to the coroner. The urgent need for tissue for transplantation is balanced with the counselling, information and practical needs of potential donor families in their shock and grief. Social work assessment, advocacy, liaison, counselling, crisis intervention and particularly communication skills have been utilised, both as an integral component of obtaining informed consent and in working with families' experience of grief and loss in sudden, traumatic bereavement. This tissue donation program, over a period of eight years, has maximised the availability of tissue with its high donation rates, while upholding the rights and needs of potential donor families through provision of an effective social work service. The paper will reflect upon key social work knowledge and processes which have respected the subjective experience of client and worker while working within a medical model. PMID:12365750

  10. Healthcare provider perspectives on barriers to HIV-care access and utilisation among Latinos living with HIV in the US-Mexico border

    PubMed Central

    Servin, Argentina E.; Muñoz, Fátima A.; Zúñiga, María Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Latinos living with HIV residing in the US-Mexico border region frequently seek care on both sides of the border. Given this fact, a border health perspective to understanding barriers to care is imperative to improve patient health outcomes. This qualitative study describes and compares experiences and perceptions of Mexican and US HIV care providers regarding barriers to HIV care access for Latino patients living in the US-Mexico border region. In 2010, we conducted in-depth qualitative interviews with HIV care providers in Tijuana (n = 10) and San Diego (n = 9). We identified important similarities and differences between Mexican and US healthcare provider perspectives on HIV care access and barriers to service utilisation. Similarities included the fact that HIV-positive Latino patients struggle with access to ART medication, mental health illness, substance abuse and HIV-related stigma. Differences included Mexican provider perceptions of medication shortages and US providers feeling that insurance gaps influenced medication access. Differences and similarities have important implications for cross-border efforts to coordinate health services for patients who seek care in both countries. PMID:24592920

  11. A cross-sectional study describing factors associated with utilisation of GP services by a cohort of people who inject drugs

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background People who inject drugs (PWID) use healthcare services, including primary care, at a disproportionately high rate. We investigated key correlates of general practitioner (GP) related service utilisation within a cohort of PWID. Methods Using baseline data from a cohort of 645 community-recruited PWID based in Melbourne, Victoria, we conducted a secondary analysis of associations between past month use of GP services unrelated to opioid substitution therapy (OST) and socio-demographic and drug use characteristics and self-reported health using multivariate logistic regression. Results Just under one-third (29%) of PWID had accessed GP services in the month prior to being surveyed. Participants who reported living with children (adjusted odds ratio, AOR 1.97, 95% CI 1.04 - 3.73) or having had contact with a social worker in the past month (AOR 1.92, 95% CI 1.24 - 2.98) were more likely to have seen a GP in the past month. Participants who were injecting daily or more frequently (AOR 0.50, 95% CI 0.30 - 0.83) or had a weekly income of less than $400 (AOR 0.59, 95% CI 0.38 - 0.91) were less likely to report having seen a GP in the past month. Conclusions Our sample frequently attended GP services for health needs unrelated to OST. Findings highlight both the characteristics of PWID accessing GP services and also those potentially missing out on primary care and preventive services. PMID:25030526

  12. Impact of biogas digesters on wood utilisation and self-reported back pain for women living on rural Kenyan smallholder dairy farms.

    PubMed

    Dohoo, Carolyn; VanLeeuwen, John; Read Guernsey, Judith; Critchley, Kim; Gibson, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Women living on rural Kenyan dairy farms spend significant amounts of time collecting wood for cooking. Biogas digesters, which generate biogas for cooking from the anaerobic decomposition of livestock manure, are an alternative fuel source. The objective of this study was to quantify the quality of life and health benefits of installing biogas digesters on rural Kenyan dairy farms with respect to wood utilisation. Women from 62 farms (31 biogas farms and 31 referent farms) participated in interviews to determine reliance on wood and the impact of biogas digesters on this reliance. Self-reported back pain, time spent collecting wood and money spent on wood were significantly lower (p < 0.01) for the biogas group, compared to referent farms. Multivariable linear regression showed that wood consumption increased by 2 lbs/day for each additional family member living on a farm. For an average family of three people, the addition of one cow was associated with increased wood consumption by 1.0 lb/day on biogas farms but by 4.4 lbs/day on referent farms (significant interaction variable - likely due to additional hot water for cleaning milk collection equipment). Biogas digesters represent a potentially important technology that can reduce reliance on wood fuel and improve health for Kenyan dairy farmers. PMID:23305236

  13. Bactériophages et phagothérapie: utilisation de virus naturels pour traiter les infections bactériennes

    PubMed Central

    Ravat, F.; Jault, P.; Gabard, J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary L’utilisation des bactériophages, prédateurs naturels des bactéries, est une technique pionnière efficace de lutte contre les infections bactériennes. Tombée dans l’oubli depuis un demi-siècle du coté occidental de l’ex-rideau de fer, elle fait toujours partie de l’arsenal thérapeutique des pays de l’ex-Europe de l’Est, au point de constituer une arme de choix dans la politique de santé publique de ces pays. l’émergence de bactéries multirésistantes et le risque de revenir à l’ère pré-antibiotique ont fait ressortir la phagothérapie de l’oubli injuste auquel elle avait été confinée. la biologie et la place du bactériophage dans la nature sont décrites ici. les tenants et les aboutissants de la phagothérapie et les conditions de son retour sur le devant de la scène sont explicitées. PMID:26668557

  14. 'If you feel that nobody wants you you'll withdraw into your own': Gypsies/Travellers, networks and healthcare utilisation.

    PubMed

    Smith, David; Ruston, Annmarie

    2013-11-01

    Gypsies and Travellers are the unhealthiest group in British society, suffering from higher levels of physical and mental illness, lower life expectancy and with low levels of healthcare utilisation. They also continue to experience the highest level of prejudice and discrimination in society. While studies indicate that social networks play an important role in shaping health beliefs and the response to symptoms, evidence on the influence of networks on health is unclear and contradictory. This article draws on social network theory and research into the relation between discrimination and health to critically examine how networks mediate between collective experiences of racism and health-related behavior. Qualitative interviews with 39 adult Gypsies and Travellers were conducted in the South-East of England to explore the wider structural and institutional context and the influence those contexts play in shaping health beliefs and decisions whether to access formal health services. The findings indicate that the influence networks play in shaping health behaviour is dependent on the particular social context of the group and its status in relation to wider social structures, making generalization problematic. PMID:23574153

  15. Utilisation of young and old soil carbon sources by microbial groups differ during the growing season and between experimental treatments in a long-term field experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Börjesson, Gunnar; Menichetti, Lorenzo; Thornton, Barry; Campbell, Colin; Kätterer, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM)is the largest active carbon pool in the terrestrial environment. SOM is a key factor for soil fertility, but is also important for the sequestration of atmospheric CO2. In agricultural soils, management of plant residues and the use of organic fertilisers play important roles for maintaining SOM. Switching from C3 plants to C4 plants such as maize, enables a natural labelling in situ; when coupled with compound specific 13C isotope analysis of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) it allows the proportion of new C (fixed after the switch added to soil from above- and belowground litter and root exudates) and the proportion of old C (fixed prior to the switch derived from turnover of organic matter) utilised by the soil microbial community to be determined. (new paragraph) A field experiment in Sweden, amended with different mineral and organic fertilisers since 1956, was grown with C3 plants, mainly cereals until 1999. From the year 2000 silage maize was grown every year. In 2012, soil from four replicate plots of five experimental treatments, N fertilised, N fertilised amended with straw and sewage sludge, and two controls (bare fallow and cropped unfertilised) were sampled three times, at the start, middle and end of the growing season. Phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) were extracted from all soil samples and analysed for concentrations and 13C content. (new paragraph) Total PLFA concentrations and also the PLFA/SOM ratios increased with SOM in the different treatments. Seasonal variation in total PLFA was small except for the most SOM-rich treatment (sewage sludge) where concentrations significantly decreased during the growing season indicating the depletion of a labile SOM pool. Weighted mean values of δ13C in PLFAs show that the plots fertilised with only calcium nitrate had the highest δ13C-values in PLFAs before (-20.24 o) and after the vegetation period (-20.37 o), due to a large input of 13C-enriched plant material. However, during

  16. Effect of Paying for Performance on Utilisation, Quality, and User Costs of Health Services in Tanzania: A Controlled Before and After Study

    PubMed Central

    Binyaruka, Peter; Patouillard, Edith; Powell-Jackson, Timothy; Greco, Giulia; Maestad, Ottar; Borghi, Josephine

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite widespread implementation across Africa, there is limited evidence of the effect of payment for performance (P4P) schemes in low income countries on the coverage of quality services and affordability, consistent with universal health coverage objectives. We examined the effect of a government P4P scheme on utilisation, quality, and user costs of health services in Tanzania. Methods We evaluated the effects of a P4P scheme on utilisation of all maternal and child immunization services targeted by the scheme, and non-targeted general outpatient service use. We also evaluated effects on patient satisfaction with care and clinical content of antenatal care, and user costs. The evaluation was done in 150 facilities across all 7 intervention districts and 4 comparison districts with two rounds of data collection over 13-months in January 2012 and February 2013. We sampled 3000 households of women who had delivered in the 12 months prior to interview; 1500 patients attending health facilities for targeted and non-targeted services at each round of data collection. Difference-in-difference regression analysis was employed. Findings We estimated a significant positive effect on two out of eight targeted indicators. There was an 8.2% (95% CI: 3.6% to 12.8%) increase in coverage of institutional deliveries among women in the intervention area, and a 10.3% (95% CI: 4.4% to 16.1%) increase in the provision of anti-malarials during pregnancy. Use of non-targeted services reduced at dispensaries by 57.5 visits per month among children under five (95% CI: -110.2 to -4.9) and by 90.8 visits per month for those aged over five (95% CI: -156.5 to -25.2). There was no evidence of an effect of P4P on patient experience of care for targeted services. There was a 0.05 (95% CI: 0.01 to 0.10) increase in the patient satisfaction score for non-targeted services. P4P was associated with a 5.0% reduction in those paying out of pocket for deliveries (95% CI: -9.3% to -0

  17. Mode of oral iron administration and the amount of iron habitually consumed do not affect iron absorption, systemic iron utilisation or zinc absorption in iron-sufficient infants: a randomised trial.

    PubMed

    Szymlek-Gay, Ewa A; Domellöf, Magnus; Hernell, Olle; Hurrell, Richard F; Lind, Torbjörn; Lönnerdal, Bo; Zeder, Christophe; Egli, Ines M

    2016-09-01

    Different metabolic pathways of supplemental and fortification Fe, or inhibition of Zn absorption by Fe, may explain adverse effects of supplemental Fe in Fe-sufficient infants. We determined whether the mode of oral Fe administration or the amount habitually consumed affects Fe absorption and systemic Fe utilisation in infants, and assessed the effects of these interventions on Zn absorption, Fe and Zn status, and growth. Fe-sufficient 6-month-old infants (n 72) were randomly assigned to receive 6·6 mg Fe/d from a high-Fe formula, 1·3 mg Fe/d from a low-Fe formula or 6·6 mg Fe/d from Fe drops and a formula with no added Fe for 45 d. Fractional Fe absorption, Fe utilisation and fractional Zn absorption were measured with oral (57Fe and 67Zn) and intravenous (58Fe and 70Zn) isotopes. Fe and Zn status, infection and growth were measured. At 45 d, Hb was 6·3 g/l higher in the high-Fe formula group compared with the Fe drops group, whereas serum ferritin was 34 and 35 % higher, respectively, and serum transferrin 0·1 g/l lower in the high-Fe formula and Fe drops groups compared with the low-Fe formula group (all P<0·05). No intervention effects were observed on Fe absorption, Fe utilisation, Zn absorption, other Fe status indices, plasma Zn or growth. We concluded that neither supplemental or fortification Fe nor the amount of Fe habitually consumed altered Fe absorption, Fe utilisation, Zn absorption, Zn status or growth in Fe-sufficient infants. Consumption of low-Fe formula as the only source of Fe was insufficient to maintain Fe stores. PMID:27546308

  18. Generalised anxiety disorder symptoms and utilisation of health care services. A cross-sectional study from the “Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort”

    PubMed Central

    Kujanpää, Tero; Jokelainen, Jari; Auvinen, Juha; Timonen, Markku

    2016-01-01

    Objective To analyse the utilization of health care services of people who tested positive for GAD compared to those who tested negative. Setting A cross-sectional study from the Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort. Subjects A total of 10,282 members followed from birth in a longitudinal study were asked to participate in a follow-up survey at the age of 46. As part of this survey they filled in questionnaries concerning health care utilization and their illness history as well as the GAD-7 screening tool. Althogether 5,480 cohort members responded to the questionnaries. Main outcome measures Number of visits in different health care services among people who tested positive for GAD with the GAD-7 screening tool compared to those who tested negative. Results People who tested positive for GAD had 112% more total health care visits, 74% more total physician visits, 115% more visits to health centres, 133% more health centre physician visits, 160% more visits to secondary care, and 775% more mental health care visits than those who tested negative. Conclusion People with GAD symptoms utilize health care services more than other people. Key PointsGeneralised anxiety disorder (GAD) is a common but poorly identified mental health problem in primary care.People who tested positive for GAD utilise more health care services than those who tested negative.About 58% of people who tested positive for GAD had visited their primary care physician during the past year.Only 29% of people who tested positive for GAD had used mental health services during the past year. PMID:27054674

  19. Flare frequency, healthcare resource utilisation and costs among patients with gout in a managed care setting: a retrospective medical claims-based analysis

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Robert; Shiozawa, Aki; Buysman, Erin K; Altan, Aylin; Korrer, Stephanie; Choi, Hyon

    2015-01-01

    Objectives For most gout patients, excruciatingly painful gout attacks are the major clinical burden of the disease. The goal of this study was to assess the association of frequent gout flares with healthcare burden, and to quantify how much lower gout-related costs and resource use are for those with infrequent flares compared to frequent gout flares. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting Administrative claims data from a large US health plan. Participants Patients aged 18 years or above, and with evidence of gout based on medical and pharmacy claims between January 2009 and April 2012 were eligible for inclusion. Patient characteristics were assessed during a 12-month baseline period. Outcome measures Frequency of gout flares, healthcare costs and resource utilisation were assessed in the 12 months following the first qualifying gout claim. Generalised linear models were employed to assess the impact of flare frequency on cost outcomes after adjusting for covariates. Results 102 703 patients with gout met study inclusion criteria; 89 201 had 0–1 gout flares, 9714 had 2 flares, and 3788 had 3+ flares. Average counts of gout-related inpatient stays, emergency room visits and ambulatory visits were higher among patients with 2 or 3+ flares, compared to those with 0–1 flares (all p<0.001). Adjusted annual gout-related costs were $1804, $3014 and $4363 in those with 0–1, 2 and 3+ gout flares, respectively (p<0.001 comparing 0–1 flares to 2 or 3+ flares). Conclusions Gout-related costs and resource use were lower for those with infrequent flares, suggesting significant cost benefit to a gout management plan that has a goal of reducing flare frequency. PMID:26109113

  20. A perspective of stepwise utilisation of Bayer red mud: Step two--Extracting and recovering Ti from Ti-enriched tailing with acid leaching and precipitate flotation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yanfang; Chai, Wencui; Han, Guihong; Wang, Wenjuan; Yang, Shuzhen; Liu, Jiongtian

    2016-04-15

    The extraction and recovery of Ti from Ti-enriched tailing with acid leaching and precipitate flotation, as one of the critical steps, was proposed for the stepwise utilization of red mud. The factors influencing acid leaching and precipitate flotation were examined by factorial design. The leaching thermodynamics, kinetics of Ti(4+), Al(3+) and Fe(3+), and the mechanism of selectively Fe(3+) removal using [Hbet][Tf2N] as precipitating reagent were discussed. The extracting of Ti(4+), Al(3+) and Fe(3+) in concentrated H2SO4 is controlled by diffusion reactions, depending mainly upon leaching time and temperature. The maximum extracting efficiency of Ti(4+) is approximately 92.3%, whereas Al(3+) and Fe(3+) leaching are respectively 75.8% and 84.2%. [Hbet][Tf2N], as a precipitating reagent, operates through a coordination mechanism in flotation. The pH value is the key factor influencing the flotation recovery of Ti(4+), whereas the dosage of precipitating reagent is that for Al(3+) recovery. The maximum flotation recovery of Ti(4+) is 92.7%, whereas the maximum Al(3+) recovery is 93.5%. The total recovery rate for extracting and recovering titanium is 85.5%. The liquor with Ti(4+) of 15.5g/L, Al(3+) of 30.4g/L and Fe(3+) of 0.48g/L was obtained for the following hydrolysis step in the integrated process for red mud utilisation. PMID:26799223

  1. Resource utilisation and direct costs in patients with recently diagnosed fibromyalgia who are offered one of three different interventions in a randomised pragmatic trial.

    PubMed

    van Eijk-Hustings, Yvonne; Kroese, Mariëlle; Creemers, An; Landewé, Robert; Boonen, Annelies

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to understand the course of costs over a 2-year period in a cohort of recently diagnosed fibromyalgia (FM) patients receiving different treatment strategies. Following the diagnosis, patients were randomly assigned to a multidisciplinary programme (MD), aerobic exercise (AE) or usual care (UC) without being aware of alternative interventions. Time between diagnosis and start of treatment varied between patients. Resource utilisation, health care costs and costs for patients and families were collected through cost diaries. Mixed linear model analyses (MLM) examined the course of costs over time. Linear regression was used to explore predictors of health care costs in the post-intervention period. Two hundred three participants, 90 % women, mean (SD) age 41.7 (9.8) years, were included in the cohort. Intervention costs per patient varied from €864 to 1392 for MD and were €121 for AE. Health care costs (excluding intervention costs) decreased after diagnosis, but before the intervention in each group, and increased again afterwards to the level close to the diagnostic phase. In contrast, patient and family costs slightly increased over time in all groups without initial decrease immediately after diagnosis. Annualised health care costs post-intervention varied between €1872 and 2310 per patient and were predicted by worse functioning and high health care costs at diagnosis. In patients with FM, health care costs decreased following the diagnosis by a rheumatologist. Offering patients a specific intervention after diagnosis incurred substantial costs while having only marginal effects on costs. PMID:26409883

  2. Effect of telehealth on hospital utilisation and mortality in routine clinical practice: a matched control cohort study in an early adopter site

    PubMed Central

    Steventon, Adam; Ariti, Cono; Fisher, Elizabeth; Bardsley, Martin

    2016-01-01

    likelihood of an emergency admission or death because of unobserved baseline differences between patient groups. Conclusions Telehealth was not associated with a reduction in secondary care utilisation. PMID:26842270

  3. Estimation of the real population and its impact on the utilisation of healthcare services in Mediterranean resort regions: an ecological study

    PubMed Central

    Perea-Milla, Emilio; Pons, Sergi Mari; Rivas-Ruiz, Francisco; Gallofre, Anna; Jurado, Enrique Navarro; Ales, Marco A Navarro; Jimenez-Puente, Alberto; Fernandez-Nieto, Fidel; Cerda, Joan C March; Carrasco, Manuel; Martin, Lydia; Cano, Damian Lopez; Gutierrez, Gonzalo E; Macías, Rafael Cortes; Garcia-Ruiz, Jose A

    2007-01-01

    Background The demographic structure has a significant influence on the use of healthcare services, as does the size of the population denominators. Very few studies have been published on methods for estimating the real population such as tourist resorts. The lack of information about these problems means there is a corresponding lack of information about the behaviour of populational denominators (the floating population or tourist load) and the effect of this on the use of healthcare services. The objectives of the study were: a) To determine the Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) ratio, per person per day, among populations of known size; b) to estimate, by means of this ratio, the real population in an area where tourist numbers are very significant; and c) to determine the impact on the utilisation of hospital emergency healthcare services of the registered population, in comparison to the non-resident population, in two areas where tourist numbers are very significant. Methods An ecological study design was employed. We analysed the Healthcare Districts of the Costa del Sol and the island of Menorca. Both are Spanish territories in the Mediterranean region. Results In the two areas analysed, the correlation coefficient between the MSW ratio and admissions to hospital emergency departments exceeded 0.9, with p < 0.001. On the basis of MSW generation ratios, obtained for a control zone and also measured in neighbouring countries, we estimated the real population. For the summer months, when tourist activity is greatest and demand for emergency healthcare at hospitals is highest, this value was found to be double that of the registered population. Conclusion The MSW indicator, which is both ecological and indirect, can be used to estimate the real population in areas where population levels vary significantly during the year. This parameter is of interest in planning and dimensioning the provision of healthcare services. PMID:17266744

  4. Direct targeting of risk factors significantly increases the detection of liver cirrhosis in primary care: a cross-sectional diagnostic study utilising transient elastography

    PubMed Central

    Harman, David J; Ryder, Stephen D; James, Martin W; Jelpke, Matthew; Ottey, Dominic S; Wilkes, Emilie A; Card, Timothy R; Aithal, Guruprasad P; Guha, Indra Neil

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To assess the feasibility of a novel diagnostic algorithm targeting patients with risk factors for chronic liver disease in a community setting. Design Prospective cross-sectional study. Setting Two primary care practices (adult patient population 10 479) in Nottingham, UK. Participants Adult patients (aged 18 years or over) fulfilling one or more selected risk factors for developing chronic liver disease: (1) hazardous alcohol use, (2) type 2 diabetes or (3) persistently elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) liver function enzyme with negative serology. Interventions A serial biomarker algorithm, using a simple blood-based marker (aspartate aminotransferase:ALT ratio for hazardous alcohol users, BARD score for other risk groups) and subsequently liver stiffness measurement using transient elastography (TE). Main outcome measures Diagnosis of clinically significant liver disease (defined as liver stiffness ≥8 kPa); definitive diagnosis of liver cirrhosis. Results We identified 920 patients with the defined risk factors of whom 504 patients agreed to undergo investigation. A normal blood biomarker was found in 62 patients (12.3%) who required no further investigation. Subsequently, 378 patients agreed to undergo TE, of whom 98 (26.8% of valid scans) had elevated liver stiffness. Importantly, 71/98 (72.4%) patients with elevated liver stiffness had normal liver enzymes and would be missed by traditional investigation algorithms. We identified 11 new patients with definite cirrhosis, representing a 140% increase in the number of diagnosed cases in this population. Conclusions A non-invasive liver investigation algorithm based in a community setting is feasible to implement. Targeting risk factors using a non-invasive biomarker approach identified a substantial number of patients with previously undetected cirrhosis. Trial registration number The diagnostic algorithm utilised for this study can be found on clinicaltrials.gov (NCT02037867), and is

  5. Functionality and feedback: a protocol for a realist synthesis of the collation, interpretation and utilisation of PROMs data to improve patient care

    PubMed Central

    Greenhalgh, Joanne; Pawson, Ray; Wright, Judy; Black, Nick; Valderas, Jose Maria; Meads, David; Gibbons, Elizabeth; Wood, Laurence; Wood, Charlotte; Mills, Chris; Dalkin, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The feedback and public reporting of PROMs data aims to improve the quality of care provided to patients. Existing systematic reviews have found it difficult to draw overall conclusions about the effectiveness of PROMs feedback. We aim to execute a realist synthesis of the evidence to understand by what means and in what circumstances the feedback of PROMs data leads to the intended service improvements. Methods and analysis Realist synthesis involves (stage 1) identifying the ideas, assumptions or ‘programme theories’ which explain how PROMs feedback is supposed to work and in what circumstances and then (stage 2) reviewing the evidence to determine the extent to which these expectations are met in practice. For stage 1, six provisional ‘functions’ of PROMs feedback have been identified to structure our review (screening, monitoring, patient involvement, demand management, quality improvement and patient choice). For each function, we will identify the different programme theories that underlie these different goals and develop a logical map of the respective implementation processes. In stage 2, we will identify studies that will provide empirical tests of each component of the programme theories to evaluate the circumstances in which the potential obstacles can be overcome and whether and how the unintended consequences of PROMs feedback arise. We will synthesise this evidence to (1) identify the implementation processes which support or constrain the successful collation, interpretation and utilisation of PROMs data; (2) identify the implementation processes through which the unintended consequences of PROMs data arise and those where they can be avoided. Ethics and dissemination The study will not require NHS ethics approval. We have secured ethical approval for the study from the University of Leeds (LTSSP-019). We will disseminate the findings of the review through a briefing paper and dissemination event for National Health Service

  6. Impact of the dual defence system of Plantago lanceolata (Plantaginaceae) on performance, nutrient utilisation and feeding choice behaviour of Amata mogadorensis larvae (Lepidoptera, Erebidae).

    PubMed

    Pankoke, Helga; Gehring, René; Müller, Caroline

    2015-11-01

    Iridoid glycosides are plant defence compounds with potentially detrimental effects on non-adapted herbivores. Some plant species possess β-glucosidases that hydrolyse iridoid glycosides and thereby release protein-denaturing aglycones. To test the hypothesis that iridoid glycosides and plant β-glucosidases form a dual defence system, we used Plantago lanceolata and a polyphagous caterpillar species. To analyse the impact of leaf-age dependent differences in iridoid glycoside concentrations and β-glucosidase activities on insect performance, old or young leaves were freeze-dried and incorporated into artificial diets or were provided freshly to the larvae. We determined larval consumption rates and the amounts of assimilated nitrogen. Furthermore, we quantified β-glucosidase activities in artificial diets and fresh leaves and the amount of iridoid glycosides that larvae feeding on fresh leaves ingested and excreted. Compared to fresh leaves, caterpillars grew faster on artificial diets, on which larval weight gain correlated positively to the absorbed amount of nitrogen. When feeding fresh young leaves, larvae even lost weight and excreted only minute proportions of the ingested iridoid glycosides intact with the faeces, indicating that the hydrolysis of these compounds might have interfered with nitrogen assimilation and impaired larval growth. To disentangle physiological effects from deterrent effects of iridoid glycosides, we performed dual choice feeding assays. Young leaves, their methanolic extracts and pure catalpol reduced larval feeding in comparison to the respective controls, while aucubin had no effect on larval consumption. We conclude that the dual defence system of P. lanceolata consisting of iridoid glycosides and β-glucosidases interferes with the nutrient utilisation via the hydrolysis of iridoid glycosides and also mediates larval feeding behaviour in a concentration- and substance-specific manner. PMID:26306994

  7. Genomic and metagenomic surveys of hydrogenase distribution indicate H2 is a widely utilised energy source for microbial growth and survival.

    PubMed

    Greening, Chris; Biswas, Ambarish; Carere, Carlo R; Jackson, Colin J; Taylor, Matthew C; Stott, Matthew B; Cook, Gregory M; Morales, Sergio E

    2016-03-01

    Recent physiological and ecological studies have challenged the long-held belief that microbial metabolism of molecular hydrogen (H2) is a niche process. To gain a broader insight into the importance of microbial H2 metabolism, we comprehensively surveyed the genomic and metagenomic distribution of hydrogenases, the reversible enzymes that catalyse the oxidation and evolution of H2. The protein sequences of 3286 non-redundant putative hydrogenases were curated from publicly available databases. These metalloenzymes were classified into multiple groups based on (1) amino acid sequence phylogeny, (2) metal-binding motifs, (3) predicted genetic organisation and (4) reported biochemical characteristics. Four groups (22 subgroups) of [NiFe]-hydrogenase, three groups (6 subtypes) of [FeFe]-hydrogenases and a small group of [Fe]-hydrogenases were identified. We predict that this hydrogenase diversity supports H2-based respiration, fermentation and carbon fixation processes in both oxic and anoxic environments, in addition to various H2-sensing, electron-bifurcation and energy-conversion mechanisms. Hydrogenase-encoding genes were identified in 51 bacterial and archaeal phyla, suggesting strong pressure for both vertical and lateral acquisition. Furthermore, hydrogenase genes could be recovered from diverse terrestrial, aquatic and host-associated metagenomes in varying proportions, indicating a broad ecological distribution and utilisation. Oxygen content (pO2) appears to be a central factor driving the phylum- and ecosystem-level distribution of these genes. In addition to compounding evidence that H2 was the first electron donor for life, our analysis suggests that the great diversification of hydrogenases has enabled H2 metabolism to sustain the growth or survival of microorganisms in a wide range of ecosystems to the present day. This work also provides a comprehensive expanded system for classifying hydrogenases and identifies new prospects for investigating H2

  8. Health care utilisation in India.

    PubMed

    Duggal, R

    1994-02-01

    India has a plurality of health care systems as well as different systems of medicine. The government and local administrations provide public health care in hospitals and clinics. Public health care in rural areas is concentrated on prevention and promotion services to the detriment of curative services. The rural primary health centers are woefully underutilized because they fail to provide their clients with the desired amount of attention and medication and because they have inconvenient locations and long waiting times. Public hospitals provide 60% of all hospitalizations, while the private sector provides 75% of all routine care. The private sector is composed of an equal number of qualified doctors and unqualified practitioners, with a greater ratio of unqualified to qualified existing in less developed states. In rural areas, qualified doctors are clustered in areas where government services are available. With a population barely able to meet its nutritional needs, India needs universalization of health care provision to assure equity in health care access and availability instead of a large number of doctors who are profiting from the sicknesses of the poor. PMID:12288588

  9. Utilising Discursive Positioning in Counselling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winslade, John M.

    2005-01-01

    Foucault's concern with the production of subjectivity has led to the development of positioning theory, as it has been called by Bronwyn Davies, Rom Harr and Luk van Langenhve. The concept of discursive positioning has particular value for counselling because it shows how people are positioned in discourse in particular moments by their own and…

  10. Une lecon de francais avec des jeux electroniques (A French Lesson with Electronic Games).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malandain, Jean-Louis

    1996-01-01

    Electronic games are proposed as a means for encouraging students of French to learn and use the language while solving problems. A computerized card game and mine-removal game are offered as illustration of the language skills and vocabulary that can be developed and the appeal that such exercises can have for students. (MSE)

  11. Structure electronique de nanorubans de graphene avec des contacts metalliques: Une etude ab initio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archambault, Chloe

    Graphene, a graphite monolayer presenting novel exciting properties, has attracted much attention recently in the scientific community as well as in the high-technology industry. In electronics, nanoribbons -- narrow strips of graphene which happen to be semiconducting-- could possibly allow further miniaturization of electronic devices such as transistors because of their atomic thickness. On the other hand, once making devices, the problem of metallic contacts, which can have critical impact at the nanoscopic scale, cannot be evaded. For example, metal induced gap states may short-circuit very short devices. With this in mind, the interaction of gold, palladium and titanium contacts with finite size graphene nanoribbons has been studied using ab initio density functional theory calculations. This theoretical approach made it possible to study separately and then conjugate four important aspects of the metal-ribbon interaction: bonding, charge transfer, electrostatics and metal induced gap states. Another goal of this project was to study size effects related to the ribbons' dimensions and to estimate the minimal channel length necessary for a device to operate as expected without the unwanted effect of induced gap states. Aside from the high precision achieved, these calculations stand out from earlier studies because they take into account finite size effects which often prevail in small ribbons. Using this model for the metal-nanoribbon junction, it was shown that, as for two-dimensional graphene, the bonding between a ribbon and a metal can be of two types depending on the electronic configuration of the metal. In the first case, physisorption, weak bonding resulting in a large separation distance between ribbon and electrode, is illustrated by the gold contact. On the other hand, titanium, because of its high density of states at the Fermi level, binds more strongly with graphene nanoribbons. This chemisorption is characterized by strong hybridization between the metal and the ribbon's orbitals. This leads to the apparition of intense evanescent gap states in the ribbon. As for palladium, it represents an intermediate case showing some but not as much hybridization. For all three metals, right under the contact, we observe a net decrease of electron density in the ribbon in favour of the contact. Effectively, any kind of bonding is generally associated with charge transfer necessary to balance the work function difference. As expected, a metal with a large work function such as gold and palladium tends to attract electrons. However, this behaviour is surprising from titane whose work function is much smaller. This can only be explained by considering the large hybridization of the ribbon's orbitals. Moreover, the charge transfer is not restricted to the area under the contact as an evanescent charge can also be observed in the channel. This charge results from the occupation of metal induced gap states and its sign depends on the position of the charge neutrality point. The calculations presented don't take into account the effect of temperature. Nevertheless, the position of the Fermi level relative to the ribbon's bands suggests that at non-zero temperature, gold and palladium would p dope the graphene nanoribbons while titanium would have the opposite effect. The charge redistribution in the junction generates a molecular-sized dipole which is responsible for the slowly varying three-dimensional potential profile, a particularity of low dimensional systems. A potential barrier thus appears at the interface and controls band curvature in the device, but it can also constitute an obstacle to efficient charge injection. The intimate relation between the titanium contact and the ribbons seems to maximize screening and reduce considerably the height of the barrier, which could turn out to be beneficial. Finally, metal induced gap states slowly decaying in the channel have been observed directly in graphene nanoribbons for the first time. Their characteristic evanescent shape is clearly distinguishable. The extent of the gap states was measured to be on the order of a nanometer. It depends mostly on the ribbon's bandgap which varies both with its length and width. The bandgap, which can easily be measured experimentally, could thus be a useful tool to predict the penetration of gap states, a must-have information in order to limit the undesired effect of gap states since it sets for a device the minimal channel length (˜1-2 nm). In summary, these theoretical results could be used as a guideline in the conception of electronic devices made of graphene nanoribbons in which doping and potential profile need to be optimized while making sure that metal induced gap states do not compromise normal operation.

  12. Training in Human Relations for Engineers at the Ecole Superieure D'Informatique-Electronique-Automatique (ESIEA).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lafargue, M.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Points out the need to provide engineers with training in human relations. Describes the process of developing a document defining the problem and steps to be taken toward solution, submitted to students for their evaluation. (JM)

  13. How to unlock the benefits of MRP (materiel requirements planning) II and Just-in-Time.

    PubMed

    Jacobi, M A

    1994-05-01

    Manufacturing companies need to use the best and most applicable parts of MRP II and JIT to run their businesses effectively. MRP II provides the methodology to plan and control the total resources of the company and focuses on the processes that add value to their customers' products. It is the cornerstone of total quality management, as it reduces the variability and costly activities in the communication and subsequent execution of the required steps from customer order to shipment. JIT focuses on simplifying the total business operation and execution of business processes. MRP II and JIT are the foundations for successful manufacturing businesses. PMID:10134147

  14. Les materiels didactiques pour l'education en matiere de population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valerien, Jean

    1993-03-01

    The materials developed to promote Population Education are indispensable since teachers have not been prepared to deliver this new type of teaching, using active methods and stressing the acquisition of attitudes rather than knowledge. Early teaching materials gave Population Education a doctrinaire image, focusing on sexual education. More recently, the priority target for the materials has become better defined: rather than trying to convince teachers, attempts are made to discover their needs in order to develop tools that will help them. A rapid survey of Population Education teaching materials, using five representative examples, illustrates their evolution. The quest for an unassailable scientific corpus of Population Education is found in the examples of lessons put forward by the Regional Programme in Asia, in which 25 States are participating. Moreover, Population Education no longer focuses only on demographic knowledge: the dynamics of population change have effects on numerous aspects of the quality of life. In the 1980s, research started by CRESALC resulted in pilot materials of great originality, using discussion, simulation, the media, games, enquiry, etc., which stimulate the active participation of pupils. But in the vast majority of cases, the contents and objectives of Population Education remain integrated into the various subjects of the curriculum.

  15. 32 CFR 623.6 - Reimbursement for loan of Army materiel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., heat, and electricity). Charges will be based on meter readings or other fair method. (9) Any... the accounts are transferred according to this regulation. A copy will be sent to the FAO handling the accounts. The FAO will then transfer the account to inactive status. A Standard Form 1017G (Journal...

  16. 32 CFR 623.6 - Reimbursement for loan of Army materiel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., heat, and electricity). Charges will be based on meter readings or other fair method. (9) Any... the accounts are transferred according to this regulation. A copy will be sent to the FAO handling the accounts. The FAO will then transfer the account to inactive status. A Standard Form 1017G (Journal...

  17. 32 CFR 623.6 - Reimbursement for loan of Army materiel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... This provision will be a part of the loan agreement. (iii) In cases of aircraft piracy, civil... aircraft, motor vehicles, or motor craft used in connection with aircraft piracy. (8) Utilities (gas,...

  18. 32 CFR 623.6 - Reimbursement for loan of Army materiel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... element will absorb initial costs (within existing fund availability). Reimbursement will be coordinated... commercial rates or computed by sound commercial accounting practices including a return on...

  19. US Army Medical Materiel development activity, 1987 annual report. Progress report, 1 January-31 December 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Pedersen, C.E.

    1988-05-06

    Information relating to accomplishments in military medicine in three areas is presented. The Project Management Support Division (PMSD) provides centralized administrative, financial management, contracting, and logistical support to the Project Managers and staff. The Biological Systems Project Management Division manages the development and acquisition of biological products to prevent casualties or loss of soldier effectiveness due to disease. These diseases may be naturally acquired (close contact, unsanitary conditions, contaminated environment, biting insects), or delivered deliberately (aerosols). Product Officers exploit domestic and foreign medical technology to remedy deficiencies identified by the Combat Developer and monitor research projects for their application to disease protective measures. The Pharmaceutical Systems Project Management Division centrally manages the development and the initial production of pharmaceutical products (antidotes and drugs), related drug delivery systems (autoinjectors and transdermal patches), and decontamination products. These products are fielded as preventive, protective, and therapeutic modalities for use against chemical and biological warfare threats, certain endemic diseases, and the treatment of combat casualties. The Applied Medical Systems Project Management Division is a multidisciplinary team with broad mission responsibilities to centrally manage the development and initial production of applied medical products, related diagnostic equipment, optical corrective devices for protective masks, and pesticide delivery systems.

  20. The positive impact of the early-feeding of a plant-based diet on its future acceptance and utilisation in rainbow trout.

    PubMed

    Geurden, Inge; Borchert, Peter; Balasubramanian, Mukundh N; Schrama, Johan W; Dupont-Nivet, Mathilde; Quillet, Edwige; Kaushik, Sadasivam J; Panserat, Stéphane; Médale, Françoise

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable aquaculture, which entails proportional replacement of fish-based feed sources by plant-based ingredients, is impeded by the poor growth response frequently seen in fish fed high levels of plant ingredients. This study explores the potential to improve, by means of early nutritional exposure, the growth of fish fed plant-based feed. Rainbow trout swim-up fry were fed for 3 weeks either a plant-based diet (diet V, V-fish) or a diet containing fishmeal and fish oil as protein and fat source (diet M, M-fish). After this 3-wk nutritional history period, all V- or M-fish received diet M for a 7-month intermediate growth phase. Both groups were then challenged by feeding diet V for 25 days during which voluntary feed intake, growth, and nutrient utilisation were monitored (V-challenge). Three isogenic rainbow trout lines were used for evaluating possible family effects. The results of the V-challenge showed a 42% higher growth rate (P = 0.002) and 30% higher feed intake (P = 0.005) in fish of nutritional history V compared to M (averaged over the three families). Besides the effects on feed intake, V-fish utilized diet V more efficiently than M-fish, as reflected by the on average 18% higher feed efficiency (P = 0.003). We noted a significant family effect for the above parameters (P<0.001), but the nutritional history effect was consistent for all three families (no interaction effect, P>0.05). In summary, our study shows that an early short-term exposure of rainbow trout fry to a plant-based diet improves acceptance and utilization of the same diet when given at later life stages. This positive response is encouraging as a potential strategy to improve the use of plant-based feed in fish, of interest in the field of fish farming and animal nutrition in general. Future work needs to determine the persistency of this positive early feeding effect and the underlying mechanisms. PMID:24386155

  1. Première expérience de l'utilisation du Misoprostol comme soin après avortement (SAA) à Libreville, Gabon

    PubMed Central

    Mayi-Tsonga, Sosthène; Minkobame, Ulysse; Mbila, Arielle; Assoumou, Pamphile; Diop, Ayisha; Winikoff, Beverly

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Une étude a été menée afin de déterminer le taux d'acceptabilité de 400µg de misoprostol par voie sublinguale comme traitement de première intention de l'avortement incomplet et de préciser le taux d'avortement complet ou vacuité utérine. Méthodes Les femmes éligibles avaient un diagnostic clinique d'avortement incomplet avec une taille utérine inférieure à celle d'un utérus de 12 semaines d'aménorrhées (SA). Chacune a reçu 400µg de misoprostol par voie sublinguale. Les femmes ont été revues après une semaine. A J7, celles qui n'avaient pas complètement expulsé ont eu le choix entre une nouvelle consultation de suivi à J14 et la pratique d'une évacuation chirurgicale immédiate. Résultats 145 patientes ont été éligibles et ont toutes accepté la méthode (100%). L’âge moyen était de 25,9 ± 6 ans. A J7, 120 patientes étaient guéries (85,7%). A J14, le taux de réussitea été de 95,7% soit 134 patientes guéries. Les patientes guéries ont déclaré être très satisfaites (57,5%), satisfaites (41,8%) et insatisfaite (0,7%). Au total,128 femmes (95,5%) ont dit être prêtes à utiliser de nouveau le misoprostol comme méthode d’évacuation utérine en cas d'avortement incomplet. Conclusion L’étude démontre que le 400µg misoprostol par voie sublinguale nous permet de prendre en charge d'une manière adéquate l'avortement incomplet surtout dans les pays à faible ressource et notamment dans les structures sanitaires de première ligne ou éloignées. PMID:25469194

  2. Retrieving the availability of light in the ocean utilising spectral signatures of Vibrational Raman Scattering in hyper-spectral satellite measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinter, T.; Rozanov, V. V.; Burrows, J. P.; Bracher, A.

    2015-01-01

    The availability of light in the ocean is an important parameter for the determination of phytoplankton photosynthesis processes and primary production from satellite data. It is also a useful parameter for other applications, e.g. the determination of heat fluxes. In this study, a method was developed utilising the vibrational Raman scattering (VRS) effect of water molecules to determine the amount of photons available in the ocean water, which is expressed by the depth integrated scalar irradiance E0. Radiative transfer simulations with the fully coupled ocean-atmosphere Radiative Transfer Model (RTM) SCIATRAN show clearly the relationship of E0 to the strength of the VRS signal measured at the top of the atmosphere (TOA). Taking advantage of VRS structures in hyper-spectral satellite measurements a retrieval technique to derive E0 in the wavelength region from 390 to 444.5 nm was developed. This approach uses the Weighting Function Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (WF-DOAS) technique, applied to TOA radiances, measured by the Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Chartography (SCIAMACHY). Based on the approach of Vountas et al. (2007), where the DOAS method was used to fit modelled spectra of VRS, the method was improved by using the weighting function of VRS (VRS-WF) in the DOAS fit. This was combined with a look-up table (LUT) technique, where the E0 value was obtained for each VRS satellite fit directly. The VRS-WF and the LUT were derived from calculations with the RTM SCIATRAN (Rozanov et al., 2014). RTM simulations for different chlorophyll a concentrations and illumination conditions clearly show, that low fit factors of VRS retrieval results correspond to low amounts of light in the water column and vice versa. Exemplary, one month of SCIAMACHY data were processed and

  3. Retrieving the availability of light in the ocean utilising spectral signatures of vibrational Raman scattering in hyper-spectral satellite measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinter, T.; Rozanov, V. V.; Burrows, J. P.; Bracher, A.

    2015-05-01

    The availability of light in the ocean is an important parameter for the determination of phytoplankton photosynthesis processes and primary production from satellite data. It is also a useful parameter for other applications, e.g. the determination of heat fluxes. In this study, a method was developed utilising the vibrational Raman scattering (VRS) effect of water molecules to determine the number of photons available in the ocean water, which is expressed by the depth integrated scalar irradiance E0. Radiative transfer simulations with the SCIATRAN fully coupled ocean-atmosphere radiative transfer model (RTM) show clearly the relationship of E0 with the strength of the VRS signal measured at the top of the atmosphere (TOA). Taking advantage of VRS structures in hyper-spectral satellite measurements, a retrieval technique to derive E0 in the wavelength region from 390 to 444.5 nm was developed. This approach uses the weighting function differential optical absorption spectroscopy (WF-DOAS) technique, applied to TOA radiances, measured by the Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Chartography (SCIAMACHY). Based on the approach of Vountas et al. (2007), where the DOAS method was used to fit modelled spectra of VRS, the method was improved by using the weighting function of VRS (VRS-WF) in the DOAS fit. This was combined with a look-up table (LUT) technique, where the E0 value was obtained for each VRS satellite fit directly. The VRS-WF and the LUT were derived from calculations with the SCIATRAN RTM (Rozanov et al., 2014). RTM simulations for different chlorophyll a concentrations and illumination conditions clearly show that low fit factors of VRS retrieval results correspond to low amounts of light in the water column and vice versa. Exemplarily, 1 month of SCIAMACHY data were processed and a global map of the depth integrated scalar irradiance E0 was retrieved. Spectral structures of VRS were clearly identified in the radiance measurements of

  4. Influence of whole wheat inclusion and a blend of essential oils on the performance, nutrient utilisation, digestive tract development and ileal microbiota profile of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Amerah, A M; Péron, A; Zaefarian, F; Ravindran, V

    2011-02-01

    1. The aim of the present experiment was to examine the influence of whole wheat inclusion and a blend of essential oils (EO; cinnamaldehyde and thymol) supplementation on the performance, nutrient utilisation, digestive tract development and ileal microbiota profile of broiler chickens. 2. The experimental design was a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments evaluating two wheat forms (ground wheat [GW] and whole wheat [WW]; 100 and 200 g/kg WW replacing GW during starter [1 to 21 d] and finisher [22 to 35 d] diets respectively) and two levels of EO inclusion (0 or 100 g/tonne diet). All dietary treatments were supplemented with 2000 xylanase units/kg feed. Broiler starter and finisher diets based on wheat and soybean meal were formulated and each diet fed ad libitum to 6 pens of 8 male broilers. 3. During the trial period (1-35 d), wheat form had no significant effect on weight gain or feed intake. However, WW inclusion tended (P = 0.06) to improve feed per gain. Essential oil supplementation significantly improved weight gain in both diets, but the improvements were greater in the GW diet as indicated by a significant wheat form × EO interaction. 4. Main effects of wheat form and EO on the relative weight, length and digesta content of various segments of the digestive tract were not significant. Significant interactions, however, were found for relative gizzard and caecal weights. Essential oil supplementation significantly increased the relative gizzard weight and lowered relative caecal weight in birds fed on the GW based diet, but had no effect in those fed on the WW based diet. 5. Whole wheat inclusion and EO supplementation significantly improved apparent ileal nitrogen digestibility. Apparent ileal digestible energy was not significantly influenced by the dietary treatments. 6. Ileal microbiota profiling, using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, showed that the ileal microbiota composition was influenced by feed form. The mean numbers of

  5. The Positive Impact of the Early-Feeding of a Plant-Based Diet on Its Future Acceptance and Utilisation in Rainbow Trout

    PubMed Central

    Geurden, Inge; Borchert, Peter; Balasubramanian, Mukundh N.; Schrama, Johan W.; Dupont-Nivet, Mathilde; Quillet, Edwige; Kaushik, Sadasivam J.; Panserat, Stéphane; Médale, Françoise

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable aquaculture, which entails proportional replacement of fish-based feed sources by plant-based ingredients, is impeded by the poor growth response frequently seen in fish fed high levels of plant ingredients. This study explores the potential to improve, by means of early nutritional exposure, the growth of fish fed plant-based feed. Rainbow trout swim-up fry were fed for 3 weeks either a plant-based diet (diet V, V-fish) or a diet containing fishmeal and fish oil as protein and fat source (diet M, M-fish). After this 3-wk nutritional history period, all V- or M-fish received diet M for a 7-month intermediate growth phase. Both groups were then challenged by feeding diet V for 25 days during which voluntary feed intake, growth, and nutrient utilisation were monitored (V-challenge). Three isogenic rainbow trout lines were used for evaluating possible family effects. The results of the V-challenge showed a 42% higher growth rate (P = 0.002) and 30% higher feed intake (P = 0.005) in fish of nutritional history V compared to M (averaged over the three families). Besides the effects on feed intake, V-fish utilized diet V more efficiently than M-fish, as reflected by the on average 18% higher feed efficiency (P = 0.003). We noted a significant family effect for the above parameters (P<0.001), but the nutritional history effect was consistent for all three families (no interaction effect, P>0.05). In summary, our study shows that an early short-term exposure of rainbow trout fry to a plant-based diet improves acceptance and utilization of the same diet when given at later life stages. This positive response is encouraging as a potential strategy to improve the use of plant-based feed in fish, of interest in the field of fish farming and animal nutrition in general. Future work needs to determine the persistency of this positive early feeding effect and the underlying mechanisms. PMID:24386155

  6. Lignes directrices canadiennes sur l’utilisation sécuritaire et efficace des opioïdes pour la douleur chronique non cancéreuse

    PubMed Central

    Kahan, Meldon; Wilson, Lynn; Mailis-Gagnon, Angela; Srivastava, Anita

    2011-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Présenter aux médecins de famille un résumé clinique pratique sur la prescription d’opioïdes à des populations particulières en se fondant sur les recommandations faites dans les lignes directrices canadiennes sur l’utilisation sécuritaire et efficace des opioïdes pour la douleur chronique non cancéreuse. Qualité des données Pour produire les lignes directrices, les chercheurs ont effectué une synthèse critique de la littérature médicale en insistant plus précisément sur les études de l’efficacité et de la sécurité des opioïdes dans des populations particulières. Message principal Les médecins de famille peuvent atténuer les risques de surdose, de sédation, d’usage abusif et de dépendance grâce à des stratégies adaptées à l’âge et à l’état de santé des patients. Dans le cas de patients à risque de dépendance, on devrait réserver les opioïdes aux douleurs nociceptives ou neuropathiques bien définies qui n’ont pas répondu aux traitements de première intention. Il faut procéder lentement au titrage des opioïdes, avec des dispensations fréquentes et une étroite surveillance pour dépister tout signe d’usage abusif. Une dépendance aux opioïdes suspectée est prise en charge au moyen d’une thérapie structurée aux opioïdes, d’un traitement à la méthadone ou à la buprénorphine ou encore d’un traitement fondé sur l’abstinence. Les patients souffrant de troubles de l’humeur ou d’anxiété ont tendance à avoir une réponse analgésique atténuée aux opioïdes, sont à risque plus élevé d’usage abusif et prennent souvent des sédatifs qui interagissent défavorablement avec les opioïdes. Il faut prendre des précautions semblables à celles utilisées avec d’autres patients à risque élevé. Il faut faire un sevrage progressif si la douleur du patient demeure sévère même avec un essai adéquat de thérapie aux opioïdes. Chez les personnes âgées, la s

  7. Lignes directrices canadiennes sur l’utilisation sécuritaire et efficace des opioïdes pour la douleur chronique non cancéreuse

    PubMed Central

    Kahan, Meldon; Mailis-Gagnon, Angela; Wilson, Lynn; Srivastava, Anita

    2011-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Présenter aux médecins de famille un résumé clinique pratique des lignes directrices canadiennes sur l’utilisation sécuritaire et efficace des opioïdes pour la douleur chronique non cancéreuse, produites par le National Opioid Use Guideline Group. Qualité des données Pour produire les lignes directrices, les chercheurs ont effectué une synthèse critique de la littérature médicale sur l’efficacité et l’innocuité des opioïdes pour la douleur chronique non cancéreuse et ont rédigé une série de recommandations. Un panel de 49 cliniciens experts de toutes les régions du Canada ont passé en revue l’ébauche et ont atteint un consensus sur 24 recommandations. Message principal Il est recommandé de faire un dépistage du risque de dépendance avant de prescrire des opioïdes. On recommande des opioïdes faibles (codéine et tramadol) pour une douleur de légère à modérée qui n’a pas répondu aux traitements de première intention. On peut essayer l’oxycodone, l’hydromorphone et la morphine chez les patients qui n’ont pas eu de soulagement avec des opioïdes plus faibles. Une faible dose initiale et une lente hausse du titrage sont recommandées, ainsi qu’une étroite surveillance du patient qu’on a d’abord renseigné. Les médecins doivent surveiller l’apparition de complications comme l’apnée du sommeil. La dose optimale est celle qui améliore le fonctionnement ou atténue les cotes d’évaluation de la douleur d’au moins 30 %. Pour la grande majorité des patients, la dose optimale sera bien en deçà de l’équivalent de 200 mg de morphine par jour. On recommande le sevrage progressif pour les patients qui n’ont pas répondu à un essai d’opioïdes adéquat. Conclusion Les opioïdes jouent un rôle important dans la prise en charge de la douleur chronique non cancéreuse, mais il faut en prescrire avec prudence pour limiter les dommages potentiels. Les nouvelles lignes directrices

  8. Utilisation de lignes directrices dans le cadre de l’implantation de cabinets automatisés décentralisés en établissement de santé

    PubMed Central

    Brisseau, Lionel; Bussières, Jean-François; Lebel, Denis; Atkinson, Suzanne; Robinette, Louise; Fortin, Sylvie; Lemay, Michel

    2011-01-01

    RÉSUMÉ Contexte : Il existe peu de données sur les conséquences de l’utilisation des cabinets automatisés décentralisés (CAD) en établissements de santé. Méthode : Il s’agit d’une étude descriptive de la conformité des pratiques par rapport à des lignes directrices publiées dans le cadre de l’implantation de CAD. L’objectif principal de l’étude est d’évaluer la conformité globale et celle de chaque processus du circuit du médicament. L’étude se déroule au sein du Centre hospitalier universitaire (CHU) Sainte-Justine, un établissement mère–enfant de 500 lits. À partir des lignes directrices portant sur l’utilisation sécuritaire des CAD de l’Institute for Safe Medication Practice (aux États-Unis) (2008) et de son outil d’autoévaluation (2009), nous avons évalué la conformité de la pratique à 30 jours et à 120 jours après l’implantation. Résultats : Nous avons procédé de novembre 2009 à avril 2010 à l’implantation de sept stations de CAD au sein du CHU Sainte-Justine. Le profil de conformité est passé de 66 % à 74 % de janvier à avril 2010. Pour chaque processus relatif à l’utilisation sécuritaire des CAD, nous présentons une brève description des critères ainsi que les éléments de non-conformité liés à la technologie ou aux aspects organisationnels. Pour chaque élément de non-conformité, nous avons déterminé les actions requises auprès du fabricant afin de modifier l’équipement (c. à .d. aspects technologiques) et auprès de l’établissement afin de modifier les modalités d’utilisation (aspects organisationnels) en précisant le ou les processus impliqués. Conclusion : Cette étude décrit la conformité des pratiques au CHU Sainte-Justine par rapport à des lignes directrices publiées par l’Institute for Safe Medication Practices. L’utilisation de lignes directrices dans le cadre de l’implantation de cabinets automatisés décentralisés en établissement peut

  9. Modélisation d'un choc thermique doux d'un verre S.S.C en utilisant l'approche thermomécanique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malou, Z.; Hamidouche, M.; Madjoubi, M. A.; Bousbaa, C.; Bouaouadja, N.

    2005-05-01

    Dans ce travail, nous avons étudié l'endommagement du verre silico-sodo-calcique (trois différentes épaisseurs : 2mm, 4mm, et 8mm) par choc thermique descendant. Nous avons utilisé l'approche thermomécanique en terme de facteur d'intensité de contrainte en se basant sur un calcul numérique. Le choc thermique descendant, est la mise en contact brutal d'un échantillon, préalablement chauffé à une température Ti, avec un milieu dont la température Tf est inférieure à Ti. Le gradient thermique engendré induit des contraintes de tension dans les couches superficielles du corps. Ces contraintes peuvent conduire à la rupture du matériau. Les hypothèses prises en compte lors de la simulation sont comme suit : Le refroidissement des échantillons en verre chauffés à différentes températures, inférieures à sa température de transition, est fait par jet d'air à 20° C pendant 6 secondes. Ce temps est suffisant pour que la température des échantillons atteigne l'ambiante. Le coefficient de transfert de chaleur est de 600 W/°C.m2. Les températures chaudes ont été variées entre 100° C et 450° C. Lors des calculs, nous avons intégré, l'évolutions en fonction de la température des propriétés thermoélastiques du verre. Dans un premier temps, nous avons déterminé les températures et les contraintes transitoires dans l'échantillon à tout instant du choc thermique. Ensuite, nous avons déterminé l'évolution du facteur d'intensité de contrainte (FIC) durant le refroidissement. Enfin, les FIC calculés sont comparés à la ténacité (K1c) du matériau. Cette dernière a été mesurée en utilisant la mécanique linéaire de la rupture. Nous avons vérifié que quand le facteur FIC atteint la valeur de la ténacité dans la zone des défauts critiques, ces derniers se propagent d'une manière brutale causant ainsi la dégradation de l'échantillon. Par cette technique, nous avons directement accès à l'écart de température critique

  10. Déterminants de l'utilisation des méthodes contraceptives dans la zone de santé Mumbunda à Lubumbashi, République Démocratique du Congo

    PubMed Central

    Matungulu, Charles Matungulu; Kandolo, Simon Ilunga; Mukengeshayi, Abel Ntambue; Nkola, Angèle Musau; Mpoyi, Dorcas Ilunga; Mumba, Sylvie Katanga; Kabamba, Julie Ndayi; Cowgill, Karen; Kaj, Françoise Malonga

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Augmenter la prévalence contraceptive s'incarne dans les objectifs des tous les acteurs des programmes qui visent de réduire la mortalité maternelle et infantile, d'améliorer la santé reproductive des adolescents, de lutter contre le VIH/SIDA et les infections sexuellement transmissible (IST), de promouvoir le bien-être familial et de ralentir la croissance démographique. L'objectif de cette étude était de déterminer la prévalence contraceptive moderne et identifier les facteurs qui sont liés à l'utilisation des méthodes contraceptives dans la zone de santé de Mumbunda. Méthodes Une étude transversale à visé analytique a été effectuée auprès des femmes âgées de 15 à 49 ans en union maritale, de Mai à Juin 2014. Grâce à un questionnaire pré testé et validé, nous avons récolté les données par interview sur les caractéristiques sociodémographiques, obstétricales ainsi que sur la pratique contraceptive. Le logiciel SPSS version 21 nous a permis d'analyser les données. Résultats Au total 500 femmes ont été incluses dans cette étude dont l’âge moyen était de 27,9±6,1 ans. La prévalence contraceptive moderne était de 27,6%. L'attitude (ORa= 4,79; IC95%: 1,59-14,43; p<0,001), le niveau de connaissance des méthodes contraceptives (ORa=1,87; IC95%: 1,22-2,87; p<0,001), le soutien du conjoint (ORa=1,87; IC95%: 1,22-2,87; p<0,001) étaient significativement associés à l'utilisation des méthodes contraceptives modernes. Conclusion Tout effort d'augmentation de la prévalence contraceptive devrait cibler l'attitude, le niveau de connaissance de méthodes et le soutien du conjoint afin d'optimiser l'utilisation de la contraception moderne dans la zone de santé (ZS) Mumbunda. PMID:26977237

  11. Conception et caracterisation d'un magnetoplasma produit par une onde de surface pour la pulverisation d'echantillons solides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masse, Louis Philippe

    Suite a l'extraordinaire explosion de l'informatique de la derniere decennie, la science et la technologie des materiaux ont pris un essor extraordinaire. Par exemple, il est devenu crucial de concevoir des materiaux a haut degre de purete. Ce besoin a fortement motive le developpement de methodes d'analyse de solides. Traditionnellement, la methode adoptee est l'analyse par torche ICP, mais pour de nombreuses raisons, dont la lenteur de cette methode, la communaute scientifique oeuvrant en chimie analytique recherche des techniques d'analyse de solides directes, rapides et plus sensibles. Parmi les voies possibles, on trouve les methodes basees sur la pulverisation par plasma. Dans ce contexte, nous avons etudie la possibilite et la pertinence d'utiliser un magnetoplasma entretenu par une onde de surface pour pulveriser des solides dans le but de les analyser. Nos travaux portent principalement sur l'etude du comportement du plasma lors de la pulverisation. Nous avons montre que la pulverisation affecte la decharge de diverses facons. En premier lieu, la concentration d'especes provenant du materiau pulverise dans le plasma augmente avec la tension de polarisation. De plus, la concentration d'especes pulverisees diminue lorsque la pression croit, possiblement a cause du redepot. Nous avons aussi montre qu'il etait possible de pulveriser des solides isolants en exploitant le phenomene d'autopolarisation du a l'application d'une tension RF. Nous avons aussi etudie l'effet de la pulverisation sur la temperature et la densite electronique. Ainsi, lors de la pulverisation de metaux tels que le cuivre, la temperature electronique diminue lorsque la tension de polarisation augmente. Ceci est attribuable a l'augmentation de la densite d'especes metalliques neutres facilement ionisables par impact electronique. Nous avons aussi note que la densite electronique augmente avec la concentration d'especes metalliques dans le plasma, ce qui resulte d'un meilleur bilan de

  12. Utilisation de l'essai comete et du biomarqueur gamma-H2AX pour detecter les dommages induits a l'ADN cellulaire par le 5-bromodeoxyuridine post-irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Madeleine, Carole

    Ce memoire est presente a la Faculte de medecine et des sciences de la sante de l'Universite de Sherbrooke en vue de l'obtention du grade de maitre es sciences (M.Sc.) en radiobiologie (2009). Un jury a revise les informations contenues dans ce memoire. Il etait compose de professeurs de la Faculte de medecine et des sciences de la sante soit : Darel Hunting PhD, directeur de recherche (departement de medecine nucleaire et radiobiologie), Leon Sanche PhD, directeur de recherche (departement de medecine nucleaire et radiobiologie), Richard Wagner PhD, membre du programme (departement de medecine nucleaire et radiobiologie) et Guylain Boissonneault PhD, membre exterieur au programme (departement de biochimie). Le 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU), un analogue halogene de la thymidine reconnu depuis les annees 60 comme etant un excellent radiosensibilisateur. L'hypothese la plus repandue au sujet de l'effet radio sensibilisant du BrdU est qu'il augmente le nombre de cassures simple et double brin lorsqu'il est incorpore dans l'ADN de la cellule et expose aux radiations ionisantes. Toutefois, de nouvelles recherches semblent remettre en question les observations precedentes. Ces dernieres etudes ont confirme que le BrdU est un bon radiosensibilisateur, car il augmente les dommages radio-induits dans l'ADN. Mais, c'est en etant incorpore dans une region simple brin que le BrdU radiosensibilise l'ADN. Ces recherches ont egalement revele pour la premiere fois un nouveau type de dommages produits lors de l'irradiation de l'ADN contenant du BrdU : les dimeres interbrins. Le but de ces travaux de recherche est de determiner si la presence de bromodeoxyuridine dans l'ADN augmente l'induction de bris simple et / ou double brin chez les cellules irradiees en utilisant de nouvelles techniques plus sensibles et specifiques que celles utilisees auparavant. Pour ce faire, les essais cometes et la detection des foci H2AX phosphorylee pourraient permettre d'etablir les effets engendres par

  13. Les recommandations thérapeutiques relatives aux effets secondaires extrapyramidaux associés à l’utilisation d’antipsychotiques de deuxième génération chez les enfants et les adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Pringsheim, Tamara; Doja, Asif; Belanger, Stacey; Patten, Scott

    2012-01-01

    HISTORIQUE ET OBJECTIF : L’utilisation d’antipsychotiques augmente chez les enfants. Le présent article visait à orienter les cliniciens quant à la prise en charge clinique des effets secondaires extrapyramidaux des antipsychotiques de deuxième génération. MÉTHODOLOGIE : Les publications, les entrevues avec des informateurs clés et des échanges avec les membres d’un groupe de discussion et les partenaires ont permis de déterminer les principaux secteurs cliniques d’orientation et les préférences quant à la structure des présentes recommandations. Les membres responsables des lignes directrices ont reçu le projet de recommandations, ont évalué l’information recueillie grâce à une analyse bibliographique systématique et ont utilisé un processus de groupe nominal pour parvenir à un consensus quant aux recommandations thérapeutiques. Les lignes directrices contiennent une description des anomalies neurologiques souvent observées avec l’utilisation d’antipsychotiques ainsi que les recommandations sur le moyen d’examiner et de quantifier ces anomalies. Une démarche séquentielle sur la prise en charge des anomalies neurologiques est présentée. RÉSULTATS : On peut observer plusieurs types de symptômes extrapyramidaux attribuables à l’utilisation d’antipsychotiques chez les enfants, y compris la dystonie aiguë, l’akathisie, le parkinsonisme et la dyskinésie tardive, toutes induites par les neuroleptiques, de même que la dystonie tardive, l’akathisie tardive et les dyskinésies de sevrage. La forte majorité des données probantes sur le traitement des troubles du mouvement induits par les antipsychotiques proviennent de patients adultes atteints de schizophrénie. Étant donné le peu de données pédiatriques, les recommandations découlent de publications portant tant sur des adultes que sur des enfants. Compte tenu des limites de généralisation des données provenant de sujets adultes pour des enfants, il

  14. HIV-related knowledge, perceptions, attitudes, and utilisation of HIV counselling and testing: a venue-based intercept commuter population survey in the inner city of Johannesburg, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Chimoyi, Lucy; Tshuma, Ndumiso; Muloongo, Keith; Setswe, Geoffrey; Sarfo, Bismark; Nyasulu, Peter S.

    2015-01-01

    Background HIV counselling and testing (HCT) and knowledge about HIV have been key strategies utilised in the prevention and control of HIV/AIDS worldwide. HIV knowledge and uptake of HCT services in sub-Saharan Africa are still low. This study was conducted to determine factors associated with HCT and HIV/AIDS knowledge levels among a commuter population in Johannesburg, South Africa. Objective To identify the factors associated with HCT uptake among the commuter population. Design A simple random sampling method was used to select participants in a venue-based intercept survey at a taxi rank in the Johannesburg Central Business District. Data were collected using an electronic questionnaire. Logistic regression analysis assessed factors associated with HIV testing stratified by gender. Results 1,146 respondents were interviewed, the maority (n=579, 50.5%) were females and (n=780, 68.1%) were over 25 years of age. Overall HCT knowledge was high (n=951, 83%) with more females utilising HCT facilities. There was a significant difference in HIV testing for respondents living closer to and further away from health facilities. Slightly more than half of the respondents indicated stigma as one of the barriers for testing (n=594, 52%, p-value=0.001). For males, living with a partner (aOR: 1.68, 95% CI: 1.02–2.78, p-value: 0.041) and possessing a post-primary education were positively associated with testing (aOR: 2.00, 95% CI: 1.15–3.47, p-value: 0.014), whereas stigma and discrimination reduced the likelihood of testing (aOR: 0.40, 95% CI: 0.31–0.62, p-value: <0.001). For females, having one sexual partner (aOR: 2.65, 95% CI: 1.19–5.90, p-value: 0.017) and a low perceived benefit for HIV testing (aOR: 0.54, 95% CI: 0.30–0.96, p-value: 0.035) were associated with HIV testing. Conclusion The overall HIV/AIDS knowledge was generally high. Gender-specific health education and HIV intervention programmes are needed for improved access to HCT services. One

  15. Impact of universal health coverage on urban–rural inequity in psychiatric service utilisation for patients with first admission for psychosis: a 10-year nationwide population-based study in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Chih-Lin; Chen, Pei-Chun; Huang, Ling-Ya; Kuo, Po-Hsiu; Tung, Yu-Chi; Liu, Chen-Chung; Chen, Wei J

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine the disparities in psychiatric service utilisation over a 10-year period for patients with first admission for psychosis in relation to urban–rural residence following the implementation of universal health coverage in Taiwan. Design Population-based retrospective cohort study. Setting Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database, which has a population coverage rate of over 99% and contains all medical claim records of a nationwide cohort of patients with at least one psychiatric admission between 1996 and 2007. Participants 69 690 patients aged 15–59 years with first admission between 1998 and 2007 for any psychotic disorder. Main exposure measure Patients’ urban–rural residence at first admissions. Main outcome measures Absolute and relative inequality indexes of the following quality indicators after discharge from the first admission: all-cause psychiatric readmission at 2 and 4 years, dropout of psychiatric outpatient service at 30 days, and emergency department (ED) treat-and-release encounter at 30 days. Results Between 1998 and 2007, the 4-year readmission rate decreased from 65% to 58%, the 30-day dropout rate decreased from 18% to 15%, and the 30-day ED encounter rate increased from 8% to 10%. Risk of readmission has significantly decreased in rural and urban patients, but at a slower speed for the rural patients (p=0.026). The adjusted HR of readmission in rural versus urban patients has increased from 1.00 (95% CI 0.96 to 1.04) in 1998–2000 to 1.08 (95% CI 1.03 to 1.12) in 2005–2007, indicating a mild widening of the urban–rural gap. Urban–rural differences in 30-day dropout and ED encounter rates have been stationary over time. Conclusions The universal health coverage in Taiwan did not narrow urban–rural inequity of psychiatric service utilisation in patients with psychosis. Therefore, other policy interventions on resource allocation, service delivery and quality of care are needed to improve

  16. Evaluating the impact of depression, anxiety & autonomic function on health related quality of life, vocational functioning and health care utilisation in acute coronary syndrome patients: the ADVENT study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Depression and anxiety are highly prevalent and co-morbid in acute coronary syndrome patients. Somatic and cognitive subtypes of depression and anxiety in acute coronary syndrome have been shown to be associated with mortality although their association with patient outcomes is unknown, as are the mechanisms that underpin these associations. We are conducting a prospective cohort study which aims to examine in acute coronary syndrome patients: (1) the role of somatic subtypes of depression and anxiety as predictors of health related quality of life outcomes; (2) how somatic subtypes of depression and anxiety relate to long term vocational functioning and healthcare utilisation; and (3) the role of the autonomic nervous system assessed by heart rate variability as a moderator of these associations. Methods Patients are being screened after index admission for acute coronary syndrome at a single, high volume centre, MonashHeart, Monash Health, Victoria, Australia. The inclusion criterion is all patients aged > 21 years old and fluent in English admitted to MonashHeart, Monash Health with a diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome. The primary outcome is mean health related quality of life (Short Form-36) Physical and Mental Health Summary scores at 12 and 24 months in subtypes with somatic symptoms of depression and anxiety. Depressive domains are assessed by the Beck Depression Inventory II and the Cardiac Depression Scale. Anxiety is measured using the Speilberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and the Crown Crisp Phobic Anxiety questionnaire. Secondary outcomes include clinical variables, healthcare service utilisation and vocational functioning. Discussion This manuscript presents the protocol for a prospective cohort study which will investigate the role of somatic subtypes of depression and anxiety as predictors of health related quality of life, long-term vocational functioning and health service use, and the role of the autonomic nervous system in

  17. Etude comparative des complications liées à l'utilisation du cathéter veineux périphérique avec et sans système clos à bouchon hépariné

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ying Chun; Seydou, Togo; Sadio, Yéna; Liang, Tu Zheng; Ge, jin

    2015-01-01

    Introduction L'utilisation correcte du système clos à bouchon hépariné sur les cathéters périphériques pendant les perfusions est une pratique courante dans les pays développés et aussi dans plusieurs pays en développement selon un consensus international établi. Nous comparons les résultats de la formation de thrombus et de l'infection liées au cathéter veineux périphérique chez les patients ayant bénéficié de perfusion avec système clos à bouchon hépariné (groupe expérimentale) et ceux qui ont été perfusé sans bouchon hépariné (groupe témoin). Méthodes Nous avons colligé 100 patients hospitalisés pendant la période de Juillet 2014 à Décembre 2014 dans le service d'hospitalisation de chirurgie thoracique de l'hôpital du Mali qui ont été repartis en 2 groupes de 50 patients chacun pour une analyse comparative. L'observation du thrombus dans la lumière du cathéter est effectuée puis enregistré et tous les cathéters ont été repris pour réalisation de culture bactérienne au laboratoire dans les 2 groupes. Résultats Dans le groupe témoin, il existe un thrombus dans la lumière du cathéter dans 36 cas (72%) et l'examen de culture bactérienne était positif dans 90%. Tandis que dans le groupe expérimental on retrouve 3 cas (6%) de thrombose du cathéter et on note une absence de germe dans l'examen bactériologique. Conclusion L'utilisation correcte du système clos à bouchon hépariné lors des perfusions peut réduire et prévenir de façon significative les complications liées au cathéter notamment l'occlusion par thrombus, leur migration et la survenue de l'infection. PMID:26600900

  18. Le Courrier Electronique: Un Outil d'Enseignement en Milieu de Travail (Electronic Mail: A Teaching Tool in the Workplace).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desmarais, Lise

    1999-01-01

    Describes a course that used e-mail to improve the German and Spanish written language skills of Canadian Foreign Service Officers. To lower attrition rates, the course required completion of authentic professional tasks, exposing participants to formal, technical, and informal language. Though initial interest was high, attrition was also high,…

  19. Transport Electronique Dans Les Super Reseaux : Applications Aux Détecteurs Infrarouges à Grandes Longueur D'onde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lhuillier, Emmanuel

    2010-11-01

    The low flux infrared imaging needs performant high wavelength detectors. Quantum Well Infrared Photodetectors (QWIP), thanks to the maturity of GaAs, the possibility to adjust the detected wavelength on a large range and to realize large uniform matrix are good candidate for such applications. In order to validate this interest, we have performed an electro-optic characterization of a 15{μ}m sample. These measurements have been used to simulate the performance of a camera based on this QWIP and used in a low infrared photons flux scenario. We predict that this QWIP would succeed. Nevertheless these simulations also underline the detrimental role of the dark current. Thus we have developed a simulation tool based on a hoping approach between localized states, which provide us a better understanding of the transport in these heterostructures. The code has in particular underlines the role plays by the electron -ionized impurities interaction, which make the dark current very sensitive to the doping profile. Using this tool we have designed new structures, with optimized doping profile, in which the scattering rate has been decreased by a factor two. Moreover we have identified a quantum origin to the plateau shape of the I(V) curve. This code is more generally a useful simulation tool for the transport in hétérostructures. The influence of growth defects (non ideal interface and disorder) has been quantized and we have performed the first evaluation of The R0A in a THz QCD. Finally non local transport effects have been investigated. Saw teeth observation on the I(V) curves have been modeled and their influence on the detectivty estimated.

  20. An Inventory of Human Rights Teaching Materials = Repertoire du Materiel Pedagogique Relatif aux Droits de la Personne.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Human Rights Commission, Winnipeg.

    This document is an inventory designed to help educators more efficiently locate resources for teaching about human rights in the classroom. The types of materials identified in this document include: teaching units and guides, reference books, multi-media kits, filmstrips, tapes, video cassettes, supplementary curricular materials, and other…

  1. An evaluation of the environmental fate and behavior of munitions materiel (TNT, RDX) in soil and plant systems

    SciTech Connect

    Cataldo, D.A.; Harvey, S.D.; Fellows, R.J.; Bean, R.M.; McVeety, B.D.

    1989-08-01

    The objective of these investigations was to elucidate the environmental behavior and fate of trinitrotoluene (TNT). Emphasis was placed on those chemical transformations occurring in soils and in plant tissues following uptake and on the probable impact of these chemical transformations on the food chain. Analytical methodology was developed to fractionate and characterize both TNT and TNT-derived residues in soil and plant matrices. The procedures developed in this program extend prior art, through the use of matrix-specific extraction and fractionation schemes followed by classical HPLC separations. Methods showed good recovery and reproducibility. 30 refs., 35 figs., 27 tabs.

  2. How Does a Carnivore Guild Utilise a Substantial but Unpredictable Anthropogenic Food Source? Scavenging on Hunter-Shot Ungulate Carcasses by Wild Dogs/Dingoes, Red Foxes and Feral Cats in South-Eastern Australia Revealed by Camera Traps

    PubMed Central

    Forsyth, David M.; Woodford, Luke; Moloney, Paul D.; Hampton, Jordan O.; Woolnough, Andrew P.; Tucker, Mark

    2014-01-01

    There is much interest in understanding how anthropogenic food resources subsidise carnivore populations. Carcasses of hunter-shot ungulates are a potentially substantial food source for mammalian carnivores. The sambar deer (Rusa unicolor) is a large (≥150 kg) exotic ungulate that can be hunted throughout the year in south-eastern Australia, and hunters are not required to remove or bury carcasses. We investigated how wild dogs/dingoes and their hybrids (Canis lupus familiaris/dingo), red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and feral cats (Felis catus) utilised sambar deer carcasses during the peak hunting seasons (i.e. winter and spring). We placed carcasses at 1-km intervals along each of six transects that extended 4-km into forest from farm boundaries. Visits to carcasses were monitored using camera traps, and the rate of change in edible biomass estimated at ∼14-day intervals. Wild dogs and foxes fed on 70% and 60% of 30 carcasses, respectively, but feral cats seldom (10%) fed on carcasses. Spatial and temporal patterns of visits to carcasses were consistent with the hypothesis that foxes avoid wild dogs. Wild dog activity peaked at carcasses 2 and 3 km from farms, a likely legacy of wild dog control, whereas fox activity peaked at carcasses 0 and 4 km from farms. Wild dog activity peaked at dawn and dusk, whereas nearly all fox activity occurred after dusk and before dawn. Neither wild dogs nor foxes remained at carcasses for long periods and the amount of feeding activity by either species was a less important predictor of the loss of edible biomass than season. Reasons for the low impacts of wild dogs and foxes on sambar deer carcass biomass include the spatially and temporally unpredictable distribution of carcasses in the landscape, the rapid rate of edible biomass decomposition in warm periods, low wild dog densities and the availability of alternative food resources. PMID:24918425

  3. How does a carnivore guild utilise a substantial but unpredictable anthropogenic food source? Scavenging on hunter-shot ungulate carcasses by wild dogs/dingoes, red foxes and feral cats in south-eastern Australia revealed by camera traps.

    PubMed

    Forsyth, David M; Woodford, Luke; Moloney, Paul D; Hampton, Jordan O; Woolnough, Andrew P; Tucker, Mark

    2014-01-01

    There is much interest in understanding how anthropogenic food resources subsidise carnivore populations. Carcasses of hunter-shot ungulates are a potentially substantial food source for mammalian carnivores. The sambar deer (Rusa unicolor) is a large (≥ 150 kg) exotic ungulate that can be hunted throughout the year in south-eastern Australia, and hunters are not required to remove or bury carcasses. We investigated how wild dogs/dingoes and their hybrids (Canis lupus familiaris/dingo), red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and feral cats (Felis catus) utilised sambar deer carcasses during the peak hunting seasons (i.e. winter and spring). We placed carcasses at 1-km intervals along each of six transects that extended 4-km into forest from farm boundaries. Visits to carcasses were monitored using camera traps, and the rate of change in edible biomass estimated at ∼ 14-day intervals. Wild dogs and foxes fed on 70% and 60% of 30 carcasses, respectively, but feral cats seldom (10%) fed on carcasses. Spatial and temporal patterns of visits to carcasses were consistent with the hypothesis that foxes avoid wild dogs. Wild dog activity peaked at carcasses 2 and 3 km from farms, a likely legacy of wild dog control, whereas fox activity peaked at carcasses 0 and 4 km from farms. Wild dog activity peaked at dawn and dusk, whereas nearly all fox activity occurred after dusk and before dawn. Neither wild dogs nor foxes remained at carcasses for long periods and the amount of feeding activity by either species was a less important predictor of the loss of edible biomass than season. Reasons for the low impacts of wild dogs and foxes on sambar deer carcass biomass include the spatially and temporally unpredictable distribution of carcasses in the landscape, the rapid rate of edible biomass decomposition in warm periods, low wild dog densities and the availability of alternative food resources. PMID:24918425

  4. Utilising HVDC to damp power oscillations

    SciTech Connect

    Smed, T.; Andersson, G. . Dept. of Electric Power Systems)

    1993-04-01

    In this paper, damping of slow oscillations with active and reactive power modulation of HVDC-links is analyzed with the aim of gaining a physical insight into the problem. The analysis shows that active power modulation is efficient when applied to a short mass-scaled electrical distance from one of the swinging machines, and reactive power modulation is most efficient when there exists a well-defined power flow direction and the modulation is made at a point close to the electrical midpoint between the swinging machines. It is shown that the intuitively appealing feedback signals frequency and derivative of the voltage are appropriate for active and reactive power modulation, respectively. The impact of the constraints imposed by the HVDC equations are analyzed, and it is determined when the implicit reactive power modulation resulting from constant [gamma] control may be detrimental for the damping.

  5. Utilisation of British University Research Reactors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncton, P. J.; And Others

    British experience relating to the employment of university research reactors and subcritical assemblies in the education of nuclear scientists and technologists, in the training of reactor operators and for fundamental pure and applied research in this field is reviewed. The facilities available in a number of British universities and the uses…

  6. Microbial utilisation of natural organic wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilyin, V. K.; Smirnov, I. A.; Soldatov, P. E.; Korniushenkova, I. N.; Grinin, A. S.; Lykov, I. N.; Safronova, S. A.

    2004-03-01

    The waste management strategy for the future should meet the benefits of humanity safety, respect principals of planet ecology, and compatibility with other habitability systems. For these purpose the waste management technologies, relevant to application of the biodegradation properties of bacteria are of great value. The biological treatment method is based upon the biodegradation of organic substances by various microorganisms. The advantage of the biodegradation waste management in general: it allows to diminish the volume of organic wastes, the biological hazard of the wastes is controlled and this system may be compatible with the other systems. The objectives of our study were: to evaluate effectiveness of microbial biodegradation of non-pretreated substrate, to construct phneumoautomatic digester for organic wastes biodegradation and to study microbial characteristics of active sludge samples used as inoculi in biodegradation experiment. The technology of vegetable wastes treatment was elaborated in IBMP and BMSTU. For this purpose the special unit was created where the degradation process is activated by enforced reinvention of portions of elaborated biogas into digester. This technology allows to save energy normally used for electromechanical agitation and to create optimal environment for anaerobic bacteria growth. The investigations were performed on waste simulator, which imitates physical and chemical content of food wastes calculated basing on the data on food wastes of moderate Russian city. The volume of created experimental sample of digester is 40 l. The basic system elements of device are digesters, gas receiver, remover of drops and valve monitoring and thermal control system. In our testing we used natural food wastes to measure basic parameters and time of biodegradation process. The diminution rate of organic gained 76% from initial mass taking part within 9 days of fermentation. The biogas production achieved 46 l per 1 kg of substrate. The microbial studies of biodegradation process revealed following peculiarities: gradual quantitative increasing of Lactobacillus sp. (from 10 3 to 10 5 colony forming units (CFU) per ml), activation of Clostridia sp. (from 10 2 to 10 4 CFU/ml) and elimination of aerobic conventional pathogens ( Enterobacteriaceae sp., Protea sp., staphylococci). The obtained results allow to evaluate effectiveness of proposed technology and to determine the leading role of lactobacilli and clostridia in process of natural wastes biodegradation. Our further investigations shall further be concentrated on creation of artificial inoculi for launching of food wastes biodegradation. These inoculi will include active and adapted strains of clostridia and lactobacilli.

  7. Fracture sealing utilising microbially induced carbonate precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moir, H.; El Mountassir, G.; Lunn, R. J.; Gilfillan, L. J.

    2011-12-01

    Predicting and controlling spatial and temporal variations in fracture flow properties is of considerable importance to the nuclear waste disposal, carbon capture and storage, and hydrocarbon industries. Fractures and faults provide pathways which may allow the migration of contaminants from depth to the surface. The hydraulic properties of fractures are governed by the interactions between the evolving stress field and the continuous precipitation and dissolution of minerals transported via subsurface fluids. Fractures may be subject to multiple mineralisation episodes, between which they may seal completely before being subject to further shear failure or they may remain open pathways for fluid flow and contaminant transport. We investigate experimentally the spatial and temporal evolution of carbonate precipitation in fractures. We use microbially mediated reactions to reproduce precipitation events similar to those that may be found in fractured rocks. A series of laboratory experiments was carried out using transparent idealised fracture networks to investigate how repeated carbonate precipitation events result in spatial and temporal evolution of the fracture aperture distribution. Both staged and continuous flow experiments were carried out and the effect of chemical and bacterial concentrations were explored to find the most efficient test procedure. Fractures were represented as a series of precision-etched parallel channels between a pair of sealed Perspex plates. Multiple channels were designed to maintain a constant flow rate, whilst independently adjusting channel aperture and width to explore the effects of aperture and fluid velocity on biomineral precipitation. The results from these experiments show that both velocity and aperture have important effects on precipitation patterns and rates. For a given flow rate, narrow aperture channels exhibit increased precipitation. Within wide fractures, the pattern of precipitation over time is such that flow is focussed along a gradually decreasing number of discrete tortuous channels (within the fracture plane). Experiments also show that above a certain threshold velocity, precipitation can no longer occur. As a consequence, once the number and aperture of channels within a fracture plane is sufficiently small, the fluid velocity exceeds this threshold and a steady state is achieved i.e. no further precipitation occurs. These experiments have important consequences for understanding fluid flow and contaminant migration within the crust. They imply that, for bio-mineral processes at least, after each mechanical failure of the crust, regional fracture networks may gradually reduce to form a small number of discrete stable pathways within which the velocity exceeds a given threshold value that prohibits further mineralisation.

  8. Lunar transportation scenarios utilising the Space Elevator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel, Kilian A.

    2005-07-01

    The Space Elevator (SE) concept has begun to receive an increasing amount of attention within the space community over the past couple of years and is no longer widely dismissed as pure science fiction. In light of the renewed interest in a, possibly sustained, human presence on the Moon and the fact that transportation and logistics form the bottleneck of many conceivable lunar missions, it is interesting to investigate what role the SE could eventually play in implementing an efficient Earth to Moon transportation system. The elevator allows vehicles to ascend from Earth and be injected into a trans-lunar trajectory without the use of chemical thrusters, thus eliminating gravity loss, aerodynamic loss and the need of high thrust multistage launch systems. Such a system therefore promises substantial savings of propellant and structural mass and could greatly increase the efficiency of Earth to Moon transportation. This paper analyzes different elevator-based trans-lunar transportation scenarios and characterizes them in terms of a number of benchmark figures. The transportation scenarios include direct elevator-launched trans-lunar trajectories, elevator-launched trajectories via L1 and L2, as well as launch from an Earth-based elevator and subsequent rendezvous with lunar elevators placed either on the near or on the far side of the Moon. The benchmark figures by which the different transfer options are characterized and evaluated include release radius (RR), required Δv, transfer times as well as other factors such as accessibility of different lunar latitudes, frequency of launch opportunities and mission complexity. The performances of the different lunar transfer options are compared with each other as well as with the performance of conventional mission concepts, represented by Apollo.

  9. Lunar transportation scenarios utilising the Space Elevator.

    PubMed

    Engel, Kilian A

    2005-01-01

    The Space Elevator (SE) concept has begun to receive an increasing amount of attention within the space community over the past couple of years and is no longer widely dismissed as pure science fiction. In light of the renewed interest in a, possibly sustained, human presence on the Moon and the fact that transportation and logistics form the bottleneck of many conceivable lunar missions, it is interesting to investigate what role the SE could eventually play in implementing an efficient Earth to Moon transportation system. The elevator allows vehicles to ascend from Earth and be injected into a trans-lunar trajectory without the use of chemical thrusters, thus eliminating gravity loss, aerodynamic loss and the need of high thrust multistage launch systems. Such a system therefore promises substantial savings of propellant and structural mass and could greatly increase the efficiency of Earth to Moon transportation. This paper analyzes different elevator-based trans-lunar transportation scenarios and characterizes them in terms of a number of benchmark figures. The transportation scenarios include direct elevator-launched trans-lunar trajectories, elevator launched trajectories via L1 and L2, as well as launch from an Earth-based elevator and subsequent rendezvous with lunar elevators placed either on the near or on the far side of the Moon. The benchmark figures by which the different transfer options are characterized and evaluated include release radius (RR), required delta v, transfer times as well as other factors such as accessibility of different lunar latitudes, frequency of launch opportunities and mission complexity. The performances of the different lunar transfer options are compared with each other as well as with the performance of conventional mission concepts, represented by Apollo. PMID:16010760

  10. Possibilities and limitations of wind energy utilisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feustel, J.

    1981-10-01

    The existing wind resource, the most favorable locations, applications, and designs of windpowered generators are reviewed, along with descriptions of current and historic wind turbines and lines of research. Coastal regions, plains, hill summits, and mountains with funneling regions are noted to have the highest annual wind averages, with energy densities exceeding the annual solar insolation at average wind speeds of 5-7.9 m/sec. Applications for utility-grade power production, for irrigation, for mechanical heat production, and for pumped storage in water towers or reservoirs are mentioned, as well as electrical power production in remote areas and for hydrogen production by electrolysis. Power coefficients are discussed, with attention given to the German Growian 3 MW machine. It is shown that the least economically sound wind turbines, the machines with outputs below 100 kW, can vie with diesel plant economics in a good wind regime if the wind turbine operates for 15 yr.

  11. Measurement of 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG) in mouse brain by h.p.l.c. with electrochemical detection, as an index of noradrenaline utilisation and presynaptic alpha 2-adrenoceptor function.

    PubMed Central

    Heal, D. J.; Prow, M. R.; Buckett, W. R.

    1989-01-01

    54 524; 1 and 3 mg kg-1) and amitryptyline (5 mg kg-1). However, the selective 5-hydroxytryptamine reuptake inhibitor, zimeldine (5 and 10 mg kg-1), was without effect. Dexamphetamine (1 and 5 mg kg-1) and methamphetamine (1 and 5 mg kg-1) both decreased brain MHPG concentrations in a dose-related fashion. 6. Overall the data show that MHPG can be used as a functional index of both presynaptic alpha 2-adrenoceptor activity and noradrenaline turnover and utilisation. PMID:2541844

  12. Expanding access to high-cost medicines through the E2 access program in Thailand: effects on utilisation, health outcomes and cost using an interrupted time-series analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sruamsiri, Rosarin; Wagner, Anita K; Ross-Degnan, Dennis; Lu, Christine Y; Dhippayom, Teerapon; Ngorsuraches, Surachat; Chaiyakunapruk, Nathorn

    2016-01-01

    Objective In 2008, the Thai government introduced the ‘high-cost medicines E2 access program’ as a part of the National List of Essential Medicines to increase patient access to medicines, improve clinical outcomes and make medicines more affordable. Our objective was to examine whether the ‘high-cost medicines E2 access program’ achieved its goals. Design Interrupted time-series design study. Setting 3 tertiary hospitals in different regions of Thailand, January 2006 to December 2012. Participants Patients with target acute and chronic disease diagnoses who newly met E2 program criteria for selected study medicines. Intervention High-cost medicines E2 access program. Main outcomes measures Level and trend changes over time in the proportions of eligible patients who received the indicated E2 medicines and who improved clinically, as well as in costs of treatment. Results A total of 2024 patients were included in utilisation analyses and 1375 patients with selected acute diseases contributed to analyses of clinical outcome. After 1 year of the E2 program implementation, the percentage of eligible patients receiving the indicated E2 program medicines increased significantly (relative change 12.7% (95% CI 4.4% to 21.0%), especially among those insured by the government's universal coverage scheme (relative change 19.9% (95% CI 9.5% to 30.5%)). The increase in the proportion of clinically improved patients with acute conditions was not significant (relative change 6.2% (95% CI −1.9% to 15.1%)). Quarterly healthcare costs per patient dropped significantly (relative change −13.5% (95% CI −26.9% to −1.7%)). Conclusions In the study hospitals, the E2 access program seems to have facilitated patient access to specialty medicines, may have contributed to improved health outcomes, and decreased treatment costs. Routine monitoring is needed to assess effects of expanding the programme, including effects on quality of care and financial sustainability. PMID

  13. Etude, par principes premiers, des effets de la correlation entre electrons sur les proprietes electroniques et magnetiques de polymeres pontes et de supraconducteurs a haute temperature critique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pesant, Simon

    Description of complex systems by Density functional theory is treated in this thesis. First, the Density functional theory and a few functionals used to simulate cristals are presented. Specifically, the LDA and GGA functionnals are described and their limits are exposed. Furthermore, the Hubbard model as well as the LDA+U functionnal are addressed in this chapter. These methods enable the study of highly correlated materials. Then, results obtained on polymers are summarized in two articles. The first one treats the band gap variation of ladder-type polymers compared to non ladder type ones. The second article considers small band gap polymers. In this case, it will be shown that an hybrid functional, which contains exact exchange, is required to describe the electronic properties of the polymers under study. Finally, the last chapter address the study of cuprates superconductors. The LDA+U can account for the localization of electrons in copper orbitals. Consequently, a study of the impact of this functionnal on electronic properties of cuprates is conducted. The chapter is ended by an article treating magnetic orders in doped La 2CuO4. Supplementary materials of the second article and a description of the theory of superconductivity of Bardeen, Cooper and Schrieffer are put in annex. Keywords : Electronic correlation, DFT, LDA+U, cuprates, polymers, magnetic orders

  14. Problématique de l'utilisation des Moustiquaires Imprégnées d'insecticide à Longue Durée (MILD) chez les enfants de moins de 5 ans en République Démocratique du Congo

    PubMed Central

    Philippe, Cilundika Mulenga; Odile, Nyota Nsenga; Numbi, Oscar Luboya

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Le paludisme est une maladie parasitaire à transmission vectorielle qui constitue un problème majeur de santé publique dans les pays tropicaux, particulièrement les pays de l'Afrique Subsaharienne. La présente étude avait pour objectif d'identifier le niveau d'utilisation de la MILD chez les enfants de moins de 5 ans dans la zone de santé de Mumbunda. Méthodes L’étude, de type transversal, a été mené du 25 au 27 octobre 2013 et a porté sur un échantillon de 410 ménages tirés au hasard et ayant au moins un enfant de moins de 5 ans. Résultats Parmi les ménages qui avaient déclaré possédaient la MILD 13,1% (n=54) des répondant avaient déclaré les utilisé chez les enfants de moins de 5ans et 80,2% pour tout le monde. Dans 22,0% des cas, les répondants ont évoqué le manque d'argent comme motif de la non possession de la MILD. Les répondants savaient déclarer à 79,8% avoir utilisé la MILD pour se protéger contre la malaria et à 66,3% pour se protéger contre les piqures des moustiques. La MILD a été étalée à l'ombre pendant 24h avant d’être utilisée pour la première fois par 77,9% des ménages. Les répondants avaient déclaré à 15,3% (n=63) avoir reçu les conseils par les médias pour l'usage de la moustiquaire. Et le personnel médical était la source la plus importante pour expliquer le mode d'emploi de la MILD pour 51,2% des ménages. Conclusion La réussite pour faire reculer le paludisme doit nécessairement passer par la prévention, le suivi et l’évaluation de l'utilisation des moustiquaires imprégnées au niveau de la zone de santé de Mumbunda. PMID:27222690

  15. An evaluation of the environmental fate and behavior of munitions materiel (Tetryl and polar metabolites of TNT) in soil and plant systems. Environmental fate and behavior of tetryl

    SciTech Connect

    Fellows, R.J.; Harvey, S.D.; Cataldo, D.A.

    1993-09-01

    The objective of the present studies was to elucidate the environmental behavior and fate of 2,4,6trintrophenylmethylnitramine (tetryl) in the soil/plant system in three different types of soils incubated for 60 days. No tetryl was detectable after 11 days; most of the radiolabel was associated with non-extractable soil components and four transformation products appeared rapidly, of which two were identified as N-methyl-2,4,6-trintroaniline and N-methyl-aminodinitroaniline isomer. Short-term hydroponic studies indicated no significant difference in uptake rates for the three plant species employed. Kinetic studies indicated that plants have a high affinity and capacity for absorbing tetryl. Partitioning patterns indicated that the root is the major accumulation site for tetryl. Chemical fractionation and analyses of tissues showed rapid metabolism of tetryl in tissues of all species, which proceeded toward more polar metabolic products. Plant maturity studies indicated significant differences in the total relative uptake of tetryl by all three plant species based on soil type.

  16. The Virtual Lecture Hall: Utilisation, Effectiveness and Student Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cramer, Kenneth M.; Collins, Kandice R.; Snider, Don; Fawcett, Graham

    2007-01-01

    We presently introduce the Virtual Lecture Hall (VLH), an instructional computer-based platform for delivering Microsoft PowerPoint slides threaded with audio clips for later review. There were 839 male and female university students enrolled in an introductory psychology class who had access to review class lectures via the VLH. This tool was…

  17. Intrication de deux atomes en utilisant le blocage de Rydberg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaëtan, A.

    2010-12-01

    Considérons un système quantique constitué de deux sous-systèmes : on dit qu'il est dans un état intriqué s'il existe des corrélations quantiques entre les états de ces derniers. La compréhension et la mise en œuvre d'états intriqués ont de nombreuses applications (métrologie quantique, étude des systèmes fortement corrélés, traitement quantique de l'information, etc.) et constituent le contexte général de ce travail de thèse. Plus en détail, nous démontrons la réalisation d'un état intriqué de deux atomes neutres piégés indépendamment. Pour cela, nous exploitons le phénomène de blocage de Rydberg : lorsqu'on essaie d'exciter simultanément deux atomes séparés de quelques micromètres vers un état de Rydberg donné, la forte interaction entre atomes de Rydberg peut empêcher cette excitation simultanée. Dans ce cas, seul un des deux atomes est excité et l'on génère ainsi des corrélations quantiques entre les états des deux atomes, c'est-à-dire de l'intrication. Dans notre expérience, deux atomes de 87Rb dans l'état fondamental 5S1/2 sont piégés chacun dans une pince optique microscopique, à une distance relative de 4 micromètres. En réalisant des transitions entre l'état 5S1/2 et l'état de Rydberg 58D3/2 par des transitions à deux photons, nous obtenons un état intriqué des deux atomes dans les sous-niveaux |5S1/2, f = 1, mf = 1> et |5S1/2, f = 2, mf = 2>. Afin de quantifier l'intrication, nous mesurons la fidélité par rapport à l'état-cible en réalisant des transitions Raman entre ces deux sous-niveaux. La fidélité des paires d'atomes présentes à la fin de l'expérience est supérieure à la valeur seuil de 0,5, ce qui prouve la création d'un état intriqué.

  18. Adaptive dynamic FBG interrogation utilising erbium-doped fibre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    John, R. N.; Read, I.; MacPherson, W. N.

    2013-04-01

    A dynamic fibre Bragg grating interrogation scheme is investigated using two-wave mixing in erbium-doped fibre, capable of adapting to quasistatic strain and temperature drifts. An interference pattern set up in the erbium-doped fibre creates, due to the photorefractive effect, a dynamic grating capable of wavelength demodulating the FBG signal. The presence of a dynamic grating was verified and then dynamic strain signals from a fibre stretcher were measured. The adaptive nature of the technique was successfully demonstrated by heating the FBG while it underwent dynamic straining leading to detection unlike an alternative arrayed waveguide grating system which simultaneously failed detection. Two gratings were then wavelength division multiplexed with the signal grating receiving approximately 30dB greater signal showing that there was little cross talk in the system.

  19. Six Key Topics for Automated Assessment Utilisation and Acceptance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiners, Torsten; Dreher, Carl; Dreher, Heinz

    2011-01-01

    Automated assessment technologies have been used in education for decades (e.g., computerised multiple choice tests). In contrast, Automated Essay Grading (AEG) technologies: have existed for decades; are "good in theory" (e.g., as accurate as humans, temporally and financially efficient, and can enhance formative feedback), and yet; are…

  20. Counselling Services Utilisation in a Malaysia Private University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yin-Fah, Benjamin Chan; Sok-Foon, Yeoh; Migin, Melissa W.

    2016-01-01

    University can be an exciting yet challenging transition for students. Many universities provide counselling services to students who need it during their tertiary studies but many students tend to avoid counselling. This study was conducted to identify the counselling service experience among undergraduate students. The emphasis was on the past…

  1. Synthesis and utilisation of graphene for fabrication of electrochemical sensors.

    PubMed

    Lawal, Abdulazeez T

    2015-01-01

    This review summarises the most recent contributions in the fabrication of graphene-based electrochemical biosensors in recent years. It discusses the synthesis and application of graphene to the fabrication of graphene-based electrochemical sensors, its analytical performance and future prospects. An increasing number of reviews and publications involving graphene sensors have been reported ever since the first design of graphene electrochemical biosensor. The large surface area and good electrical conductivity of graphene allow it to act as an "electron wire" between the redox centres of an enzyme or protein and an electrode's surface, which make it a very excellent material for the design of electrochemical biosensors. Graphene promotes the different rapid electron transfers that facilitate accurate and selective detection of cytochrome-c, β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, haemoglobin, biomolecules such as glucose, cholesterol, ascorbic acid, uric acid, dopamine and hydrogen peroxide. PMID:25281124

  2. Utilising PEARL to Teach Indigenous Art History: A Canadian Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the concepts advanced from the Australian Learning and Teaching Council (ALTC)-funded project, "Exploring Problem-Based Learning pedagogy as transformative education in Indigenous Australian Studies". As an Indigenous art historian teaching at a mainstream university in Canada, I am constantly reflecting on how to better…

  3. Interspecific utilisation of wax in comb building by honeybees.

    PubMed

    Hepburn, H Randall; Radloff, Sarah E; Duangphakdee, Orawan; Phaincharoen, Mananya

    2009-06-01

    Beeswaxes of honeybee species share some homologous neutral lipids; but species-specific differences remain. We analysed behavioural variation for wax choice in honeybees, calculated the Euclidean distances for different beeswaxes and assessed the relationship of Euclidean distances to wax choice. We tested the beeswaxes of Apis mellifera capensis, Apis florea, Apis cerana and Apis dorsata and the plant and mineral waxes Japan, candelilla, bayberry and ozokerite as sheets placed in colonies of A. m. capensis, A. florea and A. cerana. A. m. capensis accepted the four beeswaxes but removed Japan and bayberry wax and ignored candelilla and ozokerite. A. cerana colonies accepted the wax of A. cerana, A. florea and A. dorsata but rejected or ignored that of A. m. capensis, the plant and mineral waxes. A. florea colonies accepted A. cerana, A. dorsata and A. florea wax but rejected that of A. m. capensis. The Euclidean distances for the beeswaxes are consistent with currently prevailing phylogenies for Apis. Despite post-speciation chemical differences in the beeswaxes, they remain largely acceptable interspecifically while the plant and mineral waxes are not chemically close enough to beeswax for their acceptance. PMID:19259641

  4. The ESA standard for telemetry and telecommand packet utilisation: PUS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufeler, Jean-Francois

    1994-11-01

    ESA has developed standards for packet telemetry and telecommand, which are derived from the recommendations of the Inter-Agency Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS). These standards are now mandatory for future ESA programs as well as for many programs currently under development. However, while these packet standards address the end-to-end transfer of telemetry and telecommand data between applications on the ground and Application Processes on-board, they leave open the internal structure or content of the packets. This paper presents the ESA Packet Utilization Standard (PUS) which addresses this very subject and, as such, serves to extend and complement the ESA packet standards. The goal of the PUS is to be applicable to future ESA missions in all application areas (Telecommunications, Science, Earth Resources, microgravity, etc.). The production of the PUS falls under the responsibility of the ESA Committee for Operations and EGSE Standards (COES).

  5. Packet utilisation definitions for the ESA XMM mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nye, H. R.

    1994-11-01

    XMM, ESA's X-Ray Multi-Mirror satellite, due for launch at the end of 1999 will be the first ESA scientific spacecraft to implement the ESA packet telecommand and telemetry standards and will be the first ESOC-controlled science mission to take advantage of the new flight control system infrastructure development (based on object-oriented design and distributed-system architecture) due for deployment in 1995. The implementation of the packet standards is well defined at packet transport level. However, the standard relevant to the application level (the ESA Packet Utilization Standard) covers a wide range of on-board 'services' applicable in varying degrees to the needs of XMM. In defining which parts of the ESA PUS to implement, the XMM project first considered the mission objectives and the derived operations concept and went on to identify a minimum set of packet definitions compatible with these aspects. This paper sets the scene as above and then describes the services needed for XMM and the telecommand and telemetry packet types necessary to support each service.

  6. Silica Waste Utilisation Phase II - Preliminary Laboratory Results

    SciTech Connect

    Lund, J.W.; Boyd, T.L.

    1995-01-01

    A second phase of laboratory testing is being performed on waste silica from the Cerro Prieto geothermal field in Mexico. The main objective is to produce mixes of various combinations of hydrated lime, portland cement, and plastic fibers with the waste silica from disposal ponds to determine their suitability for use as insulating bricks in low cost housing. Silica-cement mixtures appear to have the highest flexural strength and resistance to weathering. Silica-lime mixtures appear to have the best insulating properties (lowest thermal conductivity). The addition of plastic fibers to the silica-lime mixture appears to improve both strength and weather resistance. Work is still in progress and will be completed in 1996 with the construction of various test walls in the Mexicali, Mexico area.

  7. [Prevalence and utilisation of health promotion in German enterprises].

    PubMed

    Beck, D; Schnabel, P-E

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of health promotion in German enterprises, differentiated by size, sector, and the companies' business situations. Representative data were analysed from the survey of working conditions in Germany (n=20,000) that was conducted by the Federal Institute for Vocational Education and Training (BIBB) and the Federal Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (BAuA). Thirty-eight percent of interviewed employees confirmed that health promotion activities had been carried out in their company during the last two years. The prevalence varied significantly, depending on the company's size, sector, and business situation. In cases of implementation, a higher percentage of employees participated in micro and small companies than in medium-sized or large companies. With respect to the implementation of health promotion, more advice and support are needed, particularly in micro and small enterprises. There is still a need for health promotion activities which meet the special needs of micro and small enterprises. Furthermore there is still a need to invest in an infrastructure which allows their adequate supply. PMID:19551626

  8. Utilising proteomic approaches to understand oncogenic human herpesviruses (Review)

    PubMed Central

    OWEN, CHRISTOPHER B.; HUGHES, DAVID J.; BAQUERO-PEREZ, BELINDA; BERNDT, ANJA; SCHUMANN, SOPHIE; JACKSON, BRIAN R.; WHITEHOUSE, ADRIAN

    2014-01-01

    The γ-herpesviruses Epstein-Barr virus and Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus are successful pathogens, each infecting a large proportion of the human population. These viruses persist for the life of the host and may each contribute to a number of malignancies, for which there are currently no cures. Large-scale proteomic-based approaches provide an excellent means of increasing the collective understanding of the proteomes of these complex viruses and elucidating their numerous interactions within the infected host cell. These large-scale studies are important for the identification of the intricacies of viral infection and the development of novel therapeutics against these two important pathogens. PMID:25279171

  9. Interspecific utilisation of wax in comb building by honeybees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hepburn, H. Randall; Radloff, Sarah E.; Duangphakdee, Orawan; Phaincharoen, Mananya

    2009-06-01

    Beeswaxes of honeybee species share some homologous neutral lipids; but species-specific differences remain. We analysed behavioural variation for wax choice in honeybees, calculated the Euclidean distances for different beeswaxes and assessed the relationship of Euclidean distances to wax choice. We tested the beeswaxes of Apis mellifera capensis, Apis florea, Apis cerana and Apis dorsata and the plant and mineral waxes Japan, candelilla, bayberry and ozokerite as sheets placed in colonies of A. m. capensis, A. florea and A. cerana. A. m. capensis accepted the four beeswaxes but removed Japan and bayberry wax and ignored candelilla and ozokerite. A. cerana colonies accepted the wax of A. cerana, A. florea and A. dorsata but rejected or ignored that of A. m. capensis, the plant and mineral waxes. A. florea colonies accepted A. cerana, A. dorsata and A. florea wax but rejected that of A. m. capensis. The Euclidean distances for the beeswaxes are consistent with currently prevailing phylogenies for Apis. Despite post-speciation chemical differences in the beeswaxes, they remain largely acceptable interspecifically while the plant and mineral waxes are not chemically close enough to beeswax for their acceptance.

  10. Utilising social media contents for flood inundation mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröter, Kai; Dransch, Doris; Fohringer, Joachim; Kreibich, Heidi

    2016-04-01

    Data about the hazard and its consequences are scarce and not readily available during and shortly after a disaster. An information source which should be explored in a more efficient way is eyewitness accounts via social media. This research presents a methodology that leverages social media content to support rapid inundation mapping, including inundation extent and water depth in the case of floods. It uses quantitative data that are estimated from photos extracted from social media posts and their integration with established data. Due to the rapid availability of these posts compared to traditional data sources such as remote sensing data, areas affected by a flood, for example, can be determined quickly. Key challenges are to filter the large number of posts to a manageable amount of potentially useful inundation-related information, and to interpret and integrate the posts into mapping procedures in a timely manner. We present a methodology and a tool ("PostDistiller") to filter geo-located posts from social media services which include links to photos and to further explore this spatial distributed contextualized in situ information for inundation mapping. The June 2013 flood in Dresden is used as an application case study in which we evaluate the utilization of this approach and compare the resulting spatial flood patterns and inundation depths to 'traditional' data sources and mapping approaches like water level observations and remote sensing flood masks. The outcomes of the application case are encouraging. Strengths of the proposed procedure are that information for the estimation of inundation depth is rapidly available, particularly in urban areas where it is of high interest and of great value because alternative information sources like remote sensing data analysis do not perform very well. The uncertainty of derived inundation depth data and the uncontrollable availability of the information sources are major threats to the utility of the approach.

  11. An early deployment strategy for carbon capture, utilisation, and storage

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, L.D.

    2012-11-01

    This report describes the current use of CO2 for EOR, and discusses potential expansion of EOR using CO2 from power plants. Analysis of potential EOR development in the USA, where most current CO2-based EOR production takes place, indicates that relatively low cost, traditional sources of CO2 for EOR (CO2 domes and CO2 from natural gas processing plants) are insufficient to exploit the full potential of EOR. To achieve that full potential will require use of CO2 from combustion and gasification systems, such as fossil fuel power plants, where capture of CO2 is more costly. The cost of current CCUS systems, even with the revenue stream for sale of the CO2 for EOR, is too high to result in broad deployment of the technology in the near term. In the longer term, research and development may be sufficient to reduce CO2 capture costs to a point where CCUS would be broadly deployed. This report describes a case study of conditions in the USA to explore a financial incentive to promote early deployment of CCUS, providing a range of immediate benefits to society, greater likelihood of reducing the long-term cost of CCUS, and greater likelihood of broad deployment of CCUS and CCS in the long term. Additionally, it may be possible to craft such an incentive in a manner that its cost is more than offset by taxes flowing from increased domestic oil production. An example of such an incentive is included in this report.

  12. Packet utilisation definitions for the ESA XMM mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nye, H. R.

    1994-01-01

    XMM, ESA's X-Ray Multi-Mirror satellite, due for launch at the end of 1999 will be the first ESA scientific spacecraft to implement the ESA packet telecommand and telemetry standards and will be the first ESOC-controlled science mission to take advantage of the new flight control system infrastructure development (based on object-oriented design and distributed-system architecture) due for deployment in 1995. The implementation of the packet standards is well defined at packet transport level. However, the standard relevant to the application level (the ESA Packet Utilization Standard) covers a wide range of on-board 'services' applicable in varying degrees to the needs of XMM. In defining which parts of the ESA PUS to implement, the XMM project first considered the mission objectives and the derived operations concept and went on to identify a minimum set of packet definitions compatible with these aspects. This paper sets the scene as above and then describes the services needed for XMM and the telecommand and telemetry packet types necessary to support each service.

  13. Diagnostic testing during pregnancy: a descriptive analysis of utilisation data.

    PubMed

    Rushworth, R L; Bell, S M; Rob, M I; Taylor, P T

    1994-12-01

    To describe patterns of diagnostic testing during the antenatal period and to assess the potential benefit of using Medicare claims data in monitoring testing practice, we examined the matched claims data (with identifying details removed) on approximately 10,000 women having a confinement for which a Medicare benefit was claimed between 1 July and 30 September 1990. The results showed that almost all the women included in the study sample had an ultrasound and blood group and antibody examination. A smaller proportion had serological tests for syphilis (77 per cent), rubella (51 per cent) and hepatitis B carriage (73 per cent). Two-thirds had urine microscopy and culture, and under half (40 per cent) had serum alpha-fetoprotein estimation. Few (18 per cent) had a claim processed for microscopy and culture of a genital swab and fewer than 8 per cent claimed for any other pathology tests. There were differences in the proportions having tests, depending on whether the clinician managing the confinement was a specialist obstetrician or a general practitioner, and depending on geographic area and age group. While the data do not represent all women having a confinement in New South Wales, the selective use of antenatal diagnostic tests found in this study is of considerable public health importance and analysis of claims data can provide useful information for health professionals. PMID:7536479

  14. Advances in understanding and utilising ELM control in JET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, I. T.; de la Luna, E.; Lang, P. T.; Liang, Y.; Alper, B.; Denner, P.; Frigione, D.; Garzotti, L.; Ham, C. J.; Huijsmans, G. T. A.; Jachmich, S.; Kocsis, G.; Lennholm, M.; Lupelli, I.; Rimini, F. G.; Sips, A. C. C.; Contributors, JET

    2016-01-01

    Edge localised mode (ELM) control may be essential to develop ITER scenarios with a reasonable lifetime of divertor components, whilst ELM pacing may be essential to develop stationary ITER scenarios with a tungsten divertor. Resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) have mitigated ELMs in high collisionality plasmas in JET. The efficacy of RMPs in mitigating the ELMs is found to depend on plasma shaping, with the change in magnetic boundary achieved when non-axisymmetric fields are applied facilitating access to small ELM regimes. The understanding of ELM pacing by vertical kicks or pellets has also been improved in a range of pedestal conditions in JET ({{T}\\text{ped}}=0.7 –1.3 keV) encompassing the ITER-expected domain ({β\\text{N}}=1.4 –2.4, H 98(y, 2)  =  0.8–1.2, {{f}\\text{GW}}∼ 0.7 ). ELM triggering is reliable provided the perturbation is above a threshold which depends on pedestal parameters. ELM triggering is achieved even in the first 10% of the natural ELM cycle suggesting no inherent maximum frequency. At high normalised pressure, the peeling-ballooning modes are stabilised as predicted by ELITE, necessitating a larger perturbation from either kicks or pellets in order to trigger ELMs. Both kicks and pellets have been used to pace ELMs for tungsten flushing. This has allowed stationary plasma conditions with low gas injection in plasmas where the natural ELM frequency is such that it would normally preclude stationary conditions.

  15. Paediatric emergency department utilisation: is it necessary an educational intervention?

    PubMed

    De Tina, Annalisa; Quattrin, Rosanna; Montina, Laura; Brusaferro, Silvio

    2014-01-01

    Over the past ten years there has been a progressive increase in accesses to services for paediatric emergency room, documented in Italy and abroad. The aim of the study is describe the sociodemographic, cultural, subjective and objective factors for non-urgent access to paediatric emergency service in an Italian region. It was adopted a descriptive survey of a sample of non-urgent accesses to two paediatric emergency room services in an Italian region during the period from February-March 2009, through the administration of questionnaires and the consultation of facilities databases. Half of the accesses to the paediatric emergency room are not urgent and are to be referred to the paediatric primary care. 80% of the users do not call for advice before coming to the emergency room. The convenience of the service, which accounts for more than 50% of the case, and the proximity from home are reasons to go to the emergency room. Approximately half of the accesses to the paediatric emergency department could be managed by primary care services. The convenience of the service, the self-referred and the proximity to home are emerging as the only influential factors reported by literature. In the future it should become crucial providing strategies for education/health information focused on non-urgent paediatric problems and offering people a call center phone service in order to filter and prevent the inappropriate accesses. PMID:25008221

  16. Possibilities of municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash utilisation.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Silvie; Koval, Lukáš; Škrobánková, Hana; Matýsek, Dalibor; Winter, Franz; Purgar, Amon

    2015-08-01

    Properties of the waste treatment residual fly ash generated from municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash were investigated in this study. Six different mortar blends with the addition of the municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash were evaluated. The Portland cement replacement levels of the municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash used were 25%, 30% and 50%. Both, raw and washed municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash samples were examined. According to the mineralogical composition measurements, a 22.6% increase in the pozzolanic/hydraulic properties was observed for the washed municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash sample. The maximum replacement level of 25% for the washed municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash in mortar blends was established in order to preserve the compressive strength properties. Moreover, the leaching characteristics of the crushed mortar blend was analysed in order to examine the immobilisation of its hazardous contents. PMID:26060198

  17. Utilisation of biochar and superabsorbent polymers for soil amendment.

    PubMed

    Ekebafe, M O; Ekebafe, L O; Maliki, M

    2013-01-01

    The application of superabsorbent polymers (SAPs) and/or biochars to stressed lands offer solutions to several critical ecological, energy and economic challenges posed by degraded lands due to human activities. These substances are like, 'artificial humus' as they are hydrophilic and contain carboxylic groups (SAPs) which enable them to bind cations and water and sequester carbon from air to reverse global warming (biochars). Several research studies using these substances point to their ability to increase the plant-available water in the soil which enables the plants to survive longer with water shortage, increase soil fertility and agricultural yields, improve soil structure, aeration and water penetration, reduce use of synthetic fertilisers and pesticides, reduce nitrous oxide and methane emission from soil, reduce nitrate and farm chemicals leaching into watersheds, convert green and brown wastes into valuable resources, and reduce the evapotranspiration rate of the plants. SAPs and biochars induce a significantly higher growth rate in plants; they bind heavy metals and mitigate their action on plants as well as mitigate the effects of salinity. This paper reviews what is known about these claims and considers the wider environmental implications of the adoption of these processess. The intention is not just to summarise the current knowledge but also to identify gaps that require further research. PMID:23738439

  18. Proposing an Integrated Research Framework for Connectivism: Utilising Theoretical Synergies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boitshwarelo, Bopelo

    2011-01-01

    Connectivism is receiving acknowledgement as a fresh way of conceptualising learning in the digital age. Thus, as a relatively new instructional framework, it is imperative that research on its applicability and effectiveness in a variety of educational contexts is advanced. In particular, a high premium should be placed on context-specific…

  19. Spin-on-carbon hard masks utilising fullerene derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Alan G.; Frommhold, Andreas; Lada, Tom; Bowen, J.; el Otell, Z.; Robinson, Alex P. G.

    2016-03-01

    We have developed a range of fullerene containing materials for use as organic hard masks. Recent advances in material development are reported together with some results from external evaluations of the original HM100 series. Initial results for the new HM340-383-010 formulation show it to have a high thermal stability (~5.5 % mass loss at 400°C) and a very high carbon content (at 95.3%), offering high etch durability.

  20. Economic and environmental benefits of landfill gas utilisation in Oman.

    PubMed

    Abushammala, Mohammed Fm; Qazi, Wajeeha A; Azam, Mohammed-Hasham; Mehmood, Umais A; Al-Mufragi, Ghithaa A; Alrawahi, Noor-Alhuda

    2016-08-01

    Municipal solid waste disposed in landfill sites decomposes under anaerobic conditions and produces so-called landfill-gas, which contains 30%-40% of carbon dioxide (CO2) and 50%-60% of methane (CH4). Methane has the potential of causing global warming 25 times more than CO2 Therefore, migration of landfill-gas from landfills to the surrounding environment can potentially affect human life and environment. Thus, this research aims to determine municipal solid waste generation in Oman over the years 1971-2030, to quantify annual CH4 emissions inventory that resulted from this waste over the same period of time, and to determine the economic and environmental benefits of capturing the CH4 gas for energy production. It is found that cumulative municipal solid waste landfilled in Oman reaches 3089 Giga gram (Gg) in the year 2030, of which approximately 85 Gg of CH4 emissions are produced in the year 2030. The study also found that capturing CH4 emissions between the years 2016 and 2030 could attract revenues of up to US$333 million and US$291 million from the carbon reduction and electricity generation, simultaneously. It is concluded that CH4 emissions from solid waste in Oman increases enormously with time, and capture of this gas for energy production could provide a sustainable waste management solution in Oman. PMID:26922087

  1. Utilising eduroam[TM] Architecture in Building Wireless Community Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huhtanen, Karri; Vatiainen, Heikki; Keski-Kasari, Sami; Harju, Jarmo

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: eduroam[TM] has already been proved to be a scalable, secure and feasible way for universities and research institutions to connect their wireless networks into a WLAN roaming community, but the advantages of eduroam[TM] have not yet been fully discovered in the wireless community networks aimed at regular consumers. This aim of this…

  2. Utilising polyphenylene oxide for high exposure solar UVA dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turnbull, D. J.; Schouten, P. W.

    2008-05-01

    A personal UV dosimeter that can quantitatively assess high exposure solar UVA exposures has been developed. The chemical polyphenylene oxide has been previously reported on its ability to measure high UVB exposures. This current research has found that polyphenylene oxide, cast in thin film form, is responsive to both the UVA and UVB parts of the solar spectrum. Further to this, the UVB wavelengths were filtered out with the use of mylar. This combined system responded to the UVA wavelengths only and underwent a change in optical absorbance as a result of UVA exposure. Preliminary results indicate that this UVA dosimeter saturates steadily when exposed to sunlight and can measure exposures of more than 20 MJ/m2 of solar UVA radiation with an uncertainty level of no more than ±5%.

  3. Managing the herbage utilisation and intake by cattle grazing rangelands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To be able to predict the performance of grazing cattle in extensive rangeland environments, herbage intake is paramount because it quantifies energy intake and performance. Nutrient demand of the animals is the major driver of herbage intake and characteristics of the sward dictate how this demand...

  4. The Utilisation of a School Self-Evaluation Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schildkamp, Kim; Visscher, Adrie

    2010-01-01

    School quality care has become important in many Western countries. Expectations are high, but little is known about the nature and extent of the use of self-evaluation instruments within schools. From this longitudinal study into the use of a Dutch school self-evaluation instrument, it became clear that schools vary in the extent to which they…

  5. Proteolysis of meat and bone meal to increase utilisation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Meat & bone meal (MBM) is the ground, dehydrated remainder of an animal after removal of the hide and meat. The majority of MBM is insoluble. Trypsin and Subtilisin were used to convert MBM to a soluble form. Sequential measurements were made on the soluble material: dried mass, equivalent prote...

  6. Optical scattering in muscle tissue and its utilisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaspar, Pavel; Prokopyeva, Elena; Tománek, Pavel; Grmela, Lubomír.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes optical scattering properties of muscle t issue, special traits, and the difficulties its composition causes. The pH of tissue and angle of the myofibrils relative to the incident light used as a probe changes the results of measurements. Distribution of colagen, as well as other substances that can be found in muscle tissue, also affect the outcome of any attempt to examine the sample via the means of optical analysis. Measurement results and scattering models are compared in effectiveness of characterization of the non-linear optical system that is muscle tissue for both medical use and food quality control, depending on the properties and composition of the tested sample.

  7. The resource utilisation of medically unexplained physical symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kimberley; Johnson, Malcolm H; Harris, Julie; Sundram, Frederick

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: As patients with medically unexplained physical symptoms may present frequently to hospital settings and receive potentially unnecessary investigations and treatments, we aimed to assess the frequency and type of medically unexplained physical symptoms presentations to clinical services and estimate the associated direct healthcare costs. Methods: This study was undertaken at the largest district health board in New Zealand. All patients with a diagnosed presentation of medically unexplained physical symptoms in 2013 were identified using the district health board’s clinical coding system. The clinical records (medical and psychiatric) of 49 patients were examined in detail to extricate all medically unexplained physical symptoms–related secondary care activity within 6 months before or after their medically unexplained physical symptoms presentation. Standardised national costing methodology was used to calculate the associated healthcare costs. Results: In all, 49% of patients attended hospital settings at least twice during 2013. The majority of presentations were for neurological or respiratory concerns. The total cost for the sample was GBP89,636 (median: GBP1,221). Costs were most significant in the areas of inpatient admissions and emergency care. Conclusion: Medically unexplained physical symptoms result in frequent presentations to hospital settings. The costs incurred are substantial and comparable to the costs of chronic medical conditions with identifiable pathology. Improving recognition and management of medically unexplained physical symptoms has potential to offer more appropriate and cost-effective healthcare outcomes.

  8. Performance of biofuel processes utilising separate lignin and carbohydrate processing.

    PubMed

    Melin, Kristian; Kohl, Thomas; Koskinen, Jukka; Hurme, Markku

    2015-09-01

    Novel biofuel pathways with increased product yields are evaluated against conventional lignocellulosic biofuel production processes: methanol or methane production via gasification and ethanol production via steam-explosion pre-treatment. The novel processes studied are ethanol production combined with methanol production by gasification, hydrocarbon fuel production with additional hydrogen produced from lignin residue gasification, methanol or methane synthesis using synthesis gas from lignin residue gasification and additional hydrogen obtained by aqueous phase reforming in synthesis gas production. The material and energy balances of the processes were calculated by Aspen flow sheet models and add on excel calculations applicable at the conceptual design stage to evaluate the pre-feasibility of the alternatives. The processes were compared using the following criteria: energy efficiency from biomass to products, primary energy efficiency, GHG reduction potential and economy (expressed as net present value: NPV). Several novel biorefinery concepts gave higher energy yields, GHG reduction potential and NPV. PMID:26056782

  9. Utilisation de traceurs radioactifs pour l'évaluation du recrutement des leucocytes et des échanges vasculaires au niveau d'organes in~vivo. Description d'une méthode et discussion des problèmes d'interprétation sur quelques exemples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bureau, M. F.

    1997-03-01

    An experimental method using simultaneously different γ emiter tracers was developed to evaluate inflammation in vivo. Experiments were performed on the anaesthetized guinea-pig to test pulmonary effects of inflammatory agents. Red blood cells, albumin and inflammatory cells (platelets or leucocytes) radiolabelled with 99m technetium, 131 iodine and 111 indium respectively were injected i.v. Their radioactivities were measured on a pulmonary region by external detection and on blood samples in a well type counter. From these measurements variations of the lung contents in red blood cells, extravascular albumin and non circulating leucocytes during inflammatory stimulation were evaluated. These parameters axe indexes of blood perfusion, vascular exchanges and leucocyte sequestration respectively. Fiability of the method and meaning of the parameters evaluated are discussed. Une méthode expérimentale utilisant simultanément différents traceurs γ a été développée pour évaluer l'inflammation in vivo. Des expériences ont été réalisées chez le cobaye anesthésié pour tester l'effet pulmonaire d'agents inflammatoires. Des globules rouges, de l'albumine et des cellules inflammatoires (plaquettes ou leucocytes) radiomarqués respectivement au technetium 99m, à l'iode 131 et à l'indium 111 sont injectés i.v. Leurs radioactivités sont mesurées sur une région pulmonaire par détection externe et sur des échantillons sanguins au compteur puit. À partir de ces mesures sont évaluées les variations des contenus pulmonaires en globules rouges, en albumine extravasculaire et en leucocytes non circulants lors d'une stimulation inflammatoire. Ces paramètres sont corrélés aux modifications de la perfusion, des échanges vasculaires et de la séquestration leucocytaire. La fiabilité de la méthode et la signification des paramètres évalués sont discutées.

  10. Résection endoscopique des polypes colorectaux pédiculés en utilisant un lasso largable au fil catgut chromé: une alternative a la polypectomie conventionnelle? A propos d'une série de cas

    PubMed Central

    Ankouane, Firmin; Noah, Dominique Noah; Nonga, Bernadette Ngo; Tagni-Sartre, Michèle; Modjo, Gabriel; Ndam, Elie Claude Ndjitoyap

    2014-01-01

    L'intérêt de l'endoscopie dans la résection des polypes colorectaux a été rapporté dans plusieurs études. Les techniques de résection endoscopique sont multiples et maîtrisées dans les pays occidentaux. La technique de mucosectomie endoscopique et celle de la pose d'une anse largable en nylon (endoloop) ont élargi le champ des lésions résécables par endoscopie. Toutefois, malgré cette évolution, la vulgarisation de la polypectomie n'est pas effective. En Afrique subsaharienne, la prise en charge de ces polypes de grande taille nécessite souvent une intervention chirurgicale à ciel ouvert ou une évacuation sanitaire onéreuse dans un pays en Occident. Nous rapportons une nouvelle approche de polypectomie endoscopique des polypes pédiculés colorectaux, en utilisant un lasso largable au fil catgut chromé 2/0. Les polypes pédiculés étaient situés soit au niveau du sigmoïde soit au rectum. Après avoir passé le lasso autour du pédicule, le n'ud du lasso est serré autour de celui-ci pour strangulation. En moyenne 6 jours après la procédure, le polype est récupéré dans les selles. Une colonoscopie de contrôle est nécessaire pour confirmer la résection du polype. Cette technique peu coûteuse et accessible, devrait être vulgarisée dans les pays en voie de développement avec des plateaux techniques pauvres. Elle a ses limites et ses inconvénients qui doivent être connus de l'opérateur. PMID:25360198

  11. Department of Defense annual report on chemical warfare and Chemical/Biological Defense Research Program obligations for the period October 1, 1989 through September 30, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-30

    This is an annual report of: Basic Research in Life Sciences, General Chemical Investigations, Testing, Physical Protection Investigations, Warning and Detection Investigations, Medical Defense Against Chemical Agents, Chemical Decontaminating Materiel, and Medical Chemical Defense Life Support Materiel.

  12. 30 CFR 220.002 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... Controllable materiel means materiel which at the time is so classified in the Materiel Classification Manual... grouping of costs identified with more than one OCS lease, whether the leases are NPSLs or other types of... by an OCS lease, or an approved assignment thereof, to develop and produce oil and gas, including...

  13. 32 CFR 623.7 - Reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Tempest Rapid Materiel Report in message form and sent electrically. The message report will be prepared according to Army Regulation 500-60. (2) Daily message reports. Tempest Rapid Daily Materiel Reports of Army... line. (3) Final reports. In addition to the final Tempest Rapid Daily Materiel Report, a final...

  14. 32 CFR 623.7 - Reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Tempest Rapid Materiel Report in message form and sent electrically. The message report will be prepared according to Army Regulation 500-60. (2) Daily message reports. Tempest Rapid Daily Materiel Reports of Army... line. (3) Final reports. In addition to the final Tempest Rapid Daily Materiel Report, a final...

  15. 32 CFR 623.7 - Reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Tempest Rapid Materiel Report in message form and sent electrically. The message report will be prepared according to Army Regulation 500-60. (2) Daily message reports. Tempest Rapid Daily Materiel Reports of Army... line. (3) Final reports. In addition to the final Tempest Rapid Daily Materiel Report, a final...

  16. An evaluation of the environmental fate and behavior of munitions materiel (tetryl and polar metabolites of TNT) in soil and plant systems. Preliminary evaluation of TNT-polar metabolites in plants

    SciTech Connect

    Fellows, R.J.; Harvey, S.D.; Cataldo, D.A.

    1993-09-01

    A preliminary study was conducted to elucidate the nature of the polar metabolites reported for plant tissues and xylem exudates following root accumulation of trinitrotoluene. Studies focused on the nature of the proposed conjugates of TNT-residues in xylem exudates of bush beam plants. Use of enzymatic methods failed to demonstrate that the conjugates were carbohydrate based, but acid hydrolysis indicated that the conjugates may be protein based. Of the five polar conjugates isolated from exudates, the presence of aminodinitrotoluene isomers and one unknown TNT residue was demonstrated.

  17. La conception et le role des materiels pedagogiques dans l'enseignement des langues secondes (The Conception and Role of Instructional Materials in the Teaching of Second Languages). CILA Bulletin, No. 29.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redard, F., Ed.; And Others

    This special issue concerns the content, function, and form of instructional materials dealing with second language instruction. The following articles appear: (1) "Deliberate Semantics--an 'Interventionist' Approach to Second Language Teaching Methodology," by A.P.R. Howatt; (2) "Sprechakte und Sprachunterricht (Speech Acts and Language…

  18. Francais de base. Programme de 9 ans, materiel didactique: 7e, 8e et 9e annees (Core French. Nine-Year Study Program, Instructional Materials: 7th, 8th and 9th Grades).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg. Bureau of French Education.

    Official instructional materials for the second three years (grades 7-9) of the Manitoba Department of Education's core French language program are presented. These materials, intended for teachers, consist of units of instruction for each year, which contain notes for the teacher, suggestions for class activities, materials for student use, and…

  19. Transition de phase quantique de type verrouillage-deverrouillage dans les canaux lineaires coherents des phases en rayures dans les doubles puits quantiques sous champ magnetique perpendiculaire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faribault, Alexandre

    On peut creer un gaz electronique bidimensionnel en utilisant le potentiel de confinement d'une couche mince d'un semiconducteur dans un substrat fait d'une autre semiconducteur de gap plus eleve. L'ajout d'un champ magnetique perpendiculaire au plan de confinement modifie de facon drastique les proprietes du gaz electronique. Pour des densites et des valeurs du champ magnetique adequatement choisies, on obtient un etat fondamental en onde de densite de charge. Dans un systeme compose de deux de ces gaz bidimensionnels suffisamment rapproches l'un de l'autre, on prevoit theoriquement l'existence d'un etat fondamental compose d'une onde de densite de charge dans chacun des puits et d'une serie de regions lineaires ou l'on a une delocalisation coherente des electrons entre les deux puits. Dans cette these, on etudie le comportement a temperature nulle de cet etat fondamental en rayures coherentes. L'etude numerique des modes collectifs de ces phases laisse croire qu'un deverrouillage des canaux coherents est envisageable dans ce systeme. Afin d'etudier cette possibilite, nous construisons d'abord un modele effectif de canaux quasi-unidimensionnels couples qui permettent de reproduire correctement les excitations collectives a basse energie de la phase en rayures coherentes du double puits quantique. Dans un systeme de coordonnees adequatement choisi, ces excitations peuvent etre decrites par des ondes de pseudospin. Les parametres de ce modele effectif simple peuvent etre extraits des calculs des fonctions de reponse realises dans l'approximation Hartree-Fock dependante du temps (appelee aussi Generalized Random Phase Approximation). On constate l'efficacite de ce modele a decrire la dynamique basse energie du systeme pour une certaine plage de distances inter-puits. En retirant de ce modele les contributions a l'hamiltonien provenant des couplages de type Josephson entre les canaux, on obtient alors un systeme ou les canaux sont deverrouilles. Un traitement en

  20. L'effet des deformations plastiques severes sur les proprietes d'hydruration du magnesium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Julien

    Le travail de recherche effectue durant mon projet de maitrise en physique a l'Universite du Quebec a Trois-Rivieres dans les laboratoires de l'Institut de Recherche sur l'Hydrogene etait de comparer l'effet du laminage a froid de la poudre de MgH2 avec celui du broyage mecanique. Nous avons etudie cette nouvelle technique en utilisant un laminoir vertical concu specialement pour laminer de la poudre. Nous avons lamine la poudre de MgH2 5, 25, 50 et 100 fois. La comparaison de la morphologie de la poudre de MgH 2 telle que recu du manufacturier et broye mecaniquement pendant 30 minutes avec celle de la poudre laminee ete faite a l'aide d'un microscope electronique a balayage. Nous avons par la suite mesure les proprietes de sorption d'hydrogene grace un appareil PCT de type Sievert. Nous avons aussi determine la structure cristalline par diffraction de rayons X. A partir de ces resultats, nous avons constate que le nombre optimal de laminages est de cinq et a les caracteristiques d'absorption/desorption d'hydrogene similaires a un broyage mecanique de 30 minutes. Nous avons aussi utilise les courbes de cinetiques d'absorption et de desorption d'hydrogene pour calculer l'etape limitative dans les reactions de sorption des echantillons lamines. Comme cinq laminages se font en environ 10 secondes, on voit que le laminage a froid est une technique plus interessante industriellement que le broyage mecanique a cause de l'important gain en temps et en energie.

  1. Blocage de Coulomb dans une boite quantique laterale contenant un faible nombre d'electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gould, Charles

    Dans ce travail on utilise une nouvelle geometrie pour augmenter le controle sur le nombre d'electrons contenus dans une boite quantique laterale, et ainsi atteindre un regime de petit nombre d'electrons. Ces echantillons permettent une etude du blocage de Coulomb quand les electrons sont injectes a partir d'un gaz electronique a deux dimensions (2DEG). Les mesures a faible champ magnetique demontrent la grande flexibilite des echantillons et montrent que l'on peut faire varier le nombre d'electrons dans une boite quantique a partir de plus de 40 electrons jusqu'a un seul electron, ce qui est assez courant dans les boites quantiques verticales, mais ce qui n'avait jamais ete reussi dans une boite quantique laterale. Nos resultats montrent egalement que dans les boites quantiques laterales il est possible de determiner le spin du niveau qui participe au transport a l'aide du phenomene de blocage de spin. De plus, dans certaines circonstances il est meme possible de determiner le spin total de la boite quantique, ce qui peut avoir des applications pratiques dans des domaines tels l'informatique quantique. Les mesures dans le regime de renversement de spin a un champ magnetique plus eleve montrent l'importance des correlations electrons---electrons dans ces boites quantiques, qui menent a des depolarisations et a des structures de spins qui ont un effet sur le transport. En particulier, ces correlations menent a l'existence de niveaux excites de basse energie qui causent une dependance anormale de l'amplitude des pics de blocage de Coulomb en fonction de la temperature. Nos experiences demontrent egalement la possibilite d'utiliser ces boites quantiques comme sondes pour etudier les proprietes du bord d'un 2DEG. Une voie de recherche a etre exploree.

  2. Modelisation de photodetecteurs a base de matrices de diodes avalanche monophotoniques pour tomographie d'emission par positrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbeil Therrien, Audrey

    La tomographie d'emission par positrons (TEP) est un outil precieux en recherche preclinique et pour le diagnostic medical. Cette technique permet d'obtenir une image quantitative de fonctions metaboliques specifiques par la detection de photons d'annihilation. La detection des ces photons se fait a l'aide de deux composantes. D'abord, un scintillateur convertit l'energie du photon 511 keV en photons du spectre visible. Ensuite, un photodetecteur convertit l'energie lumineuse en signal electrique. Recemment, les photodiodes avalanche monophotoniques (PAMP) disposees en matrice suscitent beaucoup d'interet pour la TEP. Ces matrices forment des detecteurs sensibles, robustes, compacts et avec une resolution en temps hors pair. Ces qualites en font un photodetecteur prometteur pour la TEP, mais il faut optimiser les parametres de la matrice et de l'electronique de lecture afin d'atteindre les performances optimales pour la TEP. L'optimisation de la matrice devient rapidement une operation difficile, car les differents parametres interagissent de maniere complexe avec les processus d'avalanche et de generation de bruit. Enfin, l'electronique de lecture pour les matrices de PAMP demeure encore rudimentaire et il serait profitable d'analyser differentes strategies de lecture. Pour repondre a cette question, la solution la plus economique est d'utiliser un simulateur pour converger vers la configuration donnant les meilleures performances. Les travaux de ce memoire presentent le developpement d'un tel simulateur. Celui-ci modelise le comportement d'une matrice de PAMP en se basant sur les equations de physique des semiconducteurs et des modeles probabilistes. Il inclut les trois principales sources de bruit, soit le bruit thermique, les declenchements intempestifs correles et la diaphonie optique. Le simulateur permet aussi de tester et de comparer de nouvelles approches pour l'electronique de lecture plus adaptees a ce type de detecteur. Au final, le simulateur vise a

  3. Patient product availability through the use of systems thinking: developing coherent relationships.

    PubMed

    Seigfried, R J

    1999-08-01

    The traditional techniques of quality improvement, such as just-in-time delivery, can only go so far in dealing with materiel management issues. A further step is necessary: the implementation of systems thinking. This type of thinking focuses on the interconnectedness of all the members that exist throughout the system. This article explains the nature of systems thinking and how it can be used in materiels management to describe and improve the availability of materiels needed. PMID:10662452

  4. 48 CFR 808.802 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ACQUISITION PLANNING REQUIRED SOURCES OF SUPPLIES AND SERVICES Acquisition of Printing and Related Supplies 808.802 Policy. The Director, Publications Staff, Office of Acquisition and Materiel Management,...

  5. 32 CFR 242b.7 - Officers of the University.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Services and Materiel Acquisition; (C) Military Personnel; (D) Civilian Personnel; (E) Computer Operations... Management and Computer Operations will report directly to the Vice President for Operations; the...

  6. Gender Factor in Utilisation of Library Resources at Delta State University, Abraka, Nigeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adomi, Esharenana E.; Ogbomo, Monday O.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses results of a survey of gender factors in library resource use at Delta State University, Abraka, Nigeria (Africa). Highlights include reasons for library use, how library materials are located, materials consulted, relevance of library materials to information needs, frequency of use, and factors inhibiting effective use of the library.…

  7. Methodes de compensation des erreurs d'usinage utilisant la mesure sur machines-outils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guiassa, Rachid

    On-machine measurement process is used to inspect the part immediately after the cut without part removal and additional setups. It detects the machining defects visible to the machine tool. The system machine-tool-part deflection and the cutting tool dimension inaccuracy are the most important sources of these defects. The machined part can be inspected, at the semi-finishing cut level to identify systematic defects that may occur later at the finishing cut. Therefore, corrective actions can be derived to anticipate the expected error in order to produce a part with acceptable accuracy. For industrial profitability, the measurement and the compensation tasks must be done under the closed door machining requirement without human interventions. This thesis aims to develop mathematical models that use the data inspection of previous cuts to formulate the compensation of the finishing-cut. The goal of the compensation is to anticipate the expected error which is identified under two components. One is independent on the depth of cut and is related to the cutting tool dimension such as the wear. The other is dependent on the cutting depth such as the deflection. A general model is presented which relies solely on-machine probing data from semi-finishing cuts to compensate the final cut. A variable cutting compliance coefficient relates the total system deflection to the depth of cut in multi-cut process. It is used to estimate the compensation of the tool path. The model is able to take into account the effect of the cutting depth variation and the material removal in the estimation of the error at the finishing-cut. In order to generate the continuous compensated tool path from discrete measurements, a B-Spline deformation technique is adapted to the available data and applied to compute the compensated tool path according to a restricted number of discrete compensation vectors. The results show that the on-machine probed errors can be significantly reduced using the proposed compensation model. The coordinate measurement machine is used to verify the on machine measurement of a ring gauge. For a simple straight thin wall, an error of 78 microm is reduced to less than +/- 3 microm. For a circular wall with variable stiffness using a multi-cut process, the error is reduced from -60 microm to +/-6 microm. For a free form thin wall similar to airfoil profile represented with the B-Spline, the improvement is from +140 microm to +/-20 microm.

  8. Utilising the resources of the International Knockout Mouse Consortium: the Australian experience.

    PubMed

    Cotton, Leanne M; Meilak, Michelle L; Templeton, Tanya; Gonzales, Jose G; Nenci, Arianna; Cooney, Melissa; Truman, Dirk; Rodda, Fleur; Lynas, Alyce; Viney, Elizabeth; Rosenthal, Nadia; Bianco, Deborah M; O'Bryan, Moira K; Smyth, Ian M

    2015-04-01

    Mouse models play a key role in the understanding gene function, human development and disease. In 2007, the Australian Government provided funding to establish the Monash University embryonic stem cell-to-mouse (ES2M) facility. This was part of the broader Australian Phenomics Network, a national infrastructure initiative aimed at maximising access to global resources for understanding gene function in the mouse. The remit of the ES2M facility is to provide subsidised access for Australian biomedical researchers to the ES cell resources available from the International Knockout Mouse Consortium (IKMC). The stated aim of the IKMC is to generate a genetically modified mouse ES cell line for all of the ~23,000 genes in the mouse genome. The principal function of the Monash University ES2M service is to import genetically modified ES cells into Australia and to convert them into live mice with the potential to study human disease. Through advantages of economy of scale and established relationships with ES cell repositories worldwide, we have created over 110 germline mouse strains sourced from all of the major ES providers worldwide. We comment on our experience in generating these mouse lines; providing a snapshot of a "clients" perspective of using the IKMC resource and one which we hope will serve as a guide to other institutions or organisations contemplating establishing a similar centralised service. PMID:25645994

  9. Developing a Rural and Regional Science Challenge to Utilise Community and Industry-Based Partnerships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blake, Damian; Campbell, Coral

    2009-01-01

    Interest and participation in science in schools has been declining for many years and there is a genuine need to rejuvenate interest in science at the high school level. One possible solution is the completion of challenging science projects which fulfill an authentic purpose in the community. This paper discusses the results of ongoing research…

  10. Utilising cardiopulmonary bypass for cancer surgery. Malignancy-induced protein C deficiency and thrombophilia.

    PubMed

    Marshall, C

    2007-11-01

    Cardiopulmonary bypass has evolved over the last 30 years. It is an important tool for the cardiac surgeon today and also has applications in non-cardiac operations such as surgery to extract tumours. Such patients undergoing surgery for cancer may be at an increased risk of a thromboembolic event post surgery, due to disturbances in the normal clotting pathway leading to hypercoagulability. One such disturbance is malignancy-induced Protein C deficiency. A deficiency of Protein C can cause hypercoagulabitity. Recent studies have examined cardiopulmonary bypass and inherited Protein C deficiency. However, surgery for cancer patients with a malignancy-induced Protein C deficiency involving cardiopulmonary bypass has not been reported. Surgery using CPB in these patients may result in increased morbidity and mortality. The objective of this article is to review the literature in order to discuss the occurrence, the aetiology and possible management of cancer patients with malignancy-induced Protein C deficiencies that require cardiopulmonary bypass for their surgery. PMID:18666739

  11. Utilising Social Networking Sites to Improve Writing: A Case Study with Chinese Students in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vikneswaran, Thulasi; Krish, Pramela

    2016-01-01

    With the advancement of technology, writing in English is no longer confined to the classroom as nowadays students are exposed to various forms of writing on the Internet. Specifically with Generation Y in mind, online writing is a new method that needs to be implemented to enhance Malaysian students' writing skills. This article aims at…

  12. The "5 a day" game: a nutritional intervention utilising innovative methodologies with primary school children.

    PubMed

    Rosi, Alice; Scazzina, Francesca; Ingrosso, Lisa; Morandi, Angelica; Del Rio, Daniele; Sanna, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was observing and improving children's eating habits through an edutainment technological platform. A single-group education intervention was carried out in primary schools in Parma and Milano, Italy. A total of 76 children (32 females and 44 males, 8-10 years old) were involved in a 3-month nutritional program including lessons and educational videogames. Intakes of fruits, vegetables, juices and dietary total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were measured using 3-day food diaries before and after the intervention. The daily total consumption of fruit and vegetables increased from 421.8 (320.3) to 484.3 (337.2) g/day (p = 0.016). Consequently, daily dietary TAC increased by 26%, rising from 1.4 (1.3) to 1.6 (1.3) mmol of Trolox equivalents (p = 0.006). The methods and, particularly, the use of technological tools proved to be effective in conducting an educational intervention in children aged 8-10 years old. PMID:26307556

  13. Twins with Autism: Utilising Video Feedback to Improve Job-Related Behaviours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackey, Megan; Nelson, Gretchen

    2015-01-01

    Employment for individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is a significant factor in assuring quality of life in adulthood. The research reported in this article examines the effectiveness of video feedback (VFB) in improving the job-related behaviours of twin adolescents with ASD and learning disabilities. The targeted behaviours included…

  14. Pleasure: An under-utilised 'P' in social marketing for healthy eating.

    PubMed

    Pettigrew, Simone

    2016-09-01

    The escalating obesity crisis has resulted in a wide range of efforts to develop more effective prevention approaches. This review article explores the potential for the concept of food pleasure to take centre stage in social marketing programs that aim to encourage healthy eating. Literature relating to food motivations is reviewed and the various strategic phases involved in developing social marketing programs are outlined in the context of incorporating a food pleasure focus. PMID:26456411

  15. A best practices approach to physical corporate preparedness utilising emergency supplies.

    PubMed

    Baruch, Stephen; Klosterman, Brian

    2013-01-01

    This paper is based on the authors' experience developing and implementing a best practices approach to the physical supplies component of enterprise disaster preparedness. This includes recognising that physical supplies and suppliers (their services) are crucial elements to the effectiveness of both first response and business recovery. PMID:23615064

  16. Teaching for Statistical Literacy: Utilising Affordances in Real-World Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chick, Helen L.; Pierce, Robyn

    2012-01-01

    It is widely held that context is important in teaching mathematics and statistics. Consideration of context is central to statistical thinking, and any teaching of statistics must incorporate this aspect. Indeed, it has been advocated that real-world data sets can motivate the learning of statistical principles. It is not, however, a…

  17. Utilising the Concept of Pathway as a Framework for Indigenous Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fredericks, Bronwyn

    2007-01-01

    Drawing on Gregory Cajete's (1994, p. 55) explanation of "Pathway" (Path denoting structure, Way implying a process), a research framework was developed exploring Aboriginal women's perceptions and experiences of health and health services. Developing the research methodology was like laying out the Path, as a well thought out structure or the…

  18. Utilising integrated urban water management to assess the viability of decentralised water solutions.

    PubMed

    Burn, Stewart; Maheepala, Shiroma; Sharma, Ashok

    2012-01-01

    Cities worldwide are challenged by a number of urban water issues associated with climate change, population growth and the associated water scarcity, wastewater flows and stormwater run-off. To address these problems decentralised solutions are increasingly being considered by water authorities, and integrated urban water management (IUWM) has emerged as a potential solution to most of these urban water challenges, and as the key to providing solutions incorporating decentralised concepts at a city wide scale. To incorporate decentralised options, there is a need to understand their performance and their impact on a city's total water cycle under alternative water and land management options. This includes changes to flow, nutrient and sediment regimes, energy use, greenhouse gas emissions, and the impacts on rivers, aquifers and estuaries. Application of the IUWM approach to large cities demands revisiting the fundamental role of water system design in sustainable city development. This paper uses the extended urban metabolism model (EUMM) to expand a logical definition for the aims of IUWM, and discusses the role of decentralised systems in IUWM and how IUWM principles can be incorporated into urban water planning. PMID:22678207

  19. Ionic liquid based lithium battery electrolytes: fundamental benefits of utilising both TFSI and FSI anions?

    PubMed

    Kerner, M; Plylahan, N; Scheers, J; Johansson, P

    2015-07-15

    Several IL based electrolytes with an imidazolium cation (EMI) have been investigated trying to elucidate a possible beneficial effect of mixing FSI and TFSI anions in terms of physico-chemical properties and especially Li(+) solvation. All electrolytes were evaluated in terms of phase transitions, densities and viscosities, thermal stabilities, ionic conductivities and local structure, i.e. charge carriers. The electrolytes with up to 20% of Li-salts showed to be promising for high temperature lithium ion battery application (ca. 100 °C) and a synergetic effect of having mixed anions is discernible with the LiTFSI0.2EMIFSI0.8 electrolyte giving the best overall performance. The determination of the charge carriers revealed the SN to be ca. 2 for all analysed electrolytes, and proved the analysis of the mixed anion electrolytes to be challenging and inherently leads to an ambiguous picture of the Li(+) solvation. PMID:26147418

  20. Enhanced Mechanical Performance of Bio-Inspired Hybrid Structures Utilising Topological Interlocking Geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djumas, Lee; Molotnikov, Andrey; Simon, George P.; Estrin, Yuri

    2016-05-01

    Structural composites inspired by nacre have emerged as prime exemplars for guiding materials design of fracture-resistant, rigid hybrid materials. The intricate microstructure of nacre, which combines a hard majority phase with a small fraction of a soft phase, achieves superior mechanical properties compared to its constituents and has generated much interest. However, replicating the hierarchical microstructure of nacre is very challenging, not to mention improving it. In this article, we propose to alter the geometry of the hard building blocks by introducing the concept of topological interlocking. This design principle has previously been shown to provide an inherently brittle material with a remarkable flexural compliance. We now demonstrate that by combining the basic architecture of nacre with topological interlocking of discrete hard building blocks, hybrid materials of a new type can be produced. By adding a soft phase at the interfaces between topologically interlocked blocks in a single-build additive manufacturing process, further improvement of mechanical properties is achieved. The design of these fabricated hybrid structures has been guided by computational work elucidating the effect of various geometries. To our knowledge, this is the first reported study that combines the advantages of nacre-inspired structures with the benefits of topological interlocking.

  1. Mobile terminal equipment design utilising split-loop phase-lock techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenington, P. B.; Mcgeehan, J. P.; Edwards, D. J.

    1990-01-01

    The design and resultant performance of the terminal equipment in a mobile satellite system is vitally important in respect to the overall cost/performance compromise of the whole system. Improvements in system performance which also result in a reduction of the equipment cost are rare. However, this paper details a significant advance in terminal design, utilizing a novel form of 'split-loop' phase locked receiver/downconverter system to enable an accurate, stable and wide coverage terminal to be realized at a reduced cost. The system has the capability of automatically locking onto any carrier within a complete transponder, and can cope with severe amplitude modulation and fading effects.

  2. Bridges to Global Citizenship: Ecologically Sustainable Futures Utilising Children's Literature in Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradbery, Debbie

    2013-01-01

    Developing an understanding of the importance of a sustainable future is vital in helping children to become "global citizens". Global citizens are those willing to take responsibility for their own actions, respect and value diversity and see themselves as contributors to a more peaceful and sustainable world. Children's…

  3. Nanoscale carbon materials from hydrocarbons pyrolysis: Structure, chemical behavior, utilisation for non-aqueous supercapacitors

    SciTech Connect

    Savilov, Serguei V.; Strokova, Natalia E.; Ivanov, Anton S.; Arkhipova, Ekaterina A.; Desyatov, Andrey V.; Hui, Xia; Aldoshin, Serguei M.; Lunin, Valery V.

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • N-doped and regular carbon nanomaterials were obtained by pyrolitic technique. • Dynamic vapor sorption of different solvents reveals smaller S{sub BET} values. • Steric hindrance and specific chemical interactions are the reasons for this. • Nitrogen doping leads to raise of capacitance and coulombic efficiency with non-aqueous N-containing electrolyte. - Abstract: This work systematically studies adsorption properties of carbon nanomaterials that are synthesized through hydrocarbons that is a powerful technique to fabricate different kinds of carbon materials, e.g., nanotubes, nanoshells, onions, including nitrogen substituted. The adsorption properties of the as-synthesized carbons are achieved by low temperature nitrogen adsorption and organic vapors sorption. Heptane, acetonitrile, water, ethanol, benzene and 1-methylimidazole, which are of great importance for development of supercapacitors, are used as substrates. It is discovered that while nitrogen adsorption reveals a high specific surface area, this parameter for most of organic compounds is rather small depending not only on the size of its molecule but also on chemical interactions for a pair adsorbent–adsorbate. The experimental values of heat of adsorption for carbon and N-substituted structures, when Coulomb cross-coupling of nitrogen atoms in adsorbent and adsorbate takes place, confirms this supposition.

  4. An investigation into the removal of oil from rock utilising magnetic particle technology.

    PubMed

    Orbell, John D; Dao, Hien V; Kapadia, Jignesh; Ngeh, Lawrence N; Bigger, Stephen W; Healy, Margaret; Jessop, Rosalind; Dann, Peter

    2007-12-01

    The application of magnetic particle technology to environmental remediation has tended to focus, up to now, upon the removal of oil contamination from plumage and fur. The present research demonstrates the potential of this technology to remove oil contamination from the surface of rock. Specifically, a single treatment has been demonstrated to remove more than 80% by weight of heavy bunker oil from the surface of a common foreshore rock type. A further three treatments have been shown to result in an optimum removal of up to 94% by weight. The results are highly reproducible and offer the possibility of achieving up to 100% removal with the appropriate use of pre-conditioners. PMID:17967468

  5. Seeing Coloured Fruits: Utilisation of the Theory of Adaptive Memory in Teaching Botany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prokop, Pavol; Fancovicová, Jana

    2014-01-01

    Plants are characterised by a great diversity of easily observed features such as colours or shape, but children show low interest in learning about them. Here, we integrated modern theory of adaptive memory and evolutionary views of the function of fruit colouration on children's retention of information. Survival-relevant (fruit toxicity)…

  6. Enhanced Mechanical Performance of Bio-Inspired Hybrid Structures Utilising Topological Interlocking Geometry

    PubMed Central

    Djumas, Lee; Molotnikov, Andrey; Simon, George P.; Estrin, Yuri

    2016-01-01

    Structural composites inspired by nacre have emerged as prime exemplars for guiding materials design of fracture-resistant, rigid hybrid materials. The intricate microstructure of nacre, which combines a hard majority phase with a small fraction of a soft phase, achieves superior mechanical properties compared to its constituents and has generated much interest. However, replicating the hierarchical microstructure of nacre is very challenging, not to mention improving it. In this article, we propose to alter the geometry of the hard building blocks by introducing the concept of topological interlocking. This design principle has previously been shown to provide an inherently brittle material with a remarkable flexural compliance. We now demonstrate that by combining the basic architecture of nacre with topological interlocking of discrete hard building blocks, hybrid materials of a new type can be produced. By adding a soft phase at the interfaces between topologically interlocked blocks in a single-build additive manufacturing process, further improvement of mechanical properties is achieved. The design of these fabricated hybrid structures has been guided by computational work elucidating the effect of various geometries. To our knowledge, this is the first reported study that combines the advantages of nacre-inspired structures with the benefits of topological interlocking. PMID:27216277

  7. The Client Company Marginally Utilises the Knowledge of Highly Skilled Temporary Staff

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Augustsson, Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    This study is based on the presumption that there is often an underuse of temporary staff in client companies (CC) with highly skilled professionals. The study combines theories of the flexible organisation and a sociocultural perspective on learning within the framework of an inter-organisational context. The data are based partly on 17…

  8. Utilising the `3P-model' to Characterise the Discipline of Didactics of Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adúriz-Bravo, Agustín; Izquierdo-Aymerich, Mercè

    In our research within didactics of science, we have been exploring contributions of the so called cognitive models from contemporary philosophy of science. We have used these philosophical frameworks on different levels. As an outcome, we have formulated a model of didactics of science according to which this discipline adapts and transforms theoretical contributions from different scholarly fields. In this paper, we concentrate on this description of didactics of science, which we have called the 3P-model (i.e., philosophy + psychology + pedagogy). This model of the internal functioning of the discipline may be useful to make innovations in science curriculum design and re-conceptualise the role of science teachers as professionals. We see didactics of science as a set of interrelated activities, performed by different individuals, and ranging from theoretical production to practice of science education at school. We find the concept of technoscience suitable to account for this diversity of goals. According to this concept, scientific disciplines are identified both with generation of knowledge and with active intervention on the world. Within current didactics of science, we recognise several kinds of research, having goals more or less directed to practical intervention in science education.

  9. On the control of secondary carbanion structure utilising ligand effects during directed metallation.

    PubMed

    Wheatley, Andrew E H; Clayden, Jonathan; Hillier, Ian H; Campbell Smith, Alison; Vincent, Mark A; Taylor, Laurence J; Haywood, Joanna

    2012-01-01

    N,N-Diisopropyl-2-propylbenzamide 6-H undergoes lateral deprotonation by t-BuLi in the presence of the Lewis base PMDTA (N,N,N',N″,N″-pentamethyldiethylenetriamine) to give a benzyllithium 6-Li(l)·PMDTA that incorporates a trigonal planar secondary carbanion. In the solid state, the amide directing group and the PMDTA additive work together to abstract the metal ion from the deprotonated α-C of the propyl group (4.107(4) Å). A short distance of 1.376(3) Å is observed between the deprotonated carbon centre and a planar aromatic system that shows a pattern of bond lengths which contrasts with that reported for related tertiary carbanion systems. Analogous benzylic deprotonation is seen if 6-H is treated with t-BuLi in the presence of diglyme to give 6-Li(l)·DGME. X-ray crystallography now shows that the metal ion more closely approaches the tertiary carbanion (2.418(6) Å) but that the planarity of the deprotonated carbon centre and the bonding pattern in the organic anion seen in the PMDTA complex are retained. DFT analysis corroborates both the short distance between aromatic ring and carbanion centre and the unperturbed nature of aromaticity in 6-Li(l)·L (L = Lewis base). The observation of two structure-types for the carbanion in solution is explained theoretically and by NMR spectroscopy in terms of cis and trans isomerism imparted by partial double bond character in the arene-(α-C) bond. PMID:22423271

  10. The Role of Personal Experience and Social Interaction in Knowledge Creation and Utilisation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handzic, Meliha; Tolhurst, Denise

    This paper reports the results of an empirical examination of the effects of personal experience and social interaction on individual knowledge and performance in a specific decision making task context. The study revealed a differential effect of increased experience on the quality of participants decisions. In particular, increased experience…

  11. Rumen microbial variation and nutrient utilisation in mithun (Bos frontalis) under different feeding regimes.

    PubMed

    Prakash, B; Saha, S K; Khate, K; Agarwal, N; Katole, S; Haque, N; Rajkhowa, C

    2013-04-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of feeding different diets on fermentation, enzyme activities and microbial population in the rumen fluid of mithun (Bos frontalis). In a randomized block design, 20 male mithun (6-8 months of age, 152 ± 12.6 kg body weight) were randomly divided into four experimental groups (n = 5/group) and fed experimental diets ad libitum for 180 days. The diet R1 contained tree foliages (TF), R2 comprised of 50% concentrate mixture (CM) and 50% TF, R3 contained 50% CM and 50% rice straw, and R4 contained 50% CM, 25% TF and 25% rice straw. Rumen liquor was collected at 0 and 180 days of the experiment for estimation of different ruminal parameters and a digestion trial was conducted at the end of the experiment. Rumen fluid was analysed for pH, ammonia nitrogen (NH3 -N), total-N, ruminal enzymes, short chain fatty acid (SCFA) and microbial profile. The relative quantification of ruminal microbes was carried out with real-time PCR using bacteria as the house keeping gene. The dry matter intake, nutrients digestibility, body weight gain, NH3 -N, total-N, carboxymethyl cellulase, avicelase, xylanase, amylase, protease and molar proportion of butyrate were (p < 0.05) higher in mithun fed R2 , R3 and R4 compared to those fed R1 diet. In contrast, increased (p < 0.05) ruminal pH, molar proportion of acetate and, acetate to propionate ratio was recorded in mithun fed only TF than those fed concentrate supplemented diets. Similarly, an increase (p < 0.05) in the population of Fibrobacter succinogenes, Ruminococcus flavefaciens and total bacteria were evident in mithun fed R2 , R3 and R4 compared to those fed R1 . Therefore, it is concluded that TF 25% and/or rice straw 25% along with CM 50% may be fed to the growing mithun for improved rumen ecology, nutrient utilization and thus better performance under stall fed system. PMID:22289020

  12. Bacteria causing important diseases of citrus utilise distinct modes of pathogenesis to attack a common host.

    PubMed

    Vojnov, Adrián Alberto; do Amaral, Alexandre Morais; Dow, John Maxwell; Castagnaro, Atilio Pedro; Marano, Marìa Rosa

    2010-06-01

    In this review, we summarise the current knowledge on three pathogens that exhibit distinct tissue specificity and modes of pathogenesis in citrus plants. Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri causes canker disease and invades the host leaf mesophyll tissue through natural openings and can also survive as an epiphyte. Xylella fastidiosa and Candidatus Liberibacter are vectored by insects and proliferate in the vascular system of the host, either in the phloem (Candidatus Liberibacter) or xylem (X. fastidiosa) causing variegated chlorosis and huanglongbing diseases, respectively. Candidatus Liberibacter can be found within host cells and is thus unique as an intracellular phytopathogenic bacterium. Genome sequence comparisons have identified groups of species-specific genes that may be associated with the particular lifestyle, mode of transmission or symptoms produced by each phytopathogen. In addition, components that are conserved amongst bacteria may have diverse regulatory actions underpinning the different bacterial lifestyles; one example is the divergent role of the Rpf/DSF cell-cell signalling system in X. citri and X. fastidiosa. Biofilm plays a key role in epiphytic fitness and canker development in X. citri and in the symptoms produced by X. fastidiosa. Bacterial aggregation may be associated with vascular occlusion of the xylem vessels and symptomatology of variegated chlorosis. PMID:20449739

  13. Child health care utilisation in families with young or single mothers in a Swedish county.

    PubMed

    Wallby, Thomas; Modin, Bitte; Hjern, Anders

    2013-03-01

    Young age and lone parenthood are risk factors for impaired health among mothers and their children. Due to the higher risks of negative influences on physical and mental health, young and single mothers should be of special concern to the Child Health Services (CHS). In the present study, we investigated consumption patterns of child health care services among young and single mothers in Uppsala County, Sweden to study whether they are reached by the universal CHS program and if selective or indicative measures were administered in daily CHS practice. Register data on CHS contacts and socio-demographic indicators were collected for 10692 infants, born in 1998-2006. Results show small differences in contact pattern and immunization status, between children of young versus older, and single versus cohabiting mothers. However, both young (RR 0.64) and single (RR 0.80) mothers had significantly lower rates of participation in parental group. The CHS were consequently successful in implementing the universal preventive child health programme for all families, including families with young or single mothers. There was no indication, however, of an established selective preventive strategy aimed at these high risk families. Programs for strengthening the support provided to vulnerable families by the CHS are needed. PMID:23197384

  14. Bayesian spatiotemporal modelling for identifying unusual and unstable trends in mammography utilisation

    PubMed Central

    Mengersen, Kerrie

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To compare two Bayesian models capable of identifying unusual and unstable temporal patterns in spatiotemporal data. Setting Annual counts of mammography screening users from each statistical local area (SLA) in Brisbane, Australia, recorded between 1997 and 2008 inclusive. Primary outcome measures Mammography screening counts. Results The temporal trends of 91 SLAs (58%) were dissimilar from the overall common temporal trend. SLAs that followed the common temporal trend also tended to have stable temporal trends. SLAs with unstable temporal trends tended to be situated farther from the city and farther from mammography screening facilities. Conclusions This paper demonstrates the usefulness of the two models in identifying unusual and unstable temporal trends, and the synergy obtained when both models are applied to the same data set. An analysis of these models has provided interesting insights into the temporal trends of mammography screening counts and has shown several possible avenues for further research, such as extending the models to allow for multiple common temporal trends and accounting for additional spatiotemporal heterogeneity. PMID:27230999

  15. [Female migrants in the health care system. Health care utilisation, access barriers and health promotion strategies].

    PubMed

    Wimmer-Puchinger, B; Wolf, H; Engleder, A

    2006-09-01

    Due to the evident interaction between social factors and health, migrants are exposed to specific risk factors and access barriers to health services. Some examples are the lower education level, the low social position and/or the insufficient language skills. This concept is further elaborated in the multi-factorial impacts of health literacy. Female migrants often experience additional discrimination because of their gender. Despite the lack of representative data, consistent studies show that female migrants do not regularly take advantage of health care prevention and present themselves with higher degrees of stress. The current "inadequate health care" manifests itself in a lack of care in the areas of prevention and health education and an abundance in the context of medication and diagnostic procedures. To meet these demands and to further reduce barriers, in particular language barriers, specific strategies for this target group involving both politics and the health care system have to be developed. Besides the employment of interpreters with a native cultural background and the distribution of information booklets, it is an important strategy to reduce structural obstacles such as cultural diversity. To contact these women in their living environment should help to increase their self-determined health promotion. Selected models of good practice in Austria with regard to the themes of FGM (female genital mutilation), violence, heart disease and breast cancer are presented to highlight the specific health situation and risk factors of female migrants as well as successful strategies to confront them. PMID:16927035

  16. Plutonium and minor actinide utilisation in a pebble-bed high temperature reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Petrov, B. Y.; Kuijper, J. C.; Oppe, J.; De Haas, J. B. M.

    2012-07-01

    This paper contains results of the analysis of the pebble-bed high temperature gas-cooled PUMA reactor loaded with plutonium and minor actinide (Pu/MA) fuel. Starting from knowledge and experience gained in the Euratom FP5 projects HTR-N and HTR-N1, this study aims at demonstrating the potential of high temperature reactors to utilize or transmute Pu/MA fuel. The work has been performed within the Euratom FP6 project PUMA. A number of different fuel types and fuel configurations have been analyzed and compared with respect to incineration performance and safety-related reactor parameters. The results show the excellent plutonium and minor actinide burning capabilities of the high temperature reactor. The largest degree of incineration is attained in the case of an HTR fuelled by pure plutonium fuel as it remains critical at very deep burnup of the discharged pebbles. Addition of minor actinides to the fuel leads to decrease of the achievable discharge burnup and therefore smaller fraction of actinides incinerated during reactor operation. The inert-matrix fuel design improves the transmutation performance of the reactor, while the 'wallpaper' fuel does not have advantage over the standard fuel design in this respect. After 100 years of decay following the fuel discharge, the total amount of actinides remains almost unchanged for all of the fuel types considered. Among the plutonium isotopes, only the amount of Pu-241 is reduced significantly due to its relatively short half-life. (authors)

  17. Broadband low-density radiation source utilising argon, krypton, and xenon chlorides

    SciTech Connect

    Shuaibov, Aleksandr K; Dashchenko, Arkadii I; Shevera, Igor V

    2002-03-31

    The parameters of a broadband excimer radiation source emitting in the 175-310-nm range and excited by a dc glow discharge in an Ar-Kr-Xe-Cl{sub 2} mixture are studied. The emission spectrum of the discharge consists of the ArCl, KrCl, XeCl, and Cl{sub 2} molecular emission bands. The optimal partial pressure of argon in the mixture is 1.3 kPa, those of krypton and xenon are 0.24 kPa each, and the partial chlorine pressure is in the 0.15-0.30-kPa range. The UV-VUV radiation power emitted from the entire side surface of the discharge tube amounts to 4-6 W for an efficiency of 15%-25%. The radiation source is of interest for applications in photometry, microelectronics, photochemistry, and medicine. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

  18. Utilisation of the BIRD Satellite after its End of Operational Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grundmann, J. T.; Halle, W.; Montenegro, S.; Wüsten, H.

    2008-08-01

    The small satellite BIRD has successfully demonstrated the combination of ambitious science and innovative but not necessarily space-proven components in design to cost. BIRD's payload is still fully functional. Its pointing accuracy depends on the still working attitude control components. Future missions based on BIRD experience and design are planned. We suggest a continued on-demand use of BIRD as a test bed for their development. New algorithms and strategies can be tested on BIRD by software upload before taking risks on its successors. Magnetorquer attitude control can be tested and improved. The long time behaviour of the battery stacks and electronics will be evaluated. Non- propulsive orbit control techniques can be evaluated and tested in conjunction with atmospheric measurements.

  19. Assessing meiofaunal variation among individuals utilising morphological and molecular approaches: an example using the Tardigrada

    PubMed Central

    Sands, Chester J; Convey, Peter; Linse, Katrin; McInnes, Sandra J

    2008-01-01

    Background Meiofauna – multicellular animals captured between sieve size 45 μm and 1000 μm – are a fundamental component of terrestrial, and marine benthic ecosystems, forming an integral element of food webs, and playing a critical roll in nutrient recycling. Most phyla have meiofaunal representatives and studies of these taxa impact on a wide variety of sub-disciplines as well as having social and economic implications. However, studies of variation in meiofauna are presented with several important challenges. Isolating individuals from a sample substrate is a time consuming process, and identification requires increasingly scarce taxonomic expertise. Finding suitable morphological characters in many of these organisms is often difficult even for experts. Molecular markers are extremely useful for identifying variation in morphologically conserved organisms. However, for many species markers need to be developed de novo, while DNA can often only be extracted from pooled samples in order to obtain sufficient quantity and quality. Importantly, multiple independent markers are required to reconcile gene evolution with species evolution. In this primarily methodological paper we provide a proof of principle of a novel and effective protocol for the isolation of meiofauna from an environmental sample. We also go on to illustrate examples of the implications arising from subsequent screening for genetic variation at the level of the individual using ribosomal, mitochondrial and single copy nuclear markers. Results To isolate individual tardigrades from their habitat substrate we used a non-toxic density gradient media that did not interfere with downstream biochemical processes. Using a simple DNA release technique and nested polymerase chain reaction with universal primers we were able amplify multi-copy and, to some extent, single copy genes from individual tardigrades. Maximum likelihood trees from ribosomal 18S, mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1, and the single copy nuclear gene Wingless support a recent study indicating that the family Hypsibiidae is a non-monophyletic group. From these sequences we were able to detect variation between individuals at each locus that allowed us to identify the presence of cryptic taxa that would otherwise have been overlooked. Conclusion Molecular results obtained from individuals, rather than pooled samples, are a prerequisite to enable levels of variation to be placed into context. In this study we have provided a proof of principle of this approach for meiofaunal tardigrades, an important group of soil biota previously not considered amenable to such studies, thereby paving the way for more comprehensive phylogenetic studies using multiple nuclear markers, and population genetic studies. PMID:18447908

  20. How to enhance physician and public acceptance and utilisation of colon cancer screening recommendations.

    PubMed

    Senore, Carlo; Malila, Nea; Minozzi, Silvia; Armaroli, Paola

    2010-08-01

    Colorectal Cancer (CRC) screening delivery is a multidisciplinary undertaking, aiming at reducing mortality from and incidence of CRC without adversely affecting the health status of participants. The adoption of a public health perspective involves commitment to ensure equity of access and sustainability of the program over time. We reviewed available evidence concerning predictors of CRC screening uptake and the impact of interventions to improve adoption of screening using conceptual frameworks defining the role of determinants of preventive behaviours and the reach and target of interventions. The results of this review indicate that policy measures aimed at supporting screening delivery, as well as organisational changes, influencing the operational features of preventive services, need to be implemented, in order to allow individual's motivation to be eventually realised. To ensure coverage and equity of access and to maximise the impact of the intervention, policies aimed at implementing organised programs should be adopted, ensuring that participation in screening and any follow-up assessment should not be limited by financial barriers. Participants and providers beliefs may determine the response to different screening modalities. To achieve the desired health impact, an active follow-up of people with screening abnormalities should be implemented, supported by the introduction of infrastructural changes and multidisciplinary team work, which can ensure sustainability over time of effective interventions. Continuous monitoring as well as the adoption of plans to evaluate for program effectiveness represent crucial steps in the implementation of a successful program. PMID:20833353

  1. High-throughput genotyping of hop (Humulus lupulus L.) utilising diversity arrays technology (DArT)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Implementation of molecular methods in hop breeding is dependent on the availability of sizeable numbers of polymorphic markers and a comprehensive understanding of genetic variation. Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) is a high-throughput cost-effective method for the discovery of large numbers of...

  2. Utilising temporal signal features in adverse noise conditions: Detection, estimation, and the reassigned spectrogram.

    PubMed

    Mill, Robert W; Brown, Guy J

    2016-02-01

    Visual displays in passive sonar based on the Fourier spectrogram are underpinned by detection models that rely on signal and noise power statistics. Time-frequency representations specialised for sparse signals achieve a sharper signal representation, either by reassigning signal energy based on temporal structure or by conveying temporal structure directly. However, temporal representations involve nonlinear transformations that make it difficult to reason about how they respond to additive noise. This article analyses the effect of noise on temporal fine structure measurements such as zero crossings and instantaneous frequency. Detectors that rely on zero crossing intervals, intervals and peak amplitudes, and instantaneous frequency measurements are developed, and evaluated for the detection of a sinusoid in Gaussian noise, using the power detector as a baseline. Detectors that rely on fine structure outperform the power detector under certain circumstances; and detectors that rely on both fine structure and power measurements are superior. Reassigned spectrograms assume that the statistics used to reassign energy are reliable, but the derivation of the fine structure detectors indicates the opposite. The article closes by proposing and demonstrating the concept of a doubly reassigned spectrogram, wherein temporal measurements are reassigned according to a statistical model of the noise background. PMID:26936571

  3. Counsellors contact dementia caregivers - predictors of utilisation in a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Counselling of family members is an established procedure in the support of dementia patients' relatives. In absence of widespread specialised dementia care services in most countries, however, counselling services are often not taken up or only very late in the course of the disease. Object In order to promote acceptance of this service, a new counselling concept was implemented where general practitioners recommended family counsellors, who then actively contacted the family caregivers to offer counselling ("Counsellors Contact Caregivers", CCC). The research questions were: To what extent can the rate of family counselling be increased by CCC? What are the predictors for usage of this form of family counselling? Methods The study started in June 2006 in Middle Franconia for patients with mild to moderate dementia. At baseline, 110 family caregivers were offered counselling based on the CCC guideline. Data was analysed from 97 patient-caregiver dyads who received counselling for one year. The mean age of the patients with dementia (67 women and 30 men) was 80.7 years (SD = 6.2). The mean age of their primary family caregivers (68 women, 23 men) was 60.8 years (SD = 13.8). Results 35 family members (36%) made use of more extensive counselling (more than one personal contact). By contrast, 29 family members (30%) had no personal contact or only one personal contact (33 cases, 34%). The factors "spouse" (p = .001) and "degree of care" (p = .005) were identified as significant predictors for acceptance of extensive counselling. Conclusions Actively contacting patients and their caregivers is a successful means of establishing early and frequent contact with family members of patients with mild to moderate dementia. Use of extensive counselling is made especially by spouses of patients requiring intensified care. Trial Registration ISRCTN68329593 PMID:20470365

  4. Termites utilise clay to build structural supports and so increase foraging resources

    PubMed Central

    Oberst, Sebastian; Lai, Joseph C. S.; Evans, Theodore A.

    2016-01-01

    Many termite species use clay to build foraging galleries and mound-nests. In some cases clay is placed within excavations of their wooden food, such as living trees or timber in buildings; however the purpose for this clay is unclear. We tested the hypotheses that termites can identify load bearing wood, and that they use clay to provide mechanical support of the load and thus allow them to eat the wood. In field and laboratory experiments, we show that the lower termite Coptotermes acinaciformis, the most basal species to build a mound-nest, can distinguish unloaded from loaded wood, and use clay differently when eating each type. The termites target unloaded wood preferentially, and use thin clay sheeting to camouflage themselves while eating the unloaded wood. The termites attack loaded wood secondarily, and build thick, load-bearing clay walls when they do. The termites add clay and build thicker walls as the load-bearing wood is consumed. The use of clay to support wood under load unlocks otherwise unavailable food resources. This behaviour may represent an evolutionary step from foraging behaviour to nest building in lower termites. PMID:26854187

  5. A Study Exploring the Strategies Utilised by Indian Middle-School Students in Identifying Unfamiliar Artefacts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ara, Farhat; Natarajan, Chitra; Chunawala, Sugra

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the strategies employed by Indian middle-school students working in groups to identify three unfamiliar artefacts. The activity described in this paper was aimed at sensitising students to the close link between form and function and to bring a certain amount of uncertainty in the tasks before the actual design task. It was…

  6. Compatibilite deformationnelle des betons autoplacants pour des utilisations dans les reparations des infrastructures routieres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghezal, Aicha Fadela

    Concrete structures repairs in Civil Engineering by using a thin bonded overlay is common practice. However the repaired structures are often victim of premature deterioration of the new repair material due to the appearance of restrained shrinkage cracks. In this context, the main objective of this thesis is to identify, through the experimental program called Phase I the principal parameters that significantly influence the creep potential of the evaluated mixtures. Once these parameters identified, the experimental entitled Phase II is conducted under conditions simulating repairs, and emphasis was placed on restrained shrinkage using instrumented ring test. Article 1 summarized the laboratory investigation undertaken to evaluate the potential of flexural creep behavior of several SCC. The results show clearly that the flexural creep potential of SCC varies widely depending on the nature of HRWR in use. In general, the use of naphthalene sulfonate leads to higher creep by comparison to polycarboxylate. It has been shown also that even when belonging to the same A.S.T.M. classification (polycarboxylic family) the magnitude of flexural creep varies also widely depending on the properties of polycarboxylic chemicals admixture. Based on the identified parameters in phase I, namely PNS superplasticizers type and PC2, with two ternary blended cements with fly ash (BTCFA) and slag (BTCS), the second experimental program was undertaken and summarized in articles 2 and 3. As presented in article 2, the results indicate that optimized SCCs produced with blended ternary cement with fly ash (BTCFA) developed at earlier age lower compressive and splitting-tensile strengths than the corresponding SCCs with blended cement with slag (BTCS). Test results also indicated that the drying shrinkage of SCCs based on BTCFA is higher than the corresponding SCCs proportioned with BTCS and attributed in part to higher total pores volume measured at 120 days on SCC BTCFA. The restrained shrinkage of SCC summarized in article 3 show that the resistance of SCC to shrinkage cracks was quite different depending on the nature of HRWR and the binder type in use. The cracking age increases in mixtures proportioned with PC-HRWR comparatively to PNS-HRWR. The SCC mixtures based on blended ternary cement containing Class F fly ash show shorter cracking age than the corresponding SCCs proportioned with ternary blended cement containing slag. Moreover, a data analysis of current research shows that the ratio of tensile strength to free shrinkage and modulus of elasticity, referred as index of dimensional compatibility, is a promising assessment of cracking resistant performance. In this way, only the free shrinkage test (ASTM C157) and basic mechanical properties are required to assess cracking of candidate concrete mixture designs.

  7. Being an "Agent Provocateur": Utilising Online Spaces for Teacher Professional Development in Virtual Simulation Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    deNoyelles, Aimee; Raider-Roth, Miriam

    2016-01-01

    This article details the results of an action research study which investigated how teachers used online learning community spaces to develop and support their teaching and learning of the Jewish Court of All Time (JCAT), a web-mediated, character-playing, simulation game that engages participants with social, historical and cultural curricula.…

  8. Synchronous prostate and rectal adenocarcinomas irradiation utilising volumetric modulated arc therapy.

    PubMed

    Ng, Sweet Ping; Tran, Thu; Moloney, Philip; Sale, Charlotte; Mathlum, Maitham; Ong, Grace; Lynch, Rod

    2015-12-01

    Cases of synchronous prostate and colorectal adenocarcinomas have been sporadically reported. There are case reports on patients with synchronous prostate and rectal cancers treated with external beam radiotherapy alone or combined with high-dose rate brachytherapy boost to the prostate. Here, we illustrate a patient with synchronous prostate and rectal cancers treated using the volumetric arc therapy (VMAT) technique. The patient was treated with radical radiotherapy to 50.4 Gy in 28 fractions to the pelvis, incorporating the involved internal iliac node and the prostate. A boost of 24 Gy in 12 fractions was delivered to the prostate only, using VMAT. Treatment-related toxicities and follow-up prostate-specific antigen and carcinoembryonic antigen were collected for data analysis. At 12 months, the patient achieved complete response for both rectal and prostate cancers without significant treatment-related toxicities. PMID:27512575

  9. Utilising dais to impart health and nutrition education: impact on growth.

    PubMed

    Sharma, U

    1987-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of using local dais to provide health and nutrition education to mothers, the weights of infants in an intervention area in the Uttar Pradesh district of Saharanpur were compared to those of infants in a nonintervention control group in the same district. The average weights of infants in the area where trained dais were utilized were significantly higher than those in the nonintervention area in the age groups 4-6 months and 7-9 months; mean weights did not differ significantly in the 0-3 month age group or at 9-12 months. Deviations in relation to age were least at 3 months. Overall, the intervention program was effective in bringing weights closer to all-India standards. Favorable changes were noted in the intervention area in terms of supplementary feedings, use of katori in milk feeding, and the lower incidence of infantile diarrhea. The mean weights of infants in this study were less than 80% of the 50th percentile of Harvard standards, suggesting widespread malnutrition in this area of India. It is hypothesized that after 9 months of age, the more effective functioning of health services, including broader immunization coverage, in the nonintervention area overrode the advantages conveyed by the dais' health education efforts in the study area. PMID:3557582

  10. Espece d'impro: Utiliser l'improvisation contextualisee (A Kind of Improv: Using Contextualized Improvisation).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busson, Veronique

    1993-01-01

    Use of any theatrical technique in the language learning classroom allows the linking of the verbal and the nonverbal, whereby the student may draw freely on his or her communicative resources. The approach described offers several methods for providing contexts or formats within which to improvise. (CNP)

  11. Choreographing Learning in Developmental Psychology Utilising Multi-Generational Genograms and Reflective Journal Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Schalkwyk, Gertina J.

    2007-01-01

    Teaching a complex topic, such as lifespan developmental psychology, challenges most lecturers to find ways to produce and develop adequately students' ability to integrate theoretical knowledge and an understanding of psychosocial issues in everyday life. In this paper, I will explain the possibilities of tools from practice in creating and…

  12. Utilisation didactique de bulletins d'informations radio (Instructional Use of the Radio News Broadcasts).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lescure, Richard; Pothier, Maguy

    1980-01-01

    Discusses the use of radio news broadcasts as instructional materials, citing some of the advantages they afford the user. Advantages include the homogeneity of mass media language, the frequency of news flashes, and the opportunity for individual work on related newspaper articles. Illustrates steps to move from global to total comprehension.…

  13. Mannitol Utilisation is Required for Protection of Staphylococcus aureus from Human Skin Antimicrobial Fatty Acids

    PubMed Central

    Kolar, Stacey L.; Ulanov, Alexander; Li, Zhong; Shaw, Lindsey N.; Josefsson, Elisabet; Horsburgh, Malcolm J.

    2013-01-01

    Mannitol (Mtl) fermentation, with the subsequent production of acid, is a species signature of Staphylococcus aureus, and discriminates it from most other members of the genus. Inactivation of the gene mtlD, encoding Mtl-1-P dehydrogenase was found to markedly reduce survival in the presence of the antimicrobial fatty acid, linoleic acid. We demonstrate that the sugar alcohol has a potentiating action for this membrane-acting antimicrobial. Analysis of cellular metabolites revealed that, during exponential growth, the mtlD mutant accumulated high levels of Mtl and Mtl-P. The latter metabolite was not detected in its isogenic parent strain or a deletion mutant of the entire mtlABFD operon. In addition, the mtlD mutant strain exhibited a decreased MIC for H2O2, however virulence was unaffected in a model of septic arthritis. PMID:23861785

  14. Developpement et utilisation de sources de plasma pour steriliser des instruments medicaux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollak, Jerome

    Advances in plasma sterilization of medical devices (MDs) are dependent upon both the development of plasma sources adapted to the processing of these MDs, and upon the understanding of the inactivation mechanisms of microorganisms. The main objectives of this thesis were, on the one hand, to develop plasma sources that are spatially uniform and that have a low gas temperature (< 50°C) and, on the other hand, the identification and optimization of biocidal agents (e.g. UV radiation) in their plasmas. In the course of this work, we have designed and developed three types of electromagnetic field applicators to sustain plasma. The first was a network of distributed antennas on the outside of the dielectric discharge-vessel, which possessed multiple high-frequency (HF) input ports fed by a waveguide-based power divider. This distributed source concept was soon abandoned in favour of two other plasma source designs, since the latter ones provided immediate advantages for biomedical sterilization, and also in terms of energy efficiency and frequency bandwidth (e.g. near-constant input impedance). These two plasma sources are based on planar transmission line designs where the plasma is part of the transmission line: the first allows one to sterilize the inner surfaces (lumen) of thermally sensitive dielectric tubes (e.g. cardiac catheters), while the other enables one to immerse three-dimensional objects within the plasma (e.g. forceps). Two types of microorganisms were used to test the performances to identify and to optimise the biocidal agents of the plasma sources that we have developed namely, sedimented bacterial spores from a suspension of Bacillus atrophaeus and vegetative Staphylococcus aureus bacteria embedded in a biofilm matrix. Inactivation of these microorganisms in our plasma sterilizers results through irradiation. This sterilization process is rapid (a few minutes), non-toxic (it does not require venting), and it affects thermally sensitive polymers relatively little (no erosion was detected). Keywords: high-frequency (HF) plasma sources, input impedance, planar transmission lines, sterilization, bacterial spores, biofilm, thermally sensitive medical devices (MDs).

  15. The utilisation of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) among ethnic minorities in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Race has been reported to affect the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), but there is very little research on the use of CAM by ethnicity in Korea. This study explores the prevalence of CAM use among ethnic minorities in South Korea. Methods The design is a descriptive and cross-sectional study. A convenience sample of ethnic minorities was recruited from two public healthcare centres in Gyeonggi province. The survey instrument included 37 questions regarding CAM use, factors influencing use of CAM, self-health management, and the socio-demographic profile of study participants. Results Sixty-two percent of study participants reported the use of CAM. Multivitamins (53.3%), acupuncture (48.9%), and traditional Korean herbal medicine (38.9%) were popular CAM modalities in our sample. Other notable CAM modalities included herbal plants, therapeutic massage, and moxibustion therapy. The majority of CAM users (52.2%) received CAM services to treat diseases or as a secondary treatment while receiving conventional care. Having positive perceptions toward the effectiveness of CAM was a major determining factor in CAM use. Conclusions Physicians need to be aware of the fact that many ethnic minorities use CAM therapies. Many CAM users reported that they want doctors to know about their CAM use and have a basic understanding of traditional medicine in their home country. Overcoming language and cultural barriers will help reduce unwanted medical complications. High prevalence of CAM use among ethnic minorities in our study warrants further studies using larger sample population. PMID:24641983

  16. Utilising the "3P-Model" to Characterise the Discipline of Didactics of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aduriz-Bravo, Agustin; Izquierdo-Aymerich, Merce

    2005-01-01

    In our research within didactics of science, we have been exploring contributions of the socalled cognitive models from contemporary philosophy of science. We have used these philosophical frameworks on different levels. As an outcome, we have formulated a model of didactics of science according to which this discipline adapts and transforms…

  17. Improving the quality of hospital discharge summaries utilising an electronic prompting system

    PubMed Central

    Maurice, Andrew P; Chan, Samuel; Pollard, Clifford W; Kidd, Richard A; Ayre, Stephen J; Ward, Helen E; Walters, Darren L

    2014-01-01

    The discharge summary (DS) is a summary of an inpatient admission, patient's health state, and future treatment plans which is delivered to the patient's primary care provider. The DS is often incomplete, inaccurate, or unclear. The aim of this project was to improve the quality of the DS through the use of an electronic prompting system. The electronic prompting system was implemented in the acute medical and surgical wards of the hospital as an adjunct to a pre-existing, widely used hospital program that documents all the patients in a ward or belonging to a particular treating team. When using the program, a doctor enters information (with the assistance of the treating consultant) from a drop-down menu and is prompted to include common, departmental specific diagnoses, co-morbidities, complications, and procedures that were commonly missed or documented incorrectly in the DS. Fifteen DSs were randomly selected from a two month period immediately prior to the intervention period and were rated by an external, experienced general practitioner (GP) using a scoring system consistent with the Australian Medical Association Guidelines for quality DSs. Fifteen random DSs from a two month period, four months post-implementation were also rated by the same GP. The quality of the DS improved in all categories evaluated. The overall quality improved from mean (± SD) 2.86 ± 1.64 to 4.13 ± 0.92 out of 5 (p = 0.031). Additionally the implementation of the system was associated with improvements in documentation of the diagnosis, co-morbidities and other relevant clinical information. In summary, electronic prompting systems can improve the quality of DSs to ensure the information contained within the DS is more accurate and complete.

  18. Utilisation of a Novel Test to Measure Severity and Treatment Efficacy of Posterior Blepharitis

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Steven T. H.; Woo, David M.; Chong, Calum W. K.; Liu, Ying; Francis, Katherine E.; Shah, Saumil A.; Agar, Ashish; Francis, Ian C.

    2015-01-01

    Background. This study evaluated the effectiveness of managing posterior blepharitis (PB) using a novel Posterior Blepharitis Management Protocol (PBMP). Design. Prospective, consecutive case series with 100% followup to one month. Participants. 27 patients (54 eyes) with PB from an Ophthalmology practice in Sydney, Australia. Methods. Each patient's PB was assessed by grading the nature and expressibility of the central lower lid tarsal gland secretions on Compression Of The Eyelid (COTE). Patients were then instructed in detail to undertake daily PB management sessions at home using our modified PBMP. Main Outcome Measures. On a subjective scale, patients compared their symptoms at one month with baseline. COTE scores were reevaluated to assess the objective effectiveness of each individual's PBMP. COTE scoring was described as grades 1 (clear oil), 2 (pus, liquid), 3 (toothpaste-like secretions), and 4 (complete tarsal gland obstruction). Results. Patients reported a mean 77.8% ± 13.5% subjective improvement in symptoms. There was a trend towards improvement in COTE grading at one month compared with baseline: grades 1 (0 to 7.4%), 2a (22.2 to 16.6%), 2b (7.4 to 3.7%), 3 (18.5 to 27.7%), and 4 (51.8 to 44%). Conclusions. PBMP provided a rapid, inexpensive, simple, effective, and safe method of treating PB. PMID:26347811

  19. Identification, utilisation and mapping of novel transcriptome-based markers from blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Deep-level second generation sequencing (2GS) technologies are now being applied to non-model species as a viable and favourable alternative to Sanger sequencing. Large-scale SNP discovery was undertaken in blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum L.) using transcriptome-based 2GS 454 sequencing on the parental genotypes of a reference mapping population, to generate large numbers of novel markers for the construction of a high-density linkage map. Results Over 700,000 reads were produced, from which a total of 7,000 SNPs were found. A subset of polymorphic SNPs was selected to develop a 384-SNP OPA assay using the Illumina BeadXpress platform. Additionally, the data enabled identification of 3,000 novel EST-SSRs. The selected SNPs and SSRs were validated across diverse Ribes germplasm, including mapping populations and other selected Ribes species. SNP-based maps were developed from two blackcurrant mapping populations, incorporating 48% and 27% of assayed SNPs respectively. A relatively high proportion of visually monomorphic SNPs were investigated further by quantitative trait mapping of theta score outputs from BeadStudio analysis, and this enabled additional SNPs to be placed on the two maps. Conclusions The use of 2GS technology for the development of markers is superior to previously described methods, in both numbers of markers and biological informativeness of those markers. Whilst the numbers of reads and assembled contigs were comparable to similar sized studies of other non-model species, here a high proportion of novel genes were discovered across a wide range of putative function and localisation. The potential utility of markers developed using the 2GS approach in downstream breeding applications is discussed. PMID:22035129

  20. Uncertainty analysis of hydrological ensemble forecasts in a distributed model utilising short-range rainfall prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xuan, Y.; Cluckie, I. D.; Wang, Y.

    2009-03-01

    Advances in mesoscale numerical weather predication make it possible to provide rainfall forecasts along with many other data fields at increasingly higher spatial resolutions. It is currently possible to incorporate high-resolution NWPs directly into flood forecasting systems in order to obtain an extended lead time. It is recognised, however, that direct application of rainfall outputs from the NWP model can contribute considerable uncertainty to the final river flow forecasts as the uncertainties inherent in the NWP are propagated into hydrological domains and can also be magnified by the scaling process. As the ensemble weather forecast has become operationally available, it is of particular interest to the hydrologist to investigate both the potential and implication of ensemble rainfall inputs to the hydrological modelling systems in terms of uncertainty propagation. In this paper, we employ a distributed hydrological model to analyse the performance of the ensemble flow forecasts based on the ensemble rainfall inputs from a short-range high-resolution mesoscale weather model. The results show that: (1) The hydrological model driven by QPF can produce forecasts comparable with those from a raingauge-driven one; (2) The ensemble hydrological forecast is able to disseminate abundant information with regard to the nature of the weather system and the confidence of the forecast itself; and (3) the uncertainties as well as systematic biases are sometimes significant and, as such, extra effort needs to be made to improve the quality of such a system.

  1. Uncertainty analysis of hydrological ensemble forecasts in a distributed model utilising short-range rainfall prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cluckie, I. D.; Xuan, Y.; Wang, Y.

    2006-10-01

    Advances in meso-scale numerical weather predication make it possible to provide rainfall forecasts along with many other data fields at increasingly higher spatial resolutions. It is currently possible to incorporate high-resolution NWPs directly into flood forecasting systems in order to obtain an extended lead time. It is recognised, however, that direct application of rainfall outputs from the NWP model can contribute considerable uncertainty to the final river flow forecasts as the uncertainties inherent in the NWP are propagated into hydrological domains and can also be magnified by the scaling process. As the ensemble weather forecast has become operationally available, it is of particular interest to the hydrologist to investigate both the potential and implication of ensemble rainfall inputs to the hydrological modelling systems in terms of uncertainty propagation. In this paper, we employ a distributed hydrological model to analyse the performance of the ensemble flow forecasts based on the ensemble rainfall inputs from a short-range high-resolution mesoscale weather model. The results show that: (1) The hydrological model driven by QPF can produce forecasts comparable with those from a raingauge-driven one; (2) The ensemble hydrological forecast is able to disseminate abundant information with regard to the nature of the weather system and the confidence of the forecast itself; and (3) the uncertainties as well as systematic biases are sometimes significant and, as such, extra effort needs to be made to improve the quality of such a system.

  2. Utilising Geological Field Measurements and Historic Eruption Volumes to Estimate the Volume of Santorini's Magma Chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Browning, J.; Drymoni, K.; Gudmundsson, A.

    2015-12-01

    An understanding of the amount of magma available to supply any given eruption is useful for determining the potential eruption magnitude and duration. Geodetic measurements and inversion techniques are often used to constrain volume changes within magma chambers, as well as constrain location and depth, but such models are incapable of calculating total magma storage. For example, during the 2012 unrest period at Santorini volcano, approximately 0.021 km3 of new magma entered a shallow chamber residing at around 4 km below the surface. This type of event is not unusual, and is in fact a necessary condition for the formation of a long-lived shallow chamber, of which Santorini must possess. The period of unrest ended without culminating in eruption, i.e the amount of magma which entered the chamber was insufficient to break the chamber and force magma further towards the surface. We combine previously published data on the volume of recent eruptions at Santorini together with geodetic measurements. Measurements of dykes within the caldera wall provide an estimate of the volume of magma transported during eruptions, assuming the dyke does not become arrested. When the combined volume of a dyke and eruption are known (Ve) they can be used to estimate using fracture mechanics principles and poro-elastic constraints the size of an underlying shallow magma chamber. We present field measurements of dykes within Santorini caldera and provide an analytical method to estimate the volume of magma contained underneath Santorini caldera. In addition we postulate the potential volume of magma required as input from deeper sources to switch the shallow magma chamber from an equilibrium setting to one where the pressure inside the chamber exceeds the surrounding host rocks tensile strength, a condition necessary to form a dyke and a possible eruption.

  3. Utilising Secondary Schools Facilities for Adult Learning Programmes in Tanzania: A Veracity of Trances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machumu, Haruni J.; Kalimasi, Perpetua J.; Msabila, Dominick T.; Zhu, Chang; Almasi, Mustapha

    2015-01-01

    The majority of Tanzanians acquire primary education, which is actually not enough for manpower production purposes. With this kind of graduates, the country may not be in a position to develop fast unless adult education takes part fully to rescue the situation because primary education offers insufficient required life skills. Adult education…

  4. Heterogeneous freezing of single sulphuric acid solution droplets: laboratory experiments utilising an acoustic levitator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ettner, M.; Mitra, S. K.; Borrmann, S.

    2004-03-01

    The heterogeneous freezing temperatures of single binary sulphuric acid solution droplets were measured in dependency of acid concentration down to temperatures as low as -70°C. In order to avoid influence of supporting substrates on the freezing characteristics, the droplets were suspended by means of an acoustic levitator. The droplets contained immersed particles of graphite, kaolin or montmorillonite in order to study the influence of the presence of such contamination on the freezing temperature. The radii of the suspended droplets spanned the range between 0,4 and 1,1 mm and the concentration of the sulphuric acid solution varied between 5 and 25 weight percent. The presence of the particles in the solution raises the freezing temperature with respect to homogeneous freezing of these solution droplets. The pure solution droplets can be supercooled up to 40° below the ice-acid solution thermodynamic equilibrium curve. Depending on the concentration of sulphuric acid and the nature of the impurity the polluted droplets froze between -11°C and -35°C. The experimental set-up, combining a deep freezer with a movable ultrasonic levitator and suitable optics, proved to be a useful approach for such investigations on individual droplets.

  5. A highly efficient molecular cloning platform that utilises a small bacterial toxin gene.

    PubMed

    Mok, Wendy W K; Li, Yingfu

    2013-04-15

    Molecular cloning technologies that have emerged in recent years are more efficient and simpler to use than traditional strategies, but many have the disadvantages of requiring multiple steps and expensive proprietary enzymes. We have engineered cloning vectors containing variants of IbsC, a 19-residue toxin from Escherichia coli K-12. These toxic peptides offer selectivity to minimise the background, labour, and cost associated with conventional molecular cloning. As demonstrated with the cloning of reporter genes, this "detox cloning" system consistently produced over 95 % positive clones. Purification steps between digestion and ligation are not necessary, and the total time between digestion and plating of transformants can be as little as three hours. Thus, these IbsC-based cloning vectors are as reliable and amenable to high-throughput cloning as commercially available systems, and have the advantage of being more time-efficient and cost-effective. PMID:23512843

  6. Under-utilisation of organic wastes during brownfield regeneration to community woodland: tackling the barriers.

    PubMed

    Ashwood, Francis E; Doick, Kieron J; Atkinson, Gail E; Chenoweth, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    The regeneration of brownfield land to greenspace is a governmental policy objective of many European countries. Healthy vegetation establishment and growth is an essential component of successful greenspace establishment, and research has shown that a planting medium of an appropriate standard for supporting vegetation can be created through amendment of soil-forming materials with organic wastes. However, failed regeneration projects suggest that barriers may exist that prevent the use of suitable quality soil materials. The aim of this research was to identify barriers to the use of organic wastes for improving soil materials for brownfield regeneration to community woodland. We conducted interviews with a range of professionals experienced in regeneration to greenspace, and used content analysis on interview transcripts. A diverse set of barriers was revealed, including a low technical awareness among some professional groups of how to improve soil quality, coupled with a low awareness of the published technical guidance. Other barriers include regulatory and project management issues, which influence the timings and economics of raising brownfield soil quality. We highlight areas in which future efforts may be focused to improve the quality of planting media used in land regeneration. Such effort will improve the sustainability of greenspaces created and complement effective management of organic waste streams. PMID:24293070

  7. Electron-impact calculations of near-neutral atomic systems utilising Petascale computer architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballance, Connor

    2013-05-01

    Over the last couple of decades, a number of advanced non-perturbative approaches such as the R-matrix, TDCC and CCC methods have made great strides in terms of improved target representation and investigating fundamental 2-4 electron problems. However, for the electron-impact excitation of near-neutral species or complicated open-shell atomic systems we are forced to make certain compromises in terms of the atomic structure and/or the number of channels included in close-coupling expansion of the subsequent scattering calculation. The availability of modern supercomputing architectures with hundreds of thousands of cores, and the emergence new opportunities through GPU usauge offers one possibility to address some of these issues. To effectively harness this computational power will require significant revision of the existing code structures. I shall discuss some effective strategies within a non-relativistic and relativistic R-matrix framework using the examples detailed below. The goal is to extend existing R-matrix methods from 1-2 thousand close coupled channels to 10,000 channels. With the construction of the ITER experiment in Cadarache, which will have Tungsten plasma-facing components, there is an urgent diagnostic need for the collisional rates for the near-neutral ion stages. In particular, spectroscopic diagnostics of impurity influx require accurate electron-impact excitation and ionisation as well as a good target representation. There have been only a few non-perturbative collisional calculations for this system, and the open-f shell ion stages provide a daunting challenge even for perturbative approaches. I shall present non-perturbative results for for the excitation and ionisation of W3+ and illustrate how these fundamental calculations can be integrated into a meaningful diagnostic for the ITER device. We acknowledge support from DoE fusion.

  8. Utilisation of a Novel Test to Measure Severity and Treatment Efficacy of Posterior Blepharitis.

    PubMed

    Yun, Steven T H; Woo, David M; Chong, Calum W K; Liu, Ying; Francis, Katherine E; Shah, Saumil A; Agar, Ashish; Francis, Ian C

    2015-01-01

    Background. This study evaluated the effectiveness of managing posterior blepharitis (PB) using a novel Posterior Blepharitis Management Protocol (PBMP). Design. Prospective, consecutive case series with 100% followup to one month. Participants. 27 patients (54 eyes) with PB from an Ophthalmology practice in Sydney, Australia. Methods. Each patient's PB was assessed by grading the nature and expressibility of the central lower lid tarsal gland secretions on Compression Of The Eyelid (COTE). Patients were then instructed in detail to undertake daily PB management sessions at home using our modified PBMP. Main Outcome Measures. On a subjective scale, patients compared their symptoms at one month with baseline. COTE scores were reevaluated to assess the objective effectiveness of each individual's PBMP. COTE scoring was described as grades 1 (clear oil), 2 (pus, liquid), 3 (toothpaste-like secretions), and 4 (complete tarsal gland obstruction). Results. Patients reported a mean 77.8% ± 13.5% subjective improvement in symptoms. There was a trend towards improvement in COTE grading at one month compared with baseline: grades 1 (0 to 7.4%), 2a (22.2 to 16.6%), 2b (7.4 to 3.7%), 3 (18.5 to 27.7%), and 4 (51.8 to 44%). Conclusions. PBMP provided a rapid, inexpensive, simple, effective, and safe method of treating PB. PMID:26347811

  9. Value-added utilisation of recycled concrete in hot-mix asphalt

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Yiik Diew; Sun, Darren Delai . E-mail: ddsun@ntu.edu.sg; Lai, Dickson

    2007-07-01

    The feasibility of partial substitution of granite aggregate in hot-mix asphalt (HMA) with waste concrete aggregate was investigated. Three hybrid HMA mixes incorporating substitutions of granite fillers/fines with 6%, 45% untreated, and 45% heat-treated concrete were evaluated by the Marshall mix design method; the optimum binder contents were found to be 5.3%, 6.5% and 7.0% of grade Pen 60/70 bitumen, respectively. All three hybrid mixes satisfied the Marshall criteria of the Singapore Land Transport Authority (LTA) W3B wearing course specification. The hybrid mix with 6% concrete fillers gave comparable resilient modulus and creep resistance as the conventional W3B mix, while hybrid mixes with higher concrete substitutions achieved better performance. X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed the distinct presence of free lime in the heat-treated concrete, while the scanning electron microscope (SEM) provided an in-depth perspective of the concrete grains in the HMA matrix. The results suggest feasible use of waste concrete as partial aggregate substitution in HMA.

  10. A new coordination pattern classification to assess gait kinematics when utilising a modified vector coding technique.

    PubMed

    Needham, Robert A; Naemi, Roozbeh; Chockalingam, Nachiappan

    2015-09-18

    A modified vector coding (VC) technique was used to quantify lumbar-pelvic coordination during gait. The outcome measure from the modified VC technique is known as the coupling angle (CA) which can be classified into one of four coordination patterns. This study introduces a new classification for this coordination pattern that expands on a current data analysis technique by introducing the terms in-phase with proximal dominancy, in-phase with distal dominancy, anti-phase with proximal dominancy and anti-phase with distal dominancy. This proposed coordination pattern classification can offer an interpretation of the CA that provides either in-phase or anti-phase coordination information, along with an understanding of the direction of segmental rotations and the segment that is the dominant mover at each point in time. Classifying the CA against the new defined coordination patterns and presenting this information in a traditional time-series format in this study has offered an insight into segmental range of motion. A new illustration is also presented which details the distribution of the CA within each of the coordination patterns and allows for the quantification of segmental dominancy. The proposed illustration technique can have important implications in demonstrating gait coordination data in an easily comprehensible fashion by clinicians and scientists alike. PMID:26303167

  11. Utilising Multimedia ESP Programme in Enhancing Flight Attendants' Safety Knowledge and Problem Solving Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bani-Salameh, Zakaria A.; Kabilan, Muhammad K.; Bani-Salalmeh, Lina

    2011-01-01

    A multimedia English for Specific Purposes (ESP) programme was developed to train flight attendants. The programme comprised of two units. Unit one is listening comprehension, which provides the flight attendants' with specific information of Airbus A340. Unit two is reading comprehension, which provides the flight attendants with the emergency…

  12. Electroanalytical sensing of chromium(III) and (VI) utilising gold screen printed macro electrodes.

    PubMed

    Metters, Jonathan P; Kadara, Rashid O; Banks, Craig E

    2012-02-21

    We report the fabrication of gold screen printed macro electrodes which are electrochemically characterised and contrasted to polycrystalline gold macroelectrodes with their potential analytical application towards the sensing of chromium(III) and (VI) critically explored. It is found that while these gold screen printed macro electrodes have electrode kinetics typically one order of magnitude lower than polycrystalline gold macroelectrodes as is measured via a standard redox probe, in terms of analytical sensing, these gold screen printed macro electrodes mimic polycrystalline gold in terms of their analytical performance towards the sensing of chromium(III) and (VI), whilst boasting additional advantages over the macro electrode due to their disposable one-shot nature and the ease of mass production. An additional advantage of these gold screen printed macro electrodes compared to polycrystalline gold is the alleviation of the requirement to potential cycle the latter to form the required gold oxide which aids in the simplification of the analytical protocol. We demonstrate that gold screen printed macro electrodes allow the low micro-molar sensing of chromium(VI) in aqueous solutions over the range 10 to 1600 μM with a limit of detection (3σ) of 4.4 μM. The feasibility of the analytical protocol is also tested through chromium(VI) detection in environmental samples. PMID:22228309

  13. Financial and environmental modelling of water hardness--implications for utilising harvested rainwater in washing machines.

    PubMed

    Morales-Pinzón, Tito; Lurueña, Rodrigo; Gabarrell, Xavier; Gasol, Carles M; Rieradevall, Joan

    2014-02-01

    A study was conducted to determine the financial and environmental effects of water quality on rainwater harvesting systems. The potential for replacing tap water used in washing machines with rainwater was studied, and then analysis presented in this paper is valid for applications that include washing machines where tap water hardness may be important. A wide range of weather conditions, such as rainfall (284-1,794 mm/year); water hardness (14-315 mg/L CaCO3); tap water prices (0.85-2.65 Euros/m(3)) in different Spanish urban areas (from individual buildings to whole neighbourhoods); and other scenarios (including materials and water storage capacity) were analysed. Rainfall was essential for rainwater harvesting, but the tap water prices and the water hardness were the main factors for consideration in the financial and the environmental analyses, respectively. The local tap water hardness and prices can cause greater financial and environmental impacts than the type of material used for the water storage tank or the volume of the tank. The use of rainwater as a substitute for hard water in washing machines favours financial analysis. Although tap water hardness significantly affects the financial analysis, the greatest effect was found in the environmental analysis. When hard tap water needed to be replaced, it was found that a water price of 1 Euro/m(3) could render the use of rainwater financially feasible when using large-scale rainwater harvesting systems. When the water hardness was greater than 300 mg/L CaCO3, a financial analysis revealed that an net present value greater than 270 Euros/dwelling could be obtained at the neighbourhood scale, and there could be a reduction in the Global Warming Potential (100 years) ranging between 35 and 101 kg CO2 eq./dwelling/year. PMID:24262990

  14. Utilising a Construct of Teacher Capacity to Examine National Curriculum Reform in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Qinqiong; Stephens, Max

    2013-01-01

    This study involving 120 Australian and Chinese teachers introduces a construct of teacher capacity to analyse how teachers help students connect arithmetic learning and emerging algebraic thinking. Four criteria formed the basis of our construct of teacher capacity: knowledge of mathematics, interpretation of the intentions of official curriculum…

  15. Multi-responsive coordination polymers utilising metal-stabilised, dynamic covalent imine bonds.

    PubMed

    García, Fátima; Pelss, Janis; Zuilhof, Han; Smulders, Maarten M J

    2016-07-12

    We report how the combination of dynamic covalent imine bonds and coordination bonds in a single polymer material not only imparts enhanced stability to the final polymer, but also allows the material to be sensitive to a range of stimuli, offering more fine-grained control over its properties. PMID:26879208

  16. Instrumentation utilisation for risk control in safety operations. [balloons and rockets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swayer, F. R.

    1987-01-01

    Ways in which instrumentation is utilized for risk control for inherently safe (no control or guidance) and flight programmed launch vehicles is presented. Instrumentation and how it is utilized in the launching and recovery of balloons and payloads is also presented. Wind sensing, computer systems, tracking, and telemetry are discussed.

  17. Interprofessional orientation for health professionals utilising simulated learning: Findings from a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Will, Kristen Kaye; Stepanek, Jan; Brewer, Kathryn K; Colquist, Julie A; Cruz, Jade Ethel S; Donald, Carrlene B; Hartsell, Zachary C; Hust, Steven J; Lowell, Amelia A; Markiewicz, Katherine A; Panchmatia, Bella; Shelton, A Travis; Novais, Barbara S; Wilson, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    We describe a novel, interprofessional educational intervention pilot used to orient new health profession employees through the simulation laboratory. Health profession employees were recruited to engage in a simulation training session that focused on communication, collaboration, and healthcare roles and responsibilities. Learners (N = 11) were divided into two groups with representation from various health disciplines. Each group participated in a simulated patient scenario while the other group actively observed in another classroom. At the end of both sessions, the group reconvened for a debriefing session. Participants were given a survey before and after the training session, to evaluate the content, experience, and value to their practice. The pre- and post-evaluation survey analysis showed improvement in all objectives with a mean (SD) pre-evaluation score of 4.10 (0.40-1.01) and mean (SD) post-evaluation score of 4.73 (0.30-0.81). Results were favourable, and plans to expand this project are under way. PMID:26930557

  18. Study of calcification formation and disease diagnostics utilising advanced vibrational spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerssens, Marleen Maartje

    The accurate and safe diagnosis of breast cancer is a significant societal issue, with annual disease incidence of 48,000 women and around 370 men in the UK. Early diagnosis of the disease allows more conservative treatments and better patient outcomes. Microcalcifications in breast tissue are an important indicator for breast cancers, and often the only sign of their presence. Several studies have suggested that the type of calcification formed may act as a marker for malignancy and its presence may be of biological significance. In this work, breast calcifications are studied with FTIR, synchrotron FTIR, ATR FTIR, and Raman mapping to explore their disease specific composition. From a comparison between vibrational spectroscopy and routine staining procedures it becomes clear that calcium builds up prior to calcification formation. Raman and FTIR indicate the same size for calcifications and are in agreement with routine staining techniques. From the synchrotron FTIR measurements it can be proven that amide is present in the centre of the calcifications and the intensity of the bands depends on the pathology. Special attention is paid to the type of carbonate substitution in the calcifications relating to different pathology grades. In contrast to mammography, Raman spectroscopy has the capability to distinguish calcifications based on their chemical composition. The ultimate goal is to turn the acquired knowledge from the mapping studies into a clinical tool based on deep Raman spectroscopy. Deep Raman techniques have a considerable potential to reduce large numbers of normal biopsies, reduce the time delay between screening and diagnosis and therefore diminish patient anxiety. In order to achieve this, a deep Raman system is designed and after evaluation of its performance tested on buried calcification standards in porcine soft tissue and human mammary tissue. It is shown that, when the calcification is probed through tissue, the strong 960 cm-1 phosphate band can be used as a pseudo marker for carbonate substitution which is related to the pathology of the surrounding tissue. Furthermore, the first study in which human breast calcifications are measured in bulk tissue with a thickness of several millimetres to centimetres is presented. To date, measurements have been performed at 41 specimens with a thickness up to 25 mm. Measurements could be performed through skin and blue dye. The proposed deep Raman technique is promising for probing of calcifications through tissue but will need refinement before being adopted in hospitals.

  19. Utilisation of chemically stabilized arsenic-contaminated soil in a landfill cover.

    PubMed

    Kumpiene, Jurate; Desogus, Paolo; Schulenburg, Sven; Arenella, Mariarita; Renella, Giancarlo; Brännvall, Evelina; Lagerkvist, Anders; Andreas, Lale; Sjöblom, Rolf

    2013-12-01

    The aim of the study was to determine if an As-contaminated soil, stabilized using zerovalent iron (Fe(0)) and its combination with gypsum waste, coal fly ash, peat, or sewage sludge, could be used as a construction material at the top layer of the landfill cover. A reproduction of 2 m thick protection/vegetation layer of a landfill cover using a column setup was used to determine the ability of the amendments to reduce As solubility and stimulate soil functionality along the soil profile. Soil amendment with Fe(0) was highly efficient in reducing As in soil porewater reaching 99 % reduction, but only at the soil surface. In the deeper soil layers (below 0.5 m), the Fe treatment had a reverse effect, As solubility increased dramatically exceeding that of the untreated soil or any other treatment by one to two orders of magnitude. A slight bioluminescence inhibition of Vibrio fischeri was detected in the Fe(0) treatment. Soil amendment with iron and peat showed no toxicity to bacteria and was the most efficient in reducing dissolved As in soil porewater throughout the 2 m soil profile followed by iron and gypsum treatment, most likely resulting from a low soil density and a good air diffusion to the soil. The least suitable combination of soil amendments for As immobilization was a mixture of iron with coal fly ash. An increase in all measured enzyme activities was observed in all treatments, particularly those receiving organic matter. For As to be stable in soil, a combination of amendments that can keep the soil porous and ensure the air diffusion through the entire soil layer of the landfill cover is required. PMID:23709267

  20. Intranet-Based Learning: A One-Year Study of Student Utilisation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herson, Katie; Sosabowski, M. H.; Lloyd, A. W.

    1999-01-01

    Reports on the undergraduate utilization and evaluation of an Intranet learning resource developed at the School of Pharmacy of the University of Brighton (United Kingdom). Topics include advantages of Intranets over the Internet, including software licensing and confidentiality; barriers to implementation; and future proposals. (LRW)

  1. Utilisation-Focused Evaluation of ICT in Education: The Case of DFAQ Consultation Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng'ambi, Dick; Brown, Irwin

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes an evaluation of a web-based consultation space (a dynamic frequently asked questions environment--DFAQ) in which learners consult one another using questions, and in which both the flow of interaction and its artefacts become a resource available to a community of learners. The DFAQ is a special form of a…

  2. Groundwater and surface-water utilisation using a bank infiltration technique in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamsuddin, Mohd Khairul Nizar; Sulaiman, Wan Nor Azmin; Suratman, Saim; Zakaria, Mohamad Pauzi; Samuding, Kamarudin

    2014-05-01

    Bank infiltration (BI) is one of the solutions to providing raw water for public supply in tropical countries. This study in Malaysia explores the use of BI to supplement a polluted surface-water resource with groundwater. Three major factors were investigated: (1) contribution of surface water through BI to the resulting abstraction, (2) input of local groundwater, and (3) water-quality characteristics of the resulting water supply. A geophysical method was employed to define the subsurface geology and hydrogeology, and isotope techniques were performed to identify the source of groundwater recharge and the interaction between surface water and groundwater. The physicochemical and microbiological parameters of the local surface-water bodies and groundwater were analyzed before and during water abstraction. Extracted water revealed a 5-98 % decrease in turbidity, as well as reductions in HCO3 -, Cl-, SO4 2-, NO3 -, Ca2+, Al3+ and As concentrations compared with those of Langat River water. In addition, amounts of E. coli, total coliform and Giardia were significantly reduced (99.9 %). However, water samples from test wells during pumping showed high concentrations of Fe2+ and Mn2+. Pumping test results indicate that the two wells used in the study were able to sustain yields.

  3. Utilising the Hand Model to promote a culturally safe environment for international nursing students.

    PubMed

    Mackay, Bev; Harding, Thomas; Jurlina, Lou; Scobie, Norma; Khan, Ruelle

    2011-04-01

    The rising number of international students studying outside their own country poses challenges for nursing education. Numbers are predicted to grow and economic factors are placing increasing pressure on tertiary institutions to accept these students. In adapting to a foreign learning environment international students must not only adapt to the academic culture but also to the socio-cultural context. The most significant acculturation issues for students are English as a second language, differences in education pedagogy and social integration and connectedness. Students studying in New Zealand need to work with Maori, the indigenous people, and assimilate and practice the unique aspects of cultural safety, which has evolved in nursing as part of the response to the principles underpinning the Treaty of Waitangi. The Hand Model offers the potential to support international students in a culturally safe manner across all aspects of acculturation including those aspects of cultural safety unique to New Zealand. The model was originally developed by Lou Jurlina, a nursing teacher, to assist her to teach cultural safety and support her students in practising cultural safety in nursing. The thumb, represents 'awareness', with the other four digits signifying 'connection" 'communication', 'negotiation' and 'advocacy' respectively. Each digit is connected to the palm where the ultimate evaluation of the Hand Model in promoting cultural safety culminates in the clasping and shaking of hands: the moment of shared meaning. It promotes a sense of self worth and identity in students and a safe environment in which they can learn. PMID:21710911

  4. Recovery of protein from green leaves: Overview of crucial steps for utilisation.

    PubMed

    Tamayo Tenorio, Angelica; Gieteling, Jarno; de Jong, Govardus A H; Boom, Remko M; van der Goot, Atze J

    2016-07-15

    Plant leaves are a major potential source of novel food proteins. Till now, leaf protein extraction methods mainly focus on the extraction of soluble proteins, like rubisco protein, leaving more than half of all protein unextracted. Here, we report on the total protein extraction from sugar beet leaves (Beta vulgaris L.) by a traditional thermal extraction method consisting of mechanical pressing, heating to 50 °C and centrifugation. The resulting streams (i.e. supernatant, green-protein pellet and fibrous pulp) were characterised in terms of composition, physical structure and processing options. The protein distributed almost equally over the supernatant, pellet and pulp. This shows that thermal precipitation is an unselective process with respect to fractionation between soluble (rubisco) and insoluble (other) proteins. About 6% of the total protein could be extracted as pure rubisco (90% purity) from the supernatant. Surfactants commonly used for protein solubilisation could hardly re-dissolve the precipitated proteins in the pellet phase, which suggested that irreversible association was induced between the co-precipitated proteins and cell debris. Thus, the extraction of this protein will require prevention of their co-precipitation, and should take place in the original juice solution. PMID:26948631

  5. Doppler utilised Kalman estimation (DUKE) of ionospheric delay for satellite navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acharya, Rajat

    2013-06-01

    The ionospheric delay experienced by the satellite navigation signals depends upon the Total Electron Content (TEC) and needs to be corrected. While the single frequency receivers always use parametric models to correct this delay, dual frequency receivers, when suffers a loss of lock of one of its signal, also has to resort to these models. Here, an alternative method, based on Doppler, surrogated by range rate variation, has been attempted to estimate the ionospheric delay using a Kalman filter. GPS data have been used for all visible satellites over four days selected around the equinox and solstice with nominal geomagnetic conditions and estimations done in continuous and calibrated modes. Results of continuous estimation, obtained for a mid latitude station, showed moderate accuracy while it was significantly better for the calibrated mode with no seasonal dependence. Estimations done for station within the extent of equatorial anomaly, has not only resulted in relative deterioration in performance, but also shown seasonal dependence. Compared with estimates of Klobuchar model, the Calibrated estimation showed superior performance, conspicuously in the mid latitude station. However, for the continuous mode, performance was at par with the model at higher latitudes but inferior to it in regions within the extent of the equatorial anomaly.

  6. Mission to the Moon: Europe's priorities for the scientific exploration and utilisation of the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battrick, Bruce; Barron, C.

    1992-06-01

    A study to determine Europe's potential role in the future exploration and utilization of the Moon is presented. To establish the scientific justifications the Lunar Study Steering Group (LSSG) was established reflecting all scientific disciplines benefitting from a lunar base (Moon studies, astronomy, fusion, life sciences, etc.). Scientific issues were divided into three main areas: science of the Moon, including all investigations concerning the Moon as a planetary body; science from the Moon, using the Moon as a platform and therefore including observatories in the broadest sense; science on the Moon, including not only questions relating to human activities in space, but also the development of artificial ecosystems beyond the Earth. Science of the Moon focuses on geographical, geochemical and geological observations of the Earth-Moon system. Science from the Moon takes advantage of the stable lunar ground, its atmosphere free sky and, on the far side, its radio quiet environment. The Moon provides an attractive platform for the observation and study of the Universe. Two techniques that can make unique cause of the lunar platform are ultraviolet to submillimeter interferometric imaging, and very low frequency astronomy. One of the goals of life sciences studies (Science on the Moon) is obviously to provide the prerequisite information for establishing a manned lunar base. This includes studies of human physiology under reduced gravity, radiation protection and life support systems, and feasibility studies based on existing hardware. The overall recommendations are essentially to set up specific study teams for those fields judged to be the most promising for Europe, with the aim of providing more detailed scientific and technological specifications. It is also suggested that the scope of the overall study activities be expanded in order to derive mission scenarios for a viable ESA lunar exploration program and to consider economic, legal and policy matters. The need for international coordination early in the study phase is emphasized.

  7. Functional tooth restoration utilising split germs through re-regionalisation of the tooth-forming field

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Naomi; Oshima, Masamitsu; Tanaka, Chie; Ogawa, Miho; Nakajima, Kei; Ishida, Kentaro; Moriyama, Keiji; Tsuji, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    The tooth is an ectodermal organ that arises from a tooth germ under the regulation of reciprocal epithelial-mesenchymal interactions. Tooth morphogenesis occurs in the tooth-forming field as a result of reaction-diffusion waves of specific gene expression patterns. Here, we developed a novel mechanical ligation method for splitting tooth germs to artificially regulate the molecules that control tooth morphology. The split tooth germs successfully developed into multiple correct teeth through the re-regionalisation of the tooth-forming field, which is regulated by reaction-diffusion waves in response to mechanical force. Furthermore, split teeth erupted into the oral cavity and restored physiological tooth function, including mastication, periodontal ligament function and responsiveness to noxious stimuli. Thus, this study presents a novel tooth regenerative technology based on split tooth germs and the re-regionalisation of the tooth-forming field by artificial mechanical force. PMID:26673152

  8. Superconductors, analysis and applications, with special reference to the utilisation of bulk (Re)BCO materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coombs, T. A.

    2010-11-01

    The Electrical Power and Energy Conversion (EPEC) superconductivity group at Cambridge University has been working on the application of superconductivity to large scale devices. This work is taking place over a range of areas which cover FCLs, motors and generators, SMES, accelerator magnets and MRI. The research is underpinned by advanced modelling techniques using both pure Critical State models and E- J models to analyse the behaviour of the superconductors. As part of the device design we are concentrating on the analysis of AC losses in complicated geometries such as are found in motor windings and the magnetisation of bulk superconductors to enable their full potential to be realised. We are interested in the full range of high-temperature superconductors and have measured and predicted the performance of YBCO, MgB 2 and BSCCO at a range of temperatures and in wire, tape and bulk forms. This paper concentrates on recent work which includes: modelling of coils using formulations based on H and A. A critical state model for the analysis of coils in SMES; crossed field effects in bulk superconductors; a magnetic model together with experimental results which explain and describe the method of flux pumping whereby a bulk superconductor can be magnetised to a high flux density using a repeatedly applied field of low flux density and finally a new configuration for MRI magnets

  9. Utilisation of 2nd Generation Web Technologies in Master Level Vocational Teacher Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tóth, Péter

    2009-01-01

    The Masters level Opportunities and Technological Innovation in Vocational Teacher Education project (project site: http://motivate.tmpk.bmf.hu/) aims to develop the use and management of virtual learning environments in the area of vocational teacher training, drawing on a well established international partnership of institutions providing both…

  10. School Reform for Positive Behaviour Support through Collaborative Learning: Utilising Lesson Study for a Learning Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saito, Eisuke; Watanabe, Miki; Gillies, Robyn; Someya, Ikuo; Nagashima, Takashi; Sato, Masaaki; Murase, Masatsugu

    2015-01-01

    Recent research has emphasised educating children about positive behaviours to overcome delinquency issues, but there is little clarification of what factors lead to positive behaviours. This study analyses factors that led to children's positive behaviours at a junior high school in Japan, which experienced a dramatic turnaround after…

  11. Competition Triggers Plasmid-Mediated Enhancement of Substrate Utilisation in Pseudomonas putida

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Hiren; Dave, Rachna; Venugopalan, Vayalam P.

    2009-01-01

    Competition between species plays a central role in the activity and structure of communities. Stable co-existence of diverse organisms in communities is thought to be fostered by individual tradeoffs and optimization of competitive strategies along resource gradients. Outside the laboratory, microbes exist as multispecies consortia, continuously interacting with one another and the environment. Survival and proliferation of a particular species is governed by its competitive fitness. Therefore, bacteria must be able to continuously sense their immediate environs for presence of competitors and prevailing conditions. Here we present results of our investigations on a novel competition sensing mechanism in the rhizosphere-inhabiting Pseudomonas putida KT2440, harbouring gfpmut3b-modified KanR TOL plasmid. We monitored benzyl alcohol (BA) degradation rate, along with GFP expression profiling in mono species and dual species cultures. Interestingly, enhanced plasmid expression (monitored using GFP expression) and consequent BA degradation were observed in dual species consortia, irrespective of whether the competitor was a BA degrader (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) or a non-degrader (E. coli). Attempts at elucidation of the mechanistic aspects of induction indicated the role of physical interaction, but not of any diffusible compounds emanating from the competitors. This contention is supported by the observation that greater induction took place in presence of increasing number of competitors. Inert microspheres mimicking competitor cell size and concentration did not elicit any significant induction, further suggesting the role of physical cell-cell interaction. Furthermore, it was also established that cell wall compromised competitor had minimal induction capability. We conclude that P. putida harbouring pWW0 experience a competitive stress when grown as dual-species consortium, irrespective of the counterpart being BA degrader or not. The immediate effect of this stress is a marked increase in expression of TOL, leading to rapid utilization of the available carbon source and massive increase in its population density. The plausible mechanisms behind the phenomenon are hypothesised and practical implications are indicated and discussed. PMID:19557171

  12. Transitional Experiences of International Postgraduate Students Utilising a Peer Mentor Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menzies, Jane L.; Baron, Rachael; Zutshi, Ambika

    2015-01-01

    Background: Mentoring provides a range of benefits and one of them is social support. The number of students in transnational education has been increasing, and their transition into university is often fraught with difficulties. Universities can support transition through the use of a peer mentor programme (PMP). Purpose: The purpose of the study…

  13. Utilising tetraphenylethene as a dual activator for intramolecular charge transfer and aggregation induced emission.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guo-Feng; Aldred, Matthew P; Gong, Wen-Liang; Li, Chong; Zhu, Ming-Qiang

    2012-08-11

    We report a simple design and synthesis of a donor-acceptor tetraphenylethene-naphthalimide (TPE-NI) dyad, in which TPE acts both as an electron-donor for intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) and activator for aggregation induced emission (AIE). Strong solvent-dependent photoluminescence covering almost the whole visible spectrum and AIE in its nanoparticle state compared to its solution state are demonstrated. PMID:22745935

  14. Optimising dosing strategies of antibacterials utilising pharmacodynamic principles: impact on the development of resistance.

    PubMed

    DeRyke, C Andrew; Lee, Su Young; Kuti, Joseph L; Nicolau, David P

    2006-01-01

    Evolving antimicrobial resistance is of global concern. The impact of decreased susceptibility to current antibacterials coupled with the decline in the marketing of new agents with novel mechanisms of action places a tremendous burden on clinicians to appropriately use available agents. Optimising antibacterial dose administration through the use of pharmacodynamic principles can aid clinicians in accomplishing this task more effectively. Methods to achieve this include: continuous or prolonged infusion, or the use of smaller doses administered more frequently for the time-dependent beta-lactam agents; or higher, less frequent dose administration of the concentration-dependent aminoglycosides and fluoroquinolones. Pharmacodynamic breakpoints, which are predictive of clinical and/or microbiological success in the treatment of infection, have been determined for many classes of antibacterials, including the fluoroquinolones, aminoglycosides and beta-lactams. Although surpassing these values may predict efficacy, it may not prevent the development of resistance. Recent studies seek to determine the pharmacodynamic breakpoints that prevent the development of resistance. Numerous studies to this point have determined these values in fluoroquinolones in both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. However, among the other antibacterial classes, there is a lack of sufficient data. Additionally, a new term, the mutant prevention concentration, has been based on the concentrations above which resistance is unlikely to occur. Future work is needed to fully characterise these target concentrations that prevent resistance. PMID:16398565

  15. Enhanced Mechanical Performance of Bio-Inspired Hybrid Structures Utilising Topological Interlocking Geometry.

    PubMed

    Djumas, Lee; Molotnikov, Andrey; Simon, George P; Estrin, Yuri

    2016-01-01

    Structural composites inspired by nacre have emerged as prime exemplars for guiding materials design of fracture-resistant, rigid hybrid materials. The intricate microstructure of nacre, which combines a hard majority phase with a small fraction of a soft phase, achieves superior mechanical properties compared to its constituents and has generated much interest. However, replicating the hierarchical microstructure of nacre is very challenging, not to mention improving it. In this article, we propose to alter the geometry of the hard building blocks by introducing the concept of topological interlocking. This design principle has previously been shown to provide an inherently brittle material with a remarkable flexural compliance. We now demonstrate that by combining the basic architecture of nacre with topological interlocking of discrete hard building blocks, hybrid materials of a new type can be produced. By adding a soft phase at the interfaces between topologically interlocked blocks in a single-build additive manufacturing process, further improvement of mechanical properties is achieved. The design of these fabricated hybrid structures has been guided by computational work elucidating the effect of various geometries. To our knowledge, this is the first reported study that combines the advantages of nacre-inspired structures with the benefits of topological interlocking. PMID:27216277

  16. Can aliphatic anchoring groups be utilised with dyes for p-type dye sensitized solar cells?

    PubMed

    Hao, Yan; Wood, Christopher J; Clark, Charlotte A; Calladine, James A; Horvath, Raphael; Hanson-Heine, Magnus W D; Sun, Xue-Zhong; Clark, Ian P; Towrie, Michael; George, Michael W; Yang, Xichuan; Sun, Licheng; Gibson, Elizabeth A

    2016-05-01

    A series of novel laterally anchoring tetrahydroquinoline derivatives have been synthesized and investigated for their use in NiO-based p-type dye-sensitized solar cells. The kinetics of charge injection and recombination at the NiO-dye interface for these dyes have been thoroughly investigated using picosecond transient absorption and time-resolved infrared measurements. It was revealed that despite the anchoring unit being electronically decoupled from the dye structure, charge injection occurred on a sub picosecond timescale. However, rapid recombination was also observed due to the close proximity of the electron acceptor on the dyes to the NiO surface, ultimately limiting the performance of the p-DSCs. PMID:27055102

  17. A numerical model for thermal energy storage systems utilising encapsulated phase change materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacob, Rhys; Saman, Wasim; Bruno, Frank

    2016-05-01

    In an effort to reduce the cost of thermal energy storage for concentrated solar power plants, a thermocline storage concept was investigated. Two systems were investigated being a sensible-only and an encapsulated phase change system. Both systems have the potential to reduce the storage tank volume and/or reduce the cost of the filler material, thereby reducing the cost of the system when compared to current two-tank molten salt systems. The objective of the current paper is to create a numerical model capable of designing and simulating the aforementioned thermocline storage concepts in the open source programming language known as Python. The results of the current study are compared to previous numerical results and are found to be in good agreement.

  18. Identification of GI cancers utilising rapid mid-infrared spectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nallala, Jayakrupakar; Lloyd, Gavin R.; Kendall, Catherine; Barr, Hugh; Shepherd, Neil; Stone, Nick

    2016-03-01

    Pathologists find it notoriously difficult to provide both inter- and intra-observer agreement on a diagnosis of early gastrointestinal cancers. Vibrational spectroscopic approaches have shown their value in providing molecular compositional data from tissue samples and therefore enabling the identification of disease specific changes, when combined with multivariate techniques. Mid-infrared microscopic imaging is undergoing rapid developments in sources, detectors and spectrometers. Here we explore the use of high magnification FTIR for GI cancers and consider how the MINERVA (MId- to NEaR infrared spectroscopy for improVed medical diAgnostics) project, which is developing discrete frequency IR imaging tools will enable histopathologists to obtain rapid molecular images form unstained tissue sections.

  19. Methodological issues in life cycle assessment of mixed-culture polyhydroxyalkanoate production utilising waste as feedstock.

    PubMed

    Heimersson, Sara; Morgan-Sagastume, Fernando; Peters, Gregory M; Werker, Alan; Svanström, Magdalena

    2014-06-25

    Assessing the environmental performance of emerging technologies using life cycle assessment (LCA) can be challenging due to a lack of data in relation to technologies, application areas or other life cycle considerations, or a lack of LCA methodology that address the specific concerns. Nevertheless, LCA can be a valuable tool in the environmental optimisation in the technology development phase. One emerging technology is the mixed-culture production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs). PHA production by pure microbial cultures has been developed and assessed in several LCAs during the previous decade. Recent developments within mixed-culture PHA production call for environmental assessment to guide in technology development. Mixed-culture PHA production can use the organic content in wastewater as a feedstock; the production may then be integrated with wastewater treatment (WWT) processes. This means that mixed-culture PHA is produced as a by-product from services in the WWT. This article explores different methodological challenges for LCA of mixed-culture PHA production using organic material in wastewater as feedstock. LCAs of both pure- and mixed-culture PHA production were reviewed. Challenges, similarities and differences when assessing PHA production by mixed- or pure-cultures were identified and the resulting implications for methodological choices in LCA were evaluated and illustrated, using a case study with mixed- and pure-culture PHA model production systems, based on literature data. Environmental impacts of processes producing multiple products or services need to be allocated between the different products or services. Such situations occur both in feedstock production and when the studied system is providing multiple functions. The selection of allocation method is shown to determine the LCA results. The type of data used, for electricity in the energy system, is shown to be important for the results, which indicates, a strong regional dependency of results for systems with electricity use as an environmental hot spot. The importance of assessing water use, an environmental impact not assessed by any of the reviewed studies, is highlighted. PMID:24121250

  20. From Attitudes to Practice: Utilising Inclusive Teaching Strategies in Kenyan Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elder, Brent C.; Damiani, Michelle L.; Oswago, Benson O.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide evidence of Kenyan primary school teachers using inclusive teaching strategies in a rural setting with many known barriers to the development of a sustainable inclusive education system. This qualitative study examines teachers' uses of inclusive teaching strategies in primary schools following a series of…