Science.gov

Sample records for maternal cortisol awakening

  1. Free cortisol awakening responses are influenced by awakening time.

    PubMed

    Federenko, Ilona; Wüst, Stefan; Hellhammer, Dirk H; Dechoux, Ralph; Kumsta, Robert; Kirschbaum, Clemens

    2004-02-01

    Psychobiological investigations on the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis depend on markers that adequately describe the activity of this system. There is evidence that the free cortisol response to awakening, proposed as a marker for the HPA axis, can be influenced by time of awakening. To further investigate this possible confounder, 24 shift working nurses and 31 female students on a regular sleep-wake cycle collected saliva samples 0, 30, 45 and 60 minutes after awakening. Nurses were investigated on the first and second day of their early (awakening: 04:00-05:30 h), late (awakening: 06:00-09:00 h), and night shift (awakening: 11:00-14:00 h), respectively. Students were studied after taking a short nap on two consecutive weekdays (awakening: 18:45-20:30 h). Mean cortisol levels after awakening increased significantly under all three shift conditions (p<0.01), but decreased in the student sample (p<.05). Within the three shift conditions, cortisol responses following waking in the early shift were more pronounced than in late (p<.01) and night shift (p<.05). The present study shows that in a sample with a large range of awakening times, an impact of this variable on the cortisol awakening response can be observed. The data furthermore strongly suggest that waking up per se is insufficient for adrenocortical stimulation. PMID:14604599

  2. Shiftwork Duration and the Awakening Cortisol Response Among Police Officers

    PubMed Central

    Wirth, Michael; Burch, James; Violanti, John; Burchfiel, Cecil; Fekedulegn, Desta; Andrew, Michael; Zhang, Hongmei; Miller, Diane B.; Hébert, James R.; Vena, John E.

    2013-01-01

    Police officers are required to work irregular hours, which induces stress, fatigue, and sleep disruption, and they have higher rates of chronic disease and mortality. Cortisol is a well-known “stress hormone” produced via activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. An abnormal secretion pattern has been associated with immune system dysregulation and may serve as an early indicator of disease risk. This study examined the effects of long- and short-term shiftwork on the cortisol awakening response among officers (n = 68) in the Buffalo Cardio-Metabolic Occupational Police Stress (BCOPS) pilot study (2001–2003). The time each officer spent on day (start time: 04:00–11:59 h), afternoon (12:00–19:59 h), or night (20:00–03:59 h) shifts was summarized from 1994 to examination date to characterize long-term (mean: 14 ± 9 yrs) and short-term (3, 5, 7, or 14 days prior to participation) shiftwork exposures. The cortisol awakening response was characterized by summarizing the area under the curve (AUC) for samples collected on first awakening, and at 15-, 30-, and 45-min intervals after waking. Data were collected on a scheduled training or off day. The cortisol AUC with respect to ground (AUCG) summarized total cortisol output after waking, and the cortisol AUC with respect to increase (AUCI) characterized the waking cortisol response. Officers also completed the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale. Waking cortisol AUC values were lower among officers working short-term night or afternoon shifts than day shifts, with maximal differences occurring after 5 days of shiftwork. The duration of long-term shiftwork was not associated with the cortisol awakening response, although values were attenuated among officers with more career shift changes. PMID:21721860

  3. The cortisol awakening response and cognition across the adult lifespan.

    PubMed

    Ennis, Gilda E; Moffat, Scott D; Hertzog, Christopher

    2016-06-01

    Although the hippocampus is thought to play a central role in the regulation of the cortisol awakening response (CAR), results from past studies examining the relationship between the CAR and hippocampal-mediated memory and cognition have been mixed. Inconsistent findings may be due to the use of cortisol samples collected on only 1-2days since reduced sampling can permit unstable situational factors to bias results. We used cortisol assessments from 10 consecutive days to test the relationship of the CAR to episodic memory, working memory, and processing speed in a sample of healthy young, middle-aged, and older adults (age range: 23-79years; N=56). We tested if the relationship between the CAR and cognition would depend upon age and also tested if other cortisol measures, specifically waking cortisol, diurnal cortisol output (i.e., area under the curve) and diurnal cortisol slope (linear and quadratic), would be related to cognition. We found that a more positive CAR slope was related to better episodic memory and that this relationship did not depend upon age. The CAR was not significantly related to working memory. The relationship of the CAR to processing speed was not significant when using a CAR measure that corrected for non-compliant cortisol sampling. We also found that higher waking cortisol was significantly related to better working memory, but not episodic memory or processing speed. Neither diurnal cortisol output nor diurnal linear cortisol slope was significantly related to cognitive functioning. Future work should investigate the mechanisms underpinning the relationship of the cortisol awakening process to cognitive functioning. PMID:27105036

  4. The cortisol awakening response (CAR): facts and future directions.

    PubMed

    Fries, Eva; Dettenborn, Lucia; Kirschbaum, Clemens

    2009-04-01

    In humans, the secretion of cortisol from the adrenal glands follows a diurnal cycle with a profound increase after awakening. This increase after awakening, a phenomenon termed the cortisol awakening response (CAR), appears to be a distinct feature of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, superimposing the circadian rhythmicity of cortisol secretion. Several studies point towards an important role of the hippocampus and, additionally, other brain structures (e. g. amygdala, prefrontal cortex, suprachiasmatic nucleus) in the regulation of the CAR. There is increasing knowledge that the CAR is influenced by a variety of factors such as gender, health status, and health behavior or stress perception. However, the exact function of the profound cortisol increase after awakening is still not clarified. We hypothesize that the anticipation of the upcoming day is of major relevance for the magnitude of the CAR. The present paper reviews the current knowledge on the neural regulation of the CAR and factors influencing this phenomenon and considerations are addressed concerning the exact function of the CAR. PMID:18854200

  5. Cortisol Awakening Response and Walking Speed in Older People.

    PubMed

    Pulopulos, Matias M; Puig-Perez, Sara; Hidalgo, Vanesa; Villada, Carolina; Salvador, Alicia

    2016-01-01

    In older people, less diurnal variability in cortisol levels has been consistently related to worse physical performance, especially to slower walking speed (WS). The cortisol awakening response (CAR) is a discrete component of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis that has been related to several health problems, such as cardiovascular disease and/or worse performance on executive function and memory. The relationship between the CAR and physical performance in older people is poorly understood. In this study, in 86 older people (mean age = 64.42, SD = 3.93), we investigated the relationship between the CAR and WS, a commonly used measure of physical performance in the older population that has also been related to health problems, such as cardiovascular disease and executive function performance in older people. Additionally, we studied whether the relationship between the CAR and WS was independent from cortisol levels on awakening and several possible confounders. Results showed that a CAR of reduced magnitude (measured with 3 samples each day, for two consecutive days, and calculated as the area under the curve with respect to the increase), but not cortisol levels on awakening, was related to slower WS. In addition, this relationship was independent from cortisol levels on awakening. It is possible that a CAR of reduced magnitude would contribute to less diurnal cortisol variability, affecting physical performance. Additionally, it is possible that a CAR of reduced magnitude affects WS through a possible negative effect on executive function, or that the association between the CAR and WS is due to the fact that both are related to similar health problems and to changes in cognitive performance in older people. PMID:27191847

  6. Cortisol Awakening Response and Walking Speed in Older People

    PubMed Central

    Pulopulos, Matias M.; Puig-Perez, Sara; Hidalgo, Vanesa; Villada, Carolina; Salvador, Alicia

    2016-01-01

    In older people, less diurnal variability in cortisol levels has been consistently related to worse physical performance, especially to slower walking speed (WS). The cortisol awakening response (CAR) is a discrete component of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis that has been related to several health problems, such as cardiovascular disease and/or worse performance on executive function and memory. The relationship between the CAR and physical performance in older people is poorly understood. In this study, in 86 older people (mean age = 64.42, SD = 3.93), we investigated the relationship between the CAR and WS, a commonly used measure of physical performance in the older population that has also been related to health problems, such as cardiovascular disease and executive function performance in older people. Additionally, we studied whether the relationship between the CAR and WS was independent from cortisol levels on awakening and several possible confounders. Results showed that a CAR of reduced magnitude (measured with 3 samples each day, for two consecutive days, and calculated as the area under the curve with respect to the increase), but not cortisol levels on awakening, was related to slower WS. In addition, this relationship was independent from cortisol levels on awakening. It is possible that a CAR of reduced magnitude would contribute to less diurnal cortisol variability, affecting physical performance. Additionally, it is possible that a CAR of reduced magnitude affects WS through a possible negative effect on executive function, or that the association between the CAR and WS is due to the fact that both are related to similar health problems and to changes in cognitive performance in older people. PMID:27191847

  7. The Impact of PTSD Treatment on the Cortisol Awakening Response

    PubMed Central

    Pacella, Maria L.; Feeny, Norah; Zoellner, Lori; Delahanty, Douglas L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with abnormal functioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis; however, limited research has examined whether cortisol levels change following successful PTSD treatment. The current study examined the impact of successful PTSD treatment on the cortisol awakening response (CAR). Method Twenty-nine adults participating in a treatment trial for chronic PTSD provided saliva samples (upon waking, and 30, 45, and 60-min post-waking) before and after receiving either prolonged exposure therapy or sertraline. PTSD responder status (i.e., loss or retention of a PTSD diagnosis) served as the predictor variable. Outcome measures included area under the curve with respect to ground and increase, reflecting total cortisol output and HPA axis reactivity, respectively. Results A series of hierarchical regressions revealed no significant main effects of PTSD responder status for either CAR outcome. However, a significant gender by treatment response interaction for cortisol reactivity revealed that female treatment non-responders displayed higher cortisol reactivity following treatment than female responders, whereas cortisol reactivity did not change pre- to post-treatment for male responders. Findings remained after controlling for age, trauma history, baseline medication status, baseline PTSD, and baseline depressive symptoms. Conclusion Loss of a PTSD diagnosis may contribute to decreased cortisol reactivity in females. Neuroendocrine changes following treatment may emerge only for specific subgroups, highlighting the importance of exploring treatment moderators. PMID:25327949

  8. Determinants of cortisol awakening responses to naps and nighttime sleep.

    PubMed

    Devine, Jaime K; Wolf, Jutta M

    2016-01-01

    The cortisol awakening response (CAR) is a phenomenon describing the sharp increase in basal cortisol levels shortly after waking from sleep. While extensively studied, little is known about the role of sleep architecture contributing to CAR. Furthermore, the potential for CAR after a shorter bout of sleep--a nap--has not been directly investigated. The current studies thus aimed at assessed sleep duration, time of day, and sleep architecture as potential determinants of the cortisol awakening response. Saliva samples were collected during the first hour (0, 30, 45, 60 min) following several EEG-monitored laboratory sleep conditions. Those included afternoon naps wherein 17 participants (4 men; ages 18-26) napped for 50 min and 24 participants (11 men; ages 18-24) napped for 90 min. Furthermore, 20 participants (10 men; ages 18-35) visited the lab twice and in addition to staying overnight, napped 90 min in the morning either under placebo conditions or pharmacologically-manipulated sleep conditions (5mg Zolpidem). Cortisol increases were observed in response to each sleep condition except to 50-min afternoon naps. Furthermore, CARs were predicted by Stage 2 sleep when following nighttime sleep (r=.46, p=.04) and by Stage 1 sleep when following placebo morning naps (r=.54, p=.01). The current study established cortisol awakening responses to naps and implicates sleep duration and architecture in the generation of CAR to both napping and nighttime sleep. Assessing CAR in conjunction with the specific type of sleep may thus contribute to our understanding of mechanisms underlying positive and negative health effects of napping. PMID:26441231

  9. Assessment of the cortisol awakening response: Expert consensus guidelines.

    PubMed

    Stalder, Tobias; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Kudielka, Brigitte M; Adam, Emma K; Pruessner, Jens C; Wüst, Stefan; Dockray, Samantha; Smyth, Nina; Evans, Phil; Hellhammer, Dirk H; Miller, Robert; Wetherell, Mark A; Lupien, Sonia J; Clow, Angela

    2016-01-01

    The cortisol awakening response (CAR), the marked increase in cortisol secretion over the first 30-45 min after morning awakening, has been related to a wide range of psychosocial, physical and mental health parameters, making it a key variable for psychoneuroendocrinological research. The CAR is typically assessed from self-collection of saliva samples within the domestic setting. While this confers ecological validity, it lacks direct researcher oversight which can be problematic as the validity of CAR measurement critically relies on participants closely following a timed sampling schedule, beginning with the moment of awakening. Researchers assessing the CAR thus need to take important steps to maximize and monitor saliva sampling accuracy as well as consider a range of other relevant methodological factors. To promote best practice of future research in this field, the International Society of Psychoneuroendocrinology initiated an expert panel charged with (i) summarizing relevant evidence and collective experience on methodological factors affecting CAR assessment and (ii) formulating clear consensus guidelines for future research. The present report summarizes the results of this undertaking. Consensus guidelines are presented on central aspects of CAR assessment, including objective control of sampling accuracy/adherence, participant instructions, covariate accounting, sampling protocols, quantification strategies as well as reporting and interpreting of CAR data. Meeting these methodological standards in future research will create more powerful research designs, thus yielding more reliable and reproducible results and helping to further advance understanding in this evolving field of research. PMID:26563991

  10. The cortisol awakening response and major depression: examining the evidence

    PubMed Central

    Dedovic, Katarina; Ngiam, Janice

    2015-01-01

    A vast body of literature has revealed that dysregulation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) stress axis is associated with etiology of major depressive disorder (MDD). There are many ways that the dysregulation of the HPA axis can be assessed: by sampling diurnal basal secretion and/or in response to a stress task, pharmacological challenge, and awakening. Here, we focus on the association between cortisol awakening response (CAR), as one index of HPA axis function, and MDD, given that the nature of this association is particularly unclear. Indeed, in the following selective review, we attempt to reconcile sometimes-divergent evidence of the role of CAR in the pathway to depression. We first examine association of CAR with psychological factors that have been linked with increased vulnerability to develop depression. Then, we summarize the findings regarding the CAR profile in those with current depression, and evaluate evidence for the role of CAR following depression resolution and continued vulnerability. Finally, we showcase longitudinal studies showing the role of CAR in predicting depression onset and recurrence. Overall, the studies reveal an important, but complex, association between CAR and vulnerability to depression. PMID:25999722

  11. Elevated Trajectories of Externalizing Problems Are Associated with Lower Awakening Cortisol Levels in Midadolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haltigan, John D.; Roisman, Glenn I.; Susman, Elizabeth J.; Barnett-Walker, Kortnee; Monahan, Kathryn C.

    2011-01-01

    A growing body of research suggesting a negative association between basal levels of cortisol and persistent antisocial behavior has emerged. The present study examined relations between awakening cortisol levels and antisocial trajectories from ages 5 to 15 years among individuals in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development…

  12. Episodic stress associated with writing a graduation thesis and free cortisol secretion after awakening.

    PubMed

    Izawa, Shuhei; Sugaya, Nagisa; Ogawa, Namiko; Nagano, Yuichiro; Nakano, Masako; Nakase, Emiko; Shirotsuki, Kentaro; Yamada, Kosuke Chris; Machida, Kazuhiko; Kodama, Masahisa; Nomura, Shinobu

    2007-05-01

    Cortisol secretion after awakening, an index of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis activity, appears to be related to psychosocial stressors, or to symptoms caused by psychosocial stressors. The relationship between the quality, duration, and magnitude of psychosocial factors and cortisol secretion is however, unclear. Therefore, the effect of episodic stress associated with writing a graduation thesis on cortisol secretion after awakening was investigated. Saliva samples were collected from 10 undergraduate students at awakening, and 30, 45, and 60 min after awakening 1 month, 2 weeks, and a few days before the thesis submission and 1 week after the submission. They also completed the Short form of Profile of Moods Scale (POMS-S) on the night before each sampling. Results indicated that cortisol levels were higher a few days before the thesis submission compared to 1 month before submission. Scores of "Fatigue" and "Tension-Anxiety" in POMS-S were also higher a few days before submission. These results suggest that episodic stress associated with writing a graduation thesis caused an increase in cortisol levels after awakening. PMID:17316855

  13. MATERNAL SELF-REPORTED DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS AND MATERNAL CORTISOL LEVELS INTERACT TO PREDICT INFANT CORTISOL LEVELS.

    PubMed

    Khoury, Jennifer E; Gonzalez, Andrea; Levitan, Robert; Masellis, Mario; Basile, Vincenzo; Atkinson, Leslie

    2016-01-01

    Three basic findings have emerged from research on maternal depressive symptoms and offspring hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal functioning: (a) Mothers' depressive symptoms are positively associated with their offsprings' cortisol stress response, (b) numerous individual and interpersonal maternal characteristics moderate this association, and (c) maternal and infant cortisol levels are highly correlated. In combination, these findings have suggested that maternal cortisol levels may moderate the relation between maternal depressive symptoms and infant cortisol responsivity; the current study assessed this hypothesis. Participants were 297 mother-infant dyads who were recruited from the community. Maternal depressive symptoms were assessed via self-report. Dyads participated in two differentially stressful infant challenges when infants were 16 and 17 months old. Mother and infant salivary cortisol was collected before and after challenges. Results indicate that maternal cortisol levels moderated associations between maternal depressive symptoms and infant cortisol levels across both challenges. Infants showed higher cortisol levels if their mothers had both higher depressive symptoms and higher cortisol levels, as compared to infants of mothers with higher depressive symptoms and lower cortisol, and to infants of mothers with lower depressive symptoms and either higher or lower cortisol levels. We discuss findings in relation to environmental and biological factors that may contribute to the intergenerational transmission of depressive symptoms. PMID:26939829

  14. The relationship between the cortisol awakening response, mood states, and performance.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Miguel M; Bocanegra, Olga L; Teixeira, Renata R; Tavares, Marcelo; Soares, Silvio S; Espindola, Foued S

    2013-05-01

    This study examined the variation in the diurnal profile of cortisol, with an emphasis on the cortisol awakening response (CAR), in relation to mood states and performance during a professional swimming contest. Eleven athletes were examined during 2 consecutive days of competition and during a recreated event 2 weeks later that was matched to the time of the day and day of the week of the competition. On each day, salivary cortisol was determined upon awakening (07:00 hours); 30 and 60 minutes post-awakening; immediately before warming up for competition (16:00 hours); and 5 minutes (18:20 hours), 20 minutes (18:40 hours), and 40 minutes (19:00 hours) after competition. Psychometric instruments included the Profile of Mood States and self-reports of performance. Cortisol awakening responses did not differ between days of competition and control and were not related to performance on any day. However, a difference was observed in the concentration of cortisol before and after the contest between the competition and control days. Higher levels of cortisol before competition were associated with feelings of tension, anxiety, and hostility. The perceived demands of the day ahead might not produce the same magnitude of variation in the CAR in well-trained men. Explanations for this probably include better coping mechanisms and responses to the phase and time of competition. PMID:22836604

  15. Cortisol Awakening Response and Internalizing Symptoms across Childhood: Exploring the Role of Age and Externalizing Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGinnis, Ellen W.; Lopez-Duran, Nestor; Martinez-Torteya, Cecilia; Abelson, James L.; Muzik, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Efforts to identify biological correlates of internalizing symptoms in childhood have involved examinations of HPA-axis functioning, namely Cortisol Awakening Response (CAR). However, research has not assessed the relationship between CAR and internalizing problems among children younger than 8 years. Findings with older samples have been somewhat…

  16. The Confluence of Adverse Early Experience and Puberty on the Cortisol Awakening Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quevedo, Karina; Johnson, Anna E.; Loman, Michelle L.; LaFavor, Theresa L.; Gunnar, Megan

    2012-01-01

    Associations between early deprivation/neglect in the form of institutional care with the cortisol awakening response (CAR) were examined as a function of pubertal status among 12- and 13-year-old postinstitutionalized youth. CARs indexed hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical reactivity. Postinstitutionalized youth were compared to youth adopted…

  17. Cortisol Awakening Response Prospectively Predicts Peritraumatic and Acute Stress Reactions in Police Officers

    PubMed Central

    Inslicht, Sabra S.; Otte, Christian; McCaslin, Shannon E.; Apfel, Brigitte A.; Henn-Haase, Clare; Metzler, Thomas; Yehuda, Rachel; Neylan, Thomas C.; Marmar, Charles R.

    2011-01-01

    Background The hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis is a major stress response system hypothesized to be involved in the pathogenesis of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, few studies have prospectively examined the relationships among pre-exposure HPA activity, acute stress reactions and PTSD symptoms. Methods Two hundred and ninety-six police recruits were assessed during academy training prior to duty-related critical incident exposure and provided salivary cortisol at first awakening and after 30 minutes. A measure of cortisol awakening response (CAR) was computed as the change in cortisol level from the first to the second collection. At 12, 24, and 36 months following the start of active police service, officers were assessed for peritraumatic distress, peritraumatic dissociation, ASD symptoms, and PTSD symptoms to their self-identified worst duty-related critical incident. Mixed models for repeated measures were used to analyze the effects of CAR on the outcome variables pooled across the three follow-up assessments. Results Mixed model analyses indicated that after controlling for time of awakening, first awakening cortisol levels, and cumulative critical incident stress exposure, CAR during academy training was associated with greater peritraumatic dissociation, β=.14, z=3.49, p<.0001, and greater acute stress disorder (ASD) symptoms during police service assessed at 12, 24, and 36 months, β=.09, z=2.03, p<.05, but not with peritraumatic distress β=.03, z=.81, p=.42 or PTSD symptoms β=−.004, z=−.09, p=.93. Conclusions These findings suggest that greater cortisol response to awakening is a pre-exposure risk factor for peritraumatic dissociation and ASD symptoms during police service. PMID:21906725

  18. Daily Work Stress and Awakening Cortisol in Mothers of Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders or Fragile X Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wong, Jen D; Mailick, Marsha R; Greenberg, Jan S; Hong, Jinkuk; Coe, Christopher L

    2014-02-01

    The effect of daily work stress on the next morning's awakening cortisol level was determined in a sample of 124 mothers (M age = 49.89, SD= 6.33) of adolescents and adults with developmental disabilities and compared to 115 mothers (M age = 46.19, SD = 7.08) of individuals without disabilities. Mothers participated in 8 days of diary telephone interviews and provided saliva samples. Multilevel models revealed that mothers of individuals with developmental disabilities had lower awakening cortisol levels than comparison mothers. Work stress interacted with parental status to predict the awakening cortisol level on the following morning. When mothers of individuals with developmental disabilities experienced a work stressor, their awakening cortisol level was significantly higher on the subsequent morning, but for comparison mothers, work stressors were not significantly associated with cortisol level. Findings extend understanding of the differential impacts of specific types of stressors on physiological functioning of mothers of individuals with and without developmental disabilities. PMID:25313265

  19. Poverty and Awakening Cortisol in Adolescence: The Importance of Timing in Early Life

    PubMed Central

    McFarland, Michael J.; Hayward, Mark D.

    2015-01-01

    The deleterious effects of poverty on mental and physical health are routinely argued to operate, at least in part, via dysregulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, although empirical examinations connecting poverty with HPA axis functioning are rare. Research on the effects of timing of poverty is a particularly neglected aspect of this relationship. This study uses 15 years of prospective data from the Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development to assess how exposure to poverty during infancy, childhood, and adolescence is related to awakening cortisol (n = 826), a marker of HPA axis functioning. Among female participants, poverty exposure in infancy and adolescence, but not childhood, was negatively associated with awakening cortisol. Poverty exposure was unrelated to cortisol among male participants. The importance of timing and gender differences are discussed along with directions for future research. PMID:26140229

  20. Hair cortisol and cortisol awakening response are associated with criteria of the metabolic syndrome in opposite directions.

    PubMed

    Kuehl, Linn K; Hinkelmann, Kim; Muhtz, Christoph; Dettenborn, Lucia; Wingenfeld, Katja; Spitzer, Carsten; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Wiedemann, Klaus; Otte, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Findings on the association between hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity and metabolic risk are equivocal. Different methods of measuring HPA activity might indicate adverse vs. beneficial effects of HPA activity on metabolic risk thus contributing to heterogenous findings. In this study, we aimed to determine whether (1) the salivary cortisol awakening response (CAR) as a marker of awakening-induced activation of the HPA axis and (2) hair cortisol as a marker of long-term cortisol secretion are associated with criteria of the metabolic syndrome. Therefore, we recruited 41 healthy individuals (26 women, mean age: 41.2 years) and 44 patients with major depression (28 women, 41.4 years) and assessed CAR and hair cortisol values as well as all criteria of the metabolic syndrome (abdominal obesity, blood pressure, plasma glucose, triglycerides and high-density cholesterol levels) according to the International Diabetes Federation. CAR and hair cortisol values were divided into tertiles. Across groups, participants with hair cortisol or hair cortisone in the highest tertile showed significantly more criteria of the metabolic syndrome compared to participants in the medium or low tertile (F2,64=3.37, p=.04). These results were corroborated by significant positive correlations between mean hair cortisol values with waist circumference (r=.29, p=.03), triglycerides (r=.34, p=.01) and systolic blood pressure (r=.29, p=.04) and between mean hair cortisone and triglycerides (r=.46, p<.01). In contrast, mean CAR values correlated negatively with diastolic (r=-.29, p=.03) and systolic blood pressure (r=-.32, p=.02). Our results indicate that higher hair cortisol and hair cortisone levels but lower CAR values are associated with an unfavorable metabolic and cardiovascular risk profile. PMID:25462908

  1. Breastfeeding, Bed-Sharing, and Maternal Cortisol.

    PubMed

    Simon, Clarissa D; Adam, Emma K; McKinney, Chelsea O; Krohn, Julie B; Shalowitz, Madeleine U

    2016-05-01

    Prior studies have found that close mother-child sleep proximity helps increase rates of breastfeeding, and breastfeeding itself is linked to better maternal and infant health. In this study, we examine whether breastfeeding and infant bed-sharing are related to daily rhythms of the stress-responsive hormone cortisol. We found that bed-sharing was related to flatter diurnal cortisol slopes, and there was a marginal effect for breastfeeding to predict steeper cortisol slopes. Furthermore, mothers who breastfeed but do not bed-share had the steepest diurnal cortisol slopes, whereas mothers who bed-shared and did not breastfeed had the flattest slopes (P < .05). These results were significant after controlling for subjective sleep quality, perceived stress, depression, socioeconomic status, race, and maternal age. Findings from this study indicate that infant parenting choices recommended for infants (breastfeeding and separate sleep surfaces for babies) may also be associated with more optimal stress hormone profiles for mothers. PMID:26330120

  2. Lack of institutional support entails disruption in cortisol awakening response in caregivers of people with high-functioning autism.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Robledillo, Nicolás; González-Bono, Esperanza; Moya-Albiol, Luis

    2014-12-01

    Several studies have found disruptions in cortisol awakening response in informal caregivers. Institutional support may modulate these effects, and this study analyses how the health of caregivers is affected when institutional support is provided for families of people with high-functioning autism. Self-reported health, depression and cortisol awakening response were analysed in three groups: supported caregivers, non-supported caregivers and non-caregivers. Non-supported caregivers presented higher somatic symptoms and lower cortisol awakening response than the supported caregiver and non-caregiver groups. A high number of somatic symptoms and low functionality of offspring were related to a lower cortisol awakening response only in the non-supported caregiver group. These findings demonstrate the importance of institutional support for improving the health of caregivers. PMID:23933951

  3. The Cortisol Awakening Response and Resilience in Elite Swimmers.

    PubMed

    Meggs, J; Golby, J; Mallett, C J; Gucciardi, D F; Polman, R C J

    2016-02-01

    The sports environment is stress-eliciting in that it encapsulates perceived uncontrollability, unpredictability and requires ego-involvement. The HPA axis has been shown (indicated by cortisol release) to respond to anticipated sports competition up to a week prior to the event. Research also alludes to the importance of individual differences, such as optimism and trait perfectionism, in moderating the impact of cortisol upon performance. In total, 41 (male n=27) national (n=38) and international (n=3) swimmers were recruited from northeast England and Australia. Swimmers completed a measure of resilience and also provided buccal saliva swabs, from which total cortisol release prior to and during the event was calculated. Findings revealed that resilience significantly predicted performance and the influence of AUC (cortisol release) upon performance was moderated by resilience. These findings suggest that resilience can influence athletic performance either directly or indirectly, through appraisal (i. e., interpretation of the stressor to be facilitative and non-threatening). PMID:26509364

  4. Children with high-functioning autism show a normal cortisol awakening response (CAR).

    PubMed

    Zinke, Katharina; Fries, Eva; Kliegel, Matthias; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Dettenborn, Lucia

    2010-11-01

    Individuals with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders (HFA) show difficulties in the ability to react to change. A recent study suggested that variations in the functioning of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis, especially in one of its markers--the cortisol awakening response (CAR)--may be related to those difficulties in adolescents with Asperger's syndrome. The current study investigated the CAR in a younger sample with diagnoses from the whole autism spectrum: A group of children with HFA (N=15) was compared to a group of typically developing children (N=25). Findings suggest that the frequency of a CAR as well as the increase in cortisol levels from awakening to 30 min later were similar between groups, indicating that variations in the CAR in HFA may not be present early in life but only develop later in adolescence or may only occur in some diagnoses from the autism spectrum. PMID:20409644

  5. Acculturation, Childhood Trauma and the Cortisol Awakening Response in Mexican American Adults

    PubMed Central

    Mangold, Deborah; Wand, Gary; Javors, Martin; Mintz, James

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to chronic and traumatic stress has been associated with the dysregulation of crucial stress response systems. Acculturation has been associated with unique forms of chronic psychosocial stress. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of exposure to early traumatic stress and acculturation on dysregulation of the cortisol awakening response (CAR) in Mexican-American adults. Salivary cortisol samples were collected at awakening and 30, 45, and 60 minutes thereafter, on two consecutive weekdays from 59, healthy Mexican American adult males (26) and females (33), ages 18-38 years. Participants were assessed for level of acculturation and exposure to early trauma. Data were analyzed using a mixed effects regression model with repeated measures at four time points. Mixed effects regression results indicated a significant Early Trauma x Time interaction (p=.0029) and a significant Acculturation x Time interaction (p=.0015), after controlling for age and sex. Subsequent analyses of the interaction of Trauma x Acculturation x Time showed that more than minimal exposure to either risk factor was associated with attenuation of the awakening cortisol response (p=.0002). Higher levels of acculturation with greater Anglo-orientation were associated with attenuation of the CAR in Mexican-American adults. Both moderate and higher levels of exposure to early trauma were associated with an attenuated CAR. However, greater exposure to both risk factors was only incrementally worse than exposure to either one. PMID:20600049

  6. Memory performance is related to the cortisol awakening response in older people, but not to the diurnal cortisol slope.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo, Vanesa; Almela, Mercedes; Pulopulos, Matias M; Salvador, Alicia

    2016-09-01

    There are large individual differences in age-related cognitive decline. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA-axis) functioning has been suggested as one of the mechanisms underlying these differences. This study aimed to investigate the relationships between the diurnal cortisol cycle, measured as the cortisol awakening response (CAR), and the diurnal cortisol slope (DCS) and the memory performance of healthy older people. To do so, we assessed the verbal, visual, and working memory performance of 64 participants (32 men) from 57 to 76 years old who also provided 14 saliva samples on two consecutive weekdays to determine their diurnal cortisol cycle. The CAR was linearly and negatively associated with verbal (significantly) and visual (marginally) memory domains, but not with working memory. Sex did not moderate these relationships. Furthermore, no associations were found between the DCS and any of the three memory domains assessed. Our results indicate that the two components of the diurnal cortisol cycle have different relationships with memory performance, with the CAR being more relevant than DCS in understanding the link from HPA-axis activity and regulation to different types of memory. These results suggest that the CAR is related to memory domains dependent on hippocampal functioning (i.e., declarative memory), but not to those that are more dependent on prefrontal cortex functioning (i.e., working memory). PMID:27266967

  7. High correlation between salivary cortisol awakening response and the psychometric profiles of healthy children

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cortisol awakening response (CAR) as an indicator of psychological stress and related physical and psychiatric diseases has attracted growing attention from researchers. Although CAR changes have been investigated extensively in children with behavioral and psychiatric disorders, the association between CAR and conventional psychometric scales for healthy children has not been reported. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between salivary CAR and subscales of Profiles of Mood States (POMS), a self-assessment questionnaire widely used to evaluate the temporal emotional states of healthy children. Findings This study included 18 healthy girls aged 13–16 years. Saliva was collected immediately on awakening, 30 min and 60 min after waking, and then at 2-hour intervals from 9 am to 5 pm. The current mood state, including depression, anxiety, fatigue, and other psychometric profiles were assessed using POMS. The magnitude of salivary CAR and the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) for diurnal salivary cortisol were compared with the profiles. There were significant positive correlations between the magnitude of CAR and the POMS subscales for "Depression-Dejection", "Tension-Anxiety", "Fatigue", and "Confusion". No correlation was found between the AUC salivary cortisol level and the psychometric profiles. Conclusions Salivary CAR was associated with various mood states of healthy female children but diurnal salivary cortisol AUC was not. Salivary CAR may be a biomarker of the physical and mental condition of healthy female children. PMID:24625309

  8. Maternal stress-associated cortisol stimulation may protect embryos from cortisol excess in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Faught, Erin; Best, Carol; Vijayan, Mathilakath M.

    2016-01-01

    Abnormal embryo cortisol level causes developmental defects and poor survival in zebrafish (Danio rerio). However, no study has demonstrated that maternal stress leads to higher embryo cortisol content in zebrafish. We tested the hypothesis that maternal stress-associated elevation in cortisol levels increases embryo cortisol content in this asynchronous breeder. Zebrafish mothers were fed cortisol-spiked food for 5 days, to mimic maternal stress, followed by daily breeding for 10 days to monitor temporal embryo cortisol content. Cortisol treatment increased mean embryo yield, but the daily fecundity was variable among the groups. Embryo cortisol content was variable in both groups over a 10-day period. A transient elevation in cortisol levels was observed in the embryos from cortisol-fed mothers only on day 3, but not on subsequent days. We tested whether excess cortisol stimulates 11βHSD2 expression in ovarian follicles as a means to regulate embryo cortisol deposition. Cortisol treatment in vitro increased 11β HSD2 levels sevenfold, and this expression was regulated by actinomycin D and cycloheximide suggesting tight regulation of cortisol levels in the ovarian follicles. We hypothesize that cortisol-induced upregulation of 11βHSD2 activity in the ovarian follicles is a mechanism restricting excess cortisol incorporation into the eggs during maternal stress. PMID:26998341

  9. Cortisol, estradiol-17β, and progesterone secretion within the first hour after awakening in women with regular menstrual cycles

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Ryun S; Choi, Jee H; Choi, Bum C; Kim, Jung H; Lee, Sung H; Sung, Simon S

    2011-01-01

    Cortisol concentration in both serum and saliva sharply increases and reaches a peak within the first hour after waking in the morning. This phenomenon is known as the cortisol awakening response (CAR) and is used as an index of hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis function. We examined whether ovarian steroid concentrations increased after awakening as with the CAR in the HPA axis. To do this, cortisol, estradiol-17β (E2), and progesterone (P4) concentrations were determined in saliva samples collected immediately upon awakening and 30 and 60 min after awakening in women with regular menstrual cycles and postmenopausal women. We found that both E2 and P4 concentrations increased during the post-awakening period in women with regular menstrual cycles, but these phenomena were not seen in any postmenopausal women. The area under the E2 and P4 curve from the time interval immediately after awakening to 60 min after awakening (i.e. E2auc and P4auc) in women with regular menstrual cycles were greater than those in the postmenopausal women. E2 and P4 secretory activity during the post-awakening period was influenced by the phase of the menstrual cycle. E2auc in the peri-ovulatory phase and P4auc in the early to mid-luteal phase were greater than in the menstrual phase. Meanwhile, cortisol secretory activity during the post-awakening period was not influenced by menstrual status or the phase of menstrual cycle. These findings indicate that, as with the CAR in the HPA axis function, ovarian steroidogenic activity increased after awakening and is closely associated with menstrual status and phase of menstrual cycle. PMID:21965547

  10. The relation of the cortisol awakening response and prospective memory functioning in young children.

    PubMed

    Bäumler, Damaris; Voigt, Babett; Miller, Robert; Stalder, Tobias; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Kliegel, Matthias

    2014-05-01

    Recent research suggests that the cortisol awakening response (CAR) is linked to cognitive functions depending on hippocampal and frontal cortex circuits and may possibly be modulated by prospective memory (PM). However, the link between the CAR and PM abilities has not been investigated so far. Addressing this open issue, we report data from 97 children aged 37-87 months. Salivary cortisol levels were assessed 0 and 30 min post-awakening over three study days. Thereby a valid CAR measurement was ensured by using objective measures of awakening and sampling times. A game-like task served as behavioral measure of PM performance. Bayesian analysis revealed a positive association between children's PM performance and the CAR, with better PM performance being related to a greater CAR. This association persisted after controlling for age. Overall, the current finding supports the prediction that PM functioning may be linked to the CAR, possibly as both the CAR and PM rely on a common neurophysiological basis. PMID:24582874

  11. Cortisol awakening response and cognitive performance in hypertensive and normotensive older people.

    PubMed

    Pulopulos, Matias M; Hidalgo, Vanesa; Puig-Perez, Sara; Salvador, Alicia

    2016-07-01

    Healthy older people with a cortisol awakening response (CAR) of decreased magnitude show worse frontal cortex-related cognitive performance. Systemic hypertension has been related to a CAR of decreased magnitude. Additionally, worse executive function and processing speed have been observed in older people with systemic hypertension. This is the first study to examine the relationship between the CAR (measured with six saliva samples at home on two consecutive weekdays) and cognitive performance, in both hypertensive (n=26) and normotensive (n=28) older people (from 56 to 78years old). Hypertensive participants showed lower morning cortisol secretion, and they also woke up earlier. No differences in CAR were observed. A CAR of decreased magnitude was related to worse executive function in both hypertensive and normotensive participants, but to slower processing speed only in normotensive participants. Being treated with antihypertensive for a longer period of time was related to a CAR of increased magnitude and better performance on executive function. Our findings suggest that earlier awakening time in hypertensive older people might underlie the lower overall morning cortisol secretion observed in previous studies. Additionally, this study confirms that a dysregulation of the CAR is related to worse executive function, and it extends this association to hypertensive older people. Finally, it is worth noting that hypertension may moderate the relationship between CAR and processing speed. PMID:27208824

  12. Stress management skills, cortisol awakening response, and post-exertional malaise in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hall, Daniel L; Lattie, Emily G; Antoni, Michael H; Fletcher, Mary Ann; Czaja, Sara; Perdomo, Dolores; Klimas, Nancy G

    2014-11-01

    Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) is characterized in part by debilitating fatigue typically exacerbated by cognitive and/or physical exertion, referred to as post-exertional malaise (PEM). In a variety of populations, the cortisol awakening response (CAR) has stood out as a marker of endocrine dysregulation relevant to the experience of fatigue, and may therefore be particularly relevant in CFS. This is the first study to examine PEM and the CAR in a sample of individuals with CFS. The CAR has also been established as a stress-sensitive measure of HPA axis functioning. It follows that better management of stress could modulate the CAR, and in turn PEM. In this cross-sectional study, we hypothesized that greater Perceived Stress Management Skills (PSMS) would relate to lower reports of PEM, via the impact of PSMS on the CAR. A total of 117 adults (72% female) with a CFS diagnosis completed self-report measures of PSMS and PEM symptomatology and a two-day protocol of saliva collection. Cortisol values from awakening and 30 min post-awakening were used to compute the CAR. Regression analyses revealed that greater PSMS related to greater CAR and greater CAR related to less PEM severity. Bootstrapped analyses revealed an indirect effect of PSMS on PEM via the CAR, such that greater PSMS related to less PEM, via a greater CAR. Future research should examine these trends longitudinally and whether interventions directed at improving stress management skills are accompanied by improved cortisol regulation and less PEM in individuals with CFS. PMID:25049069

  13. Cortisol awakening response and diurnal cortisol among children at elevated risk for schizophrenia: Relationship to psychosocial stress and cognition

    PubMed Central

    Cullen, Alexis E.; Zunszain, Patricia A.; Dickson, Hannah; Roberts, Ruth E.; Fisher, Helen L.; Pariante, Carmine M.; Laurens, Kristin R.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Abnormal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function, as indexed by elevated diurnal cortisol levels and/or a blunted cortisol awakening response (CAR), has been observed among patients with first episode psychosis and associated with neurocognitive deficits in this population. However, the extent to which these features precede illness onset is unclear. The current study aimed to determine whether children who are at putatively elevated risk for psychosis because they present multiple antecedents of schizophrenia (ASz), and high-risk children with a family history of illness (FHx), are characterized by abnormal cortisol levels when compared with their typically developing (TD) peers. A further aim was to investigate the extent to which cortisol levels are associated with psychosocial stress and neurocognitive function. Thirty-three ASz children, 22 FHx children, and 40 TD children were identified at age 9–12 years using a novel community-based screening procedure or as relatives of individuals with schizophrenia. All participants were antipsychotic-naive and not currently seeking treatment for their symptoms. At age 11–14 years, participants provided salivary cortisol samples and completed psychosocial stress measures and tests of memory and executive function. Results indicated that FHx children, but not ASz children, were characterized by a blunted CAR relative to their TD peers (effect size = −0.73, p = 0.01) that was not explained by psychosocial stress exposure or by distress relating to these experiences. Neither FHx nor ASz children were characterized by elevated diurnal cortisol. Among both FHx and ASz children, more pronounced HPA axis function abnormalities (i.e., higher diurnal cortisol levels and greater blunting of the CAR) were associated with poorer performance on tests of verbal memory and executive function. These findings support the notion that at least some HPA axis abnormalities described in psychosis precede illness

  14. Cortisol awakening response and diurnal cortisol among children at elevated risk for schizophrenia: relationship to psychosocial stress and cognition.

    PubMed

    Cullen, Alexis E; Zunszain, Patricia A; Dickson, Hannah; Roberts, Ruth E; Fisher, Helen L; Pariante, Carmine M; Laurens, Kristin R

    2014-08-01

    Abnormal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function, as indexed by elevated diurnal cortisol levels and/or a blunted cortisol awakening response (CAR), has been observed among patients with first episode psychosis and associated with neurocognitive deficits in this population. However, the extent to which these features precede illness onset is unclear. The current study aimed to determine whether children who are at putatively elevated risk for psychosis because they present multiple antecedents of schizophrenia (ASz), and high-risk children with a family history of illness (FHx), are characterized by abnormal cortisol levels when compared with their typically developing (TD) peers. A further aim was to investigate the extent to which cortisol levels are associated with psychosocial stress and neurocognitive function. Thirty-three ASz children, 22 FHx children, and 40 TD children were identified at age 9-12 years using a novel community-based screening procedure or as relatives of individuals with schizophrenia. All participants were antipsychotic-naive and not currently seeking treatment for their symptoms. At age 11-14 years, participants provided salivary cortisol samples and completed psychosocial stress measures and tests of memory and executive function. Results indicated that FHx children, but not ASz children, were characterized by a blunted CAR relative to their TD peers (effect size=-0.73, p=0.01) that was not explained by psychosocial stress exposure or by distress relating to these experiences. Neither FHx nor ASz children were characterized by elevated diurnal cortisol. Among both FHx and ASz children, more pronounced HPA axis function abnormalities (i.e., higher diurnal cortisol levels and greater blunting of the CAR) were associated with poorer performance on tests of verbal memory and executive function. These findings support the notion that at least some HPA axis abnormalities described in psychosis precede illness onset, rather than

  15. Differences in cortisol awakening response on work days and weekends in women and men from the Whitehall II cohort.

    PubMed

    Kunz-Ebrecht, Sabine R; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Marmot, Michael; Steptoe, Andrew

    2004-05-01

    It is thought that the salivary cortisol awakening response can serve as a reliable marker of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical activity. Response magnitude might be influenced by stress, but results of studies on work-related stress have been inconclusive. Non-compliance with the sampling schedule is a potential confounding factor that has rarely been controlled. The objective of the study was to determine whether the cortisol awakening response is greater on a work day than on a weekend day, and whether responses vary with gender and socioeconomic position. Compliance was controlled by excluding participants who reported a delay of more than 10 min between waking up and taking the first saliva sample. Data were collected from 196 men and women aged 47 to 59 years drawn from the Whitehall II cohort of British civil servants, with free salivary cortisol sampled immediately after waking up and 30 min later on 2 days. Data on stress, perceived control and happiness over the remainder of the day, and on sleep quality, time of waking, and health behaviour were also obtained. The awakening response was lower in non-compliant participants than in compliant ones, so non-compliant participants were excluded from further analyses. Salivary cortisol levels on waking did not differ by gender or socioeconomic position, or between work and weekend days. However, the cortisol awakening response (defined as the difference between waking and 30 min later) was greater on work than weekend days (mean increases 10.5 and 3.7 nmol/l, P < 0.001). On the work day, women showed larger increases than men (P = 0.011), but there were no gender differences on the weekend day. Across both days, lower socioeconomic position was associated with a larger cortisol awakening response (P = 0.014). Time of waking up was not related to the cortisol awakening response on either day. Participants rated themselves as more stressed, less in control, and less happy over the remainder of the work than

  16. Chronic stress exposure decreases the cortisol awakening response in healthy young men.

    PubMed

    Duan, Hongxia; Yuan, Yiran; Zhang, Liang; Qin, Shaozheng; Zhang, Kan; Buchanan, Tony W; Wu, Jianhui

    2013-11-01

    Academic examination is a major stressor for students in China. Investigation of stress-sensitive endocrine responses to major examination stress serves as a good model of naturalistic chronic psychological stress in an otherwise healthy population. The cortisol awakening response (CAR) is an endocrine marker of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis in response to stress. However, it remains unknown how chronic examination stress impacts the CAR in a young healthy population To exclude the influence of sex effects on hormone level, the CAR and psychological stress responses were assessed on two consecutive workdays in 42 male participants during their preparations for the Chinese National Postgraduate Entrance Exam (NPEE) and 21 non-exam, age-matched male comparisons. On each day, four saliva samples were collected immediately after awakening, 15 minutes, 30 minutes and 60 minutes after awakening. The waking level (S1), the increase within 30 minutes after awakening (R30), the area under the curve with respect to ground (AUCg), and the area under the curve with respect to increase (AUCi) were used to quantify the CAR. Psychological stress and anxiety were assessed by the Perceived Stress Scale and the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, respectively. Male participants in the exam group had greater perceived stress and anxiety scores relatibe to the non-exam group. Both R30 and AUCi in the exam group were significantly lower than the comparison group and this effect was most pronounced for participants with high levels of perceived stress in the exam group. Perceived stress and anxiety levels were negatively correlated with both R30 and AUCi. Chronic examination stress can lead to the decrease of CAR in healthy young men, possibly due to reduced HPA axis activity under long-term sustained stress. PMID:23992539

  17. Cortisol awakening response in adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: Subtype differences and association with the emotional lability.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Quiroga, J A; Corominas-Roso, M; Palomar, G; Ferrer, R; Valero, S; Corrales, M; Richarte, V; Casas, M

    2016-07-01

    Cortisol awakening response (CAR) has been studied in children with ADHD, and some authors have reported morning cortisol differences among ADHD subtypes. Despite, only half of the children with ADHD continue to exhibit the disorder into adulthood, CAR has not been studied in adults so far. One hundred and nine adults with ADHD according to the DSM-IV criteria (46 inattentive and 63 combined) ranging in age from 18 to 55 years, and 27 healthy controls were included. Psychiatric and organic comorbidities were excluded. Salivary cortisol samples were obtained at 0, 30, 45 and 60 minutes after awakening. CAR was present in 84% of the healthy controls but in only 64% of the adults with ADHD (68% of the inattentive and 61% of the combined were CAR-positive). There were no significant differences in any of the morning cortisol measures between patients and controls or between the combined and inattentive subtypes of ADHD. Among the inattentive subtype but not in the combined patients, significant positive correlations were observed between the CAR and emotional lability (p=0.05), or self-concept (p=0.014) CAARS subscales, as well as with the cognitive impulsivity subscale of the Barratt impulsiveness scale (p=0.028). These results suggest that adults with ADHD exhibit normal cortisol responses upon awakening and thus cannot be defined in terms of hypo-arousal. Neurobiological differences between the combined and inattentive subtypes involving cortisol, are discussed. PMID:27084305

  18. Unemployment is associated with lower cortisol awakening and blunted dehydroepiandrosterone responses.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Stephen; Sumner, Rachel C; Muldoon, Orla T; Creaven, Ann-Marie; Hannigan, Ailish

    2016-07-01

    Previous research has investigated the endocrinological consequences of unemployment as a likely pathway behind chronic stress and negative health outcomes. Despite these early attempts at delineating the neuroendocrine consequences of the chronic stress experienced by the unemployed, identifying a consistent and stable effect has remained elusive. Here we sought to strengthen existing knowledge into the effect of the stress of employment status on cortisol by improving on the methodological weaknesses of earlier studies and extend this line of enquiry by measuring the steroid hormone Dehydroepiandrosterone-Sulfate (DHEAS). Saliva samples were collected from unemployed and employed participants at four time points across two days. As expected, unemployed people reported higher stress, lower social support and lower self-esteem. Unexpectedly, the unemployed showed lower overall cortisol output, a likely consequence of a higher cortisol awakening response (CAR) in the employed. However, they also had a higher DHEA output across the day, albeit the diurnal pattern across the day was more dysregulated compared to that seen in those employed with a blunted response evident in the evening; the cortisol:DHEAS ratio was also lower in the unemployed group. Further, these hormone differences were correlated with self-esteem and stress. Taken together these results suggest that the relationship between employment status and endocrine responses is far more complicated than previously thought. We have shown for the first time that unemployed people have a lower CAR, but also show a blunted DHEA response relative to those employed and we suggest that this may be a feature of chronic stress exposure or perhaps dependent on the prevailing socio-economic context. PMID:27018925

  19. Frequent nightmares are associated with blunted cortisol awakening response in women.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Tamás; Salavecz, Gyöngyvér; Simor, Péter; Purebl, György; Bódizs, Róbert; Dockray, Samantha; Steptoe, Andrew

    2015-08-01

    Nightmares are relatively common sleep complaints that seem to be associated with affective distress. To date, few attempts have been made to link nightmares to the biological markers of the stress response, and the HPA response in particular. The present study examined the relationship between frequent nightmares and the cortisol awakening response (CAR) in a cross-sectional study of working women (N=188). Analysis revealed that those who reported frequent nightmares (N=13) showed a blunted CAR on a working day, compared to those who did not report nightmares. This result was independent of psychiatric symptoms, demographic variables, and lifestyle. Our preliminary findings suggest that decreased HPA reactivity might be a trait-like feature of women with frequent nightmares. PMID:25953663

  20. The impact of time of waking and concurrent subjective stress on the cortisol response to awakening.

    PubMed

    Williams, Emily; Magid, Kesson; Steptoe, Andrew

    2005-02-01

    Both time of awakening and stress are thought to influence the magnitude of the cortisol awakening response (CAR), but the relative importance of these factors is unclear. This study assessed these influences in a combined within- and between-subject design. Data were collected from 32 men and women working as station staff in the London underground railway system in three conditions: early-shift days, day-shift days, and control days. Saliva samples were obtained on waking, 30 and 60 min later, together with measures of concurrent subjective stress, sleep quality the night before, and accumulated stress at the end of the day. Participants woke up more than 3.5h earlier on average on early-shift than day-shift or control days, and cortisol levels on waking were lower in the early-shift condition. The CAR (assessed both with increases from waking to 30 min and with area under the curve measures) was greater on early-shift days. However, respondents were more stressed over the hour after waking and reported more sleep disturbance on early-shift days; when these factors were taken into account, the difference in CAR related to experimental condition was no longer significant. Comparisons were also made between individuals who started their day-shifts in the morning and afternoon. The morning shift group woke an average of 2h earlier than did the afternoon shift group, but did not differ on stress, sleep quality, or CAR. Stress assessed retrospectively at the end of the day was not associated with the CAR. We conclude that early waking, stress early in the day, and sleep disturbance often coincide, but need to be distinguished in order accurately to interpret differences in CAR magnitude. PMID:15471612

  1. Elevated maternal cortisol leads to relative maternal hyperglycemia and increased stillbirth in ovine pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Keller-Wood, Maureen; Feng, Xiaodi; Wood, Charles E; Richards, Elaine; Anthony, Russell V; Dahl, Geoffrey E; Tao, Sha

    2014-08-15

    In normal pregnancy, cortisol increases; however, further pathological increases in cortisol are associated with maternal and fetal morbidities. These experiments were designed to test the hypothesis that increased maternal cortisol would increase maternal glucose concentrations, suppress fetal growth, and impair neonatal glucose homeostasis. Ewes were infused with cortisol (1 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1)) from day 115 of gestation to term; maternal glucose, insulin, ovine placental lactogen, estrone, progesterone, nonesterified free fatty acids (NEFA), β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), and electrolytes were measured. Infusion of cortisol increased maternal glucose concentration and slowed the glucose disappearance after injection of glucose; maternal infusion of cortisol also increased the incidence of fetal death at or near parturition. The design of the study was altered to terminate the study prior to delivery, and post hoc analysis of the data was performed to test the hypothesis that maternal metabolic factors predict the fetal outcome. In cortisol-infused ewes that had stillborn lambs, plasma insulin was increased relative to control ewes or cortisol-infused ewes with live lambs. Maternal cortisol infusion did not alter maternal food intake or plasma NEFA, BHB, estrone, progesterone or placental lactogen concentrations, and it did not alter fetal body weight, ponderal index, or fetal organ weights. Our study suggests that the adverse effect of elevated maternal cortisol on pregnancy outcome may be related to the effects of cortisol on maternal glucose homeostasis, and that chronic maternal stress or adrenal hypersecretion of cortisol may create fetal pathophysiology paralleling some aspects of maternal gestational diabetes. PMID:24920731

  2. Elevated maternal cortisol leads to relative maternal hyperglycemia and increased stillbirth in ovine pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Xiaodi; Wood, Charles E.; Richards, Elaine; Anthony, Russell V.; Dahl, Geoffrey E.; Tao, Sha

    2014-01-01

    In normal pregnancy, cortisol increases; however, further pathological increases in cortisol are associated with maternal and fetal morbidities. These experiments were designed to test the hypothesis that increased maternal cortisol would increase maternal glucose concentrations, suppress fetal growth, and impair neonatal glucose homeostasis. Ewes were infused with cortisol (1 mg·kg−1·day−1) from day 115 of gestation to term; maternal glucose, insulin, ovine placental lactogen, estrone, progesterone, nonesterified free fatty acids (NEFA), β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), and electrolytes were measured. Infusion of cortisol increased maternal glucose concentration and slowed the glucose disappearance after injection of glucose; maternal infusion of cortisol also increased the incidence of fetal death at or near parturition. The design of the study was altered to terminate the study prior to delivery, and post hoc analysis of the data was performed to test the hypothesis that maternal metabolic factors predict the fetal outcome. In cortisol-infused ewes that had stillborn lambs, plasma insulin was increased relative to control ewes or cortisol-infused ewes with live lambs. Maternal cortisol infusion did not alter maternal food intake or plasma NEFA, BHB, estrone, progesterone or placental lactogen concentrations, and it did not alter fetal body weight, ponderal index, or fetal organ weights. Our study suggests that the adverse effect of elevated maternal cortisol on pregnancy outcome may be related to the effects of cortisol on maternal glucose homeostasis, and that chronic maternal stress or adrenal hypersecretion of cortisol may create fetal pathophysiology paralleling some aspects of maternal gestational diabetes. PMID:24920731

  3. Enhanced cortisol increase upon awakening is associated with greater pain ratings but not salivary cortisol or soluble tumor necrosis factor-α receptor II responses to acute pain

    PubMed Central

    Goodin, Burel R.; Quinn, Noel B.; King, Christopher D.; Page, Gayle G.; Haythornthwaite, Jennifer A.; Edwards, Robert R.; Stapleton, Laura M.; McGuire, Lynanne

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The cortisol awakening response (CAR) is related with psychosocial factors and health in potentially significant ways, suggesting that it may be a distinctive marker of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function and dysfunction. This sought to expand upon previous work that examined the association between CAR and ratings of laboratory-evoked acute pain stimulation. In addition to evoked pain ratings, this study also tested whether CAR was prospectively related with salivary cortisol and soluble tumor necrosis factor-α receptor II (sTNFαRII) responses to acute pain stimulation. Methods This study included 36 healthy, pain-free volunteers of both sexes recruited via posted study flyers. Prior to completion of laboratory pain testing, salivary cortisol samples were obtained at home over the course of a single morning according to the following time frame: upon awakening, and 15, 30, and 60 min after awakening. Following collection of saliva, study participants brought their home saliva samples to the laboratory for assay and subsequently completed acute experimental pain testing procedures. Results Cluster analysis of CAR revealed two distinct groups with similar patterns of cortisol response to awakening; increased and flattened. Relative to flattened CAR, increased CAR was associated with greater ratings of pain intensity and unpleasantness. Salivary cortisol was significantly increased and sTNFαRII significantly decreased following pain testing, but neither of these responses differed as a function of increased versus flattened CAR. Discussion CAR may be a marker for stress sensitivity and/or the anticipation of impending stress, which could explain why the increased CAR cohort reported greater acute pain ratings. PMID:21904196

  4. Cortisol awakening response in patients with psychosis: Systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Berger, Maximus; Kraeuter, Ann Katrin; Romanik, Daria; Malouf, Peter; Amminger, G Paul; Sarnyai, Zoltán

    2016-09-01

    The cortisol awakening response (CAR), defined as the increase in cortisol release in response to waking up, shows associations with social and environmental risk factors of schizophrenia and has been studied as a potential biomarker in schizophrenia. We report a systematic review and meta-analysis of 11 studies and 879 participants focusing on the CAR of patients with schizophrenia, first-episode psychosis, and at-risk mental states. Random-effects meta-analysis showed that CAR is attenuated in patients with psychosis compared to healthy controls (g=-0.426, 95% CI -0.585 to -0.267, p<0.001, 11 between-group comparisons, n=879). Subgroup analysis showed flattened CAR in patients with schizophrenia (g=-0.556, 95% CI -1.069 to -0.044, p<0.05, 2 between-group comparisons, n=114) and first-episode psychosis (g=-0.544, 95% CI -0.731 to -0.358, p<0.001, 6 between-group comparisons, n=505), but not in individuals with at-risk mental states. These distinctive alterations of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function may have important implications for CAR as a marker for transition risk. However, the lack of objective verification of sampling adherence in these studies may limit the interpretation of the results. PMID:27229759

  5. Stressful Life Events and Daily Stressors Affect Awakening Cortisol Level in Midlife Mothers of Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Jen D.; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Greenberg, Jan S.; Hong, Jinkuk; Almeida, David M.; Coe, Christopher L.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The current study examines the awakening cortisol level in midlife mothers (M=51.4 years old, SD=8.4) of individuals (M=22.1 years old, SD=7.1) with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) under stressful conditions that are not specific to the son or daughter's ASD symptoms. Methods In addition to completing a set of questionnaires and in-home interviews, 82 mothers from the Adolescents and Adults with Autism Study (AAA) participated in a Daily Diary Study. Results Findings from the multilevel models indicated that mothers who previously were exposed to no negative life events in the previous period had an increased awakening cortisol level on days following a greater number and more severe stressors, a normative stress response. In contrast, we observed a flatter cortisol level of daily stressors in mothers who experienced a greater number of negative life events in the previous period. Conclusion These findings highlight the sustained toll that global and everyday stressors have on awakening cortisol level of midlife and aging mothers of individuals with ASD. PMID:22640177

  6. Brain serotonin 4 receptor binding is associated with the cortisol awakening response.

    PubMed

    Jakobsen, Gustav R; Fisher, Patrick M; Dyssegaard, Agnete; McMahon, Brenda; Holst, Klaus K; Lehel, Szabolcs; Svarer, Claus; Jensen, Peter S; Knudsen, Gitte M; Frokjaer, Vibe G

    2016-05-01

    Serotonin signalling is considered critical for an appropriate and dynamic adaptation to stress. Previously, we have shown that prefrontal serotonin transporter (SERT) binding is positively associated with the cortisol awakening response (CAR) (Frokjaer et al., 2013), which is an index of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis output dynamics. Here, we investigated in healthy individuals if cerebral serotonin 4 receptor (5-HT4r) binding, reported to be a proxy for serotonin levels, is associated with CAR. Thirty healthy volunteers (25 males, age range 20-56 years) underwent 5-HT4r PET imaging with [(11)C]-SB207145, genotyping of the SERT-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR), and performed serial home sampling of saliva (5 time points from 0 to 60min from awakening) to assess CAR. The association between 5-HT4r binding in 4 regions of interest (prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, pallidostriatum, and hippocampus) and CAR was tested using multiple linear regression with adjustment for age and 5-HTTLPR genotype. Finally, an exploratory voxel-based analysis of the association was performed. CAR was negatively associated with 5-HT4r binding in pallidostriatum (p=0.01), prefrontal cortex (p=0.03), and anterior cingulate cortex (p=0.002), respectively, but showed no association in hippocampus. The results remained significant when taking into account other potentially relevant covariates. In conclusion, our finding reinforces an association between HPA-axis function and serotonin signaling in vivo in humans. We suggest that higher synaptic serotonin concentration, here indexed by lower 5-HT4r binding, supports HPA-axis dynamics, which in healthy volunteers is reflected by a robust CAR. PMID:26894483

  7. Restoring the salivary cortisol awakening response through nasal continuous positive airway pressure therapy in obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Ghiciuc, Cristina Mihaela; Dima Cozma, Lucia Corina; Bercea, Raluca Mihaela; Lupusoru, Catalina Elena; Mihaescu, Traian; Szalontay, Andreea; Gianfreda, Angela; Patacchioli, Francesca Romana

    2013-10-01

    Partial and largely conflicting data are currently available on the interplay between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) activity in adult obese men. This study was performed to evaluate the daily trajectories of salivary cortisol, specifically with respect to the salivary cortisol awakening response (CAR), a common method used to assess HPA axis activity. The main findings of this study were that adult male obese subjects who were newly diagnosed with severe OSA showed the following: (1) a flattening of the CAR; (2) levels of cortisol at awakening that were lower than those of the controls; and (3) maintenance of the physiological circadian activity of the HPA axis, with the highest hormone concentrations produced in the morning and the lowest in the evening. This study was also designed to investigate the effects of 3 and 6 mos of treatment with continuous airways positive pressure (CPAP). CPAP use resulted in a significant recovery of the sleep patterns disrupted by OSA; moreover, mild neuropsychological signs of depression and anxiety in severe OSA patients were concomitantly progressively improved by CPAP treatment. Furthermore, this study reports that 3 and 6 mos of CPAP therapy restored the presence of CAR and was able to significantly reduce the difference in the morning cortisol levels between the OSA and control groups. In conclusion, we report here that compared with obese nonapneic matched controls, OSA patients present a dysregulation of HPA axis activity, as shown by the flattening of the diurnal pattern of cortisol production in response to repeated challenge due to hypoxia and sleep fragmentation. This dysregulation was especially detectable in the first hour after awakening and restored after 3 and 6 mos of treatment with CPAP. PMID:23859257

  8. Cortisol awakening response in drug-naïve panic disorder

    PubMed Central

    Jakuszkowiak-Wojten, Katarzyna; Landowski, Jerzy; Wiglusz, Mariusz S; Cubała, Wiesław Jerzy

    2016-01-01

    Background It is unclear whether hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis is involved in the pathophysiology of panic disorder (PD). The findings remain inconsistent. Cortisol awakening response (CAR) is a noninvasive biomarker of stress system activity. We designed the study to assess CAR in drug-naïve PD patients. Materials and methods We assessed CAR in 14 psychotropic drug-naïve outpatients with PD and 14 healthy controls. The severity of PD was assessed with Panic and Agoraphobia Scale. The severity of anxiety and depression was screened with Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Results No significant difference in CAR between PD patients and control group was found. No correlations were observed between CAR and anxiety severity measures in PD patients and controls. Limitations The number of participating subjects was relatively small, and the study results apply to nonsuicidal drug-naïve PD patients without agoraphobia and with short-illness duration. There was a lack of control on subjects’ compliance with the sampling instructions. Conclusion The study provides no support for elevated CAR levels in drug-naïve PD patients without agoraphobia. PMID:27390521

  9. Exploring day-to-day dynamics of daily stressor appraisals, physical symptoms and the cortisol awakening response.

    PubMed

    Gartland, Nicola; O'Connor, Daryl B; Lawton, Rebecca; Bristow, Matt

    2014-12-01

    Stress is associated with the secretion of cortisol throughout the day, but less is known about the dynamic effects of stress on the cortisol awakening response (CAR). More widely, knowledge of the causal factors and functions of the CAR are also not fully understood. This study explored: (1) the effects of daily stressors on the next day CAR and; (2) the effects of the CAR on same day physical and affective outcomes. Sixty-four participants completed a daily diary, reporting on the occurrence of daily stressors and stress appraisals, physical symptoms, and affect. Cortisol was measured at 0, 15, 30, and 45 min after awakening to provide measures of the CAR on 3 consecutive work days. Stress appraisal was found to negatively predict the CAR, such that where stressors were appraised as more stressful (where perceived demands exceeded resources), the CAR increased less the following morning. Furthermore, the CAR significantly predicted same-day physical symptoms such that a lower CAR was associated with more physical symptoms. This study provides evidence for a pathway through which daily stressors may influence physical wellbeing, and highlights the importance of appraisals for future stress-based cortisol research. PMID:25217853

  10. Reduced Cingulate Gyrus Volume Associated with Enhanced Cortisol Awakening Response in Young Healthy Adults Reporting Childhood Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Zhaoguo; Wu, Weiwei; Liao, Mei; Ding, Yuqiang; Zhang, Zhijun; Li, Lingjiang

    2013-01-01

    Background Preclinical studies have demonstrated the relationship between stress-induced increased cortisol levels and atrophy of specific brain regions, however, this association has been less revealed in clinical samples. The aim of the present study was to investigate the changes and associations of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity and gray matter volumes in young healthy adults with self-reported childhood trauma exposures. Methods Twenty four healthy adults with childhood trauma and 24 age- and gender-matched individuals without childhood trauma were recruited. Each participant collected salivary samples in the morning at four time points: immediately upon awakening, 30, 45, and 60 min after awakening for the assessment of cortisol awakening response (CAR). The 3D T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging data were obtained on a Philips 3.0 Tesla scanner. Voxel-based morphometry analyses were conducted to compare the gray matter volume between two groups. Correlations of gray matter volume changes with severity of childhood trauma and CAR data were further analyzed. Results Adults with self-reported childhood trauma showed an enhanced CAR and decreased gray matter volume in the right middle cingulate gyrus. Moreover, a significant association was observed between salivary cortisol secretions after awaking and the right middle cingulate gyrus volume reduction in subjects with childhood trauma. Conclusions The present research outcomes suggest that childhood trauma is associated with hyperactivity of the HPA axis and decreased gray matter volume in the right middle cingulate gyrus, which may represent the vulnerability for developing psychosis after childhood trauma experiences. In addition, this study demonstrates that gray matter loss in the cingulate gyrus is related to increased cortisol levels. PMID:23894454

  11. Maternal Age at Holocaust Exposure and Maternal PTSD Independently Influence Urinary Cortisol Levels in Adult Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Bader, Heather N.; Bierer, Linda M.; Lehrner, Amy; Makotkine, Iouri; Daskalakis, Nikolaos P.; Yehuda, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    Background: Parental traumatization has been associated with increased risk for the expression of psychopathology in offspring, and maternal posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) appears to increase the risk for the development of offspring PTSD. In this study, Holocaust-related maternal age of exposure and PTSD were evaluated for their association with offspring ambient cortisol and PTSD-associated symptom expression. Method: Ninety-five Holocaust offspring and Jewish comparison subjects received diagnostic and psychological evaluations, and 24 h urinary cortisol was assayed by RIA. Offspring completed the parental PTSD questionnaire to assess maternal PTSD status. Maternal Holocaust exposure was identified as having occurred in childhood, adolescence, or adulthood and examined in relation to offspring psychobiology. Results: Urinary cortisol levels did not differ for Holocaust offspring and comparison subjects but differed significantly in offspring based on maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD status. Increased maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD were each associated with lower urinary cortisol in offspring, but did not exhibit a significant interaction. In addition, offspring PTSD-associated symptom severity increased with maternal age at exposure and PTSD diagnosis. A regression analysis of correlates of offspring cortisol indicated that both maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD were significant predictors of lower offspring urinary cortisol, whereas childhood adversity and offspring PTSD symptoms were not. Conclusion: Offspring low cortisol and PTSD-associated symptom expression are related to maternal age of exposure, with the greatest effects associated with increased age at exposure. These effects are relatively independent of the negative consequences of being raised by a trauma survivor. These observations highlight the importance of maternal age of exposure in determining a psychobiology in offspring that is consistent with increased

  12. Effects of perinatal stress and maternal traumatic stress on the cortisol regulation of preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Habersaat, Stephanie; Borghini, Ayala; Nessi, Jennifer; Forcada-Guex, Margarita; Müller-Nix, Carole; Pierrehumbert, Blaise; Ansermet, François

    2014-08-01

    Preterm infants experience intense stress during the perinatal period because they endure painful and intense medical procedures. Repeated activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis during this period may have long-term effects on subsequent cortisol regulation. A premature delivery may also be intensely stressful for the parents, and they may develop symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Usable saliva samples were collected (4 times per day over 2 days, in the morning at awakening, at midday, in the afternoon, and in the evening before going to bed) to assess the diurnal cortisol regulation from 46 preterm infants when the infants were 12 months of corrected age (∼ 14 months after birth). Mothers reported their level of PTSD symptoms. The results showed an interaction between perinatal stress and maternal traumatic stress on the diurnal cortisol slope of preterm infants (R(2) = .32). This suggests that the HPA axis of preterm infants exposed to high perinatal stress may be more sensitive to subsequent environmental stress. PMID:25158643

  13. Maternal Cortisol Mediates Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Interrenal Axis Development in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Nesan, Dinushan; Vijayan, Mathilakath M.

    2016-01-01

    In zebrafish (Danio rerio), de novo synthesis of cortisol in response to stressor exposure commences only after hatch. Maternally deposited cortisol is present during embryogenesis, but a role for this steroid in early development is unclear. We tested the hypothesis that maternal cortisol is essential for the proper development of hypothalamus-pituitary-interrenal (HPI) axis activity and the onset of the stressor-induced cortisol response in larval zebrafish. In this study, zygotic cortisol content was manipulated by microinjecting antibody to sequester this steroid, thereby making it unavailable during embryogenesis. This was compared with embryos containing excess cortisol by microinjection of exogenous steroid. The resulting larval phenotypes revealed distinct treatment effects, including deformed mesoderm structures when maternal cortisol was unavailable and cardiac edema after excess cortisol. Maternal cortisol unavailability heightened the cortisol stress response in post-hatch larvae, whereas excess cortisol abolished the stressor-mediated cortisol elevation. This contrasting hormonal response corresponded with altered expression of key HPI axis genes, including crf, 11B hydroxylase, pomca, and star, which were upregulated in response to reduced cortisol availability and downregulated when embryos had excess cortisol. These findings for the first time underscore a critical role for maternally deposited cortisol in programming HPI axis development and function in zebrafish. PMID:26940285

  14. Exposure to Maternal Distress in Childhood and Cortisol Activity in Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahrer, Nicole E.; Luecken, Linda J.; Wolchik, Sharlene A.; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Sandler, Irwin N.

    2014-01-01

    Dysregulated cortisol is a risk factor for poor health outcomes. Children of distressed mothers exhibit dysregulated cortisol, yet it is unclear whether maternal distress predicts cortisol activity in later developmental stages. This longitudinal study examined the prospective relation between maternal distress during late childhood (9-12 years)…

  15. Factors related to the cortisol awakening response of children working on the streets and siblings, before and after 2 years of a psychosocial intervention.

    PubMed

    Mello, Andrea Feijo; Juruena, Mario Francisco; Maciel, Mariana Rangel; Cavalcante-Nobrega, Luciana Porto; Cividanes, Giuliana Claudia; Fossaluza, Victor; Calsavara, Vinicius; Mello, Marcelo Feijo; Cleare, Anthony James; Mari, Jair de Jesus

    2015-02-28

    The study objective was to observe the cortisol awakening response (CAR) pattern before and after a psychosocial intervention with children from dysfunctional families who had at least one child working on the streets, and to verify factors related to it. Two hundred and eleven children between 7 and 14 years old were selected and 191 were included, 178 were re-evaluated 2 years after, of whom 113 had cortisol measures completed. Besides cortisol, they were evaluated at baseline and at end point regarding: abuse/neglect, mental health symptoms, exposure to urban violence and family environment. There was no significant difference between the CAR area under the curve (AUC) before and after the intervention. Two regression analysis models were built to evaluate factors related to the CAR before and after intervention. Before the intervention, working on the streets (vs. not) was related to a greater cortisol increase after awakening, at follow-up, having suffered physical punishment (vs. not) was related to a flattened cortisol response. The intervention was not associated with changes in the magnitude of the CAR AUC, though the CAR was associated with psychosocial stressors pre- and post-intervention. Effective interventions for children at risk that might shape a physiological cortisol response are still needed. PMID:25500347

  16. High Anger Expression is Associated with Reduced Cortisol Awakening Response and Health Complaints in Healthy Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Romero-Martínez, Ángel; Moya-Albiol, Luis

    2016-01-01

    The extant evidence suggests a robust positive association between expression (anger expression-out) and suppression (anger expression-in) of anger and compromised health. Nevertheless, the underlying psychobiological mechanisms which explain these relationships are not well understood. This study examined whether anger expression would predict general health, cortisol awakening response (CAR) and evening cortisol levels in a community sample of 156 healthy young adults of both genders. Participants were distributed into two groups according to their anger expression scores: high and low anger expression (HAE and LAE, respectively). Findings indicated that those with HAE had worse self-reported health (p = .02) and higher CAR than the LAE group (p = .04). Moreover, high levels of anger expression-out (p < .01) and -in (p < .01, for all) predicted a worse self-reported health in both groups. On the other hand, high anger expression-out was associated with flattened CAR but only in the HAE group (p < .01). This study reinforces the need to develop effective strategies to provide mechanisms to regulate anger expression by promoting personal growth and positive skills that enhance individuals' well-being and quality of life and, in turn, their own health. PMID:27125918

  17. Blunted Cortisol Awakening Response and Poor Self-Perceived Health in Informal Caregivers of People with Eating Disorders.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Robledillo, Nicolás; Romero-Martínez, Ángel; Moya-Albiol, Luis

    2016-09-01

    Caring for offspring diagnosed with eating disorders (EDs) entails being under high chronic stress, with negative consequences for health. However, most previous research has only evaluated self-report measures of health, biological markers being poorly studied. In this regard, the evaluation of the cortisol awakening response (CAR) could add significant information about the biological basis of health disturbances in this population. The main aim of the present study was to compare CAR and self-reported health between informal caregivers (ICs) of people with EDs and non-caregivers. Furthermore, we explored the effect of the nature of the diagnosis, comparing ICs of people with anorexia and bulimia nervosa. ICs had a blunted CAR, and more anxiety and insomnia, and social dysfunction, together with poorer perceived general health than non-caregivers. ICs of people with anorexia nervosa had higher levels of morning cortisol and burden, and more social dysfunction and severe depression than those of people with bulimia nervosa. Our results demonstrate marked health problems in ICs of people with EDs, especially when the care recipient has anorexia nervosa. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. PMID:27188221

  18. Increased maternal nighttime cortisol concentrations in late gestation alter glucose and insulin in the neonatal lamb

    PubMed Central

    Antolic, Andrew; Feng, Xiaodi; Wood, Charles E; Richards, Elaine M; Keller-Wood, Maureen

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies in our laboratory have shown that a modest chronic increase in maternal cortisol concentrations impairs maternal glucose metabolism and increases the incidence of perinatal stillbirth. The dramatic outcomes prevented our ability to study the effects of maternal hypercortisolemia on neonatal growth, glucose metabolism, and hypothalamo–pituitary–adrenal axis response. Therefore, we developed a model in which pregnant ewes are infused for 12 h/day at 0.5 mg·kg–1·day–1 from day 115 of gestation until delivery (˜145), elevating nighttime plasma cortisol concentrations. This pattern of elevation of cortisol mimics that in patients with elevated evening cortisol concentrations, as in Cushing’s syndrome or chronic depression. Plasma cortisol, glucose, insulin, and electrolytes were measured during pregnancy and postpartum in control and cortisol-infused ewes and their postnatal lambs for the first 14 days after delivery. Neonatal growth and plasma ACTH, aldosterone, renin activity, and electrolytes, and organ weights at 14 days of age were also measured. Infusion of cortisol increased maternal plasma cortisol during pregnancy but not postpartum, and did not alter neonatal ACTH or cortisol. Although maternal glucose and insulin concentrations were not changed by the maternal infusion of cortisol, neonatal plasma glucose was increased and plasma insulin was decreased compared to those in the control group. Neonatal ponderal index and kidney weight were reduced, left ventricular wall thickness was increased, and plasma sodium and creatinine were increased after maternal cortisol infusion. These results suggest that excess maternal cortisol concentrations in late gestation alter growth, glucose and insulin regulation, and organ maturation in the neonate. PMID:26371232

  19. Daily diary reports of social connection, objective sleep, and the cortisol awakening response during adolescents' first year of college.

    PubMed

    Sladek, Michael R; Doane, Leah D

    2015-02-01

    Poor sleep and alterations in the stress-sensitive hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis may be mechanisms through which loneliness impacts adolescents' well-being. Few researchers have explored whether daily variation in experiences of social connection predict day-to-day variation in sleep and HPA axis activity among adolescents navigating the college context. Using daily diary reports of social connection, objective measures of sleep (actigraphy), and naturalistic salivary assessment, the present study examined within-person associations between first-year college students' social connection during the day and sleep that night, as well as diurnal cortisol activity the following day. The present study also explored trait-level loneliness as a moderator of these associations after adjusting for baseline loneliness assessed in high school. Seventy-one first-year college students (23% male; M age = 18.85; 52% non-Hispanic White) completed daily diary reports, wore a wrist-based accelerometer (actigraph watch), and provided saliva samples five times daily across three consecutive weekdays. The results from hierarchical linear models indicated that within-person increases in daily social connection were significantly associated with longer time spent in bed and more actual time asleep that night only for adolescents high on loneliness. Within-person increases in daily social connection were associated with a greater cortisol awakening response (CAR) the next day, regardless of trait loneliness. These findings illustrate that more daily social connection with others than usual may predict improved sleep quantity for lonely adolescents and a physiological index of anticipating upcoming daily demands (CAR) in general. Future intervention programs might consider including strategies focused on enhancing daily social interactions among adolescents starting college, particularly for lonely adolescents. PMID:25537099

  20. Trajectories of the cortisol awakening responses during weight gain in anorexia nervosa patients with severe and less severe symptoms.

    PubMed

    Wild, Beate; Wesche, Daniela; Schultz, Jobst-Hendrik; Stroe-Kunold, Esther; Herzog, Wolfgang; Rudofsky, Gottfried; Maser-Gluth, Christiane; Friederich, Hans-Christoph

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the features and changes of the cortisol awakening response (CAR) in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) with severe and less severe symptoms over the course of inpatient treatment. Our study included n=20 AN patients who received treatment at the University Hospital, Heidelberg. N=11 patients were admitted at a psychosomatic and internal-medicine ward that specialized in the treatment of AN patients with a very low BMI (patient group with high symptom severity, HSS). The mean BMI of these patients was 13.2 kg/m(2) (SD=1.4) at the beginning of the study and 16.9 kg/m(2) (SD=1.7) at the end. N=9 patients were treated at a psychotherapeutic ward where AN patients with less severe symptoms are admitted (patient group with low symptom severity, LSS). The mean BMI of these latter patients was 16.3 kg/m(2) (SD=0.89) at the beginning of the study and 17.1 kg/m(2) (SD=0.65) at the end. Salivary cortisol was measured on two consecutive days respectively, both at the beginning and the end of the study. At the beginning of the study, patients with HSS had a significantly lower mean CAR compared to patients from the LSS group (3.4 nmol/l vs. 11.4 nmol/l). At the end of the study, the mean CAR of patients from the HSS group was still significantly lower compared to the mean CAR of patients with LSS (2.0 nmol/l vs. 9.2 nmol/l). Results indicate that AN patients with severe symptoms exhibit a lower CAR compared to AN patients with less severe symptoms. PMID:25286448

  1. Ratio of amniotic fluid cortisol and maternal serum cortisol (AFC/MSC) as an index of fetal lung maturity.

    PubMed

    Varma, K; Heine, M W; Haller, W S; Row, A D; Railsback, K; Varma, S K

    1979-01-01

    Fifty-eight samples of amniotic fluid from pregnant women between the gestation period of 34-42 weeks were analyzed for total cortisol levels. Thirty-four simulatneous maternal serum total cortisol levels were also measured. Amniotic fluid cortisol (AFC), maternal serum cortisol (MSC) and the ratio of AFC/MSC were correlated with L/S ratio. AFC alone and AFC/MSC ratios correlate with L/S ratios (r=0.36, p less than 0.01, and r=0.46, p less than 0.01, respectively). MSC and L/S ratios had no correlation. AFC/MSC had less individual variation as compared to AFC alone. The AFC/MSC could be divided by an arbitrary line at 0.1 and values less than 0.1 signify immature fetal lungs. Values of 0.1 and greater signify mature fetal lungs. PMID:532565

  2. DRD2 and SLC6A3 moderate impact of maternal depressive symptoms on infant cortisol.

    PubMed

    Ludmer, Jaclyn A; Levitan, Robert; Gonzalez, Andrea; Kennedy, James; Villani, Vanessa; Masellis, Mario; Basile, Vincenzo S; Atkinson, Leslie

    2015-12-01

    Both maternal depressive symptoms and infants' dopamine-related genetic characteristics have been linked to infants' hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) functioning. This study investigated the interactive influence of maternal depressive symptoms and infant DRD2 and SLC6A3 genotypes on infant cortisol reactivity; whether this interaction reflects diathesis-stress or differential susceptibility; and whether this interaction influences the flexibility of the infant cortisol response across challenges known to exert differential effects on infant cortisol reactivity. A community sample of 314 mother-infant dyads participated in toy frustration (age 16 months) and maternal separation (age 17 months) challenges, and salivary cortisol was collected at baseline, +20, and +40min. Maternal depressive symptoms were assessed with the Beck Depression Inventory-II at infant age 16 months. Infant buccal cells were collected at both time points for genotyping. DRD2 and SLC6A3 genotypes moderated the relation between maternal depressive symptomatology and infant cortisol reactivity in a diathesis-stress manner in the context of toy frustration, and in a differential susceptibility manner in the context of maternal separation. Higher levels of maternal depressive symptoms predicted reduced cortisol flexibility across challenges for infants with at least one A1 allele of DRD2 and infants with the 10/10 genotype of SLC6A3. Results suggest that maternal depressive symptomatology is related to infants' cortisol reactivity and to the flexibility of that reactivity across psychosocial challenges, but this relation is dependent on the infant's genetic characteristics. PMID:26342565

  3. Cortisol awakening response and pain-related fear-avoidance versus endurance in patients six months after lumbar disc surgery.

    PubMed

    Sudhaus, Sigrid; Möllenberg, Thomas; Plaas, Heike; Willburger, Roland; Schmieder, Kirsten; Hasenbring, Monika

    2012-06-01

    Recent research indicates that stress-induced, prolonged deviations in basal adrenocortical activity might contribute to ongoing/recurrent pain following lumbar disc surgery. Further, fear-avoidance and endurance responses to pain (FAR and ER) are regarded as important risk factors for pain after surgery. In patients with non-specific low back pain, FAR appear to possibly increase pain-related arousal, whereas ER may have an arousal-lowering effect, indicated by adrenocortical activity. The current study explores the relationship between basal adrenocortical activity and FAR and ER. Thirty-six patients 6 months after lumbar disc surgery participated. Basal adrenocortical activity was assessed through the cortisol awakening response (CAR), using salivary samples collected on two consecutive days. FAR and ER were estimated using questionnaires. While the ER variables pain-persistence behavior and positive mood despite pain showed negative associations with the CAR, the FAR variables fear-avoidance beliefs and avoidance of social activity were positively correlated with it. Additionally, higher CAR levels were found in patients with high versus patients with low fear-avoidance beliefs and, conversely, in patients with low versus high positive mood and pain persistence. These results indicate that FAR may increase the individuals' level of pain-related stress among patients after disc surgery, while ER may lower it. PMID:22395425

  4. Early Family and Child-Care Antecedents of Awakening Cortisol Levels in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roisman, Glenn I.; Susman, Elizabeth; Barnett-Walker, Kortnee; Booth-Laforce, Cathryn; Owen, Margaret Tresch; Belsky, Jay; Bradley, Robert H.; Houts, Renate; Steinberg, Laurence

    2009-01-01

    This study examined early observed parenting and child-care experiences in relation to functioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis over the long term. Consistent with the attenuation hypothesis, individuals (n = 863) who experienced: (a) higher levels of maternal insensitivity and (b) more time in child-care centers in the first…

  5. Effects of prenatal depressive symptoms on maternal and infant cortisol reactivity.

    PubMed

    Braithwaite, Elizabeth C; Murphy, Susannah E; Ramchandani, Paul G

    2016-08-01

    Prenatal depression is associated with adverse offspring outcomes, and the prevailing mechanistic theory to account for mood-associated effects implicates alterations of the maternal and foetal hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal (HPA) axes. Recent research suggests that depression may be associated with a failure to attenuate cortisol reactivity during early pregnancy. The aim of the current study is to investigate whether this effect continues into mid and late gestation. A further aim is to test whether maternal prenatal cortisol reactivity directly predicts infant cortisol reactivity. One hundred three pregnant women were recruited during either the second or third trimester. Depressive symptoms were assessed by self-report, and maternal salivary cortisol responses to a stressor (infant distress film) were measured. Approximately 2 months after birth, mothers (n = 88) reported postnatal depression and infant salivary cortisol responses to inoculation were measured. Prenatal depression was not associated with cortisol reactivity to acute stress in mid and late pregnancy. Similarly, neither prenatal depression nor maternal prenatal cortisol reactivity predicted infant cortisol reactivity to inoculation at 2 months. If the effects of prenatal depression on foetal and infant development are mediated by alterations of the maternal and foetal HPA axes, then early pregnancy may be a particularly vulnerable period. Alternatively, changes to HPA reactivity may not be as central to this association as previously thought. PMID:26940835

  6. Cortisol Reactivity, Maternal Sensitivity, and Learning In Three-Month-Old Infants

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Laura A.; Trevathan, Wenda R.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of adrenocortical functioning on infant learning during an emotionally challenging event (brief separation from mother). We also explored possible relationships between maternal sensitivity and both infant and maternal cortisol reactivity during the learning/maternal separation episode. 63 three-month-olds and their mothers were videotaped for a 10-min normal interaction period, and mother-infant behavioral synchrony was measured using Isabella and Belsky's (1991) coding scheme. The percentage of synchronous behaviors served as a measure of maternal sensitivity. Learning and short-term memory involved relating the infant's mother's voice with a moving colored block in a preferential looking paradigm. Infants whose cortisol increased during the session showed no learning or memory, infants whose cortisol declined appeared to learn and remember the association, while infants whose cortisol did not change evidenced learning, but not memory for the voice/object correspondence. Sensitivity and cortisol reactivity were correlated for mothers, but not for infants. Infant and maternal cortisol values for the first sampling period were highly correlated, but their cortisol reactivity values were uncorrelated, supporting the notion that infants and mothers have coordinated adrenocortical functioning systems when physically together, but become uncoordinated during a separation/learning event. PMID:17716739

  7. Maternal psychopathology and early child temperament predict young children's salivary cortisol 3 years later.

    PubMed

    Dougherty, Lea R; Smith, Victoria C; Olino, Thomas M; Dyson, Margaret W; Bufferd, Sara J; Rose, Suzanne A; Klein, Daniel N

    2013-05-01

    Neuroendocrine dysfunction is hypothesized to be an early emerging vulnerability marker for depression. We tested whether the main and interactive effects of maternal psychopathology and early child temperamental vulnerability for depression assessed at age three predicted offspring's basal cortisol function at age 6 years. 228 (122 males) children participated in the baseline and follow-up assessments. At age three, maternal lifetime psychopathology was assessed with a diagnostic clinical interview, and child temperamental positive affectivity (PA) and negative affectivity (NA) were assessed using laboratory observations. At age six, children's waking and evening cortisol were assessed on 2 days. Maternal lifetime anxiety predicted offspring's higher morning cortisol at age six. Child temperamental NA at age three predicted higher evening cortisol at age six. There was a significant interaction between maternal lifetime depression and child temperamental PA at age three in predicting offspring's morning cortisol at age six. For the offspring of mothers with lifetime depression, higher PA at age 3 predicted lower morning cortisol at age 6. These findings highlight the importance of examining the main and interactive effects of maternal psychopathology and early child temperamental vulnerability in predicting the development of offspring's stress physiology. Findings hold significance in identifying etiological mechanisms of risk and delineating the complex developmental pathways to psychopathology. PMID:23192743

  8. Prospective Associations Between the Cortisol Awakening Response and First Onsets of Anxiety Disorders Over a Six-Year Follow-up – 2013 Curt Richter Award Winner

    PubMed Central

    Adam, Emma K.; Vrshek-Schallhorn, Suzanne; Kendall, Ashley D.; Mineka, Susan; Zinbarg, Richard E.; Craske, Michelle G.

    2014-01-01

    Cross-sectional associations have been found between anxiety disorders (ADs) and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning, as measured by levels of salivary cortisol, but prospective data are lacking, as are studies examining specific ADs. We have previously shown that one aspect of the diurnal rhythm of cortisol, the cortisol awakening response (CAR), prospectively predicts both new onsets and recurrences of major depressive disorder (MDD). Here we sought to examine whether it also predicts ADs. Participants (N=232) were drawn from the larger Northwestern-UCLA Youth Emotion Project, a two-site, longitudinal study of older adolescents, which aims to identify common and specific risk factors for mood and anxiety disorders. After baseline interviews for mental health diagnoses, a subset of adolescents completed a three-day cortisol sampling protocol measuring the CAR and other diurnal rhythm indices. Participants with past or current anxiety disorders at the time of cortisol measurement were excluded and Cox regression (survival analysis) was used to predict first onsets of ADs over the subsequent six years. AD onsets (N=25), the largest subset of which were social anxiety disorder (SAD) onsets (N=11), were observed over six annual follow up diagnostic interviews. Even when statistically adjusting for past and prospective MDD onsets and other covariates, a higher CAR significantly predicted increased first onsets of ADs (HR = 2.20, p < .05). A higher CAR was also a strong and significant predictor of the subset of SAD onsets (HR = 5.37, p < .005). Implications for the etiology of ADs, with a focus on SAD, are discussed. PMID:24767619

  9. Differential sensitization of parenting on early adolescent cortisol: Moderation by profiles of maternal stress.

    PubMed

    Martin, Christina Gamache; Kim, Hyoun K; Fisher, Philip A

    2016-05-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is a critical component of the body's stress-response neurobiological system, and its development and functioning are shaped by the social environment. Much of our understanding of the effects of the caregiving environment on the HPA axis is based on (a) parenting in young children and (b) individual maternal stressors, such as depression. Yet, less is known about how parenting behaviors and maternal stressors interact to influence child cortisol regulation, particularly in older children. With an ethnically diverse sample of 199 mothers and their early adolescent children (M=11.00years; 54% female), a profile analytic approach was used to investigate how multiple phenotypes of maternal stress co-occur and moderate the relation between parenting behaviors and youths' diurnal cortisol rhythms. Latent profile analysis yielded 4 profiles: current parenting stress, concurrent parenting and childhood stress, childhood stress, and low stress. For mothers with the concurrent parenting and childhood stress profile, inconsistent discipline, poor parental supervision, and harsh caregiving behaviors each were related to flattened diurnal cortisol rhythms in their adolescents. For mothers with the current parenting stress and childhood stress profiles, their use of inconsistent discipline was associated with flattened diurnal cortisol rhythms in their adolescents. For mothers with the low stress profile, none of the parenting behaviors was related to their adolescents' cortisol regulation. Findings suggest that based on mothers' stress profile, parenting behaviors are differentially related to youths' diurnal cortisol rhythms. Implications for parenting interventions are discussed. PMID:26859701

  10. The Timing of Prenatal Exposure to Maternal Cortisol and Psychosocial Stress Is Associated with Human Infant Cognitive Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Elysia P.; Sandman, Curt A.

    2010-01-01

    The consequences of prenatal maternal stress for development were examined in 125 full-term infants at 3, 6, and 12 months of age. Maternal cortisol and psychological state were evaluated 5 times during pregnancy. Exposure to elevated concentrations of cortisol early in gestation was associated with a slower rate of development over the 1st year…

  11. Salivary cortisol as a biomarker to explore the role of maternal stress in early childhood caries.

    PubMed

    Pani, Sharat Chandra; Abuthuraya, Deena; Alshammery, Hadia M; Alshammery, Dalal; Alshehri, Hind

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To compare salivary cortisol levels of children with ECC and their mothers with those of caries free children from a similar sociodemographic cohort. Design. Sixty-four college-educated, working mothers from middle income families with no history of anxiety disorders and their first born children aged between 48 and 71 months were included in the study. Salivary cortisol levels were analyzed using electrochemiluminescence (ECL) immunoassay. Statistical Analyses. Significance of difference between the cortisol levels of children with ECC and control children and of their mothers was analyzed using the Student's t- test. The intraclass correlation coefficient was used to measure the significance of correlation of cortisol levels between the mother and the child with logistic regression to explore possible associations. Results. Mothers of children with ECC had significantly higher levels of salivary cortisol (P < 0.05) than mothers of caries free children. The salivary cortisol levels of children with ECC were significantly higher than caries free children (P < 0.0001). A significant correlation existed between the salivary cortisol level of the mother and that of the child (P < 0.0001). Conclusion. While salivary cortisol levels of the child seem to have a direct impact on the incidence of ECC, maternal stress seems to have an indirect effect. PMID:23781246

  12. Polymorphisms of genes related to the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis influence the cortisol awakening response as well as self-perceived stress.

    PubMed

    Li-Tempel, Ting; Larra, Mauro F; Winnikes, Ulrike; Tempel, Tobias; DeRijk, Roel H; Schulz, André; Schächinger, Hartmut; Meyer, Jobst; Schote, Andrea B

    2016-09-01

    The hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is a crucial endocrine system for coping with stress. A reliable and stable marker for the basal state of that system is the cortisol awakening response (CAR). We examined the influence of variants of four relevant candidate genes; the mineralocorticoid receptor gene (MR), the glucocorticoid receptor gene (GR), the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTT) and the gene encoding the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) on CAR and self-perceived stress in 217 healthy subjects. We found that polymorphisms of GR influenced both, the basal state of the HPA axis as well as self-perceived stress. MR only associated with self-perceived stress and 5-HTT only with CAR. BDNF did not affected any of the investigated indices. In summary, we suggest that GR variants together with the CAR and supplemented with self reports on perceived stress might be useful indicators for the basal HPA axis activity. PMID:27427534

  13. Cortisol Secretion and Change in Sleep Problems in Early Childhood: Moderation by Maternal Overcontrol

    PubMed Central

    Kiel, Elizabeth J.; Hummel, Alexandra C.; Luebbe, Aaron M.

    2015-01-01

    Childhood sleep problems are prevalent and relate to a wide range of negative psychological outcomes. However, it remains unclear how biological processes, such as HPA activity, may predict sleep problems over time in childhood in the context of certain parenting environments. Fifty-one mothers and their 18–20 month-old toddlers participated in a short-term longitudinal study assessing how shared variance among morning levels, diurnal change, and nocturnal change in toddlers’ cortisol secretion predicted change in sleep problems in the context of maternal overprotection and critical control. A composite characterized by low variability in, and, to a lesser extent, high morning values of cortisol, predicted increasing sleep problems from age 2 to age 3 when mothers reported high critical control. Results suggest value in assessing shared variance among different indices of cortisol secretion patterns and the interaction between cortisol and the environment in predicting sleep problems in early childhood. PMID:25766262

  14. Maternal Cortisol Levels and Behavior Problems in Adolescents and Adults with ASD

    PubMed Central

    Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Greenberg, Jan S.; Hong, Jinkuk; Smith, Leann E.; Almeida, David M.; Coe, Christopher; Stawski, Robert S.

    2010-01-01

    Using daily diary methods, mothers of adolescents and adults with ASD (n = 86) were contrasted with a nationally representative comparison group of mothers of similarly-aged unaffected children (n = 171) with respect to the diurnal rhythm of cortisol. Mothers of adolescents and adults with ASD were found to have significantly lower levels of cortisol throughout the day. Within the ASD sample, the son or daughter’s history of behavior problems interacted with daily behavior problems to predict the morning rise of the mother’s cortisol. A history of elevated behavior problems moderated the effect of behavior problems the day before on maternal cortisol level. Implications for interventions for both the mother and the individual with ASD are suggested. PMID:19890706

  15. Maternal transfer of bisphenol A impacts the ontogeny of cortisol stress response in rainbow trout.

    PubMed

    Birceanu, Oana; Mai, Trinh; Vijayan, Mathilakath M

    2015-11-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is widespread in the aquatic environment, and early life-stage exposure to this chemical affects growth and development in fish. We tested the hypothesis that BPA accumulation in eggs, mimicking maternal transfer, impacts the development and function of the hypothalamus-pituitary-interrenal (HPI) axis in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). To mimic maternal transfer, oocytes were loaded with 0 (control), 1, 4 and 40ng BPA embryo(-1). We measured the temporal changes in whole body cortisol content, transcript levels of corticosteroidogenesis-related genes and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) protein expressions during early development. In addition, trout larvae were subjected to an acute stressor at key developmental stages (at hatch, just prior to first feed and post hatch) and whole body cortisol levels measured to assess the functional integrity of the HPI axis. The developmental profile of whole body cortisol content was altered in the 1 and 40ng BPA groups compared to the control group. Also, the two key rate-limiting steps in steroidogenesis, the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and cytochrome P450 side chain cleavage (P450scc) enzyme transcript levels were disrupted in the larvae originating from BPA accumulated eggs prior to first feed. Whole body GR and MR protein expressions were higher in the 40ng BPA group compared to other groups prior to first feed. Stressor-induced elevation in whole body cortisol levels were evident at 65 days post-fertilization (dpf) and later, but not at 42 dpf in trout larvae. This cortisol response to a stressor exposure was attenuated in the 4 and 40ng BPA groups at 65 dpf, but not at 140 dpf. Together, accumulation of BPA in eggs, mimicking maternal transfer of this chemical, disrupts the ontogeny of cortisol stress response in trout larvae and may compromise the target tissue responsiveness to cortisol stimulation during early development. PMID:26398930

  16. Maternal Psychopathology and Early Child Temperament Predict Young Children's Salivary Cortisol 3 Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dougherty, Lea R.; Smith, Victoria C.; Olino, Thomas M.; Dyson, Margaret W.; Bufferd, Sara J.; Rose, Suzanne A.; Klein, Daniel N.

    2013-01-01

    Neuroendocrine dysfunction is hypothesized to be an early emerging vulnerability marker for depression. We tested whether the main and interactive effects of maternal psychopathology and early child temperamental vulnerability for depression assessed at age three predicted offspring's basal cortisol function at age 6 years. 228 (122 males)…

  17. Interparental Violence, Maternal Emotional Unavailability and Children's Cortisol Functioning in Family Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturge-Apple, Melissa L.; Davies, Patrick T.; Cicchetti, Dante; Manning, Liviah G.

    2012-01-01

    Our goal in the present study was to examine the specificity of pathways among interparental violence, maternal emotional unavailability, and children's cortisol reactivity to emotional stressors within interparental and parent-child relationships. The study also tested whether detrimental family contexts were associated, on average, with…

  18. Prenatal Exposure to Maternal Depression and Cortisol Influences Infant Temperament

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Elysia Poggi; Glynn, Laura M.; Schetter, Christine Dunkel; Hobel, Calvin; Chicz-Demet, Aleksandra; Sandman, Curt A.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Accumulating evidence indicates that prenatal maternal and fetal processes can have a lasting influence on infant and child development. Results from animal models indicate that prenatal exposure to maternal stress and stress hormones has lasting consequences for development of the offspring. Few prospective studies of human pregnancy…

  19. Tandem mass spectrometry determined maternal cortisone to cortisol ratio and psychiatric morbidity during pregnancy-interaction with birth weight.

    PubMed

    Hellgren, Charlotte; Edvinsson, Åsa; Olivier, Jocelien D; Fornes, Romina; Stener-Victorin, Elisabet; Ubhayasekera, S J Kumari A; Skalkidou, Alkistis; Bergquist, Jonas; Sundström-Poromaa, Inger

    2016-07-01

    Maternal serum cortisol has been suggested to be influenced by psychiatric morbidity, and may also influence fetal growth. However, several studies found equal cortisol levels in depressed and healthy pregnant women. Placental 11-β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11β-HSD2) shields the fetus from maternal cortisol by conversion to cortisone, a function that may be compromised by maternal stress. We aimed to compare the serum ratio of cortisone to cortisol, in women with and without psychiatric morbidity during pregnancy. A secondary aim was to investigate whether fetal growth, approximated by infant birth weight, was associated with the cortisone to cortisol ratio. We performed tandem mass spectrometry analysis of serum cortisol and cortisone in late pregnancy in 94 women with antenatal psychiatric morbidity and 122 controls (cohort 1). We also compared the placental gene expression of HSD11B1 and 2 in another group of 69 women with psychiatric morbidity and 47 controls (cohort 2). There were no group differences in cortisol to cortisone ratio, absolute levels of cortisone and cortisol (cohort 1), or expression of HSD11B1 or 2 (cohort 2). However, cortisone to cortisol ratio was positively associated with birth weight in women with psychiatric morbidity, also after adjustment for gestational length, fetal sex, maternal height, smoking, SSRI use, and time of blood sampling (standardized β=0.35, p<0.001), with no association in the healthy controls Thus, the maternal serum cortisone to cortisol ratio does not seem to be affected by psychiatric morbidity, but psychiatric morbidity may increase fetal exposure to cortisol or other metabolic factors influencing fetal growth. PMID:27088373

  20. In search of the HPA axis activity in unipolar depression patients with childhood trauma: Combined cortisol awakening response and dexamethasone suppression test.

    PubMed

    Lu, Shaojia; Gao, Weijia; Huang, Manli; Li, Lingjiang; Xu, Yi

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the impact of childhood trauma on HPA axis activity both in depression patients and healthy controls in order to determine the role of HPA axis abnormalities in depression and to find the differences in HPA axis functioning that may lead certain individuals more susceptible to the depressogenic effects of childhood trauma. Eighty subjects aged 18-45 years were recruited into four study groups (n = 18, depression patients with childhood trauma exposures, CTE/MDD; n = 17, depression patients without childhood adversity, non-CTE/MDD; n = 23, healthy persons with childhood trauma, CTE/non-MDD; and n = 22, healthy persons without childhood adversity, non-CTE/non-MDD). Each participant collected salivary samples in the morning at four time points: immediately upon awakening, 30, 45, and 60 min after awakening for the assessment of CAR and underwent a 1 mg-dexamethasone suppression test (DST). Regardless of depression, subjects with CTE exhibited an enhanced CAR and the CAR areas under the curve to ground (AUCg) were associated with their childhood trauma questionnaire (CTQ) physical neglect scores and CTQ total scores. In addition, the CTE/MDD group also showed a highest post-DST cortisol concentration and a decreased glucocorticoid feedback inhibition among four groups of subjects. The present findings suggested that childhood trauma was associated with hyperactivity of HPA axis as measured with CAR, potentially reflecting the vulnerability for developing depression after early life stress exposures. Moreover, dysfunction of the GR-mediated negative feedback control might contribute to the development of depression after CTE. PMID:27049575

  1. Toddler Inhibited Temperament, Maternal Cortisol Reactivity and Embarrassment, and Intrusive Parenting

    PubMed Central

    Kiel, Elizabeth J.; Buss, Kristin A.

    2013-01-01

    The relevance of parenting behavior to toddlers’ development necessitates a better understanding of the influences on parents during parent-child interactions. Toddlers’ inhibited temperament may relate to parenting behaviors, such as intrusiveness, that predict outcomes later in childhood. The conditions under which inhibited temperament relates to intrusiveness, however, remain understudied. A multi-method approach would acknowledge that several levels of processes determine mothers’ experiences during situations in which they witness their toddlers interacting with novelty. As such, the current study examined maternal cortisol reactivity and embarrassment about shyness as moderators of the relation between toddlers’ inhibited temperament and maternal intrusive behavior. Participants included 92 24-month-olds toddlers and their mothers. Toddlers’ inhibited temperament and maternal intrusiveness were measured observationally in the laboratory. Mothers supplied saliva samples at the beginning of the laboratory visit and 20 minutes after observation. Maternal cortisol reactivity interacted with inhibited temperament in relation to intrusive behavior, such that mothers with higher levels of cortisol reactivity were observed to be more intrusive with more highly inhibited toddlers. Embarrassment related to intrusive behavior as a main effect. These results highlight the importance of considering child characteristics and psychobiological processes in relation to parenting behavior. PMID:23750532

  2. Toddler inhibited temperament, maternal cortisol reactivity and embarrassment, and intrusive parenting.

    PubMed

    Kiel, Elizabeth J; Buss, Kristin A

    2013-06-01

    The relevance of parenting behavior to toddlers' development necessitates a better understanding of the influences on parents during parent-child interactions. Toddlers' inhibited temperament may relate to parenting behaviors, such as intrusiveness, that predict outcomes later in childhood. The conditions under which inhibited temperament relates to intrusiveness, however, remain understudied. A multimethod approach would acknowledge that several levels of processes determine mothers' experiences during situations in which they witness their toddlers interacting with novelty. As such, the current study examined maternal cortisol reactivity and embarrassment about shyness as moderators of the relation between toddlers' inhibited temperament and maternal intrusive behavior. Participants included 92 24-month-old toddlers and their mothers. Toddlers' inhibited temperament and maternal intrusiveness were measured observationally in the laboratory. Mothers supplied saliva samples at the beginning of the laboratory visit and 20 minutes after observation. Maternal cortisol reactivity interacted with inhibited temperament in relation to intrusive behavior, such that mothers with higher levels of cortisol reactivity were observed to be more intrusive with more highly inhibited toddlers. Embarrassment related to intrusive behavior as a main effect. These results highlight the importance of considering child characteristics and psychobiological processes in relation to parenting behavior. PMID:23750532

  3. Self-reported health and cortisol awakening response in parents of people with asperger syndrome: the role of trait anger and anxiety, coping and burden.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Robledillo, N; Moya-Albiol, L

    2013-11-01

    Caring for offspring with autism spectrum disorders entails high levels of stress for a long period of time and is associated with several types of health complaints. Few studies have focused on specific effects of particular disorders in the spectrum. This study was carried out with the aim of evaluating the global health of parents of people with Asperger syndrome (N = 53) compared to those of typically developing children (N = 54) through self-reported measures (medication consumption and somatic symptoms) and biological markers (cortisol awakening response [CAR]). Additionally, we analysed various psychological variables as potential predictors of caregiver health. We found that caregivers take more medication and have worse self-reported health than controls, but there were no significant differences in CAR between the groups. However, after controlling for negative affect, differences between groups in CAR reached significance. With regards to predictor variables, anxiety trait, cognitive-coping style, burden and anger temperament were significantly associated with caregiver's self-reported health. These findings underline the need to develop interventions that foster improvements in the health of caregivers, reduce their burden and enhance their quality of life. PMID:23713979

  4. Cross-cultural gene by environment interactions in depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and the cortisol awakening response: FKBP5 polymorphisms and childhood trauma in South Asia

    PubMed Central

    Kohrt, Brandon A.; Worthman, Carol M.; Ressler, Kerry J.; Mercer, Kristina B.; Upadhaya, Nawaraj; Koirala, Suraj; Nepal, Mahendra K.; Sharma, Vidya Dev; Binder, Elisabeth B.

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite increased attention to global mental health, psychiatric genetic research has been dominated by studies in high-income countries, especially with populations of European descent. The objective of this study was to assess single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the FKBP5 gene in a population living in South Asia. Methods Among adults in Nepal, depression was assessed with the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) with the PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version (PCL-C), and childhood maltreatment with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). FKBP5 SNPs were genotyped for 682 participants. Cortisol awakening response (CAR) was assessed in a subsample of 118 participants over three days. Results The FKBP5 tag-SNP rs9296158 showed a main effect on depressive symptoms (p=0.03). Interaction of rs9296158 and childhood maltreatment predicted adult depressive symptoms (p=0.02) but not PTSD. Childhood maltreatment associated with endocrine response in individuals homozygous for the A allele, demonstrated by a negative CAR and overall hypocortisolemia in the rs9296158 AA genotype and childhood maltreatment group (p<0.001). Conclusions This study replicated findings related to FKBP5 and depression but not PTSD. Gene by environment studies should take differences in prevalence and cultural significance of phenotypes and exposures into account when interpreting cross-cultural findings. PMID:26100613

  5. Cortisol in mother’s milk across lactation reflects maternal life history and predicts infant temperament

    PubMed Central

    Skibiel, Amy L.; Foster, Alison B.; Del Rosso, Laura; Mendoza, Sally P.; Capitanio, John P.

    2015-01-01

    The maternal environment exerts important influences on offspring mass/growth, metabolism, reproduction, neurobiology, immune function, and behavior among birds, insects, reptiles, fish, and mammals. For mammals, mother’s milk is an important physiological pathway for nutrient transfer and glucocorticoid signaling that potentially influences offspring growth and behavioral phenotype. Glucocorticoids in mother’s milk have been associated with offspring behavioral phenotype in several mammals, but studies have been handicapped by not simultaneously evaluating milk energy density and yield. This is problematic as milk glucocorticoids and nutrients likely have simultaneous effects on offspring phenotype. We investigated mother’s milk and infant temperament and growth in a cohort of rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) mother–infant dyads at the California National Primate Research Center (N = 108). Glucocorticoids in mother’s milk, independent of available milk energy, predicted a more Nervous, less Confident temperament in both sons and daughters. We additionally found sex differences in the windows of sensitivity and the magnitude of sensitivity to maternal-origin glucocorticoids. Lower parity mothers produced milk with higher cortisol concentrations. Lastly, higher cortisol concentrations in milk were associated with greater infant weight gain across time. Taken together, these results suggest that mothers with fewer somatic resources, even in captivity, may be “programming” through cortisol signaling, behaviorally cautious offspring that prioritize growth. Glucocorticoids ingested through milk may importantly contribute to the assimilation of available milk energy, development of temperament, and orchestrate, in part, the allocation of maternal milk energy between growth and behavioral phenotype. PMID:25713475

  6. Stickleback embryos use ATP-binding cassette transporters as a buffer against exposure to maternally derived cortisol.

    PubMed

    Paitz, Ryan T; Bukhari, Syed Abbas; Bell, Alison M

    2016-03-16

    Offspring from females that experience stressful conditions during reproduction often exhibit altered phenotypes and many of these effects are thought to arise owing to increased exposure to maternal glucocorticoids. While embryos of placental vertebrates are known to regulate exposure to maternal glucocorticoids via placental steroid metabolism, much less is known about how and whether egg-laying vertebrates can control their steroid environment during embryonic development. We tested the hypothesis that threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) embryos can regulate exposure to maternal steroids via active efflux of maternal steroids from the egg. Embryos rapidly (within 72 h) cleared intact steroids, but blocking ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters inhibited cortisol clearance. Remarkably, this efflux of cortisol was sufficient to prevent a transcriptional response of embryos to exogenous cortisol. Taken together, these findings suggest that, much like their placental counterparts, developing fish embryos can actively regulate their exposure to maternal cortisol. These findings highlight the fact that even in egg-laying vertebrates, the realized exposure to maternal steroids is mediated by both maternal and embryonic processes and this has important implications for understanding how maternal stress influences offspring development. PMID:26984623

  7. Increased Waking Salivary Cortisol and Depression Risk in Preschoolers: The Role of Maternal History of Melancholic Depression and Early Child Temperament

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dougherty, Lea R.; Klein, Daniel N.; Olino, Thomas M.; Dyson, Margaret; Rose, Suzanne

    2009-01-01

    Background: Elevated morning cortisol is a prospective predictor of major depression and may serve as a vulnerability marker. We examined the relation between morning cortisol and two prominent risk factors for depression in preschool-aged children: maternal depression and child temperament. We also explored whether maternal depression during the…

  8. Cortisol and ACTH plasma levels in maternal filicides and violent psychiatric women.

    PubMed

    Spironelli, Chiara; Gradante, Federica; Gradante, Giuseppe; Angrilli, Alessandro

    2013-05-01

    Maternal filicide may be considered the result of significant interactions between increased individual vulnerability and overwhelming environmental stress. The present study examined whether the biological vulnerability to stress and psychotic depression in criminally insane filicidal women was associated with an imbalance of stress-related hormones. Early-morning plasma levels of hormones associated with depression and chronic stress, i.e., thyroid hormones, Cortisol and Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), were measured in 10 filicidal inpatients recovered in a high-security psychiatric hospital for the criminally insane and 10 matched psychiatric, non-filicidal, criminal mothers with comparable traumatic/abuse records. Filicidal mothers had higher than normative Cortisol levels and significantly higher ACTH levels than both the normative values and plasma levels of non-filicidal women. Levels of thyroid hormones fell within normal ranges, without between-groups differences. In addition, while psychiatric controls had the expected Cortisol-ACTH positive correlation, mothers who killed their children revealed no relationship between the two hormones. HPA in the group of filicide perpetrators was altered despite they had received antidepressant pharmacological treatment. The observed imbalance of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis indicates a possible filicides' reduced sensitivity of the adrenal glands to ACTH, probably due to the pre-hospitalization long-term affective stress which preceded child homicide. The results reveal the existence of large psycho-biological stress-sensitivity in filicides, and careful post-discharge psychiatric follow-up of such women is recommended. PMID:23375405

  9. Associations between Parents' Marital Functioning, Maternal Parenting Quality, Maternal Emotion and Child Cortisol Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pendry, Patricia; Adam, Emma K.

    2007-01-01

    Associations between family functioning and children's stress hormone levels are explored, by examining how aspects of the interparental relationship (parents' marital satisfaction and parent conflict styles), the mother-child relationship (maternal involvement and warmth) and maternal emotional functioning (depression, anxiety and self-esteem)…

  10. Parenting stressors and morning cortisol in a sample of working mothers.

    PubMed

    Hibel, Leah C; Mercado, Evelyn; Trumbell, Jill M

    2012-10-01

    The cortisol awakening response (CAR) is a normative rise in cortisol levels across the 30 minutes post awakening. Both the levels and the degree of change in cortisol across this time period are sensitive to the perceived challenges of the day and are thought to prepare the individual to meet these tasks. However, working parents of young children may be under unique strains at this time as they attempt to simultaneously care for their children while also preparing themselves for the workday ahead. In these analyses we examined the contributions of both work and parenting stress on maternal cortisol levels and awakening responses, and how these relationships differed on workdays compared with nonworkdays. To do this, saliva samples were collected from 56 working mothers (25% single) with a child between the ages of 2 and 4 years old (mode = 2 children), at awakening and 30 min postawakening. Samples were collected on 4 consecutive days-2 nonworkdays followed by 2 workdays. Analyses revealed mothers reporting higher levels of parenting stress had higher average a.m. cortisol on workdays compared with nonworkdays. Further, mothers reporting a combination of high job strain and high parenting stress had significantly higher cortisol levels and steeper CAR increases on workdays compared with nonworkdays. Findings are discussed by integrating knowledge from the fields of parenting stress, work-family, and stress physiology. PMID:22866929

  11. Maternal Disrupted Communication During Face-to-Face Interaction at 4 months: Relation to Maternal and Infant Cortisol Among at-Risk Families

    PubMed Central

    Crockett, Erin E.; Holmes, Bjarne M.; Granger, Douglas A.; Lyons-Ruth, Karlen

    2014-01-01

    The study evaluated the association between maternal disrupted communication and the reactivity and regulation of the psychobiology of the stress response in infancy. Mothers and infants were recruited via the National Health Service from the 20% most economically impoverished data zones in a suburban region of Scotland. Mothers (N = 63; M age = 25.9) and their 4-month-old infants (35 boys, 28 girls) were videotaped interacting for 8 min, including a still-face procedure as a stress inducer and a 5-min coded recovery period. Saliva samples were collected from the dyads prior to, during, and after the still-face procedure and later assayed for cortisol. Level of disruption in maternal communication with the infant was coded from the 5-min videotaped interaction during the recovery period which followed the still-face procedure. Severely disrupted maternal communication was associated with lower levels of maternal cortisol and a greater divergence between mothers’ and infants’ cortisol levels. Results point to low maternal cortisol as a possible mechanism contributing to the mother’s difficulty in sensitively attuning to her infant’s cues, which in turn has implications for the infant’s reactivity to and recovery from a mild stressor in early infancy. PMID:25506272

  12. Maternal and child contributions to cortisol response to emotional arousal in young children from low-income, rural communities.

    PubMed

    Blair, Clancy; Granger, Douglas A; Kivlighan, Katie T; Mills-Koonce, Roger; Willoughby, Michael; Greenberg, Mark T; Hibel, Leah C; Fortunato, Christine K

    2008-07-01

    Relations of maternal and child characteristics to child cortisol reactivity to and recovery from emotional arousal were examined prospectively at approximately 7 months of age (infancy) and then again at approximately 15 months of age (toddlerhood). The sample was diverse and population based (N = 1,292 mother-infant dyads) and included families from predominantly low-income, rural communities. Maternal behavior, family income-to-need ratio and social advantage, and child temperament, attention, and mental development were assessed, and children's saliva was sampled before and after standardized procedures designed to elicit emotional arousal. Maternal engagement in infancy was associated with greater cortisol reactivity at the infancy assessment and with reduced overall cortisol level at the toddler assessment. Also at the toddler assessment, child attention, mental development, and temperamental distress to novelty were associated with increased cortisol reactivity and regulation, whereas temperamental distress to limitations and African American ethnicity were associated with reduced cortisol reactivity. Findings are consistent with prior work linking early caregiving to the development of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis stress response system and with a conceptual model in which developing temperament is characterized by the interplay of emotional reactivity and the emergence of the ability to effortfully regulate this reactivity using attention. PMID:18605837

  13. Maternal and Child Contributions to Cortisol Response to Emotional Arousal in Young Children from Low-Income, Rural Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Clancy; Granger, Douglas A.; Kivlighan, Katie T.; Mills-Koonce, Roger; Willoughby, Michael; Greenberg, Mark T.; Hibel, Leah C.; Fortunato, Christine K.

    2008-01-01

    Relations of maternal and child characteristics to child cortisol reactivity to and recovery from emotional arousal were examined prospectively at approximately 7 months of age (infancy) and then again at approximately 15 months of age (toddlerhood). The sample was diverse and population based (N = 1,292 mother-infant dyads) and included families…

  14. High maternal cortisol levels during pregnancy are associated with more psychiatric symptoms in offspring at age of nine - A prospective study from Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Isaksson, J; Lindblad, F; Valladares, E; Högberg, U

    2015-12-01

    Maternal exposure to stress or adversity during pregnancy has been associated with negative health effects for the offspring including psychiatric symptoms. Programming of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has been suggested as one mediating process. In order to investigate possible long term effects of stressors during pregnancy, we followed 70 children and their mothers from pregnancy up to nine years aiming to investigate if maternal cortisol levels and distress/exposure to partner violence were associated with child psychiatric symptoms and child cortisol levels at follow-up. Maternal distress was evaluated using The Self Reporting Questionnaire, exposure to partner violence by an instrument from WHO and child psychiatric symptoms with Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). We adjusted the analyses for gestational week, gender, SES, perinatal data and maternal distress/exposure to partner violence at child age of nine years. Elevated maternal cortisol levels during pregnancy, as a possible marker of maternal stress load, were correlated with higher CBCL-ratings, especially concerning externalizing symptoms. Maternal cortisol levels during pregnancy were not associated with child cortisol levels at child age of nine years. Maternal distress and exposure to partner violence during pregnancy were neither associated with child psychiatric symptoms nor child cortisol levels. To conclude, intrauterine exposure to elevated cortisol levels was associated with higher ratings on offspring psychopathology at nine years of age. The lack of association between maternal cortisol levels during pregnancy and child cortisol levels does not support the hypothesis of fetal programming of the HPA-axis, but reliability problems may have contributed to this negative finding. PMID:26458013

  15. Mechanisms for the adverse effects of late gestational increases in maternal cortisol on the heart revealed by transcriptomic analyses of the fetal septum.

    PubMed

    Richards, Elaine M; Wood, Charles E; Rabaglino, Maria Belen; Antolic, Andrew; Keller-Wood, Maureen

    2014-08-01

    We have previously shown in sheep that 10 days of modest chronic increase in maternal cortisol resulting from maternal infusion of cortisol (1 mg/kg/day) caused fetal heart enlargement and Purkinje cell apoptosis. In subsequent studies we extended the cortisol infusion to term, finding a dramatic incidence of stillbirth in the pregnancies with chronically increased cortisol. To investigate effects of maternal cortisol on the heart, we performed transcriptomic analyses on the septa using ovine microarrays and Webgestalt and Cytoscape programs for pathway inference. Analyses of the transcriptomic effects of maternal cortisol infusion for 10 days (130 day cortisol vs 130 day control), or ∼25 days (140 day cortisol vs 140 day control) and of normal maturation (140 day control vs 130 day control) were performed. Gene ontology terms related to immune function and cytokine actions were significantly overrepresented as genes altered by both cortisol and maturation in the septa. After 10 days of cortisol, growth factor and muscle cell apoptosis pathways were significantly overrepresented, consistent with our previous histologic findings. In the term fetuses (∼25 days of cortisol) nutrient pathways were significantly overrepresented, consistent with altered metabolism and reduced mitochondria. Analysis of mitochondrial number by mitochondrial DNA expression confirmed a significant decrease in mitochondria. The metabolic pathways modeled as altered by cortisol treatment to term were different from those modeled during maturation of the heart to term, and thus changes in gene expression in these metabolic pathways may be indicative of the fetal heart pathophysiologies seen in pregnancies complicated by stillbirth, including gestational diabetes, Cushing's disease and chronic stress. PMID:24867915

  16. Maternal Cortisol Levels and Behavior Problems in Adolescents and Adults with ASD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Greenberg, Jan S.; Hong, Jinkuk; Smith, Leann E.; Almeida, David M.; Coe, Christopher; Stawski, Robert S.

    2010-01-01

    Using daily diary methods, mothers of adolescents and adults with ASD (n = 86) were contrasted with a nationally representative comparison group of mothers of similarly-aged unaffected children (n = 171) with respect to the diurnal rhythm of cortisol. Mothers of adolescents and adults with ASD were found to have significantly lower levels of…

  17. Elevated cortisol in healthy female adolescent offspring of mothers with posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Liu, Keke; Ruggero, Camilo J; Goldstein, Brandon; Klein, Daniel N; Perlman, Greg; Broderick, Joan; Kotov, Roman

    2016-05-01

    Offspring with maternal PTSD are at increased risk of developing PTSD themselves. Alterations in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis may play a role and have been noted in offspring, although evidence is mostly from adult offspring with PTSD symptoms themselves. The present study of adolescent girls (N=472) and their mothers (n=18 with lifetime PTSD versus n=454 with no PTSD) sought to determine whether healthy, non-affected offspring of mothers with PTSD would exhibit altered HPA axis function. Saliva samples were collected from the adolescent girls at waking, 30min after waking, and 8 pm on 3 consecutive days. Offspring whose mothers were diagnosed with PTSD demonstrated higher cortisol awakening response (CAR; Cohen's d=0.58) and greater total cortisol output (Cohen's d=0.62). In this preliminary study, higher cortisol levels during adolescence among offspring of mothers with PTSD may index a vulnerability in these at-risk youth. PMID:27088877

  18. Moderators of the Relation between Shyness and Behavior with Peers: Cortisol Dysregulation and Maternal Emotion Socialization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Elizabeth L.; Buss, Kristin A.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the relations among shyness, physiological dysregulation, and maternal emotion socialization in predicting children's social behavior with peers during the kindergarten year (N = 66; 29 girls). For shy children, interactions with peers represent potential stressors that can elicit negative emotion and physiological…

  19. Cortisol level

    MedlinePlus

    ... enable JavaScript. The cortisol blood test measures the level of cortisol in the blood. Cortisol is a ... in the morning. This is important, because cortisol level varies throughout the day. You may be asked ...

  20. The effects of an anticipated challenge on diurnal cortisol secretion.

    PubMed

    Wetherell, Mark A; Lovell, Brian; Smith, Michael A

    2015-01-01

    In healthy, non-challenged individuals, the secretion of cortisol typically follows a diurnal profile characterized by a peak in the period following waking (cortisol awakening response) and a gradual decline throughout the day. In addition, cortisol secretion is increased in response to acutely stressful stimuli, particularly stressors involving social evaluation. The current study is the first to assess the impact of an anticipated acute laboratory stressor upon the typical diurnal pattern of HPA activation and relationship to acute cortisol secretion. A sample of 23 healthy young adults provided salivary cortisol samples at four time points (immediately upon awakening, 30-min post-awakening, 1200 h and before bed) on 2 consecutive days. On the second day, participants attended the laboratory and undertook an anticipated acute socially evaluative stressor immediately following provision of their 1200 h saliva sample. Heart rate, blood pressure and mood were recorded immediately before and after the stressor and at 10 and 20 min post-stressor along with additional salivary cortisol samples. Typical patterns of cortisol secretion were observed on both days and exposure to the laboratory stressor was associated with the expected increases in cortisol, heart rate, blood pressure and negative mood. However, significant differences in diurnal cortisol secretion were observed between the two days with greater secretion, in particular, during the period following awakening, evident on the day of the anticipated laboratory stressor. Furthermore, secretion of cortisol during the period following awakening was positively related to secretion during the acute reactivity periods. This is the first study to integrate a laboratory stressor into a typical day and assess its impact on indices of diurnal cortisol secretion in an ambulatory setting. The current findings support the notion that the cortisol awakening response is associated with anticipation of the upcoming day

  1. The effects of childhood sexual abuse on cortisol trajectories in pregnancy are moderated by current family functioning.

    PubMed

    Bublitz, Margaret H; Parade, Stephanie; Stroud, Laura R

    2014-12-01

    The goal of this study was to understand the roles of maternal history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and current family functioning on the cortisol awakening response (CAR) in pregnancy. Participants were 185 pregnant women (ages 18-40) who completed items from the Adverse Childhood Experiences scale to measure child maltreatment history and the Family Assessment Device to measure current family functioning. Participants provided saliva samples at wake-up and 30min after wake-up at 25, 29, and 35 weeks gestation to measure CAR. A moderation effect was found such that participants with more severe CSA histories and poorer perceived family functioning had increasing CAR in pregnancy compared to participants with less severe CSA histories and better family functioning. These findings highlight the importance of considering stress in both childhood and current environments in predicting maternal cortisol in pregnancy. PMID:25220484

  2. Intimate Partner Violence Exposure, Salivary Cortisol, and Childhood Asthma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bair-Merritt, Megan H.; Johnson, Sara B.; Okelo, Sande; Page, Gayle

    2012-01-01

    Parents were given supplies to collect 3 child salivary cortisol samples (awakening, 30-min after awakening, bedtime) at home on a typical day, and return them via mail. Medical records also were abstracted. Results: Fifty-three percent (n = 29) returned child salivary samples. Families who returned samples typically returned them within 2 weeks,…

  3. Awakenings [and] Awakenings Workbook. [2nd Edition].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross-Rodgers, Martha J.

    This novel and accompanying workbook tell the story of a young girl who had an awakening that made her realize that dropping out of school was wrong. It tells her story of achieving her dream, realized through sacrifice and determination, of graduating high school and attending college. The accompanying workbook presents vocabulary exercises,…

  4. Awakening from sleep.

    PubMed

    Akerstedt, Torbjorn; Billiard, Michel; Bonnet, Michael; Ficca, Gianluca; Garma, Lucile; Mariotti, Maurizio; Salzarulo, Piero; Schulz, Hartmut

    2002-08-01

    Awakening is a crucial event for the organism. The transition from sleep to waking implies physiological processes which lead to a new behavioural state. Spontaneous awakenings have varying features which may change as a function of several factors. The latter include intrasleep architecture, circadian phase, time awake, age, or disordered sleep. Despite its clear theoretical and clinical importance, the topic of awakening (in humans) has received little attention so far. This contribution focuses on major issues which relate to awakening from both basic (experimental) and clinical research. Recent knowledge on neurophysiological mechanisms is reported. The experimental data which provide in the human suggestions on the regulation of awakening are discussed, mainly those concerning sleep architecture and homeostatic/circadian factors also in a life-span perspective, since age is a powerful factor which may influence awakening. Clinical contributions will examine two main sleep disorders: insomnia and hypersomnia. Daytime functioning is shown in insomniac patients and compared to other pathologies like sleep apnea. A final section evokes links between some types of night waking and psychological factors. PMID:12531132

  5. Correspondence between hair cortisol concentrations and 30-day integrated daily salivary and weekly urinary cortisol measures.

    PubMed

    Short, Sarah J; Stalder, Tobias; Marceau, Kristine; Entringer, Sonja; Moog, Nora K; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A; Wadhwa, Pathik D; Buss, Claudia

    2016-09-01

    Characterization of cortisol production, regulation and function is of considerable interest and relevance given its ubiquitous role in virtually all aspects of physiology, health and disease risk. The quantification of cortisol concentration in hair has been proposed as a promising approach for the retrospective assessment of integrated, long-term cortisol production. However, human research is still needed to directly test and validate current assumptions about which aspects of cortisol production and regulation are reflected in hair cortisol concentrations (HCC). Here, we report findings from a validation study in a sample of 17 healthy adults (mean±SD age: 34±8.6 yrs). To determine the extent to which HCC captures cumulative cortisol production, we examined the correspondence of HCC, obtained from the first 1cm scalp-near hair segment, assumed to retrospectively reflect 1-month integrated cortisol secretion, with 30-day average salivary cortisol area-under-the curve (AUC) based on 3 samples collected per day (on awakening, +30min, at bedtime) and the average of 4 weekly 24-h urinary free cortisol (UFC) assessments. To further address which aspects of cortisol production and regulation are best reflected in the HCC measure, we also examined components of the salivary measures that represent: (1) production in response to the challenge of awakening (using the cortisol awakening response [CAR]), and (2) chronobiological regulation of cortisol production (using diurnal slope). Finally, we evaluated the test-retest stability of each cortisol measure. Results indicate that HCC was most strongly associated with the prior 30-day integrated cortisol production measure (average salivary cortisol AUC) (r=0.61, p=0.01). There were no significant associations between HCC and the 30-day summary measures using CAR or diurnal slope. The relationship between 1-month integrated 24-h UFC and HCC did not reach statistical significance (r=0.30, p=0.28). Lastly, of all cortisol

  6. Diurnal cortisol variation and cortisol response to an MRI stressor in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Girshkin, Leah; O'Reilly, Nicole; Quidé, Yann; Teroganova, Nina; Rowland, Jesseca E; Schofield, Peter R; Green, Melissa J

    2016-05-01

    Markers of HPA axis function, including diurnal cortisol rhythm and cortisol responses to stress or pharmacological manipulation, are increasingly reported as disrupted in schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BD). However, there has been no direct comparison of cortisol responses to stress in SZ and BD in the same study, and associations between cortisol dysfunction and illness characteristics remain unclear. In this study we used spline embedded linear mixed models to examine cortisol levels of SZ and BD participants at waking, during the first 45min after waking (representing the cortisol awakening response; CAR), during the period of rapid cortisol decline post the awakening response, and in reaction to a stressor (MRI scan), relative to healthy controls (HC). Contrary to expectations, neither SZ nor BD showed differences in waking cortisol levels, CAR, or immediate post-CAR decline compared to HC; however, waking cortisol levels were greater in BD relative to SZ. In response to the MRI stressor, the SZ group showed a significant absence of the expected increase in cortisol responsivity to stress, which was seen in both the BD and HC groups. Clinical factors affecting the CAR differed between SZ and BD. In SZ, higher antipsychotic medication dosage was associated with a steeper incline of the CAR, while greater positive symptom severity was associated with a more blunted CAR, and greater levels of anxiety were associated with the blunted cortisol response to stress. In BD, longer illness duration was associated with a steeper incline in CAR and lower levels of waking cortisol. These results suggest that cortisol responses may normalize with medication (in SZ) and longer illness duration (in BD), in line with findings of aberrant cortisol levels in the early stages of psychotic disorders. PMID:26874562

  7. Thyroid Hormones and Cortisol Concentrations in Offspring are Influenced by Maternal Supranutritional Selenium and Nutritional Plane in Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Vonnahme, Kimberly A.; Neville, Tammi L.; Lekatz, Leslie A.; Reynolds, Lawrence P.; Hammer, Carolyn J.; Redmer, Dale A.; Caton, Joel S.

    2013-01-01

    To determine the effects of maternal supranutritional selenium (Se) supplementation and maternal nutritional plane on offspring growth potential, ewes were randomly assigned to 1 of 6 treatments in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement [dietary Se (adequate Se; 9.5 μg/kg body weight vs. high Se; 81.8 μg/kg body weight initiated at breeding) and plane of nutrition [60%, 100%, or 140% of requirements; initiated on day 50 of gestation

  8. Cortisol Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... is produced and secreted by the adrenal glands . Production of the hormone is regulated by the hypothalamus ... help determine its cause: Testing for Excess Cortisol Production If a person has a high blood cortisol ...

  9. A day-centered approach to modeling cortisol: Diurnal cortisol profiles and their associations among U.S. adults

    PubMed Central

    Dmitrieva, Natalia O.; Almeida, David M.; Dmitrieva, Julia; Loken, Eric; Pieper, Carl F.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Diurnal cortisol is a marker of HPA-axis activity that may be one of the biological mechanisms linking stressors to age-related health declines. The current study identified day-centered profiles of diurnal cortisol among 1,101 adults living in the United States. Participants took part in up to four consecutive days of salivary cortisol collection, assessed at waking, 30 minutes post-waking, before lunch, and before bedtime. Growth Mixture Modeling with latent time basis was used to estimate common within-day trajectories of diurnal cortisol among 2,894 cortisol days. The 3-class solution provided the best model fit, showing that the majority of study days (73%) were characterized by a Normative cortisol pattern, with a robust cortisol awakening response (CAR), a steep negative diurnal slope, coupled with low awakening and bedtime levels. Relative to this profile, diurnal cortisol on the remainder of days appeared either Elevated throughout the day (20% of days) or Flattened (7% of days). Relative to the Normative trajectory, the Elevated trajectory was distinguished by a higher morning cortisol level, whereas the Flattened trajectory was characterized by a high bedtime level, with weaker CAR and diurnal slope parameters. Relative to the Normative profile, Elevated profile membership was associated with older age and cigarette smoking. Greater likelihood of the Flattened cortisol pattern was observed among participants who were older, male, smoked cigarettes, used medications that are known to affect cortisol output, and reported poorer health. The current study demonstrates the value of a day-centered Growth Mixture Modeling approach to the study of diurnal cortisol, showing that deviations from the classic robust rhythm of diurnal cortisol are associated with older age, male sex, use of medications previously shown to affect cortisol levels, poorer health behaviors, and poorer self-reported health. PMID:23770247

  10. Morningness/Eveningness, Morning-to-Afternoon Cortisol Ratio, and Antisocial Behavior Problems During Puberty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Susman, Elizabeth J.; Dockray, Samantha; Schiefelbein, Virginia L.; Herwehe, Suellen; Heaton, Jodi A.; Dorn, Lorah D.

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between morningness/eveningness (M/E) and morning-to-afternoon cortisol ratio, pubertal timing, and antisocial behavior was examined in 111 girls and boys ages 8 to 13 years. Cortisol levels showed a significant increase after awakening and declined thereafter (p less than .05). Eveningness was related to a composite measure of…

  11. Maternal Gestational Cortisol and Testosterone Are Associated with Trade-Offs in Offspring Sex and Number in a Free-Living Rodent (Urocitellus richardsonii)

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Calen P.; Anderson, W. Gary; Berkvens, Charlene N.; Hare, James F.

    2014-01-01

    The adaptive manipulation of offspring sex and number has been of considerable interest to ecologists and evolutionary biologists. The physiological mechanisms that translate maternal condition and environmental cues into adaptive responses in offspring sex and number, however, remain obscure. In mammals, research into the mechanisms responsible for adaptive sex allocation has focused on two major endocrine axes: the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis and glucocorticoids, and the hypothalamic pituitary gonadal (HPG) axis and sex steroids, particularly testosterone. While stress-induced activation of the HPA axis provides an intuitive model for sex ratio and litter size adjustment, plasma glucocorticoids exist in both bound and free fractions, and may be acting indirectly, for example by affecting plasma glucose levels. Furthermore, in female mammals, activation of the HPA axis stimulates the secretion of adrenal testosterone in addition to glucocorticoids (GCs). To begin to untangle these physiological mechanisms influencing offspring sex and number, we simultaneously examined fecal glucocorticoid metabolites, free and bound plasma cortisol, free testosterone, and plasma glucose concentration during both gestation and lactation in a free-living rodent (Urocitellus richardsonii). We also collected data on offspring sex and litter size from focal females and from a larger study population. Consistent with previous work in this population, we found evidence for a trade-off between offspring sex and number, as well as positive and negative correlations between glucocorticoids and sex ratio and litter size, respectively, during gestation (but not lactation). We also observed a negative relationship between testosterone and litter size during gestation (but not lactation), but no effect of glucose on either sex ratio or litter size. Our findings highlight the importance of binding proteins, cross-talk between endocrine systems, and temporal windows in the

  12. Associations of long-term shift work with waking salivary cortisol concentration and patterns among police officers.

    PubMed

    Fekedulegn, Desta; Burchfiel, Cecil M; Violanti, John M; Hartley, Tara A; Charles, Luenda E; Andrew, Michael E; Miller, Diane B

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate whether long-term shift work is associated with both the total hormonal secretion after awakening and the pattern of the cortisol levels during the first hour following awakening, among 65 randomly selected police officers who represent a high stress occupation. Dominant shift (Day, Afternoon, or Midnight) was ascertained using daily payroll records of each participant's work activities during the 6-8 yrs prior to saliva sampling. Four salivary samples were collected at 15 min intervals upon first awakening. After accounting for potential confounders, salivary cortisol concentrations averaged across all four time points and total area under the curve differed significantly across shift with midnight shift workers showing suppressed awakening cortisol response relative to the afternoon and day shift. The percent of hours worked on midnight shift was inversely correlated with total awakening cortisol output. In contrast, the pattern of cortisol secretion during the first hour following waking appeared not to be affected as no significant interaction effect was found between time since awakening and shift work. The results show that long-term midnight shift work is associated with decreased absolute mean level and total volume of cortisol released over the waking period. PMID:23047078

  13. Cortisol - urine

    MedlinePlus

    ... is a steroid (glucocorticoid) hormone produced by the adrenal gland . Cortisol can also be measured using a blood ... is a glucocorticoid (steroid) hormone released from the adrenal gland in response to adrenocorticotropic hormone ( ACTH ). This is ...

  14. Decreased hair cortisol concentrations in generalised anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Steudte, Susann; Stalder, Tobias; Dettenborn, Lucia; Klumbies, Elisabeth; Foley, Paul; Beesdo-Baum, Katja; Kirschbaum, Clemens

    2011-04-30

    Previous research examining hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity in generalised anxiety disorder (GAD) has suggested a general hypercortisolism. These studies have mostly relied on salivary, plasma or urinary assessments, reflecting cortisol secretion over short time periods. The current study utilised the novel method of cortisol assessment in hair to obtain a retrospective index of cortisol secretion over a prolonged period of time. Hair cortisol levels were determined in 15 GAD patients and in 15 age- and gender-matched controls. In addition, participants collected six saliva samples (on awakening, +30 min, 12:00, 16:00, 20:00 h and at bedtime) on two consecutive weekdays for the assessment of the diurnal cortisol profile. Results revealed significantly lower (50-60%) cortisol levels in the first and second 3-cm hair segments of GAD patients compared to those of controls. No significant between-group differences were seen in diurnal cortisol profiles. The hair cortisol findings tentatively suggest that under naturalistic conditions GAD is associated with hypocortisolism. If corroborated by future research, this demonstrates the important qualities of cortisol measurement in hair as an ecologically valid, retrospective index of long-term cortisol secretion and as a marker for psychiatric disorders associated with hypo- or hypercortisolism. PMID:20889215

  15. The relationship between work-related rumination and evening and morning salivary cortisol secretion.

    PubMed

    Cropley, Mark; Rydstedt, Leif W; Devereux, Jason J; Middleton, Benita

    2015-04-01

    The perseverative cognition hypothesis suggests that worry/ruminative thinking prolongs stress-related physiological activation. This study explored the association of work-related rumination with salivary cortisol sampled at 10 pm and the cortisol awakening response (CAR) the following morning. On a mid-week evening, 108 school teachers completed a small diary about their work-related thoughts and gave a saliva cortisol sample at 10 pm. The following morning, they gave four additional saliva samples: at awakening and at 15, 30 and 45 min after awakening, along with a rating of their anticipatory thoughts about work. The CAR was calculated as the percentage increase in cortisol secretion from awakening to 30 min, and the sample was divided at their respective medians to classify participants into low and high rumination groups. Cortisol secretion was found to be significantly greater in the high compared with the low ruminators at 10 pm, and this effect was not related to leisure activities or work patterns during the evening. For the morning measures, high ruminators demonstrated a flattened CAR relative to the low ruminators, and this effect appeared to be associated with sleep disturbance during the night. Ruminating about work-related issues is associated with cortisol secretion, and our findings support the perseverative cognition hypothesis. PMID:24166947

  16. Effects of Degree of Awakening and the Criterion for Advancing Awakening on the Treatment of Bedwetting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rolider, Ahmos; Van Houten, Ron

    1986-01-01

    Two components of a gradually faded awakening procedure for treating bedwetting were tested with six children aged 4-11. Thorough awakening was more effective than partial awakening. A second experiment on advancing awakening time produced similar results between a stringent 6 consecutive dry night criterion and a more lenient 6 dry night…

  17. Sexually dimorphic adaptations in basal maternal stress physiology during pregnancy and implications for fetal development.

    PubMed

    Giesbrecht, Gerald F; Campbell, Tavis; Letourneau, Nicole

    2015-06-01

    There is clear evidence of reciprocal exchange of information between the mother and fetus during pregnancy but the majority of research in this area has focussed on the fetus as a recipient of signals from the mother. Specifically, physiological signals produced by the maternal stress systems in response to the environment may carry valuable information about the state of the external world. Prenatal stress produces sex-specific adaptations within fetal physiology that have pervasive and long-lasting effects on development. Little is known, however, about the effects of sex-specific fetal signals on maternal adaptations to pregnancy. The current prospective study examined sexually dimorphic adaptations within maternal stress physiology, including the hypothalamic-adrenal-pituitary (HPA) axis and the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and associations with fetal growth. Using diurnal suites of saliva collected in early and late pregnancy, we demonstrate that basal cortisol and salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) differ by fetal sex. Women carrying female fetuses displayed greater autonomic arousal and flatter (but more elevated) diurnal cortisol patterns compared to women carrying males. Women with flatter daytime cortisol trajectories and more blunted sAA awakening responses also had infants with lower birth weight. These maternal adaptations are consistent with sexually dimorphic fetal developmental/evolutionary adaptation strategies that favor growth for males and conservation of resources for females. The findings provide new evidence to suggest that the fetus contributes to maternal HPA axis and ANS regulation during pregnancy and that these systems also contribute to the regulation of fetal growth. PMID:25827961

  18. Cortisol, Health, and Coping in Patients with Nonspecific Low Back Pain.

    PubMed

    Sveinsdottir, Vigdis; Eriksen, Hege R; Ursin, Holger; Hansen, Åse M; Harris, Anette

    2016-03-01

    Subjective health complaints (SHC), including nonspecific low back pain (LBP) as the most common single complaint, are the main reasons for long-term sick leave in many western countries. These complaints are often attributed to "stress". Cortisol has frequently been considered a biomarker reflecting sustained physiological HPA-axis activity, and is characterized by a high cortisol awakening response (CAR) and low evening values. The aim of the study was to investigate whether LBP patients had a normal characteristic cortisol profile, and whether possible deviations were related to coping and health. 305 patients on long-term sick leave for LBP participated in the study, and saliva cortisol profiles were compared to a reference population consisting of Danish workers. Cortisol was measured upon awakening, after 30 min, and in the evening. Additionally, patients answered questionnaires about SHC, fatigue, pain, coping, and social support. The patients showed a seemingly normal cortisol profile. However, CAR was larger among patients compared to the reference population. Patients with low cortisol reactivity had more SHC, pain, and fatigue, and those with higher evening cortisol reported higher scores on coping. The results are discussed in terms of theory, practical considerations, and possible mechanisms for the association between cortisol, health, and coping. PMID:26287577

  19. An old god awakens, briefly.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Mariam

    2009-01-01

    During a psychodynamic psychotherapy with a middle-aged Catholic woman, her realization that she had foregone her calling to a religious vocation led to the patient's entering a convent. Throughout these developments the therapist struggled with countertransference responses related to her own religious history, recognizing the re-awakening of a previous god representation from her own adolescence. The interaction suggests that, although one's god representation may undergo maturation, old relationships with divinity may not be completely suppressed. PMID:19364257

  20. Correspondence of plasma and salivary cortisol patterns in women with breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zeitzer, Jamie M.; Nouriani, Bita; Neri, Eric; Spiegel, David

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The ‘diurnal slope’ of salivary cortisol has been used as a measure of stress and circadian function in a variety of reports with several detailing its association with cancer progression. The relationship of this slope, typically a negative value from high morning concentrations to low evening concentrations, to the underlying daily variation in total plasma cortisol throughout the 24-hour cycle, however, has never been reported. Methods To examine the relationship between diurnal salivary cortisol slope and the underlying pattern of plasma cortisol in individuals with cancer, we examined a cohort of women with advanced breast cancer (n=97) who had saliva and plasma collected during a modified 24-hour, constant posture protocol. Results We found that steepness of the diurnal slope of salivary cortisol was correlated with the amplitude of plasma cortisol rhythm when the slope was calculated from samples taken at wake+30 minutes and 9PM (r=−0.29, p>0.05). Other variants of salivary slope calculations were not significantly correlated with the amplitude of the plasma cortisol rhythm. Diurnal salivary cortisol slope steepness was not correlated with the time between habitual waking and the computed circadian peak of cortisol, but there was a correlation between diurnal slope steepness and the time between habitual waking and the time of the awakening spike of morning cortisol (r’s<−0.23, p’s<0.05). Conclusion It therefore appears that in women with advanced breast cancer, diurnal salivary cortisol slope primarily represents aspects of the cortisol awakening response in relation to evening levels more than the circadian rhythm of total plasma cortisol. PMID:25228297

  1. Ambulatory assessed implicit affect is associated with salivary cortisol.

    PubMed

    Mossink, Joram C L; Verkuil, Bart; Burger, Andreas M; Tollenaar, Marieke S; Brosschot, Jos F

    2015-01-01

    One of the presumed pathways linking negative emotions to adverse somatic health is an overactive HPA-axis, usually indicated by elevated cortisol levels. Traditionally, research has focused on consciously reported negative emotions. Yet, given that the majority of information processing occurs without conscious awareness, stress physiology might also be influenced by affective processes that people are not aware of. In a 24-h ambulatory study we examined whether cortisol levels were associated with two implicit measures. Implicit affect was assessed using the Implicit Positive and Negative Affect Test, and implicit negative memory bias was assessed with the word fragment completion tasks. In 55 healthy participants, we measured subjective stress levels, worries, implicit, and explicit affect each hour during waking hours. Also, saliva samples were collected at three fixed times during the day, as well as upon waking and 30 min thereafter (cortisol awakening response). Multilevel analyses of the daytime cortisol levels revealed that the presence of an implicit negative memory bias was associated with increased cortisol levels. Additionally, implicit PA and, unexpectedly, implicit NA were negatively associated with cortisol levels. Finally, participants demonstrating higher levels of implicit sadness during the first measurement day, had a stronger cortisol rise upon awakening at the next day. Contrary to previous research, no associations between explicit affect and cortisol were apparent. The current study was the first to examine the concurrent relation between implicit measures and stress physiology in daily life. The results suggest that the traditional focus on consciously reported feelings and emotions is limited, and that implicit measures can add to our understanding of how stress and emotions contribute to daily physiological activity and, in the long term, health problems. PMID:25713550

  2. Hair cortisol and cognitive performance in healthy older people.

    PubMed

    Pulopulos, Matias M; Hidalgo, Vanesa; Almela, Mercedes; Puig-Perez, Sara; Villada, Carolina; Salvador, Alicia

    2014-06-01

    Worse cognitive performance in older people has been associated with hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis dysregulation (in particular, higher cortisol levels). Analysis of hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) is a novel method to measure long-term cortisol exposure, and its relationship with cognition in healthy older people has not yet been studied. We investigated whether HCC (measured in hair scalp) and diurnal salivary cortisol levels (awakening, 30min after awakening, and evening, across two days) were related to cognitive performance (assessed with the Trail-making Test A and B, Digit Span Forward and Backward, word list-RAVLT and Stories subtest of the Rivermead) in 57 healthy older people (mean age=64.75 years, SD=4.17). Results showed that lower HCC were consistently related to worse working memory, learning, short-term verbal memory (RAVLT first trial and immediate recall) and long-term verbal memory. In contrast, higher mean levels and higher diurnal area under the curve of diurnal salivary cortisol were related to worse attention and short-term verbal memory (immediate story recall), respectively. Interestingly, a higher ratio of mean levels of diurnal salivary cortisol over HCC were related to worse performance on working memory and short-term verbal memory, suggesting that those individuals with lower long-term cortisol exposure might be more vulnerable to the negative effect of HPA-axis dysregulation on these cognitive processes. Our findings suggest that both low long-term cortisol exposure and a possible dysregulation of the diurnal rhythm of the HPA-axis may account, at least in part, for the inter-individual variability in cognitive performance in healthy older people. PMID:24767624

  3. Ambulatory assessed implicit affect is associated with salivary cortisol

    PubMed Central

    Mossink, Joram C. L.; Verkuil, Bart; Burger, Andreas M.; Tollenaar, Marieke S.; Brosschot, Jos F.

    2015-01-01

    One of the presumed pathways linking negative emotions to adverse somatic health is an overactive HPA-axis, usually indicated by elevated cortisol levels. Traditionally, research has focused on consciously reported negative emotions. Yet, given that the majority of information processing occurs without conscious awareness, stress physiology might also be influenced by affective processes that people are not aware of. In a 24-h ambulatory study we examined whether cortisol levels were associated with two implicit measures. Implicit affect was assessed using the Implicit Positive and Negative Affect Test, and implicit negative memory bias was assessed with the word fragment completion tasks. In 55 healthy participants, we measured subjective stress levels, worries, implicit, and explicit affect each hour during waking hours. Also, saliva samples were collected at three fixed times during the day, as well as upon waking and 30 min thereafter (cortisol awakening response). Multilevel analyses of the daytime cortisol levels revealed that the presence of an implicit negative memory bias was associated with increased cortisol levels. Additionally, implicit PA and, unexpectedly, implicit NA were negatively associated with cortisol levels. Finally, participants demonstrating higher levels of implicit sadness during the first measurement day, had a stronger cortisol rise upon awakening at the next day. Contrary to previous research, no associations between explicit affect and cortisol were apparent. The current study was the first to examine the concurrent relation between implicit measures and stress physiology in daily life. The results suggest that the traditional focus on consciously reported feelings and emotions is limited, and that implicit measures can add to our understanding of how stress and emotions contribute to daily physiological activity and, in the long term, health problems. PMID:25713550

  4. Circadian cortisol and fatigue severity in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Powell, Daniel J H; Moss-Morris, Rona; Liossi, Christina; Schlotz, Wolff

    2015-06-01

    Cortisol is a key regulator of the immune system, energy metabolism, and stress, yet its relevance to fatigue experienced by people with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) remains uncertain. We examined cortisol secretory activity in RRMS and its association with fatigue severity between-individuals and within-individuals (day-to-day) using a case-control ecological momentary assessment design. While undergoing usual daily routines, 38 people with RRMS and 38 healthy control participants provided saliva samples at strategic time-points over 4 consecutive weekdays to measure the cortisol awakening response (CAR; 0, 30, and 45 min after awakening) and the diurnal cortisol slope (DCS; 6 quasi-random samples provided between 1000 h and 2000 h). Recalled fatigue was measured at baseline, and daily fatigue was measured as the mean average of momentary fatigue ratings provided alongside each DCS sample. Multilevel modeling found CAR output was greater in RRMS than controls, and recalled fatigue in RRMS was associated with both lower waking cortisol level and larger awakening response. Day-to-day, the CAR was not associated with same-day fatigue levels in RRMS. Cortisol appears to have a role in fatigue experienced in RRMS, but whether it is a causal factor remains unclear. PMID:25817406

  5. Violence exposure and cortisol responses in urban youth.

    PubMed

    Kliewer, Wendy

    2006-01-01

    I examined the physiological costs associated with exposure to violence in 101 African American youth (55% male; M age = 11.14 years) living in high-violence areas of a midsized southern city in the United States. Salivary cortisol was measured before and after a laboratory task (viewing and discussing a video depicting community violence) and on waking 1 morning in the week following the laboratory assessment. Overall, cortisol levels were low. Analyses controlling for age, gender, negative affect, and major life events revealed that peer victimization was associated with lower basal cortisol values obtained from home assessments. Witnessed violence predicted a cortisol awakening response (CAR) but only in girls; girls with a typical CAR had lower levels of witnessing violence than girls with an atypical pattern. Witnessed violence also was associated with lower baseline cortisol levels measured in the laboratory and with increases in cortisol from baseline to posttask for boys but not girls. Peer victimization was associated with increases in cortisol from pretask to posttask for both genders. I discuss implications for research and prevention. PMID:16712428

  6. A longitudinal biosocial study of cortisol and peer influence on the development of adolescent antisocial behavior.

    PubMed

    Platje, E; Vermeiren, R R J M; Raine, A; Doreleijers, T A H; Keijsers, L G M T; Branje, S J T; Popma, A; van Lier, P A C; Koot, H M; Meeus, W H J; Jansen, L M C

    2013-11-01

    It is increasingly recognized that in order to understand the complex phenomenon of antisocial behavior, interrelations between biological and social risk factors should be taken into account. In the current study, this biosocial approach was applied to examine the mediating role of deviant peers in longitudinal associations linking the level of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity to aggression and rule-breaking. Participants were 425 boys and girls from the general population, who were assessed yearly at ages 15, 16, and 17. As a measure of HPA axis activity, cortisol was assessed at awakening, 30, and 60 min later (the cortisol awakening response, CAR). Participants, as well as their best friend, reported on their own aggressive and rule-breaking behavior, thereby allowing to assess bidirectional influences within friendships. Aggression was only predicted by a decreased cortisol level at awakening, and not by aggressive behavior of their friend. Decreased levels of cortisol at awakening predicted adolescents' rule-breaking, which subsequently predicted increased rule-breaking of their best friend. The latter was only found for adolescents who changed friends, as compared to adolescents with the same friend in every year. Gender differences were not found. These findings suggest that interrelations between biological and social risk factors are different for the development of aggression versus rule-breaking. Furthermore, decreased levels of HPA axis activity may represent a susceptibility to selecting deviant peers. PMID:23927935

  7. Trait positive and negative emotionality differentially associate with diurnal cortisol activity.

    PubMed

    Miller, Karissa G; Wright, Aidan G C; Peterson, Laurel M; Kamarck, Thomas W; Anderson, Barbara A; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Marsland, Anna L; Muldoon, Matthew F; Manuck, Stephen B

    2016-06-01

    Inter-individual variability in metrics of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) activity, such as the slope of the diurnal decline in cortisol, cortisol awakening response (CAR), and total cortisol output, have been found to associate inversely with trait ratings of extraversion and positive affect (E/PA) and positively with neuroticism and negative affect (N/NA) in some, but not all, investigations. These inconsistencies may partly reflect varied intensity of cortisol sampling among studies and reliance on self-rated traits, which are subject to reporting biases and limitations of introspection. Here, we further examined dispositional correlates of HPA activity in 490 healthy, employed midlife volunteers (M age=43 years; 54% Female; 86% white). Trait ratings were requested from participants and 2 participant-elected informants using the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) and Extraversion and Neuroticism dimensions of NEO personality inventories. CAR was assessed as percent increase in cortisol levels from awakening to 30min after awakening; and the diurnal slope and total output of cortisol [Area Under the Curve (AUC)] were determined from cortisol measurements taken at awakening, +4 and +9h later, and bedtime, across 3 workdays. Structural equation modeling was used to estimate multi-informant E/PA and N/NA factors. We used 3days of measurement as indicators to model each of the three latent cortisol factors (slope, CAR, and AUC). With the two latent emotionality and three latent cortisol indices included there was good fit to the data (χ(2)(200)=278.38, p=0.0002; RMSEA=0.028, 90% CI=0.02-0.04; CFI/TLI=0.97/0.96; SRMR=0.04). After controlling for covariates (age, sex, race), results showed higher latent E/PA associated with a steeper diurnal slope (Standardized β=-0.19, p=0.02) and smaller CAR (Standardized β=-0.26, p=0.004), whereas N/NA did not associate with any cortisol metric (Standardized β's=-0.12 to 0.13, p's=0.10 to 0.53). These

  8. Human Milk Cortisol is Associated With Infant Temperament

    PubMed Central

    Grey, Katherine R.; Davis, Elysia Poggi; Sandman, Curt A.; Glynn, Laura M.

    2012-01-01

    The implications of the biologically active elements in milk for the mammalian infant are largely unknown. Animal models demonstrate that transmission of glucocorticoids through milk influences behavior and modifies brain development in offspring. The aim of this study was to determine the relation between human milk cortisol levels and temperament of the breastfed infant. Fifty-two mother and infant pairs participated when the infants were three-months old. Milk cortisol levels were assessed and each mother completed the Infant Behavior Questionnaire (IBQ), a widely used parent-report measure of infant temperament. Analyses revealed a positive association between milk cortisol and the Negative Affectivity dimension of the IBQ (partial r =.37, p < .01). No correlation was found between elevated cortisol levels and the Surgency/Extraversion or the Orienting/Regulation dimensions. Further, the positive association between increased maternal milk cortisol and Negative Affectivity was present among girls (β = .59, p < .01), but not among boys. (Although, the sex by milk cortisol interaction term was not statistically significant, suggesting that these results require replication.) Environmental factors such as maternal demographics and negative maternal affect (depression and perceived stress) at the time of assessment did not account for the positive association. The findings support the proposal that exposure to elevated levels of cortisol in human milk influences infant temperament. The findings further suggest that mothers have the ability shape offspring phenotype through the transmission of biologically active components in milk. PMID:23265309

  9. Modeling the Salivary Cortisol Profile in Population Research

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez, Brisa N.; Wu, Meihua; Raghunathan, Trivellore E.; Diez-Roux, Ana V.

    2012-01-01

    In many studies, it has been hypothesized that stress and its biologic consequences may contribute to disparities in rates of cardiovascular disease. However, understanding of the most appropriate statistical methods to analyze biologic markers of stress, such as salivary cortisol, remains limited. The authors explore the utility of various statistical methods in modeling daily cortisol profiles in population-based studies. They demonstrate that the proposed methods allow additional insight into the cortisol profile compared with commonly used summaries of the profiles based on raw data. For instance, one can gain insights regarding the shape of the population average curve, characterize the types of individual-level departures from the average curve, and better understand the relation between covariates and attained cortisol levels or slopes at various points of the day, in addition to drawing inferences regarding common features of the cortisol profile, such as the cortisol awakening response and the area under the curve. The authors compare the inference and interpretations drawn from these methods and use data collected as part of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis to illustrate them. PMID:23100245

  10. Antenatal glucocorticoid treatment is associated with diurnal cortisol regulation in term-born children.

    PubMed

    Edelmann, M N; Sandman, C A; Glynn, L M; Wing, D A; Davis, E P

    2016-10-01

    Due to the rapid developmental changes that occur during the fetal period, prenatal influences can affect the developing central nervous system with lifelong consequences for physical and mental health. Glucocorticoids are one of the proposed mechanisms by which fetal programing occurs. Glucocorticoids pass through the blood-brain barrier and target receptors throughout the central nervous system. Unlike endogenous glucocorticoids, synthetic glucocorticoids readily pass through the placental barrier to reach the developing fetus. The synthetic glucocorticoid, betamethasone, is routinely given prenatally to mothers at risk for preterm delivery. Over 25% of the fetuses exposed to betamethasone will be born at term. Few studies have examined the lasting consequences of antenatal treatment of betamethasone on the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. The purpose of this study is to examine whether antenatal exposure to betamethasone alters circadian cortisol regulation in children who were born full term. School-aged children prenatally treated with betamethasone and born at term (n=19, mean (SD)=8.1 (1.2) years old) were compared to children not treated with antenatal glucocorticoids (n=61, mean (SD)=8.2 (1.4) years old). To measure the circadian release of cortisol, saliva samples were collected at awakening; 30, 45, and 60min after awakening; and in the evening. Comparison children showed a typical diurnal cortisol pattern that peaked in the morning (the cortisol awakening response) and gradually decreased throughout the day. In contrast, children exposed to antenatal betamethasone lacked a cortisol awakening response and had a flatter diurnal slope (p's<0.01). These data suggest that antenatal glucocorticoid treatment may disrupt the circadian regulation of the HPA axis among children born at term. Because disrupted circadian regulation of cortisol has been linked to mental and somatic health problems, future research is needed to determine

  11. Levels and confounders of morning cortisol collected from adolescents in a naturalistic (school) setting.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Shona J; Young, Robert; Sweeting, Helen; Fischer, Joachim E; West, Patrick

    2008-10-01

    Salivary cortisol is widely used in research but little is known about the typical, or expected, functioning of the HPA-axis in adolescents in naturalistic settings, nor whether the extensive array of confounders documented in the literature is applicable in this situation. In a school-based study, 2995 15-year-old pupils provided two saliva samples, 30 min apart, in morning sessions timed to capture peak cortisol decline. The collection protocol was a balance between the large sample size obtainable in a school situation and a limited number of samples, constrained by the school timetable. In addition, pupils completed a questionnaire containing items previously shown to be associated with cortisol levels (e.g. time since awakening and life events), and their height and weight were measured. Outcome measures were cortisol levels at Times 1 and 2, and change (per minute) in cortisol between the two time points. Median (IQR) cortisol levels for males and females were 10.5 (8.1) and 11.6 (9.3) nmol/L at Time 1, and 8.2 (6.0) and 8.1 (6.5) nmol/L at Time 2. 73% had a decline in cortisol level of more than 10% across the two time points, compatible with the expected diurnal pattern. In bivariate analyses, cortisol sampled on Monday, times of measurement and since awakening, prior smoking and several life events were associated with cortisol levels at Times 1 and 2 in both sexes. However, in multivariate analysis, few of these variables remained after controlling for times of measurement and since awakening and, in addition, the final models differed between the sexes. Two events (friend dying and splitting with a boy/girlfriend) predicted cortisol levels in both sexes while age, maturity, recent eating and smoking were predictors only in males. Several factors associated with cortisol change differed from those observed for absolute levels. Further adjustment for school clustering affected some associations, particularly time of measurement. This study managed many of

  12. Diurnal salivary cortisol, glycemia and insulin resistance: The multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Joshua J; Wang, Xu; Spanakis, Elias; Seeman, Teresa; Wand, Gary; Needham, Belinda; Golden, Sherita Hill

    2015-12-01

    Hypercortisolism is associated with insulin resistance (IR) and diabetes mellitus (DM); however, to our knowledge prior studies have not examined the association of diurnal cortisol curve features with measures of glycemia or IR in a population-based setting. Using log-transformed salivary cortisol data on 850 ethnically diverse men and women from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, we investigated the cross-sectional association of cortisol curve features with (1) glycemia in those with and without DM and (2) IR, in non-diabetic subjects. The log-transformed salivary cortisol curve features included wake-up cortisol, cortisol awakening response (CAR), early decline slope (30min to 2h post-awakening), late decline slope (2h post-awakening to bedtime), overall decline slope (0min to bedtime, excluding 30min cortisol), bedtime cortisol and total area under the curve (AUC). Overall, following multivariable adjustment, among those with diabetes mellitus (DM), early decline slope, overall decline slope, bedtime cortisol, and AUC were significantly and positively associated with a 5.4% (95% CI: 1.3, 9.7), 54.7% (95% CI: 12.4, 112.9), 4.0% (95% CI: 1.6,6.4), and 6.8% (95% CI: 3.3,10.4) higher HbA1c per 1 unit increase in log cortisol feature, respectively. Cortisol curve features were not associated with HbA1c among non-diabetic participants; however, wake-up cortisol and AUC were associated with a 8.2% lower (95% CI: -13.3,-2.7) and 7.9% lower (95% CI: -14.6, -0.6) log HOMA-IR, respectively. This was attenuated by adjustment for waist circumference. Among participants with DM, cortisol curve parameters suggestive of higher hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity and dysfunction were associated with higher HbA1c. In non-diabetic participants, greater HPA activity was paradoxically associated with lower insulin resistance. PMID:26356041

  13. Examining the cross-sectional and longitudinal association between diurnal cortisol and neighborhood characteristics: Evidence from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Hajat, Anjum; Moore, Kari; Do, D. Phuong; Merkin, Sharon Stein; Punjabi, Naresh M.; Sáñchez, Brisa Ney; Seeman, Teresa; Diez Roux, Ana V.

    2015-01-01

    We examined cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between neighborhood socioeconomic status, social cohesion and safety and features of the diurnal cortisol curve including: area under the curve (AUC), wake-to-bed slope, wake-up, cortisol awakening response (CAR, wake-up to 30 minutes post-awakening), early decline (30 minutes to 2 hours post-awakening) and late decline (2 hours post-awakening to bed time). In cross-sectional analyses, higher neighborhood poverty was associated with a flatter early decline and a flatter wake-to-bed slope. Higher social cohesion and safety were associated with higher wake-up cortisol, steeper early decline and steeper wake-to-bed slope. Over 5 years, wake-up cortisol increased, CAR, early decline, late decline and wake-to-bed slope became flatter and AUC became larger. Higher poverty was associated with less pronounced increases in wake-up and AUC, while higher social cohesion was associated with greater increases in wake-up and AUC. Adverse neighborhood environments were cross-sectionally associated with flatter cortisol profiles, but associations with changes in cortisol were weak and not in the expected direction. PMID:26073509

  14. Cortisol coregulation in fish

    PubMed Central

    Fürtbauer, Ines; Heistermann, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Cortisol coregulation, which is the up- or down-regulation of partners’ physiological stress responses, has been described for individuals with strong attachment bonds, e.g. parents and their children, and romantic relationship partners. Research into moderating effects on cortisol coregulation suggests stronger covariation among distressed partners. Whether cortisol coregulation is unique to humans or can also be found in other species that share universal features of the vertebrate stress response remains unexplored. Using a repeated measures approach and non-invasive waterborne hormone analysis, we test the hypothesis that dyads of three-spined stickleback fish (Gasterosteus aculeatus) coregulate their cortisol levels in shared environments. Dyadic cortisol levels were unrelated when cohabiting (home tank), but significantly covaried when sharing a more stressful (as indicated by higher cortisol levels) environment (open field). Time-lag analysis further revealed that open field cortisol levels were predicted by partner’s cortisol levels prior to the shared experience. To our knowledge, this study provides the first evidence for coregulatory processes on cortisol responses in a non-human animal that lacks strong bonds and social attachment relationships, suggesting a shared evolutionary origin of cortisol coregulation in vertebrates. From an adaptive perspective, cortisol coregulation may serve to reduce risk in challenging, potentially threatening situations. PMID:27458063

  15. Cortisol coregulation in fish.

    PubMed

    Fürtbauer, Ines; Heistermann, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Cortisol coregulation, which is the up- or down-regulation of partners' physiological stress responses, has been described for individuals with strong attachment bonds, e.g. parents and their children, and romantic relationship partners. Research into moderating effects on cortisol coregulation suggests stronger covariation among distressed partners. Whether cortisol coregulation is unique to humans or can also be found in other species that share universal features of the vertebrate stress response remains unexplored. Using a repeated measures approach and non-invasive waterborne hormone analysis, we test the hypothesis that dyads of three-spined stickleback fish (Gasterosteus aculeatus) coregulate their cortisol levels in shared environments. Dyadic cortisol levels were unrelated when cohabiting (home tank), but significantly covaried when sharing a more stressful (as indicated by higher cortisol levels) environment (open field). Time-lag analysis further revealed that open field cortisol levels were predicted by partner's cortisol levels prior to the shared experience. To our knowledge, this study provides the first evidence for coregulatory processes on cortisol responses in a non-human animal that lacks strong bonds and social attachment relationships, suggesting a shared evolutionary origin of cortisol coregulation in vertebrates. From an adaptive perspective, cortisol coregulation may serve to reduce risk in challenging, potentially threatening situations. PMID:27458063

  16. Neuroticism and Introversion are Associated with Salivary Cortisol Patterns in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Hauner, Katherina K. Y.; Adam, Emma K.; Mineka, Susan; Doane, Leah D.; DeSantis, Amy S.; Zinbarg, Richard; Craske, Michelle; Griffith, James W.

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies have yielded equivocal findings on the relationship between personality and cortisol activity. The present study examined associations between personality and cortisol activity in a large, diverse adolescent sample, while partialling the effects of relevant demographic and health-related covariates. A subsample of 230 participants (57% of whom reported elevated neuroticism) was selected from a larger sample of 16- to 18-year-olds involved in a study on risk factors for emotional disorders. Subsample participants completed a battery of personality questionnaires, and saliva collection was requested several months later on three consecutive days at six time points per day, from wakeup to bedtime. Associations between personality and cortisol rhythms were examined using multilevel growth curve modeling. Neuroticism (N) and introversion (I) were significantly and differentially associated with features of diurnal cortisol patterns. Specifically, a significant N by gender interaction was observed, demonstrating flatter cortisol rhythms across the waking day among male participants with higher N. Elevated I, however, was associated with lower cortisol awakening responses for both male and female participants, and higher cortisol at the time of waking for male participants only. The present study supports personality as a significant predictor of diurnal cortisol patterns in late adolescence, after accounting for the effects of demographic and health covariates, and suggests that gender plays a role in moderating associations between personality and cortisol. PMID:18809259

  17. Diurnal cortisol rhythm: Associated with anxiety and depression, or just an indication of lack of energy?

    PubMed

    Harris, Anette; Endresen Reme, Silje; Tangen, Tone; Hansen, Åse Marie; Helene Garde, Anne; Eriksen, Hege Randi

    2015-08-15

    Dysregulation of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal-activity has been associated with low back pain (LBP). The underlying mechanisms are not fully explained, but psychological mechanisms are considered important. In this study we examine the association between psychiatric disorders/symptoms measured with different instruments, and cortisol in a population with LBP. Participants (n=305) sick-listed 2-10 months due to non-specific LBP were included in the study. The screening instruments were the MINI-interview, HADS and HSCL-25. Saliva cortisol were measured on 2 consecutive days; at awakening, 30min later, at 15:00h and 22:00h. Results showed no associations between any of the main diagnostic categories from the MINI-interview, or anxiety/depression measured with HADS or HSCL-25 and cortisol. However, significant associations were found between low cortisol awakening response, low cortisol slope during the day and the somatization scale from HSCL-25 (dizziness or lack of energy, lack of sexual interest, the feeling that everything requires substantial efforts, difficulties to fall asleep, headache). The results indicate that cortisol, may not be directly associated with psychopathology, such as anxiety and depression, but instead are associated with one dimension of the psychopathology, namely lack of energy. This could help explain the inconsistency in the literature, and it should be explored further. PMID:26001959

  18. Comparison of the transplacental pharmacokinetics of cortisol and triamcinolone acetonide in the rhesus monkey

    SciTech Connect

    Slikker, W. Jr.; Althaus, Z.R.; Rowland, J.M.; Hill, D.E.; Hendrickx, A.G.

    1982-11-01

    The late gestational age rhesus monkey was used to study the transplacental pharmacokinetics of radiolabeled triamcinolone acetonide (TAC) and cortisol. Tritiated-TAC and (/sup 14/C)cortisol were administered simultaneously via the maternal radial vein were administered simultaneously via the maternal radial vein and blood samples were serially drawn from catheters implanted in both the maternal femoral artery and fetal umbilical vein and artery. High-performance liquid chromatography of the processed blood samples revealed that from 93 to 100% of the /sup 3/H in the fetal circulation was parent TAC, whereas only 14 to 49% of the /sup 14/C was cortisol during the 40-min period after dose administration. Fetal tissue samples taken at 3 hr after dose administration showed that 75 to 96% of the /sup 3/H present was TAC, whereas no cortisol was observed. TAC demonstrated dose-independent kinetics. Samples collected from the umbilical vein of the in situ placenta after fetectomy revealed that cortisol was extensively converted to cortisone by the placenta, whereas TAC was refractory to placental metabolism. This placental conversion of cortisol to cortisone and the further metabolism and conjugation of cortisol by the fetoplacental unit resulted in a fetal to maternal plasma cortisol ratio of 0.2. In contrast, the lack of placental or fetoplacental metabolism of TAC resulted in a fetal to maternal plasma TAC ratio of 0.6.

  19. Latent trait cortisol (LTC) levels: reliability, validity, and stability.

    PubMed

    Doane, Leah D; Chen, Frances R; Sladek, Michael R; Van Lenten, Scott A; Granger, Douglas A

    2015-05-01

    The regulation of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis has received empirical attention as a mechanism contributing to individual differences in health and human development. A variety of sampling tactics and strategies index daily HPA axis functioning including the cortisol awakening response (CAR), the diurnal slope, and the area under the curve (AUGg). In an ethnically diverse sample (54% European-American, 23% Latino) of 82 adolescents (24% male, M age=18.05 years), we assessed salivary cortisol 45 times over the transition to college: 5 times per day, over 3 sequential days, across 3 waves (initially, 5, and 9 months later). Samples were collected at waking; 30 min, 3, and 8h post waking; and bedtime. Latent state-trait modeling indicated that the waking and 30 min post waking samples contributed to indices of within and across wave latent trait cortisol (LTC) levels. As such, a latent trait factor of cortisol was derived to reflect both within- and across-wave trait components of the variance in cortisol. LTC was distinct from the CAR, differentially predicted components of the diurnal profile across the day, and was highly stable across assessment waves (months). As preliminary evidence for convergent validity of LTC levels, childhood trauma was positively associated with LTC. Findings document the reliability, divergent and convergent validity, and stability of a latent trait factor of individual differences in HPA axis activity that may provide a cost efficient alternative to existing strategies and minimize participant burden. PMID:25705799

  20. Enhanced awakening probability of repetitive impulse sounds.

    PubMed

    Vos, Joos; Houben, Mark M J

    2013-09-01

    In the present study relations between the level of impulse sounds and the observed proportion of behaviorally confirmed awakening reactions were determined. The sounds (shooting sounds, bangs produced by door slamming or by container transshipment, aircraft landings) were presented by means of loudspeakers in the bedrooms of 50 volunteers. The fragments for the impulse sounds consisted of single or multiple events. The sounds were presented during a 6-h period that started 75 min after the subjects wanted to sleep. In order to take account of habituation, each subject participated during 18 nights. At equal indoor A-weighted sound exposure levels, the proportion of awakening for the single impulse sounds was equal to that for the aircraft sounds. The proportion of awakening induced by the multiple impulse sounds, however, was significantly higher. For obtaining the same rate of awakening, the sound level of each of the successive impulses in a fragment had to be about 15-25 dB lower than the level of one single impulse. This level difference was largely independent of the degree of habituation. Various explanations for the enhanced awakening probability are discussed. PMID:23967934

  1. Negative Emotionality, Depressive Symptoms and Cortisol Diurnal Rhythms: Analysis of a Community Sample of Middle-Aged Males

    PubMed Central

    Doane, Leah D.; Franz, Carol E.; Prom-Wormley, Elizabeth; Eaves, Lindon J.; Mendoza, Sally P.; Hellhammer, Dirk H.; Lupien, Sonia; Xian, Hong; Lyons, Michael J.; Kremen, William; Jacobson, Kristen C.

    2011-01-01

    Prior research suggests that individuals with particular personality traits, like negative emotionality, are at greater risk for adverse health outcomes. Despite bivariate associations between negative emotionality, depressive symptoms and the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis (HPA axis), few studies have sought to understand the biological pathways through which negative emotionality, depressive symptomology and cortisol--one of the primary hormonal products of the HPA axis--are associated. The present study explored whether negative emotionality influenced cortisol dysregulation through current depressive symptomatology and whether negative emotionality served as a moderator of the relationship between depressive symptoms and cortisol. In the community-based Vietnam Era Twin Study of Aging, 783 male twins completed two days of cortisol saliva sampling in their natural environments. Three measures of cortisol were analyzed: waking levels, the cortisol awakening response, and the peak to bed slope. Depressive symptoms significantly mediated the associations between negative emotionality and the peak to bed slope. A 2-way interaction between depressive symptoms and negative emotionality was significant for the peak to bed slope and for waking levels of cortisol. Exploration of the interactions illustrated that depressive symptoms only affected cortisol slopes at average or high levels of negative emotionality and only affected waking levels at low levels of negative emotionality. Negative emotionality and depressive symptoms were not related to the cortisol awakening response. This is the first study to find indirect associations between negative emotionality and peak to bed cortisol slopes through depressive symptoms. These findings illustrate the complex interplay between personality characteristics, depressive symptoms and different indices of the cortisol diurnal rhythm. PMID:21619882

  2. Circulating angiogenic cell function is inhibited by cortisol in vitro and associated with psychological stress and cortisol in vivo.

    PubMed

    Aschbacher, Kirstin; Derakhshandeh, Ronak; Flores, Abdiel J; Narayan, Shilpa; Mendes, Wendy Berry; Springer, Matthew L

    2016-05-01

    Psychological stress and glucocorticoids are associated with heightened cardiovascular disease risk. We investigated whether stress or cortisol would be associated with reduced circulating angiogenic cell (CAC) function, an index of impaired vascular repair. We hypothesized that minority-race individuals who experience threat in interracial interactions would exhibit reduced CAC function, and that this link might be explained by cortisol. To test this experimentally, we recruited 106 African American participants for a laboratory interracial interaction task, in which they received socially evaluative feedback from Caucasian confederates. On a separate day, a subset of 32 participants (mean age=26years, 47% female) enrolled in a separate biological substudy and provided blood samples for CAC isolation and salivary samples to quantify the morning peak in cortisol (the cortisol awakening response, CAR). CAC function was quantified using cell culture assays of migration to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and secretion of VEGF into the culture medium. Heightened threat in response to an interracial interaction and trait anxiety in vivo were both associated with poorer CAC migratory function in vitro. Further, threat and poorer sustained attention during the interracial interaction were associated with a higher CAR, which in turn, was related to lower CAC sensitivity to glucocorticoids. In vitro, higher doses of cortisol impaired CAC migratory function and VEGF protein secretion. The glucocorticoid receptor antagonist RU486 reversed this functional impairment. These data identify a novel, neuroendocrine pathway by which psychological stress may reduce CAC function, with potential implications for cardiovascular health. PMID:26925833

  3. Prenatal Maternal Stress Programs Infant Stress Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Elysia Poggi; Glynn, Laura M.; Waffarn, Feizal; Sandman, Curt A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Prenatal exposure to inappropriate levels of glucocorticoids (GCs) and maternal stress are putative mechanisms for the fetal programming of later health outcomes. The current investigation examined the influence of prenatal maternal cortisol and maternal psychosocial stress on infant physiological and behavioral responses to stress.…

  4. Concordance of mother-daughter diurnal cortisol production: Understanding the intergenerational transmission of risk for depression.

    PubMed

    LeMoult, Joelle; Chen, Michael C; Foland-Ross, Lara C; Burley, Hannah W; Gotlib, Ian H

    2015-05-01

    A growing body of research is demonstrating concordance between mother and child diurnal cortisol production. In the context of maternal history of depression, intergenerational concordance of cortisol production could contribute to hypercortisolemia in children of depressed mothers, which has been shown to increase risk for MDD. The current study is the first to examine concordance in diurnal cortisol production between mothers with a history of depression and their never-depressed, but high-risk, children. We collected salivary cortisol across 2 days from mothers with (remitted; RMD) and without (CTL) a history of recurrent episodes of depression and their never-depressed daughters. As expected, RMD mothers and their daughters both exhibited higher cortisol production than did their CTL counterparts. Moreover, both across and within groups, mothers' and daughters' cortisol production were directly coupled. These findings suggest that there is an intergenerational concordance in cortisol dysregulation that may contribute to hypercortisolemia in girls at familial risk for depression. PMID:25862380

  5. Concordance of Mother-Daughter Diurnal Cortisol Production: Understanding the Intergenerational Transmission of Risk for Depression

    PubMed Central

    LeMoult, Joelle; Chen, Michael C.; Foland-Ross, Lara C.; Burley, Hannah W.; Gotlib, Ian H.

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of research is demonstrating concordance between mother and child diurnal cortisol production. In the context of maternal history of depression, intergenerational concordance of cortisol production could contribute to hypercortisolemia in children of depressed mothers, which has been shown to increase risk for MDD. The current study is the first to examine concordance in diurnal cortisol production between mothers with a history of depression and their never-depressed, but high-risk, children. We collected salivary cortisol across two days from mothers with (remitted; RMD) and without (CTL) a history of recurrent episodes of depression and their never-depressed daughters. As expected, RMD mothers and their daughters both exhibited higher cortisol production than did their CTL counterparts. Moreover, both across and within groups, mothers’ and daughters’ cortisol production was directly coupled. These findings suggest that there is an intergenerational concordance in cortisol dysregulation that may contribute to hypercortisolemia in girls at familial risk for depression. PMID:25862380

  6. Effect of service dogs on salivary cortisol secretion in autistic children.

    PubMed

    Viau, Robert; Arsenault-Lapierre, Geneviève; Fecteau, Stéphanie; Champagne, Noël; Walker, Claire-Dominique; Lupien, Sonia

    2010-09-01

    Children with Autism Syndrome Disorders (ASDs) exhibit social, communicative, and behavioral deficits. We know that human interaction with dogs, which is thought to serve as a social catalyst, results in a decrease of cortisol levels in healthy adults. Introducing service dogs to children with ASD is an attractive idea that has received growing attention in recent decades. However, no study has measured the physiological impact of service dogs on these children. Therefore, the goal of our study was to assess the effects of service dogs on the basal salivary cortisol secretion of children with ASD. We measured the salivary cortisol levels of 42 children with ASD in three experimental conditions; prior to and during the introduction of a service dog to their family, and after a short period during which the dog was removed from their family. We compared average cortisol levels and Cortisol Awakening Response (CAR) before and during the introduction of the dog to the family and after its withdrawal. We found that the introduction of service dogs translated into a statistically significant diminished CAR. Before the introduction of service dogs, we measured a 58% increase in morning cortisol after awakening, which diminished to 10% when service dogs were present. The increase in morning cortisol jumped back to 48% once the dogs were removed from the families (p<0.05). However, service dogs did not have an effect on the children's average diurnal cortisol levels. These results show that the CAR of children with ASD is sensitive to the presence of service dogs, which lends support to the potential behavioral benefits of service dogs for children with autism. PMID:20189722

  7. Perceived Stigmatization, Resilience, and Diurnal Cortisol Rhythm Among Children of Parents Living With HIV

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Peilian; Slatcher, Richard B.; Li, Xiaoming; Zhao, Junfeng; Zhao, Guoxiang; Ren, Xuequn; Zhu, Jianfeng; Stanton, Bonita

    2015-01-01

    Stigma is a prevalent risk factor challenging the health and well-being of children from marginalized groups. One potential protective factor for such children is resilience—one’s capability to adapt flexibly, persistently, and resourcefully to stressful situations. This study investigated the associations among stigma, resilience, and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function in a sample of 645 youth affected by parental HIV. Perceived stigmatization was associated with lower cortisol levels at awakening and flatter cortisol slopes, whereas resilience was independently associated with higher levels of salivary cortisol at awakening and steeper cortisol slopes. We found evidence for an indirect effect of resilience on diurnal cortisol through lower perceived stigma. These associations remained significant after controlling for demographic and health factors and stressful life events. Our findings demonstrate that perceived stigma and resilience are associated with HPA axis functioning in childhood. Broadly, the data suggest that resilience-promoting and stigma-reducing efforts should be considered to improve the health of children from disadvantaged groups. PMID:25888685

  8. Adolescent adrenocortical activity and adiposity: differences by sex and exposure to early maternal depression.

    PubMed

    Ruttle, Paula L; Klein, Marjorie H; Slattery, Marcia J; Kalin, Ned H; Armstrong, Jeffrey M; Essex, Marilyn J

    2014-09-01

    Prior research has linked either basal cortisol levels or stress-induced cortisol responses to adiposity; however, it remains to be determined whether these distinct cortisol measures exert joint or independent effects. Further, it is unclear how they interact with individual and environmental characteristics to predict adiposity. The present study aims to address whether morning cortisol levels and cortisol responses to a psychosocial stressor independently and/or interactively influence body mass index (BMI) in 218 adolescents (117 female) participating in a longitudinal community study, and whether associations are moderated by sex and exposure to early maternal depression. Reports of maternal depressive symptoms were obtained in infancy and preschool. Salivary cortisol measures included a longitudinal morning cortisol measure comprising sampling points across ages 11, 13, 15, and 18 and measures of stress-induced cortisol responses assessed via the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) at age 18. Lower morning cortisol and higher TSST cortisol reactivity independently predicted higher age 18 BMI. Morning cortisol also interacted with sex and exposure to early maternal depression to predict BMI. Specifically, girls exposed to lower levels of early maternal depression displayed a strong negative morning cortisol-BMI association, and girls exposed to higher levels of maternal depression demonstrated a weaker negative association. Among boys, those exposed to lower levels of maternal depression displayed no association, while those exposed to higher levels of maternal depression displayed a negative morning cortisol-BMI association. Results point to the independent, additive effects of morning and reactive cortisol in the prediction of BMI and suggest that exposure to early maternal depression may exert sexually dimorphic effects on normative cortisol-BMI associations. PMID:25001956

  9. Adolescent Adrenocortical Activity and Adiposity: Differences by Sex and Exposure to Early Maternal Depression

    PubMed Central

    Ruttle, Paula L.; Klein, Marjorie H.; Slattery, Marcia J.; Kalin, Ned H.; Armstrong, Jeffrey M.; Essex, Marilyn J.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Prior research has linked either basal cortisol levels or stress-induced cortisol responses to adiposity; however, it remains to be determined whether these distinct cortisol measures exert joint or independent effects. Further, it is unclear how they interact with individual and environmental characteristics to predict adiposity. The present study aims to address whether morning cortisol levels and cortisol responses to a psychosocial stressor independently and/or interactively influence body mass index (BMI) in 218 adolescents (117 female) participating in a longitudinal community study, and whether associations are moderated by sex and exposure to early maternal depression. Reports of maternal depressive symptoms were obtained in infancy and preschool. Salivary cortisol measures included a longitudinal morning cortisol measure comprising sampling points across ages 11, 13, 15, and 18 and measures of stress-induced cortisol responses assessed via the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) at age 18. Lower morning cortisol and higher TSST cortisol reactivity independently predicted higher age 18 BMI. Morning cortisol also interacted with sex and exposure to early maternal depression to predict BMI. Specifically, girls exposed to lower levels of early maternal depression displayed a strong negative morning cortisol-BMI association, and girls exposed to higher levels of maternal depression demonstrated a weaker negative association. Among boys, those exposed to lower levels of maternal depression displayed no association, while those exposed to higher levels of maternal depression displayed a negative morning cortisol-BMI association. Results point to the independent, additive effects of morning and reactive cortisol in the prediction of BMI and suggest that exposure to early maternal depression may exert sexually dimorphic effects on normative cortisol-BMI associations. PMID:25001956

  10. A prospective study of diurnal cortisol responses to the social experience of school transition in four-year-old children: anticipation, exposure, and adaptation.

    PubMed

    Turner-Cobb, Julie M; Rixon, Lorna; Jessop, David S

    2008-05-01

    This study examined psychosocial influences on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity in 105 4-year-old children transitioning to primary school. Measuring before, during, and after school transition over a period of up to 12 months, salivary cortisol was assessed on awakening and early evening. Parents reported child temperament and teachers recorded adaptive behavior. Whilst cortisol at awakening and early evening increased from baseline to school transition, effects were not significant. A significant decrease occurred between transition and follow-up and from baseline to follow-up for both awakening and evening cortisol. Poorer effortful control was associated with high morning and steeper diurnal slope of cortisol at transition whilst surgency/extroversion was associated individually with greater morning and evening cortisol at transition and adaptation. Greater increase in internalizing social isolation during the first 6 months of school in more surgent/extrovert children predicted higher morning and evening cortisol at follow-up. This study is the first to explore these adaptive relationships over a 12-month period and supports social isolation over time as a key element in developmental endocrine activation. PMID:18393279

  11. Inconsolable night-time awakening: beyond night terrors.

    PubMed

    Snyder, David M; Goodlin-Jones, Beth L; Pionk, Mary Jane; Stein, Martin T

    2008-08-01

    Sophia is a 3-year-old girl who was brought to her pediatrician by her parents who were concerned about inconsolable night-time awakening. Her mother indicated that she has frequent (>6), early nocturnal awakenings accompanied by screaming and crying lasting up to 1 hour since her birth. These episodes increased in intensity and frequency in the past year since the birth of her brother. With a bedtime routine (a cup of water by bedside with a washcloth and touching mother's nose, chin, and cheeks), Sophia falls asleep easily; however, within 1 hour she awakes screaming and flailing unaware of her surroundings and unable to be comforted. There are no tonic-clonic movements. Prior interventions, including a sleep coach and "letting Sophia cry it out," did not change her sleep pattern. Sophia's mother reports that she needs to be on a specific daily routine including set times for awakening, activity, snacks, naps, and meals. Diversion from the routine and separation from her mother results in a tantrum (kicking, hitting, screaming, and inconsolability) often lasting more than 30 minutes. Sophia was born after an uncomplicated 37-week gestation. Neonatal hyperbilirubinemia required readmission for 24 hours of phototherapy; serum bilirubin levels were performed daily for 3 weeks after discharge. At 6 weeks, daily episodes of screaming, inconsolability, forceful vomiting, and inability to sleep led to a diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux. Medication trials were not successful, but the symptoms resolved by 5 months. Formula intolerance and difficulty swallowing and chewing different textures of solid food occurred in the first year. Occupational therapy was of "no benefit"; Sophia was overwhelmed by the activity and took a long time to warm up to the therapist. Her texture aversion resolved by 2 years of age. She prefers one-on-one play and has minimal interactions with other children. She has met all her developmental milestones appropriately and has no other health

  12. Stress, Cortisol, and Externalizing Behavior in Adolescent Males: An Examination in the Context of Multisystemic Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Brennan, Patricia A.; Cunningham, Phillippe B.; Foster, Sharon L.; Whitmore, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Stress and hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis dysregulation have been associated with externalizing behavior in adolescence, but few studies have examined these factors in a treatment context. This study investigated the relationship between stress, cortisol, and externalizing behavior among 120 adolescent males (mean age=15) receiving Multisystemic Therapy (MST). To examine the differential relationship of cortisol with various types of stressors, self-report measures assessed lifetime stress, current episodic stress, and daily hassles. Morning and afternoon cortisol samples were collected to examine whether the relationship between stress and treatment outcome depended on the youth’s biological stress levels. Regression analyses indicated that awakening cortisol levels moderated the relationship between daily hassles and externalizing behaviors at post-treatment. More specifically, higher levels of daily hassles predicted worse outcomes only among adolescents with high levels of morning cortisol. In addition, lifetime stressors and afternoon measures of cortisol interacted to predict changes in caretaker reports of externalizing problems and youth arrests following treatment; lifetime stressors were positively associated with externalizing behavior when adolescents had low levels of afternoon cortisol. Implications for theory and future directions for evidence-based treatment are discussed. PMID:22350278

  13. Cortisol and symptoms of psychopathology in Russian and American college students.

    PubMed

    Tennison, Linda R; Rodgers, Laura S; Beker, David; Vorobjeva, Klarisa I; Creed, Evan T; Simonenko, Alena

    2010-06-01

    Cortisol is a key player in the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis response to stress, and has been related to symptoms of depression and other stress-related pathology. The present study investigated the relationship between cortisol and survey measures of stress and psychopathology as well as lifestyle in Russian and American college students. Salivary cortisol was collected upon awakening, 30 min later, at 4 p.m., and at 10 p.m. by Russian and American college students. Survey measures of anxiety and depression, as measured by the Hopkins Symptom Checklist (HSCL-25) were collected as well as scores on the Trauma History Questionnaire (THQ). In addition, measures of drinking-related problems, as measured by the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) and the "Cut down, Annoyed, Guilty, Eye-opener" (CAGE) were also completed. Consistent with the typically observed empirical pattern, cortisol levels increased in the 30 min after awakening and then declined across the day. Women reported more symptoms of anxiety than did men in both Russian and American samples. American students reported more symptoms of depression than did Russian students, though Russian students reported more traumatic life experiences. Americans had higher cortisol levels overall, though Russian students had larger changes in cortisol levels across the day, associated with both greater morning rises and afternoon declines in cortisol. While more Russian students reported smoking, American students reported more problems associated with alcohol use as measured by the AUDIT. The relationship between stress and health, mediating factors of lifestyle and coping, and the impact of social transition in Russia are discussed. PMID:22043929

  14. Sex differences in morning cortisol in youth at ultra-high-risk for psychosis.

    PubMed

    Carol, Emily E; Spencer, Robert L; Mittal, Vijay A

    2016-10-01

    Research suggests abnormalities in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function play an important role in the pathophysiology of psychosis. However, there is limited research on the biological stress system in young people at ultra high risk (UHR) for psychosis. Morning cortisol levels are particularly relevant to study in this context, as these markers reflect HPA regulation. This is the first examination of sex differences in morning cortisol levels in UHR individuals. Twenty-eight UHR and 22 matched healthy control participants were assessed in respect to symptoms and had home-based collection of salivary cortisol over three time points in the morning. It was predicted that the UHR participants would exhibit lower morning cortisol levels and lower cortisol would be associated with greater symptomatology (i.e. higher positive, negative, and depressive symptoms). Additionally, sex differences in morning cortisol levels were explored based on recent evidence suggesting that sex differences may play an important role in the exacerbation of psychosis. While there were no group differences in morning salivary cortisol secretion, there was a sex by time interaction among UHR individuals, such that only UHR males exhibited flat cortisol levels across two hours after awakening, whereas UHR females had a pattern of cortisol secretion similar to healthy controls, even among medication-free individuals (F=6.34, p=0.004). Cortisol AUC (area under the curve) across the three time points had a trend association (medium effect size; r=0.34, p=0.08) with depressive, but not positive or negative, symptom severity. These results stress the importance of considering sex differences in the psychosis-risk period, as they improve understanding of pathogenic processes. PMID:27388688

  15. Morning cortisol secretion in school-age children is related to the sleep pattern of the preceding night.

    PubMed

    Lemola, Sakari; Perkinson-Gloor, Nadine; Hagmann-von Arx, Priska; Brand, Serge; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Grob, Alexander; Weber, Peter

    2015-02-01

    Sleep disturbance in childhood is common and a risk factor for poor mental health. Evidence indicates that disturbed sleep is associated with altered hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA) activity. Knowledge regarding the association between HPAA-activity and objective sleep measures particularly regarding sleep architecture in school-age children is missing. Sleep-electroencephalography was administered to 113 children aged 6-10 years (including 58 children born very preterm and 55 born at term) during one night at the children's homes and sleep duration, sleep continuity, and sleep architecture were assessed. To assess the cortisol awakening response at the following morning, cortisol secretion was measured at awakening, 10, 20, and 30min later. Regression analyses controlling child age, gender, prematurity status, and the awakening time revealed that morning cortisol secretion was negatively associated with sleep duration and slow wave sleep and positively associated with the relative amount of Stage 2 sleep during the preceding night. In addition, morning cortisol secretion linearly increased with age. In conclusion, associations of sleep disturbance with poor mental health may be confounded with altered HPAA-activity. PMID:25553389

  16. Diurnal patterns of salivary alpha-amylase and cortisol secretion in female adolescent tennis players after 16 weeks of training.

    PubMed

    Filaire, Edith; Ferreira, Jose Pedro; Oliveira, Miguel; Massart, Alain

    2013-07-01

    We examined the effects of 16 weeks of training on diurnal pattern of salivary alpha-amylase (sAA), cortisol, and the ratio of sAA over cortisol (AOC) in 12 national adolescent female tennis players. Stress and recovery were also evaluated using the Recovery-Stress-Questionnaire for Athletes-RESTQ-Sport. Data were collected after a 2-week rest (January, W0), and 4 months after W0 (W16). Subjects collected five saliva samples throughout a day. While all participants displayed the previously shown decrease after awakening in adolescents at W0, they showed a rise in the alpha-amylase awakening response and a higher alpha-amylase activity output (p<0.01) at W16 compared to W0. For the daily rhythm of cortisol we found subjects having a low overall output of salivary cortisol (p<0.01) and a blunted response to awakening at W16. Furthermore, an increase in the ratio AOC at W16, and a negative correlation between this ratio and Sport-specific recovery score. Our findings offer support for the hypothesis that increase of training load during the study period induced asymmetry activation between the two stress systems, in relation to psychological alterations and performance decrease. These results provide encouragement to continue exploring the impact of training program using a psychobiological approach among young athletes in order to prevent fatigue and preserve the health of these athletes. PMID:23200107

  17. [The effects of self-awakening on daytime sleepiness].

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Hiroki; Hayashi, Mitsuo

    2012-04-01

    This study investigated the effects of self-awakening on daytime sleepiness. Eleven undergraduate and graduate students without the habit of self-awakening participated. They were instructed to follow their usual sleep-wake schedule at home during the experimental weeks and were required to awaken at their usual time by themselves every morning for one week without the aid of an alarm (self-awakening condition) or in response to a telephone call from the experimenter every morning for another one week (forced-awakening condition). On the last day of each week, daytime tests were conducted in the laboratory. The participants would arrive at the laboratory 2 h after awakening, and 1 h later, they performed the auditory simple reaction time task, the digit-symbol substitution task, the letter cancellation test, and the multiple sleep latency test, and assessment of sleepiness, fatigue, comfort, and work motivation every 2 h. In the week when the participants underwent the self-awakening condition, self-awakening had a higher success rate (82%) than failure rate (18%) on the seventh day. In comparison with forced-awakening, self-awakening resulted in an improvement in subjective fatigue; however, sleepiness did not deteriorate. PMID:22715533

  18. Cortisol as a Biomarker of Stress in Term Human Labor: Physiological and Methodological Issues

    PubMed Central

    Newton, Edward R.; Tanner, Charles J.; Heitkemper, Margaret M.

    2013-01-01

    Literature on the use of plasma cortisol to quantify psychophysiological stress in humans is extensive. However, in parturition at term gestation the use of cortisol as a biomarker of stress is particularly complex. Plasma cortisol levels increase as labor progresses. This increase seems to be important for maintenance of maternal/fetal wellbeing and facilitation of normal labor progress. Unique physiological and methodological issues involved in the use of cortisol as a biomarker of stress in labor present challenges for researchers. This review examines these issues, suggests mixed methods and within-subject repeated measures designs, and offers recommendations for assay procedures for parturient sampling. Documentation of clinical interventions and delivery outcomes may elucidate relationships among psychophysiological stressors, cortisol and normal labor progress. With attention to these methodological issues, analysis of plasma cortisol may lead to clinical interventions that support normal labor physiology. PMID:23338011

  19. The Effects of Morning Naps, Car Trips, and Maternal Separation on Adrenocortical Activity in Human Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Mary C.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Three studies examined adrenocortical activity in infants. Morning naps were associated with decreases in salivary cortisol. Riding for 40 minutes in a car lowered salivary cortisol concentrations. Thirty minutes of maternal separation in the laboratory resulted in higher salivary cortisol concentrations than did 30 minutes of play with the mother…

  20. The diurnal patterns of cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone in relation to intense aerobic exercise in recreationally trained soccer players.

    PubMed

    Labsy, Z; Prieur, F; Le Panse, B; Do, M C; Gagey, O; Lasne, F; Collomp, K

    2013-03-01

    Diurnal patterns of cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) secretion, the two main peripheral secretory products of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal neuroendocrine stress axis, have been well characterized in rest conditions but not in relation to physical exercise. The purpose of this investigation was therefore to determine the effects of an intense 90-min aerobic exercise on the waking diurnal cortisol and DHEA cycles on three separate days [without exercise, with morning exercise (10:00-11:30 h), and with afternoon exercise (14:00-15:30 h)] in nine recreationally trained soccer players. Saliva samples were collected at awakening, 30 min after awakening, and then every 2 h from 08:00 to 22:00 h. A burst of secretory activity was found for cortisol (p < 0.01) but not for DHEA after awakening. Overall, diurnal decline for both adrenal steroids was observed on resting and exercise days under all conditions. However, there was a significant increase in salivary cortisol concentrations on the morning-exercise and afternoon-exercise days at, respectively, 12:00 h (p < 0.05) and 16:00 h (p < 0.01), versus the other trials. This acute response to exercise was not evident for DHEA. The results of this investigation indicate that 90 min of intense aerobic exercise does not affect the circadian pattern of salivary adrenal steroids in recreationally trained athletes over a 16-h waking period, despite a transitory increase in post-exercise cortisol concentration. Further studies are necessary to determine whether these results are applicable to elite athletes or patients with cortisol or DHEA deficiency. PMID:22734443

  1. Familial Longevity Is Marked by Lower Diurnal Salivary Cortisol Levels: The Leiden Longevity Study

    PubMed Central

    Noordam, Raymond; Oei, Nicole Y. L.; Maier, Andrea B.; Pijl, Hanno; Slagboom, P. Eline; Westendorp, Rudi G. J.; van der Grond, Jeroen; de Craen, Anton J. M.; van Heemst, Diana

    2012-01-01

    Background Reported findings are inconsistent whether hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) signaling becomes hyperactive with increasing age, resulting in increasing levels of cortisol. Our previous research strongly suggests that offspring from long-lived families are biologically younger. In this study we assessed whether these offspring have a lower HPA axis activity, as measured by lower levels of cortisol and higher cortisol feedback sensitivity. Methods Salivary cortisol levels were measured at four time points within the first hour upon awakening and at two time points in the evening in a cohort comprising 149 offspring and 154 partners from the Leiden Longevity Study. A dexamethasone suppression test was performed as a measure of cortisol feedback sensitivity. Age, gender and body mass index, smoking and disease history (type 2 diabetes and hypertension) were considered as possible confounding factors. Results Salivary cortisol secretion was lower in offspring compared to partners in the morning (Area Under the Curve = 15.6 versus 17.1 nmol/L, respectively; p = 0.048) and in the evening (Area Under the Curve = 3.32 versus 3.82 nmol/L, respectively; p = 0.024). Salivary cortisol levels were not different after dexamethasone (0.5 mg) suppression between offspring and partners (4.82 versus 5.26 nmol/L, respectively; p = 0.28). Conclusion Offspring of nonagenarian siblings are marked by a lower HPA axis activity (reflected by lower diurnal salivary cortisol levels), but not by a difference in cortisol feedback sensitivity. Further in-depth studies aimed at characterizing the HPA axis in offspring and partners are needed. PMID:22348049

  2. Salivary cortisol among American Indians with and without posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD): gender and alcohol influences.

    PubMed

    Laudenslager, Mark L; Noonan, Carolyn; Jacobsen, Clemma; Goldberg, Jack; Buchwald, Dedra; Bremner, J Douglas; Vaccarino, Viola; Manson, Spero M

    2009-07-01

    Disruptions in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal regulation and immunity have been associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We examined the association of PTSD with diurnal rhythms in salivary cortisol in a convenience sample from a population-based study of male and female American Indians. Subjects with and without PTSD were identified from American Indians living on/near a Northern Plains reservation as part of a larger study. Over two days diurnal saliva samples were collected by staff at the University of Colorado Denver Clinical Research Center at waking, 30min after waking, before lunch, and before dinner. Generalized estimating equations linear regression models investigated the influence of PTSD on cortisol over time. The association of a lifetime diagnosis of PTSD with salivary cortisol level was assessed in subjects with complete data (PTSD: n=27; no PTSD n=32) for age, gender, and alcohol consumption in the past month. Subject mean age was 44 years, and 71% were women. When stratified by gender, women with a lifetime diagnosis of PTSD had significantly higher mean cortisol levels throughout the day than women without PTSD (p=0.01); but there was no significant association between PTSD and cortisol levels in men (p=0.36). The cortisol awakening response - the difference in cortisol levels from waking to 30min after waking - was not associated with PTSD in men or women. A lifetime diagnosis of PTSD may influence diurnal cortisol among American Indian women. These effects were independent of influences of current alcohol use/abuse. The unexpected elevation in cortisol in American Indian women with a lifetime diagnosis of PTSD may reflect acute anxiety associated with experiencing a number of novel tests in a strange location (e.g., cardiac imaging, medical, dental exams, etc.), or concurrent depression. PMID:19146946

  3. Associations Between Jet Lag and Cortisol Diurnal Rhythms After Domestic Travel

    PubMed Central

    Doane, Leah D.; Kremen, William S.; Eaves, Lindon J.; Eisen, Seth A.; Hauger, Richard; Hellhammer, Dirk; Levine, Seymour; Lupien, Sonia; Lyons, Michael J.; Mendoza, Sally; Prom-Wormley, Elizabeth; Xian, Hong; York, Timothy P.; Franz, Carol E.; Jacobson, Kristen C.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Millions of adults in the United States travel abruptly across time zones each year. Nevertheless, the impact of traveling over relatively short distances (across 3 or fewer time zones) on diurnal patterning of typical physiological response patterns has yet to be studied in a large, epidemiological sample. Design The current research focuses on 764 middle-aged men comparing variations in diurnal cortisol regulation based on number of time zones traveled eastward or westward the day before. Main Outcome Measure Participants provided samples of salivary cortisol at waking, 30-min postwaking, 10 a.m., 3 p.m., and bedtime. Results Eastward travel was associated with a steeper salivary cortisol awakening response ( p < .01) and lower peak (PEAK) levels of salivary cortisol the next morning ( p < .05). Westward travel was associated with lower peak levels of cortisol the next morning ( p < .05). Effect sizes for these differences ranged from Cohen’s d = .29 to .47. Differences were not present for 2 days in their home environment. Conclusions The results provide evidence that traveling across time zones is associated with diurnal cortisol regulation and should be studied further to understand the subsequent impacts on health and well-being in large national samples. PMID:20230083

  4. [The coma awakening unit, between intensive care and rehabilitation].

    PubMed

    Mimouni, Arnaud

    2015-01-01

    After intensive care and before classic neurological rehabilitation is possible, patients in an altered state of consciousness are cared for at early stages in so-called coma awakening units. The care involves, on the one hand, the complex support of the patient's awakening from coma as a neurological and existential process, and on the other, support for their families. PMID:26365640

  5. Green space and stress: evidence from cortisol measures in deprived urban communities.

    PubMed

    Roe, Jenny J; Thompson, Catharine Ward; Aspinall, Peter A; Brewer, Mark J; Duff, Elizabeth I; Miller, David; Mitchell, Richard; Clow, Angela

    2013-09-01

    Contact with green space in the environment has been associated with mental health benefits, but the mechanism underpinning this association is not clear. This study extends an earlier exploratory study showing that more green space in deprived urban neighbourhoods in Scotland is linked to lower levels of perceived stress and improved physiological stress as measured by diurnal patterns of cortisol secretion. Salivary cortisol concentrations were measured at 3, 6 and 9 h post awakening over two consecutive weekdays, together with measures of perceived stress. Participants (n = 106) were men and women not in work aged between 35-55 years, resident in socially disadvantaged districts from the same Scottish, UK, urban context as the earlier study. Results from linear regression analyses showed a significant and negative relationship between higher green space levels and stress levels, indicating living in areas with a higher percentage of green space is associated with lower stress, confirming the earlier study findings. This study further extends the findings by showing significant gender differences in stress patterns by levels of green space, with women in lower green space areas showing higher levels of stress. A significant interaction effect between gender and percentage green space on mean cortisol concentrations showed a positive effect of higher green space in relation to cortisol measures in women, but not in men. Higher levels of neighbourhood green space were associated with healthier mean cortisol levels in women whilst also attenuating higher cortisol levels in men. We conclude that higher levels of green space in residential neighbourhoods, for this deprived urban population of middle-aged men and women not in work, are linked with lower perceived stress and a steeper (healthier) diurnal cortisol decline. However, overall patterns and levels of cortisol secretion in men and women were differentially related to neighbourhood green space and warrant

  6. Cortisol responses to naturalistic and laboratory stress in student teachers: comparison with a non-stress control day.

    PubMed

    Wolfram, Maren; Bellingrath, Silja; Feuerhahn, Nicolas; Kudielka, Brigitte M

    2013-04-01

    Ambulatory assessments of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis responses to acute natural stressors yield evidence on stress regulation with high ecological validity. Sampling of salivary cortisol is a standard technique in this field. In 21 healthy student teachers, we assessed cortisol responses to a demonstration lesson. On a control day, sampling was repeated at analogous times. Additionally, the cortisol awakening response (CAR) was assessed on both days. Participants were also exposed to a laboratory stressor, the Trier Social Stress Test, and rated their individual levels of chronic work stress. In pre-to-post-stress assessment, cortisol levels declined after the lesson. However, post-stress cortisol levels were significantly higher compared with those on the control day. Also, the Trier Social Stress Test yielded higher cortisol responses when using the control day as reference baseline. Associations between the CAR and chronic stress measures were observed solely on the control day. There were no significant associations between cortisol responses to the natural and laboratory stressors. Our results indicate that a control day might be an important complement in laboratory but especially in ambulatory stress research. Furthermore, associations between chronic stress measures and the CAR might be obscured by acute stress exposure. Finally, responses to the laboratory stressor do not seem to mirror natural stress responses. PMID:22888074

  7. The Contributions of Maternal Sensitivity and Maternal Depressive Symptoms to Epigenetic Processes and Neuroendocrine Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conradt, Elisabeth; Hawes, Katheleen; Guerin, Dylan; Armstrong, David A.; Marsit, Carmen J.; Tronick, Edward; Lester, Barry M.

    2016-01-01

    This study tested whether maternal responsiveness may buffer the child to the effects of maternal depressive symptoms on DNA methylation of "NR3C1," "11ß-HSD2," and neuroendocrine functioning. DNA was derived from buccal epithelial cells and prestress cortisol was obtained from the saliva of 128 infants. Mothers with depressive…

  8. Economic stress and cortisol among postpartum low-income Mexican American women: buffering influence of family support

    PubMed Central

    Jewell, Shannon L.; Luecken, Linda J.; Gress-Smith, Jenna; Crnic, Keith A.; Gonzales, Nancy A.

    2016-01-01

    Low-income Mexican American women experience significant health disparities during the postpartum period. Contextual stressors, such as economic stress, are theorized to affect health via dysregulated cortisol output. However, cultural protective factors including strong family support may buffer the impact of stress. In a sample of 322 low-income Mexican American women (mother age 18–42; 84% Spanish-speaking; modal family income $10,000–$15,000), we examined the interactive influence of economic stress and family support at 6 weeks postpartum on maternal cortisol output (AUCg) during a mildly challenging mother-infant interaction task at 12 weeks postpartum, controlling for 6 week maternal cortisol and depressive symptoms. The interaction significantly predicted cortisol output such that higher economic stress predicted higher cortisol only among women reporting low family support. These results suggest that family support is an important protective resource for postpartum Mexican American women experiencing elevated economic stress. PMID:26332931

  9. Recurrent short sleep, chronic insomnia symptoms and salivary cortisol: A 10-year follow-up in the Whitehall II study.

    PubMed

    Abell, Jessica G; Shipley, Martin J; Ferrie, Jane E; Kivimäki, Mika; Kumari, Meena

    2016-06-01

    Although an association between both sleep duration and disturbance with salivary cortisol has been suggested, little is known about the long term effects of poor quality sleep on diurnal cortisol rhythm. The aim of this study was to examine the association of poor quality sleep, categorised as recurrent short sleep duration and chronic insomnia symptoms, with the diurnal release of cortisol. We examined this in 3314 participants from an occupational cohort, originally recruited in 1985-1989. Salivary cortisol was measured in 2007-2009 and six saliva samples were collected: (1) waking, (2) waking+0.5h, (3) +2.5h, (4) +8h, (5) +12h and (6) bedtime, for assessment of the cortisol awakening response and the diurnal slope in cortisol secretion. Participants with the first saliva sample collected within 15min of waking and not on steroid medication were examined. Short sleep duration (≤5h) and insomnia symptoms (Jenkins scale, highest quartile) were measured in 1997-1999, 2003-2004 and 2007-2009. Recurrent short sleep was associated with a flatter diurnal cortisol pattern. A steeper morning rise in cortisol was observed among those reporting chronic insomnia symptoms at three time points and among those reporting short sleep twice, compared to those who never reported sleep problems. Participants reporting short sleep on three occasions had higher levels of cortisol later in the day, compared to those never reporting short sleep, indicated by a positive interaction with hours since waking (β=0.02 (95% CI: 0.01, 0.03)). We conclude that recurrent sleep problems are associated with adverse salivary cortisol patterns throughout the day. PMID:26963375

  10. Recurrent short sleep, chronic insomnia symptoms and salivary cortisol: A 10-year follow-up in the Whitehall II study

    PubMed Central

    Abell, Jessica G.; Shipley, Martin J.; Ferrie, Jane E.; Kivimäki, Mika; Kumari, Meena

    2016-01-01

    Although an association between both sleep duration and disturbance with salivary cortisol has been suggested, little is known about the long term effects of poor quality sleep on diurnal cortisol rhythm. The aim of this study was to examine the association of poor quality sleep, categorised as recurrent short sleep duration and chronic insomnia symptoms, with the diurnal release of cortisol. We examined this in 3314 participants from an occupational cohort, originally recruited in 1985–1989. Salivary cortisol was measured in 2007–2009 and six saliva samples were collected: (1) waking, (2) waking + 0.5 h, (3) +2.5 h, (4) +8 h, (5) +12 h and (6) bedtime, for assessment of the cortisol awakening response and the diurnal slope in cortisol secretion. Participants with the first saliva sample collected within 15 min of waking and not on steroid medication were examined. Short sleep duration (≤5 h) and insomnia symptoms (Jenkins scale, highest quartile) were measured in 1997–1999, 2003–2004 and 2007–2009. Recurrent short sleep was associated with a flatter diurnal cortisol pattern. A steeper morning rise in cortisol was observed among those reporting chronic insomnia symptoms at three time points and among those reporting short sleep twice, compared to those who never reported sleep problems. Participants reporting short sleep on three occasions had higher levels of cortisol later in the day, compared to those never reporting short sleep, indicated by a positive interaction with hours since waking (β = 0.02 (95% CI: 0.01, 0.03)). We conclude that recurrent sleep problems are associated with adverse salivary cortisol patterns throughout the day. PMID:26963375

  11. Adult cognitive ability and socioeconomic status as mediators of the effects of childhood disadvantage on salivary cortisol in aging adults

    PubMed Central

    Franz, Carol E.; Spoon, Kelly; Thompson, Wesley; Hauger, Richard L.; Hellhammer, Dirk H.; Jacobson, Kristen C.; Lupien, Sonia; Lyons, Michael J.; McCaffery, Jeanne; McKenzie, Ruth; Mendoza, Sally P.; Panizzon, Matthew S.; Ramundo, Ana; Shahroudi, Afrand; Kremen, William S.

    2015-01-01

    Summary In this longitudinal study we investigate the influence of childhood disadvantage on midlife hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis regulation. Two mechanisms by which early life stress may affect later pathophysiology are through its influence on cognitive functioning or later socioeconomic (SES) disadvantage. We predicted that individual differences in young adult cognitive ability and midlife SES would mediate the influence of childhood disadvantage on midlife cortisol. On each of three nonconsecutive days, participants provided five salivary cortisol samples corresponding to their diurnal rhythm (N = 727 men; mean age 55, SD = 2.6). We calculated three measures of cortisol regulation (area-under-the curve cortisol reflecting total daytime cortisol output; cortisol-awakening-response; and wake-to-bed slope), averaging scores for each measure across multiple days. Childhood disadvantage combined four dichotomous indicators used previously by Rutter (1985): father low SES; mother education less than 12th grade; major family disruption/separation before age 18; and large family size (more than 5 siblings). The two mediators were a measure of general cognitive ability assessed at age 20 and highest achieved midlife SES. Men from more disadvantaged childhoods were significantly more likely to have dysregulated cortisol at midlife, with higher daytime cortisol levels decades after their childhood experience. Effects of childhood disadvantage were both direct and indirect. Cognitive ability and adult SES, however, only partially mediated the associations between early life stress and midlife cortisol. Specific indirect effects accounted for 33.8% of the total effect of childhood disadvantage [β = 0.12 (0.05; 0.18)] on total daytime cortisol. Associations remained significant after accounting for ethnicity, smoking status, and self-reported depressive symptoms. PMID:23684478

  12. Yawning, fatigue, and cortisol: expanding the Thompson Cortisol Hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Simon B N

    2014-10-01

    Yawning and its involvement in neurological disorders has become the new scientific conundrum. Cortisol levels are known to rise during stress and fatigue; yawning may occur when we are under stress or tired. However, the link between yawning, fatigue, and cortisol has not been fully understood. Expansion of the Thompson Cortisol Hypothesis proposes that the stress hormone, cortisol, is responsible for yawning and fatigue especially in people with incomplete innervation such as multiple sclerosis. This informs our understanding of the functional importance of the brain stem region of the brain in regulating stress and fatigue. PMID:25169036

  13. Extended work availability and its relation with start-of-day mood and cortisol.

    PubMed

    Dettmers, Jan; Vahle-Hinz, Tim; Bamberg, Eva; Friedrich, Niklas; Keller, Monika

    2016-01-01

    The opportunity to work at any time and place, which is facilitated by mobile communication technologies, reinforces employer expectations that employees are available for work beyond regular work hours. This study investigates the relation of daily extended work availability with psychological and physiological well-being and the mediating role of recovery experiences. We hypothesized that recovery is limited under conditions of extended work availability, which may impair well-being. A sample of 132 individuals from 13 organizations provided daily survey measures over a period of 4 days during which they were required to be available during nonworking hours and 4 days during which they were not required to be available. A subsample of 51 persons provided morning cortisol levels in addition to the survey data. The analysis of within-person processes using multilevel structural equation modeling revealed significant effects of extended work availability on the daily start-of-day mood and cortisol awakening response. Mediation analysis revealed that the recovery experience of control over off-job activities mediated the observed relationship with start-of-day mood but not the relationship with the cortisol awakening response. The results demonstrate that nonwork hours during which employees are required to remain available for work cannot be considered leisure time because employees' control over their activities is constrained and their recovery from work is restricted. PMID:26236956

  14. The Association between Hair Cortisol and Self-Reported Symptoms of Depression in Pregnant Women.

    PubMed

    Wikenius, Ellen; Moe, Vibeke; Kjellevold, Marian; Smith, Lars; Lyle, Robert; Waagbø, Rune; Page, Christian Magnus; Myhre, Anne Margrethe

    2016-01-01

    Depression has been linked to an imbalance in cortisol. Until recently, cortisol has been studied by measuring concentrations at single time points in blood or saliva samples. Cortisol concentrations vary with circadian rhythm and experiences, from time point to time point. The measurement of hair cortisol concentration (HCC) is a new method of accessing mean, long-term cortisol concentrations. Recent studies show positive associations between depression and HCC, and prenatal maternal cortisol is thought to influence the developing fetus. We therefore examined the association between HCC and self-reported symptoms of depression in second trimester pregnant women. Participants were 181 women, recruited between September 2011 and October 2013 to the Little-in-Norway (LiN)-study. These women answered the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Rating Scale (EPDS) on self-reported symptoms of depression, and one cm maternal scalp hair was collected and analyzed for cortisol concentrations. Multiple regression analyses did not show depressive symptoms as a predictor for HCC in our selection of pregnant women, while gestational age was significantly related. In conclusion, our study indicated that symptoms of depression during pregnancy did not predict HCC, but further studies of clinically depressed, pregnant women using gestational age as an adjustment variable are warranted. PMID:27584584

  15. A Review of Rhythm and Responsiveness of Cortisol in Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Julie Lounds; Corbett, Blythe A.

    2014-01-01

    Examination of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis via cortisol among individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) has been a growing area of research interest. The following review includes investigations of cortisol conducted with cohorts of individuals with ASD across the lifespan over the past four decades. In general, studies find dysregulation when examining the diurnal rhythm as a whole in lower functioning children with ASD; however, limited evidence exists for alterations in higher functioning individuals and in specific aspects of the diurnal cycle (cortisol awakening response, daily decline, variability) relative to typically developing individuals. Studies examining the responsiveness of cortisol in ASD suggest an overall sluggishness of the HPA axis in responding to physiological or physical manipulation. Hypo-responsiveness was observed in stressors that involve social evaluative threat, however, hyper-responsiveness of the HPA axis was observed in situations involving unpleasant stimuli or relatively benign social situations. A number of important considerations when conducting studies of cortisol in ASD cohorts are discussed. PMID:25108163

  16. Facebook behaviors associated with diurnal cortisol in adolescents: Is befriending stressful?

    PubMed

    Morin-Major, Julie Katia; Marin, Marie-France; Durand, Nadia; Wan, Nathalie; Juster, Robert-Paul; Lupien, Sonia J

    2016-01-01

    Facebook(©) is changing the way people interact and socialize. Despite great interest in psychology and sociology, little is known about Facebook behaviors in relation to physiological markers of stress. Given that the brain undergoes important development during adolescence and that glucocorticoids--a major class of stress hormones-are known to modulate its development, it is important to study psychosocial factors that may influence secretion of stress hormones during adolescence. The goal of the present study was to explore the associations between Facebook behaviors (use frequency, network size, self-presentation and peer-interaction) and basal levels of cortisol among adolescent boys and girls. Eighty-eight adolescents (41 boys, 47 girls) aged between 12 and 17 (14.5 ± 1.8) were recruited. Participants provided four cortisol samples per day for two non-consecutive weekdays. Facebook behaviors were assessed in accordance with the existing literature. Well-validated measures of perceived stress, perceived social support, self-esteem, and depressive symptoms were also included. A hierarchical regression showed that after controlling for sex, age, time of awakening, perceived stress, and perceived social support, cortisol systemic output (area under the curve with respect to ground) was positively associated with the number of Facebook friends and negatively associated with Facebook peer-interaction. No associations were found among depressive symptoms, self-esteem, and cortisol. These results provide preliminary evidence that Facebook behaviors are associated with diurnal cortisol concentrations in adolescents. PMID:26519778

  17. Salivary testosterone and cortisol are jointly related to pro-environmental behavior in men.

    PubMed

    Sollberger, Silja; Bernauer, Thomas; Ehlert, Ulrike

    2016-10-01

    Recently, cortisol has been suggested to moderate the positive relationship between testosterone and antisocial behavior. More precisely, high testosterone levels have been found to be related to aggressive or dominant behavior especially when cortisol levels were low. In the present study, we aimed to extend these findings to pro-environmental behavior as an indicator of prosocial behavior. In a first step, 147 male participants provided information on their everyday pro-environmental behavior by completing an online questionnaire on various energy-saving behaviors. In a second step, subjects provided two saliva samples for the assessment of testosterone and cortisol on two subsequent mornings after awakening. We found that testosterone was negatively related to pro-environmental behavior, but only in men with low cortisol. In conclusion, our findings provide first evidence for the joint association of testosterone and cortisol with everyday pro-environmental behavior. These results further reinforce the importance of considering interdependent hormone systems simultaneously rather than focusing on a single hormone. PMID:26566048

  18. Pregnant women's cortisol is elevated with anxiety and depression - but only when comorbid.

    PubMed

    Evans, Lynn M; Myers, Michael M; Monk, Catherine

    2008-07-01

    Elevated cortisol during pregnancy is associated with adverse birth outcomes and may alter fetal development and subsequent adult health. Numerous studies link elevated cortisol to depression and anxiety, but only a few have examined these relationships during pregnancy and in response to laboratory stressors. No studies have investigated the impact of comorbid anxiety and depression on cortisol during pregnancy. Salivary cortisol samples were collected twice before and once after a set of computer-based tasks (Stroop color-word matching task and either mental arithmetic or a controlled breathing task) from 180 pregnant women at approximately 36 weeks gestation. Based on psychiatric diagnoses, four groups of women were compared: 121 control, 16 depression, 34 anxiety, and 9 comorbid. Women also completed symptom and stress self-report scales. There was a significant main effect for maternal diagnosis on cortisol levels. Post hoc comparisons showed that comorbid subjects had higher salivary cortisol levels than controls, but subjects with only one diagnosis did not. Similar to cortisol, the comorbid subjects also had higher ratings on pregnancy-specific distress. Comorbidity during pregnancy, versus depression or an anxiety disorder alone, is uniquely associated with elevated cortisol and a negative evaluation of pregnancy. The potential impact of this combined psychiatric diagnosis on fetal development and future adult health needs further investigation. PMID:18493710

  19. High Cardiorespiratory Fitness Is Negatively Associated with Daily Cortisol Output in Healthy Aging Men

    PubMed Central

    Lucertini, Francesco; Ponzio, Elisa; Di Palma, Michael; Galati, Claudia; Federici, Ario; Barbadoro, Pamela; D’Errico, Marcello M.; Prospero, Emilia; Ambrogini, Patrizia; Cuppini, Riccardo; Lattanzi, Davide; Minelli, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Physical fitness has salutary psychological and physical effects in older adults by promoting neuroplasticity and adaptation to stress. In aging, however, the effects of fitness on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis are mixed. We investigated the association between cardiorespiratory fitness and HPA activity in healthy elderly men (n = 22, mean age 68 y; smokers, obese subjects, those taking drugs or reporting recent stressful events were excluded), by measuring in saliva: i) daily pattern of cortisol secretion (6 samples: 30’ post-awakening, and at 12.00, 15.00, 18.00, 21.00, 24.00 h); and ii) the cortisol response to a mental challenge. Cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max) was estimated using the Rockport Walking Test and the participants were assigned to high-fit (HF, ≥60°, n = 10) and low-fit (LF, ≤35°, n = 12) groups according to age-specific percentiles of VO2max distribution in the general population. At all daytimes, basal cortisol levels were lower in the HF than the LF group, most notably in the evening and midnight samples, with a significant main effect of physical fitness for cortisol levels overall; the area-under-the-curve for total daily cortisol output was significantly smaller in the HF group. Among the subjects who responded to mental stress (baseline-to-peak increment >1.5 nmol/L; n = 13, 5 LF, 8 HF), the amplitude of cortisol response and the steepness of recovery decline displayed an increasing trend in the HF subjects, although between-group differences failed to reach the threshold for significance. In conclusion, cardiorespiratory fitness in healthy aging men is negatively correlated with daily cortisol output and contributes to buffering the HPA dysregulation that occurs with advancing age, thus possibly playing a beneficial role in contrasting age-related cognitive and physical decline. PMID:26529517

  20. Trajectories of diurnal cortisol in mothers of children with autism and other developmental disabilities: Relations to health and mental health

    PubMed Central

    Dykens, Elisabeth M.; Lambert, Warren

    2014-01-01

    This study used a stress biomarker, diurnal cortisol, to identify how elevated stress in mothers of children and adults with autism and other disabilities relates to their health and mental health. Based on semi-parametric, group-based trajectory analysis of 91 mothers, two distinctive cortisol trajectories emerged: blunted (63%) or steep (37%). Mothers in the blunted (versus steep) trajectory had higher stress levels, lower health ratings, and 89% of mothers of children with autism, and 53% with other disabilities, belonged to this trajectory. Atypical cortisol awakening responses and evening rises were differentially associated with anxiety, depression, health problems and employment status. Stress-reducing interventions are needed for parents of children with autism and other disabilities that include biomarkers as indices of risk or treatment outcome. PMID:23468069

  1. Parotid fluid cortisol and cortisone

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Fred H.; Shannon, Ira L.

    1969-01-01

    Parotid fluid corticosteroids, substantially comprised of cortisol and cortisone, were previously demonstrated to rise to far greater levels 4 hr after administration of ACTH than they did in the third trimester of pregnancy, although the plasma total corticosteroid concentrations were similar in these two states. It was therefore suggested that only nonproteinbound corticosteroid gains access to parotid fluid. In the present study parotid fluid cortisol and cortisone and plasma dialyzable cortisol concentrations have been measured in normal men before and 2 hr after 40 U ACTH, and, in another group, before and after 10 days of diethystilbestrol (5 mg daily). Total plasma cortisol rose from a mean of 6.3 to 17.9 μg/100 ml after ACTH and from 14.6 to 39.4 mg/100 ml after the estrogen. However parotid fluid cortisol plus cortisone rose from 0.8 to 2.6 μg/100 ml after ACTH and to only 2.2 after estrogen. This rise resembled that of the plasma dialyzable cortisol (control 0.4, ACTH 1.8, estrogen 1.2 μg/100 ml) rather than the increase in total plasma cortisol which was over twice as high after estrogen as after ACTH. Thus parotid fluid corticosteroids seem to be a good measure of nonprotein-bound corticosteroid, the cortisol available to the cell. The total amount of cortisol plus cortisone excreted is approximately constant, independent of parotid fluid flow rate. Cortisone exceeds cortisol in parotid fluid in the basal state, but after ACTH the situation is reversed. PMID:4305375

  2. POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER, SMOKING, AND CORTISOL IN A COMMUNITY SAMPLE OF PREGNANT WOMEN

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, William D; Seng, Julia S

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the United States is higher among pregnant women than women generally. PTSD is related to adverse birth outcomes via physiological and behavioral alterations, such as smoking. We utilize salivary cortisol measures to examine how traumatic stress, smoking and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis interact. Pregnant women (n =395) gave cortisol specimens as part of a cohort study of PTSD and pregnancy at three health systems in the Midwestern United States. Women were divided into three groups: nonsmokers, quitters (who stopped smoking during pregnancy), and pregnancy smokers. Mean cortisol values at three points, sociodemographics, trauma history, and PTSD were compared across groups. We assessed the association of smoking group and PTSD with late afternoon cortisol levels. Smokers, quitters, and nonsmokers differed on demographic risk factors and PTSD symptom load. Late afternoon and bedtime cortisol measures were significantly positively correlated with smoking in pregnancy, with smokers with PTSD presenting the highest cortisol levels. Regression analysis showed that smoking in pregnancy was associated with higher late afternoon cortisol in an additive manner with PTSD symptoms. Smoking appears to have a different relationship with cortisol level for those with and without PTSD. This is the first study to show additive effects of smoking and PTSD on cortisol levels in pregnant women. Since high cortisol, smoking, and PTSD have been shown to adversely affect perinatal outcomes, and since those continuing to smoke in pregnancy had the highest PTSD symptom load, PTSD-specific smoking cessation programs in maternity settings are warranted. PMID:24926909

  3. Psychobiological influences on maternal sensitivity in the context of adversity.

    PubMed

    Finegood, Eric D; Blair, Clancy; Granger, Douglas A; Hibel, Leah C; Mills-Koonce, Roger

    2016-07-01

    This study evaluated prospective longitudinal relations among an index of poverty-related cumulative risk, maternal salivary cortisol, child negative affect, and maternal sensitivity across the first 2 postpartum years. Participants included 1,180 biological mothers residing in rural and predominantly low-income communities in the United States. Multilevel growth curve analyses indicated that an index of cumulative risk was positively associated with maternal cortisol across the postpartum (study visits occurring at approximately 7, 15, and 24 months postpartum) over and above effects for African American ethnicity, time of day of saliva collection, age, parity status, having given birth to another child, contraceptive use, tobacco smoking, body mass index, and breastfeeding. Consistent with a psychobiological theory of mothering, maternal salivary cortisol was negatively associated with maternal sensitivity observed during parent-child interactions across the first 2 postpartum years over and above effects for poverty-related cumulative risk, child negative affect, as well as a large number of covariates associated with cortisol and maternal sensitivity. Child negative affect expressed during parent-child interactions was negatively associated with observed maternal sensitivity at late (24 months) but not early time points of observation (7 months) and cumulative risk was negatively associated with maternal sensitivity across the postpartum and this effect strengthened over time. Results advance our understanding of the dynamic, transactional, and psychobiological influences on parental caregiving behaviors across the first 2 postpartum years. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27337514

  4. Psychobiological Influences on Maternal Sensitivity in the Context of Adversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finegood, Eric D.; Blair, Clancy; Granger, Douglas A.; Hibel, Leah C.; Mills-Koonce, Roger

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated prospective longitudinal relations among an index of poverty-related cumulative risk, maternal salivary cortisol, child negative affect, and maternal sensitivity across the first 2 postpartum years. Participants included 1,180 biological mothers residing in rural and predominantly low-income communities in the United States.…

  5. Grumblings from an Awakening Black Hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-11-01

    In June of this year, after nearly three decades of sleep, the black hole V404 Cygni woke up and began grumbling. Scientists across the globe scrambled to observe the sudden flaring activity coming from this previously peaceful black hole. And now were getting the first descriptions of what weve learned from V404 Cygs awakening!Sudden OutburstV404 Cyg is a black hole of roughly nine solar masses, and its in a binary system with a low-mass star. The black hole pulls a stream of gas from the star, which then spirals in around the black hole, forming an accretion disk. Sometimes the material simply accumulates in the disk but every two or three decades, the build-up of gas suddenly rushes toward the black hole as if a dam were bursting.The sudden accretion in these events causes outbursts of activity from the black hole, its flaring easily visible to us. The last time V404 Cyg exhibited such activity was in 1989, and its been rather quiet since then. Our telescopes are of course much more powerful and sensitive now, nearly three decades later so when the black hole woke up and began flaring in June, scientists were delighted at the chance to observe it.The high variability of V404 Cyg is evident in this example set of spectra, where time increases from the bottom panel to the top. [King et al. 2015]Led by Ashley King (Einstein Fellow at Stanford University), a team of scientists observed V404 Cyg with the Chandra X-ray Observatory, obtaining spectra of the black hole during its outbursts. The black hole flared so brightly during its activity that the team had to take precautions to protect the CCDs in their detector from radiation damage! Now the group has released the first results from their analysis.Windy DiskThe primary surprise from V404 Cyg is its winds. Many stellar-mass black holes have outflows of mass, either in the form of directed jets emitted from their centers, or in the form of high-energy winds isotropically emitted from their accretion disks. But V404

  6. Childhood Adversity, Self-Esteem, and Diurnal Cortisol Profiles Across the Life Span.

    PubMed

    Zilioli, Samuele; Slatcher, Richard B; Chi, Peilian; Li, Xiaoming; Zhao, Junfeng; Zhao, Guoxiang

    2016-09-01

    Childhood adversity is associated with poor health outcomes in adulthood; the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has been proposed as a crucial biological intermediary of these long-term effects. Here, we tested whether childhood adversity was associated with diurnal cortisol parameters and whether this link was partially explained by self-esteem. In both adults and youths, childhood adversity was associated with lower levels of cortisol at awakening, and this association was partially driven by low self-esteem. Further, we found a significant indirect pathway through which greater adversity during childhood was linked to a flatter cortisol slope via self-esteem. Finally, youths who had a caregiver with high self-esteem experienced a steeper decline in cortisol throughout the day compared with youths whose caregiver reported low self-esteem. We conclude that self-esteem is a plausible psychological mechanism through which childhood adversity may get embedded in the activity of the HPA axis across the life span. PMID:27481911

  7. Predicting First Onset of Depression in Young Girls: Interaction of Diurnal Cortisol and Negative Life Events

    PubMed Central

    LeMoult, Joelle; Ordaz, Sarah J.; Kircanski, Katharina; Singh, Manpreet K.; Gotlib, Ian H.

    2015-01-01

    Interactions between biological vulnerability and environmental adversity are central to the pathophysiology of depression. Given evidence that the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis influences biological responses to environmental events, in the current longitudinal study we examined HPA-axis functioning, negative life events, and their interaction as predictors of the first onset of depression. At baseline, girls ages 9 to 14 years provided saliva samples to assess levels of diurnal cortisol production, quantified by total cortisol production (area under the curve with respect to ground; AUCg) and the cortisol awakening response (CAR). We then followed these participants until they reached age 18 in order to assess their subsequent experience of negative life events and the onset of a depressive episode. We found that the influence of negative life events on the subsequent onset of depression depended on HPA-axis functioning at baseline. Specifically, negative life events predicted the onset of depression in girls with higher levels AUCg, but not in girls with lower levels of AUCg. In contrast, CAR did not predict the onset of depression either alone or in interaction with negative life events. These findings suggest that elevated total cortisol production in daily life potentiates susceptibility to environmental adversity and signals the need for early intervention. PMID:26595472

  8. Stress, Cortisol, and B-Lymphocytes: A Novel Approach to Understanding Academic Stress and Immune Function

    PubMed Central

    McGregor, Bonnie A; Murphy, Karly Mary; Albano, Denise L; Ceballos, Rachel M

    2016-01-01

    Animal and human in vitro models suggest that stress-related B lymphocyte decrements are due to high levels of glucocorticoids which cause apoptosis of pre-B-cells as they emerge from the bone marrow. The present study sought to explore the relationships among distress, salivary cortisol and human B lymphocytes in vivo. Distress (perceived stress, negative affect, depressive symptoms), lymphocyte phenotype, and salivary cortisol were assessed among first year graduate students (n=22) and a community control sample (n= 30) at the start of classes in the fall and the week immediately before spring preliminary exams. Compared to controls, students reported greater distress on all measures at each time point except baseline perceived stress. Hierarchical linear regression with necessary control variables was used to assess the effect of student status on the three measures of distress, the four measures of lymphocyte phenotype, and cortisol AUC and CAR over time (T1-T2). Student status was associated with a significant decrease in CD19+ B lymphocytes and flattened cortisol awakening response (CAR). Change in CAR was associated with the decrease in CD19+ B lymphocytes. Results indicated that there are significant associations among student status, flattening of CAR, and decrements in CD19+ lymphocytes. PMID:26644211

  9. Predicting first onset of depression in young girls: Interaction of diurnal cortisol and negative life events.

    PubMed

    LeMoult, Joelle; Ordaz, Sarah J; Kircanski, Katharina; Singh, Manpreet K; Gotlib, Ian H

    2015-11-01

    Interactions between biological vulnerability and environmental adversity are central to the pathophysiology of depression. Given evidence that the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis influences biological responses to environmental events, in the current longitudinal study the authors examined HPA-axis functioning, negative life events, and their interaction as predictors of the first onset of depression. At baseline, girls ages 9 to 14 years provided saliva samples to assess levels of diurnal cortisol production, quantified by total cortisol production (area under the curve with respect to ground; AUCg) and the cortisol awakening response (CAR). The authors then followed these participants until they reached age 18 in order to assess their subsequent experience of negative life events and the onset of a depressive episode. They found that the influence of negative life events on the subsequent onset of depression depended on HPA-axis functioning at baseline. Specifically, negative life events predicted the onset of depression in girls with higher levels of AUCg, but not in girls with lower levels of AUCg. In contrast, CAR did not predict the onset of depression either alone or in interaction with negative life events. These findings suggest that elevated total cortisol production in daily life potentiates susceptibility to environmental adversity and signals the need for early intervention. PMID:26595472

  10. Combined influences of genes, prenatal environment, cortisol, and parenting on the development of children’s internalizing vs. externalizing problems

    PubMed Central

    Marceau, Kristine; Laurent, Heidemarie K.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Reiss, David; Shaw, Daniel S.; Natsuaki, Misaki; Fisher, Philip A.; Leve, Leslie D.

    2014-01-01

    Research suggests that genetic, prenatal, endocrine, and parenting influences across development individually contribute to internalizing and externalizing problems in children. The present study tests the combined contributions of genetic risk for psychopathology, prenatal environments (maternal drug use and internalizing symptoms), child cortisol at age 4.5 years, and overreactive parenting influences across childhood on 6-year-old children’s internalizing and externalizing problems. We used data from an adoption design that included 361 domestically adopted children and their biological and adopted parents prospectively followed from birth. Only parenting influences contributed (independently) to externalizing problems. However, genetic influences were indirectly associated with internalizing problems (through increased prenatal risk and subsequent morning cortisol), and parenting factors were both directly and indirectly associated with internalizing problems (through morning cortisol). Results suggest that prenatal maternal drug use/symptoms and children’s morning cortisol levels are mechanisms of genetic and environmental influences on internalizing problems, but not externalizing problems, in childhood. PMID:25355319

  11. Combined Influences of Genes, Prenatal Environment, Cortisol, and Parenting on the Development of Children's Internalizing Versus Externalizing Problems.

    PubMed

    Marceau, Kristine; Laurent, Heidemarie K; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Reiss, David; Shaw, Daniel S; Natsuaki, Misaki N; Fisher, Philip A; Leve, Leslie D

    2015-05-01

    Research suggests that genetic, prenatal, endocrine, and parenting influences across development individually contribute to internalizing and externalizing problems in children. The present study tests the combined contributions of genetic risk for psychopathology, prenatal environments (maternal drug use and internalizing symptoms), child cortisol at age 4.5 years, and overreactive parenting influences across childhood on 6-year-old children's internalizing and externalizing problems. We used data from an adoption design that included 361 domestically adopted children and their biological and adopted parents prospectively followed from birth. Only parenting influences contributed (independently) to externalizing problems. However, genetic influences were indirectly associated with internalizing problems (through increased prenatal risk and subsequent morning cortisol), and parenting factors were both directly and indirectly associated with internalizing problems (through morning cortisol). Results suggest that prenatal maternal drug use/symptoms and children's morning cortisol levels are mechanisms of genetic and environmental influences on internalizing problems, but not externalizing problems, in childhood. PMID:25355319

  12. Periodic Breathing and Behavioral Awakenings at High Altitude

    PubMed Central

    Shogilev, Daniel J.; Tanner, John B.; Chang, Yuchiao; Harris, N. Stuart

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To study the relationship between nocturnal periodic breathing episodes and behavioral awakenings at high altitude. Methods. Observational study. It is 6-day ascent of 4 healthy subjects from Besisahar (760 meters) to Manang (3540 meters) in Nepal in March 2012. A recording pulse oximeter was worn by each subject to measure their oxygen saturation and the presence of periodic breathing continuously through the night. An actigraph was simultaneously worn in order to determine nocturnal behavioral awakenings. There were no interventions. Results. 187-hour sleep at high altitude was analyzed, and of this, 145 hours (78%) had at least one PB event. At high altitude, 10.5% (95% CI 6.5–14.6%) of total sleep time was spent in PB while 15 out of 50 awakenings (30%, 95% CI: 18–45%) occurring at high altitudes were associated with PB (P < 0.001). Conclusions. Our data reveals a higher than expected number of behavioral awakenings associated with PB compared to what would be expected by chance. This suggests that PB likely plays a role in behavioral awakenings at high altitude. PMID:26483979

  13. Longitudinal examination of infant baseline and reactivity cortisol from ages 7 to 16 months.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Torteya, Cecilia; Muzik, Maria; McGinnis, Ellen W; Rosenblum, Katherine L; Bocknek, Erika L; Beeghly, Marjorie; DeCator, Draycen; Abelson, James L

    2015-04-01

    This study characterized the longitudinal evolution of HPA axis functioning from 7 to 16 months of age and identified individual and environmental factors that shape changes in HPA axis functioning over time. Participants were 167 mother-infant dyads drawn from a larger longitudinal study, recruited based on maternal history of being maltreated during childhood. Salivary cortisol levels were assessed before and after age-appropriate psychosocial stressors when infants were 7 and 16 months old. Maternal observed parenting and maternal reports of infant and environmental characteristics were obtained at 7 months and evaluated as predictors of changes in infant baseline cortisol and reactivity from 7 to 16 months. Results revealed that infants did not show a cortisol response at 7 months, but reactivity to psychosocial stress emerged by 16 months. Individual differences in cortisol baseline and reactivity levels over time were related to infant sex and maternal overcontrolling behaviors, underscoring the malleable and socially informed nature of early HPA axis functioning. Findings can inform prevention and intervention efforts to promote healthy stress regulation during infancy. PMID:25783617

  14. Longitudinal measurement of cortisol in association with mental health and experience of domestic violence and abuse: study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Domestic violence and abuse is threatening behavior, violence/abuse used by one person to control the other within an intimate or family-type relationship. Women experience more severe physical and sexual domestic violence and abuse and more mental health consequences than men. The current study aims at exploring of the role of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis activity in abuse impact on women's mental health. Study objectives: 1) To evaluate diurnal cortisol slope, cortisol awakening response, and the mean cortisol concentration in women with a current or recent experience of abuse; 2) To estimate whether cortisol secretion is associated with type, severity, duration and cessation of abuse; 3) To investigate whether cortisol acts as mediator between abuse and mental health condition; 4) To examine whether there is any distinction in cortisol levels between those women exposed to both childhood abuse and domestic violence and abuse and those experienced only the latter. 4) To explore whether cortisol secretion differs between women living in refuge and those still living in the community. Methods/Design To meet study objectives 128 women will be recruited in a domestic violence agency and local communities. Baseline and 3-month follow-up measures will be taken over 6 months after recruitment. Each assessment will include: (1) standardized self-administered questionnaires to evaluate socio-demographics, experience of violence and abuse, mental and physical health; (2) weight and height measurement; (3) self-completion of wakening, post-wakening and evening saliva samples. Saliva will be analysed for cortisol and cortisone using Ultra performance liquid chromatography – tandem mass spectrometry. We will compare diurnal cortisol parameters between non-abused controls and abuse survivors with and without mental health conditions. First following descriptive statistics for all the cortisol and mental health outcomes, relationships between them

  15. Neuroanatomical Predictors of Awakening in Acutely Comatose Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kowalski, Robert G.; Buitrago, Manuel M.; Duckworth, Josh; Chonka, Zachary D.; Puttgen, H. Adrian; Stevens, Robert D.; Geocadin, Romergryko G.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Lateral brain displacement has been associated with loss of consciousness and poor outcome in a range of acute neurologic disorders. We studied the association between lateral brain displacement and awakening from acute coma. Methods This prospective observational study included all new onset coma patients admitted to the Neurosciences Critical Care Unit (NCCU) over 12 consecutive months. Head computed tomography (CT) scans were analyzed independently at coma onset, after awakening, and at follow-up. Primary outcome measure was awakening, defined as the ability to follow commands before hospital discharge. Secondary outcome measures were discharge Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), modified Rankin Scale, Glasgow Outcome Scale, and hospital and NCCU lengths of stay. Results Of the 85 patients studied, the mean age was 58 ± 16 years, 51% were female, and 78% had cerebrovascular etiology of coma. Fifty-one percent of patients had midline shift on head CT at coma onset and 43 (51%) patients awakened. In a multivariate analysis, independent predictors of awakening were younger age (odds ratio [OR] = 1.039, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.002–1.079, p = 0.040), higher GCS score at coma onset (OR = 1.455, 95% CI = 1.157–1.831, p = 0.001), nontraumatic coma etiology (OR = 4.464, 95% CI = 1.011–19.608, p = 0.048), lesser pineal shift on follow-up CT (OR = 1.316, 95% CI = 1.073–1.615, p = 0.009), and reduction or no increase in pineal shift on follow-up CT (OR = 11.628, 95% CI = 2.207–62.500, p = 0.004). Interpretation Reversal and/or limitation of lateral brain displacement are associated with acute awakening in comatose patients. These findings suggest objective parameters to guide prognosis and treatment in patients with acute onset of coma. PMID:25628166

  16. The effect of self-awakening from nocturnal sleep on sleep inertia.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Hiroki; Hayashi, Mitsuo

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the effects of self-awakening on sleep inertia after nocturnal sleep. Ten undergraduate and graduate students participated in the study. Their polysomnograms were recorded for five consecutive nights; the first, second, and third to fifth nights were adaptation, forced-awakening, and self-awakening nights, respectively. Participants rated sleepiness, fatigue, comfort, and work motivation, and these ratings were followed by switching (7 min) and auditory reaction time tasks (6 min), both before bedtime (15 min) and immediately after awakening (4 min x 15 min). Although reaction times on the auditory were task prolonged, and participants complained of feeling uncomfortable immediately after forced-awakening, reaction times were shortened after self-awakening, and the participants did not complain of feeling uncomfortable on these nights. The results of this study suggest that sleep inertia occurs after forced-awakening and that it can be prevented by self-awakening. PMID:19800388

  17. Do social disadvantage and early family adversity affect the diurnal cortisol rhythm in infants? The Generation R Study.

    PubMed

    Saridjan, Nathalie S; Huizink, Anja C; Koetsier, Jitske A; Jaddoe, Vincent W; Mackenbach, Johan P; Hofman, Albert; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Verhulst, Frank C; Tiemeier, Henning

    2010-02-01

    Dysregulation of diurnal cortisol secretion patterns may explain the link between adversities early in life and later mental health problems. However, few studies have investigated the influence of social disadvantage and family adversity on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis early in life. In 366 infants aged 12-20 months from the Generation R Study, a population-based cohort from fetal life onwards, parents collected saliva samples from their infant at 5 moments over the course of 1 day. The area under the curve (AUC), the cortisol awakening response (CAR) and the diurnal cortisol slope were calculated as different composite measures of the diurnal cortisol rhythm. Information about social disadvantage and early adversity was collected using prenatal and postnatal questionnaires. We found that older infants showed lower AUC levels; moreover, infants with a positive CAR were significantly older. Both the AUC and the CAR were related to indicators of social disadvantage and early adversity. Infants of low income families, in comparison to high income families, showed higher AUC levels and a positive CAR. Infants of mothers who smoked during pregnancy were also significantly more likely to show a positive CAR. Furthermore, infants of mothers experiencing parenting stress showed higher AUC levels. The results of our study show that effects of social disadvantage and early adversity on the diurnal cortisol rhythm are already observable in infants. This may reflect the influence of early negative life events on early maturation of the HPA axis. PMID:20006614

  18. Normal cortisol response to cold pressor test, but lower free thyroxine, after recovery from undernutrition.

    PubMed

    Martins, Vinicius J B; Neves, Andrea P O; Garcia, Márcia C; Spadari, Regina C; Clemente, Ana Paula G; de Albuquerque, Maria P; Hoffman, Daniel J; Sawaya, Ana L

    2016-01-14

    Undernutrition is a stressor with long-term consequences, and the effect of nutritional recovery on cortisol and thyroid hormone status is unknown. To investigate basal thyroid hormones and the cortisol response to a cold pressor test in children recovered from undernutrition, a cross-sectional study was undertaken on children (6-16 years) separated into four groups: control (n 41), stunted (n 31), underweight (n 27) and recovered (n 31). Salivary cortisol was collected over the course of 10 h: upon awakening, before and after an unpleasant and a pleasant stimulus. Cortisol upon awakening was highest in the stunted and lowest in the underweight groups: control=5·05 (95% CI 3·71, 6·89) nmol/l, stunted=6·62 (95% CI 3·97, 11·02) nmol/l, underweight=2·51 (95% CI 1·75, 3·63) nmol/l and recovered=3·46 (95% CI 2·46, 4·90) nmol/l (P=0·005). Girls had higher cortisol concentrations upon awakening compared with boys (P=0·021). The undernourished groups showed an elevated cortisol response both to the unpleasant stimulus and at the last measurement (16.00 hours) compared with that of the recovered group: AUC, control=2·07 (95% CI 1·69, 2·45) nmol/l×30 min, stunted=2·48 (95% CI 1·91, 3·06) nmol/l×30 min, underweight=2·52 (95% CI 2·07, 2·97) nmol/l×30 min, recovered=1·68 (95% CI 1·26, 2·11) nmol/l×30 min (P=0·042); and control=2·03 (95% CI 1·75, 2·39) nmol/l×30 min, stunted=2·51 (95% CI 1·97, 3·19) nmol/l×30 min, underweight=2·61 (95% CI 2·16, 3·16) nmol/l×30 min, recovered=1·70 (95% CI 1·42, 2·03) nmol/l×30 min (P=0·009). Lower free thyroxine (T4) was found in the recovered and stunted groups: control=1·28 (95% CI 1·18, 1·39) pmol/l, stunted=0·98 (95% CI 0·87, 1·10) pmol/l, underweight=1·10 (95% CI 1·01, 1·21) pmol/l and recovered=0·90 (95% CI 0·83, 0·99) pmol/l (P<0·001). Multivariate analysis showed a lower cortisol concentration along 10 h (06.00-16.00 hours) in the recovered compared with the other groups (P=0

  19. Self-awakening improves alertness in the morning and during the day after partial sleep deprivation.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Hiroki; Kubo, Tomohide; Kuriyama, Kenichi; Takahashi, Masaya

    2014-12-01

    The ability to awaken at a predetermined time without an alarm is known as self-awakening. Self-awakening improves morning alertness by eliminating sleep inertia; however, the effects of self-awakening on daytime alertness and alertness that has deteriorated as a result of sleep loss are unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of self-awakening on both morning and daytime alertness after partial sleep deprivation. Fifteen healthy males without the habit of self-awakening participated in a cross-over trial including forced awakening and self-awakening conditions. In each condition, participants' sleep was restricted to 5 h per night in their homes for 4 consecutive days. They completed a psychomotor vigilance task and subjective ratings of sleepiness immediately upon awakening each morning. On the fourth day, participants completed subjective ratings of sleepiness, a psychomotor vigilance task and sleep latency tests in the laboratory seven times at 1-h intervals during the day. The response speed on the psychomotor vigilance task, in the morning and during the day, was higher in the self-awakening than the forced awakening condition. Our results showed that self-awakening improved alertness (assessed by response speeds) by reducing sleep inertia and alleviated daytime sleepiness heightened by partial sleep deprivation. PMID:25130898

  20. Cortisol levels in former preterm children at school age are predicted by neonatal procedural pain-related stress

    PubMed Central

    Brummelte, Susanne; Chau, Cecil MY; Cepeda, Ivan L.; Degenhardt, Amanda; Weinberg, Joanne; Synnes, Anne R.; Grunau, Ruth E.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Early life stress can alter hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis function. Differences in cortisol levels have been found in preterm infants exposed to substantial procedural stress during neonatal intensive care, compared to infants born full-term, but only a few studies investigated whether altered programming of the HPA axis persists past toddler age. Further, there is a dearth of knowledge of what may contribute to these changes in cortisol. This prospective cohort study examined the cortisol profiles in response to the stress of cognitive assessment, as well as the diurnal rhythm of cortisol, in children (n=129) born at varying levels of prematurity (24–32 weeks gestation) and at full-term (38–41 weeks gestation), at age 7 years. Further, we investigated the relationships among cortisol levels and neonatal procedural pain-related stress (controlling for multiple medical confounders), concurrent maternal factors (parenting stress, depressive and anxiety symptoms) and children’s behavioral problems. For each aim we investigate acute cortisol response profiles to a cognitive challenge as well as diurnal cortisol patterns at home. We hypothesized that children born very preterm will differ in their pattern of cortisol secretion from children born full-term, possibly depended on concurrent child and maternal factors, and that exposure to neonatal pain-related stress would be associated with altered cortisol secretion in children born very preterm, possibly in a sex-dependent way. Saliva samples were collected from 7-year old children three times during a laboratory visit for assessment of cognitive and executive functions (pretest, mid-test, end - study day acute stress profile) and at four times over two consecutive non-school days at home (i.e. morning, mid-morning, afternoon and bedtime - diurnal rhythm profile). We found that cortisol profiles were similar in preterm and full-term children, albeit preterms had slightly higher cortisol at

  1. Salivary cortisol levels are elevated in the afternoon and at bedtime in children with prenatal alcohol exposure.

    PubMed

    Keiver, Kathy; Bertram, Chris P; Orr, Alison Pritchard; Clarren, Sterling

    2015-02-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure can cause dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which may underlie some of the behavioral and adaptive problems seen in individuals with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD). Infants prenatally exposed to alcohol show altered basal and post-stress cortisol levels, but it is unknown if this persists beyond 2 years of age. It is also unknown if cortisol levels can be normalized through intervention programs. In this study, we investigated the effects of a physical activity program for children with FASD to determine: 1) if HPA dysregulation persists in school-age children with FASD, and 2) the effect of our program on cortisol levels. Twenty six children (ages 6-14 years) with FASD participated in an 8 week motor skill development program. Salivary cortisol levels were measured in 24 children and compared at 4 time points: before, immediately after, 3 months, and 1 year after program completion. Cortisol levels were also compared to 32 control children to evaluate the long-term effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on HPA regulation. For each time point, saliva was collected on each of 2 days at 3 times in the diurnal cycle: awakening, after school, and just before bedtime. Cortisol levels were significantly higher in the afternoon and at bedtime in children with FASD with confirmed prenatal exposure to high levels of alcohol (alcohol exposure rank 4), compared with Control children or children with FASD with exposure to low or unknown levels of alcohol (alcohol exposure rank 3). The program did not significantly affect cortisol levels in children with FASD as a group. These results provide support for long-term effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on the HPA system in humans, which could increase vulnerability to mental health issues and diseases later in life. PMID:25583378

  2. Foetal programming and cortisol secretion in early childhood: A meta-analysis of different programming variables.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Jessica; Tarabulsy, George M; Bussières, Eve-Line

    2015-08-01

    It is widely recognized that different events may take place in the intrauterine environment that may influence later developmental outcome. Scholars have long postulated that maternal prenatal stress, alcohol or drug use, and cigarette smoking may impact foetal formation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which may later influence different aspects of early childhood socioemotional and cognitive development. However, results linking each of these factors with child cortisol secretion have been mixed. The current meta-analysis examined the relation between each of these programming variables and child cortisol secretion in studies conducted up to December 31st, 2012. Studies were included if they were conducted prior to child age 60 months, and if they reported an index of effect size linking either maternal prenatal stress, alcohol or drug use, or cigarette smoking with an index of child cortisol secretion. In total, 19 studies (N=2260) revealed an average effect size of d=.36 (p<.001). Moderator analyses revealed that greater effect sizes could be traced to maternal alcohol use, to the use of retrospective research methodology, where mothers are questioned after childbirth regarding programming variables, and to the use of baseline measures of cortisol secretion, as opposed to recovery measures. Discussion focuses on processes that link the environment to foetal development and how both are linked to later adaptation. PMID:26209745

  3. Stability and predictors of change in salivary cortisol measures over six years: MESA

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xu; Sánchez, Brisa N.; Golden, Sherita Hill; Shrager, Sandi; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Karlamangla, Arun S.; Seeman, Teresa E.; Roux, Ana V. Diez

    2014-01-01

    Summary A major challenge in characterizing features of the daily cortisol curve is variability in features over time. Few studies have examined the stability of daily features of the cortisol curve over long periods or the predictors of long term changes. Repeated salivary cortisol measures on 580 adults from the MESA Stress study were used to examine the stability of various features of the daily cortisol curve (wakeup value, the cortisol awakening response (CAR), the early and late decline slope and the area under the curve (AUC)), over short periods (several days) and long periods (approximately 6-years) and to investigate the association of demographic factors with the changes. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were used to estimate the short and long term stability. Piecewise linear mixed models were used to assess factors associated with changes in features over time. For most features, short term stability (ICCs: 0.17–0.74) was higher than long term stability (ICCs: 0.05–0.42), and long term stability was highest when several days were averaged for each time point. The decline over the day showed the highest long term stability: when several days for each wave were averaged the stability of the daily decline slope across 6 years was similar (or higher) than the stability across short periods. AUC had high stability over short periods (ICCs: 0.65–0.74) but much lower stability across long periods (ICC: 0.05). All features of daily cortisol curve investigated changed significantly over the approximately 6 year follow-up period. The wakeup cortisol became higher; the CAR became smaller; both the early and late decline became flatter; and the AUC became larger. Hispanics experienced significantly larger increases in the wakeup value; and African-Americans and Hispanics showed less flattening over time of the early decline slope than Non-Hispanic Whites. Our findings have implications for characterization of features in studies linking cortisol to

  4. Perceived Discrimination and Diurnal Cortisol: Examining Relations among Mexican American Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Zeiders, Katharine H.; Doane, Leah D.; Roosa, Mark W.

    2012-01-01

    Perceived discrimination remains a salient and significant environmental stressor for ethnic and racial minority youth. Although many studies have examined the impact of racial/ethnic discrimination on mental health symptomatology and physical health, little is known of the potential physiological processes underlying such experiences, especially during adolescence. In an attempt to understand how varying perceptions of discrimination relate to functioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA axis), the current study examined the relation between Mexican American adolescents’ (N= 100, Mage = 15.3 years old) perceptions of discrimination and aspects of their diurnal cortisol profiles. Three salivary samples (wakeup, +30 waking, bedtime) were collected across three days (total of 9 samples). Utilizing multi-level modeling, results revealed that adolescents’ perceived discrimination related to greater overall cortisol output (area under the curve; AUC) after controlling for other life stressors, depressive symptoms, family income, acculturation level, daily stress levels and daily behaviors. Findings also revealed that perceived discrimination was marginally related to a steeper cortisol awakening response (CAR). Together, these findings suggest that perceived discrimination is a salient and impactful stressor for Mexican American adolescents. Understanding the physiological correlates of discrimination can provide insight into larger health disparities among ethnic and racial minority individuals. PMID:22342577

  5. Assessing Systemic Stress in Otolaryngology: Methodology and Feasibility of Hair and Salivary Cortisol Testing

    PubMed Central

    Genther, Dane J.; Laudenslager, Mark L.; Sung, Yoon-kyu; Blake, Caitlin R.; Chen, David S.; Lin, Frank R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Elevated systemic stress is a predictor of adverse health outcomes, and stress can be objectively quantified by cortisol concentration. Despite its utility, such testing is rarely performed in otolaryngology. This manuscript provides details on the principles, methodology, and feasibility of performing laboratory assessments of hair and salivary cortisol to inform researchers wishing to incorporate these novel tests in future otolaryngologic studies. Methods Participants were older adults with hearing impairment. One hair sample and eight saliva samples were collected. Feasibility of study design was assessed through rates of participation in hair and saliva sampling and protocol adherence for saliva collection. Area under the curve (AUC) was used to evaluate overall secretion, and cortisol awakening response (CAR) was used to evaluate the dynamic secretion response. Results From 9/1/2013 to 12/31/2013, 26/30 (86.7%) eligible participants agreed to hair sampling. All 30 subjects agreed to collect saliva, with 29 (96.7%) adhering to the collection protocol. Mean AUC was 401.2 nmol/L per hour, and CAR was 4.5 nmol/L. Conclusions Evaluating systemic stress in an otolaryngologic population using hair and saliva is feasible with acceptable participation and adherence. Repeat measurements over time will allow for evaluation of changes in systemic stress in relation to treatment. PMID:26436139

  6. Elevated hair cortisol concentrations in endurance athletes.

    PubMed

    Skoluda, Nadine; Dettenborn, Lucia; Stalder, Tobias; Kirschbaum, Clemens

    2012-05-01

    Engaging in intensive aerobic exercise, specifically endurance sports, is associated with HPA axis activation indicated by elevated cortisol levels. Whether the repeated short-term elevations in cortisol levels result in higher long-term cortisol exposure of endurance athletes has been difficult to examine since traditional methods of cortisol assessments (saliva, blood, urine) reflect only relatively short time periods. Hair segment analysis provides a new method to assess cumulative cortisol secretion over prolonged time periods in a retrospective fashion. The aim of this study was to investigate cumulative cortisol secretion over several months reflecting intensive training and competitive races by examining hair cortisol levels of endurance athletes. Hair samples were obtained from 304 amateur endurance athletes (long-distance runners, triathletes, cyclists) and 70 controls. Cortisol concentrations were determined in the first to third 3-cm hair segments most proximal to the scalp. In addition, self-report measures of training volume were obtained. Endurance athletes exhibited higher cortisol levels in all three hair segments compared to controls (p<.001). Positive correlations between the cortisol concentration in the first hair segment and each indicator of training volume were found (all p<.01). These data suggest that repeated physical stress of intensive training and competitive races among endurance athletes is associated with elevated cortisol exposure over prolonged periods of time. These findings may have important implications with regard to somatic and mental health of athletes which should be investigated in future research. PMID:21944954

  7. Diurnal salivary cortisol in relation to perceived stress at home and at work in healthy men and women.

    PubMed

    Sjörs, Anna; Ljung, Thomas; Jonsdottir, Ingibjörg H

    2014-05-01

    This study investigated the association between diurnal salivary cortisol profile and perceived stress at work and at home. Healthy participants (N=180, 52% women) collected saliva cortisol samples immediately after waking up, 15 min later, 30 min later, and at 9:00, 12:00, 15:00, 18:00 and 21:00. The area under the cortisol awakening curve with respect to ground (AUCgCAR) and increase (AUCiCAR), and diurnal slope between 9:00 and 21:00 were analyzed. Perceived stress at work and at home was measured with the Stress-Energy Questionnaire. Participants reporting stress at home had significantly lower AUCgCAR and a flatter diurnal slope. When performing separate analyses for men and women, this association was only significant among women. Perceived stress at work was not associated with any cortisol measure. This study highlights the importance of stress outside the workplace. The sex differences may indicate an increased vulnerability to non-work stress in women. PMID:24746849

  8. Maternal microchimerism

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Jody; Vives-Pi, Marta; Gillespie, Kathleen M

    2014-01-01

    Increased levels of non-inherited maternal HLA alleles have been detected in the periphery of children with type 1 diabetes and an increased frequency of maternal cells have been identified in type 1 diabetes pancreas. It is now clear that the phenotype of these cells is pancreatic,1 supporting the hypothesis that maternal cells in human pancreas are derived from multipotent maternal progenitors. Here we hypothesize how increased levels of maternal cells could play a role in islet autoimmunity. PMID:25093746

  9. Effects of clozapine on sleep measures and sleep-associated changes in growth hormone and cortisol in patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Lee, J H; Woo, J I; Meltzer, H Y

    2001-09-20

    There have been limited reports on the effect of the atypical anti-psychotic agent clozapine on sleep measures and hormone secretion. The goal of this study was to determine the type, rate, and extent of changes in sleep measures and nighttime secretion of growth hormone (GH) and cortisol during clozapine treatment. Five schizophrenic patients (age: 32.4+/-7.4) and five age- and sex-matched normal subjects (age: 33.0+/-5.1) underwent nocturnal polysomnography (NPSG) before clozapine therapy (S1), and during early and late clozapine therapy (S2 and S3). Serum GH and cortisol levels were monitored during each NPSG. NPSG findings showed that the mean total sleep time, sleep efficiency, and duration of awakening were increased at S2, and maintained until S3. The mean amounts of stage 2 sleep at S2 and S3 increased significantly compared with that of S1. In unmedicated schizophrenic patients, the mean plasma GH level in rapid eye movement sleep was lower than during the waking stage, and the mean level of plasma cortisol was higher during the waking stage. Plasma cortisol levels did not differ between control subjects and patients at any time, but clozapine treatment decreased plasma cortisol levels at S2 compared with S1 and S3. Plasma GH levels were unchanged by clozapine treatment. Clozapine improved sleep continuity and increased stage 2 sleep time from the beginning of therapy. These effects were maintained through at least 7 weeks of therapy. However, clozapine did not affect the relationship of plasma GH and cortisol levels with sleep stages in schizophrenic patients. PMID:11549404

  10. Effects of cortisol on hippocampal subfields volumes and memory performance in healthy control subjects and patients with major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Travis, Scott G; Coupland, Nicholas J; Hegadoren, K; Silverstone, Peter H; Huang, Yushan; Carter, Rawle; Fujiwara, Esther; Seres, Peter; Malykhin, Nikolai V

    2016-09-01

    Overactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in major depressive disorder (MDD) is among the most consistently replicated biological findings in psychiatry. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies have consistently demonstrated that hippocampal (HC) volume is decreased in patients with MDD. The improved spatial resolution of high field strength MRI has recently enabled measurements of HC subfield volumes in vivo. The main goal of the present study was to examine the relationship between cortisol concentrations over a day and HC subfield volumes in patients with MDD compared to healthy controls and to investigate whether diurnal cortisol measures are related to memory performance. Fourteen MDD patients with moderate or severe episodes were recruited, together with 14 healthy controls. Imaging was performed using a 4.7T whole-body imaging system. HC subfields and subregions were segmented manually using previously defined protocol. Memory performance was assessed using the Wechsler Memory Scale IV. The salivary cortisol levels were measured over the course of one day. We found that cortisol awakening response to 8h (CAR-8h) was higher in MDD patients compared to controls and that this increase in CAR-8h in MDD patients correlated negatively with left total Cornu Ammonis (CA)1-3 and left HC head volume. In healthy controls mean cortisol levels were negatively associated with right total CA1-3, right HC head, and right total HC volume. In addition, in healthy controls higher CAR-8h was related to worse performance on the immediate content memory. These results provide the first in vivo evidence of the negative associations between cortisol level, CA1-3 HC subfield volume and memory performance in patients with MDD and healthy controls. PMID:27162154

  11. The role of cortisol in chronic binge alcohol-induced cerebellar injury: Ovine model.

    PubMed

    Washburn, Shannon E; Tress, Ursula; Lunde, Emilie R; Chen, Wei-Jung A; Cudd, Timothy A

    2013-02-01

    Women who drink alcohol during pregnancy are at high risk of giving birth to children with neurodevelopmental disorders. Previous reports from our laboratory have shown that third trimester equivalent binge alcohol exposure at a dose of 1.75 g/kg/day results in significant fetal cerebellar Purkinje cell loss in fetal sheep and that both maternal and fetal adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) and cortisol levels are elevated in response to alcohol treatment. In this study, we hypothesized that repeated elevations in cortisol from chronic binge alcohol are responsible at least in part for fetal neuronal deficits. Animals were divided into four treatment groups: normal control, pair-fed saline control, alcohol and cortisol. The magnitude of elevation in cortisol in response to alcohol was mimicked in the cortisol group by infusing pregnant ewes with hydrocortisone for 6 h on each day of the experiment, and administering saline during the first hour in lieu of alcohol. The experiment was conducted on three consecutive days followed by four days without treatment beginning on gestational day (GD) 109 until GD 132. Peak maternal blood alcohol concentration in the alcohol group was 239 ± 7 mg/dl. The fetal brains were collected and processed for stereological cell counting on GD 133. The estimated total number of fetal cerebellar Purkinje cells, the reference volume and the Purkinje cell density were not altered in response to glucocorticoid infusion in the absence of alcohol. These results suggest that glucocorticoids independently during the third trimester equivalent may not produce fetal cerebellar Purkinje cell loss. However, the elevations in cortisol along with other changes induced by alcohol could together lead to brain injury seen in the fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. PMID:23218665

  12. Effects of a poverty-alleviation intervention on salivary cortisol in very low-income children

    PubMed Central

    Fernald, Lia; Gunnar, Megan R

    2009-01-01

    Correlational studies have shown associations between social class and salivary cortisol suggestive of a causal link between childhood poverty and activity of the stress-sensitive hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) system. Using a quasi-experimental design, we evaluated the association between a family’s participation in a large-scale, conditional cash transfer program in Mexico (Oportunidades, formerly Progresa) during the child’s early years of life and children’s salivary cortisol (baseline and responsivity). We also examined whether maternal depressive symptoms moderated the impact of program participation. Low-income households (income <20th percentile nationally) from rural Mexico were enrolled in a large-scale poverty-alleviation program between 1998 and 1999. A comparison group of households from demographically similar communities was recruited in 2003. Following 3.5 years of the Oportunidades program, three saliva samples were obtained from children age 2-6 years old from intervention and comparison households (n=1197). Maternal depressive symptoms were obtained using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D). Children who had been in the Oportunidades program had lower salivary cortisol levels when compared with those who had not participated in the program, while controlling for a wide range of individual-, household- and community-level variables. Reactivity patterns did not differ between intervention and comparison children. Maternal depression moderated the association between Oportunidades program participation and baseline salivary cortisol in children. Specifically, there was a large and significant Oportunidades program effect of lowering cortisol in children of mothers with high depressive symptoms but not in children of mothers with low depressive symptomatology. These findings provide the strongest evidence to date that the economic circumstances of the family impact the child’s developing stress system

  13. Underweight subjects with anorexia nervosa have an enhanced salivary cortisol response not seen in weight restored subjects with anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Monteleone, Alessio Maria; Monteleone, Palmiero; Serino, Ismene; Amodio, Roberta; Monaco, Francesco; Maj, Mario

    2016-08-01

    The cortisol response to awakening (CAR) has been reported to be enhanced in symptomatic patients with anorexia nervosa (AN). However, it has been not established whether the dysregulation of CAR was a primary phenomenon or a change secondary to malnutrition. Therefore, we aimed to explore the salivary CAR in both underweight and weigh-restored women with AN. Fifty-nine women volunteered for the study. They were 18 underweight AN women, 15 weight-restored AN women and 26 normal-weight healthy women. Saliva samples were collected in the morning, immediately on awakening and after 15, 30 and 60min to measure saliva levels of cortisol. Participants' anxiety levels in the morning of sampling were measured by the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. As compared to control women, underweight AN patients showed an enhanced CAR whereas weight-restored patients had a normal CAR. These results could be not explained by group differences in body mass index or levels of anxiety. These findings show, for the first time, that the enhanced CAR occurring in the acute phase of AN is not seen in weight-recovered patients, suggesting that the dysregulated activity of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis of symptomatic AN patients is a state-dependent phenomenon. PMID:27236605

  14. Understanding the Relation of Low Income to HPA-Axis Functioning in Preschool Children: Cumulative Family Risk and Parenting As Pathways to Disruptions in Cortisol

    PubMed Central

    Lengua, Liliana J.; Kiff, Cara J.; Fisher, Philip A.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relation of low income and poverty to cortisol levels, and tested potential pathways from low income to disruptions in cortisol through cumulative family risk and parenting. The sample of 306 mothers and their preschool children included 29 % families at or near poverty, 27 % families below the median income, and the remaining families at middle and upper income. Lower income was related to lower morning cortisol levels, and cumulative risk predicted a flatter diurnal slope, with a significant indirect effect through maternal negativity, suggesting that parenting practices might mediate an allostatic effect on stress physiology. PMID:22528032

  15. Understanding the relation of low income to HPA-axis functioning in preschool children: cumulative family risk and parenting as pathways to disruptions in cortisol.

    PubMed

    Zalewski, Maureen; Lengua, Liliana J; Kiff, Cara J; Fisher, Philip A

    2012-12-01

    This study examined the relation of low income and poverty to cortisol levels, and tested potential pathways from low income to disruptions in cortisol through cumulative family risk and parenting. The sample of 306 mothers and their preschool children included 29 % families at or near poverty, 27 % families below the median income, and the remaining families at middle and upper income. Lower income was related to lower morning cortisol levels, and cumulative risk predicted a flatter diurnal slope, with a significant indirect effect through maternal negativity, suggesting that parenting practices might mediate an allostatic effect on stress physiology. PMID:22528032

  16. Sleep quality and depressive symptoms after prostate cancer: The mechanistic role of cortisol.

    PubMed

    Hoyt, Michael A; Bower, Julienne E; Irwin, Michael R; Weierich, Mariann R; Stanton, Annette L

    2016-06-01

    A substantial portion of men treated for prostate cancer report clinically significant sleep problems and disturbance in sleep quality constitutes significant risk for the development of depressive symptoms in survivors. Dysregulation in biological stress processes underlies the impact of poor sleep on the onset and/or progression of depressive symptoms, yet few studies have sought to identify potential neurobiological mechanisms (e.g., HPA axis activation) underlying this association in PC survivors. The present study examines the relationships between sleep disturbance, depressive symptoms, and indices of diurnal cortisol patterns among men treated for prostate cancer. In total, 66 men (84.8% White; mean age = 65.8 years, SD = 9.04) treated in the prior 2 years for localized prostate cancer were recruited. They completed questionnaires to measure sleep quality and depressive symptoms at study entry (T1) and 4 months later (T2). They also provided 4 saliva samples per day, over 3 days, at T1. Three cortisol indices were computed: diurnal slope, area under the curve (AUCg), and cortisol awakening response (CAR). Analyses indicate that, controlling for body mass index and age, worse sleep quality at T1 was significantly associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms at T2. Significant indirect effects were observed for cortisol slope (indirect effect = -.17, 95% CI [-.61, -.01]) and AUCg (indirect effect = -.14, 95% CI [-.43, -.01]), but not CAR. Results suggest that dysregulation in HPA activity acts as a neurobiological mechanism of the impact of sleep disruption on depressive symptoms in men with prostate cancer. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26820589

  17. The Effects of Multivitamin Supplementation on Diurnal Cortisol Secretion and Perceived Stress

    PubMed Central

    Camfield, David A.; Wetherell, Mark A.; Scholey, Andrew B.; Cox, Katherine H. M.; Fogg, Erin; White, David J.; Sarris, Jerome; Kras, Marni; Stough, Con; Sali, Avni; Pipingas, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that dietary intake of vitamins, in particular the B-vitamins including B6, B9 and B12 may have a number of positive effects on mood and stress. Given the effects of stress on a range of biological mechanisms including the endocrine system, it could be reasonably expected that multivitamin supplementation may also affect markers of these mechanisms such as diurnal cortisol secretion. In the current double-blind placebo-controlled study 138 adults (aged 20 to 50 years) were administered a multivitamin containing B-vitamins versus placebo over a 16-week period. Salivary cortisol measurements were taken at waking, 15-min, 30-min and at bedtime, at baseline, 8-weeks and 16-weeks. Perceived Stress (PSS) was measured at baseline, 8-weeks and 16-weeks, while blood serum measures of B6, B12 and homocysteine (HCy) as well as red cell folate (B9) were also collected at these time points. A significant interaction was found between treatment group and study visit for the Cortisol Awakening Response (CAR). Compared to placebo, at 16-weeks multivitamin supplementation was found to be associated with a near-significant trend towards an increased CAR. No significant differences in PSS were found between groups, with PSS increasing in both groups across the course of the study. Red cell folate was found to be significantly correlated with the CAR response at 16-weeks while HCy levels were not found to be associated with the CAR response, although HCy significantly correlated with waking cortisol levels at 8-weeks. A possible interpretation of the elevation in CAR associated with multivitamin supplementation is that this represents an adaptive response to everyday demands in healthy participants. PMID:24284609

  18. Physiological Correlates of Maternal Responsivity in Mothers of Preschoolers with Fragile X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Ashley N.; Roberts, Jane E.; Brady, Nancy C.; McQuillin, Samuel D.; Warren, Steven F.

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between salivary cortisol and maternal responsiveness in mothers of boys with fragile X syndrome (FXS). Maternal responsivity is strongly associated with child outcomes, and children with FXS are at risk for compromised development due to intellectual disability and problem behavior. Increased…

  19. Cortisol shifts financial risk preferences.

    PubMed

    Kandasamy, Narayanan; Hardy, Ben; Page, Lionel; Schaffner, Markus; Graggaber, Johann; Powlson, Andrew S; Fletcher, Paul C; Gurnell, Mark; Coates, John

    2014-03-01

    Risk taking is central to human activity. Consequently, it lies at the focal point of behavioral sciences such as neuroscience, economics, and finance. Many influential models from these sciences assume that financial risk preferences form a stable trait. Is this assumption justified and, if not, what causes the appetite for risk to fluctuate? We have previously found that traders experience a sustained increase in the stress hormone cortisol when the amount of uncertainty, in the form of market volatility, increases. Here we ask whether these elevated cortisol levels shift risk preferences. Using a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over protocol we raised cortisol levels in volunteers over 8 d to the same extent previously observed in traders. We then tested for the utility and probability weighting functions underlying their risk taking and found that participants became more risk-averse. We also observed that the weighting of probabilities became more distorted among men relative to women. These results suggest that risk preferences are highly dynamic. Specifically, the stress response calibrates risk taking to our circumstances, reducing it in times of prolonged uncertainty, such as a financial crisis. Physiology-induced shifts in risk preferences may thus be an underappreciated cause of market instability. PMID:24550472

  20. The Neuroendocrinology of Primate Maternal Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Saltzman, Wendy; Maestripieri, Dario

    2010-01-01

    In nonhuman primates and humans, similar to other mammals, hormones are not strictly necessary for the expression of maternal behavior, but nevertheless influence variation in maternal responsiveness and parental behavior both within and between individuals. A growing number of correlational and experimental studies have indicated that high circulating estrogen concentrations during pregnancy increase maternal motivation and responsiveness to infant stimuli, while effects of prepartum or postpartum estrogens and progestogens on maternal behavior are less clear. Prolactin is thought to play a role in promoting paternal and alloparental care in primates, but little is known about the relationship between this hormone and maternal behavior. High circulating cortisol levels appear to enhance arousal and responsiveness to infant stimuli in young, relatively inexperienced female primates, but interfere with the expression of maternal behavior in older and more experienced mothers. Among neuropeptides and neurotransmitters, preliminary evidence indicates that oxytocin and endogenous opioids affect maternal attachment to infants, including maintenance of contact, grooming, and responses to separation. Brain serotonin affects anxiety and impulsivity, which in turn may affect maternal behaviors such as infant retrieval or rejection of infants’ attempts to make contact with the mother. Although our understanding of the neuroendocrine correlates of primate maternal behavior has grown substantially in the last two decades, very little is known about the mechanisms underlying these effects, e.g., the extent to which these mechanisms may involve changes in perception, emotion, or cognition. PMID:20888383

  1. Positive upshots of cortisol in everyday life.

    PubMed

    Hoyt, Lindsay T; Zeiders, Katharine H; Ehrlich, Katherine B; Adam, Emma K

    2016-06-01

    Cortisol, the major physiological end product of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, is usually associated with stress and negative affect. However, a new body of research highlights the complex, adaptive significance of elevated cortisol within individuals in everyday life. Whereas most studies do not have the power to test the dynamic transactions between cortisol and affect within a person throughout the entire waking day, we employed an intensive study protocol analyzing hourly diary reports of affect in relation to hourly salivary cortisol samples among 24 healthy adults from morning to bedtime, across 2 consecutive weekdays (N = 862 total samples). Utilizing multileveling modeling and focusing on within-person effects, we examined whether momentary increases in cortisol could be mood protective, or energy enhancing, in everyday life, supporting the cortisol boost hypothesis. Results revealed no significant associations between cortisol and current affective state; however, within-person increases in cortisol were significantly associated with subsequent rises in activeness, alertness, and relaxation, and trend-level reductions in stress and nervousness. This study adds to growing evidence that cortisol plays a positive role in regulating affect in everyday life. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26950364

  2. Prenatal Tobacco Exposure and Infant Stress Reactivity: Role of Child Sex and Maternal Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Eiden, Rina D.; Molnar, Danielle S.; Granger, Douglas A.; Colder, Craig R.; Schuetze, Pamela; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the association between prenatal tobacco exposure (PTE) and infant cortisol reactivity at 9 months of infant age. Child sex and maternal parenting behavior were hypothesized moderators. The sample included 217 (148 tobacco-exposed, 69 non-exposed) mother-child dyads. Data used were obtained from pregnancy assessments, mother-infant feeding interactions at 2 months, and salivary cortisol at 4 time points in response to frustration at 9 months. Results indicated a significant association between PTE and infant cortisol that was moderated by infant sex and maternal intrusiveness. That is, PTE boys had lower cortisol than control boys, but there was no association between PTE and cortisol among girls. There was a significant association between PTE and cortisol among infants of intrusive mothers, but not among infants with non-intrusive mothers. Thus, PTE was associated with cortisol hypo-reactivity such that boys and non-exposed infants experiencing high maternal intrusiveness were at greater risk. PMID:25650169

  3. Interaction between perceived maternal care, anxiety symptoms, and the neurobehavioral response to palatable foods in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Machado, Tania Diniz; Dalle Molle, Roberta; Reis, Roberta Sena; Rodrigues, Danitsa Marcos; Mucellini, Amanda Brondani; Minuzzi, Luciano; Franco, Alexandre Rosa; Buchweitz, Augusto; Toazza, Rudineia; Ergang, Bárbara Cristina; Cunha, Ana Carla de Araújo; Salum, Giovanni Abrahão; Manfro, Gisele Gus; Silveira, Patrícia Pelufo

    2016-05-01

    Studies in rodents have shown that early life trauma leads to anxiety, increased stress responses to threatening situations, and modifies food intake in a new environment. However, these associations are still to be tested in humans. This study aimed to verify complex interactions among anxiety diagnosis, maternal care, and baseline cortisol on food intake in a new environment in humans. A community sample of 32 adolescents and young adults was evaluated for: psychiatric diagnosis using standardized interviews, maternal care using the Parental Bonding Inventory (PBI), caloric consumption in a new environment (meal choice at a snack bar), and salivary cortisol. They also performed a brain fMRI task including the visualization of palatable foods vs. neutral items. The study found a three-way interaction between anxiety diagnosis, maternal care, and baseline cortisol levels on the total calories consumed (snacks) in a new environment. This interaction means that for those with high maternal care, there were no significant associations between cortisol levels and food intake in a new environment. However, for those with low maternal care and who have an anxiety disorder (affected), cortisol was associated with higher food intake; whereas for those with low maternal care and who did not have an anxiety disorder (resilient), cortisol was negatively associated with lower food intake. In addition, higher anxiety symptoms were associated with decreased activation in the superior and middle frontal gyrus when visualizing palatable vs. neutral items in those reporting high maternal care. These results in humans mimic experimental research findings and demonstrate that a combination of anxiety diagnosis and maternal care moderate the relationship between the HPA axis functioning, anxiety, and feeding behavior in adolescents and young adults. PMID:27295200

  4. Cortisol stimulates proliferation and apoptosis in the late gestation fetal heart: differential effects of mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid receptors

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Xiaodi; Reini, Seth A.; Richards, Elaine; Wood, Charles E.

    2013-01-01

    We have previously found that modest chronic increases in maternal cortisol result in an enlarged fetal heart. To explore the mechanisms of this effect, we used intrapericardial infusions of a mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonist (canrenoate) or of a glucocorticoid receptor (GR) antagonist (mifepristone) in the fetus during maternal infusion of cortisol (1 mg·kg−1·day−1). We have shown that the MR antagonist blocked the increase in fetal heart weight and in wall thickness resulting from maternal cortisol infusion. In the current study we extended those studies and found that cortisol increased Ki67 staining in both ventricles, indicating cell proliferation, but also increased active caspase-3 staining in cells of the conduction pathway in the septum and subendocardial layers of the left ventricle, suggesting increased apoptosis in Purkinje fibers. The MR antagonist blocked the increase in cell proliferation, whereas the GR antagonist blocked the increased apoptosis in Purkinje fibers. We also found evidence of activation of caspase-3 in c-kit-positive cells, suggesting apoptosis in stem cell populations in the ventricle. These studies suggest a potentially important role of corticosteroids in the terminal remodeling of the late gestation fetal heart and suggest a mechanism for the cardiac enlargement with excess corticosteroid exposure. PMID:23785077

  5. Offspring Hormones Reflect the Maternal Prenatal Social Environment: Potential for Foetal Programming?

    PubMed Central

    Meise, Kristine; von Engelhardt, Nikolaus; Forcada, Jaume; Hoffman, Joseph Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Females of many species adaptively program their offspring to predictable environmental conditions, a process that is often mediated by hormones. Laboratory studies have shown, for instance, that social density affects levels of maternal cortisol and testosterone, leading to fitness-relevant changes in offspring physiology and behaviour. However, the effects of social density remain poorly understood in natural populations due to the difficulty of disentangling confounding influences such as climatic variation and food availability. Colonially breeding marine mammals offer a unique opportunity to study maternal effects in response to variable colony densities under similar ecological conditions. We therefore quantified maternal and offspring hormone levels in 84 Antarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella) from two closely neighbouring colonies of contrasting density. Hair samples were used as they integrate hormone levels over several weeks or months and therefore represent in utero conditions during foetal development. We found significantly higher levels of cortisol and testosterone (both P < 0.001) in mothers from the high density colony, reflecting a more stressful and competitive environment. In addition, offspring testosterone showed a significant positive correlation with maternal cortisol (P < 0.05). Although further work is needed to elucidate the potential consequences for offspring fitness, these findings raise the intriguing possibility that adaptive foetal programming might occur in fur seals in response to the maternal social environment. They also lend support to the idea that hormonally mediated maternal effects may depend more strongly on the maternal regulation of androgen rather than cortisol levels. PMID:26761814

  6. Examining multiple sleep behaviors and diurnal salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase: Within- and between-person associations.

    PubMed

    Van Lenten, Scott A; Doane, Leah D

    2016-06-01

    Sleep has been linked to the daily patterns of stress-responsive physiological systems, specifically the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and autonomic nervous system (ANS). However, extant research examining sleep and diurnal patterns of cortisol, the primary end product of the HPA axis, has primarily focused on sleep duration with limited attention on other facets of sleep. For example, it is not clear how specific aspects of sleep (e.g., sleep quality, sleep duration variability) are related to specific components of diurnal cortisol rhythms. Salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) has been recognized as a surrogate marker of ANS activity, but limited research has explored relations between sleep and sAA diurnal rhythms. The current study utilized an ecological momentary assessment protocol to examine within- and between-person relations between several facets of sleep behavior using multiple methods (e.g., subjective report, actigraphy) and salivary cortisol and sAA. Older adolescents (N=76) provided saliva samples and diary entries five times per day over the course of three days. Sleep was assessed via questionnaire, through daily diaries, and monitored objectively using actigraphy over a four day period. Between-person results revealed that shorter average objective sleep duration and greater sleep duration variability were related to lower levels of waking cortisol and flatter diurnal slopes across the day. Within-person results revealed that on nights when individuals slept for shorter durations than usual they also had lower levels of waking cortisol the next day. Sleep was not related to the cortisol awakening response (CAR) or diurnal patterns of sAA, in either between-person or within-person analyses. However, typical sleep behaviors measured via questionnaire were related to waking levels of sAA. Overall, this study provides a greater understanding of how multiple components of sleep, measured in naturalistic environments, are related to cortisol and s

  7. Patterns of Developmental Change in Infants' Nighttime Sleep Awakenings from 6 through 36 Months of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinraub, Marsha; Bender, Randall H.; Friedman, Sarah L.; Susman, Elizabeth J.; Knoke, Bonnie; Bradley, Robert; Houts, Renate; Williams, Jason

    2012-01-01

    Nighttime sleep awakenings and infant and family characteristics were measured longitudinally in more than 1,200 infants when the infants were 6, 15, 24, and 36 months old. By 6 months of age, the majority of children slept through the night, awakening their mothers only about once or twice per week. However, not all children followed this…

  8. "Awakening to" an Aspect in the Other: On Developing Insights and Concepts in Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witz, Klaus G.

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses "awakening to" deeper aspects in a person and "articulating" them and contrasts this way of developing concepts and new understandings in qualitative research with "fashioning concepts at a level of words and phrases in an arena of public discourse." "Awakening to and articulating" may be epistemologically based on C. H.…

  9. Primal Awareness: A True Story of Survival, Transformation, and Awakening with the Raramuri Shamans of Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Don Trent

    During a kayaking expedition in 1983, the author was sucked into an underwater tunnel in Mexico's Rio Urique. He miraculously emerged unharmed, but this near-death experience awakened in him a primal awareness that had been coddled to sleep by his so-called civilized perceptions. He gained intuitive insights from this awakening that enabled him to…

  10. Programming of the hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal axis by maternal social status in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Jeffrey, Jennifer D; Gilmour, Kathleen M

    2016-06-01

    The present study examined the effects of maternal social status, with subordinate status being a chronic stressor, on development and activity of the stress axis in zebrafish embryos and larvae. Female zebrafish were confined in pairs for 48 h to establish dominant/subordinate hierarchies; their offspring were reared to 144 h post-fertilization (hpf) and sampled at five time points over development. No differences were detected in maternal cortisol contribution, which is thought to be an important programmer of offspring phenotype. However, once zebrafish offspring began to synthesize cortisol de novo (48 hpf), larvae of dominant females exhibited significantly lower baseline cortisol levels than offspring of subordinate females. These lower cortisol levels may reflect reduced hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal (HPI) axis activity, because corticotropin-releasing factor (crf) and cytochrome p450 side chain cleavage enzyme (p450scc) mRNA levels also were lower in larvae from dominant females. Moreover, baseline mRNA levels of HPI axis genes continued to be affected by maternal social status beyond 48 hpf. At 144 hpf, stress-induced cortisol levels were significantly lower in offspring of subordinate females. These results suggest programming of stress axis function in zebrafish offspring by maternal social status, emphasizing the importance of maternal environment and experience on offspring stress axis activity. PMID:27045091

  11. Intraindividual stability of hair cortisol concentrations.

    PubMed

    Stalder, Tobias; Steudte, Susann; Miller, Robert; Skoluda, Nadine; Dettenborn, Lucia; Kirschbaum, Clemens

    2012-05-01

    The analysis of cortisol in human hair constitutes a promising method for the retrospective assessment of cumulative cortisol secretion over extended periods of time. An implicit assumption underlying the use of this method is that in the absence of major life changes hair cortisol concentrations show a high level of intraindividual stability, i.e. single hair cortisol assessments exhibit considerable trait-specificity and are only to a smaller extent influenced by state-dependent factors. Here, we present data from two independent studies examining patterns of intraindividual stability in hair cortisol levels. In study I, 45 participants were examined at two sampling points carried out one year apart from each other. In study II, 64 individuals provided data at three sampling points which occurred at two-month intervals. In both studies, at each time point hair was sampled and relevant psychosocial and hair-related variables were assessed. Results of both studies consistently revealed strong test-retest associations for repeated hair cortisol measurements ('r's between 0.68 and 0.79, 'p's <0.0001). Findings of structural equation modelling applied to data of study II showed that single hair cortisol assessments comprise a strong trait component, explaining between 59 and 82% of variance, and are only to a lesser extent influenced by state-related factors. Only inconsistent evidence for covariation of changes in hair cortisol concentrations and simultaneous changes in perceived stress or other relevant variables was seen across the two studies. The current findings suggest a considerable degree of intraindividual stability in hair cortisol levels which highlights the utility of this method for obtaining trait estimates of long-term cortisol secretion in psychoneuroendocrinological research. PMID:21917384

  12. The Impact of Goal Disturbance after Cancer on Cortisol Levels over Time and the Moderating Role of COMT.

    PubMed

    Janse, Moniek; Faassen, Martijn van; Kema, Ido; Smink, Ans; Ranchor, Adelita V; Fleer, Joke; Sprangers, Mirjam A G

    2015-01-01

    Due to physical hindrance and time spent in hospital, a cancer diagnosis can lead to disturbance of personally important goals. Goal disturbance in cancer patients has been related to poorer psychological well-being. However, the relation with physiological measures is yet unknown. The purpose of the current study is to examine the impact of goal disturbance on cortisol as a measure of response to stress over time, and a possibly moderating role of a DNA genotype associated with HPA-axis functioning, Catechol-O-Methyl transferase (COMT). We examined the predictive value of goal disturbance on Cortisol Awakening Response (CAR) and Diurnal Cortisol Slope (DCS) over two periods: 1-7 and 7-18 months post-diagnosis, and the moderating role of COMT during these periods. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that goal disturbance 7 months post-diagnosis significantly predicted a steeper CAR a year later. During that period, the slow COMT variant moderated the relation, in that patients reporting high goal disturbance and had the Met/Met variant, had a more flattened CAR. No other significant effects were found. As steeper CARs have been related to adverse health outcomes, and COMT genotype may modify this risk, these results indicate that goal disturbance and genotype may be important factors to consider in maintaining better psychological and physical health in the already vulnerable population of cancer patients. PMID:26313260

  13. Prenatal glucocorticoids and maternal smoking during pregnancy independently program adult nicotine dependence in daughters: A 40-year prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Stroud, Laura R.; Papandonatos, George; Shenassa, Edmond; Rodriguez, Daniel; Niaura, Raymond; LeWinn, Kaja; Lipsitt, Lewis P.; Buka, Stephen L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Maternal smoking during pregnancy (MSDP) is an independent risk factor for offspring nicotine dependence (ND), but mechanisms remain unknown. We investigated prenatal glucocorticoid (cortisol) and androgen (testosterone) associations with offspring ND over 40 years, and the possibility that prenatal glucocorticoids and androgens would mediate links between MSDP and offspring ND. Methods Participants were 1,086 mother-adult offspring pairs (59% female) from the New England Family Study, a 40-year longitudinal follow up of the Collaborative Perinatal Project. MSDP was assessed prospectively at each prenatal visit. Maternal cortisol, testosterone, and cotinine (nicotine metabolite), were assayed from third trimester maternal sera. Offspring lifetime ND was assessed via structured interview. Results Significant bivariate associations emerged for: a) MSDP/cotinine and lifetime ND, and b) maternal cortisol and lifetime ND, for daughters only. In multivariate models, maternal cortisol and MSDP/cotinine remained significantly and independently associated with increased odds of daughters’ lifetime ND. However, cortisol did not mediate the MSDP-lifetime ND relation. No associations emerged between maternal testosterone and offspring ND. Conclusions Results provide the first evidence in support of prenatal glucocorticoid programming of adult ND over 40 years in daughters only. Our study highlights two independent prenatal pathways leading to increased risk for ND in daughters: elevated prenatal glucocorticoids and MSDP/nicotine exposure. Daughter-specific effects of glucocorticoid and MSDP programming over 40 years highlight the breadth and persistence of sexually dimorphic programming effects in humans. Results do not support androgen programming of offspring ND. PMID:24034414

  14. Awakening Blood Pressure Rise in a Patient with Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Ishikawa, Joji; Watanabe, Shintaro; Harada, Kazumasa

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Male, 66 Final Diagnosis: Awakening blood pressure rise Symptoms: Syncope Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring Specialty: Cardiology Objective: Challenging differential diagnosis Background: The pathophysiological mechanism causing awakening blood pressure (BP) rise is not clear. Case Report: We report the case of a 66-year-old man with a history of spinal cord injury, and who had remarkable awakening BP rise in ambulatory BP monitoring. The patient also had orthostatic hypotension and post-prandial hypotension associated with an increased insulin level. This case suggests that awakening BP rise can occur without increased physical activity or positional changes, in those with autonomic nerve dysreflexia associated with a spinal cord injury. The reduction of elevated awakening BP level can be affected by eating breakfast in association with an increased insulin level. However, in ambulatory BP monitoring, the awakening BP rise was reproducible, but this patient also exhibited evening BP rise in home BP monitoring when he took a nap. Conclusions: Exaggerated awakening BP rise can occur in patients with spinal cord injury without positional change, and the recovery of BP may be modified by post-prandial and orthostatic BP drop. PMID:26994759

  15. Burden of chronic sleep maintenance insomnia characterized by nighttime awakenings.

    PubMed

    Bolge, Susan C; Joish, Vijay N; Balkrishnan, Rajesh; Kannan, Hema; Drake, Christopher L

    2010-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the economic and humanistic burden of chronic sleep maintenance insomnia characterized by nighttime awakenings (CINA). A database analysis of National Health and Wellness Survey, an annual cross-sectional study of health status and outcomes of US adults, was performed. CINA was defined as experiencing nighttime awakenings at least twice per week for more than 1 month that have moderate to severe impact on daily life and not experiencing difficulty falling asleep. No insomnia was defined as not self-reporting insomnia, sleep difficulties, or sleep symptoms. Outcomes included resource utilization in the past 6 months, the Work Productivity and Activity Impairment questionnaire, and the SF-8. Linear regression models were developed to assess the independent effects of CINA on outcomes while controlling for demographics and comorbidity. In all, 1523 respondents met the criteria for CINA and 24,106 met the criteria for no insomnia. Controlling for demographics and comorbidity, CINA sufferers had greater resource utilization (0.1 [P < 0.001] more emergency room visits, 0.2 [P = 0.001] more days hospitalized, and 2.5 [P < 0.001] more provider visits), 22.4% (P < 0.001) greater activity impairment, and SF-8 physical and mental summary scores that were 6.2 (P < 0.001) and 6.8 (P < 0.001) points lower than those with no insomnia, respectively. Among those employed full time, CINA sufferers had greater work productivity impairment (4.0% due to absenteeism, 17.6% due to presenteeism, and 15.6% greater overall productivity impairment) than those with no insomnia (P < 0.001 for all). CINA in relative isolation was associated with a significant negative impact on health care utilization and its associated costs, health-related quality 16 of life, and work productivity. PMID:20158319

  16. Too much of a good thing?: Positive religious coping predicts worse diurnal salivary cortisol patterns for overwhelmed African-American female dementia family caregivers

    PubMed Central

    Merritt, Marcellus M.; McCallum, T. J.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Religious coping arguably prevents negative health outcomes for stressed persons. This study examined the moderating role of religious coping (positive, negative, and combined) in the connection of care recipient functional status with diurnal salivary cortisol patterns among dementia family caregivers. Methods Thirty African-American (AA) female dementia caregivers and 48 AA noncaregivers completed the Religious Coping (RCOPE) scale, Activities of Daily Living (ADL) scale and Revised Memory and Behavior Problem checklist (RMBPC) and collected five saliva samples daily (at awakening, 9am, 12pm, 5pm, and 9pm) for two straight days. Results Hierarchical regression tests with mean diurnal cortisol slope as the outcome illustrated surprisingly that higher combined and positive (but not negative) RCOPE scores were associated with increasingly flatter or worse cortisol slope scores for caregivers (but not non-caregivers). Of note, the RCOPE by RMBPC interaction was significant. Among caregivers who reported higher RMBPC scores, higher combined and positive (but not negative) RCOPE scores were unexpectedly associated with increasingly flatter cortisol slopes. Conclusions These results extend current findings by showing that being AA, a caregiver, and high in positive religious coping may predict increased daily stress responses, mainly for those with higher patient behavioral problems. Since religious coping is a central coping strategy for AA caregivers, it is vital that epidemiological assessments of religious coping in health and aging as well as tailored interventions focus on the unique reasons for this disparity. PMID:23290202

  17. Testosterone, cortisol, and human competition.

    PubMed

    Casto, Kathleen V; Edwards, David A

    2016-06-01

    Testosterone and cortisol figure prominently in the research literature having to do with human competition. In this review, we track the history of this literature, concentrating particularly on major theoretical and empirical contributions, and provide commentary on what we see as important unresolved issues. In men and women, athletic competition is typically associated with an increase in testosterone (T) and cortisol (C). Hormone changes in response to non-athletic competition are less predictable. Person (e.g., power motivation, mood, aggressiveness, social anxiety, sex, and baseline levels of T and C) and context (e.g., whether a competition is won or lost, the closeness of the competition, whether the outcome is perceived as being influenced by ability vs. chance, provocations) factors can influence hormone responses to competition. From early on, studies pointed to a positive relationship between T and dominance motivation/status striving. Recent research, however, suggests that this relationship only holds for individuals with low levels of C - this is the core idea of the dual-hormone hypothesis, and it is certain that the broadest applications of the hypothesis have not yet been realized. Individuals differ with respect to the extent to which they embrace competition, but the hormonal correlates of competitiveness remain largely unexplored. Although rapid increases in both T and C associated with competition are likely adaptive, we still know very little about the psychological benefits of these hormonal changes. Administration studies have and will continue to contribute to this inquiry. We close with a discussion of what, we think, are important methodological and mechanistic issues for future research. PMID:27103058

  18. Lack of significant association between type 2 diabetes mellitus with longitudinal change in diurnal salivary cortisol: the multiethnic study of atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Spanakis, Elias K; Wang, Xu; Sánchez, Brisa N; Diez Roux, Ana V; Needham, Belinda L; Wand, Gary S; Seeman, Teresa; Golden, Sherita Hill

    2016-07-01

    Cross-sectional association has been shown between type 2 diabetes and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysregulation; however, the temporality of this association is unknown. Our aim was to determine if type 2 diabetes is associated with longitudinal change in daily cortisol curve features. We hypothesized that the presence of type 2 diabetes may lead to a more blunted and abnormal HPA axis profile over time, suggestive of increased HPA axis dysregulation. This was a longitudinal cohort study, including 580 community-dwelling individuals (mean age 63.7 ± 9.1 years; 52.8 % women) with (n = 90) and without (n = 490) type 2 diabetes who attended two MultiEthnic Study of Atherosclerosis Stress ancillary study exams separated by 6 years. Outcome measures that were collected were wake-up and bedtime cortisol, cortisol awakening response (CAR), total area under the curve (AUC), and early, late, and overall decline slopes. In univariate analyses, wake-up and AUC increased over 6 years more in persons with as compared to those without type 2 diabetes (11 vs. 7 % increase for wake-up and 17 vs. 11 % for AUC). The early decline slope became flatter over time with a greater flattening observed in diabetic compared to non-diabetic individuals (23 vs. 9 % flatter); however, the change was only statistically significant for wake-up cortisol (p-value: 0.03). Over time, while CAR was reduced more, late decline and overall decline became flatter, and bedtime cortisol increased less in those with as compared to those without type 2 diabetes, none of these changes were statistically significant in adjusted models. We did not identify any statistically significant change in cortisol curve features over 6 years by type 2 diabetes status. PMID:26895003

  19. Influences of early shift work on the diurnal cortisol rhythm, mood and sleep: Within-subject variation in male airline pilots

    PubMed Central

    Bostock, Sophie; Steptoe, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Summary We aimed to investigate how early and late work shifts influenced the diurnal cortisol rhythm using a within-subjects study design. Participants were 30 healthy male non-smoking pilots, mean age 39.4, employed by a short-haul airline. The standard rotating shift pattern consisted of 5 early shifts (starting before 0600 h), followed by 3 rest days, 5 late shifts (starting after 1200 h) and 4 rest days. Pilots sampled saliva and completed subjective mood ratings in a logbook 6 times over the day on two consecutive early shift days, two late days and two rest days. Sampling was scheduled at waking, waking + 30 m, waking + 2.5 h, waking + 8 h, waking + 12 h and bedtime. Waking time, sleep duration, sleep quality and working hours were also recorded. Cortisol responses were analysed with repeated measures analysis of variance with shift condition (early, late, rest) and sample time (1–6) as within-subject factors. Early shifts were associated with a higher cortisol increase in response to awakening (CARi), a greater total cortisol output over the day (AUCG) and a slower rate of decline over the day than late shifts or rest days. Early shifts were also associated with shorter sleep duration but co-varying for sleep duration did not alter the effects of shift on the cortisol rhythm. Both types of work shift were associated with more stress, tiredness and lower happiness than rest days, but statistical adjustment for mood ratings did not alter the findings. Early shift days were associated with significantly higher levels of circulating cortisol during waking hours than late shifts or rest days. PMID:22877997

  20. Lack of significant association between type 2 diabetes mellitus with longitudinal change in diurnal salivary cortisol: the multiethnic study of atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Spanakis, Elias K.; Wang, Xu; Sánchez, Brisa N.; Diez Roux, Ana V.; Needham, Belinda L.; Wand, Gary S.; Seeman, Teresa; Golden, Sherita Hill

    2016-01-01

    Cross-sectional association has been shown between type 2 diabetes and hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis dysregulation; however, the temporality of this association is unknown. Our aim was to determine if type 2 diabetes is associated with longitudinal change in daily cortisol curve features. We hypothesized that the presence of type 2 diabetes may lead to a more blunted and abnormal HPA axis profile over time, suggestive of increased HPA axis dysregulation. This was a longitudinal cohort study, including 580 community-dwelling individuals (mean age 63.7 ± 9.1 years; 52.8 % women) with (n = 90) and without (n = 490) type 2 diabetes who attended two MultiEthnic Study of Atherosclerosis Stress ancillary study exams separated by 6 years. Outcome measures that were collected were wake-up and bedtime cortisol, cortisol awakening response (CAR), total area under the curve (AUC), and early, late, and overall decline slopes. In univariate analyses, wake-up and AUC increased over 6 years more in persons with as compared to those without type 2 diabetes (11 vs. 7 % increase for wake-up and 17 vs. 11 % for AUC). The early decline slope became flatter over time with a greater flattening observed in diabetic compared to non-diabetic individuals (23 vs. 9 % flatter); however, the change was only statistically significant for wake-up cortisol (p-value: 0.03). Over time, while CAR was reduced more, late decline and overall decline became flatter, and bedtime cortisol increased less in those with as compared to those without type 2 diabetes, none of these changes were statistically significant in adjusted models. We did not identify any statistically significant change in cortisol curve features over 6 years by type 2 diabetes status. PMID:26895003

  1. Mechanisms of cortisol action in fish hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Faught, Erin; Vijayan, Mathilakath M

    2016-09-01

    Here we provide an overview of the mechanistic characterization of the hepatic action of cortisol during stress in fish. Cortisol is the main circulating glucocorticoid in fish and its action is mediated through its cytosolic receptor, the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), and regulates the expression of genes involved in growth, metabolism and immune function. When taken together, the data suggests that cortisol may be playing a key role in the energy substrate re-partitioning in hepatocytes to cope with stress. The proposed model is that cortisol upregulates pathways involved in energy substrate mobilization, including gluconeogenesis, while downregulating energy demanding pathways, including growth and immune function. Recent work also points to a role for cortisol in mediating rapid action that is non-genomic and includes modulation of secondary signalling cascades; however, the physiological relevance of these studies remains to be determined. Altogether, studies carried out in hepatocytes are bringing to fore the complex nature of the cortisol signalling pathways in the organismal stress response. The mode of actions and their physiological implications for stress coping awaits further study. PMID:27445122

  2. The effect of prenatal Hatha yoga on affect, cortisol and depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Bershadsky, Svetlana; Trumpfheller, Linda; Kimble, Holly Beck; Pipaloff, Diana; Yim, Ilona S

    2014-05-01

    Perinatal depression impacts maternal and child health, and little is known about effective interventions. The effects of prenatal Hatha yoga on cortisol, affect and depressive symptoms were investigated in 51 women. Twice during pregnancy, yoga group participants reported on affect and provided a saliva sample before and after a 90-min prenatal Hatha yoga session. Corresponding measures were obtained from yoga and control group participants on days of usual activity. Depressive symptoms were assessed in pregnancy and post partum. Cortisol was lower (p < .01) and positive affect higher (p < .001) on yoga compared to usual activity days. Negative affect and contentment (p < .05) improved more in response to the yoga session. Yoga group participants showed fewer postpartum (p < .05) but not antepartum depressive symptoms than control group participants. Findings indicate that prenatal Hatha yoga may improve current mood and may be effective in reducing postpartum depressive symptoms. PMID:24767955

  3. Immunosensor with Fluid Control Mechanism for Salivary Cortisol Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, Masaki; Matsuda, Yohei; Sasaki, Shohei; Sasaki, Makoto; Kadoma, Yoshihiro; Imai, Yoshikatsu; Niwa, Daisuke; Shetty, Vivek

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to demonstrate a new design for a cortisol immunosensor for the noninvasive and quantitative analysis of salivary cortisol. We propose a cortisol immunosensor with a fluid control mechanism which has both a vertical flow and a lateral flow. The detected current resulting from a competitive reaction between the sample cortisol and a glucose oxidase (GOD)-labeled cortisol conjugate was found to be inversely related to the concentration of cortisol in the sample solution. A calibration curve using the relative detected current showed an R2 = 0.98 and CV = 14% for a range of standard cortisol solutions corresponding to the concentrations of native salivary cortisol (0.1 – 10 ng/ml). The measurement could be accomplished within 35 minutes and the cortisol immunosensor could be reused. These results show promise for realizing an on-site and easy-to-use biosensor for cortisol. Used for evaluation of human salivary cortisol levels, the cortisol immunosensor measurement corresponded closely with commercially available ELISA method (R2 = 0.92). Our results indicate the promise of the new cortisol immunosensor for noninvasive, point-of care measurement of human salivary cortisol levels. PMID:22939507

  4. Maternal Immunization

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Helen Y.; Englund, Janet A.

    2014-01-01

    Maternal immunization has the potential to protect the pregnant woman, fetus, and infant from vaccine-preventable diseases. Maternal immunoglobulin G is actively transported across the placenta, providing passive immunity to the neonate and infant prior to the infant's ability to respond to vaccines. Currently inactivated influenza, tetanus toxoid, and acellular pertussis vaccines are recommended during pregnancy. Several other vaccines have been studied in pregnancy and found to be safe and immunogenic and to provide antibody to infants. These include pneumococcus, group B Streptococcus, Haemophilus influenzae type b, and meningococcus vaccines. Other vaccines in development for potential maternal immunization include respiratory syncytial virus, herpes simplex virus, and cytomegalovirus vaccines. PMID:24799324

  5. An event-related analysis of awakening reactions due to nocturnal church bell noise.

    PubMed

    Brink, Mark; Omlin, Sarah; Müller, Christian; Pieren, Reto; Basner, Mathias

    2011-11-15

    The sleep disturbing effects of nocturnal ambient non-traffic related noises such as bell strokes emitted from church bell towers on nearby residents are presently unknown. Nonetheless, this specific noise source is suspected to cause sleep disturbances in a small but qualified minority of people living in the vicinity of the bell towers that throughout the night indicate the time with bell ringings. A field study was carried out to elucidate whether acoustic properties of such bell strokes relate to awakening and to provide event-related exposure-effect functions between acoustical predictors and awakening probability. Awakening reactions were determined in 27 voluntary subjects, measured in their home setting for four consecutive nights with ambulatory polysomnography (PSG) and concurrent acoustic recordings in- and outside the dwelling. Results indicate that the bell ringing events increase awakenings in a similar fashion as has previously been reported with transportation noise events and that awakening probability first and foremost depends on maximum sound pressure level of an event. The number of bell strokes and the personal variables gender, age, and noise sensitivity did not influence awakening probability significantly. Awakening probability by tendency increased with elapsed time after sleep onset, and was decreased during slow wave sleep and REM sleep compared to S2 sleep. The results suggest that a reduction of the maximum sound pressure level or an interruption of ringings during nighttime might reduce awakenings. The determined exposure-effect relationships are compared with similar functions for impulsive noise and transportation noise, more specifically, aircraft noise. The paper concludes with a few considerations regarding nighttime noise regulation. PMID:21978615

  6. Salivary Cortisone Reflects Cortisol Exposure Under Physiological Conditions and After Hydrocortisone.

    PubMed

    Debono, Miguel; Harrison, Robert F; Whitaker, Martin J; Eckland, David; Arlt, Wiebke; Keevil, Brian G; Ross, Richard J

    2016-04-01

    In this study we tested the use of salivary cortisol and cortisone as alternatives to serum cortisol. Salivary cortisol is often undetectable and contaminated by hydrocortisone. Salivary cortisone strongly reflects serum cortisol. PMID:26812690

  7. Maternal immunization

    PubMed Central

    Moniz, Michelle H; Beigi, Richard H

    2014-01-01

    Maternal immunization holds tremendous promise to improve maternal and neonatal health for a number of infectious conditions. The unique susceptibilities of pregnant women to infectious conditions, as well as the ability of maternally-derived antibody to offer vital neonatal protection (via placental transfer), together have produced the recent increased attention on maternal immunization. The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) currently recommends 2 immunizations for all pregnant women lacking contraindication, inactivated Influenza and tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis (Tdap). Given ongoing research the number of vaccines recommended during pregnancy is likely to increase. Thus, achieving high vaccination coverage of pregnant women for all recommended immunizations is a key public health enterprise. This review will focus on the present state of vaccine acceptance in pregnancy, with attention to currently identified barriers and determinants of vaccine acceptance. Additionally, opportunities for improvement will be considered. PMID:25483490

  8. Maternal PTSD associates with greater glucocorticoid sensitivity in offspring of Holocaust survivors

    PubMed Central

    Lehrner, Amy; Bierer, Linda M.; Passarelli, Vincent; Pratchett, Laura C.; Flory, Janine D.; Bader, Heather; Harris, Iris R.; Bedi, Aarti; Daskalakis, Nikolaos P.; Makotkine, Iouri; Yehuda, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    Intergenerational effects of trauma have been observed clinically in a wide range of populations, and parental PTSD has been associated with an increased risk for psychopathology in offspring. In studies of Holocaust survivor offspring, parental PTSD, and particularly maternal PTSD, has been associated with increased risk for PTSD, low basal urinary cortisol excretion and enhanced cortisol suppression in response to dexamethasone. Such findings implicate maternally derived glucocorticoid programming in the intergenerational transmission of trauma-related consequences, potentially resulting from in utero influences or early life experiences. This study investigated the relative influence of Holocaust exposure and PTSD in mothers and fathers on glucocorticoid sensitivity in offspring. Eighty Holocaust offspring and 15 offspring of non-exposed Jewish parents completed evaluations and provided blood and urine samples. Glucocorticoid sensitivity was evaluated using the lysozyme suppression test (LST), an in vitro measure of glucocorticoid receptor sensitivity in a peripheral tissue, the dexamethasone suppression test (DST), and 24 hour urinary cortisol excretion. Maternal PTSD was associated with greater glucocorticoid sensitivity in offspring across all three measures of glucocorticoid function. An interaction of maternal and paternal PTSD on the DST and 24-hr urinary cortisol showed an effect of decreased glucocorticoid sensitivity in offspring with paternal, but not maternal, PTSD. Although indirect, these findings are consistent with the hypothesis that epigenetic programming may be involved in the intergenerational transmission of trauma-related effects on glucocorticoid regulation. PMID:24485493

  9. Maternal PTSD associates with greater glucocorticoid sensitivity in offspring of Holocaust survivors.

    PubMed

    Lehrner, Amy; Bierer, Linda M; Passarelli, Vincent; Pratchett, Laura C; Flory, Janine D; Bader, Heather N; Harris, Iris R; Bedi, Aarti; Daskalakis, Nikolaos P; Makotkine, Iouri; Yehuda, Rachel

    2014-02-01

    Intergenerational effects of trauma have been observed clinically in a wide range of populations, and parental PTSD has been associated with an increased risk for psychopathology in offspring. In studies of Holocaust survivor offspring, parental PTSD, and particularly maternal PTSD, has been associated with increased risk for PTSD, low basal urinary cortisol excretion and enhanced cortisol suppression in response to dexamethasone. Such findings implicate maternally derived glucocorticoid programming in the intergenerational transmission of trauma-related consequences, potentially resulting from in utero influences or early life experiences. This study investigated the relative influence of Holocaust exposure and PTSD in mothers and fathers on glucocorticoid sensitivity in offspring. Eighty Holocaust offspring and 15 offspring of non-exposed Jewish parents completed evaluations and provided blood and urine samples. Glucocorticoid sensitivity was evaluated using the lysozyme suppression test (LST), an in vitro measure of glucocorticoid receptor sensitivity in a peripheral tissue, the dexamethasone suppression test (DST), and 24-h urinary cortisol excretion. Maternal PTSD was associated with greater glucocorticoid sensitivity in offspring across all three measures of glucocorticoid function. An interaction of maternal and paternal PTSD on the DST and 24-h urinary cortisol showed an effect of decreased glucocorticoid sensitivity in offspring with paternal, but not maternal, PTSD. Although indirect, these findings are consistent with the hypothesis that epigenetic programming may be involved in the intergenerational transmission of trauma-related effects on glucocorticoid regulation. PMID:24485493

  10. Summary cortisol reactivity indicators: Interrelations and meaning.

    PubMed

    Khoury, Jennifer E; Gonzalez, Andrea; Levitan, Robert D; Pruessner, Jens C; Chopra, Kevin; Basile, Vincenzo Santo; Masellis, Mario; Goodwill, Alasdair; Atkinson, Leslie

    2015-01-01

    Research on the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis has involved a proliferation of cortisol indices. We surveyed recently published HPA-related articles and identified 15 such indices. We sought to clarify their biometric properties, specifically, how they interrelate and what they mean, because such information is rarely offered in the articles themselves. In the present article, the primary samples consist of community mothers and their infants (N = 297), who participated in two challenges, the Toy Frustration Paradigm and the Strange Situation Procedure. We sought to cross-validate findings from each of these samples against the other, and also against a clinically depressed sample (N = 48) and a sample of healthy older adults (N = 51) who participated in the Trier Social Stress Test. Cortisol was collected from all participants once before and twice after the challenges. These heterogenous samples were chosen to obtain the greatest possible range in cortisol levels and stress response regulation. Using these data, we computed the 15 summary cortisol indices identified in our literature survey. We assessed inter-relations amongst indices and determined their underlying dimensions via principal component analysis (PCA). The PCAs consistently extracted two components, accounting for 79%-93% of the variance. These components represent "total cortisol production" and "change in cortisol levels." The components were highly congruent across challenge, time, and sample. High variable loadings and explained factor variance suggest that all indices represent their underlying dimensions very well. Thus the abundance of summary cortisol indices currently represented in the literature appears superfluous. PMID:26844238

  11. Summary cortisol reactivity indicators: Interrelations and meaning

    PubMed Central

    Khoury, Jennifer E.; Gonzalez, Andrea; Levitan, Robert D.; Pruessner, Jens C.; Chopra, Kevin; Basile, Vincenzo Santo; Masellis, Mario; Goodwill, Alasdair; Atkinson, Leslie

    2015-01-01

    Research on the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis has involved a proliferation of cortisol indices. We surveyed recently published HPA-related articles and identified 15 such indices. We sought to clarify their biometric properties, specifically, how they interrelate and what they mean, because such information is rarely offered in the articles themselves. In the present article, the primary samples consist of community mothers and their infants (N = 297), who participated in two challenges, the Toy Frustration Paradigm and the Strange Situation Procedure. We sought to cross-validate findings from each of these samples against the other, and also against a clinically depressed sample (N = 48) and a sample of healthy older adults (N = 51) who participated in the Trier Social Stress Test. Cortisol was collected from all participants once before and twice after the challenges. These heterogenous samples were chosen to obtain the greatest possible range in cortisol levels and stress response regulation. Using these data, we computed the 15 summary cortisol indices identified in our literature survey. We assessed inter-relations amongst indices and determined their underlying dimensions via principal component analysis (PCA). The PCAs consistently extracted two components, accounting for 79%–93% of the variance. These components represent “total cortisol production” and “change in cortisol levels.” The components were highly congruent across challenge, time, and sample. High variable loadings and explained factor variance suggest that all indices represent their underlying dimensions very well. Thus the abundance of summary cortisol indices currently represented in the literature appears superfluous. PMID:26844238

  12. Effect of the Nature of Subsequent Environment on Oxytocin and Cortisol Secretion in Maltreated Children

    PubMed Central

    Mizushima, Sakae G.; Fujisawa, Takashi X.; Takiguchi, Shinichiro; Kumazaki, Hirokazu; Tanaka, Shiho; Tomoda, Akemi

    2015-01-01

    Childhood maltreatment (CM), including abuse and neglect, is a crucial factor that distorts child development. CM is associated with alterations in numerous brain regions, and may be associated with hormonal dysregulation. This study aimed to investigate differences in secretion patterns of cortisol (CT) and oxytocin (OT) among children who experienced CM, children living in residential care facilities and in unstable environments. Among 38 maltreated children, 23 (mean age = 12.2 years, SD = 3.0) were categorized as “Settled” and 15 (mean age = 13.1 years, SD = 2.2) as “Unsettled.” Twenty-six age- and gender-matched (mean age = 12.6 years, SD = 2.1), typically developing (TD) children were also included. Clinical and psychological assessments, including IQ and trauma evaluations, were conducted for all participants. Age, gender, and full-scale IQ were used as covariates in hormone analysis. Two saliva samples were collected, one on awakening and the other at bedtime. There were significant differences in the awakening CT levels of the “Unsettled” group, and in bedtime OT levels in the “Settled” group as compared with TD children, and between CM groups. Furthermore, there was a significant difference in trauma-symptomatic depression scores between the “Settled” and “Unsettled” CM group. These results suggest that CT diurnal secretions tend to be reactive to current stress rather than previous experience. OT diurnal secretions are presumably hyper-regulated for coping with the environment to survive and thrive. By measuring salivary CT/OT diurnal patterns, hormonal dysregulation of CM children living in “Settled” environments and “Unsettled” environments was indicated. PMID:26696910

  13. Homocysteine, Cortisol, Diabetes Mellitus, and Psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Kontoangelos, K.; Papageorgiou, C. C.; Raptis, A. E.; Tsiotra, P.; Lambadiari, V.; Papadimitriou, G. N.; Rabavilas, A. D.; Dimitriadis, G.; Raptis, S. A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. This study investigates the association of homocysteine and cortisol with psychological factors in type 2 diabetic patients. Method. Homocysteine, cortisol, and psychological variables were analyzed from 131 diabetic patients. Psychological factors were assessed with the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ), Hostility and Direction of Hostility Questionnaire (HDHQ), the Symptom Checklist 90-R (SCL 90-R), the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (ZDRS), and the Maudsley O-C Inventory Questionnaire (MOCI). Blood samples were taken by measuring homocysteine and cortisol in both subgroups during the initial phase of the study (T0). One year later (T1), the uncontrolled diabetic patients were reevaluated with the use of the same psychometric instruments and with an identical blood analysis. Results. The relation of psychoticism and homocysteine is positive among controlled diabetic patients (P value = 0.006 < 0.05) and negative among uncontrolled ones (P value = 0.137). Higher values of cortisol correspond to lower scores on extraversion subscale (rp = −0.223, P value = 0.010). Controlled diabetic patients showed a statistically significant negative relationship between homocysteine and the act-out hostility subscale (rsp = −0.247, P = 0.023). There is a statistically significant relationship between homocysteine and somatization (rsp = −0.220, P = 0.043). Conclusions. These findings support the notion that homocysteine and cortisol are related to trait and state psychological factors in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2. PMID:25722989

  14. Association of Job Strain With Cortisol and Alpha-Amylase Among Shift-Working Health Care Professionals in Laboratory and Field.

    PubMed

    Karhula, Kati; Härmä, Mikko; Sallinen, Mikael; Lindholm, Harri; Hirvonen, Ari; Elovainio, Marko; Kivimäki, Mika; Vahtera, Jussi; Puttonen, Sampsa

    2016-01-01

    Although the prevalence of work-related stress has increased, knowledge on the contributions of that stress to long-term adverse health effects is still lacking. Stress biomarkers can reveal early signs of negative health effects, but no previous studies have measured both acute stress reactions and long-term exposure to job strain using both salivary cortisol and α-amylase (AA). The present study examines the association between job strain and these biomarkers among shift-working female health care professionals in the laboratory and the field. The 95 participants were recruited from hospital wards categorized in either the top (high job strain [HJS] group, n = 42) or the bottom quartile of job strain (low job strain [LJS] group, n = 53), as rated by survey responses. Participants' self-perceived job strain was at least as high or low as the ward's average estimation. Saliva samples were collected during the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), preselected morning and night shifts, and a day off. There was a larger increase in the cortisol concentration of participants in the HJS than in the LJS group (2.27- vs. 1.48-fold, respectively, nonsignificant) during the TSST. Participants in the HJS group also had higher salivary AA levels 30 min after awakening on the morning-shift day than those in the LJS group (p = .02), whereas the salivary cortisol awakening response on the day off was higher in the LJS group (p = .05, education as a covariate). The remaining stress-biomarker results did not differ significantly between groups. These data suggest that HJS in shift-working health care professionals is weakly associated with changes in stress biomarkers. PMID:25827426

  15. Effects of smoking on ACTH and cortisol secretion

    SciTech Connect

    Seyler, L.E. Jr.; Fertig, J.; Pomerleau, O.; Hunt, D.; Parker, K.

    1984-01-02

    The relationships among changes in plasma nicotine, ACTH, and cortisol secretion after smoking were investigated. Ten male subjects smoked cigarettes containing 2.87 mg nicotine and 0.48 mg nicotine. No rises in cortisol or ACTH were detected after smoking 0.48 mg nicotine cigarettes. Cortisol rises were significant in 11 of 15 instances after smoking 2.87 mg nicotine cigarattes, but ACTH rose significantly in only 5 of the 11 instances where cortisol increased. Each ACTH rise occurred in a subject who reported nausea and was observed to be pale, sweaty, and tachycardic. Peak plasma nicotine concentrations were not significantly different in sessions when cortisol rose with or without ACTH increases, but cortisol increases were significantly greater in nauseated than in non-nauseated smokers. This data suggest that smoking-induced nausea stimulates cortisol release by stimulating ACTH secretion and that cortisol secretion in non-nauseated smokers may occur through a non-ACTH mechanism.

  16. Physiological Correlates of Maternal Responsivity in Mothers of Preschoolers with Fragile X Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between salivary cortisol and maternal responsiveness in mothers of boys with fragile X syndrome (FXS). Maternal responsivity is strongly associated with child outcomes, and children with FXS are at risk for compromised development due to intellectual disabilities and problem behavior. Increased understanding of the nature and underlying mechanisms of maternal responsivity in FXS is important to optimize outcomes in children with FXS and contribute to improved family cohesion. Data from 36 mother-child dyads indicated a complex age effect with elevated cortisol levels associated with high maternal responsivity scores when children are young and low responsivity scores when children are older. Implications of findings and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:26914466

  17. Stress, cortisol, and obesity: a role for cortisol responsiveness in identifying individuals prone to obesity.

    PubMed

    Hewagalamulage, S D; Lee, T K; Clarke, I J; Henry, B A

    2016-07-01

    There is a strong inter-relationship between activation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and energy homeostasis. Patients with abdominal obesity have elevated cortisol levels. Furthermore, stress and glucocorticoids act to control both food intake and energy expenditure. In particular, glucocorticoids are known to increase the consumption of foods enriched in fat and sugar. It is well-known that, in all species, the cortisol response to stress or adrenocorticotropin is highly variable. It has now emerged that cortisol responsiveness is an important determinant in the metabolic sequelae to stress. Sheep that are characterized as high-cortisol responders (HRs) have greater propensity to weight gain and obesity than low-cortisol responders (LRs). This difference in susceptibility to become obese is associated with a distinct metabolic, neuroendocrine, and behavioral phenotype. In women and ewes, HR individuals eat more in response to stress than LR. Furthermore, HR sheep have impaired melanocortin signaling and reduced skeletal muscle thermogenesis. High-cortisol responder sheep exhibit reactive coping strategies, whereas LRs exhibit proactive coping strategies. This complex set of traits leads to increased food intake and reduced energy expenditure in HR and thus, predisposition to obesity. We predict that cortisol responsiveness may be used as a marker to identify individuals who are at risk of weight gain and subsequent obesity. PMID:27345309

  18. Effects of Hatha Yoga on Blood Pressure, Salivary α-Amylase, and Cortisol Function Among Normotensive and Prehypertensive Youth

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Martina; Gregoski, Mathew J.; Brunner-Jackson, Brenda; McQuade, Lisa; Matthews, Cameron; Treiber, Frank A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Evidence is accumulating, predominantly among clinical trials in adults, that yoga improves blood pressure (BP) control, with downregulation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis and the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) projected as underlying mechanisms. This pilot study assessed whether Hatha yoga has the potential to reduce BP among youth and whether dampening of the SNS and/or HPA activity is a likely pathway of change. Design: Thirty-one seventh graders were randomly assigned to a Hatha yoga program (HYP) or attention control (AC) music or art class. Baseline and 3-month evaluations included resting BP; overnight urine samples; and saliva collected at bedtime, upon awakening, and at 30 and 60 minutes after awakening for α-amylase and cortisol assays. Results: Twenty-eight (14 in the HYP group and 14 in the AC group) students were assessed both before and after the intervention. BP changes from pre- to post-intervention were −3.0/−2.0 mmHg for the HYP group and −0.07/−0.79 mmHg for the AC group (p=0.30 and 0.57, respectively). Changes in systolic BP (SBP)/diastolic BP (DBP) for the prehypertensive (75th–94th percentiles for SBP) subgroup analyses were −10.75/−8.25 mmHg for the HYP group (n=4) versus 1.8/1.0 mmHg for the AC group (n=5) (p for SBP=0.02; p for DBP=0.09). Although no statistically significant group differences were observed with changes in SNS or HPA awakening curves (area under curve for α-amylase and cortisol, respectively), a small to moderate effect size was seen favoring a reduction of α-amylase activation for the HYP group (Cohen d=0.34; prehypertensive d=0.20). Conclusions: A school-based Hatha yoga program demonstrated potential to decrease resting BP, particularly among prehypertensive youth. Reduced SNS drive may be an underlying neurohormonal pathway beneficially affected by the program. A large-scale efficacy/effectiveness randomized clinical trial is warranted. PMID:24620850

  19. Night-Time Noise Index Based on the Integration of Awakening Potential

    PubMed Central

    Tagusari, Junta; Takashima, Tomoya; Furukawa, Satoshi; Matsui, Toshihito

    2016-01-01

    Sleep disturbance induced by night-time noise is a serious environmental problem that can cause adverse health effects, such as hypertension and ischemic heart disease. Night-time noise indices are used to facilitate the enforcement of permitted noise levels during night-time. However, existing night-time noise indices, such as sound exposure level (SEL), maximum sound level (LAmax) and night equivalent level (Lnight) are selected mainly because of practical reasons. Therefore, this study proposes a noise index based on neurophysiological determinants of the awakening process. These determinants have revealed that the potential on awakening is likely integrated into the brainstem that dominates wakefulness and sleep. From this evidence, a night-time noise index, Nawake,year, was redefined based on the integration of the awakening potential unit (punit) estimated from the existing dose-response relationships of awakening. The newly-defined index considers the total number of awakenings and covers a wide-range and number of noise events. We also presented examples of its applicability to traffic noise. Although further studies are needed, it may reveal a reasonable dose-response relationship between sleep disturbance and adverse health effects and provide a consistent explanation for the risks of different sound sources where the characteristics of noise exposure are quite different. PMID:26938546

  20. Maternal Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Sam

    1975-01-01

    The overwhelming evidence from years of research is that maternal employment, by itself, has little influence on the behaviors of children. More relevant issues are: mother's reasons for working, family's acceptance of mother's employment, quality of substitute child care, family's social and emotional health, and economic conditions. (Author/AJ)

  1. Photoperiod effects on plasma cortisol levels in Gasterosteus aculeatus.

    PubMed

    Audet, C; FitzGerald, G J; Guderley, H

    1986-01-01

    No diel variations of plasma cortisol levels were found in Gasterosteus aculeatus acclimated to two different photoperiod conditions: 14L:10D and 9L:15D. However, under long photoperiods, G. aculeatus exhibited higher plasma cortisol levels than under short photoperiods, suggesting that elevated plasma cortisol levels are associated with the spring migration and/or reproductive activities. This decrease of plasma cortisol levels is particularly marked in male G. aculeatus. Under the 9L:15D photoperiod, males had lower plasma cortisol levels than females, in contrast to 14L:10D, where no significant sex differences were found. PMID:3940931

  2. Testosterone, cortisol, and psychopathic traits in men and women.

    PubMed

    Welker, Keith M; Lozoya, Elianna; Campbell, Jocelyn A; Neumann, Craig S; Carré, Justin M

    2014-04-22

    Cortisol and testosterone are theorized to independently and jointly influence antisocial behaviors. The current research examined the independent and interactive effects of baseline testosterone and cortisol on individual differences in psychopathic traits in a relatively large non-clinical sample (N=237). Participants completed the Self-Report Psychopathy - Short Form (SRP; Paulhus, Neumann, & Hare, in press) and provided saliva samples. Analyses indicated that testosterone and cortisol were positively correlated with psychopathic traits in men, but beyond these effects, cortisol moderated the relationship between testosterone and psychopathy in men. The relationship between testosterone and psychopathy within men was positive when cortisol levels were high, but negative when cortisol levels were low. These results have implications for work surrounding the dual hormone hypothesis and suggest that nonclinical variability in psychopathy can be predicted by baseline testosterone and cortisol. PMID:24631306

  3. Spiritual awakening and depression in adolescents: a unified pathway or "two sides of the same coin".

    PubMed

    Miller, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Spiritual awakening is inherent to development in the second decade, as reflected not only in millennia of religious faith traditions and indigenous culture but also in recent genetic-twin and epidemiological studies. Developmentally concomitant with spiritual awakening is the window of onset for the most prevalent forms of adolescent suffering in post-industrial societies: depression and related substance abuse and risk taking. Over the past fifteen years, spirituality-a lived relationship with a Higher Power-has been found to be the most robust protective factor against depression known to medical and social sciences. The magnitude of the protective effect and its timing in adolescence raises the question of a singular process or shared biological substrate underlying spiritual awakening and onset of depression. Evidence for such a shared physiology comes from a recent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study suggesting that depression and spirituality in youth reveal "two sides of the same coin." PMID:24354605

  4. Current Concepts of Maternal Nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Lowensohn, Richard I.; Stadler, Diane D.; Naze, Christie

    2016-01-01

    Background A nutrient-rich maternal diet before and during pregnancy is associated with improved fetal health, more appropriate birth weight, and increased rates of maternal and infant survival. Physicians need a better understanding of the role of diet in shaping fetal outcomes. Given this background, we reviewed and summarized articles on maternal nutrition found in MEDLINE since 1981, written in English, and limited to human subjects. For the Offspring Maternal diets high in sugar and fat lead to an increased incidence of metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease later in life. Folic acid should be supplemented prior to conception and continued through at least the first 28 days of fetal life to prevent neural tube defects, and vitamin C should be given to women who smoke to lower the incidence of asthma and wheezing in the children. Iodine deficiency is increasing, and iodine should be included in prenatal supplements. If the maternal hemoglobin is 7 g/dL or more, there is no evidence that iron supplementation is needed. Fish intake during pregnancy is protective against atopic outcomes, whereas high-meat diets contribute to elevated adult blood pressure and hypersecretion of cortisol. For the Mother Calcium supplementation lowers the risk of preeclampsia and hypertensive disease in pregnancy. Conclusions Given the limits of our current knowledge, a diet rich in whole grains, fruits, vegetables, and selected fish is desirable for the best outcomes. Diets high in sugar and fat lead to higher rates of diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease. Folic acid, iodine, and calcium in all pregnant women and vitamin C in smokers are the only supplements so far shown to be of value for routine use. The physician treating a pregnant woman should be ready to advise a healthy diet for the benefit of the fetus. Target Audience Obstetricians and gynecologists, family physicians Learning Objectives After participating in this activity, the

  5. Maternal early-life trauma and affective parenting style: the mediating role of HPA-axis function.

    PubMed

    Juul, Sarah H; Hendrix, Cassandra; Robinson, Brittany; Stowe, Zachary N; Newport, D Jeffrey; Brennan, Patricia A; Johnson, Katrina C

    2016-02-01

    A history of childhood trauma is associated with increased risk for psychopathology and interpersonal difficulties in adulthood and, for those who have children, impairments in parenting and increased risk of negative outcomes in offspring. Physiological and behavioral mechanisms are poorly understood. In the current study, maternal history of childhood trauma was hypothesized to predict differences in maternal affect and HPA axis functioning. Mother-infant dyads (N = 255) were assessed at 6 months postpartum. Mothers were videotaped during a 3-min naturalistic interaction, and their behavior was coded for positive, neutral, and negative affect. Maternal salivary cortisol was measured six times across the study visit, which also included an infant stressor paradigm. Results showed that childhood trauma history predicted increased neutral affect and decreased mean cortisol in the mothers and that cortisol mediated the association between trauma history and maternal affect. Maternal depression was not associated with affective measures or cortisol. Results suggest that early childhood trauma may disrupt the development of the HPA axis, which in turn impairs affective expression during mother-infant interactions in postpartum women. Interventions aimed at treating psychiatric illness in postpartum women may benefit from specific components to assess and treat trauma-related symptoms and prevent secondary effects on parenting. PMID:25956587

  6. A Mixed-Method Examination of Maternal and Paternal Nocturnal Caregiving

    PubMed Central

    Insana, Salvatore P.; Craig, Garfield F.; Montgomery-Downs, Hawley E.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The study objectives were to describe and compare causes of, and activities during, postpartum parents’ nocturnal awakenings. Methods Twenty-one primiparous postpartum couples were studied for one week with qualitative and quantitative methods. Results Mothers reported more awakenings per night (3.3±1.1) and more wake after sleep onset (116.0±60.0 minutes) compared to fathers (2.4±0.5 and 42.7±39.4 minutes, respectively). ‘Actions taken’ during maternal nocturnal awakenings were primarily for infant feeding (49.0%), general infant care (18.5%), and infant changing (12.0%). ‘Actions taken’ during paternal nocturnal awakenings were primarily ‘passive awakenings’ (35.9%), for self-care (18.4%), and for infant feeding (9.4%). Conclusions Qualitative analyses revealed ways that new families can optimize the sleep of both parents’ while also providing optimal nocturnal infant care. PMID:24007974

  7. Stronger Pharmacological Cortisol Suppression and Anticipatory Cortisol Stress Response in Transient Global Amnesia

    PubMed Central

    Griebe, Martin; Nees, Frauke; Gerber, Benjamin; Ebert, Anne; Flor, Herta; Wolf, Oliver T.; Gass, Achim; Hennerici, Michael G.; Szabo, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    Transient global amnesia (TGA) is a disorder characterized by a sudden attack of severe anterograde memory disturbance that is frequently preceded by emotional or physical stress and resolves within 24 h. By using MRI following the acute episode in TGA patients, small lesions in the hippocampus have been observed. Hence, it has been hypothesized that the disorder is caused by a stress-related transient inhibition of memory formation in the hippocampus. To study the factors that may link stress and TGA, we measured the cortisol day-profile, the dexamethasone feedback inhibition and the effect of experimental exposure to stress on cortisol levels (using the socially evaluated cold pressor test and a control procedure) in 20 patients with a recent history of TGA and in 20 healthy controls. We used self-report scales of depression, anxiety and stress, and a detailed neuropsychological assessment to characterize our collective. We did not observe differences in mean cortisol levels in the cortisol day-profile between the two groups. After administration of low-dose dexamethasone, TGA patients showed significantly stronger cortisol suppression in the daytime profile compared to the control group (p = 0.027). The mean salivary cortisol level was significantly higher in the TGA group prior to and after the experimental stress exposure (p = 0.008 and 0.010 respectively), as well as prior to and after the control condition (p = 0.022 and 0.024, respectively). The TGA group had higher scores of depressive symptomatology (p = 0.021) and anxiety (p = 0.007), but the groups did not differ in the neuropsychological assessment. Our findings of a stronger pharmacological suppression and higher cortisol levels in anticipation of experimental stress in participants with a previous TGA indicate a hypersensitivity of the HPA axis. This suggests that an individual stress sensitivity might play a role in the pathophysiology of TGA. PMID:25805980

  8. Predictors of anticipatory cortisol reactivity to subsequent stressors.

    PubMed

    Turan, Bulent

    2015-10-01

    Understanding the nature, predictors, and consequences of anticipatory biological stress responses are important in understanding long-term effects of repeated stressors. We examined anticipatory cortisol responses after an individual has actually experienced and reacted to a stressor once and is anticipating a second similar stressor. We hypothesized that how an individual reacts to the first stressor may predict that individual's anticipatory responses to further stressors. In Session 1, 77 male participants delivered speeches and performed arithmetic tasks in front of two evaluators. In Session 2 one week later, participants were told that they would do the same tasks again in front of evaluators. Stress cortisol reactivity in Session 1 (increase in cortisol from pre-stressor to post-stressor) predicted anticipatory cortisol reactivity in Session 2 (increase in cortisol from baseline to immediately pre-stressor). In addition, trait measures of low self-esteem and a "Submissive and Disconnected" interpersonal orientation predicted stronger anticipatory cortisol reactivity in Session 2. If the cortisol response to an initial stressor does in fact shape consequent anticipatory cortisol responses, this self-perpetuating nature of the initial cortisol response may contribute to negative long-term effects of repeated stressors on health. One factor that may be able to counteract this effect is a dominant and confident interpersonal orientation, which may lead to lower anticipatory cortisol reactions regardless of the response to the initial stressor. PMID:26071396

  9. Cortisol elimination from plasma in premenopausal women with rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Rovensky, J; Imrich, R; Koska, J; Kovalancik, M; Killinger, Z; Payer, J; Vigas, M; Jezova, D

    2003-01-01

    Methods: Twelve premenopausal female patients with RA (39.8 (1.8) years) and nine healthy control women matched for age and body mass index (42 (3.3) years) were enrolled in the study. None of the patients had previously been receiving treatment with glucocorticoids. After dexamethasone suppression (2 mg by mouth) the evening before the study, 20 mg of hydrocortisone was given. Blood and saliva samples were drawn six hours after injection of hydrocortisone. Plasma and salivary cortisol were measured. Results: Dexamethasone administration suppressed plasma cortisol concentrations to an almost undetectable level in all subjects, except one with RA. In this subject, a raised concentration of plasma cortisol was verified by repeated analysis despite the fact that cortisol concentration in the saliva sample measured simultaneously was not raised. No significant difference in the disappearance curve of cortisol in plasma or in salivary cortisol levels was found between the patients with RA and the healthy controls. Conclusions: The profile of disappearance of total cortisol from plasma, and salivary cortisol levels during the elimination phase after its intravenous administration, are unchanged in premenopausal women with RA. Alterations in cortisol clearance are not likely to have a role in cortisol availability in patients with RA. PMID:12810434

  10. Maternal parenting predicts infant biobehavioral regulation among women with a history of childhood maltreatment.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Torteya, Cecilia; Dayton, Carolyn J; Beeghly, Marjorie; Seng, Julia S; McGinnis, Ellen; Broderick, Amanda; Rosenblum, Katherine; Muzik, Maria

    2014-05-01

    Early biobehavioral regulation, a major influence of later adaptation, develops through dyadic interactions with caregivers. Thus, identification of maternal characteristics that can ameliorate or exacerbate infants' innate vulnerabilities is key for infant well-being and long-term healthy development. The present study evaluated the influence of maternal parenting, postpartum psychopathology, history of childhood maltreatment, and demographic risk on infant behavioral and physiological (i.e., salivary cortisol) regulation using the still-face paradigm. Our sample included 153 women with high rates of childhood maltreatment experiences. Mother-infant dyads completed a multimethod assessment at 7 months of age. Structural equation modeling showed that maternal positive (i.e., sensitive, warm, engaged, and joyful) and negative (i.e., overcontrolling and hostile) behaviors during interactions were associated with concurrent maternal depressive symptoms, single parent status, and low family income. In turn, positive parenting predicted improved infant behavioral regulation (i.e., positive affect and social behaviors following the stressor) and decreased cortisol reactivity (i.e., posttask levels that were similar to or lower than baseline cortisol). These findings suggest increased risk for those women experiencing high levels of depressive symptoms postpartum and highlight the importance of maternal positive interactive behaviors during the first year for children's neurodevelopment. PMID:24621516

  11. Huggable communication medium decreases cortisol levels

    PubMed Central

    Sumioka, Hidenobu; Nakae, Aya; Kanai, Ryota; Ishiguro, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Interpersonal touch is a fundamental component of social interactions because it can mitigate physical and psychological distress. To reproduce the psychological and physiological effects associated with interpersonal touch, interest is growing in introducing tactile sensations to communication devices. However, it remains unknown whether physical contact with such devices can produce objectively measurable endocrine effects like real interpersonal touching can. We directly tested this possibility by examining changes in stress hormone cortisol before and after a conversation with a huggable communication device. Participants had 15-minute conversations with a remote partner that was carried out either with a huggable human-shaped device or with a mobile phone. Our experiment revealed significant reduction in the cortisol levels for those who had conversations with the huggable device. Our approach to evaluate communication media with biological markers suggests new design directions for interpersonal communication media to improve social support systems in modern highly networked societies. PMID:24150186

  12. "You Are a Racist": An Early Childhood Educator's Racialized Awakening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summer, Melissa

    2014-01-01

    This article details my racialized awakenings as a White kindergarten teacher after being called a racist by a parent of one of my students. I chronicle critical reflections of myself and my school in terms of latent institutional racism and actions. I share the actions that I have begun in my efforts to counter racism and move toward teaching for…

  13. The Power of Eloquence: Moderation of Style in Puritan Great Awakening Sermons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelms, Gerald

    The latter part of the twentieth century has brought explicit emotional appeals; some by advertisers for commercial goods and others from political and religious leaders. The religious appeals to feelings can be traced back in history to the revivals in the mid-eighteenth century where the "Great Awakening" opened up religious sermonizing to a new…

  14. Promoting Phonological Awareness in Pre-Primary Education: Possibilities of the "Awakening to Languages" Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lourenço, Mónica; Andrade, Ana Isabel

    2014-01-01

    This article aims at evaluating and understanding the effects of an awakening to languages (AtL) programme, carried out with a group of 21 Portuguese children aged three to six, in the development of phonological awareness (PA). Using mixed-methods research, data was gathered from video recordings of seven AtL sessions and PA tests for an…

  15. Altered stress-induced cortisol levels in goats exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB 126 and PCB 153) during fetal and postnatal development.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, Karin E; Gutleb, Arno C; Lyche, Jan L; Dahl, Ellen; Oskam, Irma C; Krogenaes, Anette; Skaare, Janneche Utne; Ropstad, Erik

    2009-01-01

    Short-term stress exposure is associated with activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and a consequent rise in blood glucocorticoids and catecholamines, from the adrenal cortex and medulla, respectively. The HPA axis is a potential target for some persistent organic pollutants, among which polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) were found to be modulators of the mammalian endocrine system. PCB are distributed globally in the environment, in food chains, and are transferred to the fetuses of pregnant animals and via mother's milk to suckling offspring. In the present study it was postulated that intrauterine and lactational exposure to either of two single congeners of PCB (PCB 153 and PCB 126, respectively) might affect basal cortisol concentrations, and also the cortisol response to short-term stress in adulthood. Thus, pregnant goats were orally exposed to one of these PCB congeners from d 60 of gestation until delivery, and their offspring studied. Low-dose exposure to PCB 153 and PCB 126 resulted in significantly lower mean basal cortisol concentrations in goat offspring during certain periods of pubertal development and their first breeding season. Male goat kids exposed to either PCB congener showed a greater and more prolonged rise in plasma cortisol levels than controls when animals were subjected to mild stress at 9 mo of age using frequent blood sampling. Neither the basal maternal cortisol plasma level nor goat kid adrenal masses were affected by PCB exposure. PMID:19184731

  16. Diurnal Cortisol and Survival in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Schrepf, Andrew; Thaker, Premal H.; Goodheart, Michael J.; Bender, David; Slavich, George M.; Dahmoush, Laila; Penedo, Frank; DeGeest, Koen; Mendez, Luis; Lubaroff, David M.; Cole, Steven W.; Sood, Anil K.; Lutgendorf, Susan K.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) deregulation is commonly observed in cancer patients, but its clinical significance is not well understood. We prospectively examined the association between HPA activity, tumor-associated inflammation, and survival in ovarian cancer patients prior to treatment. Materials and Methods Participants were 113 women with ovarian cancer who provided salivary cortisol for three days prior to treatment for calculation of cortisol slope, variability, and night cortisol. Cox proportional hazard regression analyses were used to examine associations between cortisol and survival in models adjusting for disease stage, tumor grade, cytoreduction and age. On a subsample of 41 patients with advanced disease ascites fluid was assayed for levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and correlated with cortisol variables. Results Each cortisol measure was associated with decreased survival time, adjusting for covariates (all p<.041). A one standard deviation increase in night cortisol was associated with a 46% greater likelihood of death. Patients in the high night cortisol group survived an estimated average of 3.3 years compared to 7.3 years for those in the low night cortisol group. Elevated ascites IL-6 was associated with each cortisol measure (all r >.36, all p<.017). Discussion Abnormal cortisol rhythms assessed prior to treatment are associated with decreased survival in ovarian cancer and increased inflammation in the vicinity of the tumor. HPA abnormalities may reflect poor endogenous control of inflammation, dysregulation caused by tumor-associated inflammation, broad circadian disruption, or some combination of these factors. Nocturnal cortisol may have utility as a non-invasive measure of HPA function and/or disease severity. PMID:25647344

  17. An optimization formulation for characterization of pulsatile cortisol secretion

    PubMed Central

    Faghih, Rose T.; Dahleh, Munther A.; Brown, Emery N.

    2015-01-01

    Cortisol is released to relay information to cells to regulate metabolism and reaction to stress and inflammation. In particular, cortisol is released in the form of pulsatile signals. This low-energy method of signaling seems to be more efficient than continuous signaling. We hypothesize that there is a controller in the anterior pituitary that leads to pulsatile release of cortisol, and propose a mathematical formulation for such controller, which leads to impulse control as opposed to continuous control. We postulate that this controller is minimizing the number of secretory events that result in cortisol secretion, which is a way of minimizing the energy required for cortisol secretion; this controller maintains the blood cortisol levels within a specific circadian range while complying with the first order dynamics underlying cortisol secretion. We use an ℓ0-norm cost function for this controller, and solve a reweighed ℓ1-norm minimization algorithm for obtaining the solution to this optimization problem. We use four examples to illustrate the performance of this approach: (i) a toy problem that achieves impulse control, (ii) two examples that achieve physiologically plausible pulsatile cortisol release, (iii) an example where the number of pulses is not within the physiologically plausible range for healthy subjects while the cortisol levels are within the desired range. This novel approach results in impulse control where the impulses and the obtained blood cortisol levels have a circadian rhythm and an ultradian rhythm that are in agreement with the known physiology of cortisol secretion. The proposed formulation is a first step in developing intermittent controllers for curing cortisol deficiency. This type of bio-inspired pulse controllers can be employed for designing non-continuous controllers in brain-machine interface design for neuroscience applications. PMID:26321898

  18. Daily variations in cortisol levels and binge eating disorder.

    PubMed

    Sitton, Sarah; Porn, Patricia M; Shaeffer, Stephanie

    2002-12-01

    Morning and afternoon levels of cortisol for 73 volunteers (67 women and 6 men) were compared in relation to their Binge Eating Disorder scores, Body Mass Indexes, and self-reports of mood and hunger. Cortisol level was not significantly correlated with binge eating or mood or hunger for either time period. However, it was inversely related to body mass, with lower cortisol levels associated with greater body mass. PMID:12530732

  19. An optimization formulation for characterization of pulsatile cortisol secretion.

    PubMed

    Faghih, Rose T; Dahleh, Munther A; Brown, Emery N

    2015-01-01

    Cortisol is released to relay information to cells to regulate metabolism and reaction to stress and inflammation. In particular, cortisol is released in the form of pulsatile signals. This low-energy method of signaling seems to be more efficient than continuous signaling. We hypothesize that there is a controller in the anterior pituitary that leads to pulsatile release of cortisol, and propose a mathematical formulation for such controller, which leads to impulse control as opposed to continuous control. We postulate that this controller is minimizing the number of secretory events that result in cortisol secretion, which is a way of minimizing the energy required for cortisol secretion; this controller maintains the blood cortisol levels within a specific circadian range while complying with the first order dynamics underlying cortisol secretion. We use an ℓ0-norm cost function for this controller, and solve a reweighed ℓ1-norm minimization algorithm for obtaining the solution to this optimization problem. We use four examples to illustrate the performance of this approach: (i) a toy problem that achieves impulse control, (ii) two examples that achieve physiologically plausible pulsatile cortisol release, (iii) an example where the number of pulses is not within the physiologically plausible range for healthy subjects while the cortisol levels are within the desired range. This novel approach results in impulse control where the impulses and the obtained blood cortisol levels have a circadian rhythm and an ultradian rhythm that are in agreement with the known physiology of cortisol secretion. The proposed formulation is a first step in developing intermittent controllers for curing cortisol deficiency. This type of bio-inspired pulse controllers can be employed for designing non-continuous controllers in brain-machine interface design for neuroscience applications. PMID:26321898

  20. Maternal prenatal depressive symptoms predict infant NR3C1 1F and BDNF IV DNA methylation.

    PubMed

    Braithwaite, E C; Kundakovic, M; Ramchandani, P G; Murphy, S E; Champagne, F A

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal maternal psychological distress increases risk for adverse infant outcomes. However, the biological mechanisms underlying this association remain unclear. Prenatal stress can impact fetal epigenetic regulation that could underlie changes in infant stress responses. It has been suggested that maternal glucocorticoids may mediate this epigenetic effect. We examined this hypothesis by determining the impact of maternal cortisol and depressive symptoms during pregnancy on infant NR3C1 and BDNF DNA methylation. Fifty-seven pregnant women were recruited during the second or third trimester. Participants self-reported depressive symptoms and salivary cortisol samples were collected diurnally and in response to a stressor. Buccal swabs for DNA extraction and DNA methylation analysis were collected from each infant at 2 months of age, and mothers were assessed for postnatal depressive symptoms. Prenatal depressive symptoms significantly predicted increased NR3C1 1F DNA methylation in male infants (β = 2.147, P = 0.044). Prenatal depressive symptoms also significantly predicted decreased BDNF IV DNA methylation in both male and female infants (β = -3.244, P = 0.013). No measure of maternal cortisol during pregnancy predicted infant NR3C1 1F or BDNF promoter IV DNA methylation. Our findings highlight the susceptibility of males to changes in NR3C1 DNA methylation and present novel evidence for altered BDNF IV DNA methylation in response to maternal depression during pregnancy. The lack of association between maternal cortisol and infant DNA methylation suggests that effects of maternal depression may not be mediated directly by glucocorticoids. Future studies should consider other potential mediating mechanisms in the link between maternal mood and infant outcomes. PMID:25875334

  1. Aircraft noise-induced awakenings are more reasonably predicted from relative than from absolute sound exposure levels.

    PubMed

    Fidell, Sanford; Tabachnick, Barbara; Mestre, Vincent; Fidell, Linda

    2013-11-01

    Assessment of aircraft noise-induced sleep disturbance is problematic for several reasons. Current assessment methods are based on sparse evidence and limited understandings; predictions of awakening prevalence rates based on indoor absolute sound exposure levels (SELs) fail to account for appreciable amounts of variance in dosage-response relationships and are not freely generalizable from airport to airport; and predicted awakening rates do not differ significantly from zero over a wide range of SELs. Even in conjunction with additional predictors, such as time of night and assumed individual differences in "sensitivity to awakening," nominally SEL-based predictions of awakening rates remain of limited utility and are easily misapplied and misinterpreted. Probabilities of awakening are more closely related to SELs scaled in units of standard deviates of local distributions of aircraft SELs, than to absolute sound levels. Self-selection of residential populations for tolerance of nighttime noise and habituation to airport noise environments offer more parsimonious and useful explanations for differences in awakening rates at disparate airports than assumed individual differences in sensitivity to awakening. PMID:24180775

  2. Cortisol levels in hair of East Greenland polar bears

    PubMed Central

    Bechshøft, TØ; Sonne, C; Dietz, R; Born, EW; Novak, MA; Henchey, E; Meyer, JS

    2010-01-01

    To demonstrate the ability to assess long-term hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis activity in polar bears (Ursus maritimus), a pilot study was conducted in which cortisol concentrations was analyzed in hair from 7 female (3–19 years) and 10 male (6-19 years) East Greenland polar bears sampled 1994–2006. Hair was chosen as matrix as it is non-invasive, seasonally harmonized, and has been validated as an index of long-term changes in cortisol levels. Samples were categorized according to contamination: Eight were clean (2 females, 6 males), 5 had been contaminated with bear blood (2 F, 3 M), and 4 with bear fat (3 F, 1 M). There was no significant difference in cortisol concentration between the three categories after external contamination was removed. However, contaminated hair samples should be cleaned before cortisol determination. Average hair cortisol concentration was 8.90 pg/mg (range: 5.5 to 16.4 pg/mg). There was no significant correlation between cortisol concentration and age (p = 0.81) or sampling year (p = 0.11). However, females had higher mean cortisol concentration than males (females mean: 11.0 pg/mg, males: 7.3 pg/mg; p = 0.01). The study showed that polar bear hair contains measurable amounts of cortisol and that cortisol in hair may be used in studies of long-term stress in polar bears. PMID:21144554

  3. Chemical processing and shampooing impact cortisol measured in human hair

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, M. Camille; Karban, Laura V.; Benitez, Patrick; Goodteacher, Angela; Laudenslager, Mark L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The assessment of cortisol in hair has gained popularity as a means to measure retrospective hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity in a number of species; however, cortisol levels from human hair subjected to typical chemicals for cosmetic or hygienic purposes may be altered by the chemicals used. The purposed of this study was to determine if exposure of hair to chemical processing or shampooing impacts cortisol values. Methods Human hair not exposed to prior chemical processing was cut from the posterior vertex region of the head of 106 human subjects as close to the scalp as possible. The hair sample was divided into 4-6 full-length clusters depending on quantity of hair available. Each hair sample was processed for baseline (native) cortisol and remaining clusters were exposed to five standard chemical hair treatments (Experiment 1) or were shampooed 15 or 30 times (Experiment 2). Hair was ground and cortisol levels were determined by enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Comparisons were made between native hair and processed hair using paired t-tests and Pearson correlation. Results Hair cortisol as assessed by EIA was significantly altered by chemical processing but in somewhat different ways. Exposure to bleach (harshest exposure), demi-perm (least exposure) or 15-30 shampoos resulted in a significant decrease in cortisol level while exposure to varying percentages of peroxides increased cortisol measured. There were no differences in cortisol levels associated with sex, age or tobacco use in the native hair for this particular group. Conclusion Chemical processing and frequent shampooing affect cortisol levels measured in hair. Chemically processed or excessively shampooed hair should be avoided when recruiting subjects for hair cortisol studies. PMID:25090265

  4. Cortisol and Politics: Variance in Voting Behavior is Predicted by Baseline Cortisol Levels

    PubMed Central

    French, Jeffrey A.; Smith, Kevin B.; Alford, John R.; Guck, Adam; Birnie, Andrew K.; Hibbing, John R.

    2014-01-01

    Participation in electoral politics is affected by a host of social and demographics variables, but there is growing evidence that biological predispositions may also play a role in behavior related to political involvement. We examined the role of individual variation in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) stress axis parameters in explaining differences in self-reported and actual participation in political activities. Self-reported political activity, religious participation, and verified voting activity in U.S. national elections were collected from 105 participants, who were subsequently exposed to a standardized (nonpolitical) psychosocial stressor. We demonstrated that lower baseline salivary cortisol in the late afternoon was significantly associated with increased actual voting frequency in six national elections, but not with self-reported non-voting political activity. Baseline cortisol predicted significant variation in voting behavior above and beyond variation accounted for by traditional demographic variables (particularly age of participant in our sample). Participation in religious activity was weakly (and negatively) associated with baseline cortisol. Our results suggest that HPA-mediated characteristics of social, cognitive, and emotional processes may exert an influence on a trait as complex as voting behavior, and that cortisol is a better predictor of actual voting behavior, as opposed to self-reported political activity. PMID:24835544

  5. Cortisol and politics: variance in voting behavior is predicted by baseline cortisol levels.

    PubMed

    French, Jeffrey A; Smith, Kevin B; Alford, John R; Guck, Adam; Birnie, Andrew K; Hibbing, John R

    2014-06-22

    Participation in electoral politics is affected by a host of social and demographics variables, but there is growing evidence that biological predispositions may also play a role in behavior related to political involvement. We examined the role of individual variation in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) stress axis parameters in explaining differences in self-reported and actual participation in political activities. Self-reported political activity, religious participation, and verified voting activity in U.S. national elections were collected from 105 participants, who were subsequently exposed to a standardized (nonpolitical) psychosocial stressor. We demonstrated that lower baseline salivary cortisol in the late afternoon was significantly associated with increased actual voting frequency in six national elections, but not with self-reported non-voting political activity. Baseline cortisol predicted significant variation in voting behavior above and beyond variation accounted for by traditional demographic variables (particularly age of participant in our sample). Participation in religious activity was weakly (and negatively) associated with baseline cortisol. Our results suggest that HPA-mediated characteristics of social, cognitive, and emotional processes may exert an influence on a trait as complex as voting behavior, and that cortisol is a better predictor of actual voting behavior, as opposed to self-reported political activity. PMID:24835544

  6. Effects of Shampoo and Water Washing on Hair Cortisol Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Hamel, Amanda F.; Meyer, Jerrold S.; Henchey, Elizabeth; Dettmer, Amanda M.; Suomi, Stephen J.; Novak, Melinda A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Measurement of cortisol in hair is an emerging biomarker for chronic stress in human and nonhuman primates. Currently unknown, however, is the extent of potential cortisol loss from hair that has been repeatedly exposed to shampoo and/or water. Methods Pooled hair samples from 20 rhesus monkeys were subjected to five treatment conditions: 10, 20, or 30 shampoo washes, 20 water-only washes, or a no-wash control. For each wash, hair was exposed to a dilute shampoo solution or tap water for 45 s, rinsed 4 times with tap water, and rapidly dried. Samples were then processed for cortisol extraction and analysis using previously published methods. Results Hair cortisol levels were significantly reduced by washing, with an inverse relationship between number of shampoo washes and the cortisol concentration. This effect was mainly due to water exposure, as cortisol levels following 20 water-only washes were similar to those following 20 shampoo treatments. Conclusions Repeated exposure to water with or without shampoo appears to leach cortisol from hair, yielding values that underestimate the amount of chronic hormone deposition within the shaft. Collecting samples proximal to the scalp and obtaining hair washing frequency data may be valuable when conducting human hair cortisol studies. PMID:21034727

  7. Longitudinal Associations among Child Maltreatment, Social Functioning, and Cortisol Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alink, Lenneke R. A.; Cicchetti, Dante; Kim, Jungmeen; Rogosch, Fred A.

    2012-01-01

    Child maltreatment increases the risk for impaired social functioning and cortisol regulation. However, the longitudinal interplay among these factors is still unclear. This study aimed to shed light on the effect of maltreatment on social functioning and cortisol regulation over time. The sample consisted of 236 children (mean age 7.64 years, SD…

  8. Cortisol Release in Infants in Response to Inoculation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Michael; Thomas, David

    1990-01-01

    Data provide strong evidence that studies of stress and cortisol release in infants must take into account basal level, circadian rhythm, and behavioral effects and employ appropriate statistical procedures. Participants were infants of two, four, and six months of age from whom salivary cortisol was obtained before and 15 minutes after an…

  9. Enhanced Cortisol Response to Stress in Children in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spratt, Eve G.; Nicholas, Joyce S.; Brady, Kathleen T.; Carpenter, Laura A.; Hatcher, Charles R.; Meekins, Kirk A.; Furlanetto, Richard W.; Charles, Jane M.

    2012-01-01

    Children with Autism often show difficulties in adapting to change. Previous studies of cortisol, a neurobiologic stress hormone reflecting hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity, in children with autism have demonstrated variable results. This study measured cortisol levels in children with and without Autism: (1) at rest; (2) in a…

  10. Father Contributions to Cortisol Responses in Infancy and Toddlerhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills-Koonce, W. Roger; Garrett-Peters, Patricia; Barnett, Melissa; Granger, Douglas A.; Blair, Clancy; Cox, Martha J.

    2011-01-01

    The current study is one of the first prospective examinations of longitudinal associations between observed father caregiving behaviors and child cortisol reactivity and regulation in response to emotional arousal. Observations of father and mother caregiving behaviors and child cortisol levels in response to challenges at 7 months and 24 months…

  11. Testosterone Suppression of CRH-stimulated Cortisol in Men

    PubMed Central

    Rubinow, David R.; Roca, Catherine A.; Schmidt, Peter J.; Danaceau, Merry A.; Putnam, Karen; Cizza, Giovanni; Chrousos, George; Nieman, Lynnette

    2005-01-01

    Despite observations of age-dependent sexual dimorphisms in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity, the role of androgens in the regulation of HPA axis activity in men has not been examined. We assessed this role by performing CRH stimulation tests in ten men (ages 18–45) during gonadal suppression with leuprolide acetate and during testosterone addition to leuprolide. CRH-stimulated cortisol levels as well as peak cortisol and greatest cortisol excursion were significantly lower (p < .05, .005, and .01, respectively) during testosterone replacement compared with the induced hypogonadal condition (leuprolide plus placebo); cortisol area under the curve was lower at a trend level (p < .1). Paradoxically, CRH-stimulated ACTH was increased significantly during testosterone replacement (p < .05). The cortisol:ACTH ratio, a measure of adrenal sensitivity, was lower during testosterone replacement (p < .1). A mixed effects regression model showed that testosterone but not estradiol or CBG significantly contributed to the variance of cortisol. These data demonstrate that testosterone regulates CRH-stimulated HPA axis activity in men, with the divergent effects on ACTH and cortisol suggesting a peripheral (adrenal) locus for the suppressive effects on cortisol. Our results further demonstrate that the enhanced stimulated HPA axis activity previously described in young men compared with young women cannot be ascribed to an activational upregulation of the axis by testosterone. PMID:15841103

  12. Suppressing the Morning Rise in Cortisol Impairs Free Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rimmele, Ulrike; Meier, Flurina; Lange, Tanja; Born, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Elevated glucocorticoid levels impair memory retrieval. We investigated whether retrieval under naturally elevated glucocorticoid levels, i.e., during the morning rise in cortisol can be improved by suppressing cortisol. In a crossover study 16 men retrieved emotional and neutral texts and pictures (learned 3 d earlier) 30 min after morning…

  13. Cortisol Levels and Conduct Disorder in Adolescent Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azar, Rima; Zoccolillo, Mark; Paquette, Daniel; Quiros, Elsa; Baltzer, Franziska; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To examine the association between cortisol levels and conduct disorder (CD) in adolescent mothers. Past research has shown that low levels of cortisol were associated with CD, particularly with its aggressive symptoms. The authors tested the hypothesis that adolescent mothers with CD would show lower levels of salivary cortisol…

  14. Salivary cortisol levels in athletes and nonathletes: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Cevada, T; Vasques, P E; Moraes, H; Deslandes, A

    2014-12-01

    High performance athletes are constantly facing different situations involving stress. Salivary cortisol has been used as a physiological measure to verify high performance athlete and mental health, in spite of research that has shown that comparisons between cortisol levels in athletes and nonathletes are inconclusive. The purpose of this study was to review articles that investigated salivary cortisol levels at rest in high performance athletes in comparison to physically active or sedentary nonathlete individuals. PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge, SciELO, LILACS, and Scopus databases were searched for studies on salivary cortisol in athletes and the size effect was calculated. Although 3 articles reported higher salivary cortisol levels in female athletes compared to a control group, the results showed homogeneity among baseline groups or groups in resting conditions, suggesting a lack of discriminative capacity. These results should be interpreted with caution, due to the presence of substantial methodological bias. PMID:25230328

  15. The cocoa flavanol (-)-epicatechin protects the cortisol response.

    PubMed

    Ruijters, Erik J B; Haenen, Guido R M M; Weseler, Antje R; Bast, Aalt

    2014-01-01

    Various health benefits of the cocoa flavanol (-)-epicatechin (EC) have been attributed to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potency. In the present study we investigated whether EC is able to prevent deterioration of the anti-inflammatory effect of the glucocorticoid (GC) cortisol in the presence of oxidative stress. It was found that cortisol reduces inflammation in differentiated monocytes. Oxidative stress extinguishes the anti-inflammatory effect of cortisol, leading to cortisol resistance. EC reduces intracellular oxidative stress as well as the development of cortisol resistance. This further deciphers the enigmatic mechanism of EC by which it exerts its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant action. The observed effect of the cocoa flavanol EC will especially be of relevance in pathophysiological conditions with increased oxidative stress and consequential GC resistance and provides a fundament for the rational use of dietary antioxidants. PMID:24269961

  16. Awakening effects of church bell noise: geographical extrapolation of the results of a polysomnographic field study 1.

    PubMed

    Omlin, Sarah; Brink, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Based on a previously published exposure-effect model of Electroencephalography (EEG)-awakening reactions (AWR) due to nightly church bell noise events, as well as on geocoded building and population data, we estimated the total number of the church bell noise induced awakenings on the population of the Canton of Zurich, in Switzerland. The calculated mean number of EEG awakenings per person in the studied region, triggered by church bell ringing, varied between 0 and about 5.5 per night. The results suggest that up to 120-150 m distance from churches, on average more than one additional EEG awakening occurs per night per person. An estimated 2.5-3.5 percent of the population in the Canton of Zurich experiences at least one additional awakening per night due to church bell noise. To provide a simple decision support tool for authorities that consider limiting bell ringing in the night in some form, we simulated different scenarios to estimate the effects of different sound attenuation measures at the belfry as well as the effects of different lengths and positions of nocturnal bell ringing suspension periods. The number of awakenings could be reduced by more than 99 percent by, for example, suspending church bell ringing between midnight and 06 h in the morning. A reduction of the number of AWRs of about 75 percent could be achieved by reducing the sound-pressure levels of bells by 5 dB. PMID:23955130

  17. Analysis of hair cortisol levels in captive chimpanzees: Effect of various methods on cortisol stability and variability

    PubMed Central

    Yamanashi, Yumi; Teramoto, Migaku; Morimura, Naruki; Hirata, Satoshi; Suzuki, Juri; Hayashi, Misato; Kinoshita, Kodzue; Murayama, Miho; Idani, Gen’ichi

    2016-01-01

    Hair cortisol has been reported to be a useful measure of long-term hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis activation in several species. It serves as a practical tool for long-term stress assessment, but it is important to understand the methodological factors that can affects hair cortisol assays to avoid methodological artifacts. To that end, we tested several procedures for measuring cortisol levels in hair collected from captive chimpanzees. The results showed that reproducibility was high, and we found no differences in cortisol levels among the various storage, drying, and sampling methods. However, the fineness of homogenized hair, sample weight, and extraction time affected absolute hair cortisol concentration. Although hair cortisol levels were stable over time, factors that may influence measurement results should be kept constant throughout a study.•We modified and validated a methodology involving enzyme immunoassays to reliably measure the hair cortisol levels of captive chimpanzees.•The results revealed that the fineness of homogenized hair, sample weight, and extraction time caused variations in absolute hair cortisol concentrations in chimpanzees. In contrast, storage, drying, and sampling from similar body parts did not affect the results. PMID:26870668

  18. Analysis of hair cortisol levels in captive chimpanzees: Effect of various methods on cortisol stability and variability.

    PubMed

    Yamanashi, Yumi; Teramoto, Migaku; Morimura, Naruki; Hirata, Satoshi; Suzuki, Juri; Hayashi, Misato; Kinoshita, Kodzue; Murayama, Miho; Idani, Gen'ichi

    2016-01-01

    Hair cortisol has been reported to be a useful measure of long-term hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation in several species. It serves as a practical tool for long-term stress assessment, but it is important to understand the methodological factors that can affects hair cortisol assays to avoid methodological artifacts. To that end, we tested several procedures for measuring cortisol levels in hair collected from captive chimpanzees. The results showed that reproducibility was high, and we found no differences in cortisol levels among the various storage, drying, and sampling methods. However, the fineness of homogenized hair, sample weight, and extraction time affected absolute hair cortisol concentration. Although hair cortisol levels were stable over time, factors that may influence measurement results should be kept constant throughout a study.•We modified and validated a methodology involving enzyme immunoassays to reliably measure the hair cortisol levels of captive chimpanzees.•The results revealed that the fineness of homogenized hair, sample weight, and extraction time caused variations in absolute hair cortisol concentrations in chimpanzees. In contrast, storage, drying, and sampling from similar body parts did not affect the results. PMID:26870668

  19. Maternal variations in stress reactivity: implications for harsh parenting practices with very young children.

    PubMed

    Martorell, Gabriela A; Bugental, Daphne Blunt

    2006-12-01

    Although a wide array of variables has been found to predict harsh parenting, less is known about the linkages among these variables. It is suggested here that stress reactivity, as reflected in cortisol changes, is an important mediating variable. In a high-risk population, mothers (N = 60) with low perceived power (as measured by the Parent Attribution Test; D. B. Bugental, J. B. Blue, & M. Cruzcosa, 1989), were highly reactive to infants and toddlers with a difficult temperament pattern. In response to such children, they (a) manifested high cortisol reactivity and (b) reported greater use of harsh control practices (e.g., spanking). Cortisol reactivity was found to mediate the observed relationship between the predictor variable (the interaction between maternal "powerlessness" and the child's temperament) and parental harshness. These findings have clinical implications for the ways in which parental empowerment (via early interventions) can serve to reduce stress and thus the negative outcomes at-risk children may experience. PMID:17176199

  20. Association between birth conditions and glucose and cortisol profiles of periparturient dairy cows and neonatal calves.

    PubMed

    Vannucchi, C I; Rodrigues, J A; Silva, L C G; Lúcio, C F; Veiga, G A L; Furtado, P V; Oliveira, C A; Nichi, M

    2015-04-01

    Parturition in cattle is a stressful event for both the dam and the offspring. Stress and pain can alter the energy profile of calves and calving cows, producing a metabolic imbalance at birth. This study aimed to assess the effects of dystocia and oxytocin and calcium infusion on metabolic homeostasis in dairy cows and calves. Thirty Holstein cows and their calves were divided into three groups: an eutocia group (n=10), in which no calving assistance was needed; a dystocia group, which required mild-to-severe obstetric assistance (n=10); and a uterine inertia group, which was treated with oxytocin and calcium (n=10). To assess serum cortisol and blood glucose levels, blood samples were collected during the peripartum period from cows and during the first hour since birth from calves. All groups were hyperglycaemic following parturition. Infusion of oxytocin and calcium resulted in lower maternal glucose concentrations and lower levels of stress than in cows in the dystocia group. Birth condition was significantly associated with blood glucose and cortisol concentrations in calves. Glucose concentration was lower in calves born with oxytocin and calcium infusion than those born with fetal extraction. In conclusion, assisted calving with fetal extraction causes important metabolic changes for the dam and calf. Conversely, the practice of oxytocin and calcium infusion for hypotonic cows has no harmful effects on metabolic balance and can be safely employed as a medical treatment. PMID:25690915

  1. Spiritual Awakening Predicts Improved Drinking Outcomes in a Polish Treatment Sample

    PubMed Central

    Strobbe, Stephen; Cranford, James A.; Wojnar, Marcin; Brower, Kirk J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This study examined concurrent and longitudinal associations between two dimensions of affiliation in Alcoholics Anonymous (AA)—attendance and spiritual awakening—and drinking outcomes among adult patients who were in treatment for alcohol dependence in Warsaw, Poland. In a study conducted at four addiction treatment centers, male and female patients (n = 118) with a DSM-IV diagnosis of alcohol dependence were assessed at baseline (Time 1 or T1), one month (T2), and 6 to 12 months post-baseline (T3) for AA meeting attendance, various aspects of AA affiliation, and alcohol use. AA meeting attendance and alcohol consumption were measured using the Timeline Followback (TLFB) interview. Self-report of having had a spiritual awakening was measured using a modified version of the Alcoholics Anonymous Involvement (AAI) scale. Results There were no cross-sectional or longitudinal associations between AA meeting attendance and improved drinking outcomes. In contrast, self-report of a spiritual awakening between T2 and T3 was significantly associated with abstinence (OR = 2.4, p < .05) and the absence of any heavy drinking (OR = 3.0, p < .05) at T3, even when demographic and clinical characteristics were statistically controlled. Conclusions Self-reports of spiritual awakening predicted improved drinking outcomes in a Polish treatment sample. PMID:24335767

  2. Getting better, but not well: A 1.5 year follow-up of cognitive performance and cortisol levels in clinical and non-Clinical burnout.

    PubMed

    Oosterholt, Bart G; Maes, Joseph H R; Van der Linden, Dimitri; Verbraak, Marc J P M; Kompier, Michiel A J

    2016-05-01

    The purpose was to reexamine cognitive performance and cortisol levels of initial clinical burnout patients, non-clinical burnout individuals, and healthy controls. After 1.5-years of the initial measurement, clinical burnout patients showed a reduction of burnout symptoms and general physical and psychological complaints, but these were still elevated compared with controls. Nonetheless, they continued to report cognitive problems and still showed a minor impaired cognitive test performance. However, they no longer reported larger subjective costs associated with cognitive test performance and their cortisol awakening response (CAR) returned to a normal level. Compared with controls, non-clinical burnout individuals still reported the same, elevated, level of burnout symptoms, general physical and psychological complaints, and cognitive problems. Their cognitive test performance and associated subjective costs remained normal. However, they seemed to continue to display a lowered CAR. To conclude, after 1.5-years, clinical burnout patients got better, but not 'well', and non-clinical burnout individuals remained not 'well'. PMID:26930250

  3. Highly resilient coping entails better perceived health, high social support and low morning cortisol levels in parents of children with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Robledillo, N; De Andrés-García, S; Pérez-Blasco, J; González-Bono, E; Moya-Albiol, L

    2014-03-01

    The negative consequences of caring for people with developmental disabilities have been widely described. However, the ability to bounce back from the stress derived from care situations has been less studied. Those caregivers who have shown this ability are considered as resilient. This study aims to evaluate the relationship between resilience and self-reported health and cortisol awakening response (CAR) in a sample of caregivers of people with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). It also aims to evaluate the role of social support as a mediator in the association between resilience and health. Caregivers with higher resilience show better perceived health, lower morning cortisol levels, and less area under the curve with respect to ground (AUCg). Social support was positively related to resilience and mediated the relationship between resilience and perceived health. This mediating effect was not found in the association between resilience and CAR. Resilience could be a protective factor that modulates the negative consequences of chronic stress in the care context. Social support could be an important variable mediating the effects of resilience on health outcomes in caregivers. All these results must be considered when implementing effective psychological programs for helping caregivers. PMID:24405793

  4. Hair cortisol concentrations in higher- and lower-stress mother-daughter dyads: A pilot study of associations and moderators.

    PubMed

    Ouellette, Sarah J; Russell, Evan; Kryski, Katie R; Sheikh, Haroon I; Singh, Shiva M; Koren, Gideon; Hayden, Elizabeth P

    2015-07-01

    Hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) are receiving increased attention as a novel biomarker of psychophysiological responses to chronic stress, with potential relevance for psychopathology risk research. We examined the validity of HCC as a marker of psychosocial stress in mother (M(age)  = 37.87 years)-daughter (M(age)  = 7.62 years) dyads characterized by higher (n = 30) or lower (n = 30) maternal chronic stress. Additionally, we examined whether early care moderated similarity of HCC levels within dyads. Higher-stress mothers had significantly lower HCC compared to lower-stress mothers, consistent with other research showing that chronic stress leads to blunted HPA axis activity over time. Further, HCC in daughters were significantly and positively associated with previously assessed salivary cortisol stress reactivity. Finally, mother-daughter HCC associations were significantly moderated by negative parenting styles, such that associations became stronger as quality of parenting decreased. Findings overall indicate that HCC may be a useful marker of cortisol responses to chronic stress. PMID:25820649

  5. Plasma cortisol levels and illness appraisal in deficit syndrome schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    White, Ross G; Lysaker, Paul; Gumley, Andrew I; McLeod, Hamish; McCleery, Muriel; O'Neill, Donnacha; MacBeth, Angus; Giurgi-Oncu, Catalina; Mulholland, Ciaran C

    2014-12-30

    Research investigating the association between negative symptoms and plasma cortisol levels in individuals with schizophrenia has produced inconsistent findings. This study investigated whether deficit syndrome schizophrenia (characterized by high levels of primary negative symptoms) is associated with comparatively high morning plasma cortisol levels, more negative appraisals about illness and higher levels of depression. Participants were 85 individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia and 85 individuals with no history of contact with psychiatric services matched for age and gender. All participants provided fasting 9.00a.m. plasma cortisol samples. There were no significant differences between the schizophrenia and control participants in plasma cortisol levels. The Proximal Deficit Syndrome method was used to identify individuals with deficit syndrome schizophrenia. Contrary to what had been hypothesized, participants with deficit syndrome schizophrenia had significantly lower plasma cortisol levels than both non-deficit syndrome participants and control participants. Participants with the deficit syndrome reported significantly less negative appraisals about illness (assessed by PBIQ) and lower levels of depression (assessed by BDI-II). Differences in cortisol levels continued to trend toward significance when levels of depression were controlled for. The patterns of illness-related appraisals and plasma cortisol levels raise the possibility that the deficit syndrome could be a form of adaptation syndrome. PMID:25262562

  6. Acute effects of bright light exposure on cortisol levels.

    PubMed

    Jung, Christopher M; Khalsa, Sat Bir S; Scheer, Frank A J L; Cajochen, Christian; Lockley, Steven W; Czeisler, Charles A; Wright, Kenneth P

    2010-06-01

    Multisynaptic neural and endocrine pathways from the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus have been hypothesized to communicate circadian and photic information to the adrenal glands. In humans, light exposure has been reported to have no effect, increase, or decrease cortisol levels. These inconsistent findings in humans may be related to differences among studies including the intensity (approximately 500 to 5500 lux), duration (15 min to 4 h), and circadian phase of light exposure. The authors assessed the influence of exposure to bright light on cortisol levels in humans during the rising and descending phases of the circadian rhythm of cortisol, that is, when cortisol levels are high. Twenty healthy men and women were studied using a within-subject research design. Subjects were studied in an environment free of time cues for 9 to 10 days. Subjects received a 6.7-h exposure of bright light (approximately 10,000 lux; equivalent to ambient light intensity just after sunrise or just before sunset) or dim light (approximately 3 lux; equivalent to candle light) during the biological night and morning. Bright light exposure significantly reduced plasma cortisol levels at both circadian phases studied, whereas dim light exposure had little effect on cortisol levels. The finding of an acute suppressive effect of bright light exposure on cortisol levels supports the existence of a mechanism by which photic information can acutely influence the human adrenal glands. PMID:20484692

  7. Increased serum cortisol binding in chronic active hepatitis

    SciTech Connect

    Orbach, O.; Schussler, G.C.

    1989-01-01

    A high serum cortisol concentration, apparently due to increased cortisol-binding globulin (CBG), was found in a patient (index case) with chronic active hepatitis (CAH). We therefore performed further studies to determine whether increased cortisol binding is generally associated with CAH. Serum samples were obtained from 15 hospitalized patients with long-term liver function test elevations but no evidence of cirrhosis, 15 normal subjects without a history of hepatitis, four healthy pregnant women, and 10 alcoholic patients with stigmata of cirrhosis. Serum cortisol binding was measured by an adaptation of a previously described charcoal uptake method. Thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG) and sex hormone-binding globulin were determined by radioimmunoassays. Charcoal uptake of 125I cortisol from sera of normal subjects and additional patients with CAH revealed that increased serum cortisol binding by a saturable site, presumably CBG, was associated with CAH. Cortisol binding was significantly correlated with immunoassayable TBG, suggesting that in CAH, similar mechanisms may be responsible for increasing the serum concentrations of CBG and TBG.

  8. Elevated cortisol content in dog hair with atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Park, Seol-Hee; Kim, Sun-A; Shin, Nam-Shik; Hwang, Cheol-Yong

    2016-05-01

    Canine atopic dermatitis (CAD) is a chronic relapsing inflammatory skin disease occurring in 10% of the canine population. Although most studies have focused on the pathophysiological mechanism involved in CAD, the detrimental impact of CAD on quality of life has received only little attention. Hair cortisol analysis is becoming a valuable tool in monitoring chronic stress. To further validate this approach in CAD, we compared the hair cortisol concentration of atopic dogs with that of healthy conditioned dogs. The extent and severity of cutaneous lesions of atopic dermatitis were assessed according to modified CADESI-03 scores. In addition, skin barrier function was evaluated by measuring transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and stratum corneum conductance. The correlation between CAD severity and hair cortisol concentration was evaluated. The level of hair cortisol evaluated by ELISA assay showed that the atopic dermatitis group had significantly increased cortisol levels compared to that of the healthy control group. A significant positive correlation was identified between hair cortisol level and the CADESI score in CAD patients. The TEWL value of the cubital flexor of the forelimb in the atopic group was significantly higher compared to the healthy controls. These findings imply that the hair cortisol analysis can be an effective and objective biomarker in assessment of long-term stress of CAD patients. PMID:27506086

  9. Cortisol alters reward processing in the human brain.

    PubMed

    Kinner, Valerie L; Wolf, Oliver T; Merz, Christian J

    2016-08-01

    Dysfunctional reward processing is known to play a central role for the development of psychiatric disorders. Glucocorticoids that are secreted in response to stress have been shown to attenuate reward sensitivity and thereby might promote the onset of psychopathology. However, the underlying neurobiological mechanisms mediating stress hormone effects on reward processing as well as potential sex differences remain elusive. In this neuroimaging study, we administered 30mg cortisol or a placebo to 30 men and 30 women and subsequently tested them in the Monetary Incentive Delay Task. Cortisol attenuated anticipatory neural responses to a verbal and a monetary reward in the left pallidum and the right anterior parahippocampal gyrus. Furthermore, in men, activation in the amygdala, the precuneus, the anterior cingulate, and in hippocampal regions was reduced under cortisol, whereas in cortisol-treated women a signal increase was observed in these regions. Behavioral performance also indicated that reward learning in men is impaired under high cortisol concentrations, while it is augmented in women. These findings illustrate that the stress hormone cortisol substantially diminishes reward anticipation and provide first evidence that cortisol effects on the neural reward system are sensitive to sex differences, which might translate into different vulnerabilities for psychiatric disorders. PMID:27170428

  10. A systematic review of the effects of mindfulness interventions on cortisol.

    PubMed

    O'Leary, Karen; O'Neill, Siobhan; Dockray, Samantha

    2016-09-01

    Cortisol is increasingly included in examinations of mindfulness intervention effects as an indicator of efficacy; however, the association of cortisol and mindfulness has yet to be rigorously evaluated. A systematic review of six studies examining mindfulness intervention effects on cortisol was conducted. Inconsistent results were found for mindfulness effects on cortisol. Significant changes in cortisol levels were observed in within-participants studies but not observed in randomised controlled trial designs. Mindfulness may influence cortisol, but findings are inconclusive. Mindfulness pathways and methodological differences influence variations in mindfulness effects. Robust protocols are needed to adequately examine mindfulness effects on cortisol. PMID:25673371

  11. Does infant reactivity moderate the association between antenatal maternal depression and infant sleep?

    PubMed Central

    Netsi, Elena; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; Wulff, Katharina; Jansen, Pauline W.; Jaddoe, Vincent W.V.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Tiemeier, Henning; Ramchandani, Paul G.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE A number of studies have established an association between antenatal maternal depression and infant sleep. One key question is whether all infants are equally susceptible to environmental influences, including the intra-uterine environment. Reactive temperament has been examined as a plasticity factor, with accumulating evidence suggesting that infants with reactive temperament may be more susceptible to both positive and negative environmental influences. This study examines whether infant reactivity moderates any association between antenatal depression and infant sleep in two longitudinal studies: the ALSPAC and Generation R cohorts. METHODS Maternal depression scores were assessed during pregnancy using the EPDS and BSI. Infant sleep duration and awakenings, in ALSPAC (N=8,318) and Generation R (N=2,241), were assessed at 18/24 months of age respectively. Infant reactivity was assessed by temperament questionnaire at 6 months of age. RESULTS Hierarchical linear regression models indicated a three-way interaction between reactivity and gender moderating the effect of antenatal depression on infant sleep; on sleep duration in Generation R at 24 months (β =.085, p<.001) in the whole sample and when limited to the Dutch/European group (β =.055, p=.030), and on night awakenings at 18 months in ALSPAC (β= −.085, p=.013).Boys with more reactive temperament exhibited shorter sleep duration and a higher number of awakenings when previously exposed to maternal symptoms of antenatal depression. CONCLUSION For the first time, these findings highlight, in two large cohorts, that children with temperamental reactivity may be more vulnerable to antenatal depression, raising the possibility of targeted interventions to improve infant outcomes. PMID:26075582

  12. Influence of external factors on hair cortisol concentrations.

    PubMed

    Salaberger, Theresa; Millard, Marlon; Makarem, Samy El; Möstl, Erich; Grünberger, Viktoria; Krametter-Frötscher, Reinhild; Wittek, Thomas; Palme, Rupert

    2016-07-01

    Measuring hair cortisol has attracted interest as a long term parameter for chronic stress evaluation. However, some studies support the hypothesis that locally produced cortisol, originating from the hair follicle or skin cells, affects concentrations in the hair. In an animal model the influence of different treatments (extensive brushing, administration of a hyperemising fluid that enhances blood circulation or a synthetic glucocorticoid) on the local cortisol production of hair was evaluated. Therefore eight sheep were sheared and the area of the skin surface of the back was quartered, with three quarters being daily subjected to a certain treatment and one quarter remaining untreated. The skin areas were sheared again after three weeks and cortisol concentrations of all wool samples were determined by immunoassay. Systemic cortisol concentrations were additionally monitored with faecal samples, indicating a significant decline in concentrations of glucocorticoid metabolites between week 1 and 2 or 3, respectively. We found no significant difference in hair cortisol concentrations between fields before treatment (p=0.310). Comparing matched fields before and after treatment, we found no significant differences in wool cortisol concentrations for fields treated with hyperemising fluid as well as for the control fields (p=0.329, p=0.097). Hairs exposed to either extensive brushing or dexamethasone fluid had significantly higher immunoreactive cortisol concentrations after three weeks of treatment (p=0.016, p=0.01). We therefore advise cautious interpretation when measuring hair cortisol concentrations as a parameter for chronic stress, because external factors may have a significant influence on the results. PMID:27167500

  13. Deconvolution of Serum Cortisol Levels by Using Compressed Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Faghih, Rose T.; Dahleh, Munther A.; Adler, Gail K.; Klerman, Elizabeth B.; Brown, Emery N.

    2014-01-01

    The pulsatile release of cortisol from the adrenal glands is controlled by a hierarchical system that involves corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) from the hypothalamus, adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH) from the pituitary, and cortisol from the adrenal glands. Determining the number, timing, and amplitude of the cortisol secretory events and recovering the infusion and clearance rates from serial measurements of serum cortisol levels is a challenging problem. Despite many years of work on this problem, a complete satisfactory solution has been elusive. We formulate this question as a non-convex optimization problem, and solve it using a coordinate descent algorithm that has a principled combination of (i) compressed sensing for recovering the amplitude and timing of the secretory events, and (ii) generalized cross validation for choosing the regularization parameter. Using only the observed serum cortisol levels, we model cortisol secretion from the adrenal glands using a second-order linear differential equation with pulsatile inputs that represent cortisol pulses released in response to pulses of ACTH. Using our algorithm and the assumption that the number of pulses is between 15 to 22 pulses over 24 hours, we successfully deconvolve both simulated datasets and actual 24-hr serum cortisol datasets sampled every 10 minutes from 10 healthy women. Assuming a one-minute resolution for the secretory events, we obtain physiologically plausible timings and amplitudes of each cortisol secretory event with R2 above 0.92. Identification of the amplitude and timing of pulsatile hormone release allows (i) quantifying of normal and abnormal secretion patterns towards the goal of understanding pathological neuroendocrine states, and (ii) potentially designing optimal approaches for treating hormonal disorders. PMID:24489656

  14. Hair cortisol and cognitive performance in working age adults.

    PubMed

    McLennan, Skye N; Ihle, Andreas; Steudte-Schmiedgen, Susann; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Kliegel, Matthias

    2016-05-01

    It has been hypothesized that prolonged exposure to high cortisol levels results in cognitive impairment. However, previous research into the relationship between cortisol and cognition has produced mixed results, most likely due to difficulties achieving valid estimates of long-term cortisol exposure based on salivary or plasma cortisol assessments at a single time point. Furthermore, there has been little research on the cognitive effects of long-term cortisol exposure in working-age adults. In the present study, hair samples were collected from 246 nurses (89.8% female) aged from 21 to 62 (M=42.0, SD=11.2). Hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) in the proximal 3-cm hair segment were analyzed providing an estimate of integrated cortisol secretion over the 3 month-period prior to hair sampling. Cognition was measured using a battery of 15 neuropsychological tests, measuring core dimensions of memory, inductive reasoning, processing speed, crystalized intelligence and major aspects of executive functioning. HCC was not significantly related to any of the cognitive abilities measured, either before or after controlling for potential moderators such as age, sex, education, health, well-being, work ability and burnout. Tests for nonlinear relationships also yielded non-significant results. Thus, despite the study being well powered, long term cortisol exposure did not appear to be related to cognitive performance in this sample of working-age adults, suggesting that long term cortisol exposure may be less relevant to cognition in younger and middle-aged adults than was previously thought. PMID:26881835

  15. Cortisol in human tissues at different stages of life.

    PubMed

    Costa, A; Benedetto, C; Fabris, C; Giraudi, G F; Testori, O; Bertino, E; Marozio, L; Varvello, G; Arisio, R; Ariano, M; Emanuel, A

    1996-01-01

    Aim of the work was to measure the cortisol level in human tissues at different stages of life, by means of radioimmunoassay and by chromatography. Viable samples of 13 different tissues were obtained during surgical intervention from 30 to 70 years old patients of either sex. Mean tissue cortisol concentration was 78 +/- 35 ng/g, ranging from 20 +/- 10 ng/g in the thyroid to 124 +/- 76 ng/g in the kidney. Similar values were measured in the corresponding tissues from not decayed corpses, so that paired values could be mediated. However the pancreas, and corrupted autopsy tissues, gave nil or exceedingly high cortisol concentration values; in some cases, opposite extreme values were measured in different organs of the same body. Cortisol concentration was also measured in 11 sound different tissues of spontaneously aborted or stillbirth fetuses, between 16 and 36 weeks of gestation. Mean value was 63 +/- 27 ng/g, ranging from 30 +/- 25 ng/g in the liver to 104 +/- 52 ng/g in the lungs. Also in fetuses nil or exceedingly high cortisol values occurred in altered tissues. One hundred and fourteen samples of limbs and carcasses of 7 to 12 gestational weeks embryos, obtained from voluntary abortions, were also examined: 20% gave nil result, in the remaining mean cortisol concentration was 32 ng/g. In 33 samples of embryos' mixed viscera, RIA and chromatography gave unreliable exceedingly high values. The nil and the exceedingly high values measured in the altered autoptic tissue specimens were inconsistent with the cortisol blood level measured in the patients, as were those measured in embryonic tissues with the acknowledged blood and adrenals cortisol levels at that stage of life. Thus cortisol may be measured by RIA and by chromatography in sound tissues, while the values obtained in the pancreas, in corrupted tissues, and in embryonal viscera do not represent the hormonal milieu, but are likely artifacts due to impeachment of the diagnostic system. PMID:8884541

  16. Interventions to Improve Cortisol Regulation in Children: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    McLaughlin, Katie A.; Shonkoff, Jack P.

    2014-01-01

    Childhood adversity is associated with physiologic dysregulation across multiple biological systems; however, relatively little is known about whether these changes are reversible with intervention. The objective of this review was to examine evidence for the effectiveness of interventions to promote healthy cortisol regulation in children. We selected articles from English-language publications in PubMed and EBSCO databases through 2012. Two independent reviewers assessed articles against eligibility criteria. Eligible studies were randomized controlled or quasi-experimental studies designed to improve relationships, environments, or psychosocial functioning in children and examined cortisol as an outcome. We identified 19 articles. There was substantial heterogeneity across studies with regard to age, selection criteria, intervention design, cortisol assessment, and follow-up duration. Eighteen of the 19 articles reported at least 1 difference in baseline cortisol, diurnal cortisol, or cortisol responsivity between intervention and control participants. Importantly, however, there was remarkable inconsistency with regard to how the interventions influenced cortisol. Therefore, studies that included a low-risk comparison group (n = 8) provided critical insight, and each found some evidence that postintervention cortisol levels in the intervention group approximated the low-risk comparison group and differed from children receiving usual care. In conclusion, existing studies show that cortisol activity can be altered by psychosocial interventions. These findings are promising, not only because they indicate physiologic plasticity that can be leveraged by interventions but also because they suggest it may be possible to repair regulatory systems after childhood adversity, which could inform strategies for reducing health disparities and promoting lasting improvements in health. PMID:24420810

  17. Effects of cortisol administration on craving in heroin addicts.

    PubMed

    Walter, M; Bentz, D; Schicktanz, N; Milnik, A; Aerni, A; Gerhards, C; Schwegler, K; Vogel, M; Blum, J; Schmid, O; Roozendaal, B; Lang, U E; Borgwardt, S; de Quervain, D

    2015-01-01

    Heroin dependence is a severe and chronically relapsing substance use disorder with limited treatment options. Stress is known to increase craving and drug-taking behavior, but it is not known whether the stress hormone cortisol mediates these stress effects or whether cortisol may rather reduce craving, for example, by interfering with addiction memory. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of cortisol administration on craving in heroin-dependent patients and to determine whether the effects depend on the daily dose of heroin consumption. We used a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study in 29 heroin-dependent patients in a stable heroin-assisted treatment setting. A single oral dose of 20 mg of cortisol or placebo was administered 105 min before the daily heroin administration. The primary outcome measure was cortisol-induced change in craving. Secondary measures included anxiety, anger and withdrawal symptoms. For the visual analog scale for craving, we found a significant interaction (P = 0.0027) between study medication and heroin-dose group (that is, daily low, medium or high dose of heroin). Cortisol administration reduced craving in patients receiving a low dose of heroin (before heroin administration: P = 0.0019; after heroin administration: P = 0.0074), but not in patients receiving a medium or high dose of heroin. In a picture-rating task with drug-related pictures, cortisol administration did not affect the ratings for the picture-characteristic craving in all the three heroin-dose groups. Cortisol also did not significantly affect secondary outcome measures. In conclusion, a single administration of cortisol leads to reduced craving in low-dose heroin addicts. The present findings might have important clinical implications with regard to understanding stress effects and regarding treatment of addiction. PMID:26218852

  18. Deconvolution of serum cortisol levels by using compressed sensing.

    PubMed

    Faghih, Rose T; Dahleh, Munther A; Adler, Gail K; Klerman, Elizabeth B; Brown, Emery N

    2014-01-01

    The pulsatile release of cortisol from the adrenal glands is controlled by a hierarchical system that involves corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) from the hypothalamus, adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH) from the pituitary, and cortisol from the adrenal glands. Determining the number, timing, and amplitude of the cortisol secretory events and recovering the infusion and clearance rates from serial measurements of serum cortisol levels is a challenging problem. Despite many years of work on this problem, a complete satisfactory solution has been elusive. We formulate this question as a non-convex optimization problem, and solve it using a coordinate descent algorithm that has a principled combination of (i) compressed sensing for recovering the amplitude and timing of the secretory events, and (ii) generalized cross validation for choosing the regularization parameter. Using only the observed serum cortisol levels, we model cortisol secretion from the adrenal glands using a second-order linear differential equation with pulsatile inputs that represent cortisol pulses released in response to pulses of ACTH. Using our algorithm and the assumption that the number of pulses is between 15 to 22 pulses over 24 hours, we successfully deconvolve both simulated datasets and actual 24-hr serum cortisol datasets sampled every 10 minutes from 10 healthy women. Assuming a one-minute resolution for the secretory events, we obtain physiologically plausible timings and amplitudes of each cortisol secretory event with R (2) above 0.92. Identification of the amplitude and timing of pulsatile hormone release allows (i) quantifying of normal and abnormal secretion patterns towards the goal of understanding pathological neuroendocrine states, and (ii) potentially designing optimal approaches for treating hormonal disorders. PMID:24489656

  19. Negative emotionality and cortisol during adolescent pregnancy and its effects on infant health and autonomic nervous system reactivity.

    PubMed

    Ponirakis, A; Susman, E J; Stifter, C A

    1998-09-01

    This research examined the relations among maternal emotionality, biology, and infant outcome and autonomic nervous system reactivity (cardiac vagal tone). The sample consisted of 27 pregnant adolescents and their 3-week-old infants. Measures of anxiety, depression, anger, and saliva cortisol were obtained from the adolescents both pre- and postnatally. Infant outcome measures consisted of gestational age at delivery, birth weight, number of risk factors at birth and at 24 hr, Apgar score at 1 and 5 min, abnormalities on newborn physical exam, number of resuscitation measures used on the infant, and cardiac vagal tone. Significant relations were found among the adolescent's emotionality, infant physical outcomes, and cardiac vagal tone. Higher concentrations of adolescent cortisol were associated with lower infant Apgar scores and an increased need for resuscitation measures performed on the infant. The positive association between negative emotions and better infant outcomes also was found and may reflect the sensitivity of the adolescents to their feelings and needs during pregnancy. Social support during pregnancy mediated the effects of maternal negative emotionality and infant cardiac vagal tone. PMID:9742411

  20. Reference ranges for cortisol and α-amylase in mother and newborn saliva samples at different perinatal and postnatal periods.

    PubMed

    García-Blanco, Ana; Vento, Máximo; Diago, Vicente; Cháfer-Pericás, Consuelo

    2016-06-01

    This paper describes a reliable analytical method based on Ultra High-Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry to determine cortisol in saliva samples from healthy mothers (n=87) and newborns (n=65) at different time points: (i) 38 weeks of gestation, (ii) in the immediate postnatal period (48h) after a term delivery and, (iii) 3 months after delivery. The procedure is characterized by a simple sample treatment employing a sample volume of 25μL. In addition to this, salivary α-amylase was determined using a commercial kit. We have proposed potential reference ranges in saliva for cortisol (0.7-35nmolL(-1)) and α-amylase (2-500UmL(-1)) in mothers, and for cortisol (0.1-56nmolL(-1)) and α-amylase (0.1-500UmL(-1)) in newborn infants. In addition, statistical differences between the two sensitive population groups (mothers and newborns) at the perinatal and postnatal periods were studied. A lower concentration for maternal cortisol was found at 38 weeks of gestation than at 48h (p=0.048) or 3 months after delivery (p=0.021). Similar results were found for the α-amylase determinations. Hence, higher concentrations than could be expected from a chronic stress marker were found at 3 months after delivery than at 38 weeks of gestation (p<0.001) or 48h after delivery (p<0.001). We conclude that this analytical method could be applied to further clinical research on perinatal and postnatal stress, such as threatened preterm labor and/or parenting stress, respectively. PMID:27124664

  1. Hair as a retrospective calendar of cortisol production-Increased cortisol incorporation into hair in the third trimester of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Kirschbaum, Clemens; Tietze, Antje; Skoluda, Nadine; Dettenborn, Lucia

    2009-01-01

    Hair has long been used in toxicology, forensic science, doping control and other fields as a biological specimen for the detection of environmental agents, drugs, or toxins. Most recent evidence suggests that also hormones are incorporated and trapped inside the growing hair. This has led to the hypothesis that cortisol measurement of distinct hair segments could provide a retrospective calendar of cortisol production for the individual. In this first proof-of-concept study in humans, we analyzed cortisol in hair donated by mothers with a neonate child (n-Mothers; N=103), mothers with toddlers 3-9 months of age (t-Mothers; N=19), and control women (N=20). We cut hair strands from each women into at least three 3-cm segments, which, based on an average hair growth rate of 1cm per month, would represent hair grown over the past three, six, and nine months, respectively. Since in the third trimester of pregnancy there is a well-documented increased production of cortisol, we expected to see elevated levels of cortisol in the most proximal hair segment of women who had just given birth to a child (n-Mothers) compared with the control women. Likewise, we expected to see elevated levels in the second, third, or fourth segment of mothers of 3-month olds, 6-months olds, and 9-months olds, respectively. These hair segments, cut at 4-12 cm from the scalp, would represent hair grown throughout the third trimester of pregnancy. Results showed that there was a strong monotonic decline in cortisol concentration from the segment closest to the scalp to the most distal hair segment (p<0.0001). Cortisol levels decreased by 30-40% from one segment to the next for the most recent four hair segments. Segments from hair older than one year had similarly, low levels of cortisol. Comparisons of cortisol levels in hair between n-Mothers and control women yielded the expected results: cortisol levels in the first 3-cm hair segment (i.e., closest to the scalp) of n-Mothers were two

  2. Prenatal Cocaine Exposure and Infant Cortisol Reactivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eiden, Rina D.; Veira, Yvette; Granger, Douglas A.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the effects of prenatal cocaine exposure on infant hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity and reactivity at 7 months of infant age. Participants were 168 caregiver-infant dyads (87 cocaine exposed, 81 not cocaine exposed; 47% boys). Maternal behavior, caregiving instability, and infant growth and behavior were assessed,…

  3. Timing of Maternal Immunization Affects Immunological and Behavioral Outcomes of Adult Offspring in Siberian Hamsters (Phodopus sungorus).

    PubMed

    French, Susannah S; Chester, Emily M; Demas, Gregory E

    2016-07-01

    Maternal influences are an important contributing factor to offspring survival, development, and behavior. Common environmental pathogens can induce maternal immune responses and affect subsequent development of offspring. There are likely sensitive periods during pregnancy when animals are particularly vulnerable to environmental disruption. Here we characterize the effects of maternal immunization across pregnancy and postpartum on offspring physiology and behavior in Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus). Hamsters were injected with the antigen keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) (1) prior to pairing with a male (premating), (2) at separation (postmating), (3) at midpregnancy, or (4) after birth (lactation). Maternal food intake, body mass, and immunity were monitored throughout gestation, and litters were measured weekly for growth until adulthood when social behavior, hormone concentrations, and immune responses were determined. We found that immunizations altered maternal immunity throughout pregnancy and lactation. The effects of maternal treatment differed between male and female offspring. Aggressive behavior was enhanced in offspring of both sexes born to mothers treated postmating and thus early in pregnancy relative to other stages. In contrast, maternal treatment and maternal stage differentially affected innate immunity in males and females. Offspring cortisol, however, was unaffected by maternal treatment. Collectively, these data demonstrate that maternal immunization affects offspring physiology and behavior in a time-dependent and sex-specific manner. More broadly, these findings contribute to our understanding of the effects of maternal immune activation, whether it be from environmental exposure or immunization, on immunological and behavioral responses of offspring. PMID:27320639

  4. The Dynamics of Cortical Neuronal Activity in the First Minutes after Spontaneous Awakening in Rats and Mice

    PubMed Central

    Vyazovskiy, Vladyslav V.; Cui, Nanyi; Rodriguez, Alexander V.; Funk, Chadd; Cirelli, Chiara; Tononi, Giulio

    2014-01-01

    Study Objective: Upon awakening from sleep, a fully awake brain state is not reestablished immediately, but the origin and physiological properties of the distinct brain state during the first min after awakening are unclear. To investigate whether neuronal firing immediately upon arousal is different from the remaining part of the waking episode, we recorded and analyzed the dynamics of cortical neuronal activity in the first 15 min after spontaneous awakenings in freely moving rats and mice. Design: Intracortical recordings of the local field potential and neuronal activity in freely-moving mice and rats. Setting: Basic sleep research laboratory. Patients or Participants: WKY adult male rats, C57BL/6 adult male mice. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: In both species the average population spiking activity upon arousal was initially low, though substantial variability in the dynamics of firing activity was apparent between individual neurons. A distinct population of neurons was found that was virtually silent in the first min upon awakening. The overall lower population spiking initially after awakening was associated with the occurrence of brief periods of generalized neuronal silence (OFF periods), whose frequency peaked immediately after awakening and then progressively declined. OFF periods incidence upon awakening was independent of ongoing locomotor activity but was sensitive to immediate preceding sleep/wake history. Notably, in both rats and mice if sleep before a waking episode was enriched in rapid eye movement sleep, the incidence of OFF periods was initially higher as compared to those waking episodes preceded mainly by nonrapid eye movement sleep. Conclusion: We speculate that an intrusion of sleep-like patterns of cortical neuronal activity into the wake state immediately after awakening may account for some of the changes in the behavior and cognitive function typical of what is referred to as sleep inertia. Citation: Vyazovskiy VV, Cui

  5. Cortisol Function Among Early School-aged Homeless Children

    PubMed Central

    Cutuli, J. J.; Wiik, Kristen L.; Herbers, Janette E.; Gunnar, Megan R.; Masten, Ann S.

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Homelessness represents a context of extreme poverty and risk for child development. This study compared the relative influence of two classes of risk in the context of homelessness. Levels of socioeconomic resource-related risk and negative lifetime events were examined with respect to morning cortisol levels and cortisol response to a set of cognitive tasks. Participants were 66 children between the ages of 4 and 7 years staying in an emergency shelter for families. Adversities largely reflecting family level negative life events predicted higher levels of morning cortisol and differences in initial level and change over the course of the session of cognitive tasks. In contrast, a socioeconomic cumulative risk score was not associated with morning or session-related differences in cortisol. PMID:20022181

  6. Intimate partner violence and diurnal cortisol patterns in couples

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyoun K.; Tiberio, Stacey S.; Capaldi, Deborah M.; Shortt, Joann Wu; Squires, Erica C.; Snodgrass, J. Josh

    2014-01-01

    Summary This study examined whether physical intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization was associated with diurnal patterns of salivary cortisol in a community sample of 122 couples in their 30s from predominantly lower socioeconomic status backgrounds. Findings indicate that women with higher levels of victimization exhibited flatter patterns of diurnal cortisol characterized by both higher midday levels and more attenuated decreases in cortisol levels across the day, compared to women with lower levels of victimization. However, men's victimization was not associated with their diurnal cortisol levels. This study advances our understanding of the association between physical IPV victimization and dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning in women, which is likely to have further implications for their subsequent mental and physical health. PMID:25286224

  7. Catecholamine and cortisol levels in Oxford college rowers.

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, R; Ungpakorn, G; Harrison, G A

    1995-01-01

    Urinary catecholamines and cortisol levels in two teams of Oxford college eight oarsmen were compared on three different day types: training days, racing days, and non-rowing days. Adrenaline and cortisol were raised on racing and training days compared to non-racing days. Noradrenaline was raised on training days, reflecting longer periods of physical exercise during training. There was evidence of a progressive lowering of adrenaline output over consecutive race days and that the outcome of the races had an effect on both adrenaline and cortisol. In addition to this there seemed to be differences in cortisol levels between the two teams of rowers on both racing days and non-rowing days. PMID:8800851

  8. Cortisol Response Following Exposure Treatment for PTSD in Rape Victims.

    PubMed

    Gerardi, Maryrose; Rothbaum, Barbara O; Astin, Millie C; Kelley, Mary

    2010-06-01

    This study examined changes in salivary cortisol levels pre-to-post-treatment in adult female rape victims diagnosed with post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) randomly assigned to be treated with either Prolonged Exposure Therapy or Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing. Salivary cortisol was collected at baseline, session 3, and session 9. A significant decrease in salivary cortisol levels was observed in individuals classified as treatment responders in both treatment conditions. Findings suggest that successful exposure-based treatments for PTSD which result in trauma-related and depressive symptom reduction may impact the action of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis as measured by changes in level of salivary cortisol from pre-to-post-treatment. PMID:20526437

  9. [Cortisol and corticosterone plasma levels in different Psittaciformes].

    PubMed

    Hochleithner, M; Nowotny, P

    1992-12-01

    Plasma cortisol and corticosterone levels were measured in macaws, African Grey Parrots, Amazon Parrots and budgerigars using a RIA after preliminary cleaning. As in other avian species, the plasma contains predominantly corticosterone. PMID:1481215

  10. Salivary Cortisol and Cold Pain Sensitivity in Female Twins

    PubMed Central

    Godfrey, Kathryn M; Strachan, Eric; Dansie, Elizabeth; Crofford, Leslie J; Buchwald, Dedra; Goldberg, Jack; Poeschla, Brian; Succop, Annemarie; Noonan, Carolyn; Afari, Niloofar

    2013-01-01

    Background There is a dearth of knowledge about the link between cortisol and pain sensitivity. Purpose We examined the association of salivary cortisol with indices of cold pain sensitivity in 198 female twins and explored the role of familial confounding. Methods Three-day saliva samples were collected for cortisol levels and a cold pressor test was used to collect pain ratings and time to threshold and tolerance. Linear regression modeling with generalized estimating equations examined the overall and within-pair associations. Results Lower diurnal variation of cortisol was associated with higher pain ratings at threshold (p = 0.02) and tolerance (p < 0.01). The relationship of diurnal variation with pain ratings at threshold and tolerance was minimally influenced by familial factors (i.e., genetics and common environment). Conclusions Understanding the genetic and non-genetic mechanisms underlying the link between HPA axis dysregulation and pain sensitivity may help to prevent chronic pain development and maintenance. PMID:23955075

  11. Exogenous cortisol causes a shift from deliberative to intuitive thinking.

    PubMed

    Margittai, Zsofia; Nave, Gideon; Strombach, Tina; van Wingerden, Marijn; Schwabe, Lars; Kalenscher, Tobias

    2016-02-01

    People often rely on intuitive judgments at the expense of deliberate reasoning, but what determines the dominance of intuition over deliberation is not well understood. Here, we employed a psychopharmacological approach to unravel the role of two major endocrine stress mediators, cortisol and noradrenaline, in cognitive reasoning. Healthy participants received placebo, cortisol (hydrocortisone) and/or yohimbine, a drug that increases noradrenergic stimulation, before performing the cognitive reflection test (CRT). We found that cortisol impaired performance in the CRT by biasing responses toward intuitive, but incorrect answers. Elevated stimulation of the noradrenergic system, however, had no effect. We interpret our results in the context of the dual systems theory of judgment and decision making. We propose that cortisol causes a shift from deliberate, reflective cognition toward automatic, reflexive information processing. PMID:26658173

  12. The Postprandial Rise in Plasma Cortisol in Men Is Mediated by Macronutrient-Specific Stimulation of Adrenal and Extra-Adrenal Cortisol Production

    PubMed Central

    Bolton, Jennifer L.; Andrew, Ruth; Reynolds, Rebecca M.; Walker, Brian R.

    2015-01-01

    Context Circadian variation is a fundamental characteristic of plasma glucocorticoids, with a postprandial rise in cortisol an important feature. The diurnal rhythm is presumed to reflect alterations in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity; however, cortisol is produced not only by the adrenal glands but also by regeneration from cortisone by the enzyme 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1, mainly in liver and adipose tissue. Objective We tested the contribution of peripheral cortisol regeneration to macronutrient-induced circadian variation of plasma cortisol in humans. Design This was a randomized, single-blinded, crossover study. Setting The study was conducted at a hospital research facility. Participants Eight normal-weight healthy men participated in the study. Interventions Subjects were given isocaloric energy isodense flavor-matched liquid meals composed of carbohydrate, protein, fat, or low-calorie placebo during infusion of the stable isotope tracer 9,11,12,12-[2H]4-cortisol. Outcome Measures and Results Plasma cortisol increased similarly after all macronutrient meals (by ~90 nmol/L) compared with placebo. Carbohydrate stimulated adrenal secretion and extra-adrenal regeneration of cortisol to a similar degree. Protein and fat meals stimulated adrenal cortisol secretion to a greater degree than extra-adrenal cortisol regeneration. The increase in cortisol production by 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 was in proportion to the increase in insulin. The postprandial cortisol rise was not accounted for by decreased cortisol clearance. Conclusions Food-induced circadian variation in plasma cortisol is mediated by adrenal secretion and extra-adrenal regeneration of cortisol. Given that the latter has the more potent effect on tissue cortisol concentrations and that effects on adrenal and extra-adrenal cortisol production are macronutrient specific, this novel mechanism may contribute to the physiological interplay between insulin and

  13. Cortisol, insulin and leptin during space flight and bed rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stein, T. P.; Schluter, M. D.; Leskiw, M. J.

    1999-01-01

    Most ground based models for studying muscle atrophy and bone loss show reasonable fidelity to the space flight situation. However there are some differences. Investigation of the reasons for these differences can provide useful information about humans during space flight and aid in the refinement of ground based models. This report discusses three such differences, the relationships between: (i) cortisol and the protein loss, (ii) cortisol and ACTH and (iii) leptin, insulin and food intake.

  14. Awakening arterial blood and end-tidal concentrations of isoflurane in female surgical patients.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tso-Chou; Lu, Chih-Cherng; Hsu, Che-Hao; Pergolizz, Joseph V; Chang, Cheng-Chang; Lee, Meei-Shyuan; Ho, Shung-Tai

    2016-07-01

    Delayed extubation occurs after isoflurane anesthesia, especially following prolonged surgical duration. We aimed to determine the arterial blood concentrations of isoflurane and the correlation with end-tidal concentrations for predicting emergence from general anesthesia.Thirty-four American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status class I-II gynecologic patients were included. General anesthesia was maintained with a fixed 2% inspiratory isoflurane in 6 L/minute oxygen, which was discontinued after surgery. One milliliter of arterial blood was obtained for the determination of isoflurane concentration by gas chromatography at 20 and 10 minutes before and 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20 minutes after discontinuation, in addition to the time of eye opening to verbal command, defined as awakening. Inspiratory and end-tidal concentrations were simultaneously detected by an infrared analyzer.The mean awakening arterial blood concentration of isoflurane was 0.20%, which was lower than the simultaneous end-tidal concentration 0.23%. The differences between arterial and end-tidal concentrations during emergence fell into an acceptable range (±1.96 standard deviation). After receiving a mean time of 108-minute general anesthesia, the time to eye opening after discontinuing isoflurane was 18.5 minutes (range 11-30, median 18 minutes), without statistical significance with anesthesia duration (P = 0.078) and body mass index (P = 0.170).We demonstrated the awakening arterial blood concentration of isoflurane in female patients as 0.20%. With well-assisted ventilation, the end-tidal concentration could be an indicator for the arterial blood concentration to predict emergence from shorter duration of isoflurane anesthesia. PMID:27472727

  15. Does cortisol influence core executive functions? A meta-analysis of acute cortisol administration effects on working memory, inhibition, and set-shifting.

    PubMed

    Shields, Grant S; Bonner, Joseph C; Moons, Wesley G

    2015-08-01

    The hormone cortisol is often believed to play a pivotal role in the effects of stress on human cognition. This meta-analysis is an attempt to determine the effects of acute cortisol administration on core executive functions. Drawing on both rodent and stress literatures, we hypothesized that acute cortisol administration would impair working memory and set-shifting but enhance inhibition. Additionally, because cortisol is thought to exert different nongenomic (rapid) and genomic (slow) effects, we further hypothesized that the effects of cortisol would differ as a function of the delay between cortisol administration and cognitive testing. Although the overall analyses were nonsignificant, after separating the rapid, nongenomic effects of cortisol from the slower, genomic effects of cortisol, the rapid effects of cortisol enhanced response inhibition, g+ = 0.113, p=.016, but impaired working memory, g+ = -0.315, p=.008, although these effects reversed over time. Contrary to our hypotheses, there was no effect of cortisol administration on set-shifting. Thus, although we did not find support for the idea that increases in cortisol influence set-shifting, we found that acute increases in cortisol exert differential effects on working memory and inhibition over time. PMID:25973565

  16. Attentional awakening: gradual modulation of temporal attention in rapid serial visual presentation.

    PubMed

    Ariga, Atsunori; Yokosawa, Kazuhiko

    2008-03-01

    Orienting attention to a point in time facilitates processing of an item within rapidly changing surroundings. We used a one-target RSVP task to look for differences in accuracy in reporting a target related to when the target temporally appeared in the sequence. The results show that observers correctly report a target early in the sequence less frequently than later in the sequence. Previous RSVP studies predicted equivalently accurate performances for one target wherever it appeared in the sequence. We named this new phenomenon attentional awakening, which reflects a gradual modulation of temporal attention in a rapid sequence. PMID:17106706

  17. Estimation of cerebrospinal fluid cortisol level in tuberculous meningitis

    PubMed Central

    Mahale, Rohan R.; Mehta, Anish; Uchil, Sudhir

    2015-01-01

    Background: Central nervous system (CNS) involvement in tuberculosis is around 5–10%. Of the various manifestations of CNS tuberculosis, meningitis is the most common (70–80%). Delay in diagnosis and treatment results in significant morbidity and mortality. Objective: To study the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cortisol levels in tubercular meningitis and compare the levels with controls. Methods: Cross-sectional, prospective, observational, hospital-based study done in 20 patients of tubercular meningitis, 20 patients of aseptic meningitis (AM) and 25 control subjects without any preexisting neurological disorders who have undergone lumbar puncture for spinal anesthesia. Results: Cortisol was detected in all 40 CSF samples of patients (100%). Mean CSF cortisol level was 8.82, 3.47 and 1.05 in tubercular meningitis, AM and controls, respectively. Mean CSF cortisol level in tubercular meningitis was significantly higher as compared to AM and controls (P < 0.0001). Conclusion: Cortisol level estimation in CSF is one of the rapid, relatively inexpensive diagnostic markers in early identification of tubercular meningitis along with CSF findings of elevated proteins, hypoglycorrhachia and lymphocytic pleocytosis. This aids in earlier institution of appropriate treatment and thereby decreasing morbidity and mortality. This is the first study on the estimation of CSF cortisol level in tuberculous meningitis. PMID:26752900

  18. Father Contributions to Cortisol Responses in Infancy and Toddlerhood

    PubMed Central

    Mills-Koonce, W. Roger; Garrett-Peters, Patricia; Barnett, Melissa; Granger, Douglas A.; Blair, Clancy; Cox, Martha J.

    2015-01-01

    The current study is one of the first to prospectively examine longitudinal associations between observed father caregiving behaviors and child cortisol reactivity and regulation in response to emotional arousal at 7 and 24 months of child age. Observations of father and mother caregiving behaviors and child cortisol levels in response to challenges at 7 months and 24 months were collected. Analyses were based on a subsample of children from the Family Life Project who lived with both their biological mothers and fathers and for whom there was at least partial cortisol data (7 months: n=717; 24 months n= 579). At 7 months of child age the sample was 49.0% female, 25.8% African American, and 74.2% European American. At 24 months of child age the sample was 49.9% female, 24.7% African American and 75.3% European American. Analyses across assessment points were conducted simultaneously using mixed linear modeling for repeated measures data to test for differential effects of fathering across infancy and toddlerhood. Concurrent measures of father negativity were positively associated with greater increases in child cortisol levels in response to emotion challenge at 7 months (p = .01) and with higher overall levels of cortisol at 24 months (p < .001). However, there was no evidence that father caregiving during infancy independently predicted later cortisol activity during toddlerhood. PMID:21142362

  19. MDMA, cortisol, and heightened stress in recreational ecstasy users.

    PubMed

    Parrott, Andrew C; Montgomery, Cathy; Wetherell, Mark A; Downey, Luke A; Stough, Con; Scholey, Andrew B

    2014-09-01

    Stress develops when an organism requires additional metabolic resources to cope with demanding situations. This review will debate how recreational 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, 'ecstasy') can increase some aspects of acute and chronic stress in humans. Laboratory studies on the acute effects of MDMA on cortisol release and neurohormone levels in drug-free regular ecstasy/MDMA users have been reviewed, and the role of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in chronic changes in anxiety, stress, and cognitive coping is debated. In the laboratory, acute ecstasy/MDMA use can increase cortisol levels by 100-200%, whereas ecstasy/MDMA-using dance clubbers experience an 800% increase in cortisol levels, because of the combined effects of the stimulant drug and dancing. Three-month hair samples of abstinent users revealed cortisol levels 400% higher than those in controls. Chronic users show heightened cortisol release in stressful environments and deficits in complex neurocognitive tasks. Event-related evoked response potential studies show altered patterns of brain activation, suggestive of increased mental effort, during basic information processing. Chronic mood deficits include more daily stress and higher depression in susceptible individuals. We conclude that ecstasy/MDMA increases cortisol levels acutely and subchronically and that changes in the HPA axis may explain why recreational ecstasy/MDMA users show various aspects of neuropsychobiological stress. PMID:25014666

  20. Academic self-concept of ability and cortisol reactivity.

    PubMed

    Minkley, N; Westerholt, D M; Kirchner, W H

    2014-05-01

    The present study aimed to clarify the relationship between a school-specific trait (academic self-concept of ability [ASCA]) and hormonal stress response by using a trait-compatible stressor (test). First, we determined 52 students' ASCA scores for biology and measured their salivary cortisol concentration before and after a biology test (experimental group, n=28) or a free writing task (control group, n=24). For participants who took the test, statistical analysis indicated a significant negative correlation between ASCA score and cortisol response. In contrast, the control group showed a decrease in cortisol concentrations between test times and no correlation between cortisol concentration and ASCA scores were found. These findings indicated an interaction between ASCA scores and hormonal stress response when an academic-related stressor is present. Furthermore, these variables might influence each other adversely: high cortisol concentrations during a test situation may lead to greater feelings of insecurity, resulting in low ASCA scores and awareness of these low scores may lead to a further increase in cortisol, creating a vicious cycle. PMID:24219306

  1. [A critical analysis of cortisol measurements: an update].

    PubMed

    Maidana, Patricia; Bruno, Oscar D; Mesch, Viviana

    2013-01-01

    Serum cortisol measurement is a very useful tool in the biochemical evaluation of adrenocortical function. Since this hormone circulates in blood mainly linked to binding globulins but is also partially free, it can be measured not only in the blood but also in urine, saliva and other biological fluids and tissues. Basal determinations as well as dynamic testing may be performed to evaluate the circadian variations, to estimate the diurnal cortisol secretion and to analyze its relations with other components of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Measurements of cortisol in blood, saliva and urine may reflect the cortisol secretion at the time of sample collection or during a 24 h span. Recently, it has been proposed the determination of cortisol in tissues such as hair and nails like a means of evaluating the hormonal status during prolonged periods. The aim of this paper is to update the methodology for measuring cortisol and its usefulness for the clinical diagnosis of troubles of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. PMID:24356273

  2. Cortisol levels and anxiety-related behaviors in cattle.

    PubMed

    Bristow, Daniel J; Holmes, David S

    2007-03-16

    This investigation was conducted to examine the relationship between cortisol levels and anxiety-related behavior in nine Angus/Hereford cows. In a non-stressful pasture setting, measures were taken of rumination, distance from another cow, and body position. In a stressful holding pen situation, measures were taken of vocalizations and resistance to entering a squeeze chute. Cortisol was measured in serum samples. Subjects with high levels of cortisol spent less time ruminating (p=0.007) and vocalized more (p=0.07) than subjects with low levels of cortisol. Regardless of statistical significance, all mean differences were in the predicted direction. Cortisol levels were correlated with time spent ruminating (p=0.004) and later entrance to the squeeze chute (p=0.10). All correlations were also in the predicted direction. These findings provide consistent support for the link between cortisol and anxiety-related behavior in beef cattle, and the findings have theoretical and practical implications. PMID:17196624

  3. The Cortisol to Cortisone Ratio during Cardiac Catheterisation in Sows.

    PubMed

    Skarlandtová, Hana; Bičíková, Marie; Neužil, Petr; Mlček, Mikuláš; Hrachovina, Vladimír; Svoboda, Tomáš; Medová, Eva; Kudlička, Jaroslav; Dohnalová, Alena; Havránek, Štěpán; Kazihnítková, Hana; Máčová, Ludmila; Vařejková, Eva; Kittnar, Otomar

    2015-01-01

    A possible effect of mini-invasive heart intervention on a response of hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal stress axis and conversion of cortisone to cortisol were studied. We have analysed two stress markers levels (cortisol, cortisone) and cortisol/cortisone ratio in 25 sows using minimally invasive heart catheterisation as the stress factor. The values of studied parameters were assessed in four periods of the experiment: (1) the baseline level on the day before intervention, (2) after the introduction of anaesthesia, (3) after conducting tissue stimulation or ablation, and (4) after the end of the catheterisation. For statistical analyses we used the non-parametric Friedman test for four dependent samples (including all four stages of the operation) or three dependent samples (influence of operation only, baseline level was excluded). Statistically significant differences in both Friedman tests were found for cortisol and for cortisone. We have found the highest level of cortisol/cortisone ratio in unstressed conditions, then it decreased to the minimal level at the end of the intervention. We have concluded that cortisol levels are blunted by the influence of anaesthesia after its administration, and therefore decrease back to the baseline at the end of the operation. PMID:26654801

  4. Concerns Regarding Hair Cortisol as a Biomarker of Chronic Stress in Exercise and Sport Science

    PubMed Central

    Gerber, Markus; Brand, Serge; Lindwall, Magnus; Elliot, Catherine; Kalak, Nadeem; Herrmann, Christian; Pühse, Uwe; Jonsdottir, Ingibjörg H.

    2012-01-01

    Hair cortisol has the potential to fill the methodological void of long-term cortisol assessment while becoming a widely accepted measure in biopsychology. This review critically examines the applicability and relevance of hair cortisol measurement specifically within the field of exercise and sport science. Current measures of the HPA axis only cover a brief time period, whereas hair cortisol is a unique, non-invasive means to capture long- term cortisol secretion. Studies have shown that individuals who have elevated cortisol secretion (e.g. due to diseases associated with a disturbed activation of the HPA axis or exposure to stressful life events) reveal increased hair cortisol. By contrast, only weak correlations exist between hair cortisol and perceived stress, and the direction of the relationship between hair cortisol levels and mental disorders is unclear. Acute exercise, however, results in increased levels of cortisol that eventually is reflected in higher levels of cortisol in hair samples and studies have shown that exercise intensity is related to hair cortisol level. Thus, elevated hair cortisol levels found among regular exercisers are not necessarily pathological. Thus, one should practice caution when associating athletes’ elevated hair cortisol with poor mental health or disease. Hair cortisol analysis can contribute to a more complete understanding of how long-term cortisol elevation mediates stress-related effects on the health and performance of recreational exercisers and elite athletes. Nevertheless, it is crucial for exercise and sport scientists to consider whether their research questions can be adequately addressed, given that regular intense exercise results in substantially augmented hair cortisol levels. Key points Hair cortisol is a unique, non-invasive and painless means to capture long-term cortisol secretion. Individuals expected to have elevated cortisol secretion (e.g. due to trauma) have increased hair cortisol. Preliminary

  5. Pain-related stress in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit and salivary cortisol reactivity to socio-emotional stress in 3-month-old very preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Provenzi, Livio; Giusti, Lorenzo; Fumagalli, Monica; Tasca, Hilarj; Ciceri, Francesca; Menozzi, Giorgia; Mosca, Fabio; Morandi, Francesco; Borgatti, Renato; Montirosso, Rosario

    2016-10-01

    Very preterm (VPT) infants are hospitalized in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) and exposed to varying levels of skin-breaking procedures (pain-related stress), even in absence of severe clinical conditions. Repeated and prolonged pain exposure may alter hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis reactivity in VPT infants. During the post-discharge period, altered HPA axis reactivity has been documented in response to non-social stressors, using salivary cortisol as a biomarker. However, little is known about the effects of NICU pain-related stress on subsequent HPA axis reactivity to socio-emotional stress in infants. We examined the relationship between pain-related stress in NICU and HPA axis reactivity (i.e., salivary cortisol reactivity) to an age-appropriate socio-emotional condition in 37 healthy VPT infants compared to 53 full-term (FT) controls. The number of skin-breaking procedures was obtained across NICU stay for VPT infants. At 3 months (corrected age for prematurity), all infants participated in the maternal Face-to-Face Still-Face (FFSF) procedure, in order to assess HPA axis reactivity to socio-emotional stress (i.e., maternal unresponsiveness). VPT infants exhibited a blunted salivary cortisol reactivity, which was associated with the amount of skin-breaking procedures during NICU: greater pain-related stress predicted lower salivary cortisol reactivity, adjusting for neonatal confounders. These findings further advance our knowledge of how early exposure to pain-related stress in NICU contributes to the programming of an altered HPA axis reactivity to socio-emotional stress in 3-month-old VPT infants, even in the absence of major perinatal complications. PMID:27428089

  6. Trajectories of maternal depressive symptoms over her child's life span: Relation to adrenocortical, cardiovascular, and emotional functioning in children

    PubMed Central

    Gump, Brooks B.; Reihman, Jacki; Stewart, Paul; Lonky, ED; Darvill, Tom; Granger, Douglas A.; Matthews, Karen A.

    2015-01-01

    Maternal depression has a number of adverse effects on children. In the present study, maternal depressive symptoms were assessed (using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale) when their child was 3 months, 6 months, 1 year, 2 years, 4.25 years, 6 years, 7 years, 8 years, and 10 years of age. At 9.5 years of age, children's (94 females, 82 males) depressive symptoms as well as cardiovascular and cortisol levels during baseline and two psychologically stressful tasks were measured. Using multilevel modeling, maternal depressive symptom trajectories were considered in relation to their child's adrenocortical and cardiovascular responses to acute stress. Our goal was to determine maternal depressive symptom trajectories for children with elevated cardiovascular and cortisol reactivity to acute stress and elevated depressive symptoms. In general, those mothers with chronically elevated depressive symptoms over their child's life span had children with lower initial cortisol, higher cardiac output and stroke volume in response to acute stress, lower vascular resistance during acute stress tasks, and significantly more depressive symptoms at 9.5 years of age. These results are discussed in the context of established associations among hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis dysregulation, depression, and cardiovascular disease. PMID:19144231

  7. Validation of a cortisol enzyme immunoassay and characterization of salivary cortisol circadian rhythm in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Heintz, Matthew R; Santymire, Rachel M; Parr, Lisa A; Lonsdorf, Elizabeth V

    2011-09-01

    Monitoring concentrations of stress hormones is an important tool for behavioral research and conservation for animals both in the wild and captivity. Glucocorticoids can be measured in mammals as an indicator of stress by analyzing blood, feces, urine, hair, feathers, or saliva. The advantages of using saliva for measuring cortisol concentrations are three-fold: it is minimally invasive, multiple samples can be collected from the same individual in a short timeframe, and cortisol has a relatively short response time in saliva as compared with other materials. The purpose of this study was to: (1) conduct an adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) challenge as a physiological validation for an enzyme immunoassay to measure salivary cortisol in chimpanzees and (2) characterize the circadian rhythm of salivary cortisol in chimpanzees. We determined that salivary cortisol concentrations peaked 45 min following the ACTH challenge, which is similar to humans. Also, salivary cortisol concentrations peaked early in the morning and decreased throughout the day. We recommend that saliva collection may be the most effective method of measuring stress reactivity and has the potential to complement behavioral, cognitive, physiological, and welfare studies. PMID:21538448

  8. Association Between Feeling Upon Awakening and Use of Information Technology Devices in Japanese Children

    PubMed Central

    Kondo, Yusuke; Tanabe, Tsuyoshi; Kobayashi-Miura, Mikiko; Amano, Hiroki; Yamaguchi, Natsu; Kamura, Masanori; Fujita, Yasuyuki

    2012-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to clarify the relationship between feeling upon awakening (FA) and time spent using information technology (IT) devices by children in kindergartens, elementary schools, and junior high schools in Shimane, Japan. Methods In October 2008, a self-report survey was distributed to 2075 children in kindergartens (n = 261), elementary schools (n = 1162), and junior high schools (n = 652) in Shimane, Japan. The questionnaire gathered data on sex, school year, feeling upon awakening, and time spent using IT devices after school (television, videos on television, video games, personal computers, and cellular phones). After adjusting for sex and school year, data were analyzed by multivariate logistic regression analysis to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results A total of 2030 children completed this survey (response rate, 97.8%). Negative FA was associated with watching television more than 2 hours/day (OR = 1.51, 95% CI = 1.23–1.85), playing video games more than 30 minutes/day (1.50, 1.20–1.87), and using personal computers more than 30 minutes/day (1.35, 1.04–1.75). Conclusions Time spent using IT devices affected the FA of children in kindergarten through junior high school. We propose the development of guidelines regarding the appropriate amount of time this population should spend using IT devices. PMID:22041529

  9. The impact of circadian phenotype and time since awakening on diurnal performance in athletes.

    PubMed

    Facer-Childs, Elise; Brandstaetter, Roland

    2015-02-16

    Circadian rhythms, among other factors, have been shown to regulate key physiological processes involved in athletic performance. Personal best performance of athletes in the evening was confirmed across different sports. Contrary to this view, we identified peak performance times in athletes to be different between human "larks" and "owls" (also called "morningness/eveningness types" or "chronotypes" and referred to as circadian phenotypes in this paper), i.e., individuals with well-documented genetic and physiological differences that result in disparities between their biological clocks and how they entrain to exogenous cues, such as the environmental light/dark cycle and social factors. We found time since entrained awakening to be the major predictor of peak performance times, rather than time of day, as well as significant individual performance variations as large as 26% in the course of a day. Our novel approach combining the use of an athlete-specific chronometric test, longitudinal circadian analysis, and physical performance tests to characterize relevant sleep/wake and performance parameters in athletes allows a comprehensive analysis of the link between the circadian system and diurnal performance variation. We establish that the evaluation of an athlete's personal best performance requires consideration of circadian phenotype, performance evaluation at different times of day, and analysis of performance as a function of time since entrained awakening. PMID:25639241

  10. Circadian and sleep episode duration influences on cognitive performance following the process of awakening.

    PubMed

    Matchock, Robert L

    2010-01-01

    The process of waking up from an episode of sleep can produce temporary deficits in cognitive functioning and low levels of alertness and vigilance, a process referred to as sleep inertia. Cognitive ability varies as a function of time-of-day; cognitive ability associated with sleep inertia also shows circadian influences with deleterious effects most pronounced when awakened from biological night, possibly paralleling the core body temperature minimum. The length of the sleep episode may contribute to the severity of sleep inertia. Short sleep episodes (<20 min) produce little cognitive impairment, probably because of a lack of slow-wave sleep in the sleep episode. With longer sleep episodes, aspects of sleep depth such as percentage of slow-wave sleep or total length of the sleep episode may be important. Finally, myriad tasks have been used to measure sleep inertia effects, and cognitive deficits associated with waking up have been demonstrated on both simple and complex tasks for both speed and accuracy. More research is needed on how the type of task may interact with sleep inertia. Tests that measure known specific aspects of cognition and that can be mapped to brain systems and neurotransmitters (e.g., the Attentional Network Test: ANT) are recommended to further understand how information processing during the process of awakening is distinct from other aspects of awareness. PMID:20970004

  11. Pregnancy Distress Gets Under Fetal Skin: Maternal Ambulatory Assessment & Sex Differences in Prenatal Development

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, Colleen; Werner, Elizabeth; Feng, Tianshu; Lee, Seonjoo; Altemus, Margaret; Isler, Joseph R.

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal maternal distress is associated with an at-risk developmental profile, yet there is little fetal evidence of this putative in utero process. Moreover, the biological transmission for these maternal effects remains uncertain. In a study of n = 125 pregnant adolescents (ages 14–19), ambulatory assessments of daily negative mood (anger, frustration, irritation, stress), physical activity, blood pressure, heart rate (every 30 min over 24 hr), and salivary cortisol (six samples) were collected at 13–16, 24–27, 34–37 gestational weeks. Corticotropin-releasing hormone, C-reactive protein, and interleukin 6 from blood draws and 20 min assessments of fetal heart rate (FHR) and movement were acquired at the latter two sessions. On average, fetuses showed development in the expected direction (decrease in FHR, increase in SD of FHR and in the correlation of movement and FHR (“coupling”)). Maternal distress characteristics were associated with variations in the level and trajectory of fetal measures, and results often differed by sex. For males, greater maternal 1st and 2nd session negative mood and 2nd session physical activity were associated with lower overall FHR (p <.01), while 1st session cortisol was associated with a smaller increase in coupling (p <.01), and overall higher levels (p = .05)—findings suggesting accelerated development. For females, negative mood, cortisol, and diastolic blood pressure were associated with indications of relatively less advanced and accelerated outcomes. There were no associations between negative mood and biological variables. These data indicate that maternal psychobiological status influences fetal development, with females possibly more variously responsive to different exposures. PMID:25945698

  12. Maternal immune activation affects litter success, size and neuroendocrine responses related to behavior in adult offspring.

    PubMed

    French, Susannah S; Chester, Emily M; Demas, Gregory E

    2013-07-01

    It is increasingly evident that influences other than genetics can contribute to offspring phenotype. In particular, maternal influences are an important contributing factor to offspring survival, development, physiology and behavior. Common environmental pathogens such as viral or bacterial microorganisms can induce maternal immune responses, which have the potential to alter the prenatal environment via multiple independent pathways. The effects of maternal immune activation on endocrine responses and behavior are less well studied and provide the basis for the current study. Our approach in the current study was two-pronged: 1) quantify sickness responses during pregnancy in adult female hamsters experiencing varying severity of immune responsiveness (i.e., differing doses of lipopolysaccharide [LPS]), and 2) assess the effects of maternal immune activation on offspring development, immunocompetence, hormone profiles, and social behavior during adulthood. Pregnancy success decreased with increasing doses of LPS, and litter size was reduced in LPS dams that managed to successfully reproduce. Unexpectedly, pregnant females treated with LPS showed a hypothermic response in addition to the more typical anorexic and body mass changes associated with sickness. Significant endocrine changes related to behavior were observed in the offspring of LPS-treated dams; these effects were apparent in adulthood. Specifically, offspring from LPS treated dams showed significantly greater cortisol responses to stressful resident-intruder encounters compared with offspring from control dams. Post-behavior cortisol was elevated in male LPS offspring relative to the offspring of control dams, and was positively correlated with the frequency of bites during agonistic interactions, and cortisol levels in both sexes were related to defensive behaviors, suggesting that changes in hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis responsiveness may play a regulatory role in the observed behavioral

  13. Pregnancy distress gets under fetal skin: Maternal ambulatory assessment & sex differences in prenatal development.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Colleen; Werner, Elizabeth; Feng, Tianshu; Lee, Seonjoo; Altemus, Margaret; Isler, Joseph R; Monk, Catherine

    2015-07-01

    Prenatal maternal distress is associated with an at-risk developmental profile, yet there is little fetal evidence of this putative in utero process. Moreover, the biological transmission for these maternal effects remains uncertain. In a study of n = 125 pregnant adolescents (ages 14-19), ambulatory assessments of daily negative mood (anger, frustration, irritation, stress), physical activity, blood pressure, heart rate (every 30 min over 24 hr), and salivary cortisol (six samples) were collected at 13-16, 24-27, 34-37 gestational weeks. Corticotropin-releasing hormone, C-reactive protein, and interleukin 6 from blood draws and 20 min assessments of fetal heart rate (FHR) and movement were acquired at the latter two sessions. On average, fetuses showed development in the expected direction (decrease in FHR, increase in SD of FHR and in the correlation of movement and FHR ("coupling")). Maternal distress characteristics were associated with variations in the level and trajectory of fetal measures, and results often differed by sex. For males, greater maternal 1st and 2nd session negative mood and 2nd session physical activity were associated with lower overall FHR (p < .01), while 1st session cortisol was associated with a smaller increase in coupling (p < .01), and overall higher levels (p = .05)-findings suggesting accelerated development. For females, negative mood, cortisol, and diastolic blood pressure were associated with indications of relatively less advanced and accelerated outcomes. There were no associations between negative mood and biological variables. These data indicate that maternal psychobiological status influences fetal development, with females possibly more variously responsive to different exposures. PMID:25945698

  14. Theoretical Awakenings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Counseling and Development, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Contains six personal accounts: "Hysterical Paralysis: Confirmation of Counseling Process" (Theodore Chapin); "Understanding Psychodynamic Concepts through Personal Trauma" (Steven Michael Cobb); "Theory into Practice: Choosing an F-Stop" (Ron Crawford); "Learning to Empathize with Resistance" (Stuart Frederick); "I Still Don't Know how to Do…

  15. Role of shame and body esteem in cortisol stress responses.

    PubMed

    Lupis, Sarah B; Sabik, Natalie J; Wolf, Jutta M

    2016-04-01

    Studies assessing the role of shame in HPA axis reactivity report mixed findings. Discrepancies may be due to methodological difficulties and inter-individual differences in the propensity to experience shame in a stressful situation. Hence, the current study combined self-report of shame and facial coding of shame expressions and assessed the role of body esteem as a moderator of the shame-stress link. For this, 44 healthy students (24F, age 20.5 ± 2.1 years) were exposed to an acute psychosocial stress paradigm (Trier Social Stress Test: TSST). Salivary cortisol levels were measured throughout the protocol. Trait shame was measured before the stress test, and state shame immediately afterwards. Video recordings of the TSST were coded to determine emotion expressions. State shame was neither associated with cortisol stress responses nor with body esteem (self-report: all ps ≥ .24; expression: all ps ≥ .31). In contrast, higher trait shame was associated with both negative body esteem (p = .049) and stronger cortisol stress responses (p = .013). Lastly, having lower body esteem predicted stronger cortisol stress responses (p = .022); however, it did not significantly moderate the association between shame indices and cortisol stress responses (all ps ≥ .94). These findings suggest that body esteem and trait shame independently contribute to strength of cortisol stress responses. Thus, in addition to trait shame, body esteem emerged as an important predictor of cortisol stress responses and as such, a potential contributor to stress-related negative health outcomes. PMID:26577952

  16. Basal salivary cortisol secretion and susceptibility to upper respiratory infection.

    PubMed

    Janicki-Deverts, Denise; Cohen, Sheldon; Turner, Ronald B; Doyle, William J

    2016-03-01

    The immunosuppressive effects of glucocorticoids (GCs) are well-established. However, whether the net effect of GC-elicited alterations in immune function is sufficient to influence a clinically relevant outcome in healthy adults has yet to be shown. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether inter-individual differences in basal salivary cortisol production are associated with increased risk and severity of infection and subsequent illness following experimental exposure to a virus that causes the common cold. The present analyses combine archival data from three viral-challenge studies. Participants were 608 healthy adults, aged 18 to 55 years (49.2% female; 65.8% white), who each completed a three-day saliva collection protocol; was subsequently exposed to a virus that causes the common cold; and monitored for 5 days for objective signs of infection (presence of challenge virus in nasal secretions) and clinical illness (mucus weight, mucociliary clearance time). Basal cortisol production (operationalized as the calculated area-under-the-curve averaged across the 3 days) showed a graded association with infection risk, with those producing higher levels of cortisol being at greater risk. Cortisol also showed a continuous association with duration of viral shedding, an indicator of viral replication and continuing infection, such that higher cortisol concentrations predicted more days of shedding. Cortisol was not, however, related to severity of objective illness. These findings are the first to demonstrate in healthy adults an association between basal cortisol production and an objectively measured and clinically relevant infectious disease outcome. PMID:26778776

  17. Cortisol levels and suicidal behavior: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Daryl B; Ferguson, Eamonn; Green, Jessica A; O'Carroll, Ronan E; O'Connor, Rory C

    2016-01-01

    Suicide is a major cause of death worldwide, responsible for 1.5% of all mortality. The causes of suicidal behavior are not fully understood. Dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity, as measured by cortisol levels, is one potential risk factor. This meta-analytic review aimed (i) to estimate the strength and variability of the association between naturally fluctuating cortisol levels and suicidal behavior and (ii) to identify moderators of this relationship. A systematic literature search identified 27 studies (N=2226; 779 suicide attempters and 1447 non-attempters) that met the study eligibility criteria from a total of 417 unique records initially examined. Estimates of effect sizes (r) obtained from these studies were analysed using Comprehensive Meta-Analysis. In these analyses, we compared participants identified as having a past history of suicide attempt(s) to those with no such history. Study quality, mean age of sample and percentage of male participants were examined as potential moderators. Overall, there was no significant effect of suicide group on cortisol. However, significant associations between cortisol and suicide attempts were observed as a function of age. In studies where the mean age of the sample was below 40 years the association was positive (i.e., higher cortisol was associated with suicide attempts; r=.234, p<.001), and where the mean age was 40 or above the association was negative (i.e., lower cortisol was associated with suicide attempts; r=-.129, p<.001). These findings confirm that HPA axis activity, as indicated by age-dependent variations in cortisol levels, is associated with suicidal behavior. The challenge for theory and clinical practice is to explain the complete reversal of the association with age and to identify its clinical implications. PMID:26555430

  18. Cortisol directly impacts Flavobacterium columnare in vitro growth characteristics.

    PubMed

    Declercq, Annelies Maria; Aerts, Johan; Ampe, Bart; Haesebrouck, Freddy; De Saeger, Sarah; Decostere, Annemie

    2016-01-01

    Teleost fish faced with stressful stimuli launch an endocrine stress response through activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal axis to release glucocorticoids, in particular cortisol, into the blood. For the majority of bacterial fish pathogens, stress is considered a key factor in disease outbreaks. Based upon studies in mammals, there is considerable evidence to suggest that, besides impairing the immune system, cortisol can have a direct effect on bacterial cells. Hitherto, this intriguing field of microbial endocrinology has remained largely unexplored in aquatic diseases. The present study investigated in vitro the impact of cortisol on phenotypic traits of the fresh water fish pathogen Flavobacterium columnare. Colonies obtained from the highly virulent (HV) isolates resulted in significantly larger and more spreading colonies compared to those from the low virulent (LV) isolates. High cortisol doses added displayed a direct effect on the bacterial cells and induced a significant decrease in colony size. An additional intriguing finding was the inverse relationship between cortisol concentrations added to the broth and the spreading character of colonies retrieved, with higher cortisol doses resulting in less rhizoid to rough and even smooth colony formation (the latter only in the LV trout isolate), suggesting a dose-response effect. The loss of the rhizoid appearance of the F. columnare colonies upon administration of cortisol, and hence the loss of motility, might indicate a phenotypic change to the biofilm state. These findings form the basis for further research on the impact of glucocorticoids on other virulence factors and biofilm formation of F. columnare. PMID:27530746

  19. Impact of Maternal Prenatal Stress on Growth of the Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Amugongo, Sarah K.; Hlusko, Leslea J.

    2014-01-01

    Unperturbed fetal development is essential for future health of an individual. Previous studies have linked diseases of aging to harmful alterations that happen during fetal development. Given the significant long-term impact that intrauterine environment has on an individual’s life, it was hypothesized that maternal stress during pregnancy will have negative effects on the offspring’s prenatal and postnatal growth. To test this, twenty-eight female and seven male Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus) were purchased and bred to produce 176 offspring. During pregnancy, dams were randomly divided into four groups (n=7, per group) and immobilization stress induced as follows; Group 1 (GW1): immobilization stress on days 1–7 of pregnancy, Group 2 (GW2): on days 8–14, Group 3 (GW3): on days 15–21, Group 4 (Controls): left undisturbed. Maternal cortisol hormone, food intake, and weight gain were monitored during pregnancy. Pups were raised under normal laboratory conditions and sacrificed at ages: 4, 8, 12, and 16 weeks to determine the effect of prenatal stress. At necropsy, the tibia was removed and processed for histology. Differences among groups were determined by T-test or analysis of variance (ANOVA). Linear regression analysis was performed to establish the relationship between stress in utero and indicators of bone development in offspring. P values ≤ 0.05 were considered significant. Cortisol hormone levels in controls were lower than those of stressed animals. Stressed dams consumed 12.5% less food per day compared to controls. Animals in GW1 and GW2 gained less weight during pregnancy but had larger litters than did GW3 or the control group. Offspring born to GW3 were heavier compared to all other groups. GW3 offspring had a higher rate of bone formation. In conclusion, stress during pregnancy resulted in increased cortisol and reduced food intake in mothers, but faster growth and higher weight gain in offspring compared to controls. PMID:24490112

  20. Effects of season, age, sex, and housing on salivary cortisol concentrations in horses.

    PubMed

    Aurich, J; Wulf, M; Ille, N; Erber, R; von Lewinski, M; Palme, R; Aurich, C

    2015-07-01

    Analysis of salivary cortisol is increasingly used to assess stress responses in horses. Because spontaneous or experimentally induced increases in cortisol concentrations are often relatively small for stress studies, proper controls are needed. This requires an understanding of the factors affecting salivary cortisol over longer times. In this study, we have analyzed salivary cortisol concentration for 6 mo in horses (n = 94) differing in age, sex, reproductive state, and housing. Salivary cortisol followed a diurnal rhythm with the highest concentrations in the morning and a decrease throughout the day (P < 0.001). This rhythm was disrupted in individual groups on individual days; however, alterations remained within the range of diurnal changes. Comparison between months showed highest cortisol concentrations in December (P < 0.001). Cortisol concentrations increased in breeding stallions during the breeding season (P < 0.001). No differences in salivary cortisol concentrations between nonpregnant mares with and without a corpus luteum existed. In stallions, mean daily salivary cortisol and plasma testosterone concentrations were weakly correlated (r = 0.251, P < 0.01). No differences in salivary cortisol between female and male young horses and no consistent differences between horses of different age existed. Group housing and individual stabling did not affect salivary cortisol. In conclusion, salivary cortisol concentrations in horses follow a diurnal rhythm and are increased in active breeding sires. Time of the day and reproductive state of the horses are thus important for experiments that include analysis of cortisol in saliva. PMID:25700267

  1. Environmental Influences in Family Similarity in Afternoon Cortisol Levels: A Parent-Offspring Design

    PubMed Central

    Schreiber, Jane E.; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth; Van Hulle, Carol; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; Klein, Marjorie H.; Kalin, Ned H.; Essex, Marilyn J.; Goldsmith, H. Hill

    2009-01-01

    Summary Modest genetic effects on morning, but not late-day, cortisol levels have been established. Environmental demands may influence basal cortisol levels later in the day. Thus, we anticipated that individuals in the same family would have similar afternoon cortisol levels to the extent that they share aspects of their environment. We examined afternoon basal cortisol levels measured across three consecutive days in mothers and fathers and in multiple offspring in two separate large, longitudinal studies. Study I involved 321 families with singletons while study II involved 233 families with twins. Modest family similarity was apparent for afternoon basal cortisol levels in both studies. Spouses’ cortisol levels were also correlated. Data from Study II demonstrated that family resemblance in afternoon cortisol was accounted for by underlying shared environmental factors but not underlying genetic factors. Shared environment accounted for 62% of the variation in twin afternoon basal cortisol levels and 14% of the variation in parent afternoon basal cortisol levels. We used pooled data from the two studies to examine whether parental depression, socioeconomic status (SES), and offspring sex and age impacted cortisol levels. Female offspring had higher cortisol levels than males, and cortisol decreased with age until about nine years of age, after which cortisol increased with age. Family similarity persisted after accounting for parental depression, SES, time of day, and offspring sex and age, which suggests that the shared family environment influences parent and offspring stress hormone levels throughout the childhood years. PMID:16997489

  2. Serotonin directly stimulates cortisol secretion from the interrenals in goldfish.

    PubMed

    Lim, Jan E; Porteus, Cosima S; Bernier, Nicholas J

    2013-10-01

    While serotonin (5-HT) can stimulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal stress axis in fish, the specific site(s) of 5-HT action are poorly understood. In this study, goldfish (Carassius auratus) were injected intraperitoneally with either saline or the 5-HT1A/7 receptor agonist 8-OH-DPAT at a dose of 100 or 400 μg/kg body weight and sampled 1.5 and 8 h post-injection. Relative to unhandled controls, the saline and 100 μg/kg 8-OH-DPAT treatments elicited similar transient 5- to 7-fold increases in plasma cortisol and the 400 μg/kg 8-OH-DPAT dosage resulted in a sustained 16-fold increase in cortisol levels. Although the 5-HT1A receptor is expressed in the brain preoptic area (POA), the pituitary and the head kidney, neither the saline nor the 8-OH-DPAT treatments affected the mRNA abundance of POA corticotropin-releasing factor and pituitary pro-opiomelanocortin or plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels. To assess the direct actions of 5-HT on cortisol secretion relative to those of ACTH, head kidney tissue were superfused with 10(-7)M 5-HT, ACTH or a combined 5-HT/ACTH treatment. Overall, the ACTH and 5-HT/ACTH treatments resulted in higher peak cortisol and total cortisol release than in the 5-HT treatment but the response time to peak cortisol release was shorter in the combined treatment than in either the 5-HT or ACTH alone treatments. Both 8-OH-DPAT and cisapride, a 5-HT4 receptor agonist, also stimulated cortisol release in vitro and their actions were reversed by selective 5-HT1A and 5-HT4 receptor antagonists, respectively. Finally, double-labeling with anti-tyrosine hydroxylase and anti-5-HT revealed that the chromaffin cells of the head kidney contain 5-HT. Thus, in goldfish, 5-HT can directly stimulate cortisol secretion from the interrenals via multiple 5-HT receptor subtypes and the chromaffin cells may be involved in the paracrine regulation of cortisol secretion via 5-HT. PMID:24013027

  3. Characterization of estrogens, testosterone, and cortisol in normal bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Steinman, Karen J; Robeck, Todd R; O'Brien, Justine K

    2016-01-15

    The goal of this study was to describe profiles of serum estrogens, testosterone and cortisol during normal pregnancy in bottlenose dolphins. Predominant estrogens in all categories of dolphin sera pools during estrus and pregnancy (EARLY: Days 0-120; MID: Days 121-240; LATE: Days 241 to parturition; Day 0=day of conception) were estrone/estrone conjugates (E1-C) and estriol (E3). Serum samples collected throughout 101 normal pregnancies were analyzed for E1-C, E3, testosterone (T) and cortisol (CORT). E1-C was higher (P<0.05) during LATE compared to EARLY and MID, and higher (P<0.05) in nulliparous than multiparous females. E1-C concentrations were also inversely associated with maternal age (P=0.05). E3 was higher (P<0.05) in EARLY than MID and LATE, and higher overall for nulliparous than multiparous females, but concentrations were similar among gestational stages when parity was excluded from analyses. Analysis by indexed month post-conception (IMPC) demonstrated that E1-C increased from IMPC 9 and peaked at IMPC 11. E3 was significantly elevated during IMPC 1, decreased until IMPC 6 and peaked at IMPC 11. T increased (P<0.05) at IMPC 3 and continued to increase throughout gestation (P<0.05). CORT was higher (P<0.05) during LATE compared to EARLY and MID (P<0.05), peaked during IMPC 12, and was not affected by parity. Hormone profiles were not influenced by fetal sex. PMID:26718081

  4. Maternal smoking during pregnancy and infant stress response: Test of a prenatal programming hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Stroud, Laura R.; Papandonatos, George D.; Rodriguez, Daniel; McCallum, Meaghan; Salisbury, Amy L.; Phipps, Maureen G.; Lester, Barry; Huestis, Marilyn A.; Niaura, Raymond; Padbury, James F.; Marsit, Carmen J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Maternal smoking during pregnancy (MSDP) is associated with early and long-term neurobehavioral deficits; however mechanisms remain unknown. We tested the hypothesis that MSDP programs the hypothalamic pituitary adrenocortical (HPA) axis of the offspring leading to adverse outcomes. In an intensive, prospective study, we investigated associations between MSDP and infant cortisol stress response and explored whether alterations in cortisol response were mediated by epigenetic modulation of the placental glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1). Methods Participants were 100 healthy mother-infant pairs (53% MSDP-exposed; 42% female) from a low income, racially/ethnically diverse sample (55% minorities). MSDP was assessed by timeline followback interview verified by saliva and meconium cotinine. Infant cortisol responses to a neurobehavioral exam were assessed 7 times over the first postnatal month. Methylation of placental NR3C1 promoter exon 1F was assessed using bisulfite pyrosequencing in a subsample (n=45). Results MSDP-exposed infants showed significantly and persistently attenuated basal and reactive cortisol levels over the first postnatal month vs. unexposed infants. Exploratory analyses revealed that MSDP was associated with altered methylation of the placental NR3C1 promoter; degree of methylation of the placental NR3C1 was associated with infant basal and reactive cortisol over the first postnatal month and mediated effects of MSDP on infant basal cortisol. Conclusions Results provide initial support for our hypothesis that MSDP programs offspring HPA (dys) regulation. Epigenetic regulation of placental GR may serve as a novel underlying mechanism. Results may have implications for delineating pathways to adverse outcomes from MSDP. PMID:24999830

  5. Plasma-cortisol levels in experimental heatstroke in dogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assia, Ehud; Epstein, Yoram; Magazanik, Avraham; Shapiro, Yair; Sohar, Ezra

    1989-06-01

    The effect of external heat-load, exercise and dehydration on dynamic changes in plasma cortisol during the development of heatstroke was investigated. Thirty-three unanesthetized dogs were tested under two sets of climatic conditions: comfort conditions and hot-dry climatic conditions, half of them while exercising. Half of the dogs in each group were rehydrated. None of the dogs that were investigated at room temperature suffered heatstroke. Of the dogs exposed to high ambient temperature, all of the exercising, as well as five out of six non-hydrated dogs and one rehydrated non-exercising dog suffered heatstroke. Significant dehydration (6% 7% of body weight), occurred only under hgh ambient temperature. Plasma cortisol levels of all dogs that suffered heatstroke rose conspicuously for at least 5 h and returned to normal levels 24 h later. Cortisol levels of dogs who did not experience heatstroke remained within the normal range. Cortisol levels correlated with the severity of the stress leading to heatstroke. High and rising levels of cortisol, several hours after body temperature returns to normal, may support the diagnosis of heatstroke.

  6. Bilateral Adrenocortical Masses Producing Aldosterone and Cortisol Independently

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung-Eun; Lee, You-Bin; Seok, Hyeri; Shin, In Seub; Eun, Yeong Hee; Kim, Jung-Han; Oh, Young Lyun

    2015-01-01

    A 31-year-old woman was referred to our hospital with symptoms of hypertension and bilateral adrenocortical masses with no feature of Cushing syndrome. The serum aldosterone/renin ratio was elevated and the saline loading test showed no suppression of the plasma aldosterone level, consistent with a diagnosis of primary hyperaldosteronism. Overnight and low-dose dexamethasone suppression tests showed no suppression of serum cortisol, indicating a secondary diagnosis of subclinical Cushing syndrome. Adrenal vein sampling during the low-dose dexamethasone suppression test demonstrated excess secretion of cortisol from the left adrenal mass. A partial right adrenalectomy was performed, resulting in normalization of blood pressure, hypokalemia, and high aldosterone level, implying that the right adrenal mass was the main cause of the hyperaldosteronism. A total adrenalectomy for the left adrenal mass was later performed, resulting in a normalization of cortisol level. The final diagnosis was bilateral adrenocortical adenomas, which were secreting aldosterone and cortisol independently. This case is the first report of a concurrent cortisol-producing left adrenal adenoma and an aldosterone-producing right adrenal adenoma in Korea, as demonstrated by adrenal vein sampling and sequential removal of adrenal masses. PMID:26248855

  7. Perceived Partner Responsiveness Predicts Diurnal Cortisol Profiles 10 Years Later

    PubMed Central

    Slatcher, Richard B.; Selcuk, Emre; Ong, Anthony D.

    2015-01-01

    Several decades of research have demonstrated that marital relationships have a powerful influence on physical health. However, surprisingly little is known about how marriage affects health—both in terms of psychological processes and biological ones. We investigated the associations between perceived partner responsiveness—the extent to which people feel understood, cared for and appreciated by their romantic partner—and diurnal cortisol over a 10-year period in a large sample of married and cohabitating couples in the U.S. Partner responsiveness predicted higher wakeup cortisol values and steeper (“healthier”) cortisol slopes at the 10-year follow-up, and these associations remained strong after controlling for demographic factors, depressive symptoms, agreeableness, and other positive and negative relationship factors. Further, declines in negative affect over the 10-year period mediated the prospective association between responsiveness and cortisol slope. These findings suggest that diurnal cortisol may be a key biological pathway through which social relationships impact long-term health. PMID:26015413

  8. Bilateral Adrenocortical Masses Producing Aldosterone and Cortisol Independently.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung Eun; Kim, Jae Hyeon; Lee, You Bin; Seok, Hyeri; Shin, In Seub; Eun, Yeong Hee; Kim, Jung Han; Oh, Young Lyun

    2015-12-01

    A 31-year-old woman was referred to our hospital with symptoms of hypertension and bilateral adrenocortical masses with no feature of Cushing syndrome. The serum aldosterone/renin ratio was elevated and the saline loading test showed no suppression of the plasma aldosterone level, consistent with a diagnosis of primary hyperaldosteronism. Overnight and low-dose dexamethasone suppression tests showed no suppression of serum cortisol, indicating a secondary diagnosis of subclinical Cushing syndrome. Adrenal vein sampling during the low-dose dexamethasone suppression test demonstrated excess secretion of cortisol from the left adrenal mass. A partial right adrenalectomy was performed, resulting in normalization of blood pressure, hypokalemia, and high aldosterone level, implying that the right adrenal mass was the main cause of the hyperaldosteronism. A total adrenalectomy for the left adrenal mass was later performed, resulting in a normalization of cortisol level. The final diagnosis was bilateral adrenocortical adenomas, which were secreting aldosterone and cortisol independently. This case is the first report of a concurrent cortisol-producing left adrenal adenoma and an aldosterone-producing right adrenal adenoma in Korea, as demonstrated by adrenal vein sampling and sequential removal of adrenal masses. PMID:26248855

  9. Serum cortisol levels in patients with uncomplicated and cerebral malaria.

    PubMed

    Shwe, T; Khin, M; Min, H; Hla, K K; Win, Y Y; Htwe, K; Thu, T M

    1998-03-01

    Ten patients with uncomplicated malaria, ten with cerebral malaria and 37 controls (blood donors from blood bank) were included in the study. The serum cortisol levels of the patients were determined daily for 7 days while they were at the hospital. A radio-immunoassay method was used for quantitative measurement of cortisol in human serum. The mean serum cortisol level of patients with uncomplicated malaria was 528.2 +/- 123.9 nmol/l, with cerebral malaria was 516.0 +/- 80.5 nmol/l, and in controls was 393.8 +/- 141.0 nmol/l. There was a significant rise of serum cortisol levels in patients with malaria when compared to controls at the day of admission to hospital. There was no significant difference between uncomplicated malaria patients and those with cerebral malaria. There was also no significant difference between the different days of treatment up till day 7. We found no cortisol insufficiency in cases with falciparum malaria during acute and convalescent stages of illness. PMID:9740267

  10. Cortisol disrupts the neural correlates of extinction recall.

    PubMed

    Kinner, Valerie L; Merz, Christian J; Lissek, Silke; Wolf, Oliver T

    2016-06-01

    The renewal effect describes the recovery of extinguished responses that may occur after a change in context and indicates that extinction memory retrieval is sometimes prone to failure. Stress hormones have been implicated to modulate extinction processes, with mostly impairing effects on extinction retrieval. However, the neurobiological mechanisms mediating stress effects on extinction memory remain elusive. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we investigated the effects of cortisol administration on the neural correlates of extinction memory retrieval in a predictive learning task. In this task, participants were required to predict whether certain food stimuli were associated with stomach trouble when presented in two different contexts. A two-day renewal paradigm was applied in which an association was acquired in context A and subsequently extinguished in context B. On the following day, participants received either cortisol or placebo 40min before extinction memory retrieval was tested in both contexts. Behaviorally, cortisol impaired the retrieval of extinguished associations when presented in the extinction context. On the neural level, this effect was characterized by a reduced context differentiation for the extinguished stimulus in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, but only in men. In the placebo group, ventromedial prefrontal cortex was functionally connected to the left cerebellum, the anterior cingulate and the right anterior parahippocampal gyrus to express extinction memory. This functional crosstalk was reduced under cortisol. These findings illustrate that the stress hormone cortisol disrupts ventromedial prefrontal cortex functioning and its communication with other brain regions implicated in extinction memory. PMID:26973167

  11. A quantitative approach to analysing cortisol response in the horse.

    PubMed

    Ekstrand, C; Ingvast-Larsson, C; Olsén, L; Hedeland, M; Bondesson, U; Gabrielsson, J

    2016-06-01

    The cortisol response to glucocorticoid intervention has, in spite of several studies in horses, not been fully characterized with regard to the determinants of onset, intensity and duration of response. Therefore, dexamethasone and cortisol response data were collected in a study applying a constant rate infusion regimen of dexamethasone (0.17, 1.7 and 17 μg/kg) to six Standardbreds. Plasma was analysed for dexamethasone and cortisol concentrations using UHPLC-MS/MS. Dexamethasone displayed linear kinetics within the concentration range studied. A turnover model of oscillatory behaviour accurately mimicked cortisol data. The mean baseline concentration range was 34-57 μg/L, the fractional turnover rate 0.47-1.5 1/h, the amplitude parameter 6.8-24 μg/L, the maximum inhibitory capacity 0.77-0.97, the drug potency 6-65 ng/L and the sigmoidicity factor 0.7-30. This analysis provided a better understanding of the time course of the cortisol response in horses. This includes baseline variability within and between horses and determinants of the equilibrium concentration-response relationship. The analysis also challenged a protocol for a dexamethasone suppression test design and indicated future improvement to increase the predictability of the test. PMID:26542753

  12. Maternal mortality in Sirur.

    PubMed

    Shrotri, A; Pratinidhi, A; Shah, U

    1990-01-01

    The research aim was 1) to determine the incidence of maternal mortality in a rural health center area in Sirur, Maharashtra state, India; 2) to determine the relative risk; and 3) to make suggestions about reducing maternal mortality. The data on deliveries was obtained between 1981 and 1984. Medical care at the Rural Training Center was supervised by the Department of Preventive and Social Medicine, the B.J. Medical College in Pune. Deliveries numbered 5994 singleton births over the four years; 5919 births were live births. 15 mothers died: 14 after delivery and 1 predelivery. The maternal mortality rate was 2.5/1000 live births. The maternal causes of death included 9 direct obstetric causes, 3 from postpartum hemorrhage of anemic women, and 3 from puerperal sepsis of anemic women with prolonged labor. 2 deaths were due to eclampsia, and 1 death was unexplained. There were 5 (33.3%) maternal deaths due to indirect causes (3 from hepatitis and 2 from thrombosis). One woman died of undetermined causes. Maternal jaundice during pregnancy was associated with the highest relative risk of maternal death: 106.4. Other relative risk factors were edema, anemia, and prolonged labor. Attributable risk was highest for anemia, followed by jaundice, edema, and maternal age of over 30 years. Maternal mortality at 30 years and older was 3.9/1000 live births. Teenage maternal mortality was 3.3/1000. Maternal mortality among women 20-29 years old was lowest at 2.1/1000. Maternal mortality for women with a parity of 5 or higher was 3.6/1000. Prima gravida women had a maternal mortality rate of 2.9/1000. Parities between 1 and 4 had a maternal mortality rate of 2.3/1000. The lowest maternal mortality was at parity of 3. Only 1 woman who died had received more than 3 prenatal visits. 11 out of 13 women medically examined prenatally were identified with the following risk factors: jaundice, edema, anemia, young or old maternal age, parity, or poor obstetric history. The local

  13. Ontogeny of the cortisol stress response in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cortisol is a glucocorticoid hormone which is an endocrine signaling molecule in all vertebrates and acts through intracellular glucocorticoid receptors (GR). Cortisol affects many biological functions including immunity, stress, growth, ion homeostasis, and reproduction. The objective of this stu...

  14. Re-awakening Magmatic Systems: The Mechanics of an Open-system Event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergantz, George; Burgisser, Alain; Schleicher, Jillian

    2016-04-01

    The re-awakening of magmatic systems requires new magma input, which often induces mixing with a resident magma existing as a crystal-rich mush. This is expressed by complex phenocryst populations, many of which preserve evidence of multiple episodes of recycling. The unlocking and mobilization of these resident mushes conditions the progress of re-awakening, however their processes are poorly understood. Crystal-rich but mobile systems, dominated by their granular mechanics, are not satisfactorily explained from either fluid or solid-like models. We will present a generalizing framework for describing the mechanics of crystal-rich mushes based on the notion of force chains. Force chains arise from crystal-crystal contacts and describe the highly non-uniform way that stress is transmitted in a crystal-rich mush. Using CFD-DEM simulations that resolve crystal-scale mechanics, we will show how the populations of crystal mush force chains and their spatial fabric change during an open-system event. We will show how the various forms of dissipation, such as: fluid drag, particle-fluid drag, particle normal and shear lubrication, and contact friction, jointly contribute to the processes of magma mush unlocking, mobilization and fabric formation. We will also describe non-intuitive constitutive behavior such as non-local and non-affine deformation as well as complex, rheological transitions from continuous to discontinuous shear thickening as a function of the dimensionless shear rate. One implication of this is that many of the commonly-invoked postulates about magma behavior such as lock-up at a critical crystallinity and suspension rheology, are better understood from a micro-physical (crystal-scale) perspective as a combination of far-field geometrical controls, local frictional thickening and shear jamming, each with distinct time scales. This kind of crystal-based unifying framework can simultaneously recover diverse processes such as strain-localization, shear

  15. Interaction of Staphylococcus aureus persister cells with the host when in a persister state and following awakening

    PubMed Central

    Mina, Elin G.; Marques, Cláudia N. H.

    2016-01-01

    Persister cells, a tolerant cell sub-population, are commonly associated with chronic and recurrent infections. However, little is known about their ability to actually initiate or establish an infection, become virulent and cause pathogenicity within a host. Here we investigated whether Staphylococcus aureus persister cells initiate an infection and are recognized by macrophages, while in a persister cell status, and upon awakening due to exposure to cis-2-decenoic acid (cis-DA). Our results show that S. aureus persister cells are not able to initiate infections in A. thaliana and present significantly reduced virulence towards C. elegans compared to total populations. In contrast, awakened S. aureus persister cells are able to initiate infections in A. thaliana and in C. elegans albeit, with lower mortality than total population. Furthermore, exposure of S. aureus persister cells to cis-DA led to a loss of tolerance to ciprofloxacin, and an increase of the bacterial fluorescence to levels found in total population. In addition, macrophage engulfment of persister cells was significantly lower than engulfment of total population, both before and following awakening. Overall our findings indicate that upon awakening of a persister population the cells regain their ability to infect hosts despite the absence of an increased immune response. PMID:27506163

  16. Maternal Early Life Experiences and Parenting: The Mediating Role of Cortisol and Executive Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Andrea; Jenkins, Jennifer M.; Steiner, Meir; Fleming, Alison S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Research suggests that early life adversity may affect subsequent parenting. Animal studies investigating mechanisms of transmission have focused on biological factors; whereas research in humans has emphasized cognitive and psychosocial factors. We hypothesized that neuropsychological and physiological factors would act as mediators…

  17. Cortisol levels in central adrenal insufficiency: light and shade.

    PubMed

    De Sanctis, Vincenzo; Soliman, Ashraf; Yassin, Mohamed; Garofalo, Piernicola

    2015-03-01

    Evaluating children or adolescents with central adrenal insufficiency (CAI) is a difficult task in clinical practice, especially in subjects with hypothalamic-pituitary diseases and partial ACTH deficiency, or in those with recent pituitary surgery or brain irradiation when the adrenal cortex may still be responsive to stress. In 2008, a meta-analysis reported a three-step approach for evaluating patients at risk for CAI with no acute illness. In particular, the authors recommended the evaluation of morning cortisol, a low dose ACTH test (LDST) and the "gold standard" insulin tolerance test or metyrapone test if the low LDCT was not diagnostic. Cortisol and ACTH secretion exhibit significant fluctuation throughout the day. The reference ranges supplied by labs are so wide that they only flag up extremely low cortisol levels. Interpreting the results correctly can be difficult for a physician without an experience in adrenal dysfunctions. The lack of uniformity in these cut-off levels could in part be attributed to differences in study populations, variability of dynainic tests, the use of different serum cortisol assays and dissimilar cut-off peak serum cortisol response indicative of a normal axis response and the difference in the clinical context in which the studies were done. Therefore, Laboratories have to advertise the need to establish reference values for given populations, both for basal or stimulated hormone levels. Failure to apply this rule may elicit false-positive and more critically, false-negative results. LDST (1 pg synthetic ACTH as iv bolus with measurement of serum cortisol) has been proposed as a sensitive test for the diagnosis of CAl. However, the advantage of LDST compared with the high dose test may be offset by the technical difficulties inherent to dilution of 250 pg ampoules. Clinical judgment remains imperative especially regarding the use of glucocorticoid supplementation during extreme stress. PMID:25962205

  18. Children's Cortisol Patterns and the Quality of the Early Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sajaniemi, Nina; Suhonen, Eira; Kontu, Elina; Rantanen, Pekka; Lindholm, Harri; Hyttinen, Sirpa; Hirvonen, Ari

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of early educational quality on children's cortisol levels. It was hypothesised that the environmental stressors might load children's immature stress regulative systems thus affecting their diurnal cortisol levels. The study sample consisted of 146 preschool-aged children. Cortisol was measured…

  19. Cortisol responses to mental stress, exercise, and meals following caffeine intake in men and women

    PubMed Central

    Lovallo, William R.; Farag, Noha H.; Vincent, Andrea S.; Thomas, Terrie L.; Wilson, Michael F.

    2008-01-01

    Caffeine elevates cortisol secretion, and caffeine is often consumed in conjunction with exercise or mental stress. The interactions of caffeine and stress on cortisol secretion have not been explored adequately in women. We measured cortisol levels at eight times on days when healthy men and women consumed caffeine (250 mg × 3) and underwent either mental stress or dynamic exercise protocols, followed by a midday meal, in a double blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design. Men and women had similar cortisol levels at the predrug baselines, but they responded differently to mental stress and exercise. The cortisol response to mental stress was smaller in women than in men (p=.003). Caffeine acted in concert with mental stress to further increase cortisol levels (p=.011), the effect was similar in men and women. Exercise alone did not increase cortisol, but caffeine taken before exercise elevated cortisol in both men and women (ps<.05). After a postexercise meal, the women had a larger cortisol response than the men, and this effect was greater after caffeine (p<.01). Cortisol release in response to stress and caffeine therefore appears to be a function of the type of stressor and the sex of the subject. However, repeated caffeine doses increased cortisol levels across the test day without regard to the sex of the subject or type of stressor employed (p<.00001). Caffeine may elevate cortisol by stimulating the central nervous system in men but may interact with peripheral metabolic mechanisms in women. PMID:16631247

  20. Cortisol Reactivity and Regulation Associated with Shame Responding in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Rosemary S. L.; Imm, Gorette P.; Walling, Bobbi R.; Weiler, Hope A.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize cortisol response and regulation associated with shame responding in early childhood and to examine how general the relation between shame and cortisol is. It was predicted that children responding to task failure with shame would show a larger and more prolonged cortisol response than other children.…

  1. Endogenous Cortisol: Acute Modulation of Cytokine Gene Expression in Bovine PBMCs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cortisol suppresses many aspects of immune function. However, recent publications suggest acute cortisol exposure may actually enhance immune function (Dhabhar, Neuroimmunomod 2009;16:300). The objective of this study was to determine the influence of acute increases in endogenous cortisol on expres...

  2. Cortisol Reactivity is Positively Related to Executive Function in Preschool Children Attending Head Start

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Clancy; Granger, Douglas; Razza, Rachel Peters

    2005-01-01

    This study examined relations among cortisol reactivity and measures of cognitive function and social behavior in 4- to 5-year-old children (N=169) attending Head Start. Saliva samples for the assay of cortisol were collected at the beginning, middle, and end of an approximately 45-min testing session. Moderate increase in cortisol followed by…

  3. Whole-body cortisol response of zebrafish to acute net handling stress

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ramsay, J.M.; Feist, G.W.; Varga, Z.M.; Westerfield, M.; Kent, M.L.; Schreck, C.B.

    2009-01-01

    Zebrafish, Danio rerio, are frequently handled during husbandry and experimental procedures in the laboratory, yet little is known about the physiological responses to such stressors. We measured the whole-body cortisol levels of adult zebrafish subjected to net stress and air exposure at intervals over a 24 h period; cortisol recovered to near control levels by about 1 h post-net-stress (PNS). We then measured cortisol at frequent intervals over a 1 h period. Cortisol levels were more than 2-fold higher in net stressed fish at 3 min PNS and continued to increase peaking at 15 min PNS, when cortisol levels were 6-fold greater than the control cortisol. Mean cortisol declined from 15 to 60 min PNS, and at 60 min, net-stressed cortisol was similar to control cortisol. Because the age of fish differed between studies, we examined resting cortisol levels of fish of different ages (3, 7, 13, and 19 months). The resting cortisol values among tanks with the same age fish differed significantly but there was no clear effect of age. Our study is the first to report the response and recovery of cortisol after net handling for laboratory-reared zebrafish. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

  4. Acute modulation of cytokine gene expression in bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) by endogenous cortisol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cortisol suppresses many aspects of immune function. However, recent publications suggest acute cortisol exposure may actually enhance immune function (Dhabhar. 2009. Neuroimmunomod. 16:300). The objective of this study was to determine the influence of acute increases in endogenous cortisol on expr...

  5. Acute modulation of cytokine gene expression in bovine PBMCs by endogenous cortisol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cortisol suppresses many aspects of immune function. However, recent publications suggest acute cortisol exposure may actually enhance immune function (Dhabhar, Neuroimmunomod 2009;16:300). The objective of this study was to determine the influence of acute increases in endogenous cortisol on expres...

  6. Processing communications events in parallel active messaging interface by awakening thread from wait state

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles J; Blocksome, Michael A; Ratterman, Joseph D; Smith, Brian E

    2013-10-22

    Processing data communications events in a parallel active messaging interface (`PAMI`) of a parallel computer that includes compute nodes that execute a parallel application, with the PAMI including data communications endpoints, and the endpoints are coupled for data communications through the PAMI and through other data communications resources, including determining by an advance function that there are no actionable data communications events pending for its context, placing by the advance function its thread of execution into a wait state, waiting for a subsequent data communications event for the context; responsive to occurrence of a subsequent data communications event for the context, awakening by the thread from the wait state; and processing by the advance function the subsequent data communications event now pending for the context.

  7. Awakening to the other: reflections on developing intercultural competence through an undergraduate study tour.

    PubMed

    Stone, Teresa E; Francis, Lyn; van der Riet, Pamela; Dedkhard, Saowapa; Junlapeeya, Piyatida; Orwat, Edith

    2014-12-01

    For the past 4 years, undergraduate students from the Faculty of Health, University of Newcastle, Newcastle, Australia, have undertaken a two week cultural study tour in Thailand, being exposed to a broad range of cultural interactions, health settings in rural and remote areas, and health-treatment approaches, including traditional and complementary therapies. Student evaluations and reflections were collected after the 2010 and 2011 study tours. This paper reports on findings following thematic analysis of the data, which identified central themes, including connectivity to others, "awakenings", "embodiment", and looking to the future. Findings included a recognition by students of a growth in awareness and change in perspective, which they felt would impact on their future approach in caring for patients from culturally- and linguistically-diverse backgrounds. We conclude that the study tour provided an effective way of sensitizing students to cultural differences and promoting cross-cultural awareness. PMID:24774512

  8. Processing data communications events by awakening threads in parallel active messaging interface of a parallel computer

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles J.; Blocksome, Michael A.; Ratterman, Joseph D.; Smith, Brian E.

    2016-03-15

    Processing data communications events in a parallel active messaging interface (`PAMI`) of a parallel computer that includes compute nodes that execute a parallel application, with the PAMI including data communications endpoints, and the endpoints are coupled for data communications through the PAMI and through other data communications resources, including determining by an advance function that there are no actionable data communications events pending for its context, placing by the advance function its thread of execution into a wait state, waiting for a subsequent data communications event for the context; responsive to occurrence of a subsequent data communications event for the context, awakening by the thread from the wait state; and processing by the advance function the subsequent data communications event now pending for the context.

  9. [Nocturnal awakenings as a function of age in insomniacs (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Garma, L; Bouard, G

    1981-01-01

    The effect of ageing on the sleep of insomniacs was studied by comparing objective insomnia characteristics from polygraphic recordings made during two successive nights in two groups of different ages : 14 patients aged 19 to 39 years (mean 31 years) and 11 aged 42 to 65 years (mean 50 years). All of them had severe insomnia causing them to request consultation for sleep disorders. Their only clinical symptom was chronic primary insomnia, persisting following withdrawal of hypnotics, no other physical (particularly no sleep apnea) or psychological disorder being present. Parameters studied during the first and the second night were the number and duration of intra-sleep awakenings, and the proportions of the sleep and wakefulness periods. PMID:7336021

  10. A Seamless Navigation to ICD-10-CM for Interventional Pain Physicians: Is a Rude Awakening Avoidable?

    PubMed

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Hammer, Marvel; Boswell, Mark V; Kaye, Alan D; Hirsch, Joshua A

    2016-01-01

    Since October 1, 2015, the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-10-CM) was integrated into U.S. medical practices. This monumental transition seemingly occurred rather unceremoniously, despite significant opposition and reservations having been expressed by the provider community. In prior publications, we have described various survival strategies for interventional pain physicians. The regulators and beneficiaries of system-CMS, consultants, and health information technology industry are congratulating themselves for a job well done. Nonetheless, this transition comes at an immeasurable financial and psychological drain on providers. However, a rude awakening may be making its way with expiration of initial concessions from government and private payers.This manuscript provides a template for interventional pain management professionals with multiple steps for seamless navigation, including descriptions of the most commonly used codes, navigation through ICD-10-CM manual, steps for correct coding, and finally, detailed coding descriptions for various interventional techniques. PMID:26752478

  11. NON-NIGHTMARE DISTRESSED AWAKENINGS IN VETERANS WITH POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER: RESPONSE TO PRAZOSIN

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Charles E.; Taylor, Fletcher B.; McFall, Miles E.; Barnes, Robert F.; Raskind, Murray A.

    2011-01-01

    Twenty-two veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) were assessed for trauma-related nightmares (NM) and non-nightmare distressed awakenings (NNDA) before and after treatment with the alpha-1 adrenoreceptor antagonist prazosin at an average bedtime dose of 9.6 mg/day. Ratings combining frequency and intensity dimensions of NM decreased from 3.6 ± 2.6 to 2.2 ± 2.4 (p<0.05), NNDA from 5.2 ± 1.7 to 2.1 ± 2.4 (p<0.01), and sleep difficulty from 7.2 ± 8 to 4.1 ± 2.3 (p<0.01) per week. These results suggest that increased brain adrenergic activity may contribute to the pathophysiology of both NM and NNDA in PTSD. PMID:18720392

  12. Maternal Sensitivity and Infant Autonomic and Endocrine Stress Responses

    PubMed Central

    Enlow, Michelle Bosquet; King, Lucy; Schreier, Hannah; Howard, Jamie M.; Rosenfield, David; Ritz, Thomas; Wright, Rosalind J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Early environmental exposures may help shape the development of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, influencing vulnerability for health problems across the lifespan. Little is known about the role of maternal sensitivity in influencing the development of the ANS in early life. Aims To examine associations among maternal sensitivity and infant behavioral distress and ANS and HPA axis reactivity to the Repeated Still-Face Paradigm (SFP-R), a dyadic stress task. Study Design Observational repeated measures study. Subjects Thirty-five urban, sociodemographically diverse mothers and their 6-month-old infants. Outcome Measures Changes in infant affective distress, heart rate, respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), and T-wave amplitude (TWA) across episodes of the SFP-R were assessed. A measure of cortisol output (area under the curve) in the hour following cessation of the SFP-R was also obtained. Results Greater maternal insensitivity was associated with greater infant sympathetic activation (TWA) during periods of stress and tended to be associated with greater cortisol output following the SFP-R. There was also evidence for greater affective distress and less parasympathetic activation (RSA) during the SFP-R among infants of predominantly insensitive mothers. Conclusions Caregiving quality in early life may influence the responsiveness of the sympathetic and parasympathetic branches of the ANS as well as the HPA axis. Consideration of the ANS and HPA axis systems together provides a fuller representation of adaptive versus maladaptive stress responses. The findings highlight the importance of supporting high quality caregiving in the early years of life, which is likely to promote later health. PMID:24794304

  13. A modified and cost-effective method for hair cortisol analysis.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Lianbin; Sunesara, Imran; Rehm, Kristina E; Marshall, Gailen D

    2016-05-01

    Hair cortisol may hold potential as a biomarker for assessment of chronic psychological stress. We report a modified and cost-effective method to prepare hair samples for cortisol assay. Hair samples were ground using an inexpensive ball grinder - ULTRA-TURRAX tube drive. Cortisol was extracted from the powder under various defined conditions. The data showed that the optimal conditions for this method include cortisol extraction at room temperature and evaporation using a stream of room air. These findings should allow more widespread research using economical technology to validate the utility of hair cortisol as a biomarker for assessing chronic stress status. PMID:26767335

  14. Association of copeptin and cortisol in newly diagnosed multiple sclerosis patients.

    PubMed

    Baranowska-Bik, Agnieszka; Kochanowski, Jan; Uchman, Dorota; Litwiniuk, Anna; Kalisz, Malgorzata; Martynska, Lidia; Wolinska-Witort, Ewa; Baranowska, Boguslawa; Bik, Wojciech

    2015-05-15

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic autoimmune disease of the central nervous system. Obesity may increase the risk of developing MS. The aim of this study was to evaluate copeptin and cortisol plasma levels in newly diagnosed untreated MS patients and to determine whether copeptin and cortisol are related to the patients' clinical statuses. We report that copeptin and cortisol were higher in overweight/obese MS patients. Positive correlations were observed between the two parameters. We conclude that alterations of copeptin and cortisol levels in multiple sclerosis patients may be related to adiposity. An increase in cortisol may also be associated with copeptin secretion. PMID:25903724

  15. Infant Emotional and Cortisol Responses to Goal Blockage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Michael; Ramsay, Douglas

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the relation of infant emotional responses of anger and sadness to cortisol response in 2 goal blockage situations. One goal blockage with 4-month-old infants (N=56) involved a contingency learning procedure where infants' learned response was no longer effective in reinstating an event. The other goal blockage with 6-month-old…

  16. Contextual control over expression of fear is affected by cortisol

    PubMed Central

    van Ast, Vanessa A.; Vervliet, Bram; Kindt, Merel

    2012-01-01

    At the core of anxiety disorders is the inability to use contextual information to modulate behavioral responses to potentially threatening events. Models of the pathogenesis of anxiety disorders incorporate stress and concomitant stress hormones as important vulnerability factors, while others emphasize sex as an important factor. However, translational basic research has not yet investigated the effects of stress hormones and sex on the ability to use contextual information to modulate responses to threat. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was threefold: first, we aimed at developing an experimental paradigm specifically capable of capturing contextual modulation of the expression of fear. Second, we tested whether cortisol would alter the contextualization of fear expression. Third, we aimed at assessing whether alterations in contextualization due to cortisol were different for men and women. Healthy participants (n = 42) received placebo or hydrocortisone (20 mg) prior to undergoing a newly developed differential contextual fear-conditioning paradigm. The results indicated that people rapidly acquire differential contextual modulation of the expression of fear, as measured by fear potentiated startle (FPS) and skin conductance responses (SCR). In addition, cortisol impaired the contextualization of fear expression leading to increased fear generalization on FPS data in women. The opposite pattern was found in men. Finally, as assessed by SCR, cortisol impaired differential conditioning in men. The results are in line with models suggesting heightened vulnerability in women for developing anxiety disorders after stressful events. PMID:23087629

  17. Decreased Cortisol and Pain in Breast Cancer: Biofield Therapy Potential

    PubMed Central

    Running, Alice

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer death among women of all races. Pain is a common symptom associated with cancer; 75–90% of cancer patients experience pain during their illness and up to 50% of that pain is undertreated. Unrelieved pain leads to increased levels of the stress hormone cortisol. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of bioenergy on fecal cortisol levels for mice injected with murine mammary carcinoma 4T1 in two separate pilot studies. Using a multiple experimental group design, six to eight week old female BALB/c mice were injected with tumor and randomly assigned, in groups of 10, to daily treatment, every other day treatment, and no treatment groups. Five days after tumor cell injection, bioenergy interventions were begun for a period of ten consecutive days. Fecal samples were collected for each study and ELISA analysis was conducted at the end of both studies. For both studies, cortisol levels were decreased in the every other day treatment groups but remained high in the no treatment groups. Future studies utilizing bioenergy therapies on cortisol levels in a murine breast cancer model can begin to describe pain outcomes and therapeutic dose. PMID:26170887

  18. Cortisol modifies extinction learning of recently acquired fear in men.

    PubMed

    Merz, Christian Josef; Hermann, Andrea; Stark, Rudolf; Wolf, Oliver Tobias

    2014-09-01

    Exposure therapy builds on the mechanism of fear extinction leading to decreased fear responses. How the stress hormone cortisol affects brain regions involved in fear extinction in humans is unknown. For this reason, we tested 32 men randomly assigned to receive either 30 mg hydrocortisone or placebo 45 min before fear extinction. In fear acquisition, a picture of a geometrical figure was either partially paired (conditioned stimulus; CS+) or not paired (CS-) with an electrical stimulation (unconditioned stimulus; UCS). In fear extinction, each CS was presented again, but no UCS occurred. Cortisol increased conditioned skin conductance responses in early and late extinction. In early extinction, higher activation towards the CS- than to the CS+ was found in the amygdala, hippocampus and posterior parahippocampal gyrus. This pattern might be associated with the establishment of a new memory trace. In late extinction, the placebo compared with the cortisol group displayed enhanced CS+/CS- differentiation in the amygdala, medial frontal cortex and nucleus accumbens. A change from early deactivation to late activation of the extinction circuit as seen in the placebo group seems to be needed to enhance extinction and to reduce fear. Cortisol appears to interfere with this process thereby impairing extinction of recently acquired conditioned fear. PMID:23945999

  19. Salivary Cortisol, Salivary Alpha Amylase, and the Dental Anxiety Scale

    PubMed Central

    Sadi, Hana; Finkelman, Matthew; Rosenberg, Morton

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between dental anxiety, salivary cortisol, and salivary alpha amylase (sAA) levels. Furthermore, the aim was to look into individual differences such as age, race, gender, any existing pain, or traumatic dental experience and their effect on dental anxiety. This study followed a cross-sectional design and included a convenience sample of 46. Every patient was asked to complete the Dental Anxiety Scale (DAS) and a basic demographic/dental history questionnaire. A saliva sample, utilizing the method of passive drooling, was then collected in 2-mL cryovials. Samples were analyzed for salivary cortisol and sAA levels by Salimetrics. Significant associations were observed between DAS scores and presence of pain and history of traumatic dental experience. However, no significant correlations were observed between DAS, cortisol, and sAA levels. Our study reconfirms that dental anxiety is associated with presence of pain and a history of traumatic dental experience. On the other hand, our study was the first to our knowledge to test the correlation between the DAS and sAA; nevertheless, our results failed to show any significant correlation between dental anxiety, cortisol, and sAA levels. PMID:23763559

  20. Cortisol Levels and Children's Orientation in Day Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reunamo, Jyrki; Sajaniemi, Nina; Suhonen, Eira; Kontu, Elina

    2012-01-01

    Children's stress in day care is related to the stressful qualities of the environment and to children's orientations in that environment. The study involved 55 children in five day centres in Finland. Baseline saliva samples for measuring cortisol (stress) levels were collected five times during the day. Children were interviewed to measure their…

  1. Colloidal gold probe based rapid immunochromatographic strip assay for cortisol.

    PubMed

    Nara, Seema; Tripathi, Vinay; Singh, Harpal; Shrivastav, Tulsidas G

    2010-12-01

    A rapid and semi-quantitative immunochromatographic strip (ICS) test for cortisol analysis in serum was developed. The test strip was based on a competitive assay format. Colloidal gold nanoparticles were synthesized and coupled with cortisol-3-carboxymethyloxime-adipic acid dihydrazide-bovine serum albumin (F-3-CMO-ADH-BSA) antigen to directly compete with cortisol in human serum samples. F-3-CMO-ADH-BSA-gold label and uncoupled colloidal gold nanoparticles were appropriately characterized using UV-vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Anticortisol antibody raised against F-3-CMO-BSA immunogen in New Zealand white rabbits was coated on the NC membrane as test line. Anti-BSA antibody was used as control line. The lower detection limit of the ICS test was 30 ngmL(-1) with visual detection and was completed in 10 min. About 30 human serum samples were also analyzed by the developed strip test and their range of cortisol concentration was established. The developed ICS test is rapid, economic and user friendly. PMID:21056716

  2. Decreased Cortisol and Pain in Breast Cancer: Biofield Therapy Potential.

    PubMed

    Running, Alice

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer death among women of all races. Pain is a common symptom associated with cancer; 75-90% of cancer patients experience pain during their illness and up to 50% of that pain is undertreated. Unrelieved pain leads to increased levels of the stress hormone cortisol. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of bioenergy on fecal cortisol levels for mice injected with murine mammary carcinoma 4T1 in two separate pilot studies. Using a multiple experimental group design, six to eight week old female BALB/c mice were injected with tumor and randomly assigned, in groups of 10, to daily treatment, every other day treatment, and no treatment groups. Five days after tumor cell injection, bioenergy interventions were begun for a period of ten consecutive days. Fecal samples were collected for each study and ELISA analysis was conducted at the end of both studies. For both studies, cortisol levels were decreased in the every other day treatment groups but remained high in the no treatment groups. Future studies utilizing bioenergy therapies on cortisol levels in a murine breast cancer model can begin to describe pain outcomes and therapeutic dose. PMID:26170887

  3. Evaluation of hair cortisol in beef cattle of divergent temperaments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this research project was to evaluate the relationships among hair and serum cortisol concentrations and cattle disposition. Spring born (n = 101) crossbred beef heifers (7 to 8 mo. of age) were evaluated for temperament preweaning and at weaning by pen score (PS; 1 = calm and 5 = e...

  4. Sleep problems predict cortisol reactivity to stress in urban adolescents.

    PubMed

    Mrug, Sylvie; Tyson, Anna; Turan, Bulent; Granger, Douglas A

    2016-03-01

    This study examined the role of sleep problems and sleep duration on stress-related HPA axis reactivity among urban, low income adolescents. A total of 84 adolescents (M age 13.36 years; 50% male; 95% African American) and their parents provided information on adolescents' sleep problems and sleep quantity. Adolescents completed a standardized social stress test in the laboratory (the Trier Social Stress Test; TSST). Saliva samples collected before and after the TSST yielded measures of cortisol pre-test, 15 min post-test, and 55 min post-test, as well as overall cortisol secretion and its increase (AUCG and AUCI). More sleep problems and longer sleep duration predicted higher cortisol reactivity to the TSST, particularly among females. Self-reports of sleep were more consistently related to stress-related cortisol reactivity than parent reports. Sleep problems and longer sleep duration may place adolescents at risk for HPA axis hyper-reactivity to stress, contributing to academic, behavioral and health problems. PMID:26679739

  5. A stochastic differential equation model of diurnal cortisol patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, E. N.; Meehan, P. M.; Dempster, A. P.

    2001-01-01

    Circadian modulation of episodic bursts is recognized as the normal physiological pattern of diurnal variation in plasma cortisol levels. The primary physiological factors underlying these diurnal patterns are the ultradian timing of secretory events, circadian modulation of the amplitude of secretory events, infusion of the hormone from the adrenal gland into the plasma, and clearance of the hormone from the plasma by the liver. Each measured plasma cortisol level has an error arising from the cortisol immunoassay. We demonstrate that all of these three physiological principles can be succinctly summarized in a single stochastic differential equation plus measurement error model and show that physiologically consistent ranges of the model parameters can be determined from published reports. We summarize the model parameters in terms of the multivariate Gaussian probability density and establish the plausibility of the model with a series of simulation studies. Our framework makes possible a sensitivity analysis in which all model parameters are allowed to vary simultaneously. The model offers an approach for simultaneously representing cortisol's ultradian, circadian, and kinetic properties. Our modeling paradigm provides a framework for simulation studies and data analysis that should be readily adaptable to the analysis of other endocrine hormone systems.

  6. Development of a specific radioimmunoassay for cortisol 17-butyrate

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, G.N.; Lee, Y.F.; Bu'Lock, D.E.; August, P.; Anderson, D.C.

    1983-07-01

    We describe the development and validation of an assay for cortisol 17-butyrate in blood in which there is no significant cross reaction with endogenous corticosteroids at levels encountered normally in man. Preliminary data on blood levels of the drug in absorption studies are presented.

  7. Cortisol decreases and serotonin and dopamine increase following massage therapy.

    PubMed

    Field, Tiffany; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Diego, Miguel; Schanberg, Saul; Kuhn, Cynthia

    2005-10-01

    In this article the positive effects of massage therapy on biochemistry are reviewed including decreased levels of cortisol and increased levels of serotonin and dopamine. The research reviewed includes studies on depression (including sex abuse and eating disorder studies), pain syndrome studies, research on auto-immune conditions (including asthma and chronic fatigue), immune studies (including HIV and breast cancer), and studies on the reduction of stress on the job, the stress of aging, and pregnancy stress. In studies in which cortisol was assayed either in saliva or in urine, significant decreases were noted in cortisol levels (averaging decreases 31%). In studies in which the activating neurotransmitters (serotonin and dopamine) were assayed in urine, an average increase of 28% was noted for serotonin and an average increase of 31% was noted for dopamine. These studies combined suggest the stress-alleviating effects (decreased cortisol) and the activating effects (increased serotonin and dopamine) of massage therapy on a variety of medical conditions and stressful experiences. PMID:16162447

  8. A stochastic differential equation model of diurnal cortisol patterns.

    PubMed

    Brown, E N; Meehan, P M; Dempster, A P

    2001-03-01

    Circadian modulation of episodic bursts is recognized as the normal physiological pattern of diurnal variation in plasma cortisol levels. The primary physiological factors underlying these diurnal patterns are the ultradian timing of secretory events, circadian modulation of the amplitude of secretory events, infusion of the hormone from the adrenal gland into the plasma, and clearance of the hormone from the plasma by the liver. Each measured plasma cortisol level has an error arising from the cortisol immunoassay. We demonstrate that all of these three physiological principles can be succinctly summarized in a single stochastic differential equation plus measurement error model and show that physiologically consistent ranges of the model parameters can be determined from published reports. We summarize the model parameters in terms of the multivariate Gaussian probability density and establish the plausibility of the model with a series of simulation studies. Our framework makes possible a sensitivity analysis in which all model parameters are allowed to vary simultaneously. The model offers an approach for simultaneously representing cortisol's ultradian, circadian, and kinetic properties. Our modeling paradigm provides a framework for simulation studies and data analysis that should be readily adaptable to the analysis of other endocrine hormone systems. PMID:11171600

  9. Shiftwork and Diurnal Salivary Cortisol Patterns Among Police Officers

    PubMed Central

    Charles, Luenda E.; Fekedulegn, Desta; Burchfiel, Cecil M.; Hartley, Tara A.; Andrew, Michael E.; Violanti, John M.; Miller, Diane B.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate associations between shiftwork and diurnal salivary cortisol among 319 police officers (77.7% men) Methods Information on shiftwork was obtained from the City of Buffalo, NY electronic payroll records. Saliva was collected using Salivettes at seven time points and analyzed for free cortisol concentrations (nmol/L) using a chemiluminescence immunoassay. Mean slopes and areas under the curve were compared across shift schedule using analysis of variance (ANOVA)/analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). Results Officers working primarily on the night shift had a significantly shallower slope. Mean slope (nmol/L/minutes) of the cortisol curve varied significantly across shifts (day: −0.00332 ± 0.00017, afternoon: −0.00313 ± 0.00018, night: −0.00257 ± 0.0002); adjusted P = 0.023. Conclusions Our results suggest that night shiftwork is a work-place factor that may alter the response of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis to the circadian cues responsible for the pattern of the diurnal cortisol curve. PMID:27129020

  10. Influences of maternal and paternal PTSD on epigenetic regulation of the glucocorticoid receptor gene in Holocaust survivor offspring

    PubMed Central

    Desarnaud, Frank; Bader, Heather N.; Makotkine, Iouri; Flory, Janine D.; Bierer, Linda M.; Meaney, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Differential effects of maternal and paternal PTSD have been observed in adult offspring of Holocaust survivors in both glucocorticoid receptor sensitivity and vulnerability to psychiatric disorder. The current study examined the relative influences of maternal and paternal PTSD on DNA methylation of the exon 1F promoter of the glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), and its relationship to glucocorticoid receptor sensitivity, in Holocaust offspring. Method Adult offspring with at least one Holocaust survivor parent (n=80), and demographically similar participants without parental Holocaust exposure or PTSD (n=15) completed clinical interviews, self-report measures, and biological procedures. Blood samples were collected for analysis of glucocorticoid receptor gene exon 1F (GR-1F) promoter methylation and cortisol levels in response to low-dose dexamethasone, and two-way analysis of covariance was performed using maternal and paternal PTSD as main effects. Hierarchical-clustering analysis was used to permit visualization of maternal vs. paternal PTSD effects on clinical variables. Results A significant interaction demonstrated that in the absence of maternal PTSD, offspring with paternal PTSD showed higher GR-1F promoter methylation, whereas offspring with both maternal and paternal PTSD showed lower methylation. Lower GR-1F promoter methylation was significantly associated with greater post-dexamethasone cortisol suppression. The clustering analysis confirmed that maternal and paternal PTSD effects were differentially associated with clinical indicators. Conclusions This is the first study to demonstrate alterations of GR-1F promoter methylation in relation to parental PTSD and neuroendocrine outcomes. The moderation of paternal PTSD effects by maternal PTSD suggests different mechanisms for the intergenerational transmission of trauma-related vulnerabilities. PMID:24832930

  11. The Cortisol Paradox of Trauma-Related Disorders: Lower Phasic Responses but Higher Tonic Levels of Cortisol Are Associated with Sexual Abuse in Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Schalinski, Inga; Elbert, Thomas; Steudte-Schmiedgen, Susann; Kirschbaum, Clemens

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Inconsistent findings exist for the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in patients with stress related disorders. Recent studies point towards early life stress as a potential modulator. Methods We investigated the impact of childhood sexual abuse on phasic (saliva cortisol reactivity) and tonic (hair cortisol) regulation. Furthermore, we assessed predictors on cortisol accumulation in hair. Women (N = 43) with stress-related disorders underwent a standardized assessment of idiographic adverse and traumatic experiences and psychopathology, while measuring salivary cortisol and, heart rate and blood pressure. Results Comparing women with and without childhood sexual abuse revealed lower rates of responders and distinct levels of salivary cortisol to the interview in conjunction with a lower heart rate for the abused group. Childhood adversities, traumatic experiences, and depression contributed to higher hair cortisol levels. Conclusions Our finding of lower response rate and distinct salivary cortisol pattern in individuals with childhood sexual abuse compared to individuals without early sexual abuse supports the role of environmental programming for the HPA axis. Both, childhood adversities and traumatic stress emerge as crucial factors for long-term cortisol secretion. Lower or suppressed phasic cortisol responses to trauma-related stimuli may therefore be associated with higher tonic values. Thus, early exposure to adversities may result in a biological distinct phenotype in adult patients with stress-related disorders. PMID:26317554

  12. Maternal Caffeine Consumption and Infant Nighttime Waking: Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Iná S.; Matijasevich, Alicia

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Coffee and other caffeinated beverages are commonly consumed in pregnancy. In adults, caffeine may interfere with sleep onset and have a dose-response effect similar to those seen during insomnia. In infancy, nighttime waking is a common event. With this study, we aimed to investigate if maternal caffeine consumption during pregnancy and lactation leads to frequent nocturnal awakening among infants at 3 months of age. METHODS: All children born in the city of Pelotas, Brazil, during 2004 were enrolled on a cohort study. Mothers were interviewed at delivery and after 3 months to obtain information on caffeine drinking consumption, sociodemographic, reproductive, and behavioral characteristics. Infant sleeping pattern in the previous 15 days was obtained from a subsample. Night waking was defined as an episode of infant arousal that woke the parents during nighttime. Multivariable analysis was performed by using Poisson regression. RESULTS: The subsample included 885 of the 4231 infants born in 2004. All but 1 mother consumed caffeine in pregnancy. Nearly 20% were heavy consumers (≥300 mg/day) during pregnancy and 14.3% at 3 months postpartum. Prevalence of frequent nighttime awakeners (>3 episodes per night) was 13.8% (95% confidence interval: 11.5%–16.0%). The highest prevalence ratio was observed among breastfed infants from mothers consuming ≥300 mg/day during the whole pregnancy and in the postpartum period (1.65; 95% confidence interval: 0.86–3.17) but at a nonsignificant level. CONCLUSIONS: Caffeine consumption during pregnancy and by nursing mothers seems not to have consequences on sleep of infants at the age of 3 months. PMID:22473365

  13. Correlates of cortisol in human hair: implications for epidemiologic studies on health effects of chronic stress.

    PubMed

    Wosu, Adaeze C; Valdimarsdóttir, Unnur; Shields, Alexandra E; Williams, David R; Williams, Michelle A

    2013-12-01

    Assessment of cortisol concentrations in hair is one of the latest innovations for measuring long-term cortisol exposure. We performed a systematic review of correlates of cortisol in human hair to inform the design, analysis, and interpretation of future epidemiologic studies. Relevant publications were identified through electronic searches on PubMed, WorldCat, and Web of Science using keywords, "cortisol," "hair," "confounders," "chronic," "stress," and "correlates." Thirty-nine studies were included in this review. Notwithstanding scarce data and some inconsistencies, investigators have found hair cortisol concentrations to be associated with stress-related psychiatric symptoms and disorders (e.g., post-traumatic stress disorder), medical conditions indicating chronic activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (e.g., Cushing's syndrome), and other life situations associated with elevated risk of chronic stress (e.g., shiftwork). Results from some studies suggest that physical activity, adiposity, and substance abuse may be correlates of hair cortisol concentrations. In contrast to measures of short-term cortisol release (saliva, blood, and urine), cigarette smoking and use of oral contraceptives appear not to be associated with hair cortisol concentrations. Studies of pregnant women indicate increased hair cortisol concentrations across successive trimesters. The study of hair cortisol presents a unique opportunity to assess chronic alterations in cortisol concentrations in epidemiologic studies. PMID:24184029

  14. Mercury and cortisol in Western Hudson Bay polar bear hair.

    PubMed

    Bechshoft, T; Derocher, A E; Richardson, E; Mislan, P; Lunn, N J; Sonne, C; Dietz, R; Janz, D M; St Louis, V L

    2015-08-01

    Non-invasive methods of assessing animal health and life history are becoming increasingly popular in wildlife research; hair samples from polar bears (Ursus maritimus), are being used to study an ever broader range of anthropogenic and endocrine compounds. A number of contaminants are known to disrupt endocrine function in polar bears. However, the relationship between mercury and cortisol remains unknown, although mercury is an endocrine disruptor in other species. Here, we examine the relationship between concentrations of cortisol and total mercury (THg) analyzed in guard hair from 378 polar bears (184 females, 194 males) sampled in Western Hudson Bay, 2004-2012. The difference in mean cortisol concentration between female (0.8 ± 0.6 pg/mg) and male (0.7 ± 0.5 pg/mg) polar bears bordered on significance (p = 0.054). However, mean mercury concentration was significantly greater (p = 0.009) in females (4.7 ± 1.4 μg/g) than males (4.3 ± 1.2 μg/g). Hair cortisol in males was significantly influenced by mercury, age, and fatness, as well as interactions between mercury and year, mercury and fatness, and year and fatness (all: p < 0.03) (multiple regression analysis, whole model: r(2) = 0.14, F(7,185) = 4.43, p = 0.0001). Fatness was the only significant variable in the multiple regression analysis for females (r(2) = 0.06, F(1,182) = 13.0, p = 0.0004). In conclusion, a significant, but complex, relationship was found between mercury and cortisol concentrations in hair from male, but not female, polar bears. PMID:26044932

  15. Wool cortisol is a better indicator of stress than blood cortisol in ewes exposed to heat stress and water restriction.

    PubMed

    Ghassemi Nejad, J; Lohakare, J D; Son, J K; Kwon, E G; West, J W; Sung, K I

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of water restriction on wool and blood cortisol concentrations and water consumption patterns in heat-stressed sheep. Nine Corriedale female sheep (average BW=43±6.5 kg) were individually fed diets based on maintenance requirement in metabolic crates. They were assigned to three treatments according to a Latin square design (3×3) for three periods with a 21-day duration for each period (nine sheep per treatment). Treatments included free access to water (FAW), 2 h water restriction (2hWR) and 3 h water restriction (3hWR) after feeding. Average temperature-humidity index in the experimental room was 27.9 throughout the experiment that defines heat stress conditions. Wool samples were taken at the end of each period on day 21. No differences were found in cortisol concentration in each fragment (dried, washed and residual extract) of wool (P<0.05). Total wool cortisol concentration was higher in the 3hWR group than the other treatments (P<0.05). Blood cortisol was not different among the treatments (P>0.05) and resulted in higher variable data compared with wool cortisol. Blood neutrophils and neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio suppressed in FAW and 3hWR groups compared with the 2hWR group (P<0.05). The duration of water consumption recorded after feeding in the 3hWR group was higher than in the 2hWR group when recorded in the afternoon (P<0.01). Water consumption rate was higher in the 3hWR group than in the 2hWR group (P<0.01). However, total water consumed was lower in the 3hWR group compared with other treatments (P>0.05). It can be concluded that wool cortisol provides more precise and accurate data than blood cortisol during heat stress conditions. Water restriction for 3 h after feeding can act as a stressor and is critical for sheep during heat stress as the consumption of water decreases with restriction. PMID:24182313

  16. The maternal social environment shapes offspring growth, physiology, and behavioural phenotype in guinea pigs

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Prenatal conditions influence offspring development in many species. In mammals, the effects of social density have traditionally been considered a detrimental form of maternal stress. Now their potential adaptive significance is receiving greater attention.Sex-specific effects of maternal social instability on offspring in guinea pigs (Cavia aperea f. porcellus) have been interpreted as adaptations to high social densities, while the effects of low social density are unknown. Hence, we compared morphological, behavioural and physiological development between offspring born to mothers housed either individually or in groups during the second half of pregnancy. Results Females housed individually and females housed in groups gave birth to litters of similar size and sex-ratios, and there were no differences in birth weight. Sons of individually-housed mothers grew faster than their sisters, whereas daughters ofgroup-housed females grew faster than their brothers, primarily due to an effect on growth of daughters. There were few effects on offspring behaviour. Baseline cortisol levels in saliva of pups on day 1 and day 7 were not affected, but we saw a blunted cortisol response to social separation on day 7 in sons of individually-housed females and daughters of group-housed females. The effects were consistent across two replicate experiments. Conclusions The observed effects only partially support the adaptive hypothesis. Increased growth of daughters may be adaptive under high densities due to increasedfemale competition, but it is unclear why growth of sons is not increased under low social densities when males face less competition from older, dominant males. The differences in growth may be causally linked to sex-specific effects on cortisol response, although individual cortisol response and growth were not correlated, and various other mechanisms are possible. The observed sex-specific effects on early development are intriguing, yet the potential

  17. Maternal mediation, stress inoculation, and the development of neuroendocrine stress resistance in primates

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Karen J.; Buckmaster, Christine L.; Sundlass, Karan; Schatzberg, Alan F.; Lyons, David M.

    2006-01-01

    The stress inoculation hypothesis presupposes that brief intermittent stress exposure early in life induces the development of subsequent stress resistance in human and nonhuman primates. Rodent studies, however, suggest a role for maternal care rather than stress exposure per se (i.e., the maternal mediation hypothesis). To investigate these two hypotheses, we examined maternal care and the development of stress resistance after exposure to brief intermittent infant stress (IS), mother–infant stress (MIS), or no stress (NS) protocols administered to 30 monkeys between postnatal weeks 17 and 27. Unlike rodents, the IS condition did not permanently increase primate maternal care, nor did measures of total maternal care predict subsequent offspring hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal-axis responsivity. Although MIS infants received less maternal care than IS and NS infants, both IS and MIS monkeys developed subsequent stress resistance. These findings indicate that rearing differences in the development of stress resistance are more closely related to differences in prior stress exposure than to differences in maternal care. A second experiment confirmed this conclusion in a different cohort of 25 monkeys exposed as infants to high foraging-demand (HFD) or low foraging-demand (LFD) conditions. HFD infants exhibited intermittent elevations in cortisol levels and received less maternal care than LFD infants. In keeping with a key prediction of the stress inoculation hypothesis, HFD males responded to stress in adulthood with diminished hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal-axis activation compared with LFD males. Results from both experiments demonstrate that stress inoculation, rather than high levels of maternal care, promotes the development of primate stress resistance. PMID:16473950

  18. Maternal elaborative reminiscing mediates the effect of child maltreatment on behavioral and physiological functioning.

    PubMed

    Valentino, Kristin; Hibel, Leah C; Cummings, E Mark; Nuttall, Amy K; Comas, Michelle; McDonnell, Christina G

    2015-11-01

    Theoretical and empirical evidence suggest that the way in which parents discuss everyday emotional experiences with their young children (i.e., elaborative reminiscing) has significant implications for child cognitive and socioemotional functioning, and that maltreating parents have a particularly difficult time in engaging in this type of dialogue. This dyadic interactional exchange, therefore, has the potential to be an important process variable linking child maltreatment to developmental outcomes at multiple levels of analysis. The current investigation evaluated the role of maternal elaborative reminiscing in associations between maltreatment and child cognitive, emotional, and physiological functioning. Participants included 43 maltreated and 49 nonmaltreated children (aged 3-6) and their mothers. Dyads participated in a joint reminiscing task about four past emotional events, and children participated in assessments of receptive language and emotion knowledge. Child salivary cortisol was also collected from children three times a day (waking, midday, and bedtime) on 2 consecutive days to assess daily levels and diurnal decline. Results indicated that maltreating mothers engaged in significantly less elaborative reminiscing than did nonmaltreating mothers. Maternal elaborative reminiscing mediated associations between child maltreatment and child receptive language and child emotion knowledge. In addition, there was support for an indirect pathway between child maltreatment and child cortisol diurnal decline through maternal elaborative reminiscing. Directions for future research are discussed, and potential clinical implications are addressed. PMID:26535941

  19. Maternal Elaborative Reminiscing Mediates the Effect of Child Maltreatment on Behavioral and Physiological Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Valentino, Kristin; Hibel, Leah C; Cummings, E. Mark; Nuttall, Amy K.; Comas, Michelle; McDonnell, Christina G.

    2016-01-01

    Theoretical and empirical evidence suggest that the way in which parents discuss everyday emotional experiences with their young children (i.e., elaborative reminiscing) has significant implications for child cognitive and socio-emotional functioning, and that maltreating parents have a particularly difficult time in engaging in this type of dialogue. This dyadic interactional exchange, therefore, has the potential to be an important process variable linking child maltreatment to developmental outcomes at multiple levels of analysis. The current investigation evaluated the role of maternal elaborative reminiscing in associations between maltreatment and child cognitive, emotional, and physiological functioning. Participants included 43 maltreated and 49 nonmaltreated children (aged 3–6) and their mothers. Dyads participated in a joint reminiscing task about four past emotional events, and children participated in assessments of receptive language and emotion knowledge. Child salivary cortisol was also collected from children three times a day (waking, midday, and bedtime) on two consecutive days to assess daily levels and diurnal decline. Results indicated that maltreating mothers engaged in significantly less elaborative reminiscing than nonmaltreating mothers. Maternal elaborative reminiscing mediated associations between child maltreatment and child receptive language and child emotion knowledge. Additionally, there was support for an indirect pathway between child maltreatment and child cortisol diurnal decline through maternal elaborative reminiscing. Directions for future research are discussed and potential clinical implications are addressed. PMID:26535941

  20. Correlates of Cortisol in Human Hair: Implications for Epidemiologic Studies on Health Effects of Chronic Stress

    PubMed Central

    Wosu, Adaeze C.; Valdimarsdóttir, Unnur; Shields, Alexandra E.; Williams, David R.; Williams, Michelle A.

    2013-01-01

    Assessment of cortisol concentrations in hair is one of the latest innovations for measuring long-term cortisol exposure. We performed a systematic review of correlates of cortisol in human hair to inform the design, analysis and interpretation of future epidemiologic studies. Relevant publications were identified through electronic searches on PubMed, WorldCat, and Web of Science using keywords, “cortisol” “hair” “confounders” “chronic” “stress” and “correlates.” Thirty-nine studies were included in this review. Notwithstanding scarce data and some inconsistencies, investigators have found hair cortisol concentrations to be associated with stress-related psychiatric symptoms and disorders (e.g., PTSD), medical conditions indicating chronic activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (e.g., Cushing´s syndrome) and other life situations associated with elevated risk of chronic stress (e.g., shiftwork). Results from some studies suggest that physical activity, adiposity, and substance abuse may be correlates of hair cortisol concentrations. In contrast to measures of short-term cortisol release (saliva, blood, and urine), cigarette smoking and use of oral contraceptives appear to not be associated with hair cortisol concentrations. Studies of pregnant women indicate increased hair cortisol concentrations across successive trimesters. The study of hair cortisol presents a unique opportunity to assess chronic alterations in cortisol concentrations in epidemiologic studies. PMID:24184029

  1. Effects of major depression diagnosis and cortisol levels on indices of neurocognitive function.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Rowena G; Posener, Joel A; Keller, Jennifer; DeBattista, Charles; Solvason, Brent; Schatzberg, Alan F

    2009-08-01

    Although many studies have examined separately the effects of depression and cortisol on cognition, no study has examined their relative or potentially additive effects. Our study simultaneously investigated the contributions of clinical status [major depression (MD) versus psychiatrically healthy controls (HC)] and cortisol on a hippocampal/mediotemporal mediated verbal memory task (Paragraph Recall) and a prefrontal cortex/cingulate mediated executive functioning task (Stroop). Thirty-seven unmedicated nondelusional MDs and 18 HCs underwent psychiatric ratings, hourly assessments of cortisol activity over 24 h, and neuropsychological assessments. Hierarchical multiple regressions indicated a significant effect of cortisol but not of diagnosis on verbal memory. Greater cortisol levels were related to poorer memory performance independent of group. In contrast, a significant interaction between cortisol and diagnosis was found for a color-word index of response inhibition. This interaction suggests that the detrimental effect of elevated cortisol level on this type of executive functioning exists only in the healthy control group but not in MDs. On an Interference score, another measure of response inhibition, cortisol had a significant independent effect, but neither the effects of diagnosis and the interaction attained full significance. Our study suggests that cortisol has an independent effect on verbal memory. Also, our study produced evidence of an interaction between diagnosis and cortisol on response inhibition. PMID:19261389

  2. Temporal relationships between plasma cortisol, corticosteriod-binding globulin (CBG), and the free cortisol index (FCI) in pigs in response to adrenal stimulation or suppression

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In swine, more than 60% of cortisol in circulation is bound to its carrier glycoprotein, porcine corticosteroid-binding globulin (pCBG), and is considered biologically inactive. Limitations exist when only total plasma cortisol levels are used to assess the stress response in swine in situations whe...

  3. Eye Tracking, Cortisol, and a Sleep vs. Wake Consolidation Delay: Combining Methods to Uncover an Interactive Effect of Sleep and Cortisol on Memory

    PubMed Central

    Bennion, Kelly A.; Mickley Steinmetz, Katherine R.; Kensinger, Elizabeth A.; Payne, Jessica D.

    2014-01-01

    Although rises in cortisol can benefit memory consolidation, as can sleep soon after encoding, there is currently a paucity of literature as to how these two factors may interact to influence consolidation. Here we present a protocol to examine the interactive influence of cortisol and sleep on memory consolidation, by combining three methods: eye tracking, salivary cortisol analysis, and behavioral memory testing across sleep and wake delays. To assess resting cortisol levels, participants gave a saliva sample before viewing negative and neutral objects within scenes. To measure overt attention, participants’ eye gaze was tracked during encoding. To manipulate whether sleep occurred during the consolidation window, participants either encoded scenes in the evening, slept overnight, and took a recognition test the next morning, or encoded scenes in the morning and remained awake during a comparably long retention interval. Additional control groups were tested after a 20 min delay in the morning or evening, to control for time-of-day effects. Together, results showed that there is a direct relation between resting cortisol at encoding and subsequent memory, only following a period of sleep. Through eye tracking, it was further determined that for negative stimuli, this beneficial effect of cortisol on subsequent memory may be due to cortisol strengthening the relation between where participants look during encoding and what they are later able to remember. Overall, results obtained by a combination of these methods uncovered an interactive effect of sleep and cortisol on memory consolidation. PMID:24962611

  4. People Awakening: Collaborative Research to Develop Cultural Strategies for Prevention in Community Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Allen, James; Mohatt, Gerald V.; Beehler, Sarah; Rowe, Hillary L.

    2014-01-01

    The consequences of alcohol use disorder (AUD) and suicide create immense health disparities among Alaska Native people. The People Awakening project is a long-term collaboration between Alaska Native (AN) communities and university researchers seeking to foster health equity through development of positive solutions to these disparities. These efforts initiated a research relationship that identified individual, family, and community protective factors from AUD and suicide. AN co-researchers next expressed interest in translating these findings into intervention. This led to development of a strengths-based community intervention that is the focus of the special issue. The intervention builds these protective factors to prevent AUD and suicide risk within AN youth, and their families and communities. This review provides a critical examination of existing literature and a brief history of work leading to the intervention research. These work efforts portray a shared commitment of university researchers and community members to function as co-researchers, and to conduct research in accord with local Yup’ik cultural values. This imperative allowed the team to navigate several tensions we locate in a convergence of historical and contemporary ecological contextual factors inherent in AN tribal communities with countervailing constraints imposed by Western science. PMID:24903819

  5. People awakening: collaborative research to develop cultural strategies for prevention in community intervention.

    PubMed

    Allen, James; Mohatt, Gerald V; Beehler, Sarah; Rowe, Hillary L

    2014-09-01

    The consequences of alcohol use disorder (AUD) and suicide create immense health disparities among Alaska Native people. The People Awakening project is a long-term collaboration between Alaska Native (AN) communities and university researchers seeking to foster health equity through development of positive solutions to these disparities. These efforts initiated a research relationship that identified individual, family, and community protective factors from AUD and suicide. AN co-researchers next expressed interest in translating these findings into intervention. This led to development of a strengths-based community intervention that is the focus of the special issue. The intervention builds these protective factors to prevent AUD and suicide risk within AN youth, and their families and communities. This review provides a critical examination of existing literature and a brief history of work leading to the intervention research. These work efforts portray a shared commitment of university researchers and community members to function as co-researchers, and to conduct research in accord with local Yup'ik cultural values. This imperative allowed the team to navigate several tensions we locate in a convergence of historical and contemporary ecological contextual factors inherent in AN tribal communities with countervailing constraints imposed by Western science. PMID:24903819

  6. Pharmacotherapy for disorders of consciousness: are 'awakening' drugs really a possibility?

    PubMed

    Ciurleo, Rosella; Bramanti, Placido; Calabrò, Rocco Salvatore

    2013-11-01

    Disorders of consciousness, including the coma state, vegetative state and minimally conscious state, are among the least understood and least curable conditions in modern neurology. Structural or functional injuries may produce impairments in the neuronal circuits (the ascending reticular activating system and thalamocortical loops) responsible for maintaining the wakefulness state and awareness, associated with a change in neurotransmitter concentrations. Pharmacological agents that are able to restore the levels of neurotransmitters and, consequently, neural synaptic plasticity and functional connectivity of consciousness networks, may play an important role as drugs useful in improving the consciousness state. Currently, there is growing interest in the scientific community with regard to pharmacological agents that act on the gamma amino-butyric acid (GABA) system, such as zolpidem and baclofen, and monoamine systems, such as dopaminergic agents and some antidepressants. The purpose of this article is to provide a comprehensive overview of these potential 'awakening' drugs in patients with disorders of consciousness. The possible mechanisms by which these drugs may exert their effects in promoting recovery of consciousness are discussed, highlighting how many findings are often the result of sporadic events rather than prospective controlled trials or implementation of standard treatment guidelines. PMID:24170667

  7. A reason for intermittent fasting to suppress the awakening of dormant breast tumors.

    PubMed

    Lankelma, Jan; Kooi, Bob; Krab, Klaas; Dorsman, Josephine C; Joenje, Hans; Westerhoff, Hans V

    2015-01-01

    For their growth, dormant tumors, which lack angiogenesis may critically depend on gradients of nutrients and oxygen from the nearest blood vessel. Because for oxygen depletion the distance from the nearest blood vessel to depletion will generally be shorter than for glucose depletion, such tumors will contain anoxic living tumor cells. These cells are dangerous, because they are capable of inducing angiogenesis, which will "wake up" the tumor. Anoxic cells are dependent on anaerobic glucose breakdown for ATP generation. The local extracellular glucose concentration gradient is determined by the blood glucose concentration and by consumption by cells closer to the nearest blood vessel. The blood glucose concentration can be lowered by 20-40% during fasting. We calculated that glucose supply to the potentially hazardous anoxic cells can thereby be reduced significantly, resulting in cell death specifically of the anoxic tumor cells. We hypothesize that intermittent fasting will help to reduce the incidence of tumor relapse via reducing the number of anoxic tumor cells and tumor awakening. PMID:25448890

  8. Mechanisms Underlying Footshock and Psychological Stress-Induced Abrupt Awakening From Posttraumatic “Nightmares”

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Bin; Cui, Su-Ying; Zhang, Xue-Qiong; Cui, Xiang-Yu; Li, Sheng-Jie; Sheng, Zhao-Fu; Cao, Qing; Huang, Yuan-Li; Xu, Ya-Ping; Lin, Zhi-Ge; Yang, Guang; Song, Jin-Zhi; Ding, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Background: Posttraumatic nightmares are a highly prevalent and distressing symptom of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but have been the subject of limited phenomenological investigations. Methods: We utilized a communication box to establish PTSD symptoms in rats through exposure to footshock stress (FS) and psychological stress (PS). The immunohistochemical test and high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection were used to detect the activity and monoamine levels in the rats’ arousal systems. Results: Twenty-one days after traumatic stress, 14.17% of FS and 12.5% of PS rats exhibited startled awakening, and the same rats showed hyperfunction of the locus coeruleus/noradrenergic system and hypofunction of the perifornical nucleus/orexinergic system. Changes in serotonin levels in the dorsal raphe nucleus showed opposite trends in the FS and PS rats that were startled awake. No differences were found in other sleep/arousal systems. Conclusion: These results suggest that different clinically therapeutic strategies should be considered to treat different trauma-induced posttraumatic nightmares. PMID:26591007

  9. Transuteroplacental metabolism of cortisol and cortisone during mid- and late gestation in the baboon

    SciTech Connect

    Pepe, G.J.; Albrecht, E.D.

    1984-11-01

    We measured uterine extraction (i.e. metabolism) and transuteroplacental interconversion of cortisol (F) and cortisone (E) to determine whether metabolism across the uterus changes during pregnancy and contributes to the MCR of these corticosteroids. On day 100 (n . 4) or 170 (n . 3) of pregnancy (term . day 184), baboons (Papio anubis; 14-18 kg) were sedated with ketamine, and a constant infusion (0.38 ml/min) of 8-12 microCi (/sup 3/H)F and 9-15 microCi (/sup 14/C)E in 80 ml 0.9% NaCl-1% ethanol was initiated (time zero) via a maternal antecubital vein. At 60 min, animals were laparotomized, and at 70, 80, and 90 min, blood samples were obtained from right and left uterine veins and from a maternal saphenous vein. At 95 min, a transverse incision was made in the uterus, the fetus was isolated, and blood samples were obtained from the umbilical vein and artery. The cord was then clamped, and the fetus was delivered. Radio-labeled F and E were extracted from serum and purified by sequential paper chromatography, and metabolic parameters were calculated. Endogenous F and E levels were determined by RIA. In the mother, the percent conversions of E to F at midgestation (mean +/- SE; 72 +/- 4) and late gestation (65 +/- 3) were similar and exceeded (P less than 0.01) respective values for oxidation of F to E (51 +/- 7 and 46 +/- 7, respectively), indicating that maternal corticosteroid metabolism favors F formation and is unchanged during the second half of gestation. In contrast, corticosteroid metabolism across the uterus and placenta (transuteroplacental) was altered during pregnancy. At midgestation, transuteroplacental conversion of E to F (37 +/- 9) exceeded (P less than 0.05) the reverse reaction (18 +/- 3), whereas oxidation of F to E at term (28 +/- 4) was 7-fold greater (P less than 0.05) than reduction of E to F (4 +/- 1).

  10. Hypopituitarism: A rare sequel of cerebral malaria - Presenting as delayed awakening from general anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Selvaraj, Venkatesh

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of delayed emergence from anesthesia in a 37-year-old male who came for emergency laparoscopic appendicectomy. This patient is hailing from one of the endemic zones of Malaria, Orissa State in India. Two months ago he had cerebral malaria and was treated in our intensive care unit. After recovering from cerebral malaria, he presented to us for acute abdomen, and he was taken for emergency laparoscopic appendicectomy. He had delayed emergence of around 2 h to extubate from the time of completion of surgery in spite of termination of anesthetic agents. Further investigations showed to have decreased serum levels of thyroid hormones and cortisol levels in the postoperative period. The Physician promptly diagnosed the condition as hypopituitarism a known sequel of cerebral malaria. The secondary thyroid insufficiency contributing to the delayed emergence from anesthesia. We also review the pertinent literature related to this rare sequelae of cerebral malaria and its perioperative implication to the anesthesiologist. PMID:26417148

  11. Awakening from anesthesia using propofol or sevoflurane with epidural block in radical surgery for senile gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ling; Chen, Chen; Wang, Lin; Cheng, Gao; Wu, Wei-Wei; Li, Yuan-Hai

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To study the awakening of the elderly patients from propofol intravenous general anesthesia or sevoflurane inhalation general anesthesia combined with epidural block after radical gastric cancer surgery. Method: Eighty cases receiving selective radical surgery for gastric cancer were included. They were aged 65-78 years and classified as ASA grade I-II. Using a random number table, the cases were divided into 4 groups (n = 20): propofol intravenous general anesthesia (P group), sevoflurane inhalation general anesthesia (S group), propofol intravenous general anesthesia combined with epidural block (PE group), and sevoflurane inhalation general anesthesia combined with epidural block (SE group). For P and PE group, target controlled infusion of propofol was performed; for S and SE group, sevoflurane was inhaled to induce and maintain general anesthesia; for PE and SE group, before general anesthesia induction, epidural puncture and catheterization at T7-8 was performed. After surgery, perform patient controlled intravenous analgesia (PCIA) or patient controlled epidural analgesia (PCEA), and maintain VAS ≤ 3. The recorded indicators were as follows: time to recovery of spontaneous respiration, time to awakening, time of endotracheal tube removal, time to orientation, time to achieve modified Aldrete scores ≥ 9, modified OAA/S and Aldrete scores upon endotracheal tube removal (T1), 5 min after removal (T2), 15 min after removal (T3) and 30 min after removal (T4), dose of intraoperative remifentanil, intraoperative hypotension, and emergence agitation. Results: Time to awakening, time of endotracheal tube removal, time to orientation, and time to achieve modified Aldrete scores ≥ 9 in PE and SE group were obviously shortened compared with P and S group (P < 0.05); modified OAA/S and Aldrete scores at T1 and T2 in PE and SE group were significantly higher than those in P and S group (P < 0.05), and the scores of SE group at T1 were much higher compared

  12. Elevated hair cortisol levels in chronically stressed dementia caregivers.

    PubMed

    Stalder, Tobias; Tietze, Antje; Steudte, Susann; Alexander, Nina; Dettenborn, Lucia; Kirschbaum, Clemens

    2014-09-01

    Hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) are assumed to reflect integrated long-term cortisol levels and have been proposed as a promising endocrine marker of chronic psychological stress. The current study examined HCC in relation to caregiving burden, a well-established naturalistic model of chronic stress in humans. HCC and relevant psychosocial data were examined in 20 caregivers of relatives with dementia and 20 non-caregiver controls matched for age and sex. Results revealed elevated HCC in dementia caregivers compared to non-caregiver controls (F(1,38)=4.4, p=.04, ηp2=.10). Further, within caregivers, a trend for a positive association of HCC with self-reported caregiving burden (r=.43, p=.058) and a positive association with depressiveness (r=.48, p=.045) were observed. No other associations between HCC and subjective measures were seen. These findings concur with the notion that HCC sensitively capture endocrine aberrations in stress-exposed groups. PMID:25001953

  13. Phagocytic function in cyclists: correlation with catecholamines and cortisol.

    PubMed

    Ortega Rincón, E; Marchena, J M; García, J J; Schmidt, A; Schulz, T; Malpica, I; Rodríguez, A B; Barriga, C; Michna, H; Lötzerich, H

    2001-09-01

    Flow cytometer measurements were made of the basal variations in peripheral blood functional monocytes and granulocytes over the course of a training season (January to November) of a cycling team. Parallel determinations were made of plasma concentration of catecholamines (chromatography) and cortisol (RIA) in a search for neuroendocrine markers. The results showed the greatest phagocytic capacity to occur in the central months (March, May, and July), coinciding with the greatest number and highest level of competitive events with good correlation with a peak in epinephrine during these months (r(2) = 0.998 for monocytes and r(2) = 0.674 for granulocytes). No good correlations were found between phagocytosis and norepinephrine or cortisol. The highest values for phagocytosis and epinephrine concentration were found in May. These results suggest that blood epinephrine concentration could be a good neuroendocrine marker of sportspeople's phagocytic response. PMID:11509500

  14. Use of hair cortisol analysis to detect hypercortisolism during active drinking phases in alcohol-dependent individuals.

    PubMed

    Stalder, Tobias; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Heinze, Kareen; Steudte, Susann; Foley, Paul; Tietze, Antje; Dettenborn, Lucia

    2010-12-01

    The assessment of cortisol levels in human hair has recently been suggested to provide a retrospective index of cumulative cortisol exposure over periods of up to 6 months. The current study examined the utility of hair cortisol analysis to retrospectively detect hypercortisolism during active drinking phases in alcoholics in acute withdrawal (n=23), the normalisation of cortisol output in abstinent alcoholics (n=25) and cortisol levels in age- and gender-matched controls (n=20). Scalp-near 3-cm hair segments were sampled and analysed for cortisol content. Results showed three to fourfold higher cortisol levels in hair samples of alcoholics in acute withdrawal than in those of abstinent alcoholics (p<.001) or controls (p<.001), with no differences between the latter two groups. The current hair cortisol findings closely mirror results of previous research using well-established measures of systemic cortisol secretion and thus provide further validation of this novel method. PMID:20727937

  15. Effect of weaning age on cortisol release in piglets.

    PubMed

    Li, L A; Yang, J J; Li, Y; Lv, L; Xie, J J; Du, G M; Jin, T M; Qin, S Y; Jiao, X L

    2016-01-01

    The effect of weaning age on the adrenal cortex, which plays a vital role in the stress response, is currently unknown. Therefore, plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol levels, weights and relative weights of adrenal glands, and steroidogenesis-related protein and enzyme expression levels in piglets weaned on different days were determined. Piglets weaned at 35 days had significantly lower ACTH levels than those weaned at 14 or 21 days, and cortisol levels of piglets weaned at 21, 28, and 35 days were significantly lower than those of piglets weaned on day 14. Adrenal gland weights of piglets weaned at 28 and 35 days and relative adrenal gland weights of piglets weaned at 35 days were significantly lower than those of piglets weaned at 14 days. However, no significant difference was detected in the expression of melanocortin-type 2 receptor mRNA, which is associated with weaning age. Steroidogenic acute-regulatory (StAR) mRNA and cholesterol side-chain cleavage cytochrome P450 mRNA expression levels in piglets weaned at 28 and 35 days were significantly lower than in those weaned at 14 or 21 days, and P450 11β mRNA expression levels in piglets weaned at 28 and 35 days were significantly lower than in those weaned at 14 days. Therefore, early-weaned piglets exhibited increased adrenal gland weights and StAR and steroidogenic enzyme expression, all of which contributed to high cortisol levels. The high plasma ACTH and cortisol levels in early-weaned piglets indicate that these animals would be greatly affected by stress. PMID:27173313

  16. Predictors of hair cortisol concentrations in older adults.

    PubMed

    Feller, Silke; Vigl, Matthaeus; Bergmann, Manuela M; Boeing, Heiner; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Stalder, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    People at older ages are at increased risk for developing stress-related diseases associated with chronically elevated cortisol secretion. However, the main factors contributing to such endocrine alterations in this age group are still largely unknown. This cross-sectional study examined patterns of long-term integrated cortisol secretion, as assessed in hair, in a sample of 654 participants in middle and old adulthood (mean age: 65.8 years; range: 47-82 years) from the German cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study in Potsdam. Hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) were determined from the first scalp-near 3 cm hair segment and several sociodemographic, lifestyle, anthropometric, disease-related, and psychological parameters were assessed. In simple linear regressions, HCC were found to increase with participants' age and to be higher in men compared to women. HCC also showed positive associations with waist-to-hip ratio, waist circumference, smoking, prevalent type 2 diabetes mellitus, mental health, daytime sleeping, and being unemployed or retired--as well as a negative association with diastolic blood pressure. After full mutual adjustment, only age and smoking remained independent predictors of HCC. The association between prevalent type 2 diabetes mellitus and HCC was attenuated but still persisted independently in women. Similar, a positive relationship between HCC and alcohol consumption was found in women. The current results confirm previous evidence of positive associations of HCC with age, sex, alcohol consumption, and type 2 diabetes mellitus and add new knowledge on factors--such as smoking--that may contribute to elevated cortisol levels in people at older ages. PMID:24275012

  17. Cortisol promotes endoplasmic glucose production via pyridine nucleotide redox.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zengmin; Mick, Gail J; Xie, Rongrong; Wang, Xudong; Xie, Xuemei; Li, Guimei; McCormick, Kenneth L

    2016-04-01

    Both increased adrenal and peripheral cortisol production, the latter governed by 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1), contribute to the maintenance of fasting blood glucose. In the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), the pyridine nucleotide redox state (NADP/NADPH) is dictated by the concentration of glucose-6-phosphate (G6P) and the coordinated activities of two enzymes, hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (H6PDH) and 11β-HSD1. However, luminal G6P may similarly serve as a substrate for hepatic glucose-6-phophatase (G6Pase). A tacit belief is that the G6P pool in the ER is equally accessible to both H6PDH and G6Pase. Based on our inhibition studies and kinetic analysis in isolated rat liver microsomes, these two aforesaid luminal enzymes do share the G6P pool in the ER, but not equally. Based on the kinetic modeling of G6P flux, the ER transporter for G6P (T1) preferentially delivers this substrate to G6Pase; hence, the luminal enzymes do not share G6P equally. Moreover, cortisol, acting through 11β-HSD1, begets a more reduced pyridine redox ratio. By altering this luminal redox ratio, G6P flux through H6PDH is restrained, allowing more G6P for the competing enzyme G6Pase. And, at low G6P concentrations in the ER lumen, which occur during fasting, this acute cortisol-induced redox adjustment promotes glucose production. This reproducible cortisol-driven mechanism has been heretofore unrecognized. PMID:26860459

  18. Cortisol Response to Challenge Involving Low Controllability: The Role of Control Beliefs and Age

    PubMed Central

    Agrigoroaei, Stefan; Polito, Michael; Lee, Angela; Kranz-Graham, Eileen; Seeman, Teresa; Lachman, Margie E.

    2013-01-01

    Cortisol responses are typically more pronounced under low controllability conditions, yet little is known about the role of individual differences. This study examined whether cortisol response to a situation with low controllability differs as a function of preexisting control beliefs and age. We manipulated level of controllability using a driving simulator. Control beliefs were assessed prior to the lab session. Salivary cortisol was measured before and after the driving simulation. Participants were 152 adults aged 22-84 from a Boston area sample. In comparison to the normal controllability condition, those in the low controllability condition reported less perceived control over driving, supporting the effectiveness of the manipulation. In the low controllability condition those with higher control beliefs showed a greater cortisol response than those with low control beliefs. Older adults showed a greater cortisol response than younger adults during the challenge. Implications of acute cortisol responses for performance outcomes are discussed. PMID:23348557

  19. Towards a Biopsychological Understanding of Costly Punishment: The Role of Basal Cortisol

    PubMed Central

    Pfattheicher, Stefan; Keller, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Recent findings have documented a negative relation of basal endogenous cortisol and aggression after a provocation (i.e., reactive aggression) in humans. We build on these findings and investigated the relation of endogenous cortisol and reactive aggression in a social dilemma situation, that is, costly punishment of individuals who did not appropriately contribute to a common group project. Specifically, we predicted that basal cortisol is negatively related to costly punishment of uncooperative individuals. In the present study, basal cortisol was assessed prior to a public goods game with the option to punish other group members. In line with previous research on reactive aggression and basal cortisol, we found that basal cortisol was indeed negatively related to costly punishment. The findings are important for understanding costly punishment because this tendency has been documented as a possible basis for the evolution of cooperation. PMID:24416441

  20. Hair Cortisol Analysis: A Promising Biomarker of HPA Activation in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Kathy D.; Hickman, Ronald; Laudenslager, Mark L.

    2015-01-01

    Prolonged stress is a potentially harmful and often undetected risk factor for chronic illness in older adults. Cortisol, one indicator of the body’s hormonal responses to stress, is regulated by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and is commonly measured in saliva, urine, or blood samples. Cortisol possesses a diurnal pattern and thus collection timing is critical. Hair cortisol is a proxy measure to the total retrospective activity of the HPA axis over the preceding months, much like hemoglobin A1c is a proxy measure of glucose control over the past 3 months. The aim of this review is to examine a novel biomarker, hair cortisol, as a practical measure of long-term retrospective cortisol activity associated with chronic stress in older adults. Hair cortisol analysis advances the science of aging by better characterizing chronic stress as a risk factor for chronic illness progression and as a biomarker of the effectiveness of stress reduction interventions. PMID:26055775

  1. Successful hunting increases testosterone and cortisol in a subsistence population

    PubMed Central

    Trumble, Benjamin C.; Smith, Eric A.; O'Connor, Kathleen A.; Kaplan, Hillard S.; Gurven, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    Controversy over the adaptive significance of male hunting in subsistence societies hinges on the relative importance of familial provisioning and mate-quality signalling. This paper examines the proximate and ultimate motivations of hunting behaviour from a neuroendocrine perspective, using salivary testosterone and cortisol data collected before, during and after hunting focal follows from 31 Tsimane hunters aged 18–82 years. Despite circadian declines in hormone levels, testosterone and cortisol of Tsimane hunters increased at the time of a kill, and remained high as successful hunters returned home. Previous studies of hormonal changes during competitions find that high-stakes and success in the presence of relevant audiences result in increased neuroendocrine arousal. If men hunt primarily to provision their families, then an additional audience would not be expected to impact testosterone or cortisol, nor would the size of the animal killed. However, if signalling male quality by ‘showing off’ was a larger relative driver of men's hunting behaviour, one would expect greater hormonal response in cases where men returned with large sharable kills, especially in the presence of community members. Consistent with provisioning models of male hunting motivation, neither kill size nor encountering an audience of villagers while returning from hunting was associated with hormonal changes for successful hunters. PMID:24335989

  2. Adolescence, Stress and Cortisol in Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    PubMed

    Corbett, Blythe A; Simon, David

    2014-02-01

    Adolescence, the transition between childhood and adulthood, is a period of remarkable physiological, psychological and social change. A variety of physiological changes coincide with the dynamic transition, which is evident in the regulation and responsivity of the Limbic-Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenocortical (LHPA) axis. Specifically, elevations in diurnal basal cortisol levels have been reported, as well as higher cortisol in response to perceived stressors. While this enhanced responsivity may help prepare the individual to adapt to increased demands and new challenges, it may also mark a time of increased vulnerability in populations already prone to enhanced physiological arousal and poor adaption to change, such as autism. To date most studies investigating the integrity of the LHPA axis in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have shown more variable diurnal regulation and a pattern of enhanced responsivity to stress. There is also evidence of more marked reactivity over development suggesting that adolescence may be a time of increased risk for enhanced physiological arousal and social stress. The following review briefly summarizes the literature to date on autism, adolescence and salivary cortisol. The current summary suggests that enhanced study of the interplay between social functioning and stress during the adolescent period in ASD is warranted. PMID:24665363

  3. The cortisol response to social stress in social anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Vaccarino, Oriana; Levitan, Robert; Ravindran, Arun

    2015-04-01

    This study evaluated the cortisol stress response (CSR) following the Trier Social Stress Test in Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) and control participants, to determine whether individual differences in CSR associate more with SAD diagnosis or dimensional characteristics [i.e. childhood trauma (CT)]. Twenty-one participants (11 with SAD) had full data available for both CT-scores and cortisol area-under-the-curve (AUC). Linear regression produced significant results: predicting AUCG with study group, emotional abuse (EA) scores and their interaction (F=3.14, df=5,15; p=.039); of note, the study group by EA interaction was significant at p=.015, driven by a strong positive association between EA and cortisol AUCG in the control group, and a negative association between these variables in the SAD group (standardized-beta=1.56, t=2.75, p=.015). This suggests that EA in SAD patients is associated with altered CSR, highlighting need to measure dimensional characteristics. PMID:25864645

  4. Maternal and Handicapped Child Characteristics Associated with Maternal Involvement Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huntington, Gail S.

    Eighty-six mother-infant pairs were studied to determine the extent to which maternal and child variables predicted maternal involvement. The infants, ranging in age from 3-36 months, were examined on temperament and developmental status. Maternal characteristics studied were temperament, locus of control, and socioeconomic status. Criterion…

  5. Maternal Separation Anxiety and Child Care: Effects on Maternal Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storm, Heidi A.; Ridley-Johnson, Robyn

    Maternal separation anxiety influences maternal behavior, attitudes about employment, and employment decisions made by mothers. This study examined the relationship between maternal separation anxiety and the number of hours a child was in substitute care. The sample consisted of 44 mothers and their children who ranged in age from 12 to 41 months…

  6. Maternal and neonatal tetanus.

    PubMed

    Thwaites, C Louise; Beeching, Nicholas J; Newton, Charles R

    2015-01-24

    Maternal and neonatal tetanus is still a substantial but preventable cause of mortality in many developing countries. Case fatality from these diseases remains high and treatment is limited by scarcity of resources and effective drug treatments. The Maternal and Neonatal Tetanus Elimination Initiative, launched by WHO and its partners, has made substantial progress in eliminating maternal and neonatal tetanus. Sustained emphasis on improvement of vaccination coverage, birth hygiene, and surveillance, with specific approaches in high-risk areas, has meant that the incidence of the disease continues to fall. Despite this progress, an estimated 58,000 neonates and an unknown number of mothers die every year from tetanus. As of June, 2014, 24 countries are still to eliminate the disease. Maintenance of elimination needs ongoing vaccination programmes and improved public health infrastructure. PMID:25149223

  7. Salivary cortisol day curves in Addison's disease in patients on hydrocortisone replacement.

    PubMed

    Ross, I L; Levitt, N S; Van der Walt, J S; Schatz, D A; Johannsson, G; Haarburger, D H; Pillay, T S

    2013-01-01

    Using salivary cortisol (SC) measurements, cortisol exposure in Addison's disease patients on hydrocortisone replacement was determined and compared with healthy controls. Cortisol pharmacokinetics was assessed in 31 patients with Addison's disease on replacement hydrocortisone doses (median daily dose 20 mg; range 5-50 mg) and 30 healthy control subjects. Saliva samples (n=16) were collected between 08:00 and 00:00 h in 1 day, using a passive drool technique. Cortisol exposure was evaluated by noncompartmental approach. In the patients, cortisol exposure was significantly higher than in controls: median inter-quartile range (IQR) peak cortisol (C(max)) 174.5 (59.3-837.0) vs. 6.50 (4.7-19.3) nmol/l, p=0.0001; area under the curve (AUC) 390.1 (177.1-928.9) vs. 21.4 (14.6-28.4) minutes*nmol/l, p=0.0001, trough cortisol level (C(min)) 0.49 (0.49-0.96) vs. 0.49 (0.49-0.49) nmol/l, p=0.02, occurring at 480.0 (0.1-660.0) vs. 405.0 (180.0-570.0) min, p=0.56. First peak cortisol was 174.5 (53.0-754.7) vs. 6.27 (3.90-8.47) nmol/l, p=0.0001 and second peak cortisol 18.90 (5.22-76.9) vs. 3.12 (1.76-4.79) nmol/l, p=0.0001. The time to first peak cortisol differed between the 2 groups, 30 (30-75) vs. 0.1 (0.1-30) minutes; p=0.0001. At doses studied, hydrocortisone replacement therapy results in cortisol pharmacokinetics being markedly different from endogenous cortisol profiles in healthy control subjects. Addison's disease patients had significantly higher SC levels compared to healthy control subjects. PMID:22893258

  8. Cortisol Release From Adipose Tissue by 11β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 1 in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Stimson, Roland H.; Andersson, Jonas; Andrew, Ruth; Redhead, Doris N.; Karpe, Fredrik; Hayes, Peter C.; Olsson, Tommy; Walker, Brian R.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) regenerates cortisol from cortisone. 11β-HSD1 mRNA and activity are increased in vitro in subcutaneous adipose tissue from obese patients. Inhibition of 11β-HSD1 is a promising therapeutic approach in type 2 diabetes. However, release of cortisol by 11β-HSD1 from adipose tissue and its effect on portal vein cortisol concentrations have not been quantified in vivo. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—Six healthy men underwent 9,11,12,12-[2H]4-cortisol infusions with simultaneous sampling of arterialized and superficial epigastric vein blood sampling. Four men with stable chronic liver disease and a transjugular intrahepatic porto-systemic shunt in situ underwent tracer infusion with simultaneous sampling from the portal vein, hepatic vein, and an arterialized peripheral vein. RESULTS—Significant cortisol and 9,12,12-[2H]3-cortisol release were observed from subcutaneous adipose tissue (15.0 [95% CI 0.4–29.5] and 8.7 [0.2–17.2] pmol · min−1 · 100 g−1 adipose tissue, respectively). Splanchnic release of cortisol and 9,12,12-[2H]3-cortisol (13.5 [3.6–23.5] and 8.0 [2.6–13.5] nmol/min, respectively) was accounted for entirely by the liver; release of cortisol from visceral tissues into portal vein was not detected. CONCLUSIONS—Cortisol is released from subcutaneous adipose tissue by 11β-HSD1 in humans, and increased enzyme expression in obesity is likely to increase local glucocorticoid signaling and contribute to whole-body cortisol regeneration. However, visceral adipose 11β-HSD1 activity is insufficient to increase portal vein cortisol concentrations and hence to influence intrahepatic glucocorticoid signaling. PMID:18852329

  9. Cortisol and aldosterone comparisons of cottontail rabbits collected by shooting, trapping, and falconry.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, G D; Weeks, H P

    1985-01-01

    Cortisol and aldosterone levels were measured in plasma of eastern cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) collected by three different methods, i.e., shooting, live-trapping and falconry. Cortisol levels ranged from near 0 to 27.5 micrograms/100 ml and aldosterone from near 0 to 220 ng/100 ml. Shot animals had significantly lower cortisol concentrations than those taken by either of the other methods. Trapped cottontails also had significantly lower aldosterone levels. PMID:3981742

  10. Cortisol, Interleukins and S100B in Delirium in the Elderly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Munster, Barbara C.; Bisschop, Peter H.; Zwinderman, Aeilko H.; Korevaar, Johanna C.; Endert, Erik; Wiersinga, W. Joost; van Oosten, Hannah E.; Goslings, J. Carel; de Rooij, Sophia E. J. A.

    2010-01-01

    In independent studies delirium was associated with higher levels of cortisol, interleukin(IL)s, and S100B. The aim of this study was to simultaneously compare cortisol, IL-6, IL-8, and S100B levels in patients aged 65 years and older admitted for hip fracture surgery with and without delirium. Cortisol, IL-6, IL-8, and S100B were assayed in…

  11. Evaluation of the circadian profiles of serum dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), cortisol, and cortisol/DHEA molar ratio after a single oral administration of DHEA in elderly subjects.

    PubMed

    Ceresini, G; Morganti, S; Rebecchi, I; Freddi, M; Ceda, G P; Banchini, A; Solerte, S B; Ferrari, E; Ablondi, F; Valenti, G

    2000-04-01

    Aging is associated with a selective decline in circulating levels of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfate, with no major changes in cortisol secretion. In young subjects, serum levels of both DHEA and cortisol are regulated according to a circadian rhythm, and an age-related attenuation of DHEA, but not cortisol, circadian rhythmicity has been reported. Several trials have evaluated the effects of DHEA supplementation in elderly subjects, although the results are still controversial. However, no data are available on the 24-hour profile of DHEA circulating levels in elderly subjects with DHEA administration. In the present study, we evaluated the circadian rhythms of DHEA, cortisol, and the cortisol/DHEA molar ratio in old subjects treated with either placebo (old-PL) or a single 50-mg dose of DHEA (old-D), both administered orally at 0700 hours. For each variable, the circadian profiles were compared with those obtained in young control subjects. The group of young subjects displayed a circadian rhythm for both DHEA and cortisol serum concentrations but no rhythm for the cortisol/DHEA molar ratio. In the old-PL group, the circadian rhythm of DHEA was completely abolished, whereas significant rhythms for both cortisol and the cortisol/DHEA molar ratio were observed. Particularly, at each time point, the cortisol/DHEA molar ratio was significantly higher in these subjects versus the young group. In the old-D group, the circadian rhythm of DHEA was completely restored and was comparable to that observed in the young group. Analogous to the observations in young subjects, the profile of the cortisol/DHEA molar ratio in old-D subjects did not display any circadian rhythmicity, the values being almost completely comparable to those observed in young controls. Our data demonstrate that the circadian rhythm of DHEA is totally abolished in elderly subjects. A single 50-mg dose of DHEA administered orally at 0700 hours restores the circadian rhythmicity of serum

  12. Bi nanowire-based thermal biosensor for the detection of salivary cortisol using the Thomson effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seunghyun; Hyun Lee, Jung; Kim, MinGin; Kim, Jeongmin; Song, Min-Jung; Jung, Hyo-Il; Lee, Wooyoung

    2013-09-01

    We present a study of a thermal biosensor based on bismuth nanowire that is fabricated for the detection of the human stress hormone cortisol using the Thomson effect. The Bi nanowire was grown using the On-Film Formation of Nanowires (OFF-ON) method. The thermal device was fabricated using photolithography, and the sensing area was modified with immobilized anti-cortisol antibodies conjugated with protein G for the detection of cortisol. The voltages were measured with two probe tips during surface modification to investigate the biochemical reactions in the fabricated thermal biosensor. The Bi nanowire-based thermal biosensor exhibited low detection limit and good selectivity for the detection of cortisol.

  13. Saliva collection by using filter paper for measuring cortisol levels in dogs.

    PubMed

    Oyama, D; Hyodo, M; Doi, H; Kurachi, T; Takata, M; Koyama, S; Satoh, T; Watanabe, G

    2014-01-01

    Four experiments were conducted to evaluate the accuracy and reliability of noninvasive evaluation of cortisol in saliva of dogs. In experiment 1, we measured the cortisol concentration in the filter paper on which 250-μL cortisol solutions had been quantitatively pipetted and in filter papers dipped in cortisol solution. In experiment 2, we collected the blood and saliva of dogs 3 times at 30-min intervals and compared the cortisol concentrations to examine whether the dynamics of cortisol in the blood and saliva are similar. The results of experiments 1 and 2 showed that the cortisol concentration can be quantitatively measured with this method and that the dynamics of cortisol concentration in the plasma and saliva collected by using filter paper are not different (P = 0.14 for experiment 1 and P = 0.51 for experiment 2). In experiment 3, to investigate the factors related to inducing stress in dogs by using the filter-paper method of collecting saliva, we compared the cortisol concentrations at 0 and 30 min after collecting the saliva of pet dogs. The dog owners completed a survey on their dogs, providing basic information and reporting the collection of their dog's saliva. We found that the cortisol concentrations increased significantly in dogs whose owners spent >2 min collecting saliva (P = 0.005), suggesting that prompt collection of saliva is necessary for accurate assessment of cortisol without induction of a stress response. In addition, the cortisol concentrations increased significantly in dogs whose teeth were not regularly brushed (P = 0.04), suggesting that regular teeth brushing mitigates the effect of the collection process on cortisol concentrations in the saliva, with minimal stress to the dogs. In experiment 4, we measured cortisol concentrations in pet dogs accustomed to having their teeth brushed by their owners, before and after interaction with their owners, to assess whether brushing induces stress in dogs. We detected that the

  14. 21 CFR 862.1205 - Cortisol (hydrocortisone and hydroxycorticosterone) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1205 Cortisol (hydrocortisone and hydroxycorticosterone) test...

  15. 21 CFR 862.1205 - Cortisol (hydrocortisone and hydroxycorticosterone) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1205 Cortisol (hydrocortisone and hydroxycorticosterone) test...

  16. 21 CFR 862.1205 - Cortisol (hydrocortisone and hydroxycorticosterone) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1205 Cortisol (hydrocortisone and hydroxycorticosterone) test...

  17. 21 CFR 862.1205 - Cortisol (hydrocortisone and hydroxycorticosterone) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1205 Cortisol (hydrocortisone and hydroxycorticosterone) test...

  18. 21 CFR 862.1205 - Cortisol (hydrocortisone and hydroxycorticosterone) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1205 Cortisol (hydrocortisone and hydroxycorticosterone) test...

  19. Long-term storage of salivary cortisol samples at room temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Yu-Ming; Cintron, Nitza M.; Whitson, Peggy A.

    1992-01-01

    Collection of saliva samples for the measurement of cortisol during space flights provides a simple technique for studying changes in adrenal function due microgravity. In the present work, several methods for preserving saliva cortisol at room temperature were investigated using radioimmunoassays for determining cortisol in saliva samples collected on a saliva-collection device called Salivettes. It was found that a pretreatment of Salivettes with citric acid resulted in preserving more than 85 percent of the salivary cortisol for as long as six weeks. The results correlated well with those for a sample stored in a freezer on an untreated Salivette.

  20. The association between cortisol and the BOLD response in male adolescents undergoing fMRI.

    PubMed

    Keulers, Esther H H; Stiers, Peter; Nicolson, Nancy A; Jolles, Jelle

    2015-02-19

    MRI participation has been shown to induce subjective and neuroendocrine stress reactions. A recent aging study showed that cortisol levels during fMRI have an age-dependent effect on cognitive performance and brain functioning. The present study examined whether this age-specific influence of cortisol on behavioral and brain activation levels also applies to adolescence. Salivary cortisol as well as subjective experienced anxiety were assessed during the practice session, at home, and before, during and after the fMRI session in young versus old male adolescents. Cortisol levels were enhanced pre-imaging relative to during and post-imaging in both age groups, suggesting anticipatory stress and anxiety. Overall, a negative correlation was found between cortisol output during the fMRI experiment and brain activation magnitude during performance of a gambling task. In young but not in old adolescents, higher cortisol output was related to stronger deactivation of clusters in the anterior and posterior cingulate cortex. In old but not in young adolescents, a negative correlation was found between cortisol and activation in the inferior parietal and in the superior frontal cortex. In sum, cortisol increased the deactivation of several brain areas, although the location of the affected areas in the brain was age-dependent. The present findings suggest that cortisol output during fMRI should be considered as confounder and integrated in analyzing developmental changes in brain activation during adolescence. PMID:25514334

  1. A study of cortisol reactivity and recovery among young adolescents: Heterogeneity and longitudinal stability and change.

    PubMed

    Ji, Juye; Negriff, Sonya; Kim, Hansung; Susman, Elizabeth J

    2016-04-01

    The dominance of reactivity-based theories of the cortisol response and lack of attention to cortisol recovery makes it difficult to compile an integrated theory of the stress response. This report examined a reactivity and recovery model of the cortisol response using variable-centered and person-centered approaches. Age and sex differences and heterogeneity in the pattern of cortisol response were examined. Participants were 135 healthy young adolescents participating in a three-wave longitudinal study of puberty and psychological development. At each wave, five saliva-cortisol samples were collected prior to and following a modified Trier Social Stressor Test for Children. Linear, quadratic, and piece-wise models of latent growth curve analyses and latent class analyses were conducted. Age differences in cortisol reactivity and recovery were found at wave 1 and sex differences in cortisol reactivity emerged at wave 3. Meaningful heterogeneity in the pattern of cortisol response was found cross-sectionally and longitudinally. The implications of heterogeneity in the cortisol response during early adolescence for developmental science are discussed. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 58: 283-302, 2016. PMID:26517401

  2. Seasonal Variation in Cortisol Biomarkers in Hispanic Mothers Living in an Agricultural Region

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Marissa N.; Wilder, Carly S.; Griffith, William C.; Workman, Tomomi; Thompson, Beti; Dills, Russel; Onstad, Gretchen; Vredevoogd, Melinda; Vigoren, Eric M.; Faustman, Elaine M.

    2016-01-01

    Context Characterization of stress exposure requires an understanding seasonal variability in stress biomarkers. Objective To compare acute and chronic stress biomarkers between two seasons in a cohort of rural, Hispanic mothers. Methods Stress questionnaires and cortisol measurements (hair, blood, saliva) were collected in the summer and fall. Results Cortisol biomarkers were significantly different and stress questionnaires were significantly correlated between seasons. Discussion The variability in cortisol and relative stability of questionnaires between seasons may indicate that cortisol responds to subtle stressors not addressed in questionnaires. Conclusions There are significant differences in stress biomarkers in our cohort between seasons. PMID:26329526

  3. Can the neural–cortisol association be moderated by experience-induced changes in awareness?

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Way K. W.; Leung, Mei-Kei; Chan, Chetwyn C. H.; Wong, Samuel S. Y.; Lee, Tatia M. C.

    2015-01-01

    Cortisol homeostasis is important for cognitive and affective functions that depend on cortisol-sensitive brain regions including the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. Recent studies have shown that training induces changes in the brain. We report the findings of a longitudinal study that verified the moderation effect of experience-induced changes in awareness on the neural–cortisol association in cortisol-sensitive brain regions. These findings provide the first piece of evidence that planned behavioral experience can moderate the neural–cortisol association. A range of changes in awareness was achieved in a sample of 21 Chinese participants, divided into two groups: Awareness-based compassion meditation (ABCM) (n = 10) and relaxation (n = 11). We observed that changes in awareness were significant moderators of hippocampal–cortisol changes. Furthermore, a significant negative association between changes in plasma cortisol level and the resting-state synchrony of the right hippocampal and insular-frontal-operculum regions was observed. These novel findings shed light on the inter-relationships between changes in hippocampal–cortisol levels and changes in awareness and preliminarily identify the neural underpinnings of interventions for cortisol-related abnormal functioning for further study. PMID:26577539

  4. Cyclic changes in cortisol across the estrous cycle in parous and nulliparous Asian elephants

    PubMed Central

    Fanson, Kerry V; Keeley, Tamara; Fanson, Benjamin G

    2014-01-01

    In the context of reproduction, glucocorticoids (GCs) are generally considered to have negative effects. However, in well-studied model species, GCs fluctuate predictability across the estrous cycles, and short-term increases promote healthy ovarian function. Reproductive challenges have plagued captive elephant populations, which are not currently self-sustaining. Efforts to understand reproductive dysfunction in elephants have focused on the suppressive effects of cortisol, but the potential permissive or stimulatory effects of cortisol are unknown. In this study, we provide a detailed examination of cortisol patterns across the estrous cycle in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). Time series analysis was used to analyze cortisol and progesterone data for a total of 73 cycles from eight females. We also compared cortisol profiles between females that successfully conceived and females that failed to conceive despite repeated mating attempts. Our results revealed that cortisol fluctuates predictably across the estrous cycle, with a peak during the second half of the follicular phase followed by low levels throughout the luteal phase. Furthermore, this pattern was significantly altered in nulliparous females; cortisol concentrations did not decline during the luteal phase to the same extent as in parous females. This study highlights the complexity of cortisol signaling and suggests future directions for understanding the role of cortisol in reproductive dysfunction. PMID:24623735

  5. Why should we care? Awakening Middle and High School students to the reality of climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manley, J. M.; Barr, A. N.; Ellins, K. K.; Haddad, N.; Ledley, T. S.; Dunlap, C.; Bardar, E.

    2012-12-01

    Our students, like too much of the American public, are largely unaware or apathetic to the changes in world climate and the impact that these changes have for life on Earth. This last year we, as two Middle and High School science teachers, were given the opportunity to use a new trial curriculum currently in development for TERC's EarthLabs collection to awaken those brains and assist our students in making personal lifestyle choices based on what they had learned. In addition, with support from TERC and The University of Texas Institute for Geophysics we began training other teachers on how to implement this curriculum in their classrooms to expose their students to our changing climate. Traditionally, the cryosphere and the carbon cycle are taught as discrete units without meaningful connections to areas of study that have personal relevance and impact. While pictures of polar bears and penguins evoke emotional responses, the changes coming to their worlds usually result only in another tug at the heartstrings. What if teachers better understood two vital components of Earth's climate system and were able to impart his understanding to their students? What if students based their responses to the information taught not on emotion, but on a deeper understanding of the forces driving climate change, their analysis of the scientific evidence and in the context of earth system science? In our presentation, we will give you (1) a glimpse into the challenges faced by today's science teachers in communicating the complicated, but ever-deepening understanding of the linkages between natural and human-driven factors on climate; (2) introduce you to two new modules in the EarthLabs curriculum designed to expose teachers and students to global scientific climate data and instrumentation; and (3) illustrate how student worldviews are changed though exposure to the latest in scientific discovery and understanding.

  6. Neuroendocrine mechanisms mediating awakening of the human gonadotropic axis in puberty.

    PubMed

    Veldhuis, J D

    1996-06-01

    The hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) pulse generator presides over the pulsatile and feedback-regulated activities of the pituitary-gonadal axis. Awakening of synchronous activity of the GnRH neuronal ensemble in the earliest stages of puberty heralds the onset of full activation of the reproductive axis in girls and boys. Progression from prepuberty to adulthood in boys is directed by marked (30-fold) amplitude enhancement of pulsatile luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion, as assessed by an ultrasensitive immunofluorometric assay and deconvolution analysis. There is a much less apparent rise in LH secretory burst frequency (approximately 1.3-fold increase). Consequently, human puberty is an amplitude-driven neuroendocrine maturational process. However, less is known about pulsatile follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) release in puberty. Multiple pathophysiologies that result in hypogonadotropic hypogonadism can converge on a final common mechanism of attenuated hypothalamic GnRH pulse generator output and hence reduced LH (and FSH) secretion. Disturbances may take the form of reduced GnRH pulse frequency and/or attenuated GnRH secretory burst mass. When the pathophysiology of hypogonadism originates exclusively in a failed GnRH pulse generator, then either treatment of the primary disease process where possible (e.g., by refeeding in starvation, improved metabolic control in diabetes mellitus, dopamine agonist treatment in hyperprolactinemia, etc) and/or treatment with pulsatile GnRH (e.g., in Kallmann's syndrome, isolated hypothalamic lesions, etc.) can provide relevant therapeutic options in children and adults. PMID:8792395

  7. Maternal Sexuality and Breastfeeding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartlett, Alison

    2005-01-01

    In this paper I consider the ways in which lactation has been discussed as a form of maternal sexuality, and the implications this carries for our understanding of breastfeeding practices and sexuality. Drawing on knowledge constructed in the western world during the last half of the twentieth century, the paper identifies a shift between the…

  8. Maternal Attitudes. Progress Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harnischfeger, Annegret; Wiley, David E.

    This paper discusses ways in which maternal attitudes may serve as mediating variables linking social class characteristics of the family to the socialization of children. Reference is made to the Family Problem Scale (Ernhart and Loevinger) which provides a psychological characterization of social class levels on five dimensions or subscales:…

  9. Maternity Leave in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feng, Joyce Yen; Han, Wen-Jui

    2010-01-01

    Using the first nationally representative birth cohort study in Taiwan, this paper examines the role that maternity leave policy in Taiwan plays in the timing of mothers returning to work after giving birth, as well as the extent to which this timing is linked to the amount of time mothers spend with their children and their use of breast milk…

  10. The effects of season, daylight saving and time of sunrise on serum cortisol in a large population.

    PubMed

    Hadlow, Narelle C; Brown, Suzanne; Wardrop, Robert; Henley, David

    2014-03-01

    Cortisol is critical for maintenance of health and homeostasis and factors affecting cortisol levels are of clinical importance. There is conflicting information about the effects of season on morning cortisol and little information on the effects of sunlight on population cortisol assessment. The aim of this study was to assess whether changes in median serum cortisol occurred in a population in conjunction with changing seasons, daylight saving time (DST) or time of sunrise. We analysed serum cortisol results (n = 27,569) from a single large laboratory over a 13-year period. Subjects with confounding medications or medical conditions were excluded and data analysed in 15-minute intervals. We assessed the influence of traditional seasons, seasons determined by equinox/solstice, DST and time of sunrise on median cortisol. The median time of cortisol collection did not vary significantly between seasons. Using traditional seasons, median cortisol was lowest in summer (386 nmol/L) and spring (384 nmol/L) with higher cortisol in autumn (406 nmol/L) and winter (414 nmol/L). Median cortisol was lowest in the summer solstice quarter with significant comparative increases in the spring equinox quarter (3.1%), the autumn equinox quarter (4.5%) and the winter solstice quarter (8.6%). When cortisol was modelled against time, with adjustment for actual sunrise time on day of collection, for each hour delay in sunrise there was a 4.8% increase in median cortisol (95% CI: 3.9-5.7%). In modelling to explain the variation in cortisol over the morning, sunrise time was better than season in explaining seasonal effects. A subtle cyclic pattern in median cortisol also occurred throughout the months of the year. A 3-year trial of DST allowed comparison of cortisol in DST and non DST periods, when clock time differed by one hour. There was modest evidence of a difference in acrophase between DST and non DST cortisol (p = 0.038), with DST peak cortisol estimated to

  11. Brain white matter microstructure alterations in adolescent rhesus monkeys exposed to early life stress: associations with high cortisol during infancy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Early adverse experiences, especially those involving disruption of the mother-infant relationship, are detrimental for proper socioemotional development in primates. Humans with histories of childhood maltreatment are at high risk for developing psychopathologies including depression, anxiety, substance abuse, and behavioral disorders. However, the underlying neurodevelopmental alterations are not well understood. Here we used a nonhuman primate animal model of infant maltreatment to study the long-term effects of this early life stress on brain white matter integrity during adolescence, its behavioral correlates, and the relationship with early levels of stress hormones. Methods Diffusion tensor imaging and tract based spatial statistics were used to investigate white matter integrity in 9 maltreated and 10 control animals during adolescence. Basal plasma cortisol levels collected at one month of age (when abuse rates were highest) were correlated with white matter integrity in regions with group differences. Total aggression was also measured and correlated with white matter integrity. Results We found significant reductions in white matter structural integrity (measured as fractional anisotropy) in the corpus callosum, occipital white matter, external medullary lamina, as well as in the brainstem of adolescent rhesus monkeys that experienced maternal infant maltreatment. In most regions showing fractional anisotropy reductions, opposite effects were detected in radial diffusivity, without changes in axial diffusivity, suggesting that the alterations in tract integrity likely involve reduced myelin. Moreover, in most regions showing reduced white matter integrity, this was associated with elevated plasma cortisol levels early in life, which was significantly higher in maltreated than in control infants. Reduced fractional anisotropy in occipital white matter was also associated with increased social aggression. Conclusions These findings highlight the

  12. Impact of Adiposity and Fat Distribution on the Dynamics of Adrenocorticotropin and Cortisol Rhythms.

    PubMed

    Roelfsema, Ferdinand; Pereira, Alberto M; Veldhuis, Johannes D

    2014-12-01

    Obesity impacts many hormonal systems, including pituitary hormones, as well as insulin and leptin. In this review we discuss articles which investigate the influence of obesity on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Different techniques have been used to assess the function of the HPA-axis in obesity, including measuring fasting and/or late evening levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and (free) cortisol in plasma and saliva, studying feedback with dexamethasone or cortisol, and evaluating responsiveness of the system to corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) or ACTH 1-29. In addition, more elaborate studies investigated 24-h secretion patterns, analyzed with deconvolution techniques to quantitate pulsatile secretion rates of cortisol and less often ACTH. Other investigators used timed infusions of labeled cortisol for the estimation of the 24-h secretion rate, clearance rate and distribution volume. Many studies relied on the 24-h urinary excretion of free cortisol, but for quantitation of the 24-h secretion, measurement of all cortisol-derived metabolites is required. Several studies have applied modern liquid chromatography-tandem-mass spectrometry techniques to measure these metabolites. The picture emerging from all these studies is that, first, ACTH secretion is amplified, likely via enhanced forward drive; and, second, serum cortisol levels are normal or even low, associated with a normal 24-h cortisol secretion per liter distribution volume determined by deconvolution, but enhanced when based on the increased total distribution volume associated with obesity. Increased cortisol secretion was also established by isotope dilution studies and reports based on the measurement of all urinary cortisol metabolites. The responsiveness of the adrenal gland to ACTH is diminished. The studies do not address quantitative aspects of cortisol-cortisone metabolism on individual organs, including liver, central and

  13. Preferential occurrence of attacks during night sleep and/or upon awakening negatively affects migraine clinical presentation

    PubMed Central

    Gori, Sara; Lucchesi, Cinzia; Baldacci, Filippo; Bonuccelli, Ubaldo

    2015-01-01

    Summary It is well known that migraine attacks can preferentially occur during night sleep and/or upon awakening, however the possible implications of this timing on migraine clinical presentation remain unclear. The aim of this study was to assess the possible consequences of sleep-related migraine (defined as ≥75% of migraine attacks occurring during night sleep and/or upon awakening) on the migraine clinical picture (i.e. migraine-related disability, attack severity, use of symptomatic drugs), subjective sleep quality, excessive daytime sleepiness and fatigue. Two hundred consecutive migraine without aura patients were enrolled; patients with comorbid disorders or chronic medication use were excluded. 39% of the migraineurs included in the study received a diagnosis of sleep-related migraine. The mean frequency of migraine attacks (days per month) did not significantly differ between the patients with and those without sleep-related migraine, whereas migraine-related disability (p<0.0001), mean attack severity (p<0.0001), and monthly intake of symptomatic drugs (p<0.0001) were significantly higher in patients with migraine preferentially occurring at night-time and/or upon awakening. Subjective sleep quality and excessive daytime sleepiness did not differ significantly between the two groups, whereas fatigue was significantly more present in the patients with sleep-related migraine (p=0.0001). These data seem to support the hypothesis that patients with sleep-related migraine represent a subset of individuals with a more severe and disabling clinical presentation of migraine and greater impairment of daily functioning, as suggested by the higher degree of fatigue. Migraineurs with night-time attacks also showed a greater use of symptomatic drugs, possibly related to delayed use of symptomatic treatment. The identification of subtypes of patients with a higher disability risk profile could have crucial implications for individually tailored management of

  14. [Oxidative modification of proteins and antioxidative blood activity of ground squirrels during induced awakening from winter sleep].

    PubMed

    Astaeva, M D; Klichkhanov, N K

    2009-01-01

    The intensity of oxidative modification of plasma proteins and activity of the antioxidative system of the blood of the ground squirrels during awakening from winter sleep is studied. During waking of animals, processes of oxidative modification of proteins in the blood plasma intensify. While the body temperature rises, the antioxidative activity of hydrophylic components of the blood plasma grows essentially, and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase too. Activity of erythrocyte catalase at all stages of waking is definitely higher than in the control. The received results evidence