Sample records for maternal protein-restricted rats

  1. The impact of maternal protein restriction during rat pregnancy upon renal expression of angiotensin receptors and vasopressin-related aquaporins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ruth Cornock; Simon C Langley-Evans; Ali Mobasheri; Sarah McMullen

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Maternal protein restriction during rat pregnancy is known to impact upon fetal development, growth and risk of disease in later life. It is of interest to understand how protein undernutrition influences the normal maternal adaptation to pregnancy. Here we investigated the mechanisms regulating renal haemodynamics and plasma volume during pregnancy, in the context of both normal and reduced plasma

  2. Maternal protein restriction early in rat pregnancy alters brain development in the progeny

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pierre Gressens; Séverin M Muaku; Leslie Besse; Elise Nsegbe; Jorge Gallego; Bertrand Delpech; Claude Gaultier; Philippe Evrard; Jean-Marie Ketelslegers; Dominique Maiter

    1997-01-01

    We assessed the effects of a dietary protein restriction (5% vs. 20% casein in diet) initiated at conception and imposed during the first 2 weeks of rat gestation on postnatal brain development. At the end of the malnutrition period, protein-restricted animals exhibited significantly smaller fetal body weight and brain cortical thickness than controls. At birth and thereafter, body weight was

  3. Maternal protein restriction impairs the transcriptional metabolic flexibility of skeletal muscle in adult rat offspring.

    PubMed

    da Silva Aragão, Raquel; Guzmán-Quevedo, Omar; Pérez-García, Georgina; Manhães-de-Castro, Raul; Bolaños-Jiménez, Francisco

    2014-08-01

    Skeletal muscle exhibits a remarkable flexibility in the usage of fuel in response to the nutrient intake and energy demands of the organism. In fact, increased physical activity and fasting trigger a transcriptional programme in skeletal muscle cells leading to a switch from carbohydrate to lipid oxidation. Impaired metabolic flexibility has been reported to be associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes, but it is not known whether the disability to adapt to metabolic demands is a cause or a consequence of these pathological conditions. Inasmuch as a poor nutritional environment during early life is a predisposing factor for the development of metabolic diseases in adulthood, in the present study, we aimed to determine the long-term effects of maternal malnutrition on the metabolic flexibility of offspring skeletal muscle. To this end, the transcriptional responses of the soleus and extensor digitorum longus muscles to fasting were evaluated in adult rats born to dams fed a control (17 % protein) or a low-protein (8 % protein, protein restricted (PR)) diet throughout pregnancy and lactation. With the exception of reduced body weight and reduced plasma concentrations of TAG, PR rats exhibited a metabolic profile that was the same as that of the control rats. In the fed state, PR rats exhibited an enhanced expression of key regulatory genes of fatty acid oxidation including CPT1a, PGC-1?, UCP3 and PPAR? and an impaired expression of genes that increase the capacity for fat oxidation in response to fasting. These results suggest that impaired metabolic inflexibility precedes and may contribute to the development of metabolic disorders associated with early malnutrition. PMID:24823946

  4. Maternal protein restriction early in rat pregnancy alters brain development in the progeny.

    PubMed

    Gressens, P; Muaku, S M; Besse, L; Nsegbe, E; Gallego, J; Delpech, B; Gaultier, C; Evrard, P; Ketelslegers, J M; Maiter, D

    1997-10-20

    We assessed the effects of a dietary protein restriction (5% vs. 20% casein in diet) initiated at conception and imposed during the first 2 weeks of rat gestation on postnatal brain development. At the end of the malnutrition period, protein-restricted animals exhibited significantly smaller fetal body weight and brain cortical thickness than controls. At birth and thereafter, body weight was normalized in the progeny. Similarly, brain weight and cytoarchitecture were normal in postnatal animals. In contrast, we observed, during the first 2 postnatal weeks, several abnormalities of brain development which affected all the studied areas for most of the studied parameters: (i) delayed astrocytogenesis as shown by a reduced GFAP staining; (ii) delayed production of hyaluronan in the extracellular matrix studied with binding of biotinylated hyaluronectin; (iii) abnormal neuronal differentiation as shown by reduced expression of MAP-5 and increased expression of MAP-1; (iv) abnormal synaptogenesis as shown by the increased expression of synaptophysin in the basal ganglia; (v) decreased programmed cell death. In adult prenatally protein-restricted animals, all the above parameters were normalized excepted MAP-1 labeling which remained high. In addition, we observed slight alterations of the ventilatory response to hypoxia in adult animals. The present study demonstrates that early protein malnutrition during embryonic development induces multiple, transient alterations of brain development. However, the almost complete normalization in adults of brain architecture and differentiation as well as our physiological data strongly suggest a remarkable plasticity of the developing brain following an early aggression. PMID:9370057

  5. Offspring metabolomic response to maternal protein restriction in a rat model of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR).

    PubMed

    Alexandre-Gouabau, Marie-Cécile; Courant, Frédérique; Le Gall, Gwénaëlle; Moyon, Thomas; Darmaun, Dominique; Parnet, Patricia; Coupé, Bérengère; Antignac, Jean-Philippe

    2011-07-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), along with postnatal growth trajectory, is closely linked with metabolic diseases and obesity at adulthood. The present study reports the time-dependent metabolomic response of male offspring of rat dams exposed to maternal adequate protein diet during pregnancy and lactation (CC) or protein deprivation during pregnancy only (IUGR with rapid catch-up growth, RC) or through pregnancy and lactation (IUGR with slow postnatal growth, RR). Plasma LC-HRMS metabolomic fingerprints for 8 male rats per group, combined with multivariate statistical analysis (PLS-DA and HCA), were used to study the impact of IUGR and postnatal growth velocity on the offspring metabolism in early life (until weaning) and once they reached adulthood (8 months). Compared with CC rats, RR pups had clear-cut alterations in plasma metabolome during suckling, but none at adulthood; in contrast, in RC pups, alterations in metabolome were minimal in early life but more pronounced in the long run. In particular, our results pinpoint transient alterations in proline, arginine, and histidine in RR rats, compared to CC rats, and persistent differences in tyrosine and carnitine, compared to RC rats at adulthood. These findings suggest that the long-term deregulation in feeding behavior and fatty acid metabolism in IUGR rats depends on postnatal growth velocity. PMID:21608999

  6. Maternal protein restriction in the rat during pregnancy and\\/or lactation alters cognitive and anxiety behaviors of female offspring

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. A. Reyes-Castro; J. S. Rodriguez; R. Charco; C. J. Bautista; F. Larrea; P. W. Nathanielsz; E. Zambrano

    Maternal protein deficiencies can developmentally program offspring to lifelong dysfunction of many physiological systems. We hypothesized that maternal isocaloric low protein diet during fetal and early postnatal development would negatively affect female offspring anxiety, exploration, associative learning and motivation as measured by the elevated plus maze (EPM), open field test (OFT), operant conditioning and the progressive ratio task, respectively. Control

  7. Maternal Protein Restriction Affects Postnatal Growth and the Expression of Key Proteins Involved in Lifespan Regulation in Mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jian-Hua Chen; Malgorzata S. Martin-Gronert; Jane Tarry-Adkins; Susan E. Ozanne; Silvana Gaetani

    2009-01-01

    We previously reported that maternal protein restriction in rodents influenced the rate of growth in early life and ultimately affected longevity. Low birth weight caused by maternal protein restriction followed by catch-up growth (recuperated animals) was associated with shortened lifespan whereas protein restriction and slow growth during lactation (postnatal low protein: PLP animals) increased lifespan. We aim to explore the

  8. Postnatal nutrition alters body composition in adult offspring exposed to maternal protein restriction.

    PubMed

    Gosby, Alison K; Stanton, Lisa M L; Maloney, Christopher A; Thompson, Madeleine; Briody, Julie; Baxter, Robert C; Bryson, Janet M; Denyer, Gareth S; Caterson, Ian D

    2009-06-01

    The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system is altered with intra-uterine growth retardation and in adult metabolic disease. The aim of the present study was to observe effects of continued protein restriction on the IGF-I system and body composition in offspring of mothers fed a low-protein (LP) diet. Offspring from Wistar dams fed either a 20 % (CON) or 8 % (LP) protein diet during gestation and lactation were studied at birth, 10 d, weaning and at 12 weeks after maintenance on either the 8 % (lp) or 20 % (con) protein diet from weaning. LP offspring had reduced weaning weights (P < 0.05) and reduced serum insulin (P < 0.005). Serum IGF-I (P < 0.001) and acid-labile subunit (ALS) (P < 0.0001) were reduced at 10 and 21 d. Hepatic expression of IGF-I (P < 0.05) and ALS (P < 0.005) were reduced at 10 and 21 d. IGF binding protein (IGFBP)-1 hepatic expression was elevated at 10 d (P < 0.001) but not at 21 d. Adult LP-con offspring had reduced body weight (P < 0.05), lean (P < 0.0001) and bone (P < 0.0001) but not fat (P = 0.6) mass with no persistent effects on IGF-I, ALS and IGFBP-1.Postnatal lp feeding reduced lean mass (P < 0.0001) and bone mass (P < 0.0001) in CON and LP animals. Percentage fat (LP P = 0.04; CON P = 0.6) and IGFBP-1 (LP P = 0.01; CON P = 0.2) were increased in LP-lp but not CON-lp offspring. This suggests that postnatal nutrition is important in the effects of maternal protein restriction on adult body composition and that IGFBP-1 may be involved. PMID:19055852

  9. Perinatal protein restriction affects milk free amino acid and fatty acid profile in lactating rats: potential role on pup growth and metabolic status.

    PubMed

    Martin Agnoux, Aurore; Antignac, Jean-Philippe; Boquien, Clair-Yves; David, Agnes; Desnots, Emmanuelle; Ferchaud-Roucher, Veronique; Darmaun, Dominique; Parnet, Patricia; Alexandre-Gouabau, Marie-Cécile

    2015-07-01

    Perinatal undernutrition affects not only fetal and neonatal growth but also adult health outcome, as suggested by the metabolic imprinting concept. Although maternal milk is the only channel through which nutrients are transferred from mother to offspring during the postnatal period, the impact of maternal undernutrition on milk composition is poorly understood. The present study investigates, in a rat model of nutritional programming, the effects of feeding an isocaloric, low-protein diet throughout gestation and lactation on milk composition and its possible consequences on offspring's growth and metabolic status. We used an integrated methodological approach that combined targeted analyses of macronutrients, free amino acid and fatty acid content throughout lactation, with an untargeted mass-spectrometric-based metabolomic phenotyping. Whereas perinatal dietary protein restriction failed to alter milk protein content, it dramatically decreased the concentration of most free amino acids at the end of lactation. Interestingly, a decrease of several amino acids involved in insulin secretion or gluconeogenesis was observed, suggesting that maternal protein restriction during the perinatal period may impact the insulinotrophic effect of milk, which may, in turn, account for the slower growth of the suckled male offspring. Besides, the decrease in sulfur amino acids may alter redox status in the offspring. Maternal undernutrition was also associated with an increase in milk total fatty acid content, with modifications in their pattern. Altogether, our results show that milk composition is clearly influenced by maternal diet and suggest that alterations in milk composition may play a role in offspring growth and metabolic programming. PMID:25935308

  10. Effects of protein restriction, melatonin administration, and short daylength on brain benzodiazepine receptors in prepubertal male rats

    SciTech Connect

    Kennaway, D.J.; Royles, P.; Webb, H.; Carbone, F.

    1988-01-01

    The possibility that there are changes in brain benzodiazepine binding sites controlled by photoperiod was investigated in two strains of male rats. The hypothesis was tested by 3H-diazepam binding studies in various brain regions of prepubertal rats maintained in 14 or 10 h of light or treated with late-afternoon injections of melatonin (50 micrograms/day). Protein restriction was applied during the experiment to sensitize the animals to the treatments. Under the conditions employed, rats kept in short daylength throughout or kept on long photoperiod and given late-afternoon melatonin injections showed evidence of delayed puberty (seminal vesicle, ventral prostate, and testis weight decreased by 45%, 55%, and 60% respectively, compared to control rats). Binding measurements were made 1 h before and 2 and 5 h after the onset of darkness in the pubertal (42-day-old) or experimentally prepubertal rats. In the rats of the Porton strain (for which protein restriction was obligatory for the gonadal response) there was no consistent treatment or time effects on specific binding of 3H-diazepam to washed membranes of the hypothalamus, midbrain, or striatum. Similarly, there were no differences in the stimulation of 3H-diazepam binding by 100 microM GABA or the inhibition of binding by 50 microM N-acetyl 5 methoxy kynurenamine. By contrast, in Wistar rats, specific binding to midbrain membranes was reduced 5 h after dark compared to 2 h (37% saline; 20% melatonin) and the extent of stimulation by GABA in the hypothalamus was increased 5 h after darkness (35.6% to 46.7% saline; 37.4% to 50% melatonin). Melatonin treatment resulted in significantly higher specific binding in the hypothalamus 2 h after dark (10%, control fed; 20%, protein restricted) but reduced the GABA induced stimulation of binding in the midbrain (35.5% to 25%, control fed; 33.7% to 23.5%, protein restricted).

  11. Maternal metabolizable protein restriction during late gestation on uterine and umbilical blood flows and maternal and fetal amino acid concentrations near term in sheep.

    PubMed

    Lekatz, L A; Swanson, T J; Camacho, L E; Van Emon, M L; Schauer, C S; Maddock Carlin, K R; Hammer, C J; Lemley, C O; Vonnahme, K A

    2015-07-01

    To examine the effects of maternal metabolizable protein (MP) restriction during late gestation on uterine and umbilical blood flows, conceptus size, and amino acid concentrations in the uterine and umbilical vessels, 11 ewes with singleton pregnancies were assigned to one of three isocaloric diets formulated to provide 60% of MP (MP60), 80% of MP (MP80), or 100% of MP (MP100) requirements from days 100 to 130 of gestation. On day 130 of gestation, intraoperative uterine and umbilical blood flows were obtained as well as serum samples from the uterine artery, uterine vein, umbilical artery, and umbilical vein. Ewes on the MP60 diet had lighter (P=0.04) and smaller (P?0.05) fetuses, but increased (P=0.02) uterine blood flow relative to fetal weight compared with MP100 ewes, with MP80 being intermediate. Umbilical blood flow was similar (P=0.70) across treatments. Glutamine, glycine, isoleucine, leucine, ornithine, serine, and valine concentrations were impacted (P?0.02) by maternal treatment. While uterine flux of total serum nitrites was greater (P=0.03) in MP60 and MP80 ewes compared with MP100 ewes, fetal flux did not differ. Decreased maternal protein intake resulted in less (P<0.01) maternal cytochrome P450 1A enzyme activity. There were minimal impacts of maternal diet on steroid concentrations. Maternal dietary protein may alter fetal growth by impacting placental vasculature function and nutrient absorptive capabilities. PMID:26024963

  12. Maternal Responsiveness to Infant Norway Rat (Rattus norvegicus) Ultrasonic Vocalizations During the Maternal Behavior Cycle and After

    E-print Network

    Maternal Responsiveness to Infant Norway Rat (Rattus norvegicus) Ultrasonic Vocalizations During environment, Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus) pups emit ultrasonic vocalizations that can elicit maternal search

  13. Motherless Rats Show Deficits in Maternal Behavior Towards

    E-print Network

    Sokolowski, Marla

    Motherless Rats Show Deficits in Maternal Behavior Towards Fostered Pups Daniela J. Palombo1.fleming@utoronto.ca ABSTRACT: Complete maternal deprivation in rats, through artificial rearing (AR), produces deficits 52: 142­148, 2010. Keywords: rat; artificial rearing; early experience; development; maternal

  14. Moderate protein restriction during pregnancy modifies the regulation of triacylglycerol turnover and leads to dysregulation of insulin's anti-lipolytic action.

    PubMed

    Holness, M J; Fryer, L G; Priestman, D A; Sugden, M C

    1998-07-25

    Moderate protein restriction throughout pregnancy in the rat leads to relative hyperlipidaemia and blunted insulin responsiveness of lipid fuel supply, and impairs foetal growth. The present study examined the basis for these changes. Isocaloric 8% (vs 20%) protein diets were provided throughout pregnancy. Rats were sampled at 19-20 days of gestation. Protein restriction enhanced triacylglycerol (TAG) secretion rates (estimated using Triton WR 1339) 1.6-fold (P < 0.05) in the post-absorptive state. Insulin infusion (4.2 mU/kg per min) decreased plasma TAG concentrations by 33% (P < 0.05) and 48% (P < 0.05) in control (C) and protein-restricted (PR) pregnant groups, an effect associated with suppression of TAG secretion by 42% (P < 0.05) and 51% (P < 0.01) respectively, in the C and PR groups. Since TAG concentrations decline more rapidly, while TAG secretion is enhanced, TAG utilisation during hyperinsulinaemia is enhanced in the PR group. We evaluated whether these changes were associated with dysregulation of lipolysis using adipocytes from two abdominal depots (mesenteric and parametrial). Noradrenaline-stimulated glycerol release was enhanced in parametrial adipocytes (by 40%; P < 0.05) from PR pregnant rats. The anti-lipolytic action of insulin at low concentrations (< or = 15 microU/ml) was impaired by protein restriction (adipocytes from both depots). There was no evidence for altered intra-hepatic regulation of fatty acid (FA) disposal at the level of carnitine palmitoyltransferase. Our results demonstrate increased post-absorptive production of non-carbohydrate energy substrates (TAG and FA) as a consequence of mild protein restriction during pregnancy. These adaptations contribute to a homeostatic strategy to reduce the maternal requirement for gluconeogenesis from available amino acids, optimising the foetal protein supply. Protein restriction also enhances TAG turnover during hyperinsulinaemia. This effect is not a consequence of abnormal regulation of hepatic lipid metabolism by insulin. PMID:9783899

  15. MATERNAL AND DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY OF PERFLUOROOCTANE SULFONATE IN THE RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    MATERNAL AND DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY OF PERFLUOROOCTANE SULFONATE IN THE RAT. C. Lau and J.M. Rogers, Reproductive Toxicology Division, NHEERL, ORD, USEPA, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), an environmentally persistent compound used ...

  16. The Roles of Accumbal Dopamine D1 and D2 Receptors in Maternal Memory in Rats

    E-print Network

    Sokolowski, Marla

    The Roles of Accumbal Dopamine D1 and D2 Receptors in Maternal Memory in Rats Mayte Parada of Toronto Female rats show enhanced maternal responsiveness toward their young if they have had maternal-Z-flupenthixol, into the NA shell of postpartum female rats. Sulpiride-infused rats showed a significantly longer latency

  17. Maternal Baicalin Treatment Increases Fetal Lung Surfactant Phospholipids in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chung-Ming; Wang, Leng-Fang; Cheng, Kur-Ta

    2011-01-01

    Baicalin is a flavonoid compound purified from the medicinal plant Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi and has been reported to stimulate surfactant protein (SP)-A gene expression in human lung epithelial cell lines (H441). The aims of this study were to determine whether maternal baicalin treatment could increase lung surfactant production and induce lung maturation in fetal rats. This study was performed with timed pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats. One-day baicalin group mothers were injected intraperitoneally with baicalin (5?mg/kg/day) on Day 18 of gestation. Two-day baicalin group mothers were injected intraperitoneally with baicalin (5?mg/kg/day) on Days 17 and 18 of gestation. Control group mothers were injected with vehicle alone on Day 18 of gestation. On Day 19 of gestation, fetuses were delivered by cesarean section. Maternal treatment with 2-day baicalin significantly increased saturated phospholipid when compared with control group and total phospholipid in fetal lung tissue when compared with control and 1-day baicalin groups. Antenatal treatment with 2-day baicalin significantly increased maternal growth hormone when compared with control group. Fetal lung SP-A mRNA expression and maternal serum corticosterone levels were comparable among the three experimental groups. Maternal baicalin treatment increases pulmonary surfactant phospholipids of fetal rat lungs and the improvement was associated with increased maternal serum growth hormone. These results suggest that antenatal baicalin treatment might accelerate fetal rat lung maturation. PMID:19584080

  18. Maternal programming of sexual attractivity in female Long Evans rats.

    PubMed

    Sakhai, Samuel A; Kriegsfeld, Lance J; Francis, Darlene D

    2011-09-01

    In mammals, maternal care influences the developing offspring across multiple domains. In Long Evans rats, for example, the quality of maternal care received as a pup influences later cognitive function, neuroendocrine responses to stress and behavioral measures of emotionality. Data from humans, non-human primates, and rodents also suggest that early life events may similarly perturb measures of sexual reproduction, with possible consequences for reproductive fitness. The current study examined whether or not male conspecifics differentially prefer females, as adult mating partners, that were reared under varying maternal conditions (assessed via the quantity of licking and grooming received; LG). Additionally, the impact of maternal care on adult female sexual motivation and behavior were quantified to determine if these behavioral characteristics are associated with any preference observed. In a mate preference task, male rats chose, almost exclusively, to mount, copulate and ejaculate with female rats reared under Low LG conditions. Under non-paced mating conditions, female Low LG rats display significantly more paracopulatory and copulatory behaviors compared to High LG rats. Due to its critical role in female paracopulatory behavior, progesterone receptor immunoreactivity (PR-ir) in the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH) was also assessed in both groups of female rats. Estradiol induced PR-ir in the VMH was significantly higher in Low LG relative to High LG rats. Together, these data suggests that early life parental care may developmentally program aspects of behavior and physiology that subsequently influence sexual attractivity and behavior in adult females. PMID:21458163

  19. Maternal diet influences DNA damage, aortic telomere length, oxidative stress, and antioxidant defense capacity in rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. L. Tarry-Adkins; M. S. Martin-Gronert; J.-H. Chen; R. L. Cripps; S. E. Ozanne

    2008-01-01

    Low birth weight is associated with in- creased cardiovascular disease (CVD) in humans. Detri- mental effects of low birth weight are amplified by rapid catch-up growth. Conversely, slow growth during lactation reduces CVD risk. Gestational protein restriction causes low birth weight, vascular dysfunction, and accelerated aging in rats. Atherosclerotic aortic tissue has shortened telomeres, and oxidative stress accelerates telomere short-

  20. Environmental enrichment delays pup-induced maternal behavior in rats.

    PubMed

    Mann, Phyllis E; Gervais, Kristen J

    2011-05-01

    Adult, virgin rats do not spontaneously display maternal behavior when exposed to foster pups. However, continuous daily exposure of the female to foster pups for about 5-7 days can induce a set of maternal behaviors similar to those shown by postpartum dams. Induction latencies depend upon a number of factors, including the stress and anxiety levels of the female. The goal of this study was to attempt to mitigate the likely stressfulness of being singly housed during testing by enriching the rat's home cage environment and to determine if the concomitant environmental change would alter the latency to express maternal behavior. In addition, the effect of varying the number of test pups used for testing was examined. Two groups of virgin Sprague-Dawley rats were first tested on the elevated plus maze after 1 week of exposure to either control (standard housing) or enriched conditions. One week later, maternal behavior testing began using one or three pups. Upon completion of maternal behavior testing, plasma corticosterone concentrations were determined following a mild stressor. The data indicate that enrichment tends to increase anxiety-like behaviors in the elevated plus maze. In addition, enrichment delayed the onset of maternal behavior irrespective of the number of test pups. There were no effects of environmental enrichment on plasma corticosterone levels following exposure to a stressor. These results indicate that what is considered a modestly enriched environment delays the expression of pup-oriented responses and does not apparently reduce stress or improve performance on all behavioral tasks. PMID:21271562

  1. Oxytocin receptors in the nucleus accumbens shell are involved in the consolidation of maternal memory in postpartum rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. M. D'Cunha; S. J. King; A. S. Fleming; F. Lévy

    2011-01-01

    Female rats with maternal experience display a shorter onset of maternal responsiveness compared to those with no prior experience. This phenomenon called ‘maternal memory’ is critically dependent on the nucleus accumbens (NA) shell. We hypothesized that activation of OT receptors in the NA shell facilitates maternal memory. In Experiment 1, postpartum female rats given 1hour of maternal experience were infused

  2. The effects of adrenalectomy and corticosterone replacement on maternal memory in postpartum rats

    E-print Network

    Sokolowski, Marla

    The effects of adrenalectomy and corticosterone replacement on maternal memory in postpartum rats M prime rats to behave maternally, although hormonal changes are not necessary for these behaviors with corticosterone or vehicle pellets being given to adrenalectomized rats. Pups were removed immediately following

  3. Poor maternal nutrition followed by accelerated postnatal growth leads to telomere shortening and increased markers of cell senescence in rat islets.

    PubMed

    Tarry-Adkins, J L; Chen, J H; Smith, N S; Jones, R H; Cherif, H; Ozanne, S E

    2009-05-01

    Low birth weight (LBW) followed by accelerated postnatal growth is associated with increased risk of developing age-associated diseases such as type 2 diabetes. Gestational protein restriction in rats causes LBW, beta-cell dysfunction, and reduced longevity. These effects may be mediated by accelerated cellular aging. This study tested the hypothesis that LBW followed by rapid postnatal catch-up growth leads to islet telomere shortening through alterations in antioxidant defense capacity, stress/senescence marker proteins, and DNA repair mechanisms at the gene expression level. We used our rat model of gestational protein restriction (recuperated offspring) and control offspring. Southern blotting revealed shorter (P<0.001) islet telomeres in recuperated animals compared to controls. This was associated with increased expression of peroxiredoxin 1 (P<0.05), peroxiredoxin 3 (P<0.01), and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) (P<0.05), which are up-regulated under stress conditions. MnSOD expression was significantly (P<0.05) decreased in recuperated offspring, suggesting partial impairment of mitochondrial antioxidant defenses. Markers of cellular senescence p21 and p16 were also increased (P<0.01 and P<0.05, respectively) in the recuperated group. We conclude that maternal diet influences expression of markers of cellular stress and telomere length in pancreatic islets. This may provide a mechanistic link between early nutrition and growth and type 2 diabetes. PMID:19126595

  4. Maternal immune activation increases seizure susceptibility in juvenile rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Yin, Ping; Zhang, Xin-Ting; Li, Jun; Yu, Lin; Wang, Ji-Wen; Lei, Ge-Fei; Sun, Ruo-Peng; Li, Bao-Min

    2015-06-01

    Epidemiological data suggest a relationship between maternal infection and a high incidence of childhood epilepsy in offspring. However, there is little experimental evidence that links maternal infection with later seizure susceptibility in juvenile offspring. Here, we asked whether maternal immune challenge during pregnancy can alter seizure susceptibility and seizure-associated brain damage in adolescence. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or normal saline (NS) on gestational days 15 and 16. At postnatal day 21, seizure susceptibility to kainic acid (KA) was evaluated in male offspring. Four groups were studied, including normal control (NS-NS), prenatal infection (LPS-NS), juvenile seizure (NS-KA), and "two-hit" (LPS-KA) groups. Our results demonstrated that maternal LPS exposure caused long-term reactive astrogliosis and increased seizure susceptibility in juvenile rat offspring. Compared to the juvenile seizure group, animals in the "two-hit" group showed exaggerated astrogliosis, followed by worsened spatial learning ability in adulthood. In addition, prenatal immune challenge alone led to spatial learning impairment in offspring but had no effect on anxiety. These data suggest that prenatal immune challenge causes a long-term increase in juvenile seizure susceptibility and exacerbates seizure-induced brain injury, possibly by priming astroglia. PMID:25982885

  5. Maternal care, hippocampal synaptogenesis and cognitive development in rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dong Liu; Josie Diorio; Jamie C. Day; Darlene D. Francis; Michael J. Meaney

    2000-01-01

    We report that variations in maternal care in the rat promote hippocampal synaptogenesis and spatial learning and memory through systems known to mediate experience-dependent neural development. Thus, the offspring of mothers that show high levels of pup licking and grooming and arched-back nursing showed increased expression of NMDA receptor subunit and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNA, increased cholinergic innervation of

  6. Metyrapone alleviates deleterious effects of maternal food restriction on lung development and growth of rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Paek, David S; Sakurai, Reiko; Saraswat, Aditi; Li, Yishi; Khorram, Omid; Torday, John S; Rehan, Virender K

    2015-02-01

    Maternal food restriction (MFR) causes intrauterine growth restriction, a known risk factor for developing chronic lung disease. However, it is unknown whether this negative outcome is gender specific or preventable by blocking the MFR-induced hyperglucocorticoidism. Using a well-established rat model, we used metyrapone (MTP), an inhibitor of glucocorticoid synthesis, to study the MFR-induced lung changes on postnatal day (p) 21 in a gender-specific manner. From embryonic day 10 until delivery, pregnant dams were fed either an ad libitum diet or a 50% caloric restricted diet with or without MTP supplementation. Postnatally, the offspring were fed ad libitum from healthy dams until p21. Morphometric, Western blot, and immunohistochemical analysis of the lungs demonstrated that MTP mitigated the MFR-mediated decrease in alveolar count, decrease in adipogenic protein peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ?, increase in myogenic proteins (fibronectin, ?-smooth muscle actin, and calponin), increase in Wnt signaling intermediates (lymphoid enhancer-binding factor 1 and ?-catenin), and increase in glucocorticoid receptor (GR) levels. The MFR-induced lung phenotype and the effects of MTP were similar in both genders. To elucidate the mechanism of MFR-induced shift of the adipogenic-to-myogenic phenotype, lung fibroblasts were used to independently study the effects of (1) nutrient restriction and (2) excess steroid exposure. Nutrient deprivation increased myogenic proteins, Wnt signaling intermediates, and GR, all changes blocked by protein supplementation. MTP also blocked, likely by normalizing nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate levels, the corticosterone-induced increase in myogenic proteins, but had no effect on GR levels. In summary, protein restriction and increased glucocorticoid levels appear to be the key players in MFR-induced lung disease, affecting both genders. PMID:24916330

  7. The effects of adrenalectomy and corticosterone replacement on maternal behavior in the postpartum rat

    E-print Network

    Sokolowski, Marla

    rat Stephanie L. Rees,a Sonia Panesar,a Meir Steiner,b and Alison S. Fleminga,* a Department glucocorticoid concentrations on adult maternal behavior in primiparous rats. In two studies, rats in late study, primiparous rats were given 0, 25, 100, 300, or 500 Ag/ml of corticosterone in their drinking

  8. Lactating Rats Retain Nursing Behavior and Maternal Care in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daly, Megan E.; Ronca, April E.; Dalton, Bonnie (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    In 1997, suckling mammals were flown in space for the first time as part of the NIH.R3 experiment sponsored jointly by NIH (National Institutes of Health) and NASA. Six rat dams and litters (Rattus norvegicus) were launched on an eight-day Space Shuttle mission at each of three postnatal ages (P5, P8, and P15). Dams and litters (N = 10 pups/litter) were housed within modified Animal Enclosure Modules (AEMs). Comparisons were made to ground controls. Dams and litters were videotaped daily in flight. The P8 and P15 flight litters showed excellent survival (99%) and weight gain relative to AEM ground controls, whereas P5 litters showed reduced survival (0% and 60%, respectively) and weight gain (less than 40% AEM). To examine the possibility that failures of maternal care contributed to P5 results, we analyzed the dams' in-flight nursing, licking and retrieving from four video segments ranging from twelve to fifteen minutes in length with control data derived from multiple ground segments. Video analyses revealed clear evidence of maternal care in flight. For P5 dams, frequency and duration of nursing and licking bouts fell within or above one standard deviation of control values. Retrieving was noted in the P5 and P8 groups only. The observed results suggest that factors other than maternal care contributed to the low survival rates and body weight gains of the P5 flight offspring.

  9. Protein Content and Methyl Donors in Maternal Diet Interact to Influence the Proliferation Rate and Cell Fate of Neural Stem Cells in Rat Hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Amarger, Valérie; Lecouillard, Angèle; Ancellet, Laure; Grit, Isabelle; Castellano, Blandine; Hulin, Philippe; Parnet, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Maternal diet during pregnancy and early postnatal life influences the setting up of normal physiological functions in the offspring. Epigenetic mechanisms regulate cell differentiation during embryonic development and may mediate gene/environment interactions. We showed here that high methyl donors associated with normal protein content in maternal diet increased the in vitro proliferation rate of neural stem/progenitor cells isolated from rat E19 fetuses. Gene expression on whole hippocampi at weaning confirmed this effect as evidenced by the higher expression of the Nestin and Igf2 genes, suggesting a higher amount of undifferentiated precursor cells. Additionally, protein restriction reduced the expression of the insulin receptor gene, which is essential to the action of IGFII. Inhibition of DNA methylation in neural stem/progenitor cells in vitro increased the expression of the astrocyte-specific Gfap gene and decreased the expression of the neuron-specific Dcx gene, suggesting an impact on cell differentiation. Our data suggest a complex interaction between methyl donors and protein content in maternal diet that influence the expression of major growth factors and their receptors and therefore impact the proliferation and differentiation capacities of neural stem cells, either through external hormone signals or internal genomic regulation. PMID:25317634

  10. The effects of dopaminergic\\/serotonergic reuptake inhibition on maternal behavior, maternal aggression, and oxytocin in the rat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Johns; P. W. Joyner; M. S. McMurray; D. L. Elliott; V. E. Hofler; C. L. Middleton; K. Knupp; K. W. Greenhill; L. M. Lomas; C. H. Walker

    2005-01-01

    Studies using dopaminergic and serotonergic agonists or antagonists implicate involvement of these systems in various aspects of early maternal behavior and postpartum aggression towards an intruder in rats, both of which are associated with the presence of oxytocin in specific brain regions. It is unclear however, if or how long-term uptake inhibition of either neurotransmitter system alone or in combination,

  11. Dorsolateral Connections of the Medial Preoptic Area and Maternal Behavior in Rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Numan; Jennifer McSparren; Marilyn J. Numan

    1990-01-01

    The lateral connections of the medial preoptic area (MPOA) are essential for maternal behavior in rats. The purpose of this study was to more exactly specify the nature of this pathway. Experiment 1 found that knife cuts that severed the dorsolateral connections of the MPOA were as effective as complete cuts in disrupting maternal behavior, whereas knife cuts that severed

  12. Behavioral Mechanisms for Active Maternal Potentiation of Isolation Calling in Rat Pups

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Myron A. Hofer; J. R. Masmela; S. A. Brunelli; H. N. Shair

    1999-01-01

    The ultrasonic vocalization (USV) response of the isolated infant rat is a promising model for studying the neurobiology of an early anxiety state, and potentiation of the USV response after brief maternal encounters is a newly discovered behavioral regulator of this state. Using experimental variations in the contexts and patterns of maternal behavior during pup encounters and manual simulations of

  13. Stimulus Control of Maternal Responsiveness to Norway Rat (Rattus norvegicus) Pup Ultrasonic Vocalizations

    E-print Network

    Stimulus Control of Maternal Responsiveness to Norway Rat (Rattus norvegicus) Pup Ultrasonic Vocalizations William J. Farrell and Jeffrey R. Alberts Indiana University Bloomington Mother rats (Rattus norvegicus; 6 to 8 days postpartum) approach and maintain proximal orientation to a pup that is emitting

  14. Influence of maternal adrenalectomy and glucocorticoid administration on the development of rat cerebral cortex

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. L. Trejo; C. Machín; R. M. Arahuetes; C. Rúa

    1995-01-01

    In order to determine the incidence of maternal glucocorticoids on morphological parameters in fetal development, we performed optic and electron microscopic analysis of the cerebral cortex of fetuses of 16 and 20 days of gestation, from control (C) and pregnant rats bilaterally adrenalectomized on day 1 of gestation (ADX). We also studied fetuses 20 days old from pregnant rats betamethasone-injected

  15. Maternal Programming of Reproductive Function and Behavior in the Female Rat

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, Nicole M.

    2011-01-01

    Parental investment can be used as a forecast for the environmental conditions in which offspring will develop to adulthood. In the rat, maternal behavior is transmitted to the next generation through epigenetic modifications such as methylation and histone acetylation, resulting in variations in estrogen receptor alpha expression. Natural variations in maternal care also influence the sexual strategy adult females will adopt later in life. Lower levels of maternal care are associated with early onset of puberty as well as increased motivation to mate and greater receptivity toward males during mating. Lower levels of maternal care are also correlated with greater activity of the hypothalamus–pituitary–gonadal axis, responsible for the expression of these behaviors. Contrary to the transition of maternal care, sexual behavior cannot simply be explained by maternal attention, since adoption studies changed the sexual phenotypes of offspring born to low caring mothers but not those from high caring dams. Indeed, mothers showing higher levels of licking/grooming have embryos that are exposed to high testosterone levels during development, and adoption studies suggest that this androgen exposure may protect their offspring from lower levels of maternal care. We propose that in the rat, maternal care and the in utero environment interact to influence the reproductive strategy female offspring display in adulthood and that this favors the species by allowing it to thrive under different environmental conditions. PMID:22203802

  16. IFITM Proteins Restrict Viral Membrane Hemifusion

    PubMed Central

    Golfetto, Ottavia; Bungart, Brittani; Li, Minghua; Ding, Shilei; He, Yuxian; Liang, Chen; Lee, James C.; Gratton, Enrico; Cohen, Fredric S.; Liu, Shan-Lu

    2013-01-01

    The interferon-inducible transmembrane (IFITM) protein family represents a new class of cellular restriction factors that block early stages of viral replication; the underlying mechanism is currently not known. Here we provide evidence that IFITM proteins restrict membrane fusion induced by representatives of all three classes of viral membrane fusion proteins. IFITM1 profoundly suppressed syncytia formation and cell-cell fusion induced by almost all viral fusion proteins examined; IFITM2 and IFITM3 also strongly inhibited their fusion, with efficiency somewhat dependent on cell types. Furthermore, treatment of cells with IFN also markedly inhibited viral membrane fusion and entry. By using the Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus envelope and influenza A virus hemagglutinin as models for study, we showed that IFITM-mediated restriction on membrane fusion is not at the steps of receptor- and/or low pH-mediated triggering; instead, the creation of hemifusion was essentially blocked by IFITMs. Chlorpromazine (CPZ), a chemical known to promote the transition from hemifusion to full fusion, was unable to rescue the IFITM-mediated restriction on fusion. In contrast, oleic acid (OA), a lipid analog that generates negative spontaneous curvature and thereby promotes hemifusion, virtually overcame the restriction. To explore the possible effect of IFITM proteins on membrane molecular order and fluidity, we performed fluorescence labeling with Laurdan, in conjunction with two-photon laser scanning and fluorescence-lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM). We observed that the generalized polarizations (GPs) and fluorescence lifetimes of cell membranes expressing IFITM proteins were greatly enhanced, indicating higher molecularly ordered and less fluidized membranes. Collectively, our data demonstrated that IFITM proteins suppress viral membrane fusion before the creation of hemifusion, and suggested that they may do so by reducing membrane fluidity and conferring a positive spontaneous curvature in the outer leaflets of cell membranes. Our study provides novel insight into the understanding of how IFITM protein family restricts viral membrane fusion and infection. PMID:23358889

  17. The effects of bromocriptine treatment during early pregnancy on postpartum maternal behaviors in rats.

    PubMed

    Price, Anya K; Bridges, Robert S

    2014-09-01

    Prolactin, a hormone of the anterior pituitary, is involved in initiating maternal behavior, alleviating postpartum anxiety, and stimulating lactogenesis. Bromocriptine, a dopamine D2 receptor agonist, inhibits prolactin secretion. Bromocriptine administration represses postpartum maternal behaviors (pup retrieval) in mice, and causes elevated anxiety in the elevated plus maze [Larsen & Grattan (2010). Endocrinology 151(8): 3805-3814]. Whether similar effects exist in other species is unknown. The present study examined the possible involvement of prolactin during early gestation on maternal behavior and anxiety in rats. Bromocriptine given on days 2-4 of pregnancy resulted in impaired postpartum maternal behaviors in a novel environment during early lactation. However, compared to controls, bromocriptine-treated subjects did not exhibit increased postpartum anxiety in the elevated plus maze. These findings support work in mice that bromocriptine treatment during early gestation impedes postpartum maternal care, and indicate that early gestational hormonal status affects postpartum behavior more broadly in other mammals. PMID:24889499

  18. Maternal adrenocortical hormones maintain the early development of pancreatic B cells in the fetal rat

    PubMed Central

    KOMATSU, SUGURU; YAMAMOTO, MASAKO; ARISHIMA, KAZUYOSHI; EGUCHI, YASUNOBU

    1998-01-01

    To investigate the effect of maternal adrenocortical hormones on the development of fetal pancreatic islet cells, pregnant rats were adrenalectomised on d 6 of gestation. On d 12–16 the growth patterns of fetal insulin-producing B cells, glucagon-producing A cells, and somatostatin-producing D cells were observed histometrically. Maternal adrenalectomy resulted in growth retardation of fetal B cells on d 12–15. Maternal corticosterone therapy prevented this retardation. Maternal adrenalectomy, however, did not affect the developmental patterns of A and D cells. By Western blotting and immunohistochemistry, glucocorticoid receptors were demonstrated to be present in the islet cells from d 12 to d 15. These results suggest that maternal adrenocortical hormones, glucocorticoids in particular, maintain the early development of fetal pancreatic B cells through their specific intracellular glucocorticoid receptor. PMID:10029188

  19. Hypothyroxinemia induced by maternal mild iodine deficiency impairs hippocampal myelinated growth in lactational rats.

    PubMed

    Wei, Wei; Wang, Yi; Dong, Jing; Wang, Yuan; Min, Hui; Song, Binbin; Shan, Zhongyan; Teng, Weiping; Xi, Qi; Chen, Jie

    2014-04-18

    Hypothyroxinemia induced by maternal mild iodine deficiency causes neurological deficits and impairments of brain function in offspring. Hypothyroxinemia is prevalent in developing and developed countries alike. However, the mechanism underlying these deficits remains less well known. Given that the myelin plays an important role in learning and memory function, we hypothesize that hippocampal myelinated growth may be impaired in rat offspring exposed to hypothyroxinemia induced by maternal mild iodine deficiency. To test this hypothesis, the female Wistar rats were used and four experimental groups were prepared: (1) control; (2) maternal mild iodine deficiency diet inducing hypothyroxinemia; (3) hypothyroidism induced by maternal severe iodine deficiency diet; (4) hypothyroidism induced by maternal methimazole water. The rats were fed the diet from 3 months before pregnancy to the end of lactation. Our results showed that the physiological changes occuring in the hippocampal myelin were altered in the mild iodine deficiency group as indicated by the results of immunofluorescence of myelin basic proteins on postnatal day 14 and postnatal day 21. Moreover, hypothyroxinemia reduced the expressions of oligodendrocyte lineage transcription factor 2 and myelin-related proteins in the treatments on postnatal day 14 and postnatal day 21. Our data suggested that hypothyroxinemia induced by maternal mild iodine deficiency may impair myelinated growth of the offspring. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol, 2014. PMID:24753110

  20. Effects of water deprivation on atrial natriuretic peptide secretion and density of binding sites in adrenal glands and kidneys of maternal and fetal rats in late gestation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S Deloof; C De Seze; V Montel; A Chatelain

    1999-01-01

    The effects of water deprivation for 3 days were studied in pregnant rats and their fetuses on day 21 of gestation. Maternal water deprivation induced a significant decrease of the body weight in both maternal and fetal rats. This weight loss was accompanied by significant increases in plasma osmolality and haematocrit in both maternal and fetal rats. Similarly, dehydration significantly

  1. Effect of dietary protein restriction on renal ammonia metabolism.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun-Wook; Osis, Gunars; Handlogten, Mary E; Guo, Hui; Verlander, Jill W; Weiner, I David

    2015-06-15

    Dietary protein restriction has multiple benefits in kidney disease. Because protein intake is a major determinant of endogenous acid production, it is important that net acid excretion change in parallel during protein restriction. Ammonia is the primary component of net acid excretion, and inappropriate ammonia excretion can lead to negative nitrogen balance. Accordingly, we examined ammonia excretion in response to protein restriction and then we determined the molecular mechanism of the changes observed. Wild-type C57Bl/6 mice fed a 20% protein diet and then changed to 6% protein developed an 85% reduction in ammonia excretion within 2 days, which persisted during a 10-day study. The expression of multiple proteins involved in renal ammonia metabolism was altered, including the ammonia-generating enzymes phosphate-dependent glutaminase (PDG) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and the ammonia-metabolizing enzyme glutamine synthetase. Rhbg, an ammonia transporter, increased in expression in the inner stripe of outer medullary collecting duct intercalated cell (OMCDis-IC). However, collecting duct-specific Rhbg deletion did not alter the response to protein restriction. Rhcg deletion did not alter ammonia excretion in response to dietary protein restriction. These results indicate 1) dietary protein restriction decreases renal ammonia excretion through coordinated regulation of multiple components of ammonia metabolism; 2) increased Rhbg expression in the OMCDis-IC may indicate a biological role in addition to ammonia transport; and 3) Rhcg expression is not necessary to decrease ammonia excretion during dietary protein restriction. PMID:25925252

  2. Maternal Hyperthyroidism in Rats Impairs Stress Coping of Adult Offspring

    E-print Network

    Islas, León

    to measure spatial learning. The tail suspension test (TST) and forced- swimming test (FST) were used: depression; spatial learning; corticotropin releasing factor; corticosterone Hormones markedly affect neuronal structure and function in various ways throughout life. During preg- nancy, maternal thyroid

  3. Developmental Triclosan Exposure Decreases Maternal and Offspring Thyroxine in Rats*

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological and laboratory data have demonstrated that disruption of maternal thyroid hormones during fetal developmental may result in irreversible neurological consequences in offspring. In a short-term exposure paradigm, triclosan decreased systemic thyroxine (T4) concentr...

  4. Pregnancy Dating in the Rat: Placental Morphology and Maternal Blood Parameters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eveline P. C. T. de Rijk; Eric van Esch; Gert Flik

    2002-01-01

    The rat is commonly used as a model in studies on embryology and reproduction toxicology. Surprisingly, the current literature does not provide a comprehensive reference data set on placental development in rat. Therefore, we have evaluated morphological changes of the placenta and maternal blood parameters duringpregnancyof theSprague-Dawleyrat. Themorphologicdatapresentedinthis studymaybe usefulasreferencematerial. This studyrevealedthatplacentaldevelopmentintheratisawell-deé nedprocess,characterizedby keysynchronizedmorphologicaleventsatspeciécpoints in time, convenient for laboratory practice

  5. Maternal Deprivation Induces Depressive-like Behaviour and Alters Neurotrophin Levels in the Rat Brain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gislaine Z. Réus; Roberto B. Stringari; Karine F. Ribeiro; Andreza L. Cipriano; Bruna S. Panizzutti; Laura Stertz; Camila Lersch; Flávio Kapczinski; João Quevedo

    2011-01-01

    The present study was aimed to evaluate the behavioral and molecular effects of maternal deprivation in adult rats. To this\\u000a aim, male rats deprived and non-deprived were assessed in the forced swimming and open-field tests in adult phase. In addition\\u000a adrenocorticotrophin hormone (ACTH) levels was assessed in serum and brain-derived-neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neurotrophin-3\\u000a (NT-3) and nerve growth factor (NGF) protein

  6. Comparative developmental and maternal neurotoxicity following acute gestational exposure to chlorpyrifos in rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. M. Chanda; P. Harp; J. Liu; C. N. Pope

    1995-01-01

    Chlorpyrifos (CPF), an organophosphorus (OP) insecticide, exerts toxicity through inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE). In the present study, pregnant Sprague?Dawley rats were given CPF (200 mg\\/kg, sc) as a single dose on gestation d 12 (GD12) and then sacrificed on either GD16, GD20, or postnatal d 3 (PND3) for measurement of maternal and developmental indicators of toxicity. While most CPF?treated rats

  7. Oxytocin receptors in the nucleus accumbens shell are involved in the consolidation of maternal memory in postpartum rats.

    PubMed

    D'Cunha, T M; King, S J; Fleming, A S; Lévy, F

    2011-01-01

    Female rats with maternal experience display a shorter onset of maternal responsiveness compared to those with no prior experience. This phenomenon called 'maternal memory' is critically dependent on the nucleus accumbens (NA) shell. We hypothesized that activation of OT receptors in the NA shell facilitates maternal memory. In Experiment 1, postpartum female rats given 1 hour of maternal experience were infused following the experience with either a high or low dose of an OT antagonist into the NA shell and tested for maternal behavior after a 10-day pup isolation period. Females receiving a high dose of the antagonist showed a significantly longer latency to exhibit full maternal behavior after the pup isolation period compared to females that received vehicle or a high dose of antagonist in a control region. In Experiment 2, postpartum female rats were infused with either a high or low dose of OT into the NA shell after a 15-minute maternal experience and tested for maternal behavior after a 10-day pup isolation period. There were no significant differences between the females infused with OT and females treated with a vehicle infused into the NA shell or with OT infused into the control region. One possible reason for a lack of facilitation is a floor effect, since females in the control groups displayed a rapid maternal response after the pup isolation period. These findings suggest that OT receptors, likely in combination with other neurotransmitters, in the NA shell play a role in the consolidation of maternal memory. PMID:20932839

  8. Toxic Effects of Maternal Zearalenone Exposure on Uterine Capacity and Fetal Development in Gestation Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuanyuan; Jia, Zhiqiang; Yin, Shutong; Gao, Rui; Qu, Zhe; Liu, Min; Nie, Shaoping

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of high-dose and early gestational exposure to zearalenone (ZEN) in female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats, to correlate the maternal uterus with the fetus, and to explore the development and malformation of fetuses. Pregnant female SD rats were fed diets containing 0.3, 48.5, 97.6, or 146.0 mg/kg ZEN on gestational days (GDs) 0 through 7. All the females survived until GD 20, at which point a cesarean section was performed to harvest the organs, blood, and fetuses. The results indicated that exposure to ZEN during early gestation can impact the maternal reproductive capability. Delayed fetal development was directly linked to maternal toxicity. The toxic effects of ZEN caused early deaths more frequently than late deaths, and the deleterious effects lasted through the end of pregnancy. PMID:24357638

  9. MATERNAL AND DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY OF PERFLUOROOCATANE SULFONATE (PFOS) IN THE RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    MATERNAL AND DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY OF PERFLUOROOCTANE SULFONATE (PFOS) IN THE RAT. C. Lau1, J.M. Rogers1, J.R. Thibodeaux1, R.G. Hanson1, B.E. Grey1, B.D. Barbee1, J.H. Richards2, J.L. Butenoff3. 1Reprod. Tox. Div., 2Exp. Tox. Div., NHEERL, USEPA, Research Triangle Park, NC, 3...

  10. Exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonate during pregnancy in rat and mouse. I: maternal and prenatal evaluations

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract: The maternal and developmental toxicities of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS, C8F17SO3-) were evaluated in the rat and mouse. PFOS is an environmentally persistent compound used as a surfactant and occurs as a degradation product of both perfluorooctane sulfonyl fluorid...

  11. EFFECTS OF CHEMICALLY-INDUCED MATERNAL TOXICITY ON PRENATAL DEVELOPMENT IN THE RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The hypothesis that chemically-induced overt maternal toxicity induces a characteristic syndrome of adverse developmental effects in the rat was investigated. regnant animals (Sprague-Dawley strain) were dosed by oral gavage with one of a series of compounds on days 6 through 15 ...

  12. Maternal Copper Deficiency Perpetuates Altered Vascular Function in Sprague-Dawley Rat Offspring

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little is known about the consequences of maternal Cu (Cu) deficiency on the vascular function of offspring or on perpetuation of vascular effects to a second generation. We examined vascular functional responses in mesenteric arteries from Cu-deficient Sprague-Dawley rat dams and from offspring dir...

  13. REPEATED MATERNAL SEPARATION IN THE NEONATAL RAT: CELLULAR MECHANISMS CONTRIBUTING TO BRAIN GROWTH SPARING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Separation of rat neonates from their dam has been shown to evoke acutely a variety of biochemical and physiological responses. n the current study, we examined whether these responses were extended to pups who were subject to daily episodes of maternal deprivation, and whether t...

  14. LATE GESTATIONAL ATRAZINE EXPOSURE DECREASES MATERNAL BEHAVIOR IN LONG-EVANS RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Late Gestational Atrazine Exposure Alters Maternal Nursing Behavior in Rats Jennifer L. Rayner1 and Suzanne E. Fenton2 1 University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, DESE, Chapel Hill, NC, and 2 USEPA/ ORD/NHEERL/Reproductive Toxicology Division, RTP, NC. At...

  15. Developmental toxicity of benzyl benzoate in rats after maternal exposure throughout pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Koçkaya, E Arzu; K?l?ç, Aysun

    2014-01-01

    The maternal and fetal toxicity of benzyl benzoate, commonly used as antiparasitic insecticide, was evaluated in pregnant rats after a daily oral dose of 25 and 100 mg/kg. Biochemical, histopathological, and morphological examinations were performed. Dams were observed for maternal body weights and food and water consumption and subjected to caesarean section on (GD) 20. Maternal and fetal liver, kidney, heart, brain, and placenta were examined histopathologically under light microscope. Maternal and fetal liver and placenta were stained immunohistochemically for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Morphometric analysis of fetal body lengths, placental measurements, and fetal skeletal stainings was performed. Statistically significant alterations in biochemical parameters and placental and skeletal measurements were determined in treatment groups. In addition to histopathological changes, considerable differences were observed in the immunolocalization of VEGF in treatment groups. These results demonstrated that benzyl benzoate and its metabolites can transport to the placenta and eventually enter the fetuses. PMID:21922633

  16. The effects of adrenalectomy and corticosterone replacement on induction of maternal behavior in the virgin female rat

    E-print Network

    Sokolowski, Marla

    in the virgin female rat Stephanie L. Rees a , Sonia Panesar a , Meir Steiner b , Alison S. Fleming a behavior of the sensitized virgin rat is affected by approach­avoidance systems as well as by hypothalamic in sensitized virgin rats. In the first experiment, latency to onset of maternal behavior and time spent licking

  17. Bisphenol-A exposure during pregnancy and lactation affects maternal behavior in rats.

    PubMed

    Della Seta, Daniele; Minder, Isabelle; Dessì-Fulgheri, Francesco; Farabollini, Francesca

    2005-04-15

    In mammals, endogenous estrogens are crucial for sexual differentiation during the perinatal period, and the modulation in adulthood of many neuroendocrine and behavioral functions involved in reproduction. In rats, the estrogenic environment during pregnancy and lactation affects directly maternal behavior. This experiment was aimed to test whether the exposure to the estrogenic compound bisphenol-A (BPA; 0.040 mg/kg/die, orally) of adult female rats, from mating to weaning of the pups, could alter maternal behavior. An appropriate methodology was applied to reveal differences in the behavior of dams directed to male and female pups, testing the dams on postnatal days 3-4 and 8-9. Results show different maternal behavioral patterns towards male and female pups of control mothers, with more ano-genital licking to males than to females. Exposure of mothers to BPA modified their behavior, reducing specific components of maternal behavior, both active and passive, irrespective of the sex of pups and the period of observation. This experiment shows that maternal behavior is affected by a prolonged exposure to a low dose of BPA during pregnancy and lactation, thus suggesting an effect on neural circuits in adulthood. PMID:15811589

  18. Developmental hypothyroxinaemia induced by maternal mild iodine deficiency delays hippocampal axonal growth in the rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Wei, W; Wang, Y; Wang, Y; Dong, J; Min, H; Song, B; Teng, W; Xi, Q; Chen, J

    2013-09-01

    Iodine is essential for the biosynthesis of thyroid hormones, including triiodothyronine and thyroxine. Thyroid hormones are important for central nervous system development. Mild maternal iodine deficiency (ID)-induced hypothyroxinaemia causes neurological deficits and mental retardation of the foetus. However, the detailed mechanism underlying these deficits is still largely unknown. Given that the growth-associated protein of 43 kDa (GAP-43), semaphorin 3A (Sema3A) and the glycogen synthase kinase 3? (GSK3?)/collapsin response mediator protein 2 (CRMP2) pathway are essential for axonal development, we hypothesise that hippocampal axonal growth-related proteins may be impaired, which may contribute to hippocampal axonal growth delay in rat offspring exposed to maternal hypothyroxinaemia. To test this hypothesis, maternal hypothyroxinaemia models were established in Wistar rats using a mild ID diet. Besides a negative control group, two maternal hypothyroidism models were created with either a severe ID diet or methimazole in the water. Our results showed that maternal hypothyroxinaemia exposure delayed offspring axonal growth on gestational day 19, postnatal day (PN) 7, PN14 and PN21. Consistent with this, the mean intensity of hippocampal CRMP2 and Tau1 immunofluorescence axonal protein was reduced in the mild ID group. Moreover, maternal hypothyroxinaemia disrupted expressions of GAP-43 and Sema3A. Furthermore, the phosphorylation of GSK3? and CRMP2 was also affected in the treated offspring, implying a potential mechanism by which hypothyroxinaemia-exposure affects neurodevelopment. Taken together, our data support the hypothesis that maternal hypothyroxinaemia may impair axonal growth of the offspring. PMID:23763342

  19. Effect of fetal growth on maternal protein metabolism in postabsorptive rat

    SciTech Connect

    Ling, P.R.; Bistrian, B.R.; Blackburn, G.L.; Istfan, N.

    1987-03-01

    Rates of protein synthesis were measured in whole fetuses and maternal tissues at 17 and 20 days of gestation in postabsorptive rats using continuous infusion of L-(1-/sup 14/C)leucine. Fetal protein degradation rates were derived from the fractional rates of synthesis and growth. Whole-body (plasma) leucine kinetics in the mother showed a significant reduction of the fraction of plasma leucine oxidized in the mothers bearing older fetuses, a slight increase in the plasma flux, with total leucine oxidation and incorporation into protein remaining similar at the two gestational ages. Estimates of fractional protein synthesis in maternal tissues revealed an increase in placental and hepatic rates at 20 days of gestation, whereas the fractional synthetic rate in muscle remained unchanged. A model for estimation of the redistribution of leucine between plasma and tissues is described in detail. This model revealed a more efficient utilization of leucine in fetal protein synthesis in comparison with other maternal tissues, a greater dependency of the fetus on plasma supply of leucine, and a significant increase (2-fold) in the release of leucine from maternal muscle as the fetal requirements increased proportionately with its size. The latter conclusion, supported by nitrogen analysis and the ratio of bound-to-free leucine in maternal tissues, confirms the importance of maternal stores in maintaining the homeostasis of essential amino acids during late pregnancy.

  20. Alteration of pituitary hormone-immunoreactive cell populations in rat offspring after maternal dietary exposure to endocrine-active chemicals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Naoya Masutomi; Makoto Shibutani; Hironori Takagi; Chikako Uneyama; Kyoung-Youl Lee; Masao Hirose

    2004-01-01

    We previously performed dose–response studies of genistein, diisononyl phthalate, 4-nonylphenol, methoxychlor (MXC), and bisphenol A to examine the impact of maternal dietary exposure from gestational day 15 to postnatal day 10 on the development of rat reproductive system in later life. Among the chemicals MXC alone showed typical estrogenic effects only at the maternally toxic 1200 ppm. The present study was

  1. In utero glucocorticoid exposure reduced fetal skeletal muscle mass in rats independent of effects on maternal nutrition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maternal stress and undernutrition can occur together and expose the fetus to high glucocorticoid (GLC) levels during this vulnerable period. To determine the consequences of GLC exposure on fetal skeletal muscle independently of maternal food intake, groups of timed-pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats (n ...

  2. Twice daily long maternal separations in Wistar rats decreases anxiety-like behaviour in females but does not affect males

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Malin B. Eklund; Lotta Arborelius

    2006-01-01

    Prolonged daily separations of rat pups from their mother have been reported to increase anxiety-like behaviour in adult offspring. However, there are an increasing number of studies not showing this. It has been proposed that the effect of long maternal separation (LMS) is partly due to the disruption of maternal care caused by the separations. The aim of the present

  3. A study on fear memory retrieval and REM sleep in maternal separation and isolation stressed rats.

    PubMed

    Sampath, Dayalan; Sabitha, K R; Hegde, Preethi; Jayakrishnan, H R; Kutty, Bindu M; Chattarji, Sumantra; Rangarajan, Govindan; Laxmi, T R

    2014-10-15

    As rapid brain development occurs during the neonatal period, environmental manipulation during this period may have a significant impact on sleep and memory functions. Moreover, rapid eye movement (REM) sleep plays an important role in integrating new information with the previously stored emotional experience. Hence, the impact of early maternal separation and isolation stress (MS) during the stress hyporesponsive period (SHRP) on fear memory retention and sleep in rats were studied. The neonatal rats were subjected to maternal separation and isolation stress during postnatal days 5-7 (6h daily/3d). Polysomnographic recordings and differential fear conditioning was carried out in two different sets of rats aged 2 months. The neuronal replay during REM sleep was analyzed using different parameters. MS rats showed increased time in REM stage and total sleep period also increased. MS rats showed fear generalization with increased fear memory retention than normal control (NC). The detailed analysis of the local field potentials across different time periods of REM sleep showed increased theta oscillations in the hippocampus, amygdala and cortical circuits. Our findings suggest that stress during SHRP has sensitized the hippocampus-amygdala-cortical loops which could be due to increased release of corticosterone that generally occurs during REM sleep. These rats when subjected to fear conditioning exhibit increased fear memory and increased fear generalization. The development of helplessness, anxiety and sleep changes in human patients, thus, could be related to the reduced thermal, tactile and social stimulation during SHRP on brain plasticity and fear memory functions. PMID:25084041

  4. Early repeated maternal separation induces alterations of hippocampus reelin expression in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianlong; Qin, Lina; Zhao, Hu

    2013-03-01

    The long-term effects of repeated maternal separation (MS) during early postnatal life on reelin expression in the hippocampus of developing rats were investigated in the present study. MS was carried out by separating Wistar rat pups singly from their mothers for 3 h a day during postnatal days (PND) 2-14. Reelin mRNA and protein levels in the hippocampus were determined using qRT-PCR and Western blotting, at PND 22, PND 60 and PND 90. MS resulted in the loss of body weight in the developing rats, and reelin mRNA and protein levels in the hippocampus generally were down-regulated over the developing period, but the reelin mRNA and protein levels in the hippocampus of 90-day-old male rats were up-regulated. These findings suggest that the long-term effects of MS on the expression levels of hippocampal reelin mRNA and protein depends on the age at which the stressed rats' brains were collected; reelin had important implications for the maternal-neonate interaction needed for normal brain development. In conclusion, repeated MS occurring during early postnatal life may cause the alterations of hippocampal reelin expression with the increasing age of developing rats. PMID:23385810

  5. Poor maternal nutrition leads to alterations in oxidative stress, antioxidant defense capacity, and markers of fibrosis in rat islets: potential underlying mechanisms for development of the diabetic phenotype in later life.

    PubMed

    Tarry-Adkins, Jane L; Chen, Jian-Hua; Jones, Richard H; Smith, Noel H; Ozanne, Susan E

    2010-08-01

    Low birth weight is associated with glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes (T2D) in later life. Good evidence indicates that the environment plays an important role in this relationship. However, the mechanisms underlying these relationships are defined poorly. Islets are particularly susceptible to oxidative stress, and this condition combined with fibrosis is thought to be instrumental in T2D pathogenesis. Here we use our maternal low-protein (LP) rat model to determine the effect of early diet on oxidative stress and fibrosis in pancreatic islets of male offspring at 3 and 15 mo of age. Islet xanthine oxidase (XO) expression was increased in 15-mo LP offspring, which suggests increased oxidative-stress. Manganese superoxide-dismutase (MnSOD), copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD), and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) (antioxidant enzymes) were reduced significantly in LP offspring, which indicated impairment of oxidative defense. Expression of fibrosis markers collagen I and collagen III also increased in 15-mo LP offspring. Angiotensin II receptor type I (AT(II)R(1)), induced by hyperglycemia and oxidative-stress, was significantly up-regulated in 15-mo LP offspring. Lipid peroxidation was also increased in 15-mo LP animals. We conclude that maternal protein restriction causes age-associated increased oxidative stress, impairment of oxidative defense, and fibrosis. These findings provide mechanisms by which suboptimal early nutrition can lead to T2D development later in life. PMID:20388698

  6. Housing of pregnant rats in metabolism cages: maternal and developmental effects.

    PubMed

    Bosque, M A; Domingo, J L; Corbella, J

    1994-10-01

    The influence of the caging conditions on maternal and gestational variables was assessed for pregnant rats housed individually in two cage types. Plug-positive Sprague-Dawley females were caged either in Makrolon or in metabolism (Tecniplast) cages, and were not disturbed throughout all the gestational period. Cesarean sections were performed on gestation day 20. All live fetuses were examined for external, internal, and skeletal malformations and variations. Pregnant rats were affected by the housing system, as evidenced by a significant weight loss and reduced food consumption in the animals housed in metabolism cages. A moderate increase in the number of total skeletal defects was also observed in the fetuses of dams housed in metabolism cages. An important implication of these results would be that in maternal and developmental toxicity studies of xenobiotics, pregnant animals should not be housed in metabolism cages. PMID:7894240

  7. Maternal Exposure to Triclosan Impairs Thyroid Homeostasis and Female Pubertal Development in Wistar Rat Offspring

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pablo E. A. Rodríguez; Mónica S. Sanchez

    2010-01-01

    Although the effects of triclosan have been examined in male reproductive functions, it is unknown whether this potent antibacterial agent affects pregnancy and female pubertal development. Effects of maternal exposure to triclosan on thyroid homeostasis (TH) and reproductive-tract development in female Wistar rats were thus studied. Dams were exposed daily to triclosan (0, 1, 10, or 50 mg\\/kg\\/d) from 8

  8. Maternal environment defines blood pressure and its response to troleandomycin in spontaneously hypertensive rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ashish K. Basu; Rodney D. Hagley; Sidhartha S. Ghosh; Lora Kramer; Walter E. Nance; Charles O. Watlington

    1995-01-01

    Relationship between family-3A cytochrome P-450-dependent (troleandomycin inhibitable) and maternal environmental-dependent systolic blood pressure (SBP) was investigated in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Adult SHR nursed by foster or natural SHR mothers had indistinguishable SBP. Troleandomycin reduced 50% of Wistar-Kyoto (WKY)-SHR strain difference in SBP. SHR having WKY foster mothers had SBP similar to troleandomycin-reduced SHR levels, which was unaffected by troleandomycin.

  9. Maternal supplementation of omega 3 fatty acids to micronutrient-imbalanced diet improves lactation in rat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kamini D. Dangat; Anvita A. Kale; Sadhana R. Joshi

    2011-01-01

    The present study aims to examine the effect of maternal supplementation of omega 3 fatty acids to a micronutrient (folic acid and vitamin B12)-imbalanced diet on gastric milk volume and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid composition. Pregnant female rats were divided into 6 groups at 2 levels of folic acid in both the presence and absence of vitamin B12. Both vitamin

  10. Di(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate affects lipid profiling in fetal rat brain upon maternal exposure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yan Xu; Shruti Agrawal; Thomas J. Cook; Gregory T. Knipp

    2007-01-01

    Lipids, especially essential fatty acids (EFAs), play critical roles in guiding proper fetal development. Exposure to xenobiotics\\u000a that may alter the fetal supply of EFAs\\/lipids could potentially lead to fetotoxicity. In this study, we investigated the\\u000a effects of the peroxisome proliferator chemical, di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (DEHP), on the lipid metabolomic profile of the\\u000a rat fetal brain upon maternal exposure during gestation. Female

  11. Incorporation of labeled ribonucleic acid precursors into maternal and fetal rat tissues during pregnancy

    SciTech Connect

    Dorko, M.E.; Hayashi, T.T.

    1986-04-01

    Tritium-labeled ribonucleic acid precursors, including cytidine, uridine, and orotic acid, were injected into rats with dated pregnancies (14 to 21 days) and virgin rats. The acid-insoluble counts indicating incorporation into fetal and placental tissues showed that the highest incorporation occurred with cytidine, particularly earlier in pregnancy. In contrast, uridine demonstrated a minor degree of incorporation but displayed facile and enhanced transplacental passage with duration of pregnancy as represented by acid-soluble counts. Orotic acid was minimally used by both fetal and placental tissues. The incorporation of labeled precursors into maternal liver, heart, and kidney demonstrated varying responses during the course of pregnancy.

  12. Effects of Shiga toxin type 2 on maternal and fetal status in rats in the early stage of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Sacerdoti, Flavia; Amaral, María M; Zotta, Elsa; Franchi, Ana M; Ibarra, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Shiga toxin type 2 (Stx2), a toxin secreted by Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), could be one of the causes of maternal and fetal morbimortality not yet investigated. In this study, we examined the effects of Stx2 in rats in the early stage of pregnancy. Sprague-Dawley pregnant rats were intraperitoneally (i.p.) injected with sublethal doses of Stx2, 0.25 and 0.5?ng Stx2/g of body weight (bwt), at day 8 of gestation (early postimplantation period of gestation). Maternal weight loss and food and water intake were analyzed after Stx2 injection. Another group of rats were euthanized and uteri were collected at different times to evaluate fetal status. Immunolocalization of Stx2 in uterus and maternal kidneys was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. The presence of Stx2 receptor (globotriaosylceramide, Gb3) in the uteroplacental unit was observed by thin layer chromatography (TLC). Sublethal doses of Stx2 in rats caused maternal weight loss and pregnancy loss. Stx2 and Gb3 receptor were localized in decidual tissues. Stx2 was also immunolocalized in renal tissues. Our results demonstrate that Stx2 leads to pregnancy loss and maternal morbidity in rats in the early stage of pregnancy. This study highlights the possibility of human pregnancy loss and maternal morbidity mediated by Stx2. PMID:25157355

  13. Effects of Shiga Toxin Type 2 on Maternal and Fetal Status in Rats in the Early Stage of Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Sacerdoti, Flavia; Amaral, María M.; Zotta, Elsa; Franchi, Ana M.; Ibarra, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Shiga toxin type 2 (Stx2), a toxin secreted by Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), could be one of the causes of maternal and fetal morbimortality not yet investigated. In this study, we examined the effects of Stx2 in rats in the early stage of pregnancy. Sprague-Dawley pregnant rats were intraperitoneally (i.p.) injected with sublethal doses of Stx2, 0.25 and 0.5?ng Stx2/g of body weight (bwt), at day 8 of gestation (early postimplantation period of gestation). Maternal weight loss and food and water intake were analyzed after Stx2 injection. Another group of rats were euthanized and uteri were collected at different times to evaluate fetal status. Immunolocalization of Stx2 in uterus and maternal kidneys was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. The presence of Stx2 receptor (globotriaosylceramide, Gb3) in the uteroplacental unit was observed by thin layer chromatography (TLC). Sublethal doses of Stx2 in rats caused maternal weight loss and pregnancy loss. Stx2 and Gb3 receptor were localized in decidual tissues. Stx2 was also immunolocalized in renal tissues. Our results demonstrate that Stx2 leads to pregnancy loss and maternal morbidity in rats in the early stage of pregnancy. This study highlights the possibility of human pregnancy loss and maternal morbidity mediated by Stx2. PMID:25157355

  14. The disposition of benzoylecgonine in maternal and fetal rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hisayo O Morishima; Toshiyuki Okutomi; Atsuro Ishizaki; Yi Zhang; Thomas B Cooper

    2001-01-01

    We tested our hypothesis that pregnancy alters the pharmacokinetic profile of benzoylecgonine, and that this metabolite accumulates in the fetus longer than in the mother. Chronically catheterized near-term pregnant and nonpregnant female Sprague–Dawley rats received an intravenous infusion of benzoylecgonine over a period of 30 min. Adult or fetal blood and tissue samples were obtained either at the end of

  15. Maternal repeated oral exposure to microcystin-LR affects neurobehaviors in developing rats.

    PubMed

    Li, XiaoBo; Zhang, Xin; Ju, Jingjuan; Li, Yunhui; Yin, Lihong; Pu, Yuepu

    2015-01-01

    Microcystins are toxic peptides secreted by certain water blooms of toxic cyanobacteria. The most widely studied microcystin is microcystin-LR (MC-LR), which exhibits hepatotoxicity and neurotoxicity. However, limited information is available regarding the effects on offspring following maternal exposure. The present study was conducted to observe the effects of progestational exposure to MC-LR on postnatal development in rats. Female Sprague-Dawley rats (28 d old) were randomly divided into a control group and 3 treatment groups (1.0?µg MC-LR/kg body wt, 5.0?µg MC-LR/kg body wt, and 20.0?µg MC-LR/kg body wt), with 7 rats per group. The MC-LR was administered through gavage once every 48?h for 8 wk. Pure water was used as control. Each female rat was mated with an unexposed adult male rat. Motor development, behavioral development, and learning ability of pups were detected using surface righting reflex, negative geotaxis, and cliff avoidance tests on postnatal day 7. Open-field and Morris water maze tests were performed on postnatal day 28 and day 60. The levels of lipid peroxidation products and antioxidant indices in the rat hippocampus were also detected. Pups from the MC-LR-treated groups had significantly lower scores than controls in the cliff avoidance test (p?maternal exposure to MC-LR has adverse effects on neurodevelopment in rat offspring. PMID:25319481

  16. Effect of Transient Maternal Hypotension on Apoptotic Cell Death in Foetal Rat Brain

    PubMed Central

    Özyürek, Hamit; Bayrak, Sibel; Pehlivano?lu, Bilge; Atilla, Pergin; Balkanc?, Zeynep Dicle; Çakar, Nur; Anlar, Banu

    2014-01-01

    Background: Intrauterine perfusion insufficiency induced by transient maternal hypotension has been reported to be associated with foetal brain malformations. However, the effects of maternal hypotension on apoptotic processes in the foetal brain have not been investigated experimentally during the intrauterine period. Aims: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of transient maternal hypotension on apoptotic cell death in the intrauterine foetal brain. Study Design: Animal experimentation. Methods: Three-month-old female Wistar albino rats were allocated into four groups (n=5 each). The impact of hypoxic/ischemic injury induced by transient maternal hypotension on the 15th day of pregnancy (late gestation) in rats was investigated at 48 (H17 group) or 96 hours (H19 group) after the insult. Control groups underwent the same procedure except for induction of hypotension (C17 and H17 groups). Brain sections of one randomly selected foetus from each pregnant rat were histopathologically evaluated for hypoxic/ischemic injury in the metencephalon, diencephalon, and telencephalon by terminal transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labelling and active cysteine-dependent aspartate-directed protease-3 (caspase-3) positivity for cell death. Results: The number of terminal transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labelling (+) cells in all the areas examined was comparable in both hypotension and control groups. The H17 group had active caspase-3 (+) cells in the metencephalon and telencephalon, sparing diencephalon, whereas the C19 and H19 groups had active caspase-3 (+) cells in all three regions. The number of active caspase-3 (+) cells in the telencephalon in the H19 group was higher compared with the metencephalon and diencephalon and compared with H17 group (p<0.05). Conclusion: Our results suggest that prenatal hypoxic/ischemic injury triggers apoptotic mechanisms. Therefore, blockade of apoptotic pathways, considering the time pattern of the insult, may constitute a potential neuroprotective approach for the detrimental effects of prenatal hypoperfusion. PMID:25207175

  17. Angiotensin II is required to induce exaggerated salt sensitivity in Dahl rats exposed to maternal separation

    PubMed Central

    Loria, Analia S; Pollock, David M; Pollock, Jennifer S

    2015-01-01

    We previously reported that maternal separation, rat model of early life stress, enhances pressor responses to acute and chronic stressors. The aims of this study were to determine whether Dahl salt-sensitive (DS) rats subjected to maternal separation (MatSep-DS) as compared to normally reared DS (Ctl-DS) rats show exaggerated blood pressure responses to acute behavioral stressors, such as restraint stress or air jet stress (AJS), or, hypertensive stimuli including chronic high-salt diet (4% NaCl) and angiotensin II (AngII) infusion (200 ng/Kg/min) during 1 week. MatSep was performed in male DS rats for 3 h/day from postnatal days 2–14. At 8 weeks of age, rats were implanted with telemetry transmitters and allowed to recover. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) was not different between MatSep-DS and Ctl-DS rats at baseline (120 ± 2 mmHg vs. 118 ± 1 mmHg, n = 4–8). Blood pressure responses during AJS and restraint stress were not different between MatSep-DS and Ctl-DS at 3 min. However, blood pressure recovery from AJS was significantly impaired in MatSep-DS rats compared to Ctl-DS rats (P < 0.05). 3-h stress-induced similar responses in MatSep and Ctl-DS rats. Chronic blood pressure responses to AngII infusion in rats fed a high-salt diet displayed enhanced MAP in MatSep-DS when compared with Ctl-DS rats (167 ± 5 mmHg vs. 152 ± 2 mmHg, pinteraction <0.05). However, MAP increased similarly in both groups in response to AngII infusion or high-salt diet separately. Renal parameters such as proteinuria, urine flow rate, and urine electrolytes were not different between groups in response to each treatment. In summary, salt sensitivity induces exaggerated blood pressor responses only in presence of AngII due to early life stress. PMID:25999404

  18. Angiotensin II is required to induce exaggerated salt sensitivity in Dahl rats exposed to maternal separation.

    PubMed

    Loria, Analia S; Pollock, David M; Pollock, Jennifer S

    2015-05-01

    We previously reported that maternal separation, rat model of early life stress, enhances pressor responses to acute and chronic stressors. The aims of this study were to determine whether Dahl salt-sensitive (DS) rats subjected to maternal separation (MatSep-DS) as compared to normally reared DS (Ctl-DS) rats show exaggerated blood pressure responses to acute behavioral stressors, such as restraint stress or air jet stress (AJS), or, hypertensive stimuli including chronic high-salt diet (4% NaCl) and angiotensin II (AngII) infusion (200 ng/Kg/min) during 1 week. MatSep was performed in male DS rats for 3 h/day from postnatal days 2-14. At 8 weeks of age, rats were implanted with telemetry transmitters and allowed to recover. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) was not different between MatSep-DS and Ctl-DS rats at baseline (120 ± 2 mmHg vs. 118 ± 1 mmHg, n = 4-8). Blood pressure responses during AJS and restraint stress were not different between MatSep-DS and Ctl-DS at 3 min. However, blood pressure recovery from AJS was significantly impaired in MatSep-DS rats compared to Ctl-DS rats (P < 0.05). 3-h stress-induced similar responses in MatSep and Ctl-DS rats. Chronic blood pressure responses to AngII infusion in rats fed a high-salt diet displayed enhanced MAP in MatSep-DS when compared with Ctl-DS rats (167 ± 5 mmHg vs. 152 ± 2 mmHg, pinteraction <0.05). However, MAP increased similarly in both groups in response to AngII infusion or high-salt diet separately. Renal parameters such as proteinuria, urine flow rate, and urine electrolytes were not different between groups in response to each treatment. In summary, salt sensitivity induces exaggerated blood pressor responses only in presence of AngII due to early life stress. PMID:25999404

  19. Effect of cocaine on periadolescent rats with or without early maternal separation.

    PubMed

    Planeta, C S; Marin, M T

    2002-11-01

    Cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization and weight loss were investigated in periadolescent Wistar rats kept with their mothers or subjected to repeated maternal separation. Litters allocated to the separation procedure were placed in a temperature-controlled (33 degrees C) chamber for 3 h per day from postnatal day 6 (P6) to P20. Non-handled rats were left undisturbed until weaning. Treatments were started on P30-31 and the test was performed on P36-37. Animals received injections of saline or cocaine (10 mg/kg, sc) twice daily for 5 days. On day 6 all animals received saline. On day 7 animals were challenged with 10 mg/kg cocaine and their locomotion was evaluated in activity cages. A third group received saline throughout the 7-day period. Body weights were recorded on P30-31 and P36-37. Two-way ANOVA on body weights showed a main effect of treatment group (F(1,35) = 10.446, P = 0.003; N = 10-12). Non-handled rats treated with cocaine for 5 days gained significantly less weight, while no significant effect was observed in maternally separated rats. Two-way ANOVA revealed a main effect of drug treatment on locomotor activity (F(2,32) = 15.209, P<0.001; N = 6-8), but not on rearing condition (F(1,32)<0.001, P = 0.998). Animals pretreated with cocaine showed a clear behavioral sensitization relative to the saline group. No difference in the magnitude of sensitization was found between separated and non-handled animals. Only the effect of cocaine on weight gain was significantly affected by repeated episodes of early maternal separation during the pre-weaning period. PMID:12426637

  20. Periaqueductal gray ? and ? opioid receptors determine behavioral selection from maternal to predatory behavior in lactating rats.

    PubMed

    Klein, Marianne Orlandini; Cruz, Aline de Mello; Machado, Franciele Corrêa; Picolo, Gisele; Canteras, Newton Sabino; Felicio, Luciano Freitas

    2014-11-01

    Every mother must optimize her time between caring for her young and her subsistence. The rostro lateral portion of the periaqueductal grey (rlPAG) is a critical site that modulates the switch between maternal and predatory behavior. Opioids play multiple roles in both maternal behavior and this switching process. The present study used a pharmacological approach to evaluate the functional role of rlPAG ? and ? opioid receptors in behavioral selection. Rat dams were implanted with a guide cannula in the rlPAG and divided into three experiments in which we tested the role of opioid agonists (Experiment 1), the influence of ? and ? opioid receptor blockade in the presence of morphine (Experiment 2), and the influence of ? and ? opioid receptor blockade (Experiment 3). After behavioral test, in Experiment 4, we evaluated rlPAG ? and ? receptor activation in all Experiments 1-3. The results showed that massive opioidergic activation induced by morphine in the rlPAG inhibited maternal behavior without interfering with predatory hunting. No behavioral changes and no receptor activation were promoted by the specific agonist alone. However, ? receptor blockade increased hunting behavior and increased the level of ? receptor activation in the rlPAG. Thus, endogenous opioidergic tone might be modulated by a functional interaction between opioid receptor subtypes. Such a compensatory receptor interaction appears to be relevant for behavioral selection among motivated behaviors. These findings indicate a role for multiple opioid receptor interactions in the modulation of behavioral selection between maternal and predatory behaviors in the PAG. PMID:25116253

  1. Maternal Subclinical Hypothyroidism Impairs Neurodevelopment in Rat Offspring by Inhibiting the CREB Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuanyuan; Fan, Yuxin; Yu, Xiaohui; Wang, Xinyi; Bao, Suqing; Li, Jiashu; Fan, Chenling; Shan, Zhongyan; Teng, Weiping

    2015-08-01

    Thyroid hormone is indispensable for fetal brain development, and maternal thyroid hormone deficiency is thought to result in severe and irreversible brain impairments in learning and memory. Epidemiological and animal studies by our group had shown that maternal subclinical hypothyroidism had significant negative impact on neurodevelopment. But, the underlying mechanisms responsible for these neurological alterations remain unclear. In the present study, we performed thyroidectomy and injected L-T4 daily in Wistar rats to induce maternal subclinical hypothyroidism. Our data indicated that the pups from subclinical group showed prolonged latencies during the learning process in the Morris water maze as compared to the control group. Transcription factor cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) signaling pathway is closely associated with synaptic plasticity, learning, and memory. Consistent with behavioral results, Western blotting also showed decreased activation of three important upstream modulators of CREB signaling pathway: phospho-mitogen-activated protein kinases (P-ERK1/2), phospho-calcium-dependent-calmodulin kinase IV (P-CaMKIV), phospho-serine/threonine protein kinase AKT(P-AKT), as well as total CREB and phospho-CREB as compared to the control at postnatal day 7 (PND 7) in hippocampus. Our findings suggested that decreased activation of the CREB signaling pathway in pups was related to impairments of cognitive function caused by maternal subclinical hypothyroidism. PMID:25193019

  2. Maternal reproductive experience enhances early postnatal outcome following gestation and birth of rats in hypergravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ronca, A. E.; Baer, L. A.; Daunton, N. G.; Wade, C. E.

    2001-01-01

    A major goal of space life sciences research is to broaden scientific knowledge of the influence of gravity on living systems. Recent spaceflight and centrifugation studies demonstrate that reproduction and ontogenesis in mammals are amenable to study under gravitational conditions that deviate considerably from those typically experienced on Earth (1 x g). In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that maternal reproductive experience determines neonatal outcome following gestation and birth under increased (hyper) gravity. Primigravid and bigravid female rats and their offspring were exposed to 1.5 x g centrifugation from Gestational Day 11 either through birth or through the first postnatal week. On the day of birth, litter sizes were identical across gravity and parity conditions, although significantly fewer live neonates were observed among hypergravity-reared litters born to primigravid dams than among those born to bigravid dams (82% and 94%, respectively; 1.0 x g controls, 99%). Within the hypergravity groups, neonatal mortality was comparable across parity conditions from Postnatal Day 1 through Day 7, at which time litter sizes stabilized. Maternal reproductive experience ameliorated neonatal losses during the first 24 h after birth but not on subsequent days, and neonatal mortality was associated with changes in maternal care patterns. These results indicate that repeated maternal reproductive experience affords protection against neonatal losses during exposure to increased gravity. Differential mortality of neonates born to primigravid versus bigravid dams denotes gravitational load as one environmental mechanism enabling the expression of parity-related variations in birth outcome.

  3. Long-Term Effects of Maternal Deprivation on the Neuronal Soma Area in the Rat Neocortex

    PubMed Central

    Aksi?, Milan; Radonji?, Nevena V.; Aleksi?, Dubravka; Jevti?, Gordana; Markovi?, Branka; Petronijevi?, Nataša; Radonji?, Vidosava; Filipovi?, Branislav

    2014-01-01

    Early separation of rat pups from their mothers (separatio a matrem) is considered and accepted as an animal model of perinatal stress. Adult rats, separated early postnatally from their mothers, are developing long-lasting changes in the brain and neuroendocrine system, corresponding to the findings observed in schizophrenia and affective disorders. With the aim to investigate the morphological changes in this animal model we exposed 9-day-old (P9) Wistar rats to a 24?h maternal deprivation (MD). At young adult age rats were sacrificed for morphometric analysis and their brains were compared with the control group bred under the same conditions, but without MD. Rats exposed to MD had a 28% smaller cell soma area in the prefrontal cortex (PFCX), 30% in retrosplenial cortex (RSCX), and 15% in motor cortex (MCX) compared to the controls. No difference was observed in the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein in the neocortex of MD rats compared to the control group. The results of this study demonstrate that stress in early life has a long-term effect on neuronal soma size in cingulate and retrosplenial cortex and is potentially interesting as these structures play an important role in cognition. PMID:24895554

  4. Metyrapone blocks maternal food restriction-induced changes in female rat offspring lung development.

    PubMed

    Rehan, Virender K; Li, Yishi; Corral, Julia; Saraswat, Aditi; Husain, Sumair; Dhar, Ankita; Sakurai, Reiko; Khorram, Omid; Torday, John S

    2014-04-01

    Maternal food restriction (MFR) during pregnancy affects pulmonary surfactant production in the intrauterine growth-restricted (IUGR) offspring through unknown mechanisms. Since pulmonary surfactant production is regulated by maternal and fetal corticosteroid levels, both known to be increased in IUGR pregnancies, we hypothesized that metyrapone (MTP), a glucocorticoid synthesis inhibitor, would block the effects of MFR on surfactant production in the offspring. Three groups of pregnant rat dams were used (1) control dams fed ad libitum; (2) MFR (50% reduction in calories) from days 10 to 22 of gestation; and (3) MFR + MTP in drinking water (0.5 mg/mL), days 11 to 22 of gestation. At 5 months, the MFR offspring weighed significantly more, had reduced alveolar number, increased septal thickness, and decreased surfactant protein and phospholipid synthesis. These MFR-induced effects were normalized by the antiglucocorticoid MTP, suggesting that the stress of MFR causes hypercorticoidism, altering lung structure and function in adulthood. PMID:24023031

  5. Maternal separation enhances object location memory and prevents exercise-induced MAPK/ERK signalling in adult Sprague–Dawley rats

    PubMed Central

    Bugarith, Kishor; Russell, Vivienne A

    2012-01-01

    Early life stress increases the risk of developing psychopathology accompanied by reduced cognitive function in later life. Maternal separation induces anxiety-like behaviours and is associated with impaired memory. On the other hand, exercise has been shown to diminish anxiety-like behaviours and improve cognitive function. The effects of maternal separation and exercise on anxiety, memory and hippocampal proteins were investigated in male Sprague–Dawley rats. Maternal separation produced anxiety-like behaviours which were reversed by exercise. Maternal separation also enhanced object location memory which was not affected by exercise. Exercise did, however, increase synaptophysin and phospho-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (p-ERK) in the hippocampus of non-separated rats and this effect was not observed in maternally separated rats. These findings show that maternal separation selectively enhanced n memory and prevented activation of the MAPK/ERK signalling pathway in the adult rat hippocampus. PMID:22476924

  6. Additive effects of maternal iron deficiency and prenatal immune activation on adult behaviors in rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Louise; Boksa, Patricia

    2014-08-01

    Both iron deficiency (ID) and infection are common during pregnancy and studies have described altered brain development in offspring as a result of these individual maternal exposures. Given their high global incidence, these two insults may occur simultaneously during pregnancy. We recently described a rat model which pairs dietary ID during pregnancy and prenatal immune activation. Pregnant rats were placed on iron sufficient (IS) or ID diets from embryonic day 2 (E2) until postnatal day 7, and administered the bacterial endotoxin, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or saline on E15/16. In this model, LPS administration on E15 caused greater induction of the pro-inflammatory cytokines, interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-?, in ID dams compared to IS dams. This suggested that the combination of prenatal immune activation on a background of maternal ID might have more adverse neurodevelopmental consequences for the offspring than exposure to either insult alone. In this study we used this model to determine whether combined exposure to maternal ID and prenatal immune activation interact to affect juvenile and adult behaviors in the offspring. We assessed behaviors relevant to deficits in humans or animals that have been associated with exposure to either maternal ID or prenatal immune activation alone. Adult offspring from ID dams displayed significant deficits in pre-pulse inhibition of acoustic startle and in passive avoidance learning, together with increases in cytochrome oxidase immunohistochemistry, a marker of metabolic activity, in the ventral hippocampus immediately after passive avoidance testing. Offspring from LPS treated dams showed a significant increase in social behavior with unfamiliar rats, and subtle locomotor changes during exploration in an open field and in response to amphetamine. Surprisingly, there was no interaction between effects of the two insults on the behaviors assessed, and few observed alterations in juvenile behavior. Our findings show that long-term effects of maternal ID and prenatal LPS were additive, such that offspring exposed to both insults displayed more adult behavioral abnormalities than offspring exposed to one alone. PMID:24930842

  7. Neuroanatomical substrates of the disruptive effect of olanzapine on rat maternal behavior as revealed by c-Fos immunoreactivity

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Changjiu; Li, Ming

    2012-01-01

    Olanzapine is one of the most widely prescribed atypical antipsychotic drugs in the treatment of schizophrenia. Besides its well-known side effect on weight gain, it may also impair human parental behavior. In this study, we took a preclinical approach to examine the behavioral effects of olanzapine on rat maternal behavior and investigated the associated neural basis using the c-Fos immunohistochemistry. On postpartum Days 6–8, Sprague-Dawley mother rats were given a single injection of sterile water or olanzapine (1.0, 3.0 or 5.0 mg/kg, sc). Maternal behavior was tested 2 h later, after which rats were sacrificed and brain tissues were collected. Ten brain regions that were either implicated in the action of antipsychotic drugs and/or in the regulation of maternal behavior were examined for c-Fos immunoreactivity. Acute olanzapine treatment dose-dependently disrupted various components of maternal behavior (e.g., pup retrieval, pup licking, nest building, crouching) and increased c-Fos immunoreactivity in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), nucleus accumbens shell and core (NAs and NAc), dorsolateral striatum (DLSt), ventral lateral septum (LSv), central amygdala (CeA) and ventral tegmental area (VTA), important brain areas generally implicated in the incentive motivation and reward processing. In contrast, olanzapine treatment did not alter c-Fos in the medial preoptic nucleus (MPN), ventral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (vBST) and medial amygdala (MeA), the core brain areas directly involved in the mediation of rat maternal behavior. These findings suggest that olanzapine disrupts rat maternal behavior primarily by suppressing incentive motivation and reward processing via its action on the mesocorticolimbic dopamine systems, other limbic and striatal areas, but not by disrupting the core processes involved in the mediation of maternal behavior in particular. PMID:22960130

  8. Maternal separation affects cocaine-induced locomotion and response to novelty in adolescent, but not in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Marin, Marcelo T; Planeta, Cleopatra S

    2004-07-01

    Maternal separation is known to exert long-term effects on both behavior and the neuroendocrine system. We investigated cocaine-induced locomotor activation as well as the locomotor and corticosterone response to forced novelty in maternally separated adolescent and adult rats. Maternal separation consisted of separating litters from their dams daily during 5 h from postnatal days 2 to 6. Control animals were subjected only to regular cage changes. Cocaine- (10 mg/kg, i.p.) and novelty-induced locomotion were recorded in an activity cage. After the animals were tested for behavioral response to novelty, trunk blood samples were collected and plasma corticosterone levels were determined by radioimmunoassay. Adolescent rats exposed to maternal separation exhibited an increased locomotor response to novelty and cocaine; corticosterone levels were lower in these adolescent animals, after exposure to the novel environment. These effects of maternal separation were not observed in rats that were tested as adults. Thus the maternal separation protocol produced enduring but transient changes in the behavioral response to cocaine and in the stress response to novelty. PMID:15196970

  9. Increased affective ultrasonic communication during fear learning in adult male rats exposed to maternal immune activation.

    PubMed

    Yee, Nicole; Schwarting, Rainer K W; Fuchs, Eberhard; Wöhr, Markus

    2012-09-01

    Maternal exposure to infection during pregnancy greatly increases the risk of psychopathology in the offspring. In support of clinical findings, rodent models of maternal immune activation (MIA) show that prenatal exposure to pathogens can induce phenotypic changes in the offspring associated with schizophrenia, autism, depression and anxiety. In the current study, we investigated the effects of MIA via polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly I:C) on emotional behavior and communication in rats. Pregnant rats were administered poly I:C or saline on gestation day 15 and male offspring were tested in an auditory fear conditioning paradigm in early adulthood. We found that prenatal poly I:C exposure significantly altered affective signaling, namely, the production of aversive 22-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs), in terms of call number, structure and temporal patterning. MIA led to an increase in aversive 22-kHz USVs to 300% of saline controls. Offspring exposed to MIA not only emitted more 22-kHz USVs, but also emitted calls that were shorter in duration and occurred in bouts containing more calls. The production of appetitive 50-kHz USVs and audible calls was not affected. Intriguingly, alterations in aversive 22-kHz USV emission were observed despite no obvious changes in overt defensive behavior, which highlights the importance of assessing USVs as an additional measure of fear. Aversive 22-kHz USVs are a prominent part of the rat's defensive behavioral repertoire and serve important communicative functions, most notably as alarm calls. The observed changes in aversive 22-kHz USVs show that MIA has long-term effects on emotional behavior and communication in exposed rat offspring. PMID:22687817

  10. Effects of maternal exposure to the galactagogue Sulpiride on reproductive parameters in female rats.

    PubMed

    de Azevedo Camin, Nathália; Vieira, Milene Leivas; Montagnini, Bruno Garcia; Kiss, Ana Carolina Inhasz; Gerardin, Daniela Cristina Ceccatto

    2015-03-01

    The antipsychotic Sulpiride has been documented as an effective galactagogue that acts blocking dopamine receptors, increasing prolactin concentrations. However, this drug passes through the milk exposing neonates during postnatal development, which may result in functional and morphological alterations in adult life. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate whether maternal exposure to Sulpiride during lactation could impair reproductive development of female offspring. The dams were treated daily by gavage with Sulpiride doses of 2.5mg/Kg (SUL 2.5mg group) and 25mg/Kg (SUL 25mg group), or distilled water (Control group) throughout the lactation period. During early life, body weight, anogenital distance, and vaginal opening were analyzed on the female offspring. In adulthood, estrous cycle, sexual behavior, estrogen levels as well as the weight of the reproductive organs were evaluated. There were no differences regarding body weight, anogenital distance, puberty onset, frequency and duration of the estrous cycle and estradiol levels on female offspring. Nonetheless, there were changes in sexual behavior. There was an increase in the number of observations in reflex magnitude 0 (absence of lordosis) and reflex magnitude 2 as well as a reduction of reflex magnitude 3 in the rats of SUL 25mg group in relation to the Control group, suggesting a decrease in sexual receptivity of these animals. These results demonstrate that maternal exposure to Sulpiride can alter reproductive function in female offspring rats. PMID:25554483

  11. Maternal dietary omega-3 fatty acid intake increases resolvin and protectin levels in the rat placenta

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Megan L.; Mark, Peter J.; Keelan, Jeffrey A.; Barden, Anne; Mas, Emilie; Mori, Trevor A.; Waddell, Brendan J.

    2013-01-01

    Placental inflammation is associated with several pregnancy disorders. Inflammation is limited by anti-inflammatory and proresolving mechanisms, the latter partly mediated by resolvins and protectins derived from omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3PUFA). We examined effects of dietary n-3PUFAs on levels of resolvins, protectins, and lipoxygenase (ALOX) enzymes in the rat placenta. Rats consumed standard (Std) or high n-3PUFA (Hn3) diets from day 1 of pregnancy; tissues were collected on day 17 or 22 (term = day 23). Maternal Hn3 diet increased resolvin and protectin precursors, 18R/S-HEPE (P < 0.001), and 17R/S-HDHA (P < 0.01) at both days. Resolvins (17R-RvD1 and RvD1) increased at day 22 (P < 0.001) after Hn3 consumption, coincident with higher Alox15b and Alox5 mRNA expression, while RvD2 increased at both days (P < 0.05). Protectins, PD1, and 10S,17S-DiHDHA increased over late gestation (P < 0.001), coincident with higher Alox15 mRNA expression (P < 0.001) and further increased with Hn3 diet (P < 0.05). Maternal systemic and placental proinflammatory mediators were not suppressed by Hn3 diet; systemic IL1?, placental Il1?, and Il6 mRNA expression increased marginally with Hn3 at day 22 (P < 0.001), while Ptgs1 (Cox1) expression increased both days (P < 0.05). Our data indicate that maternal n-3PUFA supplementation enhances expression of enzymes in the n-3PUFA metabolic pathway and increases placental levels of resolvins and protectins. PMID:23723388

  12. Influence of maternal metabolism and parental genetics on fetal maldevelopment in diabetic rat pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Ejdesjö, A; Wentzel, P; Eriksson, U J

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of parental transgenerational genetics and maternal metabolic state on fetal maldevelopment in diabetic rat pregnancy. Rats from an inbred malformation-resistant (W) strain, and an inbred malformation-prone (L) strain, were cross-mated to produce two different F(1) hybrids, WL and LW. Normal (N) and manifestly diabetic (MD) WL and LW females were mated with normal males of the same F(1) generation to obtain WLWL and LWLW F(2) hybrids. Maternal diabetes increased malformation and resorption rates in both F(2) generations. MD-WLWL offspring had higher resorption rate but similar malformation rate compared with the MD-LWLW offspring. Malformed MD-WLWL offspring presented with 100% agnathia/micrognathia, whereas malformed MD-LWL offspring had 60% agnathia/micrognathia and 40% cleft lip and palate. The MD-WL dams showed increased ?-hydroxybutyrate levels and alterations in concentrations of several amino acids (taurine, asparagine, citrulline, cystine, glutamic acid, leucine, tyrosine, and tryptophan) compared with MD-LW dams. Fetal glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (Gapdh) activity and gene expression were more altered in MD-WLWL than MD-LWLW. Fetal gene expression of reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger enzymes was diminished in MD-WLWL compared with MD-LWLW. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor and Ret proto-oncogene gene expression was decreased in both MD-WLWL and MD-LWLW fetuses, whereas increased bone morphogenetic protein 4 and decreased Sonic hedgehog homolog expression was found only in MD-LWLW fetuses. Despite identical autosomal genotypes, the WL and LW dams gave birth to offspring with markedly different malformation patterns. Together with fetal differences in enzymatic activity and expression of Gapdh, ROS scavengers, and developmental genes, these results may suggest a teratological mechanism in diabetic pregnancy influenced by maternal metabolism and parental strain epigenetics. PMID:22374754

  13. Chronic cannabinoid treatment during young adulthood induces sex-specific behavioural deficits in maternally separated rats.

    PubMed

    Klug, Maren; van den Buuse, Maarten

    2012-08-01

    A combination of early neurodevelopmental disruptions and young-adult cannabis use may lead to the development of neuropsychiatric disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate in adult Wistar rats (12-14 weeks of age) the long-term 'two hit' behavioural effects of chronic young-adult treatment with the cannabinoid receptor agonist, CP55,940 (0.2 mg/kg, 8-10 weeks of age) in combination with maternal separation (MS) (3 h every day from postnatal days 2-14). Two weeks after chronic CP55,940 treatment had ceased, baseline locomotor activity was reduced in male, but not female rats and irrespective of MS. In male rats only, the combination of MS and cannabinoid exposure, but not either 'hit' alone, induced a significant decrease in sucrose preference. In contrast, in male rats both MS and CP55,940 treatment reduced time spent on the open arms of the plus maze or centre time in the open field and this was most pronounced after a combination of these 'hits'. Prepulse inhibition was reduced by MS in both sexes but there was no additional effect of CP55,940 treatment. Memory performance in the Y-maze and novel object recognition test was not affected by either of the two 'hits'. These results indicate that early developmental disruptions and young-adult cannabis use on their own or in combination can differentially and sex-specifically affect behaviours related to neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:22610052

  14. Rats with Hypertension Induced by in utero Exposure to Maternal Low-Protein Diets Fail to Increase Blood Pressure in Response to a High Salt Intake

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Simon C. Langley-Evans; Alan A. Jackson

    1996-01-01

    Hypertension in the rat has been demonstrated to be determined in utero by exposure to maternal low-protein diets. Assessment was made of the response of rats with maternal diet-induced hypertension to a chronic high intake of sodium chloride. Normotensive and hypertensive animals were provided with either drinking water (control) or 1.5% sodium chloride over a 7-day period. Normotensive rats significantly

  15. Periodic Maternal Deprivation Induces Gender-Dependent Alterations in Behavioral and Neuroendocrine Responses to Emotional Stress in Adult Rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexandra Wigger; Inga D Neumann

    1999-01-01

    There is evidence that stressful events during the neonatal “stress hyporesponsive period” may influence both emotional behavior and the maturation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis in rats. We tested whether periodic maternal deprivation (180 min daily on postnatal days 3–10, PMD) caused chronic changes in emotional behavior and HPA axis activity in either male or female adult rats, or both.

  16. The effects of the wood preservative copper dimethyldithiocarbamate in the hippocampus of maternal and newborn Long-Evans rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian Scharf; Louis David Trombetta

    2007-01-01

    The potential toxic effects on human health and deleterious effects to the environment by copper dimethyldithiocarbamate (CDDC), an alternative wood preservative to chromated copper arsenate (CCA) have not been investigated. This study describes the neurotoxicity and accumulation of copper in the hippocampus of maternal and newborn Long-Evans rats following a subacute exposure to CDDC. Pregnant rats (220–270g) were treated daily

  17. The effect of acupuncture on anxiety and neuropeptide Y expression in the basolateral amygdala of maternally separated rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hi-Joon Park; Younbyoung Chae; Jiryeon Jang; Insop Shim; Hyejung Lee; Sabina Lim

    2005-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that maternally deprived rats exhibit anxiogenic-like behavior when exposed to stress in later life. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is involved in the regulation of various physiological functions such as the expression of anxiety. Female Wistar rat pups were separated from their mothers for 3h daily from postnatal days 3 (P3) to 14 (P14). Acupuncture groups were treated

  18. Maternal–Fetal Transfer of Domoic Acid in Rats at Two Gestational Time Points

    PubMed Central

    Maucher, Jennifer M.; Ramsdell, John S.

    2007-01-01

    Background and objectives Prenatal exposure to asymptomatic doses of domoic acid (DA) causes learning and memory deficits later in life; therefore, we sought to measure distribution of DA in maternal plasma and brain, prenatal brain, and amniotic fluid 1 hr after exposure, a time frame that normally encompasses acute seizure behavior. Methods Pregnant rats were given a single intravenous dose of DA (0.6 or 1.6 mg/kg body weight) at either gestational day (GD) 13 or GD20, which correspond to the beginning of rat embryo neurogenesis and the last day of gestation, respectively. Using a direct ELISA, dose-dependent levels of DA were detected in each sample matrix tested. Results An average of 6.6 and 14 ng DA/g brain tissue was found in GD13 and GD20 prenatal rats, respectively. Brain concentrations of DA in the GD13 prenates were identical to amniotic fluid levels, consistent with no restriction for DA to enter the GD13 prenatal brain. At GD20 the prenatal brain contained half the concentration of DA in the amniotic fluid, and was approximately half that found in the brain of the dams. After 1 hr, fetal brain and amniotic fluid contained between 1 and 5% of DA found in the maternal circulation. The amniotic fluid levels of DA in this study were also within the same range measured in stranded California sea lions that showed reproductive failure. Conclusions DA crosses the placenta, enters brain tissue of prenates, and accumulates in the amniotic fluid. Amniotic fluid appears to be a useful fluid to monitor DA exposure. PMID:18087593

  19. Maternal attenuation of hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus norepinephrine switches avoidance learning to preference learning in preweanling rat pups

    PubMed Central

    Shionoya, Kiseko; Moriceau, Stephanie; Bradstock, Peter; Sullivan, Regina M.

    2009-01-01

    Infant rats learn to prefer stimuli paired with pain, presumably due to the importance of learning to prefer the caregiver to receive protection and food. With maturity, a more ‘adult-like’ learning system emerges that includes the amygdala and avoidance/fear learning. The attachment and ’adult-like’ systems appear to co-exist in older pups with maternal presence engaging the attachment system by lowering corticosterone (CORT). Specifically, odor-shock conditioning (11 odor-0.5mA shock trials) in 12-day old pups results in an odor aversion, although an odor preference is learned if the mother is present during conditioning. Here, we propose a mechanism to explain pups ability to ‘switch’ between the dual learning systems by exploring the effect of maternal presence on hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) neural activity, norepinephrine (NE) levels and learning. Maternal presence attenuates both PVN neural activity and PVN NE levels during odor-shock conditioning. Intra-PVN NE receptor antagonist infusion blocked the odor aversion learning with maternal absence, while intra-PVN NE receptor agonist infusion permitted odor aversion learning with maternal presence. These data suggest maternal control over pup learning acts through attenuation of PVN NE to reduce the CORT required for pup odor aversion learning. Moreover, these data also represent pups’ continued maternal dependence for nursing, while enabling aversion learning outside the nest to prepare for pups future independent living. PMID:17675020

  20. Maternal Omega-3 Supplementation Increases Fat Mass in Male and Female Rat Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Muhlhausler, Beverly Sara; Miljkovic, Dijana; Fong, Laura; Xian, Cory J.; Duthoit, Emmanuelle; Gibson, Robert A.

    2011-01-01

    Adipogenesis and lipogenesis are highly sensitive to the nutritional environment in utero and in early postnatal life. Omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) inhibit adipogenesis and lipogenesis in adult rats, however it is not known whether supplementing the maternal diet with omega-3 LCPUFA results in reduced fat deposition in the offspring. Female Albino Wistar rats were fed either a standard chow (Control, n?=?10) or chow designed to provide ?15?mg/kg/day of omega-3 LCPUFA, chiefly as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), throughout pregnancy and lactation (Omega-3, n?=?11) and all pups were weaned onto a commercial rat chow. Blood and tissues were collected from pups at 3 and 6?weeks of age and weights of visceral and subcutaneous fat depots recorded. The expression of adipogenic and lipogenic genes in the subcutaneous and visceral fat depots were determined using quantitative real time reverse transcription-PCR. Birth weight and postnatal growth were not different between groups. At 6?weeks of age, total percentage body fat was significantly increased in both male (5.09?±?0.32% vs. 4.56?±?0.2%, P?maternal omega-3 LCPUFA supplementation on the expression of adipogenic or lipogenic genes in the offspring in either the visceral or subcutaneous fat depots. We have therefore established that an omega-3 rich environment during pregnancy and lactation in a rodent model increases fat accumulation in both male and female offspring, particularly in subcutaneous depots, but that this effect is not mediated via upregulation adipogenic/lipogenic gene transcription. These data suggest that maternal n?3 LCPUFA supplementation during pregnancy/lactation may not be an effective strategy for reducing fat deposition in the offspring. PMID:22303344

  1. Postnatal maternal separation modifies the response to an obesogenic diet in adulthood in rats.

    PubMed

    Paternain, Laura; Martisova, Eva; Milagro, Fermín I; Ramírez, María J; Martínez, J Alfredo; Campión, Javier

    2012-09-01

    An early-life adverse environment has been implicated in the susceptibility to different diseases in adulthood, such as mental disorders, diabetes and obesity. We analyzed the effects of a high-fat sucrose (HFS) diet for 35 days in adult female rats that had experienced 180 minutes daily of maternal separation (MS) during lactancy. Changes in the obesity phenotype, biochemical profile, levels of glucocorticoid metabolism biomarkers, and the expression of different obesity- and glucocorticoid-metabolism-related genes were analyzed in periovaric adipose tissue. HFS intake increased body weight, adiposity and serum leptin levels, whereas MS decreased fat pad masses but only in rats fed an HFS diet. MS reduced insulin resistance markers but only in chow-fed rats. Corticosterone and estradiol serum levels did not change in this experimental model. A multiple gene expression analysis revealed that the expression of adiponutrin (Adpn) was increased owing to MS, and an interaction between HFS diet intake and MS was observed in the mRNA levels of leptin (Lep) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 alpha (Ppargc1a). These results revealed that early-life stress affects the response to an HFS diet later in life, and that this response can lead to phenotype and transcriptomic changes. PMID:22773756

  2. The role of the accessory and main olfactory systems in maternal behavior of the primiparous rat.

    PubMed

    Jirik-Babb, P; Manaker, S; Tucker, A M; Hofer, M A

    1984-03-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the respective roles of the main and accessory olfactory systems in the development of maternal behavior in the primiparous Wistar rat. Females underwent one of the following treatments: vomeronasal nerve section (VN), irrigation of nasal cavities with 5% ZnSO4 solution (ZN), surgical control, saline irrigation control, and normal control. Surgical or first irrigation were done before mating occurred. Irrigations were done every 7 days thereafter. The dams and their litters were observed from the day the litter was born (Day 1) through Day 16. Pup weights and temperatures were recorded daily. Home cages were checked daily for changes in nest location and number of times pups were found out of the nest. Retrieving tests were conducted on Days 4, 7, 10, and 13. The following behavioral items were observed: number of pup retrievals , number of times mother nosed or licked pups, percentage of litter returned to nest by end of test, dam self-grooming, dam climbing or rising, and dam digging or burrowing in shavings. The VN dams and their litters were not significantly different from the control dams and their litters on any of the measures taken. The ZN dams and their litters were not significantly different from their controls on all measures except for pup body temperature which was slightly lower from Day 13 through day 16 and pup body weight which was slightly lower from Day 12 through Day 16. Since these differences are very small, they do not seem to indicate a serious deficiency in maternal behavior. The results indicate that adequate maternal behavior develops with either of the two systems intact. PMID:6732710

  3. Maternal high-fat-diet programs rat offspring liver Fatty Acid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Seet, Emily L; Yee, Jennifer K; Jellyman, Juanita K; Han, Guang; Ross, Michael G; Desai, Mina

    2015-06-01

    In offspring exposed in utero to a maternal diet high in fat (HF), we have previously demonstrated that despite similar birth weights, HF adult offspring at 6 months of age had significantly higher body weights, greater adiposity, and increased triacylglycerol (TAG) levels as compared to controls. We hypothesized that a maternal HF diet predisposes to offspring adiposity via a programmed increase in the synthesis of monounsaturated fatty acids in the liver and hence increased substrate availability for liver TAG synthesis. We further hypothesized that programmed changes in offspring liver fatty acid metabolism are associated with increased liver expression of the lipogenic enzyme stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD-1). Female rats were maintained on a HF diet rich in monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) prior to and throughout pregnancy and lactation. After birth, newborns were nursed by the same dam, and all offspring were weaned to control diet. Plasma and liver fatty acid compositions were determined using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Fatty acid C16 desaturation indices of palmitoleic/palmitic and (vaccenic + palmitoleic)/palmitic and the C18 desaturation index of oleic/stearic were calculated. Liver protein abundance of SCD-1 was analyzed in newborns and adult offspring. Plasma and liver C16 desaturation indices were decreased in HF newborns, but increased in the adult offspring. Liver SCD-1 expression was increased in the HF adult offspring. These data show that the maternal HF diet during pregnancy and lactation increases offspring liver SCD-1 protein abundance and alters the liver C16 desaturase pathway. PMID:25899040

  4. Maternal Di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate Exposure Influences Essential Fatty Acid Homeostasis in Rat Placenta

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yan; Agrawal, Shruti; Cook, Thomas J.; Knipp, Gregory T.

    2008-01-01

    Maintaining essential fatty acid (EFA) homeostasis during pregnancy is critical for fetal development. As the organ that controls the maternal-to-fetal supply of nutrients, the placenta plays a significant role in guiding EFA transfer to the fetus. Many EFA homeostasis proteins are regulated by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs). The metabolites of di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (DEHP), a ubiquitous environmental contaminant, might influence EFA homeostasis via trans-activation of PPARs with subsequent downstream effects on EFA transporters and enzymes. To investigate DEHP’s effect on placental/fetal EFA homeostasis, female Sprague-Dawley rats were orally gavaged with either vehicle or DEHP at 750 or 1500 mg/kg/day from gestational day (GD) 0 to GD 19. Changes in the expression of several EFA homeostasis regulating proteins were determined in the junctional (JXN) and labyrinthine (LAB) zones of the placenta, including PPAR isoforms (?, ? and ?), fatty acid translocase (FAT/CD36), fatty acid transport protein 1 (FATP1), plasma membrane fatty acid binding protein (FABPpm), heart cytoplasmic fatty acid binding protein (HFABP), cytochrome P450 (CYP) 4A1, and cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and -2. Additionally, effects of DEHP maternal exposure on the placental transfer and fetal distribution of representative EFAs, arachidonic acid (AA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and the placental production of prostaglandins (PGs) were investigated. Expression of PPAR?, PPAR?, FAT/CD36, FATP1, HFABP and CYP4A1 was up-regulated in JXN and/or LAB while COX-2 was down-regulated in JXN. PPAR?, FABPpm, and COX-1 demonstrated variable expression. Reduced directional maternal-to-fetal placental transfer and altered fetal distribution of AA and DHA were observed in concordance with a decreased total placental PG production. These results correlate with previous in vitro data, suggesting that DEHP could influence placental EFA homeostasis with potential downstream effects in the developing fetus. PMID:18829104

  5. Maternal sleep deprivation inhibits hippocampal neurogenesis associated with inflammatory response in young offspring rats.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qiuying; Peng, Cheng; Wu, Xiaohui; Chen, Yubo; Wang, Cheng; You, Zili

    2014-08-01

    Although sleep complaints are very common among pregnant women, the potential adverse effects of sleep disturbance on the offspring are not well studied. Growing evidence suggests that maternal stress can induce an inflammatory environment on the fetal development. But people are not sure about the consequences of prenatal stress such as the inflammatory responses induced by maternal sleep deprivation (MSD). In the present study, we investigated the effects of MSD on long-term behavioral and cognitive consequences in offspring and its underlying inflammatory response pathway. The pregnant Wistar rats received prolonged sleep deprivation (72h) on gestational day (GD) 4, 9, and 18, respectively. The post-natal day (PND) 21 offspring showed impaired hippocampus-dependent spatial learning and memory in the Morris Water Maze task and anhedonia in sucrose preference experiment. Quantification of BrdU(+) and DCX(+) cells revealed a significant decrease in hippocampus neurogenesis in prepuberty offspring, especially for the late MSD (GD 18) group. Real-time RT-PCR showed that after MSD, the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1?, IL-6 and TNF?) increased in the hippocampus of offspring on PND 1, 7, 14 and 21, whereas anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 reduced at the same time. Immunofluorescence found that the cells of activated microglia were higher in the brains of MSD offspring. Taken together, these results suggested that the MSD-induced inflammatory response is an important factor for neurogenesis impairment and neurobehavioral outcomes in prepuberty offspring. PMID:24769004

  6. Maternal Hyperglycemia Directly and Rapidly Induces Cardiac Septal Overgrowth in Fetal Rats

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Erin E.; Reinking, Benjamin E.; Hu, Shanming; Yao, Jianrong; Kua, Kok L.; Younes, Areej K.; Wang, Chunlin; Segar, Jeffrey L.; Norris, Andrew W.

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac septal overgrowth complicates 10–40% of births from diabetic mothers, but perplexingly hyperglycemia markers during pregnancy are not reliably predictive. We thus tested whether fetal exposure to hyperglycemia is sufficient to induce fetal cardiac septal overgrowth even in the absence of systemic maternal diabetes. To isolate the effects of hyperglycemia, we infused glucose into the blood supply of the left but not right uterine horn in nondiabetic pregnant rats starting on gestational day 19. After 24?h infusion, right-sided fetuses and dams remained euglycemic while left-sided fetuses were moderately hyperglycemic. Echocardiograms in utero demonstrated a thickened cardiac septum among left-sided (glucose-exposed, 0.592 ± 0.016?mm) compared to right-sided (control, 0.482 ± 0.016?mm) fetuses. Myocardial proliferation was increased 1.5 ± 0.2-fold among left-sided compared to right-sided fetuses. Transcriptional markers of glucose-derived anabolism were not different between sides. However, left-sided fetuses exhibited higher serum insulin and greater JNK phosphorylation compared to controls. These results show that hyperglycemic exposure is sufficient to rapidly induce septal overgrowth even in the absence of the myriad other factors of maternal diabetes. This suggests that even transient spikes in glucose may incite cardiac overgrowth, perhaps explaining the poor clinical correlation of septal hypertrophy with chronic hyperglycemia.

  7. Inhibition of phosphatidylserine biosynthesis in developing rat brain by maternal exposure to ethanol.

    PubMed

    Wen, Zhiming; Kim, Hee-Yong

    2007-05-15

    Phosphatidylserine (PtdSer), major acidic phospholipids in neuronal membranes, participate in important cell signaling processes. The PtdSer in brain is highly enriched with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3), and the DHA status or ethanol exposure has been shown to influence the PtdSer level. This study shows that ethanol exposure during prenatal and developmental period significantly attenuates microsomal PtdSer biosynthetic activities and reduces PtdSer, particularly 18:0, 22:6-PtdSer, in developing rat brain cortices. Brain microsomes were incubated with deuterium labeled exogenous substrates in vitro and the products formed were detected by reversed phase HPLC-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). These in vitro bioassays showed that 1-stearoyl-2-docosahexaenoyl (18:0, 22:6) species is the best substrate for PtdSer synthesis from both phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PtdEtn). The PtdSer biosynthetic activity of brain, especially for 18:0, 22:6-PtdSer production, was hampered significantly by maternal exposure to ethanol. PtdSer levels were consistently reduced significantly in brain cortices of the pups from ethanol-exposed dams, due mainly to the depletion of 18:0, 22:6-PtdSer. The mRNA expression of PtdSer synthase 1 (PSS1) and PtdSer synthase 2 (PSS2) was not reduced by ethanol. Similarly, the PSS1 enzyme level did not change after ethanol exposure but PSS2 could not be probed with the antibody available currently. Degradation of PtdSer by mitochondrial PtdSer decarboxylation was not enhanced but also inhibited. Taken together, attenuated PtdSer biosynthetic activities are largely responsible for the PtdSer reduction observed in developing rat brains after maternal exposure to ethanol. PMID:17387686

  8. The possible mechanisms by which maternal hypothyroidism impairs insulin secretion in adult male offspring in rats.

    PubMed

    Karbalaei, Narges; Ghasemi, Asghar; Hedayati, Mehdi; Godini, Aliashraf; Zahediasl, Saleh

    2014-04-01

    Previous studies have recently shown that maternal hypothyroidism leads to impaired glucose metabolism and reduced insulin secretion in adult offspring in rats. The aim of this study was to locate the defect in the insulin secretion pathway induced by maternal hypothyroidism. Pregnant Wistar rats were divided into two groups; the control group consumed water, while the hypothyroid (FH) group received water containing 0.025% 6-propyl-2-thiouracil during gestation. An intravenous glucose tolerance test was carried out on 5-month-old male offspring. In in vitro studies, the effects of various secretagogues and inhibitors acting at different levels of the insulin secretion cascade were investigated, and insulin content, insulin secretion and glucokinase activity of the islets were compared. Although insulin content of the FH islets did not differ from that of control islets, insulin secretion from FH islets was reduced when it was challenged by glucose or arginine. Compared with control islets, activities of both hexokinase and glucokinase were also significantly decreased in the FH islets. Although, in both groups, increasing glibenclamide and nifedipine concentrations in the presence of 16.7 mmol l(-1) glucose increased and decreased insulin secretion, respectively, the percentage of changes in secretion of FH islets was significantly lower compared with control islets. The response of FH islets to high extracellular potassium concentration and diazoxide was also significantly lower than that of the control islets. These findings demonstrate that impaired insulin secretion in the FH group is probably related to alterations in different steps of the insulin secretion pathway and not in the insulin pool of ?-cells. PMID:24097159

  9. Maternal Hypothyroidism Selectively Affects the Expression of Neuroendocrine-Specific Protein A Messenger Ribonucleic Acid in the Proliferative Zone of the Fetal Rat Brain Cortex

    Microsoft Academic Search

    AMY L. S. DOWLING; ERIC A. IANNACONE; R. THOMAS ZOELLER

    2010-01-01

    Thyroid hormone is essential for mammalian brain development, but the mechanisms by which thyroid hormone exerts its effects, the developmental processes affected, and the timing of thyroid hormone effects are poorly understood. An important question is whether thy- roid hormone of maternal origin is essential in guiding fetal brain development. In both humans and rats, thyroid hormone of maternal origin

  10. Effect of essential oil from Citrus aurantium in maternal reproductive outcome and fetal anomaly frequency in rats.

    PubMed

    Volpato, Gustavo T; Francia-Farje, Luis A D; Damasceno, Débora C; Oliveira, Renata V; Hiruma-Lima, Clélia A; Kempinas, Wilma G

    2015-03-01

    Citrus aurantium L., commonly known as bitter orange, is widely used in folk medicine, but there is little data in the literature about the effects on pregnancy. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of essential oil obtained from fruits of Citrus aurantium on the maternal reproductive outcome and fetal anomaly incidence in rats. Pregnant Wistar rats were randomized into four groups (n minimum = 12 animals/group): G1 = control, G2 to G4 = treated with essential oil from C. aurantium at dose 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg, respectively. Rats were orally treated, by gavage, with plant essential oil or vehicle during pre-implantation and organogenic period (gestational day 0-14). On gestational day 20 the rats were anaesthetized and the gravid uterus was weighed with its contents and the fetuses were analyzed. Results showed that the treated group with 500 mg/kg presented decreased placental weights and placental index, although the treatment with bitter orange essential oil did not show any alteration in maternal reproductive performance, toxicological effect, changes in ossification sites, and malformation index. In conclusion, the treatment of Citrus aurantium essential oil was not teratogenic and did not alter the maternal reproductive outcome. PMID:25806990

  11. Maternal zinc deficiency reduces NMDA receptor expression in neonatal rat brain, which persists into early adulthood.

    PubMed

    Chowanadisai, Winyoo; Kelleher, Shannon L; Lönnerdal, Bo

    2005-07-01

    Prenatal and early postnatal zinc deficiency impairs learning and memory and these deficits persist into adulthood. A key modulator in this process may be the NMDA receptor; however, effects of zinc deficiency on the regulation of NMDA receptor activity are not well understood. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed diets containing 7 (zinc deficient, ZD), 10 (marginally zinc deficient, MZD) or 25 (control) mg Zn/g diet preconception through postnatal day (PN) 20, at which time pups were weaned onto their maternal or control diet. Regulation of NMDA receptor expression was examined at PN2, PN11, and PN65. At PN2, expression of whole brain NMDA receptor subunits NR1, NR2A, and NR2B was lower in pups from dams fed ZD and MZD compared to controls, as analyzed using relative RT-PCR and immunoblotting. At PN11, whole brain and hippocampi NR1, NR2A, NR2B and PSA-NCAM (polysialic acid-neural cell adhesion molecule) expression and the number of PSA-NCAM immunoreactive cells were lower in pups from dams fed ZD compared to controls. Whole brain brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nerve growth factor (NGF) concentrations were lower in pups from dams fed ZD or both low zinc diets, respectively. Whole brain NR1 expression remained lower in previously zinc-deficient rats at PN65. These data indicate potential mechanisms through which developmental zinc deficiency can impair learning and memory later in life. PMID:15998301

  12. Vitamin D metabolism impairment in the rat’s offspring following maternal exposure to 137 cesium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Tissandie; Y. Guéguen; J. M. A. Lobaccaro; L. Grandcolas; S. Grison; J. Aigueperse; M. Souidi

    2009-01-01

    Previous works clearly showed that chronic contamination by 137cesium alters vitamin D metabolism. Since children are known to be a high-risk group for vitamin D metabolism disorders, effects\\u000a of 137Cs on vitamin D biosynthetic pathway were investigated in newborn rats. The experiments were performed in 21-day-old male\\u000a offspring of dams exposed to 137Cs in their drinking water at a dose

  13. THE EFFECTS OF DIETARY PROTEIN RESTRICTION ON CHORDA TYMPANI NERVE TASTE RESPONSES AND TERMINAL FIELD

    E-print Network

    Hill, David L.

    THE EFFECTS OF DIETARY PROTEIN RESTRICTION ON CHORDA TYMPANI NERVE TASTE RESPONSES AND TERMINAL of Virginia, PO Box 400400, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4400, USA Abstract--Prenatal dietary sodium restriction dietary protein-restriction affects the development of the peripheral gustatory system, multi

  14. Functional connectivity in prenatally stressed rats with and without maternal treatment with ladostigil, a brain-selective monoamine oxidase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Goelman, G; Ilinca, R; Zohar, I; Weinstock, M

    2014-09-01

    Stress during pregnancy in humans is known to be a risk factor for neuropsychiatric disorders in the offspring. Prenatal stress in rats caused depressive-like behavior that was restored to that of controls by maternal treatment with ladostigil (8.5 mg/kg per day), a brain-selective monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitor that prevented increased anxiety-like behavior in stressed mothers. Ladostigil inhibited maternal striatal MAO-A and -B by 45-50% at the time the pups were weaned. Using resting state-functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging on rat male offspring of control mothers, and mothers stressed during gestation with and without ladostigil treatment, we identified neuronal connections that differed between these groups. The percentage of significant connections within a predefined predominantly limbic network in control rats was 23.3 within the right and 22.0 within the left hemisphere. Prenatal stress disturbed hemispheric symmetry, resulting in 30.2 and 21.6%, significant connections in the right and left hemispheres, respectively, but this was fully restored in the maternal ladostigil group to 24.6% in both hemispheres. All connections that were modified in prenatally stressed rats and restored by maternal drug treatment were associated with the dopaminergic system. Specifically, we observed that restoration of the connections of the right nucleus accumbens shell with frontal areas, the cingulate, septum and motor and sensory cortices, and those of the right globus pallidus with the infra-limbic and the dentate gyrus, were most important for prevention of depressive-like behavior. PMID:24862938

  15. Effects of maternal diet and exercise during pregnancy on glucose metabolism in skeletal muscle and fat of weanling rats.

    PubMed

    Raipuria, Mukesh; Bahari, Hasnah; Morris, Margaret J

    2015-01-01

    Obesity during pregnancy contributes to the development of metabolic disorders in offspring. Maternal exercise may limit gestational weight gain and ameliorate these programming effects. We previously showed benefits of post-weaning voluntary exercise in offspring from obese dams. Here we examined whether voluntary exercise during pregnancy influences lipid and glucose homeostasis in muscle and fat in offspring of both lean and obese dams. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed chow (C) or high fat (F) diet for 6 weeks before mating. Half underwent voluntary exercise (CE/FE) with a running wheel introduced 10 days prior to mating and available until the dams delivered; others remained sedentary (CS/FS). Male and female pups were killed at postnatal day (PND)19 and retroperitoneal fat and gastrocnemius muscle were collected for gene expression. Lean and obese dams achieved similar modest levels of exercise. At PND1, both male and female pups from exercised lean dams were significantly lighter (CE versus CS), with no effect in those from obese dams. At PND19, maternal obesity significantly increased offspring body weight and adiposity, with no effect of maternal exercise. Exercise significantly reduced insulin concentrations in males (CE/FE versus CS/FS), with reduced glucose in male FE pups. In males, maternal obesity significantly decreased muscle myogenic differentiation 1 (MYOD1) and glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) mRNA expressions (FS vs CS); these were normalized by exercise. Maternal exercise upregulated adipose GLUT4, interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?), and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 alpha (PGC1?) mRNA expression in offspring of dams consuming chow. Modest voluntary exercise during pregnancy was associated with lower birth weight in pups from lean dams. Maternal exercise appeared to decrease the metabolic risk induced by maternal obesity, improving insulin/glucose metabolism, with greater effects in male than female offspring. PMID:25853572

  16. EFFECTS ON THE FETAL RAT INTESTINE OF MATERNAL MALNUTRITION AND EXPOSURE TO NITROFEN (2,4-DICHLOROPHENYL-P-NITROPHENYL ETHER)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of maternal protein-energy malnutrition and exposure to nitrofen on selected aspects of intestinal morphology and function were studied in the fetal rat. Pregnant rats were fed, throughout gestation, diets containing 24% or 6% casein as the sole source of protein. Red...

  17. Effects of maternal starvation on hepatocyte proliferation in the late gestation fetal rat.

    PubMed

    Gruppuso, Philip A; Boylan, Joan M; Anand, Padmanabhan; Bienieki, Theresa C

    2005-02-01

    Fetal growth retardation, a common end point for a variety of conditions affecting mother and fetus, is associated with reduced liver mass. We have performed studies to determine the mechanism for decreased liver mass in a maternal starvation model of fetal growth restriction in the rat. Pregnant dams were deprived of food for 48 h before delivery on embryonic day 19 (E19). Fetal body weight was not affected. However, fetal liver weight was reduced by approximately 15%. Immunostaining of fetal liver for proliferating cell nuclear antigen and flow cytometry on isolated fetal hepatocytes showed G1 cell cycle arrest in samples from starved dams. Based on our prior studies showing attenuated hepatic insulin signaling in the late gestation fetal rat, we tested the hypothesis that G1 arrest in our model might be due to altered nutrient signaling. Fetal plasma amino acid analyses showed no decrease in branched-chain amino acids, but arginine concentrations were decreased in fetuses of fasted mothers. Reduced arginine in E19 fetal hepatocyte culture media was associated with decreased DNA synthesis. Whereas levels of cyclins D and E were unchanged in fetal hepatocytes exposed to low arginine, cyclin E-dependent kinase activity was reduced. Low arginine also induced changes in the translational machinery, indicative of impaired signaling through the nutrient sensing kinase mammalian target of rapamycin. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that restricted nutrient availability signals to the hepatocyte cell cycle in fetuses of fasted mothers, thereby accounting for decreased hepatocyte proliferation and liver mass. PMID:15611345

  18. Prenatal exposure to escitalopram and/or stress in rats: a prenatal stress model of maternal depression and its treatment

    PubMed Central

    Bourke, Chase H.; Capello, Catherine F.; Rogers, Swati M.; Yu, Megan L.; Boss-Williams, Katherine A.; Weiss, Jay M.; Stowe, Zachary N.; Owens, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale A rigorously investigated model of stress and antidepressant administration during pregnancy is needed to evaluate possible effects on the mother. Objective The objective of this study was to develop a model of clinically relevant prenatal exposure to an antidepressant and stress during pregnancy to evaluate the effects on maternal care behavior. Results Female rats implanted with 28 day osmotic minipumps delivering the SSRI escitalopram throughout pregnancy had serum escitalopram concentrations in a clinically observed range (17-65 ng/mL). A separate cohort of pregnant females exposed to a chronic unpredictable mild stress paradigm on gestational days 10-20 showed elevated baseline (305 ng/mL), and acute stress-induced (463 ng/mL), plasma corticosterone concentrations compared to unstressed controls (109 ng/mL). A final cohort of pregnant dams were exposed to saline (control), escitalopram, stress, or stress and escitalopram to determine the effects on maternal care. Maternal behavior was continuously monitored over the first 10 days post parturition. A reduction of 35% in maternal contact and 11% in nursing behavior was observed due to stress during the light cycle. Licking and grooming behavior was unaffected by stress or drug exposure in either the light or dark cycle. Conclusions These data indicate that: 1) clinically relevant antidepressant treatment during human pregnancy can be modeled in rats using escitalopram; 2) chronic mild stress can be delivered in a manner that does not compromise fetal viability; and 3) neither of these prenatal treatments substantially altered maternal care post parturition. PMID:23436130

  19. Maternal weight as an alternative determinant of the gestational day of Wistar rats housed in individually-ventilated cages.

    PubMed

    Paronis, E; Samara, A; Polyzos, A; Spyropoulos, C; Kostomitsopoulos, N G

    2015-07-01

    One of the commonly used animal models in fertility, developmental and neurobiological studies is the laboratory rat. The early recognition of rat pregnancy and confirmation of the exact embryonic day are vital. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation of maternal weight at the time of conception to its increase throughout gestation, aiming to develop a mathematical model, which can be used for the determination of the exact day of pregnancy, set the threshold, and monitor pregnancy from the onset. We studied a total of 173 Wistar rats with a mean body weight of 238.22?±?34.9?g. After 72?h at the male's cages, we considered as Day 0 (D0) the day in which a copulatory plug or sperm was found during the vaginal smear examination. After that period the female animals were transferred into their cages, and weight monitoring started 14 days (D14) after D0, until parturition. Based on the statistical analysis, there is a correlation between maternal body weight at D0 and maternal body weight from D14 to D19. Moreover, the average weight gain from D14 to D19 is positively correlated to initial female body weight, while there is no correlation between each pregnant animal's weight from D14 to D19 and litter size. A mathematical model was developed as a tool for the verification of the day of pregnancy. In conclusion, continuous monitoring of maternal weight after D14 can be a reliable method for the recognition of pregnancy and determination of the exact gestational day. PMID:25488321

  20. Maternal nicotine exposure leads to impaired disulfide bond formation and augmented endoplasmic reticulum stress in the rat placenta.

    PubMed

    Wong, Michael K; Nicholson, Catherine J; Holloway, Alison C; Hardy, Daniel B

    2015-01-01

    Maternal nicotine exposure has been associated with many adverse fetal and placental outcomes. Although underlying mechanisms remain elusive, recent studies have identified that augmented endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is linked to placental insufficiency. Moreover, ER function depends on proper disulfide bond formation--a partially oxygen-dependent process mediated by protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) and ER oxidoreductases. Given that nicotine compromised placental development in the rat, and placental insufficiency has been associated with poor disulfide bond formation and ER stress, we hypothesized that maternal nicotine exposure leads to both placental ER stress and impaired disulfide bond formation. To test this hypothesis, female Wistar rats received daily subcutaneous injections of either saline (vehicle) or nicotine bitartrate (1 mg/kg) for 14 days prior to mating and during pregnancy. Placentas were harvested on embryonic day 15 for analysis. Protein and mRNA expression of markers involved in ER stress (e.g., phosphorylated eIF2?, Grp78, Atf4, and CHOP), disulfide bond formation (e.g., PDI, QSOX1, VKORC1), hypoxia (Hif1?), and amino acid deprivation (GCN2) were quantified via Western blot and/or Real-time PCR. Maternal nicotine exposure led to increased expression of Grp78, phosphorylated eIF2?, Atf4, and CHOP (p<0.05) in the rat placenta, demonstrating the presence of augmented ER stress. Decreased expression of PDI and QSOX1 (p<0.05) reveal an impaired disulfide bond formation pathway, which may underlie nicotine-induced ER stress. Finally, elevated expression of Hif1? and GCN2 (p<0.05) indicate hypoxia and amino acid deprivation in nicotine-exposed placentas, respectively, which may also cause impaired disulfide bond formation and augmented ER stress. This study is the first to link maternal nicotine exposure with both placental ER stress and disulfide bond impairment in vivo, providing novel insight into the mechanisms underlying nicotine exposure during pregnancy on placental health. PMID:25811377

  1. Maternal Obesity Caused by Overnutrition Exposure Leads to Reversal Learning Deficits and Striatal Disturbance in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ting; Deng, Shining; Li, Wei-Guang; Yu, Yongguo; Li, Fei; Mao, Meng

    2013-01-01

    Maternal obesity caused by overnutrition during pregnancy increases susceptibility to metabolic risks in adulthood, such as obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes; however, whether and how it affects the cognitive system associated with the brain remains elusive. Here, we report that pregnant obesity induced by exposure to excessive high fatty or highly palatable food specifically impaired reversal learning, a kind of adaptive behavior, while leaving serum metabolic metrics intact in the offspring of rats, suggesting a much earlier functional and structural defects possibly occurred in the central nervous system than in the metabolic system in the offspring born in unfavorable intrauterine nutritional environment. Mechanically, we found that above mentioned cognitive inflexibility might be associated with significant striatal disturbance including impaired dopamine homeostasis and disrupted leptin signaling in the adult offspring. These collective data add a novel perspective of understanding the adverse postnatal sequelae in central nervous system induced by developmental programming and the related molecular mechanism through which priming of risk for developmental disorders may occur during early life. PMID:24223863

  2. Maternal low-protein diet causes body weight loss in male, neonate Sprague-Dawley rats involving UCP-1-mediated thermogenesis.

    PubMed

    Claycombe, Kate J; Vomhof-DeKrey, Emilie E; Roemmich, James N; Rhen, Turk; Ghribi, Othman

    2015-07-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) plays an important role in regulating body weight (BW) by modifying thermogenesis. Maternal low protein (LP) diets reduce offspring birth weight. Increased BAT thermogenesis in utero may be one mechanism for the lower BW. However, whether maternal LP nutrition alters BAT thermogenesis and BW of offspring in utero is not yet known. We fed obese-prone Sprague-Dawley dams 8% LP or 20% normal protein (NP) diets for 3weeks prior to breeding and through pregnancy. BW and gene expression of interscapular BAT (iBAT) thermogenic markers were measured in male fetal (gestation day 18) and neonatal (day 0 or 1) offspring. BW of neonatal LP males was lower than NP males but no difference was observed in females. Gene and protein expression of UCP-1 and transcription factors PRDM16 and PPAR? in iBAT were 2- to 6-fold greater in LP than in NP male neonatal offspring. FNDC5, a precursor of irisin and activator of thermogenesis, was expressed 2-fold greater in neonatal LP iBAT than NP males. However, fetal iBAT UCP-1, PRDM16, PPAR? and irisin mRNA did not differ between LP and NP groups. Maternal LP diet had no effects on placental irisin and UCP-2 expression. These results suggest that prenatal protein restriction increases the risk for low BW through mechanisms affecting full-term offspring iBAT thermogenesis but not greatly altering fetal iBAT or placental thermogenesis. PMID:25858881

  3. Effect of melatonin and stobadine on maternal and embryofoetal toxicity in rats due to intrauterine hypoxia induced by phenytoin administration.

    PubMed

    Ujházy, E; Mach, M; Dubovický, M; Navarová, J; Soltés, L; Juránek, I; Brucknerová, I; Zeman, M

    2004-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that the natural antioxidant melatonin (MEL) and the synthetic antioxidant stobadine (STO) could reduce the incidence of maternal and embryofoetal toxicity in rats due to intrauterine hypoxia. Chronic hypoxia was induced pharmacologically by the administration of the anticonvulsant phenytoin (PHT) during the entire period of pregnancy. PHT disturbed the normal course of pregnancy, affected reproductive parameters and increased the incidence of skeletal anomalies. MEL did not protect the PHT-induced development toxicity in rat. On the other hand, STO partially prevented PHT-induced reduction of foetal and placental weights. Administration of STO also decreased the frequency of pre- and post-implantation loss and resorptions in the PHT group. We concluded that pretreatment of pregnant rats with STO prevented to a certain extent reproductive and foetal development alterations caused by chronic intrauterine hypoxia. PMID:15141990

  4. Maternal Contact Differentially Modulates Central and Peripheral Oxytocin in Rat Pups During a Brief Regime of Mother–Pup Interaction that Induces a Filial Huddling Preference

    PubMed Central

    Kojima, S.; Stewart, R. A.; Demas, G. E.; Alberts, J. R.

    2014-01-01

    Central oxytocin mediates the acquisition of a filial preference for maternal odour in rat pups, manifested by their huddling preferences. The present study was designed to examine whether maternal care modulates oxytocin concentrations in rat pups and, if so, how different types of maternal contact are associated with the pups’ oxytocin concentrations. Pairs of 14-day-old littermates were removed from their home cage for 1 h and then placed with a lactating foster mother for 2 h, or they remained isolated at room temperature. Enzyme immunoassays revealed that maternal care and maternal separation can differentially modulate pups’ oxytocin concentrations. Both hypothalamic and serum oxytocin increased during the 1-h separation. Pups placed with a foster mother after the separation maintained the same concentrations in the hypothalamus and serum through the fostering period. By contrast, pups placed with no mother showed a further increase in hypothalamic oxytocin but serum oxytocin decreased. Behavioural analyses revealed that skin-to-skin contact with the mother, but not simple physical contact or maternal licking / grooming, was positively correlated with the pups’ hypothalamic oxytocin concentrations. These neuroendocrine data match previous findings showing that skin-to-skin contact with mother facilitates the acquisition of the pups’ huddling preference for a maternally-associated odour. Taken together, the present study suggests that maternal skin-to-skin contact stimulates pups’ central oxytocin, at the same time as creating the conditions for inducing a preference for maternal odour and establishing a social affiliation in rat pups; the natural schedule of maternal separation and reunion may modulate pups’ oxytocin concentrations, providing scaffolding for the acquisition of their filial huddling preference. PMID:22260655

  5. Histamine acting on the basolateral amygdala reverts the impairment of aversive memory of rats submitted to neonatal maternal deprivation.

    PubMed

    Benetti, Fernando; da Silveira, Clarice Kras Borges; Rosa, Jessica; Izquierdo, Ivan

    2015-02-01

    Recent findings suggest a role of brain histamine in the regulation of memory consolidation, particularly in one-trial inhibitory avoidance (IA) learning and that disruption in the mother infant relationship i.e. maternal deprivation induces cognitive deficits. We investigate whether histamine itself, and histaminergic compounds given into the basolateral amygdala (BLA) immediately post-training can affect retention (24 h after training) of one-trial (IA) in rats submitted to early postnatal maternal deprivation. In all cases, deprived (Dep) animals had lower retention scores than non-deprived controls (N-dep). Histamine induced memory enhancement on its own in N-dep animals and was able to overcome the deleterious effect of Dep. The effects by SKF-91488 is similar to histamine. The H3 agonist, imetit mimetized the enhancing effects of histamine; neither agonist H1 pyridylethylamine nor the H2 dimaprit had any effect. Ranitidine and thioperamide (50 nmol) co-infused with histamine (10 nmol) fully blocked the restorative effect of histamine on retention in Dep animals. Thioperamide, in addition, blocked the enhancing effect of histamine on memory of the N-dep animals as well. None of the drugs used given into BLA had any effect on open-field or elevated plus-maze behavior in N-dep or Dep rats. Our results are limited to experimental design in rats. Extrapolation i.e. in humans requires further experimentations. The present results suggest that the memory deficit induced by early postnatal maternal deprivation in rats may at least in part be due to an impairment of histamine H3 receptor-mediated mediated mechanisms in the BLA. PMID:25257105

  6. Social, thermal, and temporal influences on isolation-induced and maternally potentiated ultrasonic vocalizations of rat pups.

    PubMed

    Shair, Harry N; Brunelli, Susan A; Masmela, Jenny R; Boone, Emilie; Hofer, Myron A

    2003-03-01

    Sensory and temporal factors have been demonstrated to be involved in the regulation of isolation-induced ultrasonic vocalizations (USV) of young rats. Sensory cues include thermal, olfactory, and tactile modalities. Temporal factors include the time spent in isolation. The goal of the present research was to examine the interaction of these factors in both isolation-induced and maternally potentiated USV. Maternal potentiation of USV occurs when a brief interaction with the dam, even a passive (anesthetized) dam, elicits an augmented vocal response to a subsequent isolation, with rates of USV in rat pups well above those emitted in standard isolation tests. We found that passive maternal potentiation of USV did occur under all conditions tested. Neither a 30-min prior isolation nor high ambient temperature prevented an increase in USV rate over the rate of the original isolation. After 30-min isolation at warm temperatures when the rate of USV had fallen to zero, the pups increased vocalization in the presence of the dam as well as in the subsequent isolation. Temporal and thermal factors also interacted significantly in regulating the level of the USV emitted by the pups during the first isolation, in the presence of the anesthetized dam, and during the second isolation. PMID:12555284

  7. Interactions between protein and vegetable oils in the maternal diet determine the programming of the insulin axis in the rat.

    PubMed

    Maloney, Christopher A; Lilley, Christina; Czopek, Alicja; Hay, Susan M; Rees, William D

    2007-05-01

    The available evidence suggests that metabolic control mechanisms are programmed early in life. Previous studies of pregnant rats fed low-protein diets have suggested that the vegetable oils used in the experimental diets influence the outcome. The present study investigated the offspring of female rats fed semi-synthetic diets containing either 180 or 90g casein/kg with 70 g/kg (w/w) of either corn oil or soya oil during gestation. During lactation, the dams received stock diet, and the offspring were subsequently weaned onto the stock diet. The offspring of dams fed the low-protein diets were smaller at birth. At 25 weeks of age, the offspring were subjected to an oral glucose tolerance test. In the offspring of dams fed the diet containing soya oil, the area under the insulin curve was affected by the protein content of the maternal diet. There was no effect of protein on the area under the insulin curve in the offspring of dams fed the diet prepared with corn oil. There were no differences in plasma glucose concentrations. The levels of mRNA for acetyl-CoA carboxylase- in the livers of female offspring were affected by the protein and oil content of the maternal diet. The level of carnitine palmitoyl transferase mRNA was affected by the protein content of the maternal diet. The present study suggests that PUFA in the maternal diet can interact with protein metabolism to influence the development of the offspring. This may involve the higher content of alpha-linolenic acid in soya oil compared with corn oil. PMID:17408526

  8. Maternal exposure to cadmium during gestation perturbs the vascular system of the adult rat offspring

    SciTech Connect

    Ronco, Ana Maria, E-mail: amronco@inta.cl [Laboratory of Nutrition and Metabolic Regulation, Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology (INTA), University of Chile, Casilla 138-11, Santiago (Chile); Montenegro, Marcela; Castillo, Paula; Urrutia, Manuel [Laboratory of Nutrition and Metabolic Regulation, Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology (INTA), University of Chile, Casilla 138-11, Santiago (Chile); Saez, Daniel [Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Chile, Casilla 138-11, Santiago (Chile); Hirsch, Sandra [Laboratory of Nutrition and Metabolic Regulation, Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology (INTA), University of Chile, Casilla 138-11, Santiago (Chile); Zepeda, Ramiro [Faculty of Medicine, University of Chile, Casilla 138-11, Santiago (Chile); Llanos, Miguel N. [Laboratory of Nutrition and Metabolic Regulation, Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology (INTA), University of Chile, Casilla 138-11, Santiago (Chile)

    2011-03-01

    Several cardiovascular diseases (CVD) observed in adulthood have been associated with environmental influences during fetal growth. Here, we show that maternal exposure to cadmium, a ubiquitously distributed heavy metal and main component of cigarette smoke is able to induce cardiovascular morpho-functional changes in the offspring at adult age. Heart morphology and vascular reactivity were evaluated in the adult offspring of rats exposed to 30 ppm of cadmium during pregnancy. Echocardiographic examination shows altered heart morphology characterized by a concentric left ventricular hypertrophy. Also, we observed a reduced endothelium-dependent reactivity in isolated aortic rings of adult offspring, while endothelium-independent reactivity remained unaltered. These effects were associated with an increase of hem-oxygenase 1 (HO-1) expression in the aortas of adult offspring. The expression of HO-1 was higher in females than males, a finding likely related to the sex-dependent expression of the vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1), which was lower in the adult female. All these long-term consequences were observed along with normal birth weights and absence of detectable levels of cadmium in fetal and adult tissues of the offspring. In placental tissues however, cadmium levels were detected and correlated with increased NF-{kappa}B expression - a transcription factor sensitive to inflammation and oxidative stress - suggesting a placentary mechanism that affect genes related to the development of the cardiovascular system. Our results provide, for the first time, direct experimental evidence supporting that exposure to cadmium during pregnancy reprograms cardiovascular development of the offspring which in turn may conduce to a long term increased risk of CVD.

  9. Measurement of somatomedin-related peptides in fetal, neonatal, and maternal rat serum by insulin-like growth factor (IGF) I radioimmunoassay, IGF-II radioreceptor assay (RRA)

    SciTech Connect

    Daughaday, W.H.; Parker, K.A.; Borowsky, S.; Trivedi, B.; Kapadia, M.

    1982-02-01

    Previous measurements of somatomedins (Sms) and insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) in maternal and fetal serum have yielded contradictory results. We have, therefore, measured maternal, fetal, and neonatal rat serum with two highly specific assays: 1) IGF-I/Sm-C RIA and 2) a highly specific IGF-II/rat placental membrane radioreceptor assay (RRA). In addition, we have made measurements with a less specific multiplication-stimulating activity (MSA)-rat placental membrane RRA. To avoid possible serious artifacts created by Sm-binding proteins, preliminary acid-ethanol extraction of serum was performed. Results are expressed in terms of a reference human serum with an assigned potency of 1 U/ml. We now conclude that radioimmunoassayable IGF-I is present in higher concentrations than previously reported interm fetal rat serum and that radioreceptor assayable IGF-II is selectively elevated in rat fatal and neonatal life and may have unique metabolic and rowth-promoting significance.

  10. Toxic Effects of Maternal Zearalenone Exposure on Intestinal Oxidative Stress, Barrier Function, Immunological and Morphological Changes in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Min; Gao, Rui; Meng, Qingwei; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Bi, Chongpeng; Shan, Anshan

    2014-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of maternal zearalenone (ZEN) exposure on the intestine of pregnant Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats and its offspring. Ninety-six pregnant SD rats were randomly divided into four groups and were fed with diets containing ZEN at concentrations of 0.3 mg/kg, 48.5 mg/kg, 97.6 mg/kg or 146.0 mg/kg from gestation days (GD) 1 to 7. All rats were fed with mycotoxin-free diet until their offspring were weaned at three weeks of age. The small intestinal fragments from pregnant rats at GD8, weaned dams and pups were collected and studied for toxic effects of ZEN on antioxidant status, immune response, expression of junction proteins, and morphology. The results showed that ZEN induced oxidative stress, affected the villous structure and reduced the expression of junction proteins claudin-4, occludin and connexin43 (Cx43) in a dose-dependent manner in pregnant rats. Different effects on the expression of cytokines were also observed both in mRNA and protein levels in these pregnant groups. Ingestion of high levels of ZEN caused irreversible damage in weaned dams, such as oxidative stress, decreased villi hight and low expression of junction proteins and cytokines. Decreased expression of jejunal interleukin-8 (IL-8) and increased expression of gastrointestinal glutathione peroxidase (GPx2) mRNA were detected in weaned offspring, indicating long-term damage caused by maternal ZEN. We also found that the Nrf2 expression both in mRNA and protein levels were up-regulated in the ZEN-treated groups of pregnant dams and the high-dose of ZEN group of weaned dams. The data indicate that modulation of Nrf2-mediated pathway is one of mechanism via which ZEN affects gut wall antioxidant and inflammatory responses. PMID:25180673

  11. Inulin supplementation during gestation mitigates acrylamide-induced maternal and fetal brain oxidative dysfunctions and neurotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Krishna, Gokul; Muralidhara

    2015-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that the developing brain is more susceptible to a variety of chemicals. Recent studies have shown a link between the enteric microbiota and brain function. While supplementation of non-digestible oligosaccharides during pregnancy has been demonstrated to positively influence human health mediated through stimulation of beneficial microbiota, our understanding on their neuromodulatory propensity is limited. In the present study, our primary focus was to examine whether supplementation of inulin (a well known fructan) during gestation can abrogate acrylamide (ACR)-induced oxidative impairments and neurotoxicity in maternal and fetal brain of rats. Initially, in a dose-determinative study, we recapitulated the impact of ACR exposure during gestation days (GD 6-19) on gestational parameters, extent of oxidative impairments in brain (maternal/fetal), cholinergic function and neurotoxicity. Subsequently, pregnant rats orally (gavage) administered with inulin (IN, 2g/kg/day in two equal installments) supplements during gestation days (GD 0-19) were exposed to ACR (200ppm) in drinking water. IN supplements significantly attenuated ACR-induced changes in exploratory activity (reduced open field exploration) measured on GD 14. Further, IN restored the placental weights among ACR exposed dams. Analysis of biochemical markers revealed that IN supplements effectively offset ACR associated oxidative stress not only in the maternal brain, but in the fetal brain as well. Elevated levels of protein carbonyls in maternal brain regions were completely normalized with IN supplements. More importantly, IN supplements significantly augmented the number of Bifidobacteria in the cecum of ACR rats which correlated well with the neurorestorative effect as evidenced by restored dopamine levels in the maternal cortex and fetal brain acetylcholinesterase activity among ACR-exposed dams. Further, IN supplements also conferred significant protection against mitochondrial dysfunction induced by ACR in both milieus. Although the precise mechanism/s by which IN supplements during pregnancy attenuate ACR induced neurotoxic impact merits further investigations, we hypothesize that it may mediate through enhanced enteric microbiota and abrogation of oxidative stress. Further, our study provides an experimental approach to explore the neuroprotective role of prebiotic oligosaccharides during pregnancy in reducing the adverse impact of developmental neurotoxicants. PMID:25801384

  12. Maternal high fat and/or salt consumption induces sex-specific inflammatory and nutrient transport in the rat placenta

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Clare M; Vickers, Mark H; Harrison, Claudia J; Segovia, Stephanie A; Gray, Clint

    2015-01-01

    Maternal high fat and salt consumption are associated with developmental programming of disease in adult offspring. Inadequacies in placental nutrient transport may explain these ‘programmed effects’. Diet-induced inflammation may have detrimental effects on placental function leading to alteration of key nutrient transporters. We examined the effects of maternal high fat and/or salt diets on markers of placental nutrient transport and inflammation. Sprague–Dawley rats were assigned to (1) control (CD; 1% Salt 10% kcal from fat); (2) high salt (SD; 4% salt, 10% kcal from fat); (3) high fat (HF; 1% Salt 45% kcal from fat) or (4) high fat high salt (HFSD; 4% salt, 45% kcal from fat) 21 days prior to and throughout gestation. At embryonic day 18, dams were killed by isoflurane anesthesia followed by decapitation; placenta/fetuses were weighed, sexed, and collected for molecular analysis. Maternal SD, HF, and HFSD consumption decreased weight of placenta derived from male offspring; however, weight of placenta derived from female offspring was only reduced with maternal HF diet. This was associated with increased expression of LPL, SNAT2, GLUT1, and GLUT4 in placenta derived from male offspring suggesting increased fetal exposure to free fatty acids and glucose. Maternal SD, HF, and HFSD diet consumption increased expression of proinflammatory mediators IL-1?, TNF?, and CD68 in male placenta. Our results suggest that a proinflammatory placental profile results in detrimental alterations in nutrient transport which may contribute to the developmental origins of cardio-metabolic disturbances in offspring throughout life. PMID:25991721

  13. Maternal high fat and/or salt consumption induces sex-specific inflammatory and nutrient transport in the rat placenta.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Clare M; Vickers, Mark H; Harrison, Claudia J; Segovia, Stephanie A; Gray, Clint

    2015-05-01

    Maternal high fat and salt consumption are associated with developmental programming of disease in adult offspring. Inadequacies in placental nutrient transport may explain these 'programmed effects'. Diet-induced inflammation may have detrimental effects on placental function leading to alteration of key nutrient transporters. We examined the effects of maternal high fat and/or salt diets on markers of placental nutrient transport and inflammation. Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to (1) control (CD; 1% Salt 10% kcal from fat); (2) high salt (SD; 4% salt, 10% kcal from fat); (3) high fat (HF; 1% Salt 45% kcal from fat) or (4) high fat high salt (HFSD; 4% salt, 45% kcal from fat) 21 days prior to and throughout gestation. At embryonic day 18, dams were killed by isoflurane anesthesia followed by decapitation; placenta/fetuses were weighed, sexed, and collected for molecular analysis. Maternal SD, HF, and HFSD consumption decreased weight of placenta derived from male offspring; however, weight of placenta derived from female offspring was only reduced with maternal HF diet. This was associated with increased expression of LPL, SNAT2, GLUT1, and GLUT4 in placenta derived from male offspring suggesting increased fetal exposure to free fatty acids and glucose. Maternal SD, HF, and HFSD diet consumption increased expression of proinflammatory mediators IL-1?, TNF?, and CD68 in male placenta. Our results suggest that a proinflammatory placental profile results in detrimental alterations in nutrient transport which may contribute to the developmental origins of cardio-metabolic disturbances in offspring throughout life. PMID:25991721

  14. Interactive effects of prenatal cocaine and nicotine exposure on maternal toxicity, postnatal development, and behavior in the rat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sonya K. Sobrian; S. F. Ali; W. Slikker; R. Robert Holson

    1995-01-01

    Two experiments were performed to investigate the interactive effects of prenatal coadministration of cocaine hydrochloride\\u000a (C) and nicotine tartrate (N). Experiment I was designed to determine doses of C and N that could be coadministered without\\u000a altering maternal gestational parameters and\\/or fetal viability. Exposure of Sprague-Dawley rats to combined high-dose C (20\\u000a mg\\/kg) and high-dose N (5.0 mg\\/kg) on gestation

  15. Reduction of primordial follicles caused by maternal treatment with busulfan promotes endometrial adenocarcinoma development in donryu rats.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Midori; Watanabe, Gen; Shirota, Mariko; Maekawa, Akihiko; Taya, Kazuyoshi

    2005-12-01

    Ovarian dysfunction leading to hormonal imbalance plays a crucial role in uterine carcinogenesis in rats as well as women. However, the effects of a reduction in primordial follicles at birth on uterine adenocarcinoma development have hitherto not been determined. The present study was therefore conducted using female Donryu rats, a high incidence rat strain of uterine adenocarcinoma. The animals were maternally exposed to 2.5 or 5.0 mg/kg of busulfan on gestation day 14 to reduce primordial follicles, and were then initiated by intrauterine treatment with N-ethyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine at 11 weeks of age. Both busulfan treatment doses caused earlier occurrence of persistent estrus, with dose-dependence as compared to controls. At 15 months of age, the rats were euthanized. The incidence of uterine adenocarcinomas and multiplicity of uterine neoplastic lesions were significantly increased by the 5.0 mg/kg, but not the 2.5 mg/kg busulfan treatment. Morphologically, the ovaries exposed to busulfan treatment exhibited severe atrophy, with few or no follicles and corpus lutea. Serum 17beta-estradiol (E2), progesterone, and inhibin levels were significantly decreased in the busulfan treatment groups, with a clear dose-relation. Interestingly, only the 5.0 mg/kg busulfan treatment elevated the E2/progesterone ratio. These results provide evidence that the reduction of primordial follicles promotes uterine adenocarcinoma development in rats in association with an earlier occurrence of the persistent estrus status. PMID:16177545

  16. Parental Neuropathic Pain Influences Emotion-Related Behavior in Offspring Through Maternal Feeding Associated with DNA Methylation of Amygdale in Rats.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Tao; Zhang, Yanfeng; Guo, Qulian; Yang, Yong; Yan, Jianqin; Dai, Ruping; Wu, Hui

    2015-06-01

    Chronic neuropathic pain has currently become a remarkable public health concern, considerably damaging not only the physiological but also the psychological aspects of humans. This study investigated whether neuropathic pain affects maternal care and assessed the effect of parental neuropathic pain on the development of neuropathic pain and emotion among offspring. Our results showed that mother rats suffered from chronic constriction injury (CCI) exhibited defective maternal care. The offspring fed by CCI mother rats (own or cross-fed) showed a significant increase in anxiety and anxiety-related behavior compared with that fed by sham-operated mother rats. The offspring fed by CCI mother rats also displayed decreased oxytocin expression in their supraoptic nucleus than that fed by sham-operated mother rats. Moreover, DNA methyltransferase (DNMT)1 expression in the amygdale was increased, whereas DNMT3a and DNMT3b expressions remained the same in offspring fed by CCI mother rats, as detected with immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis. In addition, the total DNA methylation in amygdale was upregulated in offspring fed by CCI mother rats. Considering the above findings, the data of this study suggest that parental neuropathic pain influences emotion-related behavior in offspring through maternal feeding behavior rather than through genetic factors and pregnancy experience that was associated with DNA methylation of amygdale in offspring. PMID:25894685

  17. Effects of environmental stress during pregnancy on maternal and fetal plasma corticosterone and progesterone in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Fleming, D.E.; Rhees, R.W.; Williams, S.R.; Kurth, S.M.

    1986-03-01

    Prenatal stress applied during a presumed critical period (third trimester) for sexual differentiation of the brain has been shown to alter development and influence sexual behavior. This experiment was designed to study the effects of environmental stress (restraint/illumination/heat) on maternal and fetal plasma corticosterone and progesterone titers. These hormones were studied since corticosterone has been shown to alter brain differentiation and progesterone has anti-androgen properties and since the secretion of both from the adrenal cortex is stimulated by ACTH. Plasma corticosterone and progesterone titers of both stressed and control gravid rats and their fetuses were measured on gestational days 18 and 20 by radioimmunoassay. Prenatal stress significantly reduced fetal body weight and fetal adrenal weight. Maternal pituitary weight was significantly increased. Prenatal stress caused a significant elevation in maternal corticosterone and progesterone titers and in fetal corticosterone titers. There was no difference between prenatal stressed and control fetal plasma progesterone levels. These data demonstrate that environmental stress significantly increases adrenal activity beyond that brought about naturally by pregnancy, and therefore may modify sequential hormonal events during fetal development.

  18. Maternal high-fat diet induces obesity and adrenal and thyroid dysfunction in male rat offspring at weaning

    PubMed Central

    Franco, J G; Fernandes, T P; Rocha, C P D; Calviño, C; Pazos-Moura, C C; Lisboa, P C; Moura, E G; Trevenzoli, I H

    2012-01-01

    Maternal nutritional status affects the future development of offspring. Both undernutrition and overnutrition in critical periods of life (gestation or lactation) may cause several hormonal changes in the pups and programme obesity in the adult offspring. We have shown that hyperleptinaemia during lactation results in central leptin resistance, higher adrenal catecholamine secretion, hyperthyroidism, and higher blood pressure and heart rate in the adult rats. Here, we evaluated the effect of a maternal isocaloric high-fat diet on breast milk composition and its impact on leptinaemia, energy metabolism, and adrenal and thyroid function of the offspring at weaning. We hypothesised that the altered source of fat in the maternal diet even under normal calorie intake would disturb the metabolism of the offspring. Female Wistar rats were fed a normal (9% fat; C group) or high-fat diet (29% fat as lard; HF group) for 8 weeks before mating and during pregnancy and lactation. HF mothers presented increased total body fat content after 8 weeks (+27%, P < 0.05) and a similar fat content at the end of lactation. In consequence, the breast milk from the HF group had higher concentration of protein (+18%, P < 0.05), cholesterol (+52%, P < 0.05) and triglycerides (+86%, P < 0.05). At weaning, HF offspring had increased body weight (+53%, P < 0.05) and adiposity (2 fold, P < 0.05), which was associated with lower ?3-adrenoreceptor content in adipose tissue (?40%, P < 0.05). The offspring also presented hyperglycaemia (+30%, P < 0.05) and hyperleptinaemia (+62%, P < 0.05). In the leptin signalling pathway in the hypothalamus, we found lower p-STAT3/STAT3 (?40%, P < 0.05) and SOCS3 (?55%, P < 0.05) content in the arcuate nucleus, suggesting leptin resistance. HF offspring also had higher adrenal catecholamine content (+17%, P < 0.05), liver glycogen content (+50%, P < 0.05) and hyperactivity of the thyroid axis at weaning. Our results suggest that a high fat diet increases maternal body fat and this additional energy is transferred to the offspring during lactation, since at weaning the dams had normal fat and the pups were obese. The higher fat and protein concentrations in the breast milk seemed to induce early overnutrition in the HF offspring. In addition to storing energy as fat, the HF offspring had a larger reserve of glycogen and hyperglycaemia that may have resulted from increased gluconeogenesis. Hyperleptinaemia may stimulate both adrenal medullary and thyroid function, which may contribute to the development of cardiovascular diseases. These early changes induced by the maternal high-fat diet may contribute to development of metabolic syndrome. PMID:22869015

  19. Maternal dexamethasone and GLP-2 have early effects on intestinal sugar transport in their suckling rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Drozdowski, Laurie A; Iordache, Claudiu; Clandinin, M Tom; Todd, Zoe; Gonnet, Maud; Wild, Gary; Uwiera, Richard R E; Thomson, Alan B R

    2009-10-01

    Both glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) and glucocorticosteroids enhance intestinal uptake in mature animals. Maternal stimuli may cause intestinal adaptation in the offspring. We hypothesized that administering GLP-2, dexamethasone (DEX) or a combination of GLP-2+DEX to rat dams during pregnancy and lactation would enhance intestinal sugar uptake in their offspring. Rat dams were treated with GLP-2 (0.1 microg/g/day), DEX (0.128 microg/g/day), a combination of GLP-2+DEX or placebo. Glucose and fructose uptake was assessed in their suckling offspring using an in vitro intestinal ring uptake technique. The protein abundance of SGLT1, GLUT5, GLUT2, Na(+)K(+)-ATPase and selected signals was determined by immunohistochemistry; GLP-2 caused hypertrophy of the jejunal enterocytes and increased ileal villous height. Jejunal fructose uptake was reduced by GLP-2, DEX and GLP-2+DEX. V(max) for jejunal glucose uptake was reduced with DEX and GLP-2+DEX. These declines were not explained by alterations in transporter abundance. Decreases in Akt and mTOR abundance were associated with declines in transporter activity. We speculate that the intrinsic activity of the sugar transporters was modified via the P13K pathway. In conclusion, maternal GLP-2 and DEX reduced intestinal sugar uptake in their offspring. This may have nutritional implications for the offspring of mothers treated with GLP-2 or steroids. PMID:18993047

  20. Structural equation modeling and nested ANOVA: Effects of lead exposure on maternal and fetal growth in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, J.D. (Rohm and Haas Company, Spring House, PA (United States)); O'Flaherty, E.J.; Shukla, R.; Gartside, P.S. (Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States)); Ross, R. (Univ. of Cincinnati Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH (United States))

    1994-01-01

    This study provided an assessment of the effects of lead on early growth in rats based on structural equation modeling and nested analysis of variance (ANOVA). Structural equation modeling showed that lead in drinking water (250, 500, or 1000 ppm) had a direct negative effect on body weight and tail length (i.e., growth) in female rats during the first week of exposure. During the following 2 weeks of exposure, high correlation between growth measurements taken over time resulted in reduced early postnatal growth. By the fourth week of exposure, reduced growth was not evident. Mating began after 8 weeks of exposure, and exposure continued during gestation. Decreased fetal body weight was detected when the effects of litter size, intrauterine position, and sex were controlled in a nested ANOVA. Lead exposure did not appear to affect fetal skeletal development, possibly because lead did not alter maternal serum calcium and phosphorus levels. The effect of lead on individual fetal body weight suggests that additional studies are needed to examine the effect of maternal lead exposure on fetal development and early postnatal growth. 24 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  1. Effect of maternal alcohol and nicotine intake, individually and in combination, on fetal growth in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Leichter, J. (Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada))

    1991-03-15

    The effect of maternal ethanol and nicotine administration, separately and in combination, on fetal growth of rats was studied. Nicotine was administered by gavage for the entire gestational period. Alcohol was given in drinking water for 4 weeks prior to mating and 30% throughout gestation. Appropriate pair-fed and ad libitum control animals were included to separate the effect of ethanol and nicotine on the outcome of pregnancy from those produced by the confounding variables of malnutrition. Body weights of fetuses exposed to alcohol alone or in combination with nicotine were significantly lower than those of the pair-fed and ad libitum controls. However, the difference in fetal body weight between the alcohol plus nicotine and the alcohol alone group was not significant. Similarly, in the rats administered nicotine only, fetal weight was not significantly different compared to control animals. The results of this study indicate that maternal alcohol intake impairs fetal growth and nicotine does not, regardless whether it is administered separately or in combination with alcohol for the entire gestational period.

  2. Maternal nicotinamide supplementation causes global DNA hypomethylation, uracil hypo-incorporation and gene expression changes in fetal rats.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yan-Jie; Luo, Ning; Chen, Na-Na; Lun, Yong-Zhi; Gu, Xin-Yi; Li, Zhi; Ma, Qiang; Zhou, Shi-Sheng

    2014-05-01

    Recent evidence shows that excess nicotinamide can cause epigenetic changes in developing rats. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of maternal nicotinamide supplementation on the fetus. Female rats were randomised into four groups fed a standard chow diet (control group) or diets supplemented with 1 g/kg of nicotinamide (low-dose group), 4 g/kg of nicotinamide (high-dose group) or 4 g/kg of nicotinamide plus 2 g/kg of betaine (betaine group) for 14-16 d before mating and throughout the study. Fetal tissue samples were collected on the 20th day of pregnancy. Compared with the control group, the high-dose group had a higher fetal death rate, and the average fetal body weight was higher in the low-dose group but lower in the high-dose group. Nicotinamide supplementation led to a decrease in placental and fetal hepatic genomic DNA methylation and genomic uracil contents (a factor modifying DNA for diversity) in the placenta and fetal liver and brain, which could be completely or partially prevented by betaine. Moreover, nicotinamide supplementation induced tissue-specific alterations in the mRNA expression of the genes encoding nicotinamide N-methyltransferase, DNA methyltransferase 1, catalase and tumour protein p53 in the placenta and fetal liver. High-dose nicotinamide supplementation increased fetal hepatic ?-fetoprotein mRNA level, which was prevented by betaine supplementation. It is concluded that maternal nicotinamide supplementation can induce changes in fetal epigenetic modification and DNA base composition. The present study raises the concern that maternal nicotinamide supplementation may play a role in the development of epigenetic-related diseases in the offspring. PMID:24507733

  3. Treatment with a monoclonal antibody against methamphetamine and amphetamine reduces maternal and fetal rat brain concentrations in late pregnancy.

    PubMed

    White, Sarah J; Hendrickson, Howard P; Atchley, William T; Laurenzana, Elizabeth M; Gentry, W Brooks; Williams, D Keith; Owens, S Michael

    2014-08-01

    We hypothesized that treatment of pregnant rat dams with a dual reactive monoclonal antibody (mAb4G9) against (+)-methamphetamine [METH; equilibrium dissociation rate constant (KD) = 16 nM] and (+)-amphetamine (AMP; KD = 102 nM) could confer maternal and fetal protection from brain accumulation of both drugs of abuse. To test this hypothesis, pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats (on gestational day 21) received a 1 mg/kg i.v. METH dose, followed 30 minutes later by vehicle or mAb4G9 treatment. The mAb4G9 dose was 0.56 mole-equivalent in binding sites to the METH body burden. Pharmacokinetic analysis showed baseline METH and AMP elimination half-lives were congruent in dams and fetuses, but the METH volume of distribution in dams was nearly double the fetal values. The METH and AMP area under the serum concentration-versus-time curves from 40 minutes to 5 hours after mAb4G9 treatment increased >7000% and 2000%, respectively, in dams. Fetal METH serum did not change, but AMP decreased 23%. The increased METH and AMP concentrations in maternal serum resulted from significant increases in mAb4G9 binding. Protein binding changed from ?15% to > 90% for METH and AMP. Fetal serum protein binding appeared to gradually increase, but the absolute fraction bound was trivial compared with the dams. mAb4G9 treatment significantly reduced METH and AMP brain values by 66% and 45% in dams and 44% and 46% in fetuses (P < 0.05), respectively. These results show anti-METH/AMP mAb4G9 therapy in dams can offer maternal and fetal brain protection from the potentially harmful effects of METH and AMP. PMID:24839971

  4. Induction of maternal toxicity in the rat by dermal application of retinoic acid and its effect on fetal outcome.

    PubMed

    Seegmiller, R E; Carter, M W; Ford, W H; White, R D

    1990-01-01

    Time-mated Sprague-Dawley rats were administered all-trans-retinoic acid (RA) dermally on gestational days 11 through 14 at three dosage levels (25, 100, and 250 mg/kg body weight). Dams administered ethylenethiourea (ETU) dermally on gestational days 11 to 12 or RA orally on day 12 were used to indicate the strain's sensitivity to teratogenesis. The chemicals were dissolved in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) for dermal application or suspended in corn oil for treatment by gavage. The maternal weight gain, pup weight, number of resorptions and number of fetuses with gross malformations, and skeletal/organ-level anomalies were determined. Beginning with day 15, dams dermally treated with RA exhibited dermal lesions at the site of application, most dams showed vaginal bleeding by day 16, and approximately 20% did not survive to day 19. Relative to the DMSO control group, maternal weight gain in the dermal RA groups was decreased by approximately 50% at the lowest dose, with essentially no weight gain at the intermediate- and high-dose levels. The decrease in average fetal weight at the two higher doses was significant, whereas the resorption and malformation frequencies were not significantly increased by dermal treatment with RA. Without significantly affecting fetal weight or resorption frequency, dermal application of ETU significantly increased the frequency of skeletal anomalies, primarily tail defects. Oral administration of RA did not increase the malformation frequency nor produce significant maternal or fetotoxic effects. In summary, treatment of pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats by dermal application of RA dissolved in DMSO resulted in significant toxicity to the dam.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2136048

  5. Intrauterine Growth Restricted Rats Exercised at Pregnancy: Maternal-Fetal Repercussions.

    PubMed

    Corvino, S B; Netto, A O; Sinzato, Y K; Campos, K E; Calderon, I M P; Rudge, M V C; Volpato, G T; Zambrano, E; Damasceno, D C

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the effect of swimming in pregnant rats born with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and their offspring, IUGR rats were obtained using the streptozotocin-induced severe diabetic (SD) rats. In this study, the nondiabetic parental generation presented 10 rats and diabetic parental generation presented 116 rats. Of these, the mated nondiabetic female rats were 10 and the number of diabetic rats was 45. In relation to term pregnancy, there were 10 animals in the nondiabetic group and 15 rats in the diabetic group. In the offspring of SD rats (IUGR group), 43 females were classified as small for pregnancy age, 19 rats were classified as appropriate for pregnancy age, and 0 female was classified as large for pregnancy age. The nondiabetic and SD pregnant rats generated offspring with appropriate (control [C]) and small (IUGR) weight for pregnancy age, respectively. At adult life, the C group was maintained as nonexercised C group and IUGR rats were distributed into 2 subgroups, namely, nonexercised (IUGR) and exercised (IUGRex). The rate of mated rats in the IUGR group was reduced compared to the C group. During pregnancy, the IUGR rats presented hyperinsulinemia, impaired reproductive outcomes, decreased body weight, hypertriglyceridemia, and hyperlactacidemia. The IUGRex presented reduced insulin and triglyceride levels. Thus, swimming improved lipid metabolism and increased insulin sensitivity. However, the offspring showed retarded growth, reinforcing the need to stimulate the exercise practice in women under supervision with different professional expertise to promote appropriate gestational conditions and improve perinatal outcomes. PMID:25761405

  6. Effects of Maternal Deprivation on the ACTH Stress Response in the Infant Rat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deborah Suchecki; Dariush Mozaffarian; Graziella Gross; Patricia Rosenfeld; Seymour Levine

    1993-01-01

    Prolonged maternal deprivation during early ontogeny results in increased basal and stress-induced corticosterone levels. In the following experiments we examined whether these increases were due, at least in part, to augmented ACTH secretion. Thus, ACTH levels were measured in 24-hour maternally deprived and nondeprived 6-, 9-, and 12-day-old pups exposed to a mild stressor (i.e. saline injection followed by placement

  7. Effects of prolactin deficiency during the early postnatal period on the development of maternal behavior in female rats: Mother's milk makes the difference

    E-print Network

    Sokolowski, Marla

    Bromocriptine Rat Emotionality Development Early life During early life, prolactin (PRL) ingested by the pups­5 with bromocriptine (125 g/day), bromocriptine+ovine PRL (125 g+300 g/day), or vehicle. As juveniles (at PND 24, but not juvenile, female offspring of bromocriptine-treated mothers showed an increased latency to become maternal

  8. Maternal Undernutrition during Late Gestation Induces Fetal Overexposure to Glucocorticoids and Intrauterine Growth Retardation, and Disturbs the Hypothalamo-Pituitary Adrenal Axis in the Newborn Rat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Lesage; B. BLONDEAU; M. GRINO; B. BREANT; J. P. DUPOUY

    2001-01-01

    As fetal overexposure to glucocorticoids has been postulated to induce intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) in humans, we in- vestigated the effects of maternal 50% food restriction (FR50) in rats during the last week of gestation on the hypothalamo-pituitary ad- renal (HPA) axis activity in both mothers and their fetuses. In moth- ers, FR50 increased both the plasma corticosterone (B) level

  9. Intrauterine protein restriction combined with early postnatal overfeeding was not associated with adult-onset obesity but produced glucose intolerance by pancreatic dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Coutinho, Grazielle Vitória Ponti; Coutinho, Felipe Rodrigues; Faiad, Jaline Zandonato; Taki, Marina Satie; de Lima Reis, Silvia Regina; Ignácio-Souza, Letícia Martins; Paiva, Adriene Alexandra; Latorraca, Márcia Queiroz; Gomes-da-Silva, Maria Helena Gaíva; Martins, Maria Salete Ferreira

    2013-01-01

    We investigated if whether intrauterine protein restriction in combination with overfeeding during lactation would cause adult-onset obesity and metabolic disorders. After birth, litters from dams fed with control (17% protein) and low protein (6% protein) diets were adjusted to a size of four (CO and LO groups, respectively) or eight (CC and LC groups, respectively) pups. All of the offspring were fed a diet containing 12% protein from the time of weaning until they were 90 d old. Compared to the CC and LC groups, the CO and LO groups had higher relative and absolute food intakes, oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production; lower brown adipose tissue weight and lipid content and greater weight gain and absolute and relative white adipose tissue weight and absolute lipid content. Compared with the CO and CC rats, the LC and LO rats exhibited higher relative food intake, brown adipose tissue weight and lipid content, reduced oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production and spontaneous activity, increased relative retroperitoneal adipose tissue weight and unaltered absolute white adipose tissue weight and lipid content. The fasting serum glucose was similar among the groups. The area under the glucose curve was higher in the LO and CO rats than in the LC and CC rats. The basal insulinemia and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were lower in the LO group than in the other groups. The total area under the insulin curve for the LO rats was similar to the CC rats, and both were lower than the CO and LC rats. Kitt was higher in the LO, LC and CO groups than in the CC group. Thus, intrauterine protein restriction followed by overfeeding during lactation did not induce obesity, but produced glucose intolerance by impairing pancreatic function in adulthood. PMID:23305533

  10. The changes in bone organic and inorganic matrix in newborn rats after maternal application of antiretroviral agents: Indinavir and zidovudine.

    PubMed

    Maciejewska, Karina; Drzazga, Zofia; Kaszuba, Michal

    2015-05-01

    This work presents results concerning influence of indinavir (protease inhibitor, PI(1) ) and zidovudine (nucleoside and nucleotide inhibitor of reverse transcriptase, NRTI) administered to pregnant Wistar rat females on organic and mineral constituents of bones and teeth (mandibles, skulls, tibiae, femurs, and incisors) of their offspring at the age of: 7, 14, and 28 days studied by means of induced laser and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy supported by digital radiography. Influence of indinavir administered to pregnant female rats on bone of their offspring revealed mainly in changes of mineral concentration: lowered Ca concentration and disturbances of trace elements. Zidovudine influenced organic matter more than inorganic matrix which was seen in enhancement of LIF fluorescence. However, there was also an unexpected increase of bone density for rats from zidovudine group, unlike indinavir group, observed. Our studies suggest that studied antiretroviral agents given to pregnant women, may have different destructive impact on bone state of their offspring in the first period of life. Maternal administration of zidovudine may delay development of organic matrix, while indinavir may have adverse effects on inorganic structure. © 2015 BioFactors, 41(3):198-208, 2015. PMID:26040542

  11. Amniotic fluid amino acid concentrations are modified by maternal dietary glucose, gestational age, and fetal growth in rats.

    PubMed

    Gurekian, Christine N; Koski, Kristine G

    2005-09-01

    Amniotic fluid (AF) contains free amino acids that enter via transplacental and transmembranous routes from maternal sources; subsequently, the developing fetus "ingests" these amino acids early in gestation through unkeratinized skin and later through continuous AF swallowing. Our objectives were as follows: 1) to determine whether a restriction of maternal dietary glucose modulates the free AF amino acid pool, and 2) to establish whether any diet-induced changes were predictive of fetal weight near term (d 21.5). To produce varying in utero growth rates, pregnant rat dams were fed varying levels of glucose (0, 12, 24, 60%) throughout pregnancy. AF samples, collected on gestational days 18-21, were precolumn derivatized by 9-fluorenylmethyloxychloroformate to produce stable primary and secondary amino acid derivatives required for HPLC detection at low amino acid concentrations. Eighteen amino acids were identified. A 2-way ANOVA with main effects of diet (< or =12% and > or =24% glucose) and gestational age (d 18/19 and 20/21) showed that 2 AF amino acids, methionine and phenylalanine, and 12 AF amino acids were independently modified by diet and gestational age, respectively. Of note were the 364% increase in AF methionine and the constant decline in AF taurine as both gestational age lengthened and fetal weight increased. Multiple regression demonstrated that in addition to methionine, 3 specific AF amino acids, cysteine, lysine, and tyrosine, predicted fetal weight. These results demonstrate that the AF amino acid pool can be modified by the glucose content of the maternal diet and that specific AF amino acids are associated with gestational age and fetal growth. PMID:16140901

  12. Gestational Ethanol and Nicotine Exposure: Effects on Maternal Behavior, Oxytocin, and Offspring Ethanol Intake in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    McMurray, M.S.; Williams, S.K.; Jarrett, T.M.; Cox, E.T.; Fay, E.E.; Overstreet, D.H.; Walker, C.H.; Johns, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol consumption and smoking during pregnancy is common, despite the known adverse effects of these drugs on fetal development. Though studies on the effects of each drug separately are published, little is known about the effect of concurrent use of alcohol and nicotine in humans or in preclinical models. In this report, we examined the impact of continuous gestational exposure to both ethanol via liquid diet and nicotine via an osmotic minipump on maternal behavior, offspring ethanol intake, and oxytocin levels in a rat model. Dams were tested for the onset of maternal behavior with litters of unexposed surrogate pups and then killed to examine oxytocin levels within specific brain regions. Drug-exposed offspring reared by surrogate dams were tested for ethanol intake at either adolescence or adulthood, and oxytocin levels were measured in relevant brain regions after behavioral tests. Dams exhibited minor deficits in maternal care, which were associated with lower oxytocin levels in both the ventral tegmental and medial preoptic areas compared to control dams. Prenatal exposure altered sex-specific ethanol intake, with differential effects at adolescence and adulthood. Oxytocin system changes were also apparent in the ventral tegmental and medial preoptic regions of drug-exposed adolescent and adult offspring. These results suggest that dam treatment with ethanol and nicotine can somewhat negatively affect the early rearing environment, and that prenatal exposure to both of these drugs results in drinking behavior differing from what would be expected from either drug alone. Oxytocin’s possible involvement in the mediation of these effects is highlighted. PMID:18664381

  13. A Maternal “Junk Food” Diet in Pregnancy and Lactation Promotes Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Rat Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Bayol, Stéphanie A.; Simbi, Bigboy H.; Fowkes, Robert C.; Stickland, Neil C.

    2010-01-01

    With rising obesity rates, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is predicted to become the main cause of chronic liver disease in the next decades. Rising obesity prevalence is attributed to changes in dietary habits with increased consumption of palatable junk foods, but maternal malnutrition also contributes to obesity in progeny. This study examines whether a maternal junk food diet predisposes offspring to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. The 144 rat offspring were fed either a balanced chow diet alone or with palatable junk foods rich in energy, fat, sugar, and/or salt during gestation, lactation, and/or after weaning up to the end of adolescence. Offspring fed junk food throughout the study exhibited exacerbated hepatic steatosis, hepatocyte ballooning, and oxidative stress response compared with offspring given free access to junk food after weaning only. These offspring also displayed sex differences in their hepatic molecular metabolic adaptation to diet-induced obesity with increased expression of genes associated with insulin sensitivity, de novo lipogenesis, lipid oxidation, and antiinflammatory properties in males, whereas the gene expression profile in females was indicative of hepatic insulin resistance. Hepatic inflammation and fibrosis were not detected indicating that offspring had not developed severe steatohepatitis by the end of adolescence. Hepatic steatosis and increased oxidative stress response also occurred in offspring born to junk food-fed mothers switched to a balanced chow diet from weaning, highlighting a degree of irreversibility. This study shows that a maternal junk food diet in pregnancy and lactation contributes to the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in offspring. PMID:20207831

  14. Maternal and early life arsenite exposure impairs neurodevelopment and increases the expression of PSA-NCAM in hippocampus of rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jiaohua; Qiu, Zhiqun; Chen, Ji'an; Zhang, Liang; Liu, Wenyi; Tan, Yao; Shu, Weiqun

    2013-09-15

    Although epidemiological investigations indicate that chronic arsenic exposure can induce developmental neurotoxicity in children, the molecular mechanisms are still poorly understood. Neural cell adhesion molecules (NCAMs) play critical roles during the development of nervous system. Polysialylation of NCAM (PSA-NCAM) is a critical functional feature of NCAM-mediated cell interactions and functions. The present study aimed at investigating the effects of maternal and early life arsenite exposure on NCAM and PSA-NCAM in rat offspring. To this end, mother rats were divided into three groups and exposed to 0, 2.72 and 13.6mg/L sodium arsenite, respectively, during gestation and lactation. After weaning, rat offspring drank the same solution as their mothers. Neural reflex parameters, arsenic level of hippocampus, ultra-structural changes of hippocampus, the expression of NCAM, PSA-NCAM and two polysialyltransferases (STX and PST) in rat offspring were assessed. Arsenite exposure significantly prolonged the time of completing reflex response of surface righting, negative geotaxis and cliff avoidance of rat offspring in 13.6mg/L As-exposed group. Neurons and capillaries presented pathological changes and the expression of NCAM, PSA-NCAM, STX and PST were up-regulated in hippocampus of rat offspring exposed to arsenite. These results indicated that maternal arsenite exposure increases the expression of PSA-NCAM, NCAM and polysialyltransferases in hippocampus of rat offspring on postnatal day (PND) 21 and PND120, which might contribute to the impaired neurodevelopment following arsenite exposure. PMID:23811142

  15. Maternal-to-Infant Transmission of Probiotics: Concept Validation in Mice, Rats, and Pigs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Randal K. Buddington; Carol H. Williams; Beverly M. Kostek; Karyl K. Buddington; Martin J. Kullen

    2010-01-01

    Background: Postnatal introduction of probiotics results in a low incidence of colonization, whereas maternal fecal and vaginal bacteria colonize the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of vaginally delivered infants. Objective: We tested if probiotic bacteria, fed to three pregnant animal models, would colonize the GIT of offspring delivered vaginally. Methods: Probiotic strains of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium lactis were fed to pregnant

  16. FETAL ANEMIA FOLLOWING MATERNAL EXPOSURE TO 5-FLUOROURACIL IN THE RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study examined dose-dependent changes in fetal hematology after maternal 5-FU exposure (0, 20, 30, 40 mg/kg on GD14) to assess 1) hematopoiesis as a potential target for its developmental toxicity, and 2) the significance of the resultant fetal anemia to developmental outcom...

  17. Maternal programming of steroid receptor expression and phenotype through DNA methylation in the rat

    E-print Network

    Champagne, Frances A.

    Review Maternal programming of steroid receptor expression and phenotype through DNA methylation, Montreal, Canada b Douglas Hospital Research Centre, 6875 boul. LaSalle, Montreal, Que., Canada H4H 1R3 c Department of Pharmacology, McGill University, Montreal, Canada Available online 21 November 2005 Abstract

  18. Intergenerational and parent of origin effects of maternal calorie restriction on Igf2 expression in the adult rat hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Harper, Kathryn M.; Tunc-Ozcan, Elif; Graf, Evan N.; Herzing, Laura B.K.; Redei, Eva E.

    2014-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor 2 (Igf2) regulates development, memory and adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus. Calorie restriction (CR) is known to modulate non-neuronal Igf2 expression intergenerationally, but its effect has not been evaluated on brain Igf2. Here, Sprague-Dawley (S) dams underwent moderate CR between gestational days 8–21. To identify parent of origin expression pattern of the imprinted Igf2 gene, their offspring (SS F1) were mated with naïve male or female Brown Norway (B) rats to obtain the second generation (BS and SB F2) progeny. CR did not affect adult hippocampal Igf2 transcript levels in SS F1 males or their BS F2 progeny, but increased it in SS F1 females and their SB F2 offspring. The preferentially maternal Igf2 expression in the SB F2 control male hippocampus relaxed to biallelic with CR, with no effect of grandmaternal diet in any other groups. Thus, allele-specific and total expression of hippocampal Igf2 is affected by maternal, grandmaternal CR in a strain and sex-specific manner. PMID:24845189

  19. Effects of endurance exercise on expressions of glial fibrillary acidic protein and myelin basic protein in developing rats with maternal infection-induced cerebral palsy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kijeong; Shin, Mal-Soon; Cho, Han-Sam; Kim, Young-Pyo

    2014-01-01

    Periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) is a common white matter lesion affecting the neonatal brain. PVL is closely associated with cerebral palsy (CP) and characterized by increase in the number of astrocytes, which can be detected by positivity for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). Change in myelin basic protein (MBP) is an early sign of white matter abnormality. Maternal or placental infection can damage the neonatal brain. In the present study, we investigated the effects of treadmill walking exercise on GFAP and MBP expressions in rats with maternal lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced PVL. Immunohistochemistry was performed for the detection of GFAP and MBP. The present results showed that intracervical maternal LPS injection during pregnancy increased GFAP expression in the striatum and decreased MBP expression in the corpus callosum of rats. The results also showed that treadmill walking exercise suppressed GFAP expression and enhanced MBP expression in the brains of rats with maternal LPS-induced PVL. The present study revealed that treadmill walking exercise is effective for the suppressing astrogliosis and hypomyelination associated with PVL. Here in this study, we showed that treadmill walking exercise may be effective therapeutic strategy for alleviating the detrimental effects of CP. PMID:24678499

  20. Experimentally-induced maternal hypothyroidism alters crucial enzyme activities in the frontal cortex and hippocampus of the offspring rat.

    PubMed

    Koromilas, Christos; Tsakiris, Stylianos; Kalafatakis, Konstantinos; Zarros, Apostolos; Stolakis, Vasileios; Kimpizi, Despoina; Bimpis, Alexios; Tsagianni, Anastasia; Liapi, Charis

    2015-02-01

    Thyroid hormone insufficiency during neurodevelopment can result into significant structural and functional changes within the developing central nervous system (CNS), and is associated with the establishment of serious cognitive impairment and neuropsychiatric symptomatology. The aim of the present study was to shed more light on the effects of gestational and/or lactational maternal exposure to propylthiouracil (PTU)-induced hypothyroidism as a multilevel experimental approach to the study of hypothyroidism-induced changes on crucial brain enzyme activities of 21-day-old Wistar rat offspring in a brain region-specific manner. This experimental approach has been recently developed and characterized by the authors based on neurochemical analyses performed on newborn and 21-day-old rat offspring whole brain homogenates; as a continuum to this effort, the current study focused on two CNS regions of major significance for cognitive development: the frontal cortex and the hippocampus. Maternal exposure to PTU in the drinking water during gestation and/or lactation resulted into changes in the activities of acetylcholinesterase and two important adenosinetriphosphatases (Na(+),K(+)- and Mg(2+)-ATPase), that seemed to take place in a CNS-region-specific manner and that were dependent upon the PTU-exposure timeframe followed. As these findings are analyzed and compared to the available literature, they: (i) highlight the variability involved in the changes of the aforementioned enzymatic parameters in the studied CNS regions (attributed to both the different neuroanatomical composition and the thyroid-hormone-dependent neurodevelopmental growth/differentiation patterns of the latter), (ii) reveal important information with regards to the neurochemical mechanisms that could be involved in the way clinical hypothyroidism could affect optimal neurodevelopment and, ultimately, cognitive function, as well as (iii) underline the need for the adoption of more consistent approaches towards the experimental simulation of congenital and early-age-occurring hypothyroidism. PMID:24972880

  1. SENSITIVITY OF FETAL RAT TESTICULAR STEROIDOGENESIS TO MATERNAL PROCHLORAZ EXPOSURE AND THE UNDERLYING MECHANISM OF INHIBITION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Since prochloraz (PCZ) is an imidazole fungicide that inhibits gonadal steroidogenesis and antagonizes the androgen receptor (AR), we hypothesized that pubertal exposure to PCZ would delay male rat reproductive development. Sprague Dawley rats were dosed by gavage with 0, 31.3, ...

  2. Effect of maternal intake of organically or conventionally produced feed on oral tolerance development in offspring rats.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Maja Melballe; Halekoh, Ulrich; Stokes, Christopher R; Lauridsen, Charlotte

    2013-05-22

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of maternal consumption of organically or conventionally produced feed on immunological biomarkers and their offsprings' response to a novel dietary antigen. First-generation rats were fed plant-based diets from two different cultivation systems (organic or conventional) or a chow. Second-generation rats were exposed to ovalbumin (OVA) via their mother's milk and subsequently challenged with OVA after weaning onto the chow diet. In the chow diet group feeding the dams OVA resulted in suppression of the pups' anti-OVA antibody response to the OVA challenge (total OVA-specific IgG was 197 for the OVA-treated chow diet group and 823 for the control chow diet group (arbitrary ELISA units)). In contrast, OVA exposure of the dams from the plant-based dietary groups did not result in a similar suppression. Cultivation system had no effect on the immunological biomarkers, except for a higher spleen prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) concentration in pups originating from dams fed the conventional plant-based diet (223 ng/L) than from those fed the organic plant-based diet (189 ng/L). PMID:23581797

  3. Phenotypic dysregulation of microglial activation in young offspring rats with maternal sleep deprivation-induced cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qiuying; Xie, Xiaofang; Fan, Yonghua; Zhang, Jinqiang; Jiang, Wei; Wu, Xiaohui; Yan, Shuo; Chen, Yubo; Peng, Cheng; You, Zili

    2015-01-01

    Despite the potential adverse effects of maternal sleep deprivation (MSD) on physiological and behavioral aspects of offspring, the mechanisms remain poorly understood. The present study was intended to investigate the roles of microglia on neurodevelopment and cognition in young offspring rats with prenatal sleep deprivation. Pregnant Wistar rats received 72?h sleep deprivation in the last trimester of gestation, and their prepuberty male offspring were given the intraperitoneal injection with or without minocycline. The results showed the number of Iba1(+) microglia increased, that of hippocampal neurogenesis decreased, and the hippocampus-dependent spatial learning and memory were impaired in MSD offspring. The classical microglial activation markers (M1 phenotype) IL-1?, IL-6, TNF-?, CD68 and iNOS were increased, while the alternative microglial activation markers (M2 phenotype) Arg1, Ym1, IL-4, IL-10 and CD206 were reduced in hippocampus of MSD offspring. After minocycline administration, the MSD offspring showed improvement in MWM behaviors and increase in BrdU(+)/DCX(+) cells. Minocycline reduced Iba1(+) cells, suppressed the production of pro-inflammatory molecules, and reversed the reduction of M2 microglial markers in the MSD prepuberty offspring. These results indicate that dysregulation in microglial pro- and anti-inflammatory activation is involved in MSD-induced inhibition of neurogenesis and impairment of spatial learning and memory. PMID:25830666

  4. The effects of early rearing environment on the hormonal induction of maternal behavior in virgin rats

    E-print Network

    Sokolowski, Marla

    , Mississauga, Ontario, Canada L5L1C6 Received 16 March 2005; accepted 19 April 2005 Available online 27 June parturition. In the rat, the ovarian steroid progesterone (P) is high during most of gestation

  5. Maternal obesity disturbs the postnatal development of gonocytes in the rat without impairment of testis structure at prepubertal age.

    PubMed

    Christante, Caroline Maria; Taboga, Sebastião Roberto; Pinto-Fochi, Maria Etelvina; Góes, Rejane Maira

    2013-12-01

    In this study, we evaluated whether maternal obesity (MO) affects testis development and gonocyte differentiation in the rat from 0.5 to 14.5 postnatal days. Male Wistar rats were used at 0.5, 4.5, 7.5, and 14.5 days post partum (dpp). These rats were born from obese mothers, previously fed with a high-fat diet (20% saturated fat), for 15 weeks, or normal mothers that had received a balanced murine diet (4% lipids). MO did not affect testis weight or histology at birth but changed the migratory behavior of gonocytes. The density of relocated cells was higher in MO pups at 0.5 dpp, decreased at 4.5 dpp, and differed from those of control pups, where density increased exponentially from 0.5 to 7.5 dpp. The numerical density of gonocytes within seminiferous cords did not vary in MO, in relation to control neonates, for any age considered, but the testis weight was 50% lower at 4.5 dpp. A wide variation in plasmatic testosterone and estrogen levels was observed among the groups during the first week of age and MO pups exhibited higher steroid concentrations at 4.5 dpp, in comparison with controls. At this age, higher estrogen levels of MO pups impaired the gonocyte proliferation. At 7.5 dpp, the testicular size and other parameters of gonocyte development are retrieved. In conclusion, MO and saturated lipid diets disturb gonocyte development and sexual steroid levels during the first days of life, with recovery at prepubertal age. PMID:24043845

  6. Melatonin prevents oxidative damage induced by maternal ethanol administration and reduces homocysteine in the cerebellum of rat pups.

    PubMed

    Bagheri, Farzaneh; Goudarzi, Iran; Lashkarbolouki, Taghi; Elahdadi Salmani, Mahmoud

    2015-07-01

    Chronic alcoholism leads to elevated plasma and brain homocysteine (Hcy) levels, as demonstrated by animal experiments. This study was designed to evaluate the alterations in offspring rat cerebellum following increase of plasma Hcy level induced by maternal exposure to ethanol and to investigate the possible protective role of melatonin administration upon cerebellar ethanol-induced neurotoxicity. The adult female rats were divided randomly into 4 groups, including one control and three experimental groups, after vaginal plagues. Group I received normal saline, group II received ethanol (4g/kg), group III received ethanol+melatonin (10mg/kg) and group IV received melatonin on day 6 of gestation until weaning. 21 days after birth, plasma Hcy level, level of lipid peroxidation, the activities of several antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and levels of bcl-2 and bax mRNA expression in cerebellum were determined. Our results demonstrated that ethanol could induce lipid peroxidation, and decrease antioxidants activities and increase plasma total Hcy level. We also observed that ethanol impaired performance on the rotarod and locomotor activities of rats. However, treatment with melatonin significantly attenuated motoric impairment, the lipid peroxidation process and restored the levels of antioxidant activities and significantly reduced plasma total Hcy levels. Moreover, melatonin reduced bax/bcl-2 ratio in the presence of ethanol. We conclude that these results provide evidence that ethanol neurotoxicity in part is related to increase of plasma Hcy levels and melatonin with reducing of plasma Hcy level has neuroprotective effects against ethanol toxicity in cerebellum. PMID:25797213

  7. In utero exposure to prepregnancy maternal obesity and postweaning high-fat diet impair regulators of mitochondrial dynamics in rat placenta and offspring.

    PubMed

    Borengasser, Sarah J; Faske, Jennifer; Kang, Ping; Blackburn, Michael L; Badger, Thomas M; Shankar, Kartik

    2014-12-01

    The proportion of pregnant women who are obese at conception continues to rise. Compelling evidence suggests the intrauterine environment is an important determinant of offspring health. Maternal obesity and unhealthy diets are shown to promote metabolic programming in the offspring. Mitochondria are maternally inherited, and we have previously shown impaired mitochondrial function in rat offspring exposed to maternal obesity in utero. Mitochondrial health is maintained by mitochondrial dynamics, or the processes of fusion and fission, which serve to repair damaged mitochondria, remove irreparable mitochondria, and maintain mitochondrial morphology. An imbalance between fusion and fission has been associated with obesity, insulin resistance, and reproduction complications. In the present study, we examined the influence of maternal obesity and postweaning high-fat diet (HFD) on key regulators of mitochondrial fusion and fission in rat offspring at important developmental milestones which included postnatal day (PND)35 (2 wk HFD) and PND130 (?16 wk HFD). Our results indicate HFD-fed offspring had reduced mRNA expression of presenilin-associated rhomboid-like (PARL), optic atrophy (OPA)1, mitofusin (Mfn)1, Mfn2, fission (Fis)1, and nuclear respiratory factor (Nrf)1 at PND35, while OPA1 and Mfn2 remained decreased at PND130. Putative transcriptional regulators of mitochondrial dynamics were reduced in rat placenta and offspring liver and skeletal muscle [peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator (PGC1)?, PGC1?, and estrogen-related receptor (ERR)?], consistent with indirect calorimetry findings revealing reduced energy expenditure and impaired fat utilization. Overall, maternal obesity detrimentally alters mitochondrial targets that may contribute to impaired mitochondrial health and increased obesity susceptibility in later life. PMID:25336449

  8. Highly Palatable Food during Adolescence Improves Anxiety-Like Behaviors and Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Dysfunction in Rats that Experienced Neonatal Maternal Separation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jong-Ho; Kim, Jin Young

    2014-01-01

    Background This study was conducted to examine the effects of ad libitum consumption of highly palatable food (HPF) during adolescence on the adverse behavioral outcome of neonatal maternal separation. Methods Male Sprague-Dawley pups were separated from dam for 3 hours daily during the first 2 weeks of birth (maternal separation, MS) or left undisturbed (nonhandled, NH). Half of MS pups received free access to chocolate cookies in addition to ad libitum chow from postnatal day 28 (MS+HPF). Pups were subjected to behavioral tests during young adulthood. The plasma corticosterone response to stress challenge was analyzed by radioimmunoassay. Results Daily caloric intake and body weight gain did not differ among the experimental groups. Ambulatory activities were decreased defecation activity and rostral grooming were increased in MS controls (fed with chow only) compared with NH rats. MS controls spent less time in open arms, and more time in closed arms during the elevated plus maze test, than NH rats. Immobility duration during the forced swim test was increased in MS controls compared with NH rats. Cookie access normalized the behavioral scores of ambulatory and defecation activities and grooming, but not the scores during the elevated plus maze and swim tests in MS rats. Stress-induced corticosterone increase was blunted in MS rats fed with chow only, and cookie access normalized it. Conclusion Prolonged access to HPF during adolescence and youth partly improves anxiety-related, but not depressive, symptoms in rats that experienced neonatal maternal separation, possibly in relation with improved function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. PMID:25031890

  9. Long-term effects of the maternal deprivation on the volume and number of neurons in the rat neocortex and hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Aksi?, Milan; Radonji?, Nevena V; Aleksi?, Dubravka; Jevti?, Gordana; Markovi?, Branka; Petronijevi?, Nataša; Radonji?, Vidosava; Filipovi?, Branislav

    2013-01-01

    Maternal deprivation (MD) leads to a variety of behavioral changes in rats which closely resemble the symptoms of schizophrenia in humans. With the aim to investigate the morphological changes which underlie the behavioral insults in this experimental paradigm we exposed 9-day-old Wistar rats to a 24 h MD. At the period of young adulthood rats were sacrificed for morphometric analysis and their brains were compared to the control group. Rats exposed to MD had a decrease in hippocampal volume (71 percent of the control value) as well as a decrease in the size of pyramidal (62 percent of the control) and granular (60 percent of the control) cell layers. Also, there was a decrease in the thickness of the prefrontal, retrosplenial and motor cortex compared to the control group. Analysis of the density of NeuN-immunolabeled neurons revealed a reduction in retrosplenial and prefrontal cortex (70 percent and 81 percent of the control, respectively), while there was no difference in the motor cortex. Western blot analysis confirmed a decrease in NeuN expression in the MD group compared to the control rat brain homogenates. The results of this study show that early stress in life has a long-term effect on the morphology of cognitive brain regions, most probably due to the loss of neurons during postnatal development and further contributes to our understanding of the effects of maternal separation on brain development. PMID:24129488

  10. Developmental timing of the effects of maternal care on gene expression and epigenetic regulation of hormone receptor levels in female rats.

    PubMed

    Peña, Catherine Jensen; Neugut, Y Dana; Champagne, Frances A

    2013-11-01

    Maternal care experienced during postnatal development has enduring effects on neuroendocrine function and behavior. Previous studies in rats have illustrated the effect of maternal licking/grooming (LG) on hormone receptors and maternal behavior of adult female offspring associated with altered DNA methylation. However, the developmental timing of these effects, which provide insight into the cellular and molecular pathways through which early experience alters later behavior, had not been explored. Here, we demonstrate the developmental emergence of these outcomes and use cross-fostering to identify sensitive periods for these effects. Estrogen receptor (ER)? and ER? mRNA levels within the medial preoptic area (MPOA) of the hypothalamus were increased by postnatal day (PN)21 in female offspring of high LG dams; LG-associated increases in oxytocin receptor mRNA levels were observed beyond the weaning period. Quantification of ER?-immunoreactivity indicated a high degree of neuroanatomical specificity of LG effects within the MPOA that were observed by PN6. Reduced DNA methylation and histone 3 lysine 9 tri-methylation and increased histone 3 lysine 4 tri-methylation at the ER? gene promoter (Esr1) were detected at PN21 in high LG female offspring. Latency to engage in maternal behavior toward donor pups was significantly shorter among high LG females. Cross-fostering revealed that maternal sensitization and MPOA ER? levels are sensitive to maternal care experienced before but not after PN10. Differential windows of plasticity were identified for ER? and oxytocin receptor mRNA levels. These studies contribute significantly to our understanding of the molecular, neurobiological, and behavioral pathways through which variation in maternal behavior is transmitted from one generation to the next. PMID:24002038

  11. EFFECTS ON THE FETUS OF MATERNAL NITROFEN EXPOSURE IN THE PROTEIN-DEPRIVED RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The separate and combined effects of protein deprivation and nitrofen exposure were studied in the pregnant rat. Animals were fed diets containing 24, 8, 6 or 4% casein throughout gestation. Within each diet group, sub-groups were gavage-fed with 12.5 (lower dose) and 25 (higher ...

  12. OFFSPRING MORTALITY AND MATERNAL LUNG PATHOLOGY IN FEMALE RATS FED HEXACHLOROBENZENE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Female Sprague-Dawley CD rats were fed 0, 60, 80, 100, 120 and 140 ppm hexachlorobenzene (HCB) continuously in the diet and 2 successive litters raised. These doses were selected to range from approximately the no observable effect level to lethality in suckling offspring of trea...

  13. Relocation of the site of mother–young contact: Maternal transport behavior in Norway rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JoAnne Brewster; Michael Leon

    1980-01-01

    Six experiments with 174 mother Wistar rats and their young investigated the conditions under which mothers would relocate their nests. When the nest box was not disturbed or when the litter and dam remained concealed after the nest-box cover was removed, the probability of transport was low. Exposure of the mother and young by destruction or flooding of the nest

  14. Maternal and developmental toxicity evaluation of melatonin administered orally to pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Jahnke; M. Marr; C. Myers; R. Wilson; G. Travlos; C. Price

    1999-01-01

    Melatonin (MEL) is a widely used, over-the-counter sleep aid, and it has putative contraceptive, antioxidant, antiaging, and anticancer effects. The developmental toxicity potential for re- peated oral doses of MEL had not previously been evaluated. In the present studies, time-mated, Sprague-Dawley-derived (CDt) rats were administered MEL or vehicle by gavage on gestation days (gd) 6 -19. MEL-treated groups received 1-,

  15. The effect of maternal exposure to flaxseed on spermatogenesis in F 1 generation rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. L. Sprando; T. F. X. Collins; T. N. Black; N. Olejnik; J. I. Rorie; M. Scott; P. Wiesenfeld; M. O'Donnell

    2000-01-01

    Pregnant Sprague–Dawley rats were exposed to a flaxseed (20 or 40%), flaxmeal (13 or 26%) or standard NIH AIN-93 (0% flaxseed control) diet throughout gestation and until their offspring were weaned. After weaning, F1 generation males were placed in the same diet treatment groups as their mothers for 70 days. Statistically significant differences were not observed between either low-dose or

  16. Maternal nicotine exposure leads to higher liver oxidative stress and steatosis in adult rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Conceição, E P; Peixoto-Silva, N; Pinheiro, C R; Oliveira, E; Moura, E G; Lisboa, P C

    2015-04-01

    Early nicotine exposure causes future obesity and insulin resistance. We evaluated the long-term effect of the maternal nicotine exposure during lactation in liver oxidative status, insulin sensitivity and morphology in adult offspring. Two days after birth, osmotic minipumps were implanted in the dams: nicotine (N), 6?mg/kg/day for 14 days or saline (C). Offspring were killed at 180 days. Protein content of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase, nitrotyrosine, 4HNE, IRS1, Akt1 and PPARs were measured. MDA, bound protein carbonyl content, SOD, GPx and catalase activities were determined in liver and plasma. Hepatic morphology and triglycerides content were evaluated. Albumin and bilirubin were determined. In plasma, N offspring had higher catalase activity, and SOD/GPx ratio, albumin and bilirubin levels but lower MDA content. In liver, they presented higher MDA and 4HNE levels, bound protein carbonyl content, SOD activity but lower GPx activity. N offspring presented an increase of lipid droplet, higher triglyceride content and a trend to lower PPAR? in liver despite unchanged insulin signaling pathway. Early nicotine exposure causes oxidative stress in liver at adulthood, while protect against oxidative stress at plasma level. In addition, N offspring develop liver microsteatosis, which is related to oxidative stress but not to insulin resistance. PMID:25662863

  17. Maternal fructose and/or salt intake and reproductive outcome in the rat: effects on growth, fertility, sex ratio, and birth order.

    PubMed

    Gray, Clint; Long, Sophie; Green, Charlotte; Gardiner, Sheila M; Craigon, Jim; Gardner, David S

    2013-09-01

    Maternal diet can significantly skew the secondary sex ratio away from the expected value of 0.5 (proportion males), but the details of how diet may do this are unclear. Here, we altered dietary levels of salt (4% salt in the feed) and/or fructose (10% in the drinking water) of pregnant rats to model potential effects that consumption of a "Western diet" might have on maternofetal growth, development, and sex ratio. We demonstrate that excess fructose consumption before and during pregnancy lead to a marked skew in the secondary sex ratio (proportion of males, 0.60; P < 0.006). The effect was not mediated by selective developmental arrest of female embryos or influenced by fetal position in the uterine horn or sex-specific effects on sperm motility, suggesting a direct effect of glycolyzable monosaccharide on the maternal ovary and/or ovulated oocyte. Furthermore, combined excess maternal consumption of salt and fructose-sweetened beverage significantly reduced fertility, reflected as a 50% reduction in preimplantation and term litter size. In addition, we also noted birth order effects in the rat, with sequential implantation sites tending to be occupied by the same sex. PMID:23759309

  18. Maternal caloric restriction prior to pregnancy increases the body weight of the second-generation male offspring and shortens their longevity in rats.

    PubMed

    Araminaite, Violeta; Zalgeviciene, Violeta; Simkunaite-Rizgeliene, Renata; Stukas, Rimantas; Kaminskas, Arvydas; Tutkuviene, Janina

    2014-01-01

    Maternal undernutrition can affect offspring's physical status and various health parameters that might be transmittable across several generations. Many studies have focused on undernutrition throughout pregnancy, whereas maternal undernutrition prior to pregnancy is not sufficiently studied. The objective of our study was to explore the effects of food restriction prior to and during pregnancy on body weight and longevity of the second generation offspring. Adult female Wistar rats ("F0" generation) were 50% food restricted for one month prior to pregnancy (pre-pregnancy) or during pre-pregnancy and pregnancy. The third group was fed normally (control). The first generation offspring were normally fed until the 6(th) month of age to produce the second generation offspring; namely, the first-generation female rats were mated with male breeders from outside the experiment. The second generation offspring thus obtained were observed until natural death (up to 36 months). Compared to the controls, the second-generation male offspring whose "grandmothers (F0 females)" undernourished only during pre-pregnancy were significantly heavier from the 8(th) month of age, whereas no significant weight difference was found in the male offspring whose "grandmothers" were food-restricted during pre-pregnancy and pregnancy. Shorter lifespan was observed in the second-generation male offspring of "grandmothers" that were food-restricted either during pre-pregnancy or during pre-pregnancy and pregnancy. By contrast, no differences in body weight and lifespan were observed in all second-generation female offspring. In conclusion, maternal caloric restriction prior to pregnancy increases the body weight and shortens the longevity of the second-generation male offspring, indicating the sex-dependent transgenerational effect of maternal caloric restriction. PMID:25175031

  19. Maternal use of flaxseed oil during pregnancy and lactation prevents morphological alterations in pancreas of female offspring from rat dams with experimental diabetes.

    PubMed

    Correia-Santos, André Manoel; Vicente, Gabriela C; Suzuki, Akemi; Pereira, Aline D; Dos Anjos, Juliana S; Lenzi-Almeida, Kátia C; Boaventura, Gilson T

    2015-04-01

    Nutritional recommendations have promoted the increased need to consume n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Flaxseed is the richest dietary source of n-3 fatty acids among plant sources and is widely used for its edible oil. This study aimed to investigate whether maternal use of flaxseed oil has effects on pancreas morphology in the female offspring of diabetic mothers. Female Wistar rats (n = 12) were induced into diabetes by a high-fat diet and low dose of streptozotocin. After confirmation of the diabetes, rats were mated, and once pregnancy was confirmed, they were allocated into three groups (n = 6): high-fat group (HG); flaxseed oil group (FOG); and control group (CG) (non-diabetic rats). At weaning, female offspring (n = 6/group) received standard chow diet. The animals were euthanized at 180 days. Pancreas was collected for histomorphometric and immunohistochemistry analysis. HG showed hypertrophy of pancreatic islets (P < 0.0001), whereas FOG offspring had islets with smaller diameters compared to HG (P < 0.0001). HG offspring showed higher percentage of larger (P = 0.0061) and lower percentage of smaller islets (P = 0.0036). HG showed lower islet insulin immunodensity at 180 days (P < 0.0001), whereas FOG was similar to CG (P < 0.0001). Flaxseed oil reduced the damage caused by maternal hyperglycaemia, promoting normal pancreas histomorphometry and ?-cell mass in female offspring. PMID:25808815

  20. Prenatal protein restriction leads to a disparity between aortic and peripheral blood pressure in Wistar male offspring

    PubMed Central

    Swali, Angelina; McMullen, Sarah; Langley-Evans, Simon C

    2010-01-01

    A host of animal studies have been used to model the effects of exposure to a low protein diet in utero on adult blood pressure. Collection of systolic blood pressure data by the indirect tail-cuff plethysmography method consistently shows increased pressures in low protein exposed rodent offspring compared to controls, but this technique has been criticised as the associated stress artefacts may confound the observed effects. Conversely, radiotelemetry systems allow unrestrained and continuous monitoring of blood pressure through the awake and sleep phases of the diurnal cycle. In this novel study, we directly compared blood pressure parameters in male offspring from low protein and control-fed dams measured simultaneously using tail-cuff and radiotelemetry systems. Control rats showed a good correlation between tail-cuff and radiotelemetry derived blood pressure data. Conversely, low protein males were relatively hypertensive at 8 weeks of age when measured by tail-cuff, but had significantly lower blood pressure than controls at 12 weeks of age when measured by telemetry. Heart rate and length of systole did not differ between the two groups. Individual stress protocols mimicking those imposed by tail-cuff plethysmography (novel environment, heat, restraint, inflation), caused similar increases in blood pressure and heart rate in control and low protein animals, ruling out an effect of enhanced pressor response to stress following prenatal protein restriction. Instead, an increase in peripheral vascular resistance in these animals is considered possible. Such a disparity between central and peripheral blood pressure measurements could have important clinical implications regarding cardiovascular risk assessment and treatment. PMID:20693295

  1. Long-Term Effects of Maternal Diabetes on Blood Pressure and Renal Function in Rat Male Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Jie; Li, Xin; Su, Rina; Zhang, Kai; Yang, Huixia

    2014-01-01

    Aims/Hypothesis Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is increasing rapidly worldwide. Previous animal models were established to study consequences of offspring after exposure to severe intrauterine hyperglycemia. In this study we are aiming to characterize the blood pressure levels and renal function of male offspring obtained from diabetic mothers with moderate hyperglycemia. Methods We established a rat model with moderate hyperglycemia after pregnancy by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ). The male offspring were studied and fed with either normal diet or high salt diet after weaning. Arterial pressure and renal function were measured. Results Arterial pressure of male offspring increased from 12 weeks by exposure to intrauterine moderate hyperglycemia. At 20 weeks, high salt diet accelerated the blood pressure on diabetic offspring compared to diabetic offspring fed with normal diet. We found offspring exposed to intrauterine moderate hyperglycemia had a trend to have a higher creatinine clearance rate and significant increase of urinary N-acetyl-?-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) excretion indicating an early stage of nephropathy progression. Conclusions/Interpretation We observed the high blood pressure level and early renal dysfunction of male offspring obtained from diabetic mothers with moderate hyperglycemia. Furthermore, we investigated high salt diet after weaning on offspring exposed to intrauterine hyperglycemia could exacerbate the blood pressure and renal function. Renin angiotensin system (RAS) plays an important role in hypertension pathogenesis and altered gene expression of RAS components in offspring with in utero hyperglycemia exposure may account for the programmed hypertension. Therefore, our study provides evidence “fetal programming” of maternal diabetes is critical for metabolic disease development. PMID:24505458

  2. Maternal deprivation disrupts mitochondrial energy homeostasis in the brain of rats subjected to ketamine-induced schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Zugno, Alexandra Ioppi; Pacheco, Felipe Damázio; Budni, Josiane; de Oliveira, Mariana Bittencourt; Canever, Lara; Heylmann, Alexandra Stephanie; Wessler, Patrícia Gomes; da Rosa Silveira, Flávia; Mastella, Gustavo Antunes; Gonçalves, Cinara Ludwig; Freitas, Karoline V; de Castro, Adalberto Alves; Streck, Emilio L; Quevedo, João

    2015-08-01

    Maternal deprivation (MD) appears to be one of the environmental factors involved in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. A widely used animal model of the schizophrenia involves the administration of ketamine, a dissociative anesthetic, NMDA receptors noncompetitive antagonist, that induce symptoms such as schizophrenia. To clarify the molecular mechanism of schizophrenia induced by MD, we investigated alterations in energetic metabolism, oxidative stress and neurotrophic factor levels in the brain of rats following MD and/or a single administration of ketamine during adulthood. Male Wistar rats were subjected to MD for 10 days. Additionally, these animals received acute ketamine (5, 15 or 25 mg/kg by intraperitoneal route, i.p.) during adulthood, and 30 min later, they were killed and the prefrontal cortex (PFC), the hippocampus and the striatum were removed for molecular analyses. Ketamine 25 mg/kg and/or MD and Ketamine 15 and 5 mg/kg with MD decreased the creatine kinase (CK) activity in the hippocampus. The enzyme activity of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) in the Krebs cycle had increased in the striatum following the administration of ketamine 25 mg/kg, MD per se or MD plus ketamine 5 and 15 mg/kg. MD per se or MD combined with ketamine in different doses increased the activity of mitochondrial complexes. The PFC of animals subjected to MD and administered with ketamine 5 mg/kg exhibited increased protein carbonyl content. In the hippocampus, ketamine 15 mg/kg, ketamine 25 mg/kg and MD each increased the carbonyl content. In the striatum, the TBARS levels were increased by the administration of ketamine 25 mg/kg. Finally, in the hippocampus, MD alone or in combination with ketamine reduced the Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) levels; however, the Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) levels were unaltered. In the present study, we suggest that MD increased the risk of psychotic symptoms in adulthood, altering different parameters of energy and oxidative stress. Our results suggest that adverse experiences occurring early in life may sensitize specific neurocircuits to subsequent stressors, inducing vulnerability, and may help us understand the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in this disorder. PMID:25920483

  3. Maternal Exposure to Low Levels of Corticosterone during Lactation Protects against Experimental Inflammatory Colitis-Induced Damage in Adult Rat Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Petrella, Carla; Giuli, Chiara; Agostini, Simona; Bacquie, Valérie; Zinni, Manuela; Theodorou, Vassilia; Broccardo, Maria; Casolini, Paola; Improta, Giovanna

    2014-01-01

    Opposing emotional events (negative/trauma or positive/maternal care) during the postnatal period may differentially influence vulnerability to the effects of stress later in life. The development and course of intestinal disorders such as inflammatory bowel disease are negatively affected by persistent stress, but to date the role of positive life events on these pathologies has been entirely unknown. In the present study, the effect of early life beneficial experiences in the development of intestinal dysfunctions, where inflammation and stress stimuli play a primary role, was investigated. As a “positive” experimental model we used adult male rat progeny nursed by mothers whose drinking water was supplemented with moderate doses of corticosterone (CORT) (0.2 mg/ml) during the lactation period. Such animals have been generally shown to cope better with different environmental situations during life. The susceptibility to inflammatory experimental colitis induced by intracolonic infusion of TNBS (2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulphonic acid) was investigated in CORT-nursed rats in comparison with control rats. This mild increase in maternal corticosterone during lactation induced, in CORT-nursed rats, a long lasting protective effect on TNBS-colitis, characterized by improvements in some indices of the disease (increased colonic myeloperoxidase activity, loss of body weight and food intake) and by the involvement of endogenous peripheral pathways known to participate in intestinal disorder development (lower plasma corticosterone levels and colonic mast cell degranulation, alterations in the colonic expression of both corticotrophin releasing factor/CRF and its receptor/CRH-1R). All these findings contribute to suggesting that the reduced vulnerability to TNBS-colitis in CORT-nursed rats is due to recovery from the colonic mucosal barrier dysfunction. Such long lasting changes induced by mild hormonal manipulation during lactation, making the adult also better adapted to colonic inflammatory stress, constitute a useful experimental model to investigate the etiopathogenetic mechanisms and therapeutic treatments of some gastrointestinal diseases. PMID:25405993

  4. Maternal epileptic seizure induced by Pentylenetetrazol: Apoptotic neurodegeneration and decreased GABAB1 receptor expression in prenatal rat brain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Muhammad Imran Naseer; Li Shupeng; Myeong Ok Kim

    2009-01-01

    Epilepsy is a prominent sign of neurological dysfunction in children with various fetal and maternal deficiencies. However, the detailed mechanism and influences underlying epileptic disorders are still unrevealed. The hippocampal neurons are vulnerable to epilepsy-induced pathologic changes and often manifests as neuronal death. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of maternal epileptic seizure on apoptotic neuronal death,

  5. In utero glucocorticoid (GLC) exposure and maternal undernutrition reduce fetal skeletal muscle mass by different mechanisms in rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Both maternal undernutrition and exposure of the fetus to above normal levels of GLC impair skeletal muscle growth. The degree to which the effects of maternal undernutrition on fetal skeletal muscle growth are a direct result of nutrient deficit or secondary to the presence of above normal GLC leve...

  6. Inhibition and recovery of maternal and fetal cholinesterase enzyme activity following a single cutaneous dose of methyl parathion and diazinon, alone and in combination, in pregnant rats.

    PubMed

    Abu-Qare, A W; Abou-Donia, M B

    2001-01-01

    Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats (14-18 days of gestation) were treated with a single cutaneous subclinical dose(s) of 10 mg kg(-1) (15% of LD(50)) of methyl parathion (O,O-dimethyl O-4-nitrophenyl phosphorothioate) and 65 mg kg(-1) (15% of LD(50)) of diazinon (O,O)-diethyl O-2-isopropyl-6-methylpyrimidinyl phosphorothioate, and their combination. Animals were sacrificed at 1, 2, 4, 12, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h after dosing. Inhibition of maternal and fetal cholinesterase enzyme activity has been determined. Methyl parathion significantly inhibited maternal and fetal brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and plasma butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) activity within 24 h after dosing. Diazinon and a mixture of methyl parathion and diazinon caused lesser inhibition compared with methyl parathion alone. Recovery of maternal and fetal brain AChE activity was in the order of diazinon > combination of diazinon and methyl parathion > methyl parathion 96 h after dosing. Although fetal plasma BuChE activity recovered to 100% of control within 96 h of application, maternal BuChE activity remained inhibited to 55% and 32% of control 96 h after application of methyl parathion and a mixture of methyl parathion and diazinon, respectively. Following a single dermal dose of methyl parathion, the activity of maternal liver BuChE was 63% of control 2 h after dosing, whereas inhibition of placental AChE or BuChE activity occurred 12 and 1 h following a single dose of methyl parathion, corresponding to activities of 63% and 54% of control, respectively. Diazinon, alone or in combination with methyl parathion, did not inhibit significantly the maternal liver BuChE or placental AChE and BuChE activity. The results suggest that dermal application of a single dose of methyl parathion and diazinon, alone or in combination, has an easy access into maternal and fetal tissues, resulting in inhibition of cholinesterase enzymes. The lower inhibitory effect of the combination of methyl parathion and diazinon might be due to competition of diazinon with methyl parathion for cytochrome P-450 enzymes, resulting in formation of the potent cholinesterase inhibitor methyl paraoxon. The faster recovery of fetal cholinesterase enzymes is attributed to the rapid de novo synthesis of cholinesterase fetal tissues compared with the mother. PMID:11481665

  7. Corticotropin-releasing factor receptor 1 mediates acute and delayed stress-induced visceral hyperalgesia in maternally separated Long-Evans rats.

    PubMed

    Schwetz, Ines; McRoberts, James A; Coutinho, Santosh V; Bradesi, Sylvie; Gale, Greg; Fanselow, Michael; Million, Mulugeta; Ohning, Gordon; Taché, Yvette; Plotsky, Paul M; Mayer, Emeran A

    2005-10-01

    In rodents, maternal pup interactions play an important role in programming the stress responsiveness of the adult organism. The aims of this study were 1) to determine the effect of different neonatal rearing conditions on acute and delayed stress-induced visceral sensitivity as well as on other measures of stress sensitivity of the adult animal; and 2) to determine the role of corticotropin-releasing factor receptor (CRF-R) subtype 1 (CRF(1)R) in mediating visceral hypersensitivity. Three groups of male Long-Evans rat pups were used: separation from their dam for 180 min daily from postnatal days 2-14 (MS180), daily separation (handling) for 15 min (H), or no handling. The visceromotor responses (VMR) to colorectal distension, stress-induced colonic motility, and anxiety-like behavior were assessed in the adult rats. The VMR was assessed at baseline, immediately after a 1-h water avoidance (WA) stress, and 24 h poststress. Astressin B, a nonselective CRF-R antagonist, or CP-154,526, a selective CRF(1)R antagonist, was administered before the stressor and/or before the 24-h measurement. MS rats developed acute and delayed stress-induced visceral hyperalgesia. In contrast, H rats showed hypoalgesia immediately after WA and no change in VMR on day 2. MS rats with visceral hyperalgesia also exhibited enhanced stress-induced colonic motility and increased anxiety-like behavior. In MS rats, both CRF-R antagonists abolished acute and delayed increases in VMR. Rearing conditions have a significant effect on adult stress responsiveness including immediate and delayed visceral pain responses to an acute stressor. Both acute and delayed stress-induced visceral hypersensitivity in MS rats are mediated by the CRF/CRF(1)R system. PMID:15994424

  8. Delays in Growth and Biochemical Development of Rat Brain Caused by Maternal Methadone Administration: Are the Alterations in Synaptogenesis and Cellular Maturation Independent of Reduced Maternal Food Intake?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frederic J. Seidler; William L. Whitmore; Theodore A. Slotkin

    1982-01-01

    Food consumption of control pregnant and nursing rats was matched to that of methadone-treated dams and the patterns of growth and of biochemical development of the brain in the offspring were compared, using tyrosine hydroxylase activity as a marker for synaptogenesis of catecholamine neurons and the developmental pattern of ornithine decarboxylase activity as an index of delay of cellular maturation.

  9. Chronic Maternal Vitamin B12 Restriction Induced Changes in Body Composition & Glucose Metabolism in the Wistar Rat Offspring Are Partly Correctable by Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Kalle Anand; Lalitha, Anumula; Reddy, Umakar; Chandak, Giriraj Ratan; Sengupta, Shantanu; Raghunath, Manchala

    2014-01-01

    Maternal under-nutrition increases the risk of developing metabolic diseases. We studied the effects of chronic maternal dietary vitamin B12 restriction on lean body mass (LBM), fat free mass (FFM), muscle function, glucose tolerance and metabolism in Wistar rat offspring. Prevention/reversibility of changes by rehabilitating restricted mothers from conception or parturition and their offspring from weaning was assessed. Female weaning Wistar rats (n?=?30) were fed ad libitum for 12 weeks, a control diet (n?=?6) or the same with 40% restriction of vitamin B12 (B12R) (n?=?24); after confirming deficiency, were mated with control males. Six each of pregnant B12R dams were rehabilitated from conception and parturition and their offspring weaned to control diet. While offspring of six B12R dams were weaned to control diet, those of the remaining six B12R dams continued on B12R diet. Biochemical parameters and body composition were determined in dams before mating and in male offspring at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months of their age. Dietary vitamin B12 restriction increased body weight but decreased LBM% and FFM% but not the percent of tissue associated fat (TAF%) in dams. Maternal B12R decreased LBM% and FFM% in the male offspring, but their TAF%, basal and insulin stimulated glucose uptake by diaphragm were unaltered. At 12 months age, B12R offspring had higher (than controls) fasting plasma glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR and impaired glucose tolerance. Their hepatic gluconeogenic enzyme activities were increased. B12R offspring had increased oxidative stress and decreased antioxidant status. Changes in body composition, glucose metabolism and stress were reversed by rehabilitating B12R dams from conception, whereas rehabilitation from parturition and weaning corrected them partially, highlighting the importance of vitamin B12 during pregnancy and lactation on growth, muscle development, glucose tolerance and metabolism in the offspring. PMID:25398136

  10. Female-dependent impaired fear memory of adult rats induced by maternal separation, and screening of possible related genes in the hippocampal CA1.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiu-Min; Tu, Wen-Qiang; Shi, Yan-Wei; Xue, Li; Zhao, Hu

    2014-07-01

    Early life stress is one of the major susceptible factors for stress-related pathologies like posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Recent studies in rats suggest that rather than being overall unfavorable, early life stress may prepare the organism to perform optimally to stressful environments later in life. In this study, severely adverse early life stress was conducted by six consecutive hours of maternal separation (MS), from PND1 to PND21, and contextual fear conditioning model was used on PND90 to mimic the second stress in adulthood and the re-experiencing symptom of PTSD. It was observed that in this investigation pups experienced MS showed decreased sensibility to contextual fear conditioning in adulthood, and there sex plays an important role. For example, female rats suffered MS had much lower freezing than males and controls. Meanwhile, Morris water maze test indicated that MS did not impair rat's performance of spatial learning and memory. Furthermore, suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) was used to screen the related genes of fear memory, by examining the changes of mRNA expression in CA1 area between female MS and control rats after contextual fear conditioning. Finally, nine up-regulated and one down-regulated genes, including ?2-MG, MAF, Nd1-L, TorsinA and MACF1 gene were found in this study. It is assumed that the TorsinA, MACF1 and Nd1-L gene may contribute to the decreased sensitivity of PTSD induced by MS. PMID:24667363

  11. Conjugated linoleic Acid supplementation during pregnancy and lactation reduces maternal high-fat-diet-induced programming of early-onset puberty and hyperlipidemia in female rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Clare M; Segovia, Stephanie A; Zhang, Xiaohuan D; Gray, Clint; Vickers, Mark H

    2015-02-01

    A maternal high-fat (HF) diet during pregnancy and lactation can result in adverse metabolic and reproductive outcomes in female offspring independent of postnatal diet. Interventions during critical windows of developmental plasticity may prevent developmental programming in offspring. The effects of maternal supplementation with the anti-inflammatory lipid conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on early-onset puberty, metabolic dysfunction, and estrous cycle dysfunction was assessed. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to a purified control diet (CD; 10% kcal from fat), CD with CLA (CLA; 10% kcal from fat, 1% CLA), HF (45% kcal from fat) or HF with CLA (HFCLA; 45% kcal from fat, 1% CLA). Diets were fed ad libitum for 10 days prior to time mating and throughout gestation and lactation. Offspring plasma/tissues were taken at Day 24 (prepubertal) or Day 150 (adult). Puberty was assessed from Day 26 and estrous cycle from Day 128. Female offspring from HF mothers had lower birth weights but by Postnatal Day 24 had exhibited catch-up growth concomitant with increased fat mass, hyperleptinemia, and dyslipidemia. Maternal CLA supplementation reversed these effects. Early-onset puberty was only observed in HF offspring; this was reversed in HFCLA offspring. In adulthood, despite no evidence of glucose intolerance or altered insulin sensitivity, HF offspring displayed increased fat mass, dyslipidemia, disrupted estrous cyclicity. and hyperleptinemia; this was reversed by maternal CLA supplementation. Data presented in this study demonstrate the importance of diet in women of reproductive age and during pregnancy on reproductive and metabolic parameters in their offspring and that supplementation with CLA during critical windows of development may represent a therapeutic strategy in the prevention of early-life programming of metabolic and reproductive dysfunction. PMID:25505197

  12. Long lasting sex-specific effects upon behavior and S100b levels after maternal separation and exposure to a model of post-traumatic stress disorder in rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luisa Amalia Diehl; Patrícia Pelufo Silveira; Marina C. Leite; Leonardo Machado Crema; Andre Krumel Portella; Mauro Nör Billodre; Edelvan Nunes; Thiago P. Henriques; Linda Brenda Fidelix-da-Silva; Marta D. Heis; Carlos Alberto Gonçalves; Jorge Alberto Quillfeldt; Carla Dalmaz

    2007-01-01

    This study was undertaken to verify if repeated long-term separation from dams would affect the development of parameters related to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after animals are subjected to inescapable shock when adults. Wistar rats were subjected to repeated maternal separation during post-natal days 1–10. When adults, rats from both sexes were submitted to a PTSD model consisting of exposure

  13. Maternal alcohol intake around the time of conception causes glucose intolerance and insulin insensitivity in rat offspring, which is exacerbated by a postnatal high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Gårdebjer, Emelie M; Anderson, Stephen T; Pantaleon, Marie; Wlodek, Mary E; Moritz, Karen M

    2015-07-01

    Alcohol consumption throughout pregnancy can cause metabolic dysregulation, including glucose intolerance in progeny. This study determined if periconceptional (PC) alcohol (12% v/v in a liquid diet) (PC:EtOH) consumed exclusively around conception results in similar outcomes in Sprague-Dawley rats. Control (C) rats were given a liquid diet containing no alcohol but matched to ensure equal caloric intake. PC maternal alcohol intake (from 4 days before conception until day 4 of gestation), resulted in offspring with elevated fasting plasma glucose (?10-25%, P < 0.05), impaired glucose tolerance (P < 0.05), and decreased insulin sensitivity (P < 0.01) at 6 months of age. This was associated with increased hepatic gluconeogenesis and sex-specific alterations in peripheral protein kinase B (AKT) signaling. These changes were accompanied by increased mRNA expression of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) 1, 3a, and 3b (1.5- to 1.9-fold, P < 0.05) in fetal liver in late gestation, suggesting PC:EtOH may cause epigenetic changes that predispose offspring to metabolic dysfunction. Exposure to a postnatal (PN) high-fat and cholesterol diet (HFD) from 3 months of age caused hyperinsulinemia (?2-fold increase, P < 0.001) and exacerbated the metabolic dysfunction in male offspring exposed to PC:EtOH but had no additive effects in females. Given many women may drink alcohol while planning a pregnancy, it is crucial to increase public awareness regarding the effects of alcohol consumption around conception on offspring health.-Gårdebjer, E. M., Anderson, S. T., Pantaleon, M., Wlodek, M. E., Moritz, K. M. Maternal alcohol intake around the time of conception causes glucose intolerance and insulin insensitivity in rat offspring, which is exacerbated by a postnatal high-fat diet. PMID:25733565

  14. Maternal hypothyroxinemia disrupts neurotransmitter metabolic enzymes in developing brain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I M Evans; A K Sinha; M R Pickard; P R Edwards; A J Leonard; R P Ekins

    1999-01-01

    Maternal thyroid status influences early brain development and, consequently, cognitive and motor function in humans and rats. The biochemical targets of maternal thyroid hormone (TH) action in fetal brain remain poorly defined. A partially thyroidectomized rat dam model was therefore used to investigate the influence of maternal hypothyroxinemia on the specific activities of cholinergic and monoaminergic neurotransmitter metabolic enzymes in

  15. Effects of environmental stress during pregnancy on maternal and fetal plasma corticosterone and progesterone in the rat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. E. Fleming; R. W. Rhees; S. R. Williams; S. M. Kurth

    1986-01-01

    Prenatal stress applied during a presumed critical period (third trimester) for sexual differentiation of the brain has been shown to alter development and influence sexual behavior. This experiment was designed to study the effects of environmental stress (restraint\\/illumination\\/heat) on maternal and fetal plasma corticosterone and progesterone titers. These hormones were studied since corticosterone has been shown to alter brain differentiation

  16. Oxytocin receptors in the nucleus accumbens shell are involved in the consolidation of maternal memory in postpartum rats

    E-print Network

    Sokolowski, Marla

    following the experience with either a high or low dose of an OT antagonist into the NA shell and tested for maternal behavior after a 10-day pup isolation period. Females receiving a high dose of the antagonist compared to females that received vehicle or a high dose of antagonist in a control region. In Experiment 2

  17. EFFECT OF VARYING MATERNAL FOLATE STATUS AND DIETARY FOLATE INTAKE ON RESPONSE TO DIVERSE DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICANTS IN THE RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Periconceptional and early pregnancy folate supplements are associated with reduced recurrence and occurrence of birth defects in humans. This study was undertaken to assess the influence of maternal folate status and dietary folate intake on outcome of exposures to diverse terat...

  18. Maternal exposure to low doses of bisphenol a has no effects on development of female reproductive tract and uterine carcinogenesis in Donryu rats.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Midori; Shimomoto, Takasumi; Katashima, Sayumi; Watanabe, Gen; Taya, Kazuyoshi; Maekawa, Akihiko

    2004-06-01

    Effects of maternal exposure to low doses of bisphenol A (BPA), including those comparable with human exposure levels, on growth and development of the female reproductive system and uterine carcinogenesis in Donryu rats were investigated. Dams were administered BPA (0, 0.006 and 6 mg/kg/day) daily by gavage from gestation day 2 up to the day before weaning (postnatal day 21 at offspring). The serum levels of BPA were significantly elevated in the dams receiving 6 mg/kg/day, however, BPA levels in the milk of dams, and those in the serum and liver of offspring were similar between control and treated groups. The treatment did not exert any influences on uterine development including weight, gland genesis and estrogen receptor alpha expression, vaginal opening and gonadotropin secretion in the female offspring up to puberty. After maturation, no effects were evident with regard to estrous cyclicity in female offspring treated with BPA. In addition, the treatment had no effects on age-related morphological changes of the reproductive and endocrine organs and uterine carcinogenesis until 15 months of age. The results demonstrate that maternal exposure to BPA at levels comparable to human exposure did not have any effects on the female reproductive system of offspring in rats. In addition, BPA was also found in the serum, milk and liver of control dams and pups, and low levels of BPA were detected in drinking water and pellet diet. The present study showed that the experimental animals were also exposed to environmental BPA in the animal room. PMID:15226600

  19. Early weaning by maternal prolactin inhibition leads to higher neuropeptide Y and astrogliosis in the hypothalamus of the adult rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Younes-Rapozo, Viviane; Moura, Egberto G; Manhães, Alex C; Peixoto-Silva, Nayara; de Oliveira, Elaine; Lisboa, Patricia C

    2015-02-01

    The suppression of prolactin production with bromocriptine (BRO) in the last 3 d of lactation reduces milk yield (early weaning) and increases the transfer of leptin through the milk, causing hyperleptinaemia in pups. In adulthood, several changes occur in the offspring as a result of metabolic programming, including overweight, higher visceral fat mass, hypothyroidism, hyperglycaemia, insulin resistance, hyperleptinaemia and central leptin resistance. In the present study, we investigated whether overweight rats programmed by early weaning with maternal BRO treatment have hypothalamic alterations in adulthood. We analysed the expression of neuropeptide Y (NPY), cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART), pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) and ?-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (?-MSH) by immunohistochemistry in the following hypothalamic nuclei: medial and lateral arcuate nucleus (ARC); paraventricular nucleus (PVN); lateral hypothalamus (LH). Additionally, we sought to determine whether these programmed rats exhibited hypothalamic inflammation as indicated by astrogliosis. NPY immunostaining showed a denser NPY-positive fibre network in the ARC and PVN (+82% in both nuclei) of BRO offspring. Regarding the anorexigenic neuropeptides, no difference was found for CART, POMC and ?-MSH. The number of astrocytes was higher in all the nuclei of BRO rats. The fibre density of glial fibrillary acidic protein was also increased in both medial and lateral ARC (6·06-fold increase and 9·13-fold increase, respectively), PVN (5·75-fold increase) and LH (2·68-fold increase) of BRO rats. We suggest that early weaning has a long-term effect on the expression of NPY as a consequence of developmental plasticity, and the presence of astrogliosis indicates hypothalamic inflammation that is closely related to overweight and hyperleptinaemia observed in our model. PMID:25609154

  20. Variable Maternal Stress in Rats Alters Locomotor Activity, Social Behavior, and Recognition Memory in the Adult Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Christina A.; Terry, Alvin V.

    2013-01-01

    Rats repeatedly exposed to variable prenatal stress (PNS) exhibit behavioral signs that are similar to those manifested in several neuropsychiatric disorders such as deficits in attention and inhibitory control, and impairments in memory-related task performance. The purpose of the study described here was to conduct a comprehensive battery of tests to further characterize the behavioral phenotype of PNS rats as well as to evaluate the sensitivity of the model to therapeutic interventions (i.e., to compounds previously shown to have therapeutic potential in neuropsychiatric disorders). The results of this study indicated that PNS in rats is associated with: 1) increased locomotor activity and stereotypic behaviors, 2) elevated sensitivity to the psychostimulant amphetamine, 3) increased aggressive behaviors toward both adult and juvenile rats and 4) delay-dependent deficits in recognition memory. There was no evidence that PNS rats exhibited deficits in other areas of motor function/learning, sensorimotor gating, spatial learning and memory, social withdrawal, or anhedonia. In addition, the results revealed that the second generation antipsychotic risperidone attenuated amphetamine-related increases in locomotor activity in PNS rats; however, the effect was not sustained over time. Furthermore, deficits in recognition memory in PNS rats were attenuated by the norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, atomoxetine, but not by the ?7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor partial agonist, GTS-21. This study supports the supposition that important phenomenological similarities exist between rats exposed to PNS and patients afflicted with neuropsychiatric disorders thus further establishing the face validity of the model for evaluating potential therapeutic interventions. PMID:23287801

  1. Thrifty metabolic programming in rats is induced by both maternal undernutrition and postnatal leptin treatment, but masked in the presence of both: implications for models of developmental programming

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Maternal undernutrition leads to an increased risk of metabolic disorders in offspring including obesity and insulin resistance, thought to be due to a programmed thrifty phenotype which is inappropriate for a subsequent richer nutritional environment. In a rat model, both male and female offspring of undernourished mothers are programmed to become obese, however postnatal leptin treatment gives discordant results between males and females. Leptin treatment is able to rescue the adverse programming effects in the female offspring of undernourished mothers, but not in their male offspring. Additionally, in these rats, postnatal leptin treatment of offspring from normally-nourished mothers programmes their male offspring to develop obesity in later life, while there is no comparable effect in their female offspring. Results We show by microarray analysis of the female liver transcriptome that both maternal undernutrition and postnatal leptin treatment independently induce a similar thrifty transcriptional programme affecting carbohydrate metabolism, amino acid metabolism and oxidative stress genes. Paradoxically, however, the combination of both stimuli restores a more normal transcriptional environment. This demonstrates that “leptin reversal” is a global phenomenon affecting all genes involved in fetal programming by maternal undernourishment and leptin treatment. The thrifty transcriptional programme was associated with pro-inflammatory markers and downregulation of adaptive immune mediators, particularly MHC class I genes, suggesting a deficit in antigen presentation in these offspring. Conclusions We propose a revised model of developmental programming reconciling the male and female observations, in which there are two competing programmes which collectively drive liver transcription. The first element is a thrifty metabolic phenotype induced by early life growth restriction independently of leptin levels. The second is a homeostatic set point calibrated in response to postnatal leptin surge, which is able to over-ride the metabolic programme. This “calibration model” for the postnatal leptin surge, if applicable in humans, may have implications for understanding responses to catch-up growth in infants. Additionally, the identification of an antigen presentation deficit associated with metabolic thriftiness may relate to a previously observed correlation between birth season (a proxy for gestational undernutrition) and infectious disease mortality in rural African communities. PMID:24447410

  2. Can low-level ethanol exposure during pregnancy influence maternal care? An investigation using two strains of rat across two generations.

    PubMed

    Popoola, Daniel O; Borrow, Amanda P; Sanders, Julia E; Nizhnikov, Michael E; Cameron, Nicole M

    2015-09-01

    Gestational alcohol use is well documented as detrimental to both maternal and fetal health, producing an increase in offspring's tendency for alcoholism, as well as in behavioral and neuropsychological disorders. In both rodents and in humans, parental care can influence the development of offspring physiology and behavior. Animal studies that have investigated gestational alcohol use on parental care and/or their interaction mostly employ heavy alcohol use and single strains. This study aimed at investigating the effects of low gestational ethanol dose on parental behavior and its transgenerational transmission, with comparison between two rat strains. Pregnant Sprague Dawley (SD) and Long Evans (LE) progenitor dams (F0) received 1g/kg ethanol or water through gestational days 17-20 via gavage, or remained untreated in their home cages. At maturity, F1 female offspring were mated with males of the same strain and treatment and were left undisturbed through gestation. Maternal behavior was scored in both generations during the first six postnatal days. Arch-back nursing (ABN) was categorized as: 1, when the dam demonstrated minimal kyphosis; 2, when the dam demonstrated moderate kyphosis; and 3, when the dam displayed maximal kyphosis. Overall, SD showed greater amounts of ABN than LE dams and spent more time in contact with their pups. In the F0 generation, water and ethanol gavage increased ABN1 and contact with pups in SD, behaviors which decreased in treated LE. For ABN2, ethanol-treated SD dams showed more ABN2 than water-treated dams, with no effect of treatment on LE animals. In the F1 generation, prenatal exposure affected retrieval. Transgenerational transmission of LG was observed only in the untreated LE group. Strain-specific differences in maternal behavior were also observed. This study provides evidence that gestational gavage can influence maternal behavior in a strain-specific manner. Our results also suggest that the experimental procedure during gestation and genetic variations between strains may play an important role in the behavioral effects of prenatal manipulations. PMID:25575692

  3. Association of maternal pancreatic function and foetal growth in rats treated with DFU, a selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Burdan; J. Szumi?o; J. Dudka; M. Szumi?o; A. Korobowicz; S. Chatterjee; R. Klepacz

    2007-01-01

    Constitutive (COX-1) and inducible (COX-2) cyclooxygenase isoforms have been detected in various mammalian tissues. Their activity is blocked by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs that may induce various side reactions. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of DFU, a selective COX-2 inhibitor, on exo- crine and endocrine pancreatic function and the immunoexpression of both COX isoforms in maternal

  4. Dietary protein and lifespan across the metamorphic boundary: protein-restricted larvae develop into short-lived adults

    PubMed Central

    Runagall-McNaull, A.; Bonduriansky, R.; Crean, A. J.

    2015-01-01

    Restriction of nutrients in the adult diet extends lifespan across a diverse range of species, but less is known about the long-term effects of developmental dietary restriction. In particular, it is not known whether adult lifespan is influenced by developmental caloric restriction or macronutrient balance. We used the nutritional geometry approach to independently manipulate protein and carbohydrate contents of the larval diet in the neriid fly, Telostylinus angusticollis, and measured adult lifespan. We found that adult male and female lifespan was shortest when larvae were fed a protein restricted diet. Thus, protein restriction in the larval diet has the opposite effect of protein restriction in the adult diet (which prolongs life in this species and across a wide range of taxa). Adult lifespan was unaffected by larval dietary carbohydrate. These patterns persisted after controlling for larval diet effects on adult body size. We propose that larval and adult protein sources are used for distinct metabolic tasks: during development, dietary protein is used to build a durable soma that enhances adult lifespan, although excessive protein consumption partially reverses this effect. PMID:26119686

  5. Influence of maternal dietary calcium levels on milk zinc, calcium and phosphorus contents and milk production in rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adriana R. Weisstaub; Susana Zeni; María L. de Portela; Patricia A. Ronayne de Ferrer

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze zinc (Zn), calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) contents in milk and the lactational performance in rats fed different Ca levels. Female Wistar rats were fed during pregnancy and lactation with experimental diets containing 20% protein and high (0.90%, HCa), normal (0.60%, NCa) or low (0.20%, LCa) Ca levels. Milk samples were collected

  6. Involvement of the strychnine-sensitive glycine receptor in the anxiolytic effects of GlyT1 inhibitors on maternal separation-induced ultrasonic vocalization in rat pups.

    PubMed

    Komatsu, Hiroko; Furuya, Yoshiaki; Sawada, Kohei; Asada, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have shown that glycine transporter 1 (GlyT1) inhibitors have anxiolytic actions. There are two types of glycine receptor: the strychnine-sensitive glycine receptor (GlyA) and the strychnine-insensitive glycine receptor (GlyB); however, which receptor is the main contributor to the anxiolytic actions of GlyT1 inhibitors is yet to be determined. Here, we clarified which glycine receptor is the main contributor to the anxiolytic effects of GlyT1 inhibitors by using maternal separation-induced ultrasonic vocalization (USV) by rat pups as an index of anxiety. We confirmed that administration of the benzodiazepine diazepam or the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor escitaloplam, which are both clinically proven anxiolytics, or the GlyT1 inhibitor SSR504734 (2-chloro-N-[(S)-phenyl[(2S)-piperidin-2-yl] methyl]-3-trifluoromethyl benzamide), decreases USV in rat pups. In addition, we showed that another GlyT1 inhibitor, ALX5407 ((R)-N-[3-(4'-fluorophenyl)-3(4'-phenylphenoxy)propyl]sarcosine) also decreases USV in rat pups. SSR504734- or ALX5407-induced decreases in USV were dose-dependently reversed by administration of the GlyA antagonist strychnine, whereas the diazepam- or escitalopram-induced decreases in USV were not. Furthermore, GlyT1-induced decreases in USV were not reversed by administration of the GlyB antagonist L-687,414. Together, these results suggest that GlyA activation is the main contributor to the anxiolytic actions of GlyT1 inhibitors and that the anxiolytic actions of diazepam and escitalopram cannot be attributed to GlyA activation. Our findings provide new insights into the importance of the activation of GlyA in the anxiolytic effects of GlyT1 inhibitors. PMID:25435080

  7. Embryo transfer cannot delineate between the maternal pregnancy environment and germ line effects in the transgenerational transmission of disease in rats

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Melanie; Gallo, Linda A.; Hanvey, Alanna N.; Jefferies, Andrew J.; Westcott, Kerryn T.; Cullen-McEwen, Luise A.; Gardner, David K.; Moritz, Karen M.

    2014-01-01

    Adverse conditions in utero can have transgenerational effects, in the absence of a subsequent insult. We aimed to investigate the contribution of the maternal pregnancy environment vs. germ line effects in mediating alterations to cardiorenal and metabolic physiology in offspring from mothers born small. Uteroplacental insufficiency was induced by bilateral uterine artery and vein ligation (Restricted group) or sham surgery (Control group) in Wistar-Kyoto rats. Restricted and control female offspring (F1) were mated with either breeder males (embryo donor) or vasectomized males (embryo recipient). Embryo transfer was performed at embryonic day (E) 1, whereby second-generation (F2) embryos gestated (donor-in-recipient) in either a control (Cont-in-Cont, Rest-in-Cont) or restricted (Cont-in-Rest, Rest-in-Rest) mother. In male and female offspring, glomerular number and size were measured at postnatal day (PN) 35, and systolic blood pressure, glucose control, insulin sensitivity, and pancreatic ?-cell mass were measured in separate sibling cohorts at 6 mo. Rest-in-Rest offspring were hypothesized to have similar characteristics (reduced growth, altered metabolic control, and hypertension) to non-embryo-transferred Rest, such that embryo transfer would not be a confounding experimental influence. However, embryo-transferred Rest-in-Rest offspring underwent accelerated growth during the peripubertal phase, followed by slowed growth between 2 and 3 mo of age compared with non-embryo-transferred Rest groups. Furthermore, renal function and insulin response to a glucose load were different to respective non-embryo-transferred groups. Our data demonstrate the long-term effects of in vitro embryo manipulation, which confounded the utility of this approach in delineating between the maternal pregnancy environment and germ line effects that drive transgenerational outcomes. PMID:24523338

  8. Maternal Neurofascin-Specific Autoantibodies Bind to Structures of the Fetal Nervous System during Pregnancy, but Have No Long Term Effect on Development in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Hochmeister, Sonja; Pekar, Thomas; Lindner, Maren; Kitic, Maja; Haindl, Michaela; Storch, Maria; Fazekas, Franz; Linington, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Neurofascin was recently reported as a target for axopathic autoantibodies in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), a response that will exacerbate axonal pathology and disease severity in an animal model of multiple sclerosis. As transplacental transfer of maternal autoantibodies can permanently damage the developing nervous system we investigated whether intrauterine exposure to this neurofascin-specific response had any detrimental effect on white matter tract development. To address this question we intravenously injected pregnant rats with either a pathogenic anti-neurofascin monoclonal antibody or an appropriate isotype control on days 15 and 18 of pregnancy, respectively, to mimic the physiological concentration of maternal antibodies in the circulation of the fetus towards the end of pregnancy. Pups were monitored daily with respect to litter size, birth weight, growth and motor development. Histological studies were performed on E20 embryos and pups sacrificed on days 2, 10, 21, 32 and 45 days post partum. Results: Immunohistochemistry for light and confocal microscopy confirmed passively transferred anti-neurofascin antibody had crossed the placenta to bind to distinct structures in the developing cortex and cerebellum. However, this did not result in any significant differences in litter size, birth weight, or general physical development between litters from control mothers or those treated with the neurofascin-specific antibody. Histological analysis also failed to identify any neuronal or white matter tract abnormalities induced by the neurofascin-specific antibody. Conclusions: We show that transplacental transfer of circulating anti-neurofascin antibodies can occur and targets specific structures in the CNS of the developing fetus. However, this did not result in any pre- or post-natal abnormalities in the offspring of the treated mothers. These results assure that even if anti-neurofascin responses are detected in pregnant women with multiple sclerosis these are unlikely to have a negative effect on their children. PMID:24465550

  9. The Fatty Acid Composition of Maternal Diet Affects the Response to Excitotoxic Neural Injury in Neonatal Rat Pups

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pablo Valencia; Jane D Carver; Lance E Wyble; Valerie J Benford; Enid Gilbert-Barness; Doris A Wiener; Christopher Phelps

    1998-01-01

    Fatty acids and their derivatives play a role in the response to neural injury. The effects of prenatal and postnatal dietary fatty acid composition on excitotoxic neural injury were investigated in neonatal rat pups. Dams were fed during gestation and lactation a diet whose fat source was either corn oil or menhaden fish oil. On postnatal day 3, litters were

  10. Maternal Care Can Rapidly Induce an Odor-Guided

    E-print Network

    to an odor in association with foster maternal care during five daily 2-hr sessions on PNDs 1­5, 5­9, or 10Maternal Care Can Rapidly Induce an Odor-Guided Huddling Preference in Rat Pups Sayuri Kojima an odor previously associated with maternal care. Experiment 1 replicated this induction of an odor

  11. Limiting Ago protein restricts RNAi and microRNA biogenesis during early development in Xenopus laevis

    PubMed Central

    Lund, Elsebet; Sheets, Michael D.; Imboden, Susanne Blaser; Dahlberg, James E.

    2011-01-01

    We show that, in Xenopus laevis oocytes and early embryos, double-stranded exogenous siRNAs cannot function as microRNA (miRNA) mimics in either deadenylation or guided mRNA cleavage (RNAi). Instead, siRNAs saturate and inactivate maternal Argonaute (Ago) proteins, which are present in low amounts but are needed for Dicer processing of pre-miRNAs at the midblastula transition (MBT). Consequently, siRNAs impair accumulation of newly made miRNAs, such as the abundant embryonic pre-miR-427, but inhibition dissipates upon synthesis of zygotic Ago proteins after MBT. These effects of siRNAs, which are independent of sequence, result in morphological defects at later stages of development. The expression of any of several exogenous human Ago proteins, including catalytically inactive Ago2 (Ago2mut), can overcome the siRNA-mediated inhibition of miR-427 biogenesis and function. However, expression of wild-type, catalytically active hAgo2 is required to elicit RNAi in both early embryos and oocytes using either siRNA or endogenous miRNAs as guides. The lack of endogenous Ago2 endonuclease activity explains why these cells normally are unable to support RNAi. Expression of catalytically active exogenous Ago2, which appears not to perturb normal Xenopus embryonic development, can now be exploited for RNAi in this vertebrate model organism. PMID:21576259

  12. Dietary protein restriction causes modification in aluminum-induced alteration in glutamate and GABA system of rat brain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Prasunpriya Nayak; Ajay K Chatterjee

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Alteration of glutamate and ?-aminobutyrate system have been reported to be associated with neurodegenerative disorders and have been postulated to be involved in aluminum-induced neurotoxicity as well. Aluminum, an well known and commonly exposed neurotoxin, was found to alter glutamate and ?-aminobutyrate levels as well as activities of associated enzymes with regional specificity. Protein malnutrition also reported to alter

  13. Effect of exercise and protein intake during pregnancy on maternal and fetal zinc content in the Sprague-Dawley rat

    SciTech Connect

    Asente, R.A.; Cameron, S.R.; Taper, L.J.

    1986-03-05

    Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats (179) were divided into four groups: sedentary-standard protein diet, sedentary-high protein diet, exercising-standard protein diet and exercising-high protein diet. The standard protein diet contained 24.77% protein; all other nutrients were supplied in amounts required for normal parturition. After aclimitization, the exercising dams, regardless of diet, were forced to swim continuously for one and one-half hours/day until sacrifice. The four major groups were further subdivided into 28 groups, designated by three-day intervals according to gestational day - days 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18 and 21. Uterine tissues were analyzed for zinc; fetal and placental tissues were separated from uterine tissue for days 15 through 21 only. Uterine zinc was affected solely by gestation; absolute placental zinc values were lowest in the sedentary-high and exercising-low protein groups, while the exercising-high protein group possessed the greatest. No significant difference was detected in fetal zinc concentrations. Fetal tissues from exercising dams weighed significantly less than fetal tissue from the sedentary dams; and sedentary-high protein dams produced significantly more fetuses than the exercising-high protein dams. Both protein intake and exercise significantly affect normal parturition and zinc metabolism in the rat.

  14. Foxp2 mediates sex differences in ultrasonic vocalization by rat pups and directs order of maternal retrieval.

    PubMed

    Bowers, J Michael; Perez-Pouchoulen, Miguel; Edwards, N Shalon; McCarthy, Margaret M

    2013-02-20

    The FOXP2 gene is central to acquisition of speech and language in humans and vocal production in birds and mammals. Rodents communicate via ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) and newborn pups emit distress USVs when separated from their dam, thereby facilitating their retrieval. We observed that isolated male rat pups emitted substantially more USV calls and these were characterized by a significantly lower frequency and amplitude compared with female rat pups. Moreover, the dam was more likely to first retrieve male pups back to the nest, then females. The amount of Foxp2 protein was significantly higher in multiple regions of the developing male brain compared with females and a reduction of brain Foxp2 by siRNA eliminated the sex differences in USVs and altered the order of pup retrieval. Our results implicate Foxp2 as a component of the neurobiological basis of sex differences in vocal communication in mammals. We extended these observations to humans, a species reported to have gender differences in language acquisition, and found the amount of FOXP2 protein in the left hemisphere cortex of 4-year-old boys was significantly lower than in age-matched girls. PMID:23426656

  15. Effect of the adenosine A 2A receptor antagonist MSX-3 on motivational disruptions of maternal behavior induced by dopamine antagonism in the early postpartum rat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mariana Pereira; Andrew M. Farrar; Jörg Hockemeyer; Christa E. Müller; John D. Salamone; Joan I. Morrell

    2011-01-01

    Rationale  Mesolimbic dopamine (DA), particularly in the nucleus accumbens, importantly regulates activational aspects of maternal responsiveness.\\u000a DA antagonism and accumbens DA depletions interfere with early postpartum maternal motivation by selectively affecting most\\u000a forms of active maternal behaviors, while leaving nursing behavior relatively intact. Considerable evidence indicates that\\u000a there is a functional interaction between DA D2 and adenosine A2A receptors in striatal

  16. Maternal exposure to titanium dioxide nanoparticles during pregnancy; impaired memory and decreased hippocampal cell proliferation in rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Mohammadipour, Abbas; Fazel, Alireza; Haghir, Hossein; Motejaded, Fatemeh; Rafatpanah, Houshang; Zabihi, Hoda; Hosseini, Mahmoud; Bideskan, Alireza Ebrahimzadeh

    2014-03-01

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2-NPs) are massively produced in the environment, and because of their wide usage, they are a potential risk of damage to human health. TiO2-NPs are often used as additives for paints, papers, and foods. The central nervous system (CNS), including hippocampal regions, is potentially susceptible targets for TiO2-NPs. This study aimed to determine the effects of exposure to TiO2-NPs during pregnancy on hippocampal cell proliferation and the learning and memory of offspring. Pregnant Wistar rats received intragastric TiO2-NPs (100 mg/kg body weight) daily from gestational day (GD) 2 to (GD) 21. Animals in the control group received the same volume of distilled water via gavage. After delivery, the one-day-old neonates were deeply anesthetized and weighed. They were then killed and the brains of each group were collected. Sections of the brains from the rat offspring were stained using Ki-67 immunolabeling and the immunohistochemistry technique. Some of the male offspring (n=12 for each group) were weaned at postnatal day (PND21), and housed until adulthood (PND60). Then the learning and memory in animals of each group were evaluated using passive avoidance and Morris water maze tests. The immunolabeling of Ki-67 protein as a proliferating cell marker showed that TiO2-NPs significantly reduced cell proliferation in the hippocampus of the offspring (P<0.05). Moreover, both the Morris water maze test and the passive avoidance test showed that exposure to TiO2-NPs significantly impaired learning and memory in offspring (P<0.05). These results may provide basic experimental evidence for a better understanding of the neurotoxic effects of TiO2-NPs on neonatal and adult brains. PMID:24577229

  17. Effects of an Early Experience of Reward through Maternal Contact or its Denial on Laterality of Protein Expression in the Developing Rat Hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Raftogianni, Androniki; Stamatakis, Antonios; Papadopoulou, Angeliki; Vougas, Konstantinos; Anagnostopoulos, Athanasios K.; Stylianopoulou, Fotini; Tsangaris, George Th.

    2012-01-01

    Laterality is a basic characteristic of the brain which is detectable early in life. Although early experiences affect laterality of the mature brain, there are no reports on their immediate neurochemical effects during neonatal life, which could provide evidence as to the mechanisms leading to the lateralized brain. In order to address this issue, we determined the differential protein expression profile of the left and right hippocampus of 13-day-old rat control (CTR) pups, as well as following exposure to an early experience involving either receipt (RER) or denial (DER) of the expected reward of maternal contact. Proteomic analysis was performed by 2-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) followed by mass spectroscopy. The majority of proteins found to be differentially expressed either between the three experimental groups (DER, RER, CTR) or between the left and right hemisphere were cytoskeletal (34%), enzymes of energy metabolism (32%), and heat shock proteins (17%). In all three groups more proteins were up-regulated in the left compared to the right hippocampus. Tubulins were found to be most often up-regulated, always in the left hippocampus. The differential expression of ?-tubulin, ?-actin, dihydropyrimidinase like protein 1, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and Heat Shock protein 70 revealed by the proteomic analysis was in general confirmed by Western blots. Exposure to the early experience affected brain asymmetry: In the RER pups the ratio of proteins up-regulated in the left hippocampus to those in the right was 1.8, while the respective ratio was 3.6 in the CTR and 3.4 in the DER. Our results could contribute to the elucidation of the cellular mechanisms mediating the effects of early experiences on the vulnerability for psychopathology, since proteins shown in our study to be differentially expressed (e.g. tubulins, dihydropyrimidinase like proteins, 14-3-3 protein, GFAP, ATP synthase, ?-internexin) have also been identified in proteomic analyses of post-mortem brains from psychiatric patients. PMID:23118990

  18. Effect of maternal immune activation on the kynurenine pathway in preadolescent rat offspring and on MK801-induced hyperlocomotion in adulthood: amelioration by COX-2 inhibition.

    PubMed

    Zavitsanou, Katerina; Lim, Chai K; Purves-Tyson, Tertia; Karl, Tim; Kassiou, Michael; Banister, Samuel D; Guillemin, Gilles J; Weickert, Cynthia Shannon

    2014-10-01

    Infections during pregnancy and subsequent maternal immune activation (MIA) increase risk for schizophrenia in offspring. The progeny of rodents injected with the viral infection mimic polyI:C during gestation display brain and behavioural abnormalities but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Since the blood kynurenine pathway (KP) of tryptophan degradation impacts brain function and is strongly regulated by the immune system, we tested if KP changes occur in polyI:C offspring at preadolescence. We also tested whether MK801-induced hyperlocomotion, a behaviour characteristic of adult polyI:C offspring, is prevented by adolescent treatment with celecoxib, a COX-2 inhibitor that impacts the KP. Pregnant rats were treated with polyI:C (4mg/kg, i.v.) or vehicle on gestational day 19. Serum levels of KP metabolites were measured in offspring of polyI:C or vehicle treated dams at postnatal day (PND) 31-33 using HPLC/GCMS. Additional polyI:C or vehicle exposed offspring were given celecoxib or vehicle between PND 35 and 46 and tested with MK801 (0.3mg/kg) in adulthood (PND>90). Prenatal polyI:C resulted in increases in the serum KP neurotoxic metabolite quinolinic acid at PND 31-33 (105%, p=0.014). In contrast, the neuroprotective kynurenic acid and its precursor kynurenine were significantly decreased (28% p=0.027, and 31% p=0.033, respectively). Picolinic acid, another neuroprotective KP metabolite, was increased (31%, p=0.014). Adolescent treatment with celecoxib (2.5 and 5mg/kg/day, i.p.) prevented the development of MK801-induced hyperlocomotion in adult polyI:C offspring. Our study reveals the blood KP as a potential mechanism by which MIA interferes with postnatal brain maturation and associated behavioural disturbances and emphasises the preventative potential of inflammation targeting drugs. PMID:24878170

  19. Effect of maternal exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals on reproduction and mammary gland development in female Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Manservisi, Fabiana; Gopalakrishnan, Kalpana; Tibaldi, Eva; Hysi, Albana; Iezzi, Manuela; Lambertini, Luca; Teitelbaum, Susan; Chen, Jia; Belpoggi, Fiorella

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the study is to determine whether low doses of "endocrine disrupting chemicals" (EDCs) affect the development and proliferative activity of the mammary glands (MGs). Adult parous/nulliparous female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were treated from post-natal day (PND) 1 until PND 180 with diethylphthalate (DEP), methylparaben (MPB), triclosan (TCS) and a mixture at doses comparable to human exposure. The doses (mg/kg b.w./day) were: DEP=0.173; MPB=0.105; TCS=0.05. EDC treatment resulted in mortality rates >20% in pups as early as lactation day 7. Significant morphological/histological changes were observed at the end of lactation in the MGs of EDC-treated dams. The total transcriptome profile as well as lactation-related genes in MGs also corroborate the morphological findings as more profound gene expression changes are present only at the weaning period. The study highlights the heightened sensitivity of the MGs during critical windows of exposure, particularly pregnancy and lactation, with an impact on pups' survival. PMID:25554385

  20. Maternal low protein diet reduces birth weight and increases brown adipose tissue UCP-1 and FNDC5 gene expression in male neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) plays an important role in regulating body weight (BW) by modifying thermogenesis. Maternal low protein (LP) diets reduce offspring birth weight. Increased BAT thermogenesis in utero may be one mechanism for the lower BW. However, whether maternal LP nutrition alters BAT...

  1. ROLE OF METALLOTHIONEIN INDUCTION AND ALTERED ZINC STATUS AS MATERNAL MEDIATORS OF DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY IN RATS: COMPARISON OF THE EFFECTS OF URETHANE AND STYRENE

    EPA Science Inventory

    We hypothesize that maternal metallothionein (MT) induction by toxic dosages of chemicals may contribute to or cause developmental toxicity by the following chain of events: ) maternal hepatic MT induction; 2) redistribution of Zn to the newly synthesized MT; 3) decreased circula...

  2. DIBUTYL PHTHALATE: MATERNAL EFFECTS VERSUS FETOTOXICITY (JOURNAL VERSION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dibutyl phthalate, a plasticizer, is a teratogen in mice and rabbits but produces fetal loss in the rat. Long-term dosing studies indicating reduced fertility in the rat suggested a maternal effect of the compound. The decidual cell response (DCR) and pregnant rats were used to e...

  3. Nature, nurture or nutrition? Impact of maternal nutrition on maternal care, offspring development and reproductive function

    PubMed Central

    Connor, K L; Vickers, M H; Beltrand, J; Meaney, M J; Sloboda, D M

    2012-01-01

    We have previously reported that offspring of mothers fed a high fat (HF) diet during pregnancy and lactation enter puberty early and are hyperleptinaemic, hyperinsulinaemic and obese as adults. Poor maternal care and bonding can also impact offspring development and disease risk. We therefore hypothesized that prenatal nutrition would affect maternal care and that an interaction may exist between a maternal HF diet and maternal care, subsequently impacting on offspring phenotype. Wistar rats were mated and randomized to control dams fed a control diet (CON) or dams fed a HF diet from conception until the end of lactation (HF). Maternal care was assessed by observing maternal licking and grooming of pups between postnatal day (P)3 and P8. Postweaning (P22), offspring were fed a control (–con) or HF (–hf) diet. From P27, pubertal onset was assessed. At ?P105 oestrous cyclicity was investigated. Maternal HF diet reduced maternal care; HF-fed mothers licked and groomed pups less than CON dams. Maternal fat:lean ratio was higher in HF dams at weaning and was associated with higher maternal plasma leptin and insulin concentrations, but there was no effect of maternal care on fat:lean ratio or maternal hormone levels. Both female and male offspring of HF dams were lighter from birth to P11 than offspring of CON dams, but by P19, HF offspring were heavier than controls. Prepubertal retroperitoneal fat mass was greater in pups from HF-fed dams compared to CON and was associated with elevated circulating leptin concentrations in females only, but there was neither an effect of maternal care, nor an interaction between maternal diet and care on prepubertal fat mass. Pups from HF-fed dams went into puberty early and this effect was exacerbated by a postweaning HF diet. Maternal and postweaning HF diets independently altered oestrous cyclicity in females: female offspring of HF-fed mothers were more likely to have prolonged or persistent oestrus, whilst female offspring fed a HF diet postweaning were more likely to have irregular oestrous cycles and were more likely to have prolonged or persistent oestrus. These data indicate that maternal HF nutrition during pregnancy and lactation results in a maternal obese phenotype and has significant impact on maternal care during lactation. Maternal and postweaning nutritional signals, independent of maternal care, alter offspring body fat pre-puberty and female reproductive function in adulthood, which may be associated with advanced ovarian ageing and altered fertility. PMID:22411006

  4. Effects of maternal and pre-weaning undernutrition in rat offspring: Age at reproductive senescence and intergenerational pup growth and viability

    EPA Science Inventory

    Maternal and/or postnatal undernutrition are widespread in human populations and are components of many experimental developmental and reproductive toxicology bio-assays. This study investigated in utero and/or pre-weaning undernutrition effects on reproductive maturation and se...

  5. Maternal micronutrients (folic acid and vitamin B 12) and omega 3 fatty acids: Implications for neurodevelopmental risk in the rat offspring

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suchitra Roy; Anvita Kale; Kamini Dangat; Pratiksha Sable; Asmita Kulkarni; Sadhana Joshi

    Altered maternal micronutrients (folic acid, vitamin B12) are suggested to be at the heart of intra-uterine programming of adult diseases. We have recently described interactions of folic acid, vitamin B12 and docosahexaenoic acid in one carbon metabolism that is considered to play a key role in regulation oxidative stress and chromatin methylation. However its impact on fetal oxidative stress and

  6. Maternal exposure to 3,3'-iminodipropionitrile targets late-stage differentiation of hippocampal granule cell lineages to affect brain-derived neurotrophic factor signaling and interneuron subpopulations in rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Itahashi, Megu; Abe, Hajime; Tanaka, Takeshi; Mizukami, Sayaka; Kikuchihara, Yoh; Yoshida, Toshinori; Shibutani, Makoto

    2015-08-01

    3,3'-Iminodipropionitrile (IDPN) causes neurofilament (NF)-filled swellings in the proximal segments of many large-caliber myelinated axons. This study investigated the effect of maternal exposure to IDPN on hippocampal neurogenesis in rat offspring using pregnant rats supplemented with 0 (controls), 67 or 200?ppm IDPN in drinking water from gestational day 6 to day 21 after delivery. On postnatal day (PND) 21, female offspring subjected to analysis had decreased parvalbumin(+) , reelin(+) and phospho-TrkB(+) interneurons in the dentate hilus at 200?ppm and increased granule cell populations expressing immediate-early gene products, Arc or c-Fos, at ???67?ppm. mRNA expression in the dentate gyrus examined at 200?ppm decreased with brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf) and very low density lipoprotein receptor. Immunoreactivity for phosphorylated NF heavy polypeptide decreased in the molecular layer of the dentate gyrus and the stratum radiatum of the cornu ammonis (CA) 3, portions showing axonal projections from mossy cells and pyramidal neurons, at 200?ppm on PND 21, whereas immunoreactivity for synaptophysin was unchanged in the dentate gyrus. Observed changes all disappeared on PND 77. There were no fluctuations in the numbers of apoptotic cells, proliferating cells and subpopulations of granule cell lineage in the subgranular zone on PND 21 and PND 77. Thus, maternal IDPN exposure may reversibly affect late-stage differentiation of granule cell lineages involving neuronal plasticity as evident by immediate-early gene responses to cause BDNF downregulation resulting in a reduction in parvalbumin(+) or reelin(+) interneurons and suppression of axonal plasticity in the mossy cells and CA3 pyramidal neurons. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25424614

  7. Transcriptome analysis of porcine M. semimembranosus divergent in intramuscular fat as a consequence of dietary protein restriction

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Intramuscular fat (IMF) content is positively correlated with aspects of pork palatability, including flavour, juiciness and overall acceptability. The ratio of energy to protein in the finishing diet of growing pigs can impact on IMF content with consequences for pork quality. The objective of this study was to compare gene expression profiles of Musculus semimembranosus (SM) of animals divergent for IMF as a consequence of protein dietary restriction in an isocaloric diet. The animal model was derived through the imposition of low or high protein diets during the finisher stage in Duroc gilts. RNA was extracted from post mortem SM tissue, processed and hybridised to Affymetrix porcine GeneChip® arrays. Results IMF content of SM muscle was increased on the low protein diet (3.60?±?0.38% versus 1.92?±?0.35%). Backfat depth was also greater in animals on the low protein diet, and average daily gain and feed conversion ratio were lower, but muscle depth, protein content and moisture content were not affected. A total of 542 annotated genes were differentially expressed (DE) between animals on low and high protein diets, with 351 down-regulated and 191 up-regulated on the low protein diet. Transcript differences were validated for a subset of DE genes by qPCR. Alterations in functions related to cell cycle, muscle growth, extracellular matrix organisation, collagen development, lipogenesis and lipolysis, were observed. Expression of adipokines including LEP, TNF? and HIF1? were increased and the hypoxic stress response was induced. Many of the identified transcriptomic responses have also been observed in genetic and fetal programming models of differential IMF accumulation, indicating they may be robust biological indicators of IMF content. Conclusion An extensive perturbation of overall energy metabolism in muscle occurs in response to protein restriction. A low protein diet can modulate IMF content of the SM by altering gene pathways involved in lipid biosynthesis and degradation; however this nutritional challenge negatively impacts protein synthesis pathways, with potential consequences for growth. PMID:23829541

  8. Maternal and Neonatal Tetanus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martha H Roper; Jos H Vandelaer; François L Gasse

    2008-01-01

    Maternal and neonatal tetanus are important causes of maternal and neonatal mortality, claiming about 180 000 lives worldwide every year, almost exclusively in developing countries. Although easily prevented by maternal immunisation with tetanus toxoid vaccine, and aseptic obstetric and postnatal umbilical-cord care practices, maternal and neonatal tetanus persist as public-health problems in 48 countries, mainly in Asia and Africa. Survival

  9. A maternal high-protein diet predisposes female offspring to increased fat mass in adulthood whereas a prebiotic fibre diet decreases fat mass in rats.

    PubMed

    Hallam, Megan C; Reimer, Raylene A

    2013-11-14

    The negative effects of malnourishment in utero have been widely explored; the effects of increased maternal macronutrient intake are not known in relation to high fibre, and have been inconclusive with regard to high protein. In the present study, virgin Wistar dams were fed either a control (C), high-protein (40 %, w/w; HP) or high-prebiotic fibre (21·6 %, w/w; HF) diet throughout pregnancy and lactation. Pups consumed the C diet from 3 to 14·5 weeks of age, and then switched to a high-fat/sucrose diet for 8 weeks. A dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan and an oral glucose tolerance test were performed and plasma satiety hormones measured. The final body weight and the percentage of body fat were significantly affected by the interaction between maternal diet and offspring sex: weight and fat mass were higher in the female offspring of the HP v. HF dams. No differences in body weight or fat mass were seen in the male offspring. There was a significant sex effect for fasting and total AUC for ghrelin and fasting GIP, with females having higher levels than males. Liver TAG content and plasma NEFA were lower in the offspring of high-prebiotic fibre dams (HF1) than in those of high-protein dams (HP1) and control dams (C1). Intestinal expression of GLUT2 was decreased in HF1 and HP1 v. C1. The maternal HP and HF diets had lasting effects on body fat and hepatic TAG accumulation in the offspring, particularly in females. Whereas the HP diet predisposes to an obese phenotype, the maternal HF diet appears to reduce the susceptibility to obesity following a high-energy diet challenge in adulthood. PMID:23561448

  10. Protein restriction during pregnancy induces hypertension and impairs endothelium-dependent vascular function in adult female offspring.

    PubMed

    Sathishkumar, Kunju; Elkins, Rebekah; Yallampalli, Uma; Yallampalli, Chandra

    2009-01-01

    Intrauterine undernutrition plays a role in the development of adult hypertension. Most studies are done in male offspring to delineate the mechanisms whereby blood pressure may be raised; however, the vascular mechanisms involved in female offspring are unclear. Female offspring of pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats fed either a control (C; 18%) or a low-protein (LP; 6%) diet during pregnancy were used. Birth weight and later growth were markedly lower in LP than in C offspring. LP offspring exhibited impaired estrous cyclicity with increased mean arterial pressure. Hypotensive response to acetylcholine (ACh) and the hypertensive response to phenylephrine (PE) were greater in LP than in C rats. N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) induced greater hypertensive responses in C than in LP rats. Endothelium-intact mesenteric arteries from LP offspring exhibited increased contractile responses to PE and reduced vasodilation in response to ACh. In endothelium-denuded arteries, relaxation responses to sodium nitroprusside were similar in both groups. Basal and ACh-induced increase in vascular nitrite/nitrate production was lower in LP than in C offspring. L-NAME or 1H-1,2,4-oxadiazolo-4,3-quinoxalin-1-one inhibited ACh relaxations and enhanced PE contractions in C offspring, but had minimal effect in LP rats. The decreased NO-mediated vascular response might explain the increased vascular contraction and arterial pressure in female offspring with low birth weight. PMID:18957856

  11. Understanding the Role of Maternal Diet on Kidney Development; an Opportunity to Improve Cardiovascular and Renal Health for Future Generations

    PubMed Central

    Wood-Bradley, Ryan James; Barrand, Sanna; Giot, Anais; Armitage, James Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The leading causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide are cardiovascular disease (high blood pressure, high cholesterol and renal disease), cancer and diabetes. It is increasingly obvious that the development of these diseases encompasses complex interactions between adult lifestyle and genetic predisposition. Maternal malnutrition can influence the fetal and early life environment and pose a risk factor for the future development of adult diseases, most likely due to impaired organogenesis in the developing offspring. This then predisposes these offspring to cardiovascular disease and renal dysfunction in adulthood. Studies in experimental animals have further illustrated the significant impact maternal diet has on offspring health. Many studies report changes in kidney structure (a reduction in the number of nephrons in the kidney) in offspring of protein-deprived dams. Although the early studies suggested that increased blood pressure was also present in offspring of protein-restricted dams, this is not a universal finding and requires clarification. Importantly, to date, the literature offers little to no understanding of when in development these changes in kidney development occur, nor are the cellular and molecular mechanisms that drive these changes well characterised. Moreover, the mechanisms linking maternal nutrition and a suboptimal renal phenotype in offspring are yet to be discerned—one potential mechanism involves epigenetics. This review will focus on recent information on potential mechanisms by which maternal nutrition (focusing on malnutrition due to protein restriction, micronutrient restriction and excessive fat intake) influences kidney development and thereby function in later life. PMID:25774605

  12. Effects of experimentally induced maternal hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism on the development of rat offspring: II-the developmental pattern of neurons in relation to oxidative stress and antioxidant defense system.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, O M; Ahmed, R G; El-Gareib, A W; El-Bakry, A M; Abd El-Tawab, S M

    2012-10-01

    Excessive concentrations of free radicals in the developing brain may lead to neurons maldevelopment and neurons damage and death. Thyroid hormones (THs) states play an important role in affecting the modulation of oxidative stress and antioxidant defense system. Thus, the objective of this study was to clarify the effect of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism in rat dams on the neurons development of different brain regions of their offspring at several postnatal weeks in relation to changes in the oxidative stress and antioxidant defense system. The adult female rats were administered methimazole (MMI) in drinking water (0.02% w/v) from gestation day 1 to lactation day 21 to induce hypothyroidism and exogenous thyroxine (T4) in drinking water (0.002% w/v) beside intragastric incubation of 50--200 T4 ?g/kg body weight (b. wt.) to induce hyperthyroidism. In normal female rats, the sera total thyroxine (TT4) and total triiodothyronine (TT3) levels were detectably increased at day 10 post-partum than those at day 10 of pregnancy. Free thyroxine (FT4), free triiodothyronine (FT3), thyrotropin (TSH) and growth hormone (GH) concentrations in normal offspring were elevated at first, second and third postnatal weeks in an age-dependent manner. In hypothyroid group, a marked depression was observed in sera of dam TT3 and TT4 as well as offspring FT3, FT4 and GH, while there was a significant increase in TSH level with the age progress. The reverse pattern to latter state was recorded in hyperthyroid group. Concomitantly, in control offspring, the rate of neuron development in both cerebellar and cerebral cortex was increased in its density and complexity with age progress. This development may depend, largely, on THs state. Both maternal hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism caused severe growth retardation in neurons of these regions of their offspring from the first to third weeks. Additionally, in normal offspring, seven antioxidant enzymes, four non-enzymatic antioxidants and one oxidative stress marker (lipid peroxidation, LPO) followed a synchronized course of alterations in cerebrum, cerebellum and medulla oblongata. In both thyroid states, the oxidative damage has been demonstrated by the increased LPO and inhibition of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants in most examined ages and brain regions. These disturbances in the antioxidant defense system led to deterioration in the neuronal maturation and development. In conclusion, it can be suggested that the maldevelopment of neurons and dendrites in different brain regions of offspring of hypothyroid and hyperthyroid mother rat dams may be attributed, at least in part, to the excess oxidative stress and deteriorated antioxidant defense system in such conditions. PMID:22664656

  13. Studies of a nuclear matrix protein restricted to normal brain cells and lead-induced intranuclear inclusion bodies of kidney

    SciTech Connect

    Shelton, K.; Egle, P.; Redford, K.; Bigbee, J.

    1986-05-01

    A nuclear matrix protein, p32/6.3, with an unusual tissue distribution, has been identified. Protein from 21 tissues was surveyed by immunoprobing Western blots. In normal adult rats p32/6.3 is found only in grey matter from the cerebrum and the cerebellum, occurring in both neurons and astrocytes. Other brain cell types have not been examined. The protein appears to be developmentally regulated. It is detectable in the brain within a few days after birth and reaches adult levels within one to two weeks. Brain p32/6.3 has been found in all animals tested including rat, mouse, dog, cow, pig, chicken and human. This conservation indicates a fundamental role for p32/6.3 in the nucleus of brain cells. Possible functions for p32/6.3 may be indicated by a second novel occurrence. Chronic lead poisoning characteristically induces intranuclear inclusion bodies in the cells lining kidney proximal tubules. p32/6.3 is a major constituent of these inclusion bodies. They are also rich in lead and other metals including calcium, iron, zinc, copper and cadmium. These diverse observations suggest that p32/6.3 may have a role in metal homeostasis in the brain of normal animals.

  14. Various Dietary Protein Intakes and Progression of Renal Failure in Spontaneously Hypercholesterolemic Imai Rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiang-Ming Liang; Haruhisa Otani; Qin Zhou; Yoshinori Tone; Ryoichi Fujii; Masatoshi Mune; Susumu Yukawa; Tadao Akizawa

    2007-01-01

    Background\\/Aim: Dietary protein restriction is known to be beneficial in the preservation of the renal function in patients with chronic renal failure. Recently, the effect of varying quantity and quality of dietary protein intakes was also studied. This study investigates the effects of different dietary animal proteins on renal function in spontaneously hypercholesterolemic Imai rats that exhibit renal lesions similar

  15. Foetal life protein restriction in male mink (Neovison vison) kits lowers post-weaning protein oxidation and the relative abundance of hepatic fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase mRNA.

    PubMed

    Matthiesen, C F; Blache, D; Thomsen, P D; Tauson, A-H

    2012-01-01

    Foetal life malnutrition has been studied intensively in a number of animal models. Results show that especially foetal life protein malnutrition can lead to metabolic changes later in life. This might be of particular importance for strict carnivores, for example, cat and mink (Neovison vison) because of their higher protein requirement than in other domestic mammals. This study aimed to investigate the effects of low protein provision during foetal life to male mink kits on their protein metabolism during the early post-weaning period of rapid growth and to investigate whether foetal life protein deficiency affects the response to adequate or deficient protein provision post weaning. Further, we intended to study whether the changes in the gene expression of key enzymes in foetal hepatic tissue caused by maternal protein deficiency were manifested post-weaning. A total of 32 male mink kits born to mothers fed either a low-protein diet (LP), that is, 14% of metabolizable energy (ME) from protein (foetal low - FL), n = 16, or an adequate-protein (AP) diet, that is, 29% of ME from protein (foetal adequate - FA), n = 16) in the last 16.3 ± 1.8 days of pregnancy were used. The FL offspring had lower birth weight and lower relative abundance of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (Fru-1,6-P2ase) and pyruvate kinase mRNA in foetal hepatic tissue than FA kits. The mothers were fed a diet containing adequate protein until weaning. At weaning (7 weeks of age), half of the kits from each foetal treatment group were fed an AP diet (32% of ME from protein; n = 8 FA and 8 FL) and the other half were fed a LP diet (18% of ME from protein; n = 8 FA and 8 FL) until 9.5 weeks of age, yielding four treatment groups (i.e. FA-AP, FA-LP, FL-AP and FL-LP). Low protein provision in foetal life lowered the protein oxidation post-weaning compared with the controls (P = 0.006), indicating metabolic flexibility and a better ability to conserve protein. This could not, however, be supported by changes in liver mass because of foetal life experience. A lower relative abundance of Fru-1,6-P2ase mRNA was observed (P < 0.05), being lower in 9.5-week-old FL than in FA kits. It can be concluded that foetal life protein restriction leads to changes in post-weaning protein metabolism through lower protein oxidation of male mink kits. PMID:22436154

  16. Effects of glutamine supplementation on gut barrier, glutathione content and acute phase response in malnourished rats during inflammatory shock

    PubMed Central

    Belmonte, Liliana; Coëffier, Moïse; Pessot, Florence Le; Miralles-Barrachina, Olga; Hiron, Martine; Leplingard, Antony; Lemeland, Jean-François; Hecketsweiler, Bernadette; Daveau, Maryvonne; Ducrotté, Philippe; Déchelotte, Pierre

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the effect of glutamine on intestinal mucosa integrity, glutathione stores and acute phase response in protein-depleted rats during an inflammatory shock. METHODS: Plasma acute phase proteins (APP), jejunal APP mRNA levels, liver and jejunal glutathione concentrations were measured before and one, three and seven days after turpentine injection in 4 groups of control, protein-restricted, protein-restricted rats supplemented with glutamine or protein powder. Bacterial translocation in mesenteric lymph nodes and intestinal morphology were also assessed. RESULTS: Protein deprivation and turpentine injection significantly reduced jejunal villus height, and crypt depths. Mucosal glutathione concentration significantly decreased in protein-restricted rats. Before turpentine oil, glutamine supplementation restored villus heights and glutathione concentration (3.24 ± 1.05 vs 1.72 ± 0.46 ?mol/g tissue, P < 0.05) in the jejunum, whereas in the liver glutathione remained low. Glutamine markedly increased jejunal ?1-acid glycoprotein mRNA level after turpentine oil but did not affect its plasma concentration. Bacterial translocation in protein-restricted rats was not prevented by glutamine or protein powder supplementation. CONCLUSION: Glutamine restored gut glutathione stores and villus heights in malnourished rats but had no preventive effect on bacterial translocation in our model. PMID:17569119

  17. Comparison of fetal and maternal susceptibility to decompression sickness 

    E-print Network

    Brown, Steven Dunning

    1979-01-01

    that there is abundant passage of material through the layers of the placental membrane between mother and fetus, in both directions. Each layer is usually no more than one cell thick. The rat and human have a hemochorial placenta composed of four layers: three fetal... to compared fetal and maternal suscepti- bility to decompression sickness, Sheep were used because fetal and maternal circulation of sheep and human placentas are dynamically similar. Nine pregnant ewes within four weeks of parturition and of known...

  18. Impaired Hypothalamic mTOR Activation in the Adult Rat Offspring Born to Mothers Fed a Low-Protein Diet

    PubMed Central

    Guzmán-Quevedo, Omar; Da Silva Aragão, Raquel; Pérez García, Georgina; Matos, Rhowena J. B.; de Sa Braga Oliveira, André; de Castro, Raul Manhães; Bolaños-Jiménez, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    Several epidemiological and experimental studies have clearly established that maternal malnutrition induces a high risk of developing obesity and related metabolic diseases in the offspring. To determine if altered nutrient sensing might underlie this enhanced disease susceptibility, here we examined the effects of perinatal protein restriction on the activation of the nutrient sensor mTOR in response to acute variations in the nutritional status of the organism. Female Wistar rats were fed isocaloric diets containing either 17% protein (control) or 8% protein (PR) throughout pregnancy and lactation. At weaning offspring received standard chow and at 4 months of age the effects of fasting or fasting plus re-feeding on the phosphorylation levels of mTOR and its downstream target S6 ribosomal protein (rpS6) in the hypothalamus were assessed by immuno-fluorescence and western blot. Under ad libitum feeding conditions, PR rats exhibited decreased mTOR and rpS6 phosphorylation in the arcuate (ARC) and ventromedial (VMH) hypothalamic nuclei. Moreover, the phosphorylation of mTOR and rpS6 in these hypothalamic nuclei decreased with fasting in control but not in PR animals. Conversely, PR animals exhibited enhanced number of pmTOR imunostained cells in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and fasting decreased the activation of mTOR in the PVN of malnourished but not of control rats. These alterations occurred at a developmental stage at which perinatally-undernourished animals do not show yet obesity or glucose intolerance. Collectively, our observations suggest that altered hypothalamic nutrient sensing in response to an inadequate foetal and neonatal energetic environment is one of the basic mechanisms of the developmental programming of metabolic disorders and might play a causing role in the development of the metabolic syndrome induced by malnutrition during early life. PMID:24040371

  19. Effects of Intake of Maternal Dietary Elaidic Acids during Pregnancy and Lactation on the Fatty Acid Composition of Plasma, Erythrocyte Membrane, and Brain in Rat Pups

    PubMed Central

    Eda, Ayumi; Kameoka, Rie; Nakashima, Yoko

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the effects of a dam's dietary elaidic acid (EA) intake during pregnancy and lactation on the fatty acid composition of plasma, erythrocyte membrane, and brain in rat pups, we fed two groups of dams either a soybean oil diet (SOD) or a shortening diet (SHD) containing soybean oil (10%) or shortening (10%), respectively. Although EA was not detected in the SOD, EA accounted for 25.3% of all fatty acid content in the SHD. On day 8 after birth, the EA levels in the stomach, plasma, and erythrocyte membrane of pups nursed by the dams fed the SHD were 11.6 ± 1.03%, 7.18 ± 1.20%, and 5.82 ± 1.00%, respectively. Although on day 8 after birth the EA level of the brains of pups nursed by SHD-fed dams was 0.56 ± 0.24%, EA was not detected on day 21 or day 82 after birth. These results suggest that EA intake during pregnancy and lactation supplies EA to plasma, remains in the erythrocyte membrane of pups, and moves into the brain in early infancy. PMID:24194980

  20. The phosphodiesterase type-5 inhibitor, tadalafil, improves depressive symptoms, ameliorates memory impairment, as well as suppresses apoptosis and enhances cell proliferation in the hippocampus of maternal-separated rat pups

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sang-Bin Baek; Geonho Bahn; Su-Jin Moon; Jiah Lee; Khae-Hawn Kim; Il-Gyu Ko; Sung-Eun Kim; Yun-Hee Sung; Bo-Kyun Kim; Tae-Soo Kim; Chang-Ju Kim; Mal-Soon Shin

    2011-01-01

    Early adverse experiences resulting from maternal separation may lead to neuronal cell death and eventually cause memory impairment. Maternal separation has been used to create a valid animal model of early life stress and a depression-like syndrome. The phosphodiesterase (PDE)-5 inhibitor, tadalafil (Cialis), is a widely prescribed agent for the treatment of erectile dysfunction. In this study, we investigated the

  1. Low-Protein Diet Changes Thyroid Function in Lactating Rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cristiane Fonte Ramos; Cintia Vilanova Teixeira; Magna Cottini Fonseca Passos; Carmen Cabanellas Pazos-Moura; Patricia Cristina Lisboa; Flavio Henrique Curty; Egberto Gaspar de Moura

    2000-01-01

    Lactating rats were fed with free access to an 8% protein-restricted diet (PR); the control group was fed a 23% protein diet (C). An energy-restricted (pair-fed) group was given the same food as the animals in the control group, but the amounts of food consumed by both PF and PR were about the same. The body weight and serum albumin

  2. Poor maternal nutrition followed by accelerated postnatal growth leads to alterations in DNA damage and repair, oxidative and nitrosative stress, and oxidative defense capacity in rat heart.

    PubMed

    Tarry-Adkins, Jane L; Martin-Gronert, Malgorzata S; Fernandez-Twinn, Denise S; Hargreaves, Iain; Alfaradhi, Maria Z; Land, John M; Aiken, Catherine E; Ozanne, Susan E

    2013-01-01

    Low birth weight and accelerated postnatal growth lead to increased risk of cardiovascular disease. We reported previously that rats exposed to a low-protein diet in utero and postnatal catch-up growth (recuperated) develop metabolic dysfunction and have reduced life span. Here we explored the hypothesis that cardiac oxidative and nitrosative stress leading to DNA damage and accelerated cellular aging could contribute to these phenotypes. Recuperated animals had a low birth weight (P<0.001) but caught up in weight to controls during lactation. At weaning, recuperated cardiac tissue had increased (P<0.05) protein nitrotyrosination and DNA single-stranded breaks. This condition was preceded by increased expression of DNA damage repair molecules 8-oxoguanine-DNA-glycosylase-1, nei-endonuclease-VIII-like, X-ray-repair-complementing-defective-repair-1, and Nthl endonuclease III-like-1 on d 3. These differences were maintained on d 22 and became more pronounced in the case of 8-oxoguanine-DNA-glycosylase-1 and nei-endonuclease-VIII-like. This was accompanied by increases in xanthine oxidase (P<0.001) and NADPH oxidase (P<0.05), major sources of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The detrimental effects of increased ROS in recuperated offspring may be exaggerated at 22 d by reductions (P<0.001) in the antioxidant enzymes peroxiredoxin-3 and CuZn-superoxide-dismutase. We conclude that poor fetal nutrition followed by accelerated postnatal growth results in increased cardiac nitrosative and oxidative-stress and DNA damage, which could contribute to age-associated disease risk. PMID:23024373

  3. Concurrent maternal and pup postnatal tobacco smoke exposure in Wistar rats changes food preference and dopaminergic reward system parameters in the adult male offspring.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, C R; Moura, E G; Manhães, A C; Fraga, M C; Claudio-Neto, S; Abreu-Villaça, Y; Oliveira, E; Lisboa, P C

    2015-08-20

    Children from pregnant smokers are more susceptible to become obese adults and to become drug or food addicts. Drugs and food activate the mesolimbic reward pathway, causing a sense of pleasure that induces further consumption. Here, we studied the relationship between tobacco smoke exposure during lactation with feeding, behavior and brain dopaminergic reward system parameters at adulthood. Nursing Wistar rats and their pups were divided into two groups: tobacco smoke-exposed (S: 4times/day, from the 3rd to the 21th day of lactation), and ambient air-exposed (C). On PN175, both offspring groups were subdivided for a food challenge: S and C that received standard chow (SC) or that chose between high-fat (HFD) and high-sucrose diets (HSDs). Food intake was recorded after 30min and 12h. Offspring were tested in the elevated plus maze and open field on PN178-179; they were euthanized for dopaminergic analysis on PN180. SSD (self-selected diet) animals presented a higher food intake compared to SC ones. S-SSD animals ate more than C-SSD ones at 30min and 12h. Both groups preferred the HFD. However, S-SSD animals consumed relatively more HFD than C-SSD at 30min. No behavioral differences were observed between groups. S animals presented lower tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) content in the ventral tegmental area, lower TH, dopaminergic receptor 2, higher dopaminergic receptor 1 contents in the nucleus accumbens and lower OBRb in hypothalamic arcuate nucleus. Tobacco-smoke exposure during lactation increases preference for fat in the adult progeny possibly due to alterations in the dopaminergic system. PMID:26057445

  4. Maternal regulation of infant brain state.

    PubMed

    Sarro, Emma C; Wilson, Donald A; Sullivan, Regina M

    2014-07-21

    Patterns of neural activity are critical for sculpting the immature brain, and disrupting this activity is believed to underlie neurodevelopmental disorders [1-3]. Neural circuits undergo extensive activity-dependent postnatal structural and functional changes [4-6]. The different forms of neural plasticity [7-9] underlying these changes have been linked to specific patterns of spatiotemporal activity. Since maternal behavior is the mammalian infant's major source of sensory-driven environmental stimulation and the quality of this care can dramatically affect neurobehavioral development [10], we explored, for the first time, whether infant cortical activity is influenced directly by interactions with the mother within the natural nest environment. We recorded spontaneous neocortical local field potentials in freely behaving infant rats during natural interactions with their mother on postnatal days ?12-19. We showed that maternal absence from the nest increased cortical desynchrony. Further isolating the pup by removing littermates induced further desynchronization. The mother's return to the nest reduced this desynchrony, and nipple attachment induced a further reduction but increased slow-wave activity. However, maternal simulation of pups (e.g., grooming and milk ejection) consistently produced rapid, transient cortical desynchrony. The magnitude of these maternal effects decreased with age. Finally, systemic blockade of noradrenergic beta receptors led to reduced maternal regulation of infant cortical activity. Our results demonstrate that during early development, mother-infant interactions can immediately affect infant brain activity, in part via a noradrenergic mechanism, suggesting a powerful influence of the maternal behavior and presence on circuit development. PMID:24980504

  5. The effects of graded levels of calorie restriction: I. impact of short term calorie and protein restriction on body composition in the C57BL/6 mouse.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Sharon E; Tang, Zhanhui; Kerbois, Celine; Delville, Camille; Konstantopedos, Penelope; Bruel, Aurélie; Derous, Davina; Green, Cara; Aspden, Richard M; Goodyear, Simon R; Chen, Luonan; Han, Jackie J D; Wang, Yingchun; Promislow, Daniel E L; Lusseau, David; Douglas, Alex; Speakman, John R

    2015-06-30

    Faced with reduced levels of food, animals must adjust to the consequences of the shortfall in energy. We explored how C57BL/6 mice withdrew energy from different body tissues during three months of food restriction at graded levels up to 40% (calorie restriction: CR). We compared this to the response to equivalent levels of protein restriction (PR) without a shortfall in calories. Under CR there was a dynamic change in body mass over 30 days and thereafter it stabilized. The time to reach stability was independent of the level of restriction. At the end of three months whole body dissections revealed differential utilization of the different tissues. Adipose tissue depots were the most significantly utilized tissue, and provided 55.8 to 60.9% of the total released energy. In comparison, reductions in the sizes of structural tissues contributed between 29.8 and 38.7% of the energy. The balance was made up by relatively small changes in the vital organs. The components of the alimentary tract grew slightly under restriction, particularly the stomach, and this was associated with a parallel increase in assimilation efficiency of the food (averaging 1.73%). None of the changes under CR were recapitulated by equivalent levels of PR. PMID:26079539

  6. Maternal overweight programs offspring insulin and adiponectin signaling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maternal overweight (OW) was induced in rats by overfeeding via total enteral nutrition. Male offspring from OW dams gained greater (p < 0.005) body weight and %fat mass assessed by NMR, X-ray CT and adipose tissue weights when fed high fat diet (45% fat). Hepatic microarray analyses at postnatal da...

  7. The Suppression of Maternal–Fetal Leukemia Inhibitory Factor Signal Relay Pathway by Maternal Immune Activation Impairs Brain Development in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Tsukada, Tsuyoshi; Simamura, Eriko; Shimada, Hiroki; Arai, Takuma; Higashi, Nobuaki; Akai, Takuya; Iizuka, Hideaki; Hatta, Toshihisa

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies in rodents suggest that maternal immune activation (MIA) by viral infection is associated with schizophrenia and autism in offspring. Although maternal IL-6 is though t to be a possible mediator relating MIA induced these neuropsychiatric disorders, the mechanism remains to be elucidated. Previously, we reported that the maternal leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF)–placental ACTH–fetal LIF signaling relay pathway (maternal–fetal LIF signal relay) promotes neurogenesis of fetal cerebrum in rats. Here we report that the maternal–fetal LIF signal relay in mice is suppressed by injection of polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidylic acid into dams, which induces MIA at 12.5 days post-coitum. Maternal IL-6 levels and gene expression of placental suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (Socs3) increased according to the severity of MIA and gene expression of placental Socs3 correlated with maternal IL-6 levels. Furthermore, we show that MIA causes reduction of LIF level in the fetal cerebrospinal fluid, resulting in the decreased neurogenesis in the cerebrum. These findings suggest that maternal IL-6 interferes the maternal–fetal LIF signal relay by inducing SOCS3 in the placenta and leads to decreased neurogenesis. PMID:26043040

  8. Maternal Scaffolding Behavior: Links With Parenting Style and Maternal Education

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amanda Carr; Alison Pike

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to specify the relationship between positive and harsh parenting and maternal scaffolding behavior. A 2nd aim was to disentangle the effects of maternal education and parenting quality, and a 3rd aim was to test whether parenting quality mediated the association between maternal education and scaffolding practices. We examined associations between positive and harsh parenting

  9. Plant development:: Medea's maternal instinct

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Justin Goodrich

    1998-01-01

    The Arabidopsis MEDEA gene is required in maternal tissues to restrict cell proliferation in embryos. Molecular characterisation indicates that MEDEA encodes a Polycomb-group protein, particularly intriguing as MEDEA's maternal effects may be a consequence of genomic imprinting.

  10. Media representation of maternal neonaticide

    E-print Network

    Lewis, Jocelyn Renee

    2008-10-10

    committing the criminal act of maternal neonaticide. These media representations of maternal neonaticide could impact the criminal justice system and public policy. Questions of accuracy, gendered understandings of crime and gendered understanding...

  11. Psychological stressors as a model of maternal adversity: diurnal modulation of corticosterone responses and changes in maternal behavior.

    PubMed

    Léonhardt, Marion; Matthews, Stephen G; Meaney, Michael J; Walker, Claire-Dominique

    2007-01-01

    Maternal adversity is associated with long-lasting consequences on cognitive development, behavior and physiological responses in rat offspring. Few studies have examined whether repeated maternal stress produces repeated activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in mothers and whether it modifies maternal behavior. Here, we tested a novel model of perinatal stress using repeated exposure to "purely" psychological stressors throughout the gestation and lactation periods in rats. We first tested the diurnal influences of repeated 1-h strobe light exposure on maternal corticosterone secretion. Despite the hyporesponsiveness to stress documented in late pregnant and lactating mothers, we observed an enhanced response to strobe light in the afternoon compared to the morning in stressed mothers during lactation. Next, dams were exposed to 24-h forced foraging followed by 10-h wet bedding during the diurnal peak of corticosterone secretion. Although no corticosterone responses to forced foraging and wet bedding were observed, the combination of both stressors had a significant effect on maternal behavior. Mother-pup interactions were significantly altered during the first 8 days of lactation. Taken together, these findings suggest that lactating mothers maintain responsiveness to specific and repeated psychological stressors, in particular at the time of the diurnal peak in corticosterone secretion. Depending on the stressor applied, either neuroendocrine activation or changes in maternal behavior might be important determinants of the long-term consequences in the offspring. The combination of forced foraging, wet bedding and strobe light might represent a novel model of mild maternal adversity using "purely" psychological stressors. PMID:17034794

  12. Maternal taurine supplementation attenuates maternal fructose-induced metabolic and inflammatory dysregulation and partially reverses adverse metabolic programming in offspring.

    PubMed

    Li, M; Reynolds, C M; Sloboda, D M; Gray, C; Vickers, M H

    2015-03-01

    Excessive fructose consumption is associated with insulin resistance (IR) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and high fructose intake during pregnancy can lead to compromised fetal development in the rat. Evidence suggests that the amino acid taurine can ameliorate fructose-induced IR and NAFLD in nonpregnant animals. This study investigated the efficacy of taurine supplementation on maternal fructose-induced metabolic dysfunction and neonatal health. Time-mated Wistar rats were randomized to four groups during pregnancy and lactation: (a) control diet (CON), (b) CON supplemented with 1.5% taurine in drinking water (CT), (c) CON supplemented with fructose solution (F) and (d) F supplemented with taurine (FT). Maternal and neonatal weights, plasma cytokines and hepatic gene expression were analyzed. Maternal hyperinsulinemia, increased homeostasis model assessment of IR indices and elevated proinflammatory cytokines were observed in F group and normalized in FT group. Maternal fructose-induced hepatic steatosis accompanied with increased liver weight was ameliorated with taurine supplementation. Maternal hepatic sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c and fatty acid synthase expression was significantly increased in the F group compared to the CON, CT and FT groups. Neonatal hepatic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase expression was increased in male F neonates compared to the CON, CT and FT groups and was increased in female F and FT neonates compared to CON and CT. Interleukin-1? expression was decreased in male CT and FT neonates compared to other male groups. Hepatic tumour necrosis factor receptor-1 was lower in the male FT group than the F group. These results demonstrate that maternal taurine supplementation can partially reverse fructose-induced maternal metabolic dysfunction and may ameliorate adverse developmental programming effects in offspring in a sex-specific manner. PMID:25576095

  13. Maternal Sexuality and Breastfeeding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartlett, Alison

    2005-01-01

    In this paper I consider the ways in which lactation has been discussed as a form of maternal sexuality, and the implications this carries for our understanding of breastfeeding practices and sexuality. Drawing on knowledge constructed in the western world during the last half of the twentieth century, the paper identifies a shift between the…

  14. Maternal Low-protein Diet Alters Ovarian Expression of Folliculogenic and Steroidogenic Genes and Their Regulatory MicroRNAs in Neonatal Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Sui, Shiyan; Jia, Yimin; He, Bin; Li, Runsheng; Li, Xian; Cai, Demin; Song, Haogang; Zhang, Rongkui; Zhao, Ruqian

    2014-01-01

    Maternal malnutrition during pregnancy may give rise to female offspring with disrupted ovary functions in adult age. Neonatal ovary development predisposes adult ovary function, yet the effect of maternal nutrition on the neonatal ovary has not been described. Therefore, here we show the impact of maternal protein restriction on the expression of folliculogenic and steroidogenic genes, their regulatory microRNAs and promoter DNA methylation in the ovary of neonatal piglets. Sows were fed either standard-protein (SP, 15% crude protein) or low-protein (LP, 7.5% crude protein) diets throughout gestation. Female piglets born to LP sows showed significantly decreased ovary weight relative to body weight (p<0.05) at birth, which was accompanied with an increased serum estradiol level (p<0.05). The LP piglets demonstrated higher ratio of bcl-2 associated X protein/B cell lymphoma/leukemia-2 mRNA (p<0.01), which was associated with up-regulated mRNA expression of bone morphogenic protein 4 (BMP4) (p<0.05) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) (p<0.05). The steroidogenic gene, cytochrome P450 aromatase (CYP19A1) was significantly down-regulated (p<0.05) in LP piglets. The alterations in ovarian gene expression were associated with a significant down-regulation of follicle-stimulating hormone receptor mRNA expression (p<0.05) in LP piglets. Moreover, three microRNAs, including miR-423-5p targeting both CYP19A1 and PCNA, miR-378 targeting CYP19A1 and miR-210 targeting BMP4, were significantly down-regulated (p<0.05) in the ovary of LP piglets. These results suggest that microRNAs are involved in mediating the effect of maternal protein restriction on ovarian function through regulating the expression of folliculogenic and steroidogenic genes in newborn piglets. PMID:25358362

  15. Phenylketonuria and maternal phenylketonuria.

    PubMed

    Purnell, H

    2001-07-01

    Phenylketonuria is a genetic disease affecting 1:10,000 to 14,000 live births. In NSW there is an average of nine cases diagnosed each year (Dietitians Working Party 1996). This paper discusses the management of phenylketonuria, and in particular the value of breastfeeding, complemented with a low phenylalanine infant formula, in facilitating easier maintenance of satisfactory phenylalanine blood levels. The 'diet for life' approach to managing phenylketonuria is to avoid long-term neurological deficits and, in particular, the risk that maternal PKU, which is not under strict dietary control, will have adverse effects on infants born of mothers with the disease. There have been 31 successful pregnancies to 1997 managed by the Nutrition and Dietetics Department of The Children's Hospital at Westmead, Sydney. The Maternal PKU diet is presented with the case of a client with phenylketonuria who has achieved two normal pregnancies and breastfed her second child for six months. PMID:11550601

  16. Rat Behavior, Book B, Explorations in Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mid-Continent Regional Educational Lab., Inc., Kansas City, MO.

    This booklet is part of a series which tests some skills biologists use in their investigations. Questions are asked about investigations of the maternal behavior of rats, which is related to the "puzzling events" presented in a series of photographs of rats in Skinner boxes in Booklet A (SE 011 340). In a series of questions, depending upon the…

  17. Translational control of maternal RNAs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas C. Evans; Craig P. Hunter

    2005-01-01

    Early development of many species depends on the temporal and spatial control of maternal gene products. This review discusses the control of maternal mRNAs that encode regulators of C. elegans embryogenesis. In the C. elegans embryo, maternal mRNA regulation is crucial to the patterning of early cell fates. Translational control of key mRNAs spatially organizes cell signaling pathways, localizes transcription

  18. Maternal obesity influences hepatic gene expression and genome-wide DNA methylation in offspring liver at weaning

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Offspring from obese rat dams gain greater body weight and fat mass when fed HFD. Here we examine hepatic gene expression related to systemic energy expenditure and alterations in genome-wide DNA methylation. Maternal obesity was produced in rats prior to conception via overfeeding of diets. At PND2...

  19. Long-Lasting Effect of Perinatal Exposure to L-tryptophan on Circadian Clock of Primary Cell Lines Established from Male Offspring Born from Mothers Fed on Dietary Protein Restriction

    PubMed Central

    Nascimento, Elizabeth; Guzman-Quevedo, Omar; Delacourt, Nellie; da Silva Aragão, Raquel; Perez-Garcia, Georgina; de Souza, Sandra Lopes; Manhães-de-Castro, Raul; Bolaños-Jiménez, Francisco; Kaeffer, Bertrand

    2013-01-01

    Background & Aims Maternal undernutrition programs metabolic adaptations which are ultimately detrimental to adult. L-tryptophan supplementation was given to manipulate the long-term sequelae of early-life programming by undernutrition and explore whether cultured cells retain circadian clock dysregulation. Methods Male rat pups from mothers fed on low protein (8%, LP) or control (18%, CP) diet were given, one hour before light off, an oral bolus of L-tryptophan (125 mg/kg) between Day-12 and Day-21 of age. Body weight, food intake, blood glucose along with the capacity of colonization of primary cells from biopsies were measured during the young (45–55 days) and adult (110–130 days) phases. Circadian clock oscillations were re-induced by a serum shock over 30 hours on near-confluent cell monolayers to follow PERIOD1 and CLOCK proteins by Fluorescent Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay (FLISA) and period1 and bmal1 mRNA by RT-PCR. Cell survival in amino acid-free conditions were used to measure circadian expression of MAP-LC3B, MAP-LC3B-FP and Survivin. Results Tryptophan supplementation did not alter body weight gain nor feeding pattern. By three-way ANOVA of blood glucose, sampling time was found significant during all phases. A significant interaction between daily bolus (Tryptophan, saline) and diets (LP, CP) were found during young (p?=?0.0291) and adult (p?=?0.0285) phases. In adult phase, the capacity of colonization at seeding of primary cells was twice lower for LP rats. By three-way ANOVA of PERIOD1 perinuclear/nuclear immunoreactivity during young phase, we found a significant effect of diets (p?=?0.049), daily bolus (p<0.0001) and synchronizer hours (p?=?0.0002). All factors were significantly interacting (p?=?0.0148). MAP-LC3B, MAP-LC3B-FP and Survivin were altered according to diets in young phase. Conclusions Sequelae of early-life undernutrition and the effects of L-tryptophan supplementation can be monitored non-invasively by circadian sampling of blood D-glucose and on the expression of PERIOD1 protein in established primary cell lines. PMID:23460795

  20. Child Health, Maternal Marital and Socioeconomic Factors, and Maternal Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garbarski, Dana; Witt, Whitney P.

    2013-01-01

    Although maternal socioeconomic status and health predict in part children's future health and socioeconomic prospects, it is possible that the intergenerational association flows in the other direction such that child health affects maternal outcomes. Previous research demonstrates that poor child health increases the risk of adverse…

  1. Pups call, mothers rush: does maternal responsiveness affect the amount of ultrasonic vocalizations in mouse pups?

    PubMed

    D'Amato, Francesca R; Scalera, Elisabetta; Sarli, Celeste; Moles, Anna

    2005-01-01

    In rats and mice, the ultrasonic vocalizations emitted by pups have been suggested to modulate maternal behavior. In the present study we show that the number of calls emitted by mouse pups can reflect maternal responsiveness. Maternal responsiveness towards pups was evaluated on postnatal day 8 using a three-compartment cage test where the mother, to reach the pups, had to cross the central part of the cage containing cues from a potentially infanticidal male. Maternal responsiveness was lower when alien rather than own pups were used as stimulus. Moreover, the administration of morphine (2.5 mg/kg, i.p.) a drug known to disrupt maternal behavior, resulted in an increase of the latency to reach the pups, as well. This behavioral and pharmacological validation supports the hypothesis that this measure can represent an index of maternal motivation. Therefore, we evaluated maternal responsiveness on day 8 postpartum and pups' ultrasound emission during isolation on day 4 and 8 of life, under conditions strongly affecting the amount of maternal behavior received by pups. C57BL/6 mothers scored higher in maternal responsiveness than BALB/c females, and their pups emitted fewer calls than BALB/c pups both on days 4 and 8. Mothers of handled pups scored higher than controls in maternal responsiveness. Handled pups showed a lower rate of calls on day 8, although they did not differ from controls on day 4. These results support our hypothesis that maternal responsiveness, that is mother promptness to respond to pups' needs, is one of the factors tuning the rate of ultrasonic emission of the offspring. PMID:15674537

  2. Impact of Maternal Deprivation on Brain Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone Circuits: Prevention of CRH Receptor2 mRNA Changes by Desipramine Treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Delia M Vázquez; Ramin Eskandari; Andrew Phelka; Juan F López

    2003-01-01

    Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) acts within the brain and pituitary to coordinate the overall endocrinological and behavioral stress response. From postnatal day (PND) 4 to 14, the infant rat displays minimal adrenal response to mild stress. However, maternal deprivation alters the pituitary–adrenal system such that the infants become responsive to specific stimuli. We hypothesized that maternal deprivation would also affect CRH

  3. Cross-species and tissue variations in cyanide detoxification rates in rodents and non-human primates on protein-restricted diet.

    PubMed

    Kimani, S; Moterroso, V; Morales, P; Wagner, J; Kipruto, S; Bukachi, F; Maitai, C; Tshala-Katumbay, D

    2014-04-01

    We sought to elucidate the impact of diet, cyanide or cyanate exposure on mammalian cyanide detoxification capabilities (CDC). Male rats (~8 weeks old) (N=52) on 75% sulfur amino acid (SAA)-deficient diet were treated with NaCN (2.5mg/kg bw) or NaOCN (50mg/kg bw) for 6 weeks. Macaca fascicularis monkeys (~12 years old) (N=12) were exclusively fed cassava for 5 weeks. CDC was assessed in plasma, or spinal cord, or brain. In rats, NaCN induced seizures under SAA-restricted diet whereas NaOCN induced motor deficits. No deficits were observed in non-human primates. Under normal diet, the CDC were up to ~80× faster in the nervous system (14 ms to produce one ?mol of thiocyanate from the detoxification of cyanide) relative to plasma. Spinal cord CDC was impaired by NaCN, NaOCN, or SAA deficiency. In M. fascicularis, plasma CDC changed proportionally to total proteins (r=0.43; p<0.001). The plasma CDC was ~2× relative to that of rodents. The nervous system susceptibility to cyanide may result from a "multiple hit" by the toxicity of cyanide or its cyanate metabolite, the influences of dietary deficiencies, and the tissue variations in CDC. Chronic dietary reliance on cassava may cause metabolic derangement including poor CDC. PMID:24500607

  4. Cross-species and tissue variations in cyanide detoxification rates in rodents and non-human primates on protein-restricted diet

    PubMed Central

    Kimani, S.; Moterroso, V.; Morales, P.; Wagner, J.; Kipruto, S.; Bukachi, F.; Maitai, C.; Tshala-Katumbay, D.

    2014-01-01

    We sought to elucidate the impact of diet, cyanide or cyanate exposure on mammalian cyanide detoxification capabilities (CDC). Male rats (~8 weeks old) (N=52) on 75% sulfur amino acid (SAA)-deficient diet were treated with NaCN (2.5 mg/kg bw) or NaOCN (50 mg/kg bw) for 6 weeks. Macaca fascicularis monkeys (~12 years old) (N=12) were exclusively fed cassava for 5 weeks. CDC was assessed in plasma, or spinal cord, or brain. In rats, NaCN induced seizures under SAA-restricted diet whereas NaOCN induced motor deficits. No deficits were observed in non-human primates. Under normal diet, the CDC were up to ~ 80X faster in the nervous system (14 milliseconds to produce one ?mol of thiocyanate from the detoxification of cyanide) relative to plasma. Spinal cord CDC was impaired by NaCN, NaOCN, or SAA deficiency. In macaca fascicularis, plasma CDC changed proportionally to total proteins (r=0.43; p<0.001). The plasma CDC was ~ 2X relative to that of rodents. The nervous system susceptibility to cyanide may result from a “multiple hit” by the toxicity of cyanide or its cyanate metabolite, the influences of dietary deficiencies, and the tissue variations in CDC. Chronic dietary reliance on cassava may cause metabolic derangement including poor CDC. PMID:24500607

  5. rEnolase maternal immunization confers caries protection on offspring.

    PubMed

    Dinis, M; Trigo, G; Chaves, N; Fonseca, A J M M; Ribeiro, A; Tavares, D; Cabrita, A M S; Ferreira, P

    2011-03-01

    Therapeutic vaccination with Streptococcus sobrinus recombinant enolase (rEnolase) protects rats from dental caries. Here, we investigated the effect that maternal rEnolase vaccination before pregnancy had on the offspring's immune response to S. sobrinus oral infection and dental caries progression. Female Wistar rats were immunized by intranasal and subcutaneous routes with rEnolase adsorbed onto aluminum hydroxide as adjuvant or similarly treated with the adjuvant alone (sham-immunized). Ten days after the last administration, the immunized females were paired with a male rat. The oral immune responses to S. sobrinus infection and dental caries in the offspring were evaluated. The results showed that pups born from rEnolase-immunized mothers had higher levels of rEnolase-specific salivary IgA and IgG antibodies (indicating a placental antibody transfer) and lower sulcal and proximal enamel caries scores than rats born from sham-immunized mothers. In conclusion, rEnolase maternal immunization before pregnancy provides offspring with protection against S. sobrinus-induced dental caries. PMID:21297015

  6. Trends in adverse maternal outcomes during childbirth: a population-based study of severe maternal morbidity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christine L Roberts; Jane B Ford; Charles S. Algert; Jane C Bell; Judy M Simpson; Jonathan M. Morris

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Maternal mortality is too rare in high income countries to be used as a marker of the quality of maternity care. Consequently severe maternal morbidity has been suggested as a better indicator. Using the maternal morbidity outcome indicator (MMOI) developed and validated for use in routinely collected population health data, we aimed to determine trends in severe adverse maternal

  7. Maternal hypothyroxinemia influences glucose transporter expression in fetal brain and placenta

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M R Pickard; A K Sinha; L M Ogilvie; A J Leonard; P R Edwards; R P Ekins

    1999-01-01

    The influence of maternal hypothyroxinemia on the expression of the glucose transporters, GLUT1 and GLUT3, in rat fetal brain and placenta was investigated. Fetal growth was retarded in hypothyroxinemic pregnancies, but only before the onset of fetal thyroid hormone synthesis. Placental weights were normal, but placental total protein concentration was reduced at 19 days gestation (dg). Immunoblotting revealed a decreased

  8. MATERNAL HYPOTHYROXENEMIA LEADS TO PERSISTENT DEFICITS IN HIPPOCAMPAL SYNAPTIC TRANSMISSION AND LEARNING IN OFFSPRING.

    EPA Science Inventory

    MATERNAL HYPOTHYROXINEMIA LEADS TO PERSISTENT DEFICITS IN HIPPOCAMPAL SYNAPTIC TRANSMISSION AND LEARNING IN RAT OFFSPRING. M.E. Gilbert1 and Li Sui2, Neurotoxicology Division, 1US EPA and 2National Research Council, Research Triangle Pk, NC 27711. While severe hypothyroidis...

  9. Maternal thyroid status regulates the expression of neuronal and astrocytic cytoskeletal proteins in the fetal brain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D Sampson; M R Pickard; A K Sinha; I M Evans; A J Leonard; R P Ekins

    2000-01-01

    Maternal thyroid hormone (TH) crosses the placenta and is postulated to regulate fetal brain development. How- ever, TH-dependent stages of fetal brain development remain to be characterised. We have therefore compared the levels of several neuronal and glial cytoskeletal proteins in fetal brains from normal (N) and partially thyroidect- omised (TX) rat dams by immunoblotting. Pregnancies were studied both before

  10. Long-term effects of neonatal maternal deprivation and ACTH on hippocampal mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid receptors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Win Sutanto; Patricia Rosenfeld; E. Ronald de Kloet; Seymour Levine

    1996-01-01

    In the brain, corticosteroids bind to two types of receptors, the classical glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR). The effects of different manipulations taking place during early ontogeny on GR and MR binding properties were examined in the adult hippocampus. Infant rats at postnatal day (pnd) 3 were deprived of maternal contact for 24 h and injected with

  11. A maternal low protein diet has pronounced effects on mitochondrial gene expression in offspring liver and skeletal muscle; protective effect of taurine

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Low birth weight is associated with an increased risk of developing impaired glucose tolerance, and eventually type 2 diabetes in adult life. Gestational protein restriction in rodents gives rise to a low birth weight phenotype in the offspring. Results We examined gene expression changes in liver and skeletal muscle of mice subjected to gestational protein restriction (LP) or not (NP), with or without taurine supplementation in the drinking water. LP offspring had a 40% lower birth weight than NP offspring, with taurine preventing half the decrease. Microarray gene expression analysis of newborn mice revealed significant changes in 2012 genes in liver and 967 genes in skeletal muscle of LP offspring. Taurine prevented 30% and 46% of these expression changes, respectively. Mitochondrial genes, especially those involved with oxidative phosphorylation, were more abundantly changed than other genes. The mitochondrial genes were mainly upregulated in liver, but downregulated in skeletal muscle, despite no change in citrate synthase activity in either tissue. Taurine preferentially rescued genes concerned with fatty acid metabolism in liver and with oxidative phosphorylation and TCA cycle in skeletal muscle. A mitochondrial signature was seen in the liver of NP offspring with taurine supplementation, as gene sets for mitochondrial ribosome as well as lipid metabolism were over represented in 4-week-old offspring subjected to gestational taurine supplementation. Likewise, 11 mitochondrial genes were significantly upregulated by gestational taurine supplementation in 4-week-old NP offspring. Conclusions Gestational protein restriction resulted in lower birth weight associated with significant gene expression changes, which was different in liver and muscle of offspring. However, a major part of the birth weight decrease and the expression changes were prevented by maternal taurine supplementation, implying taurine is a key factor in determining expression patterns during development and in that respect also an important component in metabolic fetal programming. PMID:20804614

  12. Relative IGF-1 and IGF-2 gene expression in maternal and fetal tissues from diabetic swine

    SciTech Connect

    Wolverton, C.K.; Leaman, D.W.; White, M.E.; Ramsay, T.G. (Ohio State Univ., Columbus (United States))

    1990-02-26

    Fourteen pregnant, crossbred gilts were utilized in this study. Seven gilts were injected with alloxan (50 mg/kg) at day 75 of gestation to induce diabetes. Gilts underwent caesarean section on day 105 of gestation. Samples were collected from maternal skeletal muscle, adipose tissue, uterus and endometrium; and from fetal skeletal muscle, adipose tissue, placenta, liver, lung, kidney, heart, brain and spleen. Tissues were frozen in liquid nitrogen for later analysis of IGF-1 and IGF-2 gene expression. Samples were pooled and total RNA was isolated using the guanidine isothiocynate method. Total mRNA was analyzed by dot blot hybridization. Blots were probed with {sup 32}P-cDNA for porcine IGF-1 and rat IGF-2. IGF-1 gene expression in maternal tissues was unaffected by diabetes. Maternal diabetes increased IGF-2 mRNA in maternal adipose tissue but exhibited no effect in muscle or uterus. Expression of IGF-2 by maternal endometrium was decreased by diabetes. Maternal diabetes induced an increase in IGF-1 gene expression in muscle and placenta while causing an increase in IGF-2 expression in fetal liver and placenta. IGF-2 mRNA was lower in lung from fetuses of diabetic mothers than in controls. These results suggest that maternal diabetes alters IGF-1 and IGF-2 gene expression in specific tissues and differential regulation of these genes appears to exist in the mother and developing fetus.

  13. Interactive Fly: Maternally transcribed genes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    PhD Thomas B Brody (NIH Laboratory of Neurochemistry)

    2006-11-13

    The maternally transcribed genes section of the award-winning and comprehensive site: Interactive fly. It thoroughly discusses genes, tissues, biochemical paths, and developmental processes in the fruit fly, Drosophila.

  14. Prenatal exposure to lipopolysaccharide results in cognitive deficits in age-increasing offspring rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Y. Hao; X. Q. Hao; S. H. Li; X. H. Li

    2010-01-01

    Studies have suggested that maternal infection\\/inflammation maybe a major risk factor for neurodevelopmental brain damage. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of prenatal exposure to a low level of inflammatory stimulation lipopolysaccharide (LPS) repeatedly on spatial learning and memory performances in rat offspring's lifetime. Sixteen pregnant Sprague–Dawley rats were randomly divided into two groups. The rats in the

  15. Age-dependent effects of gestational and lactational iron deficiency on anxiety behavior in rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rosemary Eseh; Betty Zimmerberg

    2005-01-01

    Gestational iron deficiency (ID) has been linked to alterations in GABA neurotransmission, but whether these neuronal changes are mirrored in altered anxiety behavior in rats is not known. In this experiment, two tests of GABA-related affective behaviors in rats, ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) and elevated plus maze (EPM) were used to investigate the consequences of maternal ID. Female rats were randomly

  16. Role of late maternal thyroid hormones in cerebral cortex development: an experimental model for human prematurity.

    PubMed

    Berbel, P; Navarro, D; Ausó, E; Varea, E; Rodríguez, A E; Ballesta, J J; Salinas, M; Flores, E; Faura, C C; de Escobar, G Morreale

    2010-06-01

    Hypothyroxinemia affects 35-50% of neonates born prematurely (12% of births) and increases their risk of suffering neurodevelopmental alterations. We have developed an animal model to study the role of maternal thyroid hormones (THs) at the end of gestation on offspring's cerebral maturation. Pregnant rats were surgically thyroidectomized at embryonic day (E) 16 and infused with calcitonin and parathormone (late maternal hypothyroidism [LMH] rats). After birth, pups were nursed by normal rats. Pups born to LMH dams, thyroxine treated from E17 to postnatal day (P) 0, were also studied. In developing LMH pups, the cortical lamination was abnormal. At P40, heterotopic neurons were found in the subcortical white matter and in the hippocampal stratum oriens and alveus. The Zn-positive area of the stratum oriens of hippocampal CA3 was decreased by 41.5% showing altered mossy fibers' organization. LMH pups showed delayed learning in parallel to decreased phosphorylated cAMP response element-binding protein (pCREB) and phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (pERK1/2) expression in the hippocampus. Thyroxine treatment of LMH dams reverted abnormalities. In conclusion, maternal THs are still essential for normal offspring's neurodevelopment even after onset of fetal thyroid function. Our data suggest that thyroxine treatment of premature neonates should be attempted to compensate for the interruption of the maternal supply. PMID:19812240

  17. Maternal Symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Maternal Language: Implications for Infant Language Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kryski, Katie R.; Mash, Eric J.; Ninowski, Jerilyn E.; Semple, Deborah L.

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between maternal ADHD symptoms and maternal language was examined in a community sample of 50 mothers of infants age 3-12 months. It was hypothesized that higher maternal symptoms of ADHD would be related to lower quality of maternal language use. Recordings of mothers' speech were coded for complexity and elaboration of speech…

  18. Maternal obesity from all sides.

    PubMed

    Hull, Kimmelin; Montgomery, Kristen S; Vireday, Pamela; Kendall-Tackett, Kathleen

    2011-01-01

    This column features excerpts from a recent series of articles from the Lamaze International research blog, Science & Sensibility. The eight-part series examined the issue of maternal obesity from various perspectives, incorporating writings from Kimmelin Hull, a physician assistant, a Lamaze Certified Childbirth Educator, and the community manager of Science & Sensibility; Kristen Montgomery, a nursing professor at the University of North Carolina-Charlotte; Pamela Vireday, a childbirth educator and blogger; and Kathleen Kendall-Tackett, a health psychologist, lactation consultant, and writer/speaker. The authors of the blog series, titled "Maternal Obesity from All Sides," reviewed current research about risks associated with maternal obesity as well as the humanistic issues and lived experiences of pregnant women of size. PMID:22942626

  19. Maternal Obesity From All Sides

    PubMed Central

    Hull, Kimmelin; Montgomery, Kristen S.; Vireday, Pamela; Kendall-Tackett, Kathleen

    2011-01-01

    This column features excerpts from a recent series of articles from the Lamaze International research blog, Science & Sensibility. The eight-part series examined the issue of maternal obesity from various perspectives, incorporating writings from Kimmelin Hull, a physician assistant, a Lamaze Certified Childbirth Educator, and the community manager of Science & Sensibility; Kristen Montgomery, a nursing professor at the University of North Carolina–Charlotte; Pamela Vireday, a childbirth educator and blogger; and Kathleen Kendall-Tackett, a health psychologist, lactation consultant, and writer/speaker. The authors of the blog series, titled “Maternal Obesity from All Sides,” reviewed current research about risks associated with maternal obesity as well as the humanistic issues and lived experiences of pregnant women of size. PMID:22942626

  20. Maternal Employment and Adolescent Development

    PubMed Central

    Ruhm, Christopher J.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates how maternal employment is related to the cognitive development and body weight of 10 and 11 year olds, controlling for a wide variety of child, mother and family characteristics. The results suggest that limited market work benefits youths who are relatively “disadvantaged” and even long hours, which occur infrequently, are unlikely to leave them much worse off. By contrast, maternal labor supply is estimated to have more uniformly harmful consequences for “advantaged” adolescents. The negative cognitive effects for these youths probably partly occur because maternal labor supply reduces the time spent in enriching home environments. Some of the growth in obesity may be related to determinants of excess weight common to the child and mother. PMID:19830269

  1. Maternal programming of defensive responses through sustained effects on gene expression.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tie-Yuan; Bagot, Rose; Parent, Carine; Nesbitt, Cathy; Bredy, Timothy W; Caldji, Christian; Fish, Eric; Anisman, Hymie; Szyf, Moshe; Meaney, Michael J

    2006-07-01

    There are profound maternal effects on individual differences in defensive responses and reproductive strategies in species ranging literally from plants to insects to birds. Maternal effects commonly reflect the quality of the environment and are most likely mediated by the quality of the maternal provision (egg, propagule, etc.), which in turn determines growth rates and adult phenotype. In this paper we review data from the rat that suggest comparable forms of maternal effects on defensive responses stress, which are mediated by the effects of variations in maternal behavior on gene expression. Under conditions of environmental adversity maternal effects enhance the capacity for defensive responses in the offspring. In mammals, these effects appear to 'program' emotional, cognitive and endocrine systems towards increased sensitivity to adversity. In environments with an increased level of adversity, such effects can be considered adaptive, enhancing the probability of offspring survival to sexual maturity; the cost is that of an increased risk for multiple forms of pathology in later life. PMID:16513241

  2. Nutrition and Maternal Survival in Developing Countries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Parul Christian

    Maternal mortality continues to be high and maternal nutrition poor in the developing world. However, the specific role of\\u000a nutrition in affecting maternal health and survival remains unclear. Recent trials provide support for a specific and perhaps\\u000a important place for nutrition in reducing the burden of maternal mortality in developing countries. Specific nutrition interventions\\u000a have been shown to be efficacious

  3. Maternal phobic anxiety and child anxiety

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gail A. Bernstein; Ann E. Layne; Elizabeth A. Egan; Lara P. Nelson

    2005-01-01

    The present study examined the relation between maternal anxiety symptoms and child anxiety symptoms and evaluated whether a reporting bias is associated with maternal anxiety. Fifty-seven mother–child pairs participated. All children had features or diagnoses of separation anxiety disorder (SAD), generalized anxiety disorder, and\\/or social phobia. Measures of maternal symptomatology and child anxiety were administered. Higher levels of maternal phobic

  4. Media representation of maternal neonaticide 

    E-print Network

    Lewis, Jocelyn Renee

    2008-10-10

    homicides occurring when the child is less than 1 year old (see Figure 3). In addition, a parent is the perpetrator in most homicides of children under age 5 (see Figure 4). Among children under age 5 in the United States who were murdered from 1976... (1984-1996). They defined maternal infanticide as “all killings by mothers of their own children who were newborn to one year in age” (Gauthier, et al. 2003: 398). The study found maternal infanticide to be the most typical form of female perpetrated...

  5. The gestation-dependent variation in aflatoxin B? activation by rat liver microsomes 

    E-print Network

    Wall, Florence Elizabeth

    1989-01-01

    Microsomes. (May t 989) Florence Elizabeth Wall, B. A. , Trinity University Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. T. Rick Irvin The metabolic capacity of maternal rat liver microsomes to bioactivate a model teratogen, AFBt, was examined through a series... that the embryotoxicity of AFBt was dependent on the presence of this activating system. These results indicate a change in the amount of maternal hepatic bioactivation during gestation which could modify maternal as well as prenatal toxicity of chemical agents during...

  6. Maternal alcohol consumption

    PubMed Central

    Ridout, D; Sandberg, S; Santosh, P

    2009-01-01

    Background Despite decades of research, the aetiology of attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity (ADHD) remains largely unknown. Next to a strong genetic component, increasing evidence suggests additional adverse impact of environmental factors, two of which have, although controversially, withstood meta-analysis: gestational exposure to smoking (OR 2.39) and low birth weight (OR 2.64). Several studies have investigated a possible association between prenatal exposure to alcohol and ADHD, although the matter is complicated due to foetal alcohol syndrome disorders (FASD) with ADHD-like symptoms. Questions Can an estimate of the effect of gestational exposure to alcohol for ADHD be determined? What is the relevance of primary care services in screening and intervention in mild to moderate drinking in pregnant women? Method MEDLINE, Cinahl, PsychInfo, EMBASE (1995–2008) were searched for articles in English, supplemented by a manual search. Out of 23 reviewed studies, three were included in the metaanalysis; one further study was added to undertake a sub-analysis comparing severe versus mild alcohol consumption. Summary odds ratios (OR) were extracted and fixed/random-effects meta-analysis were used for combining the OR's. Heterogeneity across the studies was formally assessed using Cochran's Q. Results An OR of 2.33 (95% CI, 1.18–4.61), (z = 2.43, p = 0.02) suggests that exposed children are 2.33 times more likely to have ADHD than non exposed children. Discussion Our meta-analysis suggests that children exposed to alcohol during pregnancy are at risk for ADHD. However, evidence is sparse and it remains uncertain whether a causal association exists. Further research is needed into dose–response relationship, timing of exposure, influence of genetic factors involved in maternal alcohol abuse and the role of FASD in ADHD-like symptoms. If a detrimental effect of mild to moderate drinking on the offspring is supported by stronger evidence, primary care services could have a major role in prevention and early intervention. This would be in addition to their already established role in helping heavy drinking mothers.

  7. Fetal and perinatal consequences of maternal obesity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chakrapani Vasudevan; Mary Renfrew; William McGuire

    2011-01-01

    In many industrialised countries, one in five women booking for antenatal care is obese. As well as affecting maternal health, maternal obesity may have important adverse consequences for fetal, neonatal and long-term health and well-being. Maternal obesity is associated with a higher risk of stillbirth, elective preterm birth and perinatal mortality. The incidence of severe birth defects, particularly neural tube

  8. Selenium and maternal blood pressure during childbirth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ellen M Wells; Lynn R Goldman; Jeffery M Jarrett; Benjamin J Apelberg; Julie B Herbstman; Kathleen L Caldwell; Rolf U Halden; Frank R Witter

    2012-01-01

    Evidence suggests selenium concentrations outside the nutritional range may worsen cardiovascular health. This paper examines the relationship between selenium and maternal blood pressure (BP) among 270 deliveries using umbilical cord serum as a proxy for maternal exposure levels. Multivariable models used linear splines for selenium and controlled for gestational age, maternal age, race, median household income, parity, smoking, and prepregnancy

  9. Effects of hyperphenylalaninemia in the fetal stage on the postnatal development of fetal rat brain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shusuke Hirano; Yoshio Takagi; Tomoyuki Kanamatsu; Kenji Nakai

    1985-01-01

    The effect of exposure at different prenatal stages to maternal hyperphenylalaninemia (HyPhe) on the somatic and neurological development of fetuses in rats was studied, with special respect to the change of relevant enzyme activities in the brain. While evident somatic damage was found only in the fetuses exposed to maternal HyPhe at a last stage of gestation, distinct mental retardation

  10. Extracellular HSP70 levels in diabetic environment in rats.

    PubMed

    Santos, T M M; Sinzato, Y K; Gallego, F Q; Iessi, I L; Volpato, G T; Dallaqua, B; Damasceno, D C

    2015-07-01

    The expression of HSP70 in embryonic cells of mammals and its role for their normal development and protection is an important aspect to be investigated in pregnancy and/or mild diabetes. In this sense, the present study evaluated the effects of mild diabetes on maternal reproductive parameters and HSP70 levels in Wistar rats at different stages of life and in their offspring. Mild diabetes was induced by a beta-cytotoxic drug (streptozotocin) at birth. Four experimental groups were evaluated: at 90 days of age: nonpregnant nondiabetic (ND90) and nonpregnant mild diabetic (D90) female rats, and at term pregnancy: pregnant female rats of both glycemic status were examined (NDP and DP, respectively). The rats were submitted to oral glucose tolerance test, and blood samples were collected for determination of HSP70 levels. In addition, the reproductive performance of pregnant rats was assessed and HSP70 levels determined in their offspring blood samples. The HSP70 levels and maternal reproductive performance presented no difference between ND and D rats, regardless of the life stage. The HSP70 levels were increased in D90 rats and lower in offspring from D rats. Maternal HSP70 levels were positively correlated to the number of dead embryos. In conclusion, mild diabetes did not affect maternal reproductive performance, but high maternal HSP70 levels compromised embryo development. In addition, offspring from D rats exhibited lower HSP70 levels, showing that this protein can be used as an indicator of metabolic consequences of diabetes and predictor of related disorders in adulthood. PMID:25813004

  11. Maternal Characteristics Predicting Young Girls’ Disruptive Behavior

    PubMed Central

    van der Molen, Elsa; Hipwell, Alison E.; Vermeiren, Robert; Loeber, Rolf

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the relative predictive utility of maternal characteristics and parenting skills on the development of girls’ disruptive behavior. The current study used five waves of parent and child-report data from the ongoing Pittsburgh Girls Study to examine these relationships in a sample of 1,942 girls from age 7 to 12 years. Multivariate Generalized Estimating Equation (GEE) analyses indicated that European American race, mother’s prenatal nicotine use, maternal depression, maternal conduct problems prior to age 15, and low maternal warmth explained unique variance. Maladaptive parenting partly mediated the effects of maternal depression and maternal conduct problems. Both current and early maternal risk factors have an impact on young girls’ disruptive behavior, providing support for the timing and focus of the prevention of girls’ disruptive behavior. PMID:21391016

  12. IFITM Proteins Restrict Viral Membrane Hemifusion

    E-print Network

    2013-01-01

    an intermediate of fusion, referred to as a cold arrestedcold arrested state (CAS), PLOS Pathogens | www.plospathogens.org January 2013 | Volume 9 | Issue 1 | e1003124 Restriction of Viral Membrane Fusion

  13. Maternal consumption of canola oil suppressed mammary gland tumorigenesis in C3(1) TAg mice offspring

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gabriela Ion; Juliana A Akinsete; W Elaine Hardman

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Maternal consumption of a diet high in omega 6 polyunsaturated fats (n-6 PUFA) has been shown to increase risk whereas a diet high in omega 3 polyunsaturated fats (n-3 PUFA) from fish oil has been shown to decrease risk for mammary gland cancer in female offspring of rats. The aim of this study was to determine whether increasing n-3

  14. The Effect of Maternal Nutrition on the Development of the Offspring: An International Symposium. Nutrition Reports International, Special Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roeder, Lois M., Ed.

    1973-01-01

    Contents of this symposium include the following papers: "Effect of Maternal Protein Malnutrition on Neonatal Lung Development and Mitochondrial Function," E. J. Hawrylewicz, J. Q. Kissane, W. H. Blair and C. A. Heppner; "Effect of the Level of Nutrition on Rates of Cell Proliferation and of RNA and Protein Syntheses in the Rat," L. M. Roeder;…

  15. Rat embryonic palatal shelves respond to TCDD in organ culture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. D. Abbott; L. S. Birnbaum

    1990-01-01

    TCDD (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin), a highly toxic environmental contaminant, is teratogenic in mice, inducing cleft palate (CP) and hydronephrosis at doses which are not overtly maternally or embryo toxic. Palatal shelves of embryonic mice respond to TCDD, both in vivo and in organ culture, with altered differentiation of medial epithelial cells. By contrast, in the rat TCDD produces substantial maternal, embryonic, and

  16. Maternity blues in Brazilian women.

    PubMed

    Rohde, L A; Busnello, E; Wolf, A; Zomer, A; Shansis, F; Martins, S; Tramontina, S

    1997-03-01

    In this prospective study, a sample of 86 postpartum women was compared with a sample of 75 women from a random period of 8 consecutive days out of puerperium. Symptoms were evaluated each day using the Blues Questionnaire. Postpartum women and women out of puerperium showed a different distribution of percentile scores on the scale on the third, fourth and fifth days. The postpartum symptom peak occurred on the fifth day. Symptoms more significantly associated with the third, fourth and fifth postpartum days were overemotionalism and oversensitivity. It is concluded that maternity blues in Brazilian women appear to be characterized by maternal mental state alterations occurring on the third, fourth and fifth days postpartum. MB seems to be better defined as an emotional oversensitivity syndrome of cross-cultural dimension than as depression. PMID:9111856

  17. Maternal nutrition and fetal development.

    PubMed

    Wu, Guoyao; Bazer, Fuller W; Cudd, Timothy A; Meininger, Cynthia J; Spencer, Thomas E

    2004-09-01

    Nutrition is the major intrauterine environmental factor that alters expression of the fetal genome and may have lifelong consequences. This phenomenon, termed "fetal programming," has led to the recent theory of "fetal origins of adult disease." Namely, alterations in fetal nutrition and endocrine status may result in developmental adaptations that permanently change the structure, physiology, and metabolism of the offspring, thereby predisposing individuals to metabolic, endocrine, and cardiovascular diseases in adult life. Animal studies show that both maternal undernutrition and overnutrition reduce placental-fetal blood flows and stunt fetal growth. Impaired placental syntheses of nitric oxide (a major vasodilator and angiogenesis factor) and polyamines (key regulators of DNA and protein synthesis) may provide a unified explanation for intrauterine growth retardation in response to the 2 extremes of nutritional problems with the same pregnancy outcome. There is growing evidence that maternal nutritional status can alter the epigenetic state (stable alterations of gene expression through DNA methylation and histone modifications) of the fetal genome. This may provide a molecular mechanism for the impact of maternal nutrition on both fetal programming and genomic imprinting. Promoting optimal nutrition will not only ensure optimal fetal development, but will also reduce the risk of chronic diseases in adults. PMID:15333699

  18. Behavioral and hormonal responses to stress in the newborn mouse: effects of maternal deprivation and chlordiazepoxide.

    PubMed

    Cirulli, F; Santucci, D; Laviola, G; Alleva, E; Levine, S

    1994-07-01

    These studies investigated behavioral and hormonal responses to stress in developing mice. Experiment 1 examined the effects of 24-hr maternal deprivation on corticosterone (CORT) secretion and ultrasonic vocalization (UVZ) rate in 4-, 8-, and 12-day-old mice. At these ages, exposure to a novel environment resulted in minimal changes in CORT secretion. Maternal deprivation increased pups' CORT secretion in an age-dependent fashion but did not affect their UVZ rate. The aim of experiment 2 was to test the effects of chlordiazepoxide (CDP), an anxiolytic compound, on CORT secretion and UVZ in both normally reared and in maternally deprived 8-day-old mice. CDP administration elevated CORT secretion in a dose-dependent fashion, producing larger CORT increases in deprived (DEP) animals. CDP affected UVZ only in nondeprived (NDEP) animals: UVZ rate was decreased by high CDP doses. Overall, these findings demonstrate that the infant mouse shows a period of stress hyporesponsiveness similar to the rat and that maternal presence contributes to inhibit adrenocortical activity. CDP administration, but not novelty exposure, increased CORT secretion in 8-day-old normally reared mice suggesting that during the stress hyporesponsive period, the HPA axis is capable of responding only to specific stimuli. Changes in HPA axis activity and UVZ rate resulting from maternal deprivation and/or CDP challenge do not seem to be directly related. PMID:7926282

  19. EARLY MATERNAL SEPARATION AFFECTS ETHANOL-INDUCED CONDITIONING IN A nor-BNI INSENSITIVE MANNER, BUT DOES NOT ALTER ETHANOL-INDUCED LOCOMOTOR ACTIVITY

    PubMed Central

    Pautassi, Ricardo Marcos; Nizhnikov, Michael E.; Fabio, Ma. Carolina; Spear, Norman E.

    2011-01-01

    Early environmental stress significantly affects the development of offspring. This stress has been modeled in rats through the maternal separation (MS) paradigm, which alters the functioning of the HPA axis and can enhance ethanol intake at adulthood. Infant rats are sensitive to ethanol’s reinforcing effects, which modulate ethanol seeking and intake. Little is known about the impact of MS on sensitivity to ethanol’s appetitive and aversive effects during infancy. The present study assessed ethanol-induced conditioned place preference established through second-order conditioning (SOC), spontaneous or ethanol-induced locomotor activity and ethanol intake in preweanling rats that experienced normal animal facility rearing (AFR) or daily episodes of maternal separation (MS) during postnatal days 1-13 (PDs 1-13). Low-ethanol dose (0.5 g/kg) induced appetitive conditioned place preference (via SOC) in control rats given conventional rearing but not in rats given maternal separation in early infancy, whereas 2.0 g/kg ethanol induced aversive conditioned place preference in the former but not the latter. The administration of a kappa antagonist at PD1 or immediately before testing did not alter ethanol-induced reinforcement. High (i.e., 2.5 and 2.0 g/kg) but not low (i.e., 0.5 g/kg) ethanol dose induced reliable motor stimulation, which was independent of early maternal separation. Ethanol intake and blood alcohol levels during conditioning were unaffected by rearing conditions. Pups given early maternal separation had lower body weights than controls and showed an altered pattern of exploration when placed in an open field. These results indicate that, when assessed in infant rats, earlier maternal separation alters the balance between the appetitive and aversive motivational effects of ethanol but has no effect on the motor activating effects of the drug. PMID:22108648

  20. Melatonin Therapy Prevents Programmed Hypertension and Nitric Oxide Deficiency in Offspring Exposed to Maternal Caloric Restriction

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Li-Tung; Hsu, Chien-Ning; Lee, Chien-Te

    2014-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) deficiency is involved in the development of hypertension, a condition that can originate early in life. We examined whether NO deficiency contributed to programmed hypertension in offspring from mothers with calorie-restricted diets and whether melatonin therapy prevented this process. We examined 3-month-old male rat offspring from four maternal groups: untreated controls, 50% calorie-restricted (CR) rats, controls treated with melatonin (0.01% in drinking water), and CR rats treated with melatonin (CR + M). The effect of melatonin on nephrogenesis was analyzed using next-generation sequencing. The CR group developed hypertension associated with elevated plasma asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA, a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor), decreased L-arginine, decreased L-arginine-to-ADMA ratio (AAR), and decreased renal NO production. Maternal melatonin treatment prevented these effects. Melatonin prevented CR-induced renin and prorenin receptor expression. Renal angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 protein levels in the M and CR + M groups were also significantly increased by melatonin therapy. Maternal melatonin therapy had long-term epigenetic effects on global gene expression in the kidneys of offspring. Conclusively, we attributed these protective effects of melatonin on CR-induced programmed hypertension to the reduction of plasma ADMA, restoration of plasma AAR, increase of renal NO level, alteration of renin-angiotensin system, and epigenetic changes in numerous genes. PMID:24864188

  1. Nutritional Recovery Promotes Hypothalamic Inflammation in Rats during Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Hellen Barbosa Farias; de Almeida, Ana Paula Carli; Cardoso, Katarine Barbosa; Ignacio-Souza, Letícia Martins; Reis, Silvia Regina de Lima; Reis, Marise Auxiliadora de Barros; Milanski, Marciane; Arantes, Vanessa Cristina

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated whether protein restriction in fetal life alters food intake and glucose homeostasis in adulthood by interfering with insulin signal transduction through proinflammatory mechanisms in the hypothalamus and peripheral tissues. Rats were divided into the following: a control group (C); a recovered group (R); and a low protein (LP) group. Relative food intake was greater and serum leptin was diminished in LP and R compared to C rats. Proinflammatory genes and POMC mRNA were upregulated in the hypothalamus of R group. Hypothalamic NPY mRNA expression was greater but AKT phosphorylation was diminished in the LP than in the C rats. In muscle, AKT phosphorylation was higher in restricted than in control animals. The HOMA-IR was decreased in R and C compared to the LP group. In contrast, the Kitt in R was similar to that in C and both were lower than LP rats. Thus, nutritional recovery did not alter glucose homeostasis but produced middle hyperphagia, possibly due to increased anorexigenic neuropeptide expression that counteracted the hypothalamic inflammatory process. In long term protein deprived rats, hyperphagia most likely resulted from increased orexigenic neuropeptide expression, and glucose homeostasis was maintained, at least in part, at the expense of increased muscle insulin sensitivity. PMID:25258479

  2. Public health approach to address maternal mortality.

    PubMed

    Rai, Sanjay K; Anand, K; Misra, Puneet; Kant, Shashi; Upadhyay, Ravi Prakash

    2012-01-01

    Reducing maternal mortality is one of the major challenges to health systems worldwide, more so in developing countries that account for nearly 99% of these maternal deaths. Lack of a standard method for reporting of maternal death poses a major hurdle in making global comparisons. Currently much of the focus is on documenting the "number" of maternal deaths and delineating the "medical causes" behind these deaths. There is a need to acknowledge the social correlates of maternal deaths as well. Investigating and in-depth understanding of each maternal death can provide indications on practical ways of addressing the problem. Death of a mother has serious implications for the child as well as other family members and to prevent the same, a comprehensive approach is required. This could include providing essential maternal care, early management of complications and good quality intrapartum care through the involvement of skilled birth attendants. Ensuring the availability, affordability, and accessibility of quality maternal health services, including emergency obstetric care (EmOC) would prove pivotal in reducing the maternal deaths. To increase perceived seriousness of the community regarding maternal health, a well-structured awareness campaign is needed with importance be given to avoid adolescent pregnancy as well. Initiatives like Janani Surakhsha Yojna (JSY) that have the potential to improve maternal health needs to be strengthened. Quality assessments should form an essential part of all services that are directed toward improving maternal health. Further, emphasis needs to be given on research by involving multiple allied partners, with the aim to develop a prioritized, coordinated, and innovative research agenda for women's health. PMID:23229211

  3. Maternal Feeding Controls Fetal Biological Clock

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hidenobu Ohta; Shanhai Xu; Takahiro Moriya; Masayuki Iigo; Tatsuya Watanabe; Norimichi Nakahata; Hiroshi Chisaka; Takushi Hanita; Tadashi Matsuda; Toshihiro Ohura; Yoshitaka Kimura; Nobuo Yaegashi; Shigeru Tsuchiya; Hajime Tei; Kunihiro Okamura; Naomi Rogers

    2008-01-01

    BackgroundIt is widely accepted that circadian physiological rhythms of the fetus are affected by oscillators in the maternal brain that are coupled to the environmental light-dark (LD) cycle.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsTo study the link between fetal and maternal biological clocks, we investigated the effects of cycles of maternal food availability on the rhythms of Per1 gene expression in the fetal suprachiasmatic nucleus

  4. Maternal Psychiatric Disorders, Parenting, and Maternal Behavior in the Home during the Child Rearing Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jeffrey G.; Cohen, Patricia; Kasen, Stephanie; Brook, Judith S.

    2006-01-01

    Data from the Children in the Community Study, a community-based longitudinal study, were used to investigate associations between maternal psychiatric disorders and child-rearing behaviors. Maternal psychiatric symptoms and behavior in the home were assessed in 782 families during the childhood and adolescence of the offspring. Maternal anxiety,…

  5. Evidence from Maternity Leave Expansions of the Impact of Maternal Care on Early Child Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Michael; Milligan, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    We study the impact of maternal care on early child development using an expansion in Canadian maternity leave entitlements. Following the leave expansion, mothers who took leave spent 48-58 percent more time not working in their children's first year of life. This extra maternal care primarily crowded out home-based care by unlicensed…

  6. Maternal and Child Anxiety: Do Attachment Beliefs or Children's Perceptions of Maternal Control Mediate Their Association?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costa, Natalie M.; Weems, Carl F.

    2005-01-01

    This study tested a model of the association between maternal and child anxiety that views mother and child attachment beliefs and children's perceptions of maternal control as mediators of the association. The study was conducted with mothers and their children aged 6 to 17 (N = 88). Maternal anxiety was significantly associated with child…

  7. Effects of maternal hyperhomocysteinemia induced by high methionine diet on the learning and memory performance in offspring.

    PubMed

    Baydas, Giyasettin; Koz, Sema T; Tuzcu, Mehmet; Nedzvetsky, Victor S; Etem, Ebru

    2007-05-01

    In this study, we suggest that chronic maternal hyperhomocysteinemia results in learning deficits in the offspring due to delayed brain maturation and altered expression pattern of neural cell adhesion molecule. Although the deleterious effects of hyperhomocysteinemia were extensively investigated in the adults, there is no clear evidence suggesting its action on the developing fetal rat brain and cognitive functions of the offspring. Therefore, in the present work we aimed to investigate effects of maternal hyperhomocysteinemia on the fetal brain development and on the behavior of the offspring. A group of pregnant rats received daily methionine (1 g/kg body weight) dissolved in drinking water to induce maternal hyperhomocysteinemia, starting in the beginning of gestational day 0. The levels of glial fibrillary acidic protein, S100B protein, and neural cell adhesion molecule were determined in the tissue samples from the pups. Learning and memory performances of the young-adult offsprings were tested using Morris water maze test. There were significant reductions in the expressions of glial fibrillary acidic protein and S100B protein in the brains of maternally hyperhomocysteinemic pups on postnatal day 1, suggesting that hyperhomocysteinemia delays brain maturation. In conclusion, maternal hyperhomocysteinemia changes the expression pattern of neural cell adhesion molecule and therefore leads to an impairment in the learning performance of the offspring. PMID:17416478

  8. Early maternal separation: a rodent model of depression and a prevailing human condition.

    PubMed

    Vetulani, Jerzy

    2013-01-01

    The early life of most mammals is spent in close contact with the mother, and for the neonate, early maternal separation is a traumatic event that, depending on various conditions, may shape its behavioral and neurochemical phenotype in adulthood. Studies on rodents demonstrated that a very brief separation followed by increased maternal care may positively affect the development of the offspring but that prolonged separation causes significant amounts of stress. The consequences of this stress (particularly the hyperreactivity of the HPA (hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal) axis are expressed in adulthood and persist for life. Maternal separation in rodents, particularly rats, was used as a model for various psychotic conditions, especially depression. The most popular separation procedure of a 3-h daily separation from the second to the 12th postpartum day yields a depression model of high construct and predictive validity. The results of studies on maternal separation in rats and monkeys prompt a discussion of the consequences of traditional procedures in the maternity wards of developed countries where attention is focused on the hygiene of the neonates and not on their psychological needs. This alternate focus results in a drastic limitation of mother-infant contact and prolonged periods of separation. It is tempting to speculate that differences in the course and severity of various mental disorders, which are usually less prevalent in underdeveloped countries than in developed countries (as noted by Kraepelin), may be related to different modes of infant care. Only recently has so-called kangaroo mother care (establishing mother-infant skin-to-skin contact immediately after birth) become popular in developed countries. In addition to its instant benefits for the neonates, this procedure may also be beneficial for the mental health of the offspring in adulthood. PMID:24552992

  9. Putting the "M" Back in the Maternal and Child Health Bureau: Reducing Maternal Mortality and Morbidity.

    PubMed

    Lu, Michael C; Highsmith, Keisher; de la Cruz, David; Atrash, Hani K

    2015-07-01

    Maternal mortality and severe morbidity are on the rise in the United States. A significant proportion of these events are preventable. The Maternal Health Initiative (MHI), coordinated by the Maternal and Child Health Bureau at the Health Resources and Services Administration, is intensifying efforts to reduce maternal mortality and severe morbidity in the U.S. Through a public-private partnership, MHI is taking a comprehensive approach to improving maternal health focusing on five priority areas: improving women's health before, during and beyond pregnancy; improving the quality and safety of maternity care; improving systems of maternity care including both clinical and public health systems; improving public awareness and education; and improving surveillance and research. PMID:25626713

  10. The relations among maternal depressive disorder, maternal Expressed Emotion, and toddler behavior problems and attachment

    PubMed Central

    Gravener, Julie A.; Rogosch, Fred A.; Oshri, Assaf; Narayan, Angela J.; Cicchetti, Dante; Toth, Sheree L.

    2015-01-01

    Direct and indirect relations among maternal depression, maternal Expressed Emotion (EE: Self- and Child-Criticism), child internalizing and externalizing symptoms, and child attachment were examined. Participants were mothers with depression (n = 130) and comparison mothers (n = 68) and their toddlers (M age = 20 mo.; 53% male). Assessments included the Diagnostic Interview Schedule (maternal depression); the Five Minute Speech Sample (EE); the Child Behavior Checklist (toddler behavior problems); the Strange Situation (child attachment). Direct relations were significant linking: 1) maternal depression with both EE and child functioning; 2) Child-Criticism with child internalizing and externalizing symptoms; 3) Self-Criticism with child attachment. Significant indirect relations were found linking maternal depression with: 1) child externalizing behaviors via Child-Criticism; 2) child internalizing behaviors via Self- and Child-Criticism; and 3) child attachment via Self-Criticism. Findings are consistent with a conceptual model in which maternal EE mediates relations between maternal depression and toddler socio-emotional functioning. PMID:22146899

  11. NATIONAL MATERNAL AND INFANT HEALTH SURVEY (NMIHS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Maternal and Infant Health Survey (NMIHS) provides data on maternal and infant health, including prenatal care, birth weight, fetal loss, and infant mortality. The objective of the NMIHS is to collect data needed by Federal, State, and private researchers to study fa...

  12. Maternal Employment and Preventive Child Health Practices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeannine Coreil; Frances Wilson; Deril Wood; Karen Liller

    1998-01-01

    Background. The impact of maternal employment on preventive child health practices has not been studied empirically. Using a household production model, we investigated the relationship between level of maternal employment and child immunization status, use of automobile seat belts, and use of bicycle helmets.Methods. Data from a longitudinal study of public school children in Pinellas County, Florida, were used to

  13. Maternal Labor Supply and Children's Cognitive Development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francine D Blau; Adam J Grossberg

    1992-01-01

    This paper analyzes the relationship between maternal labor supply and children's cognitive development using a sample of three- and four-year-old children of female respondents from the 1986 National Longitudinal Survey Youth Cohort. Maternal employment is found to have a negative impact when it occurs during the first year of the child's life and a potentially offsetting positive effect when it

  14. Teratology studies of lewisite and sulfur mustard agents: Effects of lewisite in rats and rabbits: Final report: Part 2, Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Hackett, P.L.; Sasser, L.B.; Rommereim, R.L.; Cushing, J.A.; Buschbom, R.L.; Kalkwarf, D.R.

    1987-12-31

    Lewisite was administered to rats and rabbits by intragastric intubation. Maternal animals were weighed periodically, and, at necropsy (20 dg (days of gestation) in rats and 30 dg in rabbits), were examined for gross lesions of major organs and reproductive performances; live fetuses were weighed and examined for external, internal and skeletal defects. In rats, a dose level of 1.5 mg/kg did not induce toxic or teratogenic responses in maternal animals or their fetuses. At 2.0 mg/kg, 10% maternal mortality, trends in decreased maternal and fetal body weights and a significant reduction in the number of viable fetuses were evident. In rabbit studies, maternal mortality occured in all but one of the lewisite treatment groups and range from 13% to 100% at dose levels of 0.07 and 1.5 mg/kg, respectively. This mortality rate limited the sample size and impaired the detection of statistical significance among treatments. However, at the lowest dose level of the teratology study (0.07 mg/kg), maternal mortality was the only indicator of lewisite toxicity; at the highest dose (0.6 mg/kg), significant findings included 86% maternal mortality, a decrease in maternal body weight gains and an increase in the incidence of fetal stunting, although only a tendency in decreased fetal body weights was observed. These results suggest that maternal mortality was the most important factor in predicting the induction of maternal and fetal effects and, therefore, a ''no observable effect level'' in maternal animals and their fetuses would be between 1.5 and 2.0 mg/kg in rats and less than 0.07 mg/kg in rabbits. Part 2 contains 6 appendices.

  15. The Decline in Maternal Mortality in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Högberg, Ulf

    2004-01-01

    The maternal mortality rate in Sweden in the early 20th century was one third that in the United States. This rate was recognized by American visitors as an achievement of Swedish maternity care, in which highly competent midwives attend home deliveries. The 19th century decline in maternal mortality was largely caused by improvements in obstetric care, but was also helped along by the national health strategy of giving midwives and doctors complementary roles in maternity care, as well as equal involvement in setting public health policy. The 20th century decline in maternal mortality, seen in all Western countries, was made possible by the emergence of modern medicine. However, the contribution of the mobilization of human resources should not be underestimated, nor should key developments in public health policy. PMID:15284032

  16. Early-life risperidone administration alters maternal-offspring interactions and juvenile play fighting.

    PubMed

    Gannon, Matthew A; Brown, Clifford J; Stevens, Rachel M; Griffith, Molly S; Marczinski, Cecile A; Bardgett, Mark E

    2015-03-01

    Risperidone is an antipsychotic drug that is approved for use in childhood psychiatric disorders such as autism. One concern regarding the use of this drug in pediatric populations is that it may interfere with social interactions that serve to nurture brain development. This study used rats to assess the impact of risperidone administration on maternal-offspring interactions and juvenile play fighting between cage mates. Mixed-sex litters received daily subcutaneous injections of vehicle or 1.0 or 3.0mg/kg of risperidone between postnatal days (PNDs) 14-42. Rats were weaned and housed three per cage on PND 21. In observations made between PNDs 14-17, risperidone significantly suppressed several aspects of maternal-offspring interactions at 1-hour post-injection. At 23 h post-injection, pups administered risperidone had lower activity scores and made fewer non-nursing contacts with their moms. In observations of play-fighting behavior made once a week between PNDs 22-42, risperidone profoundly decreased many forms of social interaction at 1h post-injection. At 23h post-injection, rats administered risperidone made more non-social contacts with their cage mates, but engaged in less social grooming. Risperidone administration to rats at ages analogous to early childhood through adolescence in humans produces a pattern of abnormal social interactions across the day that could impact how such interactions influence brain development. PMID:25600754

  17. Maternal caloric restriction partially rescues the deleterious effects of advanced maternal age on offspring

    PubMed Central

    Gribble, Kristin E; Jarvis, George; Bock, Martha; Mark Welch, David B

    2014-01-01

    While many studies have focused on the detrimental effects of advanced maternal age and harmful prenatal environments on progeny, little is known about the role of beneficial non-Mendelian maternal inheritance on aging. Here, we report the effects of maternal age and maternal caloric restriction (CR) on the life span and health span of offspring for a clonal culture of the monogonont rotifer Brachionus manjavacas. Mothers on regimens of chronic CR (CCR) or intermittent fasting (IF) had increased life span compared with mothers fed ad libitum (AL). With increasing maternal age, life span and fecundity of female offspring of AL-fed mothers decreased significantly and life span of male offspring was unchanged, whereas body size of both male and female offspring increased. Maternal CR partially rescued these effects, increasing the mean life span of AL-fed female offspring but not male offspring and increasing the fecundity of AL-fed female offspring compared with offspring of mothers of the same age. Both maternal CR regimens decreased male offspring body size, but only maternal IF decreased body size of female offspring, whereas maternal CCR caused a slight increase. Understanding the genetic and biochemical basis of these different maternal effects on aging may guide effective interventions to improve health span and life span. PMID:24661622

  18. Maternal caloric restriction partially rescues the deleterious effects of advanced maternal age on offspring.

    PubMed

    Gribble, Kristin E; Jarvis, George; Bock, Martha; Mark Welch, David B

    2014-08-01

    While many studies have focused on the detrimental effects of advanced maternal age and harmful prenatal environments on progeny, little is known about the role of beneficial non-Mendelian maternal inheritance on aging. Here, we report the effects of maternal age and maternal caloric restriction (CR) on the life span and health span of offspring for a clonal culture of the monogonont rotifer Brachionus manjavacas. Mothers on regimens of chronic CR (CCR) or intermittent fasting (IF) had increased life span compared with mothers fed ad libitum (AL). With increasing maternal age, life span and fecundity of female offspring of AL-fed mothers decreased significantly and life span of male offspring was unchanged, whereas body size of both male and female offspring increased. Maternal CR partially rescued these effects, increasing the mean life span of AL-fed female offspring but not male offspring and increasing the fecundity of AL-fed female offspring compared with offspring of mothers of the same age. Both maternal CR regimens decreased male offspring body size, but only maternal IF decreased body size of female offspring, whereas maternal CCR caused a slight increase. Understanding the genetic and biochemical basis of these different maternal effects on aging may guide effective interventions to improve health span and life span. PMID:24661622

  19. Maternal Personality: Longitudinal Associations to Parenting Behavior and Maternal Emotional Expressions toward Toddlers

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Cynthia L.; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Eisenberg, Nancy; Gaertner, Bridget M.; Popp, Tierney K.; Maxon, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Objective Longitudinal associations among maternal personality, emotional expressions, and parenting were examined. Design Maternal parenting (sensitivity and intrusiveness) and positive emotional expressions were observed during a free-play session with toddlers at 18 (T1, n = 246) and 30 (T3, n = 216) months. Mothers completed a personality measure at T1 and a questionnaire measuring their emotional expressiveness (positive and negative) when toddlers were 24 months old (T2, n = 213). Results Dimensions of maternal personality and maternal emotional expressiveness were related to individual differences in maternal parenting behaviors, in particular to maternal sensitivity. Conscientiousness and Agreeableness at T1 were positively associated with observed positive emotional expressions at T1. Agreeableness, Openness to Experience, and Extraversion at T1 also were positively related to positive emotional expressions reported by mothers at T2. Maternal positive emotional expressions (T1 and T2), in turn, were associated with more sensitive behavior observed with toddlers at T3. Conclusion In addition to direct effects of maternal personality on maternal parenting, mothers’ emotional expressiveness was found to be a possible pathway for explaining relations of maternal personality and parenting. PMID:18174914

  20. Food allergens are transferred intact across the rat blood-placental barrier in vivo.

    PubMed

    Sakuma, Yoshiko; Baba, Ryoko; Arita, Kumi; Morimoto, Hiroyuki; Fujita, Mamoru

    2014-03-01

    We investigated the mechanism of transplacental macromolecular transport in rats on the nineteenth day of pregnancy using tracers, transmission electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry. The blood-placental barrier of full-term rat placentas was composed of a trilaminar layer of trophoblast cells that separates the fetal capillaries from the maternal blood spaces: a layer of cytotrophoblasts lining the maternal blood space and a bilayer of syncytiotrophoblast surrounding the fetal capillaries. Horseradish peroxidase, intravenously injected into the maternal circulation, was found in the maternal blood spaces, the interspaces between the cytotrophoblasts and the syncytiotrophoblast I, many pits and small vesicles in the syncytiotrophoblast I, vesicles of the syncytiotrophoblast II, fetal connective tissue and fetal capillaries. Intravenously injected ovalbumin was detected in the maternal blood spaces, a trilaminar layer and the fetal capillaries. Neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn), a receptor for IgG, was localized at the maternal side of the blood-placental barrier. These results show that the structure of the rat blood-placental barrier is quite similar to the human blood-placental barrier, and non-specific macromolecules and food allergens may penetrate through the blood-placental barrier of the full-term placenta from the maternal to fetal circulation mediated by FcRn. PMID:23475277

  1. Maternal Age at Holocaust Exposure and Maternal PTSD Independently Influence Urinary Cortisol Levels in Adult Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Bader, Heather N.; Bierer, Linda M.; Lehrner, Amy; Makotkine, Iouri; Daskalakis, Nikolaos P.; Yehuda, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    Background: Parental traumatization has been associated with increased risk for the expression of psychopathology in offspring, and maternal posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) appears to increase the risk for the development of offspring PTSD. In this study, Holocaust-related maternal age of exposure and PTSD were evaluated for their association with offspring ambient cortisol and PTSD-associated symptom expression. Method: Ninety-five Holocaust offspring and Jewish comparison subjects received diagnostic and psychological evaluations, and 24?h urinary cortisol was assayed by RIA. Offspring completed the parental PTSD questionnaire to assess maternal PTSD status. Maternal Holocaust exposure was identified as having occurred in childhood, adolescence, or adulthood and examined in relation to offspring psychobiology. Results: Urinary cortisol levels did not differ for Holocaust offspring and comparison subjects but differed significantly in offspring based on maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD status. Increased maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD were each associated with lower urinary cortisol in offspring, but did not exhibit a significant interaction. In addition, offspring PTSD-associated symptom severity increased with maternal age at exposure and PTSD diagnosis. A regression analysis of correlates of offspring cortisol indicated that both maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD were significant predictors of lower offspring urinary cortisol, whereas childhood adversity and offspring PTSD symptoms were not. Conclusion: Offspring low cortisol and PTSD-associated symptom expression are related to maternal age of exposure, with the greatest effects associated with increased age at exposure. These effects are relatively independent of the negative consequences of being raised by a trauma survivor. These observations highlight the importance of maternal age of exposure in determining a psychobiology in offspring that is consistent with increased risk for stress-related pathology. PMID:25071719

  2. The WHO Maternal Near-Miss Approach and the Maternal Severity Index Model (MSI): Tools for Assessing the Management of Severe Maternal Morbidity

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Joao Paulo; Cecatti, Jose Guilherme; Haddad, Samira M.; Parpinelli, Mary Angela; Costa, Maria Laura; Katz, Leila; Say, Lale; Almeida, Elson J; Amaral, Eliana M; Amorim, Melania M; Andreucci, Carla B; Aquino, Márcia M; Bahamondes, Maria V; Lima, Antonio C Barbosa; Barroso, Frederico; Bione, Adriana; Brum, Ione R; Calderon, Iracema M; Camargo, Rodrigo S; Campanharo, Felipe F; Carvalho, Luiz E; Carvalho, Simone A; Cecatti, José G; Chaves, George N; Cordioli, Eduardo; Costa, Maria L; Costa, Roberto A; Costa, Sergio M; Feitosa, Francisco E; Freire, Djacyr M; Gonçalves, Simone P; Guanabara, Everardo M; Guimarães, Daniela; Gurgel, Lúcio T; Haddad, Samira M; Katz, Leila; Leite, Debora; Lima, Moises D; Lobato, Gustavo; Lotufo, Fátima A; Luz, Adriana G; Filho, Nelson L Maia; Martins, Marilia G; Matias, Jacinta P; Mattar, Rosiane; Menezes, Carlos A; Moises, Elaine C; Filho, Olímpio B Moraes; Moreira, Joaquim L; Nakamura-Pereira, Marcos; Nascimento, Denis J; Ohnuma, Maria H; Oliveira, Fernando C; Pacagnella, Rodolfo C; Paiva, Cláudio S; Parpinelli, Mary A; Pattinson, Robert C; Paula, Liv B; Peraçoli, Jose C; Peret, Frederico A; Perez, Cynthia D; Pessoni, Cleire; Peterossi, Alessandra; Pfitscher, Lucia C; Silva, João L Pinto e; Quintana, Silvana M; Radaci, Ivelyne; Filho, Edilberto A Rocha; Rodrigues, Simone M; Rohloff, Roger D; Rudge, Marilza V; Saint'ynes, Gloria C; Santana, Danielly S; Santos, Patricia N; Say, Lale; Schmaltz, Luiza E; Sousa, Maria H; Sousa, Maria R; Souza, Joäo P; Surita, Fernanda G; Zanette, Elvira A; Zotareli, Vilma

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To validate the WHO maternal near-miss criteria and develop a benchmark tool for severe maternal morbidity assessments. Methods In a multicenter cross-sectional study implemented in 27 referral maternity hospitals in Brazil, a one-year prospective surveillance on severe maternal morbidity and data collection was carried out. Diagnostic accuracy tests were used to assess the validity of the WHO maternal near-miss criteria. Binary logistic regression was used to model the death probability among women with severe maternal complications and benchmark the management of severe maternal morbidity. Results Of the 82,388 women having deliveries in the participating health facilities, 9,555 women presented pregnancy-related complications, including 140 maternal deaths and 770 maternal near misses. The WHO maternal near-miss criteria were found to be accurate and highly associated with maternal deaths (Positive likelihood ratio 106.8 (95% CI 99.56–114.6)). The maternal severity index (MSI) model was developed and found to able to describe the relationship between life-threatening conditions and mortality (Area under the ROC curve: 0.951 (95% CI 0.909–0.993)). Conclusion The identification of maternal near-miss cases using the WHO list of pregnancy-related life-threatening conditions was validated. The MSI model can be used as a tool for benchmarking the performance of health services managing women with severe maternal complications and provide case-mix adjustment. PMID:22952897

  3. Lessons from the confidential enquiry into maternal deaths, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Ravichandran, J; Ravindran, J

    2014-09-01

    Malaysia has successfully reduced maternal mortality through several efforts which, in the broad sense, include (i) the overall socio-economic development of the country; (ii) strengthened health services; and (iii) specific efforts and initiatives for the reduction of maternal mortality, one of which is the audit of maternal deaths by the confidential enquiry into maternal deaths. PMID:25236633

  4. Effect of Bile Acid on Fetal Lung in Rat Model of Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Ling; Ding, Yiling; Huang, Ting; Huang, Xiaoxia

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To determine the correlation between maternal bile acid (BA) level and fetal pulmonary surfactant in rats and study the effects of BA on fetal lung in rat model of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. Methods. Forty pregnant rats were treated with (A) 5.5?mg/kg BA, (B) 1.4?mg/kg BA, and (C) 1?ml physiological saline. Levels of total bile acid (TBA), ALT, AST, TBIL, DBIL, and SP-A were determined and the lungs of fetal rats were analyzed for pathological changes. Results. Groups A and B intervened with BA showed significant higher level of TBA in both maternal and fetal serum, more mortality rate of fetal rats, more concentration of SP-A in fetal serum, and wider alveolus mesenchyme of fetal rats than the control Group C. Higher level of BA associated with increased fetal risk and lower numerical density of mitochondria in type II alveolar epithelial cells. The levels of TBA in maternal serum were found to have significant positive correlation with those in fetal serum and SP-A level but negatively with the area of alveolus and the numerical density of lamellar body. Conclusions. The TBA level in maternal serum showed significant association with lung pathological changes in fetal rats. PMID:24778648

  5. BIOLOGICALLY-BASED DOSE-RESPONSE MODELING IN DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICOLOGY: BIOCHEMICAL AND CELLULAR SEQUELAE OF 5-FLUOROURACIL EXPOSURE IN THE DEVELOPING RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mechanistically-based dose-response models for developmental toxicity require elucidation of biological events that intervene between maternal exposure and adverse developmental outcome. We examined some of the major events in the rat embryo following subcutaneous injection of 5-...

  6. The Fatty Acid Composition of Maternal Diet Affects Lung Prostaglandin E2 Levels and Survival from Group B Streptococcal Sepsis in Neonatal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rat Pups; Jorge I. Rayon; Jane D. Carver; Lance E. Wyble; Doris Wiener; Sonja S. Dickey; Valerie J. Benford; Li T. Chen; Daniel V. Lim

    Dietary fatty acid effects upon the immune system may be mediated in part by effects upon the synthesis of proinflammatory mediators. The effects of maternal dietary fatty acid composition upon lung prosta- glandin (PG) E2 levels and survival from group B streptococcal (GBS) infection were investigated in neonatal rat pups. Beginning o nd2o fgestation and throughout lactation, pregnant dams were

  7. Dietary calcium and phosphorus manipulations in thyroparathyroidectomized pregnant rats

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Dietary calcium and phosphorus manipulations in thyroparathyroidectomized pregnant rats and fetal vitamin D3 meta- bolite injection to the mothers when their plasma calcium is low or slightly elevated. To determine the putative role of calcium in these experiments, we elevated TPTX maternal plasma calcium

  8. Embryotoxicity\\/teratogenicity study with isomaltulose (Palatinose®) in rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. A. R. Lina; A. E. Smits-Van Prooije; D. H. Waalkens-Berendsen

    1997-01-01

    The embryotoxicity\\/teratogenicity of the natural sweetener isomaltulose (Palatinose®) was studied in Wistar rats. Groups of 24 mated females were fed diets containing isomaltulose at levels of 0, 2.5, 5 and 10% from day 0 to day 21 of pregnancy. The dams were killed on day 21 of pregnancy. No maternal toxicity occurred and no effects on reproductive performance, nor on

  9. Maternal effects and maternal selection arising from variation in allocation of free amino acid to eggs.

    PubMed

    Newcombe, Devi; Hunt, John; Mitchell, Christopher; Moore, Allen J

    2015-06-01

    Maternal provisioning can have profound effects on offspring phenotypes, or maternal effects, especially early in life. One ubiquitous form of provisioning is in the makeup of egg. However, only a few studies examine the role of specific egg constituents in maternal effects, especially as they relate to maternal selection (a standardized selection gradient reflecting the covariance between maternal traits and offspring fitness). Here, we report on the evolutionary consequences of differences in maternal acquisition and allocation of amino acids to eggs. We manipulated acquisition by varying maternal diet (milkweed or sunflower) in the large milkweed bug, Oncopeltus fasciatus. Variation in allocation was detected by examining two source populations with different evolutionary histories and life-history response to sunflower as food. We measured amino acids composition in eggs in this 2 × 2 design and found significant effects of source population and maternal diet on egg and nymph mass and of source population, maternal diet, and their interaction on amino acid composition of eggs. We measured significant linear and quadratic maternal selection on offspring mass associated with variation in amino acid allocation. Visualizing the performance surface along the major axes of nonlinear selection and plotting the mean amino acid profile of eggs from each treatment onto the surface revealed a saddle-shaped fitness surface. While maternal selection appears to have influenced how females allocate amino acids, this maternal effect did not evolve equally in the two populations. Furthermore, none of the population means coincided with peak performance. Thus, we found that the composition of free amino acids in eggs was due to variation in both acquisition and allocation, which had significant fitness effects and created selection. However, although there can be an evolutionary response to novel food resources, females may be constrained from reaching phenotypic optima with regard to allocation of free amino acids. PMID:26120429

  10. Maternal effects and maternal selection arising from variation in allocation of free amino acid to eggs

    PubMed Central

    Newcombe, Devi; Hunt, John; Mitchell, Christopher; Moore, Allen J

    2015-01-01

    Maternal provisioning can have profound effects on offspring phenotypes, or maternal effects, especially early in life. One ubiquitous form of provisioning is in the makeup of egg. However, only a few studies examine the role of specific egg constituents in maternal effects, especially as they relate to maternal selection (a standardized selection gradient reflecting the covariance between maternal traits and offspring fitness). Here, we report on the evolutionary consequences of differences in maternal acquisition and allocation of amino acids to eggs. We manipulated acquisition by varying maternal diet (milkweed or sunflower) in the large milkweed bug, Oncopeltus fasciatus. Variation in allocation was detected by examining two source populations with different evolutionary histories and life-history response to sunflower as food. We measured amino acids composition in eggs in this 2 × 2 design and found significant effects of source population and maternal diet on egg and nymph mass and of source population, maternal diet, and their interaction on amino acid composition of eggs. We measured significant linear and quadratic maternal selection on offspring mass associated with variation in amino acid allocation. Visualizing the performance surface along the major axes of nonlinear selection and plotting the mean amino acid profile of eggs from each treatment onto the surface revealed a saddle-shaped fitness surface. While maternal selection appears to have influenced how females allocate amino acids, this maternal effect did not evolve equally in the two populations. Furthermore, none of the population means coincided with peak performance. Thus, we found that the composition of free amino acids in eggs was due to variation in both acquisition and allocation, which had significant fitness effects and created selection. However, although there can be an evolutionary response to novel food resources, females may be constrained from reaching phenotypic optima with regard to allocation of free amino acids.

  11. Organochlorine pesticide gradient levels among maternal adipose tissue, maternal blood serum and umbilical blood serum.

    PubMed

    Herrero-Mercado, Margarita; Waliszewski, S M; Caba, M; Martínez-Valenzuela, C; Gómez Arroyo, S; Villalobos Pietrini, R; Cantú Martínez, P C; Hernández-Chalate, F

    2011-03-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine levels and calculate ratios of copartition coefficients among organochlorine pesticides ?-HCH, pp'DDE, op'DDT and pp'DDT in maternal adipose tissue, maternal blood serum and umbilical blood serum of mother-infant pairs from Veracruz, Mexico. Organochlorine pesticides were analyzed in 70 binomials: maternal adipose tissue, maternal serum and umbilical cord serum samples, using gas chromatography with electron capture detection (GC-ECD). The results were expressed as mg/kg on fat basis. p,p'-DDE was the major organochlorine component, detected in every maternal adipose tissue (0.770 mg/kg), maternal serum sample (5.8 mg/kg on fat basis) and umbilical cord blood sample (6.9 mg/kg on fat basis). p,p'-DDT was detected at 0.101 mg/kg, 2.2 mg/kg and 5.9 mg/kg respectively, according to the order given above. ?-HCH was detected at 0.027 mg/kg, 4.2 mg/kg and 28.0 mg/kg respectively. op'DDT was detected only in maternal adipose tissue at 0.011 mg/kg. The copartition coefficients among samples identify significant increases in concentrations from adipose tissue to maternal blood serum and to umbilical blood serum. The increase indicated that maternal adipose tissue released organochlorine pesticides to blood serum and that they are carried over to umbilical cord blood. PMID:21290101

  12. [Maternal age in the etiology of schizophrenia].

    PubMed

    Halmo, M; Pogády, J; Letko, E

    1991-10-01

    The relationship between maternal age at time of delivery and the incidence of schizophrenia in the offspring was investigated. By the method of regression analysis the value of the regression coefficient was found to be positive, indicating that with an increase of the mean maternal age by one year the incidence of schizophrenia rises in the offspring by 0.68%. Statistical evaluation of the incidence of the disease in the offspring of two age groups of mothers showed that maternal age ranging from 31 to 40 (means = 25.1 y.) was accompanied with a statistically significant increase in the risk of developing schizophrenia in the offspring as compared to maternal age ranging from 18 to 30 year (mean = 25.1 y.). The difference in the incidence of the disease in the offspring of the two age groups was 9.64% (Tab. 1, Fig. 1, Ref. 13). PMID:1809473

  13. NEW RESEARCH Maternal Early Life Experiences and

    E-print Network

    Sokolowski, Marla

    maltreatment. Diurnal salivary cortisol samples were collected as the measure of hypothalamic- pituitaryNEW RESEARCH Maternal Early Life Experiences and Parenting: The Mediating Role of Cortisol­682. Key words: early life experiences, parenting, diurnal cortisol, executive function P arenting

  14. The National Partnership for Maternal Safety.

    PubMed

    D?Alton, Mary E; Main, Elliott K; Menard, M Kathryn; Levy, Barbara S

    2014-05-01

    Recognition of the need to reduce maternal mortality and morbidity in the United States has led to the creation of the National Partnership for Maternal Safety. This collaborative, broad-based initiative will begin with three priority bundles for the most common preventable causes of maternal death and severe morbidity: obstetric hemorrhage, severe hypertension in pregnancy, and peripartum venous thromboembolism. In addition, three unit-improvement bundles for obstetric services were identified: a structured approach for the recognition of early warning signs and symptoms, structured internal case reviews to identify systems improvement opportunities, and support tools for patients, families, and staff that experience an adverse outcome. This article details the formation of the National Partnership for Maternal Safety and introduces the initial priorities. PMID:24785848

  15. Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for the "SMFM Resident Award for Excellence in Obstetrics 2015" are now closed Find a Maternal-Fetal ... special SMFM editions of the American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology SMFM State of Pregnancy Monograph, 2nd ...

  16. Estimates of maternal mortality for 1995.

    PubMed Central

    Hill, K.; AbouZhar, C.; Wardlaw, T.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To present estimates of maternal mortality in 188 countries, areas, and territories for 1995 using methodologies that attempt to improve comparability. METHODS: For countries having data directly relevant to the measurement of maternal mortality, a variety of adjustment procedures can be applied depending on the nature of the data used. Estimates for countries lacking relevant data may be made using a statistical model fitted to the information from countries that have data judged to be of good quality. Rather than estimate the Maternal Mortality Ratio (MMRatio) directly, this model estimates the proportion of deaths of women of reproductive age that are due to maternal causes. Estimates of the number of maternal deaths are then obtained by applying this proportion to the best available figure of the total number of deaths among women of reproductive age. FINDINGS: On the basis of this exercise, we have obtained a global estimate of 515,000 maternal deaths in 1995, with a worldwide MMRatio of 397 per 100,000 live births. The differences, by region, were very great, with over half (273,000 maternal deaths) occurring in Africa (MMRatio: > 1000 per 100,000), compared with a total of only 2000 maternal deaths in Europe (MMRatio: 28 per 100,000). Lower and upper uncertainty bounds were also estimated, on the basis of which the global MMRatio was unlikely to be less than 234 or more than 635 per 100,000 live births. These uncertainty bounds and those of national estimates are so wide that comparisons between countries must be made with caution, and no valid conclusions can be drawn about trends over a period of time. CONCLUSION: The MMRatio is thus an imperfect indicator of reproductive health because it is hard to measure precisely. It is preferable to use process indicators for comparing reproductive health between countries or across time periods, and for monitoring and evaluation purposes. PMID:11285661

  17. Maternal biosocial factors affecting low birth weight

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sushma Malik; Radha G. Ghidiyal; Rekha Udani; Prasad Waingankar

    1997-01-01

    The causes of low birth weight (LBW) are multifactoral with genetic, placental, fetal and maternal factors interplaying with\\u000a each other. To assess the influence of some of the maternal bio-social factors on the variance of birth weight, this study\\u000a was undertaken. A total of 984 consecutive live births delivered at an urban hospital were analysed. The rate of LBW was

  18. Maternal Diseases with Possible Impact on Pregnancy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harald Leitich

    \\u000a In this chapter, the most relevant maternal diseases with possible adverse effects on pregnancy are briefly reviewed. The\\u000a choice of maternal disorders covered in this chapter reflects the chances that they may be encountered in daily practice and\\u000a that they may exhibit prominent features on fetal MR examinations. The topics covered in this chapter are: hypertensive disease,\\u000a diabetes mellitus, thromboembolic

  19. Maternal Immune Activation, Cytokines and Autism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul H. Patterson; Wensi Xu; Stephen E. P. Smith; Benjamin E. Devarman

    \\u000a Normal pregnancy involves an elevated inflammatory state, both systemically in the mother and in the placenta. However, further\\u000a increases in inflammation, as with maternal infection, can enhance the risk of autism and schizophrenia in the offspring.\\u000a Animal studies show that maternal immune activation (MIA) increases inflammatory cytokines in the fetal environment, as well\\u000a as in the fetal brain. Since the

  20. Ontogeny of sensorimotor gating and immune impairment induced by prenatal immune challenge in rats: implications for the etiopathology of schizophrenia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E Romero; C Guaza; B Castellano; J Borrell

    2010-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that the maternal immune response to infection may influence fetal brain development and lead to schizophrenia. Animal experimentation has supported this notion by demonstrating altered sensorimotor gating (prepulse inhibition, PPI) in adult rats prenatally exposed to an immune challenge. In the present study, pregnant rats were exposed to the bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) throughout gestation and

  1. Inhibition of placental ornithine decarboxylase by DL-?-difluoro-methyl ornithine causes fetal growth restriction in rat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Makoto Ishida; Yuji Hiramatsu; Hisashi Masuyama; Yasushi Mizutani; Takafumi Kudo

    2002-01-01

    The roles of polyamines in intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is studied. The DL-?-difluoromethyl ornithine (DFMO), an irreversible inhibitor of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) which is a rate limiting enzyme of polyamine synthesis was administrated to pregnant rats so that we obtained rat fetuses with IUGR. The changes of maternal nutrition, damage of the placenta, and the direct effect of DFMO on

  2. Decay of maternal antibodies in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Gharaibeh, Saad; Mahmoud, Kamel

    2013-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the decay rate of maternal antibodies against major broiler chicken pathogens. A total of 30 one-day-old broiler chicks were obtained from a commercial hatchery and reared in isolation. These chicks were retrieved from a parent flock that received a routine vaccination program. Chicks were bled at hatch and sequentially thereafter every 5 d through 30 d of age. Maternal antibody titers were measured by ELISA for avian encephalomyelitis (AEV), avian influenza virus (AIV), chicken anemia virus (CAV), infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV), Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG), Mycoplasma synoviae (MS), and reovirus (Reo). Maternal antibody titers for Newcastle disease virus (NDV) were measured using a hemagglutination inhibition test. Half-life estimates of maternal antibody titers were 5.3, 4.2, 7, 5.1, 3.9, 3.8, 4.9, 4.1, 6.3, and 4.7 d for AEV, AIV, CAV, IBDV, IBV, ILTV, MG, MS, NDV, and Reo, respectively. The statistical analysis revealed significant differences among half-lives of maternal antibody titers against certain pathogens. Furthermore, all maternal antibody titers were depleted by 10 d of age except for IBDV. PMID:23960115

  3. Fluoxetine treatment reverses the intergenerational impact of maternal separation on fear and anxiety behaviors.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Gui-Jing; Yang, Yuan; Cao, Jun; Mao, Rong-Rong; Xu, Lin

    2015-05-01

    Early life stress increases risks of fear and anxiety related disorders in adulthood, which may be alleviated by fluoxetine treatment. However, the intergenerational impacts of maternal separation (MS) on fear and anxiety behaviors from father to their offspring are little known. And the potential effects of fluoxetine treatment on the intergenerational transmission have not been well tested. Here, we investigated whether fluoxetine can reverse the intergenerational effects of MS on fear and anxiety behaviors. The first generation (F1) male rats were exposed to MS 3 h daily from postnatal day 2-14 and then treated with fluoxetine for four weeks during adulthood before fear conditioning. We found that maternal separation significantly impaired contextual fear extinction in F1 adult male rats but not in their second generation (F2). Although no obvious effects of MS on anxiety were observed in F1 male rats, the F2 offspring displayed a phenotype of low anxiety-like behaviors despite they were reared in normal condition. Fluoxetine treatment in F1 males not only reversed the impairment of fear extinction in F1 males but also the low anxiety-like behaviors in their F2 offspring. These findings highlight the intergenerational impacts of early life stress on fear and anxiety behaviors, and provide a new sight of the intergenerational effect of fluoxetine therapy for early life stress related mental problems. PMID:25576374

  4. Effects of maternal protein or energy restriction during late gestation on antioxidant status of plasma and immune tissues in postnatal goats.

    PubMed

    He, Z X; Sun, Z H; Tan, Z L; Tang, S X; Zhou, C S; Han, X F; Wang, M; Wu, D Q; Kang, J H; Beauchemin, K A

    2012-12-01

    Maternal malnutrition can have temporary or long-lasting effects on development and physiological function of offspring. Our objective was to investigate whether maternal protein or energy restriction in late gestation affects the antioxidant status of plasma, immune organs (thymus and spleen), and natural barrier organs (jejunum) in neonatal goats and whether the effects could be reversed after nutritional recovery. Forty-five pregnant goats (Liuyang Blacks) of similar age (2.0 ± 0.3 yr) and BW (22.2 ± 1.5 kg at d 90 of gestation) were assigned to 3 dietary treatments during late gestation: control (ME = 9.34 MJ/kg and CP = 12.5%, DM basis), 40% protein restricted (PR), and 40% energy restricted (ER) until parturition, after which offspring received the normal diet for nutritional recovery. Plasma and tissues of kids were sampled to determine antioxidant enzymes [superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), and catalase (CAT)] and gene expression of antioxidant enzymes (Cu/Zn-SOD [SOD1], CAT, and peroxiredoxin 2 [PRDX2]). Maternal protein or energy restriction decreased (P < 0.05) SOD activities in plasma, liver, thymus, and spleen and SOD1 expression in thymus, and maternal energy restriction also decreased (P < 0.05) plasma GSH-Px activity and expressions of SOD1 and CAT in liver at birth. After nutritional recovery of 6 wk, SOD activities in thymus (both in PR and ER) and spleen (only in PR) were greater (P < 0.05), but CAT activity of thymus (both in PR and ER) and CAT expression (only in ER) were less (P < 0.01) than those in control. After nutritional recovery of 22 wk, SOD1 and PRDX2 expression in thymus (both in PR and ER) and SOD1 expression in liver (only in ER) were greater (P < 0.05) whereas CAT expression in thymus (both in PR and ER) was less (P < 0.001) than in control. The current results indicate that maternal protein or energy restriction can decrease the antioxidant capacity of the neonatal kids and result in an imbalance of SOD and hydrogen peroxide-inactivating systems in thymus, even after 6 or 22 wk of nutritional recovery. PMID:22952363

  5. Maternal Insulin Resistance and Preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Hauth, John C.; Clifton, Rebecca G.; Roberts, James M.; Myatt, Leslie; Spong, Catherine Y.; Leveno, Kenneth J.; Varner, Michael W.; Wapner, Ronald J.; Thorp, John M.; Mercer, Brian M.; Peaceman, Alan M.; Ramin, Susan M.; Carpenter, Marshall W.; Samuels, Philip; Sciscione, Anthony; Tolosa, Jorge E.; Saade, George; Sorokin, Yoram; Anderson, Garland D.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine whether midtrimester insulin resistance (IR) is associated with subsequent preeclampsia. Study Design This is a secondary analysis of 10,154 nulliparas administered vitamin C and E or placebo daily from 9-16 weeks' gestation until delivery. Of these, 1,187 women had fasting plasma glucose and insulin tested between 22 and 26 weeks' gestation. IR was calculated by the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR) and the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI). Results Obese women were twice as likely to have a HOMA-IR ? 75th percentile. Hispanic and African-American women had a higher percentage ? 75th percentile for HOMA-IR than Caucasians (42.2, 27.2 and 16.9%, respectively, p<0.001). HOMA-IR ? 75th percentile was higher among the 85 nulliparas who subsequently developed preeclampsia compared with women who remained normotensive (40.5% vs. 24.8%; adjusted odds ratio 1.9, 95% confidence interval [1.1-3.2]). QUICKI results were similar to HOMA-IR. Conclusion Midtrimester maternal IR is associated with subsequent preeclampsia. PMID:21458622

  6. Current and Past Maternal Depression, Maternal Interaction Behaviors, and Children's Externalizing and Internalizing Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Cynthia J. Ewell; Garber, Judy; Durlak, Joseph A.

    2008-01-01

    Relations among past maternal depressive disorder, current depressive symptoms, current maternal interaction behaviors, and children's adjustment were examined in a sample of 204 women and their young adolescent offspring (mean age = 11.86, SD = 0.55). Mothers either had (n = 157) or had not (n = 57) experienced at least one depressive disorder…

  7. Young Adults' Attachment: Does Maternal Employment Make a Difference? Attachments Correlates of Maternal Employment after Infancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domingo, Meera; Keppley, Sharon; Chambliss, Catherine

    As growing numbers of mothers enter the workforce, understanding the effects of maternal employment on children and adolescents has become increasingly important. The effects of maternal employment after infancy on adult attachment, and how these effects vary as a function of children's personality style are examined in this paper. It was…

  8. Emotion Regulation in Preschoolers: The Roles of Behavioral Inhibition, Maternal Affective Behavior, and Maternal Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feng, Xin; Shaw, Daniel S.; Kovacs, Maria; Lane, Tonya; O'Rourke, Flannery E.; Alarcon, Joseph H.

    2008-01-01

    Background: This study examined preschoolers' emotion regulation (ER) strategies and the association with temperament, maternal interactive style, and maternal history of childhood-onset depression (COD). Methods: Participants were 62 children and their mothers, 37 of whom had mothers with COD. Children's ER was assessed using a disappointment…

  9. Maternal Depressive Symptoms, Dysfunctional Cognitions, and Infant Night Waking: The Role of Maternal Nighttime Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teti, Douglas M.; Crosby, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Mechanisms were examined to clarify relations between maternal depressive symptoms, dysfunctional cognitions, and infant night waking among 45 infants (1-24 months) and their mothers. A mother-driven mediational model was tested in which maternal depressive symptoms and dysfunctional cognitions about infant sleep predicted infant night waking via…

  10. Associations between Parents' Marital Functioning, Maternal Parenting Quality, Maternal Emotion and Child Cortisol Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pendry, Patricia; Adam, Emma K.

    2007-01-01

    Associations between family functioning and children's stress hormone levels are explored, by examining how aspects of the interparental relationship (parents' marital satisfaction and parent conflict styles), the mother-child relationship (maternal involvement and warmth) and maternal emotional functioning (depression, anxiety and self-esteem)…

  11. Relations among Intimate Partner Violence, Maternal Depressive Symptoms, and Maternal Parenting Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gustafsson, Hanna C.; Cox, Martha J.

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined the relations among intimate partner violence (IPV), maternal depressive symptoms, and maternal harsh intrusive parenting. Using a cross-lagged, autoregressive path model, they sought to clarify the directionality of the relations among these 3 variables over the first 2 years of the child's life. The results indicated that,…

  12. Effects of Maternal Employment on Maternal and Two-Year-Old Child Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crockenberg, Susan; Litman, Cindy.

    1991-01-01

    Mothers of toddlers were interviewed and observed. In laboratory observations, maternal employment adversely affected maternal behavior when satisfaction with social support or work role was low. In home and laboratory observations, the effect of poor quality child care was greater when mothers were employed. (BC)

  13. Health professionals for maternity services: Experiences on covering the population with quality maternity care

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marga Kowalewski; Albrecht Jahn

    Summary In many developing countries human resources to cover quality maternity care and emergency treatment are very unequally distributed. Due to historical development of medical services the main providers of surgical maternity care are still medical profes- sionals. Most countries have only scarce resources on specialist and these tend, like other medical and high qualified paramedical personnel, to stay in

  14. Tightly Linked Systems: Reciprocal Relations Between Maternal Depressive Symptoms And Maternal Reports of Adolescent Externalizing Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Joseph P.; Manning, Nell; Meyer, Jess

    2010-01-01

    The frequently observed link between maternal depressive symptoms and heightened maternal reporting of adolescent externalizing behavior was examined from an integrative, systems perspective using a community sample of 180 adolescents, their mothers, fathers, and close peers, assessed twice over a three-year period. Consistent with this perspective, the maternal depression-adolescent externalizing link was found to reflect not simply maternal reporting biases, but heightened maternal sensitivity to independently observable teen misbehavior as well as long-term, predictive links between maternal symptoms and teen behavior. Maternal depressive symptoms predicted relative increases over time in teen externalizing behavior. Child effects were also found, however, in which teen externalizing behavior predicted future relative increases in maternal depressive symptoms. Findings are interpreted as revealing a tightly-linked behavioral-affective system in families with mothers experiencing depressive symptoms and teens engaged in externalizing behavior, and further suggest that research on depressive symptoms in women with adolescent offspring should now consider offspring externalizing behaviors as a significant risk factor. PMID:21090880

  15. Improving maternity care in Ethiopia through facility based review of maternal deaths and near misses.

    PubMed

    Gebrehiwot, Yirgu; Tewolde, Birukkidus T

    2014-10-01

    The present study aimed to initiate facility based review of maternal deaths and near misses as part of the Ethiopian effort to reduce maternal mortality and achieve United Nations Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5. An in-depth review of all maternal deaths and near misses among women who visited 10 hospitals in four regions of Ethiopia was conducted between May 2011 and October 2012 as part of the FIGO LOGIC initiative. During the study period, a total of 2774 cases (206 deaths and 2568 near misses) were reviewed. The ratio of maternal deaths to near misses was 1:12 and the overall maternal death rate was 728 per 100 000 live births. Socioeconomic factors associated with maternal mortality included illiteracy 1672 (60.3%) and lack of employment outside the home 2098 (75.6%). In all, 1946 (70.2%) women arrived at hospital after they had developed serious complications owing to issues such as lack of transportation. Only 1223 (44.1%) women received prenatal follow-up and 157 (76.2%) deaths were attributed to direct obstetric causes. Based on the findings, facilities adopted a number of quality improvement measures such as providing 24-hour services, and making ambulances available. Integrating review of maternal deaths and near misses into regular practice provides accurate information on causes of maternal deaths and near misses and also improves quality of care in facilities. PMID:25261109

  16. Maternal Attachment Representations, Maternal Sensitivity, and the Infant-Mother Attachment Relationship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pederson, David R.; Gleason, Karin E.; Moran, Greg; Bento, Sandi

    1998-01-01

    Examined the mediating role of maternal sensitivity for the association between maternal attachment representations and the quality of infant-mother attachment. Found that autonomous mothers and mothers in secure relationships were more sensitive at home than nonautonomous mothers and mothers in nonsecure relationships, respectively. Infants in…

  17. Exploring the effects of maternal eating patterns on maternal feeding and child eating

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent research has demonstrated the importance of maternal feeding practices and children’s eating behavior in the development of childhood obesity. The purpose of this study was to examine the relations between maternal and child eating patterns, and to examine the degree to which these relationsh...

  18. The Maternal Description of Child (MDoC): A New Audiotaped Measure of Maternal Affect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Anne; Razza, Rachel A.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2015-01-01

    We report on a new measure of maternal affect from an ongoing multi-site birth cohort study with primarily low-income families, the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study. At child age of 5?years, mothers were asked to describe their child in a short, semi-structured home interview. One innovation of this measure--called the Maternal

  19. Poor pubertal protein nutrition disturbs glucose-induced insulin secretion process in pancreatic islets and programs rats in adulthood to increase fat accumulation.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Júlio Cezar; Lisboa, Patrícia Cristina; de Moura, Egberto Gaspar; Barella, Luiz Felipe; Miranda, Rosiane Aparecida; Malta, Ananda; Franco, Claudinéia Conationi da Silva; Ribeiro, Tatiane Aparecida da Silva; Torrezan, Rosana; Gravena, Clarice; Mathias, Paulo Cezar de Freitas

    2013-02-01

    Similar to gestation/lactation, puberty is also a critical phase in which neuronal connections are still being produced and during which metabolic changes may occur if nutrition is disturbed. In the present study we aimed to determine whether peripubertal protein restriction induces metabolic programming. Thirty-day-old male rats were fed either a low protein (LP group) diet (4% w/w protein) or a normal protein (NP group) diet (23%) until 60 days of age, when they received the NP diet until they were 120 days old. Body weight (BW), food intake, fat tissue accumulation, glucose tolerance, and insulin secretion were evaluated. The nerve electrical activity was recorded to evaluate autonomous nervous system (ANS) function. Adolescent LP rats presented hypophagia and lower BW gain during the LP diet treatment (P<0.001). However, the food intake and BW gain by the LP rats were increased (P<0.001) after the NP diet was resumed. The LP rats presented mild hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, severe hyperleptinemia upon fasting, peripheral insulin resistance and increased fat tissue accumulation and vagus nerve activity (P<0.05). Glucose-induced insulin secretion was greater in the LP islets than in the NP islets; however, the cholinergic response was decreased (P<0.05). Compared with the islets from the NP rats, the LP islets showed changes in the activity of muscarinic receptors (P<0.05); in addition, the inhibition of glucose-induced insulin secretion by epinephrine was attenuated (P<0.001). Protein restriction during adolescence caused high-fat tissue accumulation in adult rats. Islet dysfunction could be related to an ANS imbalance. PMID:23151360

  20. Administration of clozapine to a mother rat potentiates pup ultrasonic vocalization in response to separation and re-separation: contrast with haloperidol.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming; He, Wei; Heupel, Katherine

    2011-09-23

    The present study examined how haloperidol (typical) and clozapine (atypical) treatment to mother rats affected their pups' ultrasonic vocalization (USV) response to maternal separation and re-separation (termed "maternal potentiation"). Clozapine (10 mg/kg, sc) but not haloperidol (0.2 mg/kg, sc) significantly enhanced the maternal potentiation of 40 kHz USVs in pups that were briefly reunited with their dams. This novel paradigm provides an indirect way of assessing the impact of antipsychotic treatment on the quality of maternal care. It may also be useful in examining the impact of antipsychotic treatment on social bonding between infants and mothers. PMID:21473887

  1. Teratology studies of lewisite and sulfur mustard agents: Effects of lewisite in rats and rabbits: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hackett, P L; Sasser, L B; Rommereim, R L; Cushing, J A; Buschbom, R L; Kalkwarf, D R

    1987-12-31

    Lewisite was administered to rats and rabbits by intragastric intubation. Maternal animals were weighed periodically, and, at necropsy (20 dg (days of gestation) in rats and 30 dg in rabbits), were examined for gross lesions of major organs and reproductive performances; live fetuses were weighed and examined for external, internal and skeletal defect. In rats, a dose level of 1.5 mg/kg did not induce toxic or teratogenic responses in maternal and fetal body weights and a significant reduction in the number if viable fetuses were evident. In rabbit studies maternal mortality occurred in all but one of the lewisite treatment groups and ranged from 13% to 100% at dose levels of 0.07 and 1.5 mg/kg, respectively. This mortality rate limited the sample size and impaired the detection of statistical significance among treatments. However, at the lowest dose level of the teratology study (0.07 mg/kg, maternal mortality was the only indicator of lewisite toxicity; at the highst dose (0.6 mg/kg), significant findings included 86% maternal mortality, a decrease in maternal body weight gains and an increase in the incidence of fetal stunting, although only a tendency in decreased fetal body weights was observed. These results suggest that maternal mortality was the most important factor in predicting the induction of maternal and fetal effects and, therfore, a ''no observable effect level'' in maternal animals and their fetuses would be between 1.5 and 2.0 mg/kg in rats and less than 0.07 mg/kg in rabbits. 50 refs., 6 figs., 29 tabs.

  2. Maternal anxiety and infants' hippocampal development: timing matters

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, A; Rifkin-Graboi, A; Chen, H; Chong, Y-S; Kwek, K; Gluckman, P D; Fortier, M V; Meaney, M J

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to maternal anxiety predicts offspring brain development. However, because children's brains are commonly assessed years after birth, the timing of such maternal influences in humans is unclear. This study aimed to examine the consequences of antenatal and postnatal exposure to maternal anxiety upon early infant development of the hippocampus, a key structure for stress regulation. A total of 175 neonates underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at birth and among them 35 had repeated scans at 6 months of age. Maternal anxiety was assessed using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) at week 26 of pregnancy and 3 months after delivery. Regression analyses showed that antenatal maternal anxiety did not influence bilateral hippocampal volume at birth. However, children of mothers reporting increased anxiety during pregnancy showed slower growth of both the left and right hippocampus over the first 6 months of life. This effect of antenatal maternal anxiety upon right hippocampal growth became statistically stronger when controlling for postnatal maternal anxiety. Furthermore, a strong positive association between postnatal maternal anxiety and right hippocampal growth was detected, whereas a strong negative association between postnatal maternal anxiety and the left hippocampal volume at 6 months of life was found. Hence, the postnatal growth of bilateral hippocampi shows distinct responses to postnatal maternal anxiety. The size of the left hippocampus during early development is likely to reflect the influence of the exposure to perinatal maternal anxiety, whereas right hippocampal growth is constrained by antenatal maternal anxiety, but enhanced in response to increased postnatal maternal anxiety. PMID:24064710

  3. Atrial natriuretic peptide and aldosterone secretions, and atrial natriuretic peptide-binding sites in kidneys and adrenal glands of pregnant and fetal rats in late gestation in response to a high-salt diet

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S Deloof; C De Seze; V Montel; A Chatelain

    2000-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed at determining, in the term pregnant rat, whether maternal and fetal plasma atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) concentrations were modified in response to an oral sodium load, and to investigate whether any changes in plasma concentrations were able to modify the density and affinity of the different ANP-binding site subtypes in maternal and fetal kidneys and adrenal

  4. Thermal adaptation of maternal and embryonic phenotypes in a geographically

    E-print Network

    Angilletta, Michael

    Thermal adaptation of maternal and embryonic phenotypes in a geographically widespread ectotherm, NV 89557, USA Abstract. Current theories predict the thermal adaptation of both maternal and development, although this behavior involves risky migrations. Likewise, thermal adaptation of embryonic

  5. Student pregnancy and maternity: implications for higher education

    E-print Network

    Student pregnancy and maternity: implications for higher education institutions #12;Written Unit Student pregnancy and maternity: implications for higher education institutions © Equality Challenge Unit, November 2010 Contents Introduction 1 Legal protection for students during pregnancy

  6. Informed Decision Making in Maternity Care

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, Holly

    2009-01-01

    In the United States, federal acts and regulations, as well as professional guidelines, clearly dictate that every pregnant woman has the right to base her maternity care decisions on accurate, up-to-date, comprehensible information. Despite these efforts, evidence suggests that informed consent within current health-care practice is restricted and inconsistently implemented. Patient access to evidence-based research is imperative under the scope of informed consent and is particularly important during a time when perinatal mortality and morbidity rates, interventions, and disparities are on the rise in the United States. This article describes the Coalition for Improving Maternity Services’ investigation of the breakdown of informed consent in maternity care. PMID:19436598

  7. A boost for maternal health in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, L

    1998-01-01

    High maternal mortality has long been a major problem in Indonesia. Complications of abortion, such as hemorrhage and infection, account for 15-30% of maternal mortality in the country. The manager of AVSC's program in Indonesia expects the situation to worsen in the context of recent domestic economic and political crises. The current shortage of contraceptives will result in more unintended pregnancies and may increase the incidence of induced abortion. Because abortion is illegal in Indonesia, it is often performed under unsafe conditions, increasing the risk of complications and maternal death. To help reduce the consequences of unsafe abortion, AVSC launched a postabortion care (PAC) program in Indonesia in September 1997. Its goal is to improve the quality and availability of emergency services for managing postabortion complications, postabortion family planning counseling and services, and referrals for other reproductive health services. Implementing strategies to avoid treatment delays is part of the goal of AVSC's PAC program. PMID:12321873

  8. Cues of Maternal Condition Influence Offspring Selfishness

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Janine W. Y.; Lucas, Christophe; Kölliker, Mathias

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of parent-offspring communication was mostly studied from the perspective of parents responding to begging signals conveying information about offspring condition. Parents should respond to begging because of the differential fitness returns obtained from their investment in offspring that differ in condition. For analogous reasons, offspring should adjust their behavior to cues/signals of parental condition: parents that differ in condition pay differential costs of care and, hence, should provide different amounts of food. In this study, we experimentally tested in the European earwig (Forficula auricularia) if cues of maternal condition affect offspring behavior in terms of sibling cannibalism. We experimentally manipulated female condition by providing them with different amounts of food, kept nymph condition constant, allowed for nymph exposure to chemical maternal cues over extended time, quantified nymph survival (deaths being due to cannibalism) and extracted and analyzed the females’ cuticular hydrocarbons (CHC). Nymph survival was significantly affected by chemical cues of maternal condition, and this effect depended on the timing of breeding. Cues of poor maternal condition enhanced nymph survival in early broods, but reduced nymph survival in late broods, and vice versa for cues of good condition. Furthermore, female condition affected the quantitative composition of their CHC profile which in turn predicted nymph survival patterns. Thus, earwig offspring are sensitive to chemical cues of maternal condition and nymphs from early and late broods show opposite reactions to the same chemical cues. Together with former evidence on maternal sensitivities to condition-dependent nymph chemical cues, our study shows context-dependent reciprocal information exchange about condition between earwig mothers and their offspring, potentially mediated by cuticular hydrocarbons. PMID:24498046

  9. [Severe maternal and fetal situations during delivery].

    PubMed

    Chauvet, M P; Depret, S; Monnier, J C

    1999-01-15

    If pregnancy is very frequently normal, severe complications can appear for fetus, mother or both. The etiologies are various but preeclampsia and its complications remain one of the leading causes. The management is discussed according to the etiology and the severity of the disease and also the level of maternity and neonatal unit which can accept the newborn. However, all situation is a case apart and any decision will not be taken without concertation between obstetricians and neonatologists. In France, a regionalization policy is taking place to improve the maternal and neonatanal management. PMID:9989150

  10. Pregnancy and diabetes: the maternal response.

    PubMed

    Bender, H S; Chickering, W R

    1985-07-01

    Pregnancy places remarkable stresses on maternal carbohydrate metabolism and pancreatic insulin reserves. The normal mammal responds to pregnancy by increasing pancreatic islet size and insulin secretion. Pregnancy also causes alterations in concentrations of metabolic fuels in maternal circulation. These changes are partly attributed to gestational increases of estrogen, progesterone and human chorionic somatomammotropin, and are thought to provide a proper metabolic and hormonal incubation medium for the fetus. Conversely, the compromised pancreas of the diabetic is unable to meet the additional demands of pregnancy, and carbohydrate metabolism deteriorates. The character of these metabolic changes depends on the time of gestation and the type of diabetes mellitus. PMID:3892217

  11. Long-term disruption of maternal glucose homeostasis induced by prenatal glucocorticoid treatment correlates with miR-29 upregulation.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Patrícia R; Graciano, Maria F; Pantaleão, Lucas C; Rennó, André L; Rodrigues, Sandra C; Velloso, Licio A; Latorraca, Márcia Q; Carpinelli, Angelo R; Anhê, Gabriel F; Bordin, Silvana

    2014-01-01

    Excess of glucocorticoids (GCs) during pregnancy is strongly associated with the programming of glucose intolerance in the offspring. However, the impact of high GC levels on maternal metabolism is not clearly documented. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that mothers exposed to elevated levels of GCs might also display long-term disturbances in glucose homeostasis. Dexamethasone (DEX) was administered noninvasively to the mothers via drinking water between the 14th and the 19th days of pregnancy. Mothers were subjected to glucose and insulin tolerance tests at 1, 2, 3, 6, and 12 mo postweaning. Pregnant rats not treated with DEX and age-matched virgin rats were used as controls. Pancreatic islets were isolated at the 20th day of pregnancy and 12 mo postweaning in order to evaluate glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. The expression of the miR-29 family was also studied due to its responsiveness to GCs and its well-documented role in the regulation of pancreatic ?-cell function. Rats treated with DEX during pregnancy presented long-term glucose intolerance and impaired insulin secretion. These changes correlated with 1) increased expression of miR-29 and its regulator p53, 2) reduced expression of syntaxin-1a, a direct target of miR-29, and 3) altered expression of genes related to cellular senescence. Our data demonstrate that the use of DEX during pregnancy results in deleterious outcomes to the maternal metabolism, hallmarked by reduced insulin secretion and glucose intolerance. This maternal metabolic programming might be a consequence of time-sustained upregulation of miR-29s in maternal pancreatic islets. PMID:24253049

  12. The Development of Maternal Attachment: A Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Tannis MacBeth; And Others

    Summaries of papers presented in a symposium deal with a related series of four issues concerning the development of maternal attachment: Is maternal attachment best conceptualized and measured as an emotional tie or as observable behavior? Is there continuity in the development of maternal attachment from the prenatal to postpartum period? Can…

  13. The effect of maternal physical activity on fetal breathing movements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Jakobovits

    1983-01-01

    Summary We investigated the relationship between maternal exercise and fetal breathing movements. In the majority of cases, fetal breathing activity decreased following maternal exercise that involved climbing of stairs. The observations indicate that the validity of this test for the purpose of fetal well-being requires performance of the investigation following a prolonged period of maternal rest.

  14. Genome-wide discovery of maternal effect variants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jack W Kent Jr; Charles P Peterson; Thomas D Dyer; Laura Almasy; John Blangero

    2009-01-01

    Many phenotypes may be influenced by the prenatal environment of the mother and\\/or maternal care, and these maternal effects may have a heritable component. We have implemented in the computer program SOLAR a variance components-based method for detecting indirect effects of maternal genotype on offspring phenotype. Of six phenotypes measured in three generations of the Framingham Heart Study, height showed

  15. Health facility-based maternal death audit in Tigray, Ethiopia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Samuel Hailu; Fikre Enqueselassie; Yemane Berhane

    Background: Maternal deaths are often unrecognized and improperly documented in the health system. Objective: To identify causes of maternal death occurring in hospitals and determine avoidability of maternal death. Methods: The study assessed each death for the cause and surrounding circumstances as well as avoidable factors, by reviewing two years patient and facility records and interviewing individuals who were involved

  16. Maternal serum screening for Down's syndrome in early pregnancy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. J. Wald; H. S. Cuckle; J. W. Densem; K. Nanchahal; P. Royston; T. Chard; J. E. Haddow; G. J. Knight; G. E. Palomaki; J. A. Canick

    1988-01-01

    The possibility of improving the effectiveness of antenatal screening for Down's syndrome by measuring human chorionic gonadotrophin concentrations in maternal serum during the second trimester to select women for diagnostic amniocentesis was examined. The median maternal serum human chorionic gonadotrophin concentration in 77 pregnancies associated with Down's syndrome was twice the median concentration in 385 unaffected pregnancies matched for maternal

  17. Maternal Smoking in Pregnancy, Child Behavior Problems, and Adolescent Smoking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griesler, Pamela C.; Kandel, Denise B.; Davies, Mark

    1998-01-01

    Used longitudinal sample of 187 mother-child dyads to examine the role of child behavior problems in explaining the effect of maternal prenatal smoking on adolescent daughters' smoking. Found that maternal prenatal smoking retained a unique effect on girls' current smoking with controls for current maternal smoking, child behavior problems, and…

  18. Maternal and paternal origin of extra chromosome in trisomy 21

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Margareta Mikkelsen; Anni Hallberg; Hanne Poulsen

    1976-01-01

    Fluorescence markers were studied in 40 patients with Down's syndrome and their parents. In 11 cases maternal and in 5 cases paternal non-disjunction could be shown. The disjunctional event occurred in the first meiotic division in 5 maternal and in 2 paternal cases. A second division failure was found in 4 maternal and 2 paternal cases. In 3 cases the

  19. Physiological Reactivity to Infant Crying and Observed Maternal Sensitivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joosen, Katharina J.; Mesman, Judi; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; Pieper, Suzanne; Zeskind, Philip S.; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.

    2013-01-01

    Relations between maternal sensitivity and physiological reactivity to infant crying were examined using measures of heart rate (HR) and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) in 49 mothers of second-born infants. Using the Ainsworth Sensitivity Scale, an independent assessment of maternal sensitivity was made during maternal free play and bathing of…

  20. Dopamine receptor D2 deficiency reduces mouse pup ultrasonic vocalizations and maternal responsiveness.

    PubMed

    Curry, T; Egeto, P; Wang, H; Podnos, A; Wasserman, D; Yeomans, J

    2013-06-01

    Dopamine signalling facilitates motivated behaviours, and the D2 dopamine receptor (D2R) is important in mother-infant interactions. D2R antagonists disrupt maternal behaviour and, in isolated rat pups, reduce ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) that promote maternal interaction. Here, we examined the effects of genetic D2R signalling deficiency on pup-dam interaction with Drd2 knockout (D2R KO) mice. Using heterozygous (HET) cross littermates, the effect of pup genotype on isolation-induced USVs was quantified. Independent of parental genotype, D2R-deficient pups emitted fewer USVs than wild type (WT) littermates in a gene dose-dependent manner. Using reciprocal D2R KO-WT crosses, we examined how parental genotype affects pup USVs. Heterozygous pups from D2R KO dams produced fewer USVs than HET pups from WT dams. Also, exposure to USV-emitting pups increased plasma prolactin levels in WT dams but not in D2R KO dams, and KO dams showed delayed pup retrieval and nest building. These findings indicate the importance of the interaction between pup and dam genotypes on behaviour and further support the role of D2R signalling in maternal care. PMID:23521753

  1. Modifying effect of maternal nutritional status on the impact of maternal multiple micronutrient supplementation on birthweight in Indonesia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S K Sebayang; M J Dibley; P Kelly; A V Shankar; A H Shankar

    2011-01-01

    Background\\/Objective:Low birthweight (LBW) and intrauterine growth restriction are linked with maternal nutritional status during pregnancy, and maternal supplementation with multiple micronutrients (MMNs) is reported to increase birthweight. Responses to MMN, however, might be modified by maternal nutrition.Subjects\\/Methods:To examine the differential effects of maternal nutritional status on birthweight responses to prenatal MMN supplementation, data from the Supplementation with Multiple Micronutrient Intervention

  2. Effect of maternal fasting on ovine fetal and maternal branched-chain amino acid transaminase activities.

    PubMed

    Liechty, E A; Barone, S; Nutt, M

    1987-01-01

    Activities of branched-chain amino acid transaminase were assayed in maternal skeletal muscle, liver and fetal skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle, liver, kidney and placenta obtained from fed and 5-day-fasted late gestation ewes. Very high activities were found in placenta; fetal skeletal muscle also had high activity. Fetal brain had intermediate activity, followed by cardiac muscle and kidney. Fetal liver possessed negligible activity. Activities were low in both maternal liver and skeletal muscle. Trends were seen for fasting to increase activities in fetal placenta, skeletal muscle, brain, kidney, heart and maternal liver, but these changes were statistically significant only for fetal brain and placental tissue. Fetal skeletal muscle activity was 100 times that of maternal skeletal muscle. These data imply differences in the metabolism of the branched-chain amino acids by fetal and adult ruminants and expand the thesis that branched-chain amino acids are important to the metabolism of the ovine fetus. PMID:3651524

  3. Relations Among Intimate Partner Violence, Maternal Depressive Symptoms, and Maternal Parenting Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Gustafsson, Hanna C.; Cox, Martha J.

    2013-01-01

    The authors examined the relations among intimate partner violence (IPV), maternal depressive symptoms, and maternal harsh intrusive parenting. Using a cross-lagged, autoregressive path model, they sought to clarify the directionality of the relations among these 3 variables over the first 2 years of the child’s life. The results indicated that, in this diverse sample of families living in predominantly low-income rural communities (N = 705), higher levels of early IPV were associated with increases in maternal depressive symptoms, which in turn were associated with increases in maternal harsh intrusive parenting behaviors. These findings suggest that interventions aimed at improving the parenting of women exposed to domestic violence may want to simultaneously target IPV and depressive symptomatology. PMID:23869110

  4. Social Support and Maternal Depression from Pregnancy to Postpartum: The Association with Positive Maternal Behaviours among Brazilian Adolescent Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diniz, Eva; Koller, Sílvia H.; Volling, Brenda L.

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent motherhood is a risky situation related to poorer quality of infant caregiving. The lack of social support and increased odds for maternal depression are the main concerns. This study aimed to investigate whether maternal-foetal attachment, social support and maternal depression measured during pregnancy and after birth were associated…

  5. National data system on near miss and maternal death: shifting from maternal risk to public health impact in Nigeria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Olufemi T Oladapo; Olalekan O Adetoro; Oluwarotimi Fakeye; Bissallah A Ekele; Adeniran O Fawole; Aniekan Abasiattai; Oluwafemi Kuti; Jamilu Tukur; Adedapo BA Ande; Olukayode A Dada

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The lack of reliable and up-to-date statistics on maternal deaths and disabilities remains a major challenge to the implementation of Nigeria's Road Map to Accelerate the Millennium Development Goal related to Maternal Health (MDG-5). There are currently no functioning national data sources on maternal deaths and disabilities that could serve as reference points for programme managers, health advocates and

  6. Maternal self-confidence postpartum and at pre-school age: the role of depression, anxiety disorders, maternal attachment insecurity.

    PubMed

    Zietlow, Anna-Lena; Schlüter, Myriam Kim; Nonnenmacher, Nora; Müller, Mitho; Reck, Corinna

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of maternal postpartum depression and/or anxiety disorders according to DMS-IV on maternal self-confidence throughout infancy and early childhood. Exploratively, associations between maternal attachment insecurity and maternal self-confidence at pre-school age were examined. The sample (N = 54) of this prospective longitudinal study was comprised of n = 27 women with postpartum depression and/or anxiety disorders according to DSM-IV criteria and n = 27 healthy women without present or history of mental health disorders or psychotherapy. Data was collected in the postpartum period (M = 60.08 days) and at pre-school age (M = 4.7 years). Subjects were recruited between 2004 and 2011 in South Germany. Data revealed a significant difference in maternal self-confidence between clinical and control group at child's pre-school age: Women with postpartum depression and/or anxiety disorder scored lower on maternal self-confidence than healthy controls, but only if they had current SCID-diagnoses or partly remitted symptoms. According to explorative analyses maternal attachment insecurity turned out to be the strongest predictor of maternal self-confidence at pre-school age besides maternal mental health status. The results emphasize the impact of attachment insecurity and maternal mental health regarding maternal self-confidence leading to potential adverse long-term consequences for the mother-child relationship. Attachment based interventions taking maternal self-confidence into account are needed. PMID:24474591

  7. Perfluorooctanoate: Placental and lactational transport pharmacokinetics in rats.

    SciTech Connect

    Hinderliter, Paul M.; Mylchreest, E.; Gannon, S. A.; Butenhoff, J. L.; Kennedy, G.L., Jr.

    2005-07-01

    This study was conducted to develop a quantitative understanding of the potential for gestational and lactational transfer of perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) in the rat. Time-mated female rats were dosed by oral gavage once daily at concentrations of 3, 10, or 30 mg/kg/day of the ammonium salt of PFOA (APFO) starting on gestation (G) day 4 and continuing until sacrifice. On days 10, 15, and 21G, five rats per dose level were sacrificed and blood samples were collected 2h post-dose. Embryos were collected on day 10G, amniotic fluid, placentas, and embryos/fetuses were collected on days 15 and 21G, and fetal blood samples were collected on day 21G. Five rats per dose level were allowed to deliver and nurse their litters, and on days 3, 7, 14, and 21 post-partum (PP) milk and blood samples of maternal and pup were collected 2h post-dose. All samples were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) for PFOA concentration. Concentrations of PFOA in maternal plasma and milk attained steady state during the sampling interval. The steady-state concentrations in maternal plasma were 10-15, 25-30, and 60-75 microg/mL in rats receiving 3, 10, and 30 mg/kg, respectively. Steady-state concentrations in milk were approximately 10 times less than those in maternal plasma. The concentration of PFOA in fetal plasma on day 21G was approximately half the steady-state concentration in maternal plasma. The milk concentrations appeared to be generally comparable to the concentrations in pup plasma. Pup plasma concentrations decreased from day 3PP to day 7PP, and were similar on days 7, 14, and 21PP at all dose levels. PFOA was detected in placenta (days 15 and 21G), amniotic fluid (days 15 and 21G), embryo (days 10 and 15G), and fetus (day 21G). These pharmacokinetics allow estimation of the dose to developing and nursing rat offspring following maternal exposure.

  8. Food Availability and Maternal Immunization Affect Transfer and Persistence of Maternal Antibodies in Nestling Pigeons

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, Ahmad; Jacquin, Lisa; Haussy, Claudy; Legoupi, Julie; Perret, Samuel; Gasparini, Julien

    2013-01-01

    The ability of mothers to transfer antibodies (Abs) to their young and the temporal persistence of maternal Abs in offspring constitute important life-history traits that can impact the evolution of host-parasite interactions. Here, we examined the effects of food availability and parental immunization on the transfer and persistence of maternal antibodies in nestling pigeons (Columba livia). This species can transmit maternal Abs to offspring before hatching through the egg yolk and potentially after hatching through crop milk. However, the role of this postnatal substance in immunity remains elusive. We used a full cross-fostering design to disentangle the effects of food limitation and parental immunization both before and after hatching on the levels and persistence of maternal Abs in chicks. Parents were immunized via injection with keyhole limpet hemocyanin antigens. Using an immunoassay that specifically detected the IgY antibodies that are known to be transmitted via the yolk, we found that the levels of anti-KLH Abs in newly hatched chicks were positively correlated with the levels of anti-KLH Abs in the blood of their biological mothers. However, this correlation was not present between chicks and their foster parents, suggesting limited IgY transfer via crop milk to the chick’s bloodstream. Interestingly, biological mothers subjected to food limitation during egg laying transferred significantly fewer specific maternal Abs, which suggests that the transfer of antibodies might be costly for them. In addition, the persistence of maternal Abs in a chick’s bloodstream was not affected by food limitation or the foster parents’ anti-KLH Ab levels; it was only affected by the initial level of maternal anti-KLH Abs that were present in newly hatched chicks. These results suggest that the maternal transfer of Abs could be costly but that their persistence in an offspring’s bloodstream may not necessarily be affected by environmental conditions. PMID:24348905

  9. Maternal smoking during pregnancy and offspring trajectories of height and adiposity: comparing maternal and paternal associations

    PubMed Central

    Howe, Laura D; Matijasevich, Alicia; Tilling, Kate; Brion, Marie-Jo; Leary, Sam D; Smith, George Davey; Lawlor, Debbie A

    2012-01-01

    Background Maternal smoking during pregnancy is associated with reduced offspring birth length and has been postulated as a risk factor for obesity. Causality for obesity is not established. Causality is well-supported for birth length, but evidence on persistence of height deficits is inconsistent. Methods We examined the association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and trajectories of offspring height (0–10 years, N?=?9424), ponderal index (PI) (0–2 years, N?=?9321) and body mass index (BMI) (2–10 years, N?=?8887) in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. To strengthen inference, measured confounders were controlled for, maternal and partner smoking associations were compared, dose–response and associations with post-natal smoking were examined. Results Maternal smoking during pregnancy was associated with shorter birth length, faster height growth in infancy and slower growth in later childhood. By 10 years, daughters of women who smoke during pregnancy are on average 1.11?cm (SE?=?0.27) shorter after adjustment for confounders and partner smoking; the difference is 0.22?cm (SE?=?0.22) for partner's smoking. Maternal smoking was associated with lower PI at birth, faster PI increase in infancy, but not with BMI changes 2–10 years. Associations were stronger for maternal than partner smoking for PI at birth and PI changes in infancy, but not for BMI changes after 2 years. A similar dose–response in both maternal and partner smoking was seen for BMI change 2–10 years. Conclusion Maternal smoking during pregnancy has an intrauterine effect on birth length, and possibly on adiposity at birth and changes in height and adiposity in infancy. We do not find evidence of a specific intrauterine effect on height or adiposity changes after the age of 2 years. PMID:22407859

  10. Estimation of direct additive, maternal additive, heterotic and maternal heterotic effects from crossbreeding goats in Kenya 

    E-print Network

    Ahuya, Camillus Osundo

    1987-01-01

    of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1987 t'Jajor Subject: Animal Breeding ESTIMATION OF DIRECT ADDITIVE, MATERNAL ADDITIVE, HETEROTIC AND MATERNAL HETEROTIC EFFECTS FROM CROSSBREEDING GOATS IN KENYA A Thesis CAMILLUS OSUNDO AHUYA...). According to Harris (1960) the goat has a wider geographical distribution than any other domestic herd animal and has been traditionally a meat animal. Goats have diversified by natural and human selection into many functionally different breeding gene...

  11. Resilience to Maternal Depression in Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Pargas, Rebecca Cristina Malvar; Brennan, Patricia A.; Hammen, Constance; Le Brocque, Robyne

    2012-01-01

    Using a prospective longitudinal design this study investigated factors associated with resilience in 20-year old offspring of depressed mothers (n=648). Resilient youth were operationally defined as those whose mothers were depressed, but who themselves had no history of recurrent depression, and currently evidenced adequate academic/work and romantic functioning, no Axis I psychopathology, and no clinically significant internalizing behavior problems. Low levels of perceived maternal psychological control (p=.02), and high child IQ (p<.01) acted as protective factors in the context of maternal depression. Low paternal psychological control (p=.02), high maternal warmth (p<.01), high self esteem (p<.01), and healthy peer social functioning (p<.01) all acted as resource factors predicting high functioning outcomes for young adults, regardless of mother depression status. Notably, high child IQ acted as a protective factor predicting resilient outcomes that persisted from adolescence to adulthood (p<.01), and low maternal psychological control acted as a protective factor predicting resilient outcomes that emerged in early adulthood (p=.03). Interventions focused on these two protective factors might yield the strongest benefits for offspring of depressed mothers as they transition to early adulthood. PMID:20604603

  12. [Maternal mortality in France, 2007-2009].

    PubMed

    Saucedo, M; Deneux-Tharaux, C; Bouvier-Colle, M-H

    2013-11-01

    To monitor the maternal mortality which is an indicator of the quality of obstetric and intensive care, France has a specific approach since 1996. Recently linkages have been introduced to improve the inclusion of cases. Here are the results for the 2007 to 2009 period. The identification of the pregnancy associated deaths is lying on different data bases that are medical causes of death, birth register and hospital discharges. To document the cases, confidential enquiries are conducted by two assessors on the field; a committee of medical experts analyses the documents, select the underlying cause and assess the quality of health care. Two hundred and fifty-four obstetric deaths were identified from 2007 to 2009 giving the maternal mortality ratio (MMR) of 10.3 per 100,000 births. The maternal age and nationality, the region of deaths are associated to the MMR. The haemorrhages are the leading cause but their ratio is 1.9 versus 2.5 previously; this decrease results from the postpartum haemorrhage by uterine atony going down. The suboptimal care are still frequent (60%) but slightly less than before. The linkage method should be pursued. Maternal mortality is rather stable in France. We may reach more reduction as deaths due to atony decreased as suboptimal care did. PMID:24035736

  13. Selenium and maternal blood pressure during childbirth

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Ellen M.; Goldman, Lynn R.; Jarrett, Jeffery M.; Apelberg, Benjamin J.; Herbstman, Julie B.; Caldwell, Kathleen L.; Halden, Rolf U.; Witter, Frank R.

    2013-01-01

    Evidence suggests selenium concentrations outside the nutritional range may worsen cardiovascular health. This paper examines the relationship between selenium and maternal blood pressure among 270 deliveries using umbilical cord serum as a proxy for maternal exposure levels. Multivariable models used linear splines for selenium and controlled for gestational age, maternal age, race, median household income, parity, smoking, and prepregnancy body mass index. Nonparametric analysis of this dataset was used to select spline knots for selenium at 70 and 90 ?g/L. When selenium was <70 ?g/L, increasing selenium levels were related to a non-statistically significant decrease in blood pressure. For selenium 70 – 90 ?g/L, a 1-?g/L increase was related to a 0.37 mmHg (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.005, 0.73) change in systolic and a 0.35 mmHg (0.07, 0.64) change in diastolic blood pressure. There were very few selenium values >90 ?g/L. Other studies indicate that the maternal/cord selenium ratio is 1.46 (95% CI: 1.28, 1.65). This u-shaped relationship between selenium and blood pressure is consistent with a dual role of selenium as an essential micronutrient that is nonetheless a toxicant at higher concentrations; however this needs to be studied further. PMID:22108761

  14. Maternal Work Conditions and Child Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felfe, Christina; Hsin, Amy

    2012-01-01

    How do maternal work conditions, such as psychological stress and physical hazards, affect children's development? Combining data from the Child Development Supplement of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics and the Occupational Information Network allows us to shed some light on this question. We employ various techniques including OLS with…

  15. Maternal and Neonatal Care. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This curriculum guide contains the materials required to teach a course in maternal and neonatal care that will prepare students for employment as practical nurses. The course's five instructional units cover procedures for caring for the following: prenatal patients, patients in labor and delivery, postpartum patients, healthy neonates, and…

  16. Developmental Regression in Autism: Maternal Perception.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidovitch, Michael; Glick, Lilach; Holtzman, Gabriela; Tirosh, Emanuel; Safir, Marilyn P.

    2000-01-01

    This study interviewed 39 mothers of young children with autism of whom 19 reported their children had experienced developmental regression, especially in verbal and non-verbal communication and social skills. Mean age of regression was 24 months. There was little difference between children who regressed and those who did not in maternal

  17. Genomic imprinting and the maternal brain.

    PubMed

    Keverne, E B

    2001-01-01

    Those parts of the genome that contain imprinted genes are relatively small (between 100 and 150 genes predicted) but their impact on mammalian development and evolution is substantial. Most of the imprinted genes that have been studied are regulatory: transcription factors, alternative splicers, oncogenes, tumor suppressors, growth factors, or are involved in complex signalling pathways such as the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and ubiquitin pathways. This review considers the effects of imprinted genes on brain development by examining the distribution of androgenetic and parthenogenetic cells in the brains of chimeric mice using in situ markers. At birth, cells that are disomic for the paternal genome (androgenetic) contribute substantially to the hypothalamus, septum, preoptic area and bed nuclei of the stria terminalis and fail to survive in the developing neocortex and striatum. In contrast, cells that are disomic for the maternal genome (parthenogenetic) proliferate in the cortex and striatum but are excluded from the diencephalic structures. Growth of the brain is enhanced by the presence of parthenogenetic cells and hence increased maternal gene dosage, whereas the brains of androgenetic chimeras are smaller. Mest and Peg3, two imprinted genes that are paternally expressed, have been disrupted by gene targeting and show high levels of expression in regions where androgenetic cells accumulated, namely the hypothalamus, preoptic area and septum. Although of different structural classes and located on different chromosomes, both of these paternally expressed genes influence placental growth and maternal behavior. The implications of these findings for brain evolution and maternal behavior are discussed. PMID:11589137

  18. Maternal Characteristics Predicting Young Girls' Disruptive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Molen, Elsa; Hipwell, Alison E.; Vermeiren, Robert; Loeber, Rolf

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the relative predictive utility of maternal characteristics and parenting skills on the development of girls' disruptive behavior. The current study used five waves of parent- and child-report data from the ongoing Pittsburgh Girls Study to examine these relationships in a sample of 1,942 girls from age 7 to 12 years.…

  19. Performing Maternity: Limiting the Role of the

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    is briefly suspended #12;Implications for Women, Abortion, and Health Care Reform Field of discursive the relevancy of abortion to health care reform #12;President Obama on Health Care Reform and Abortion " ...IPerforming Maternity: Limiting the Role of the Individual Woman in Abortion Discourses #12;The

  20. The Corporate Perspective on Maternal & Child Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cronin, Carol; Hartman, Rebecca

    This report considers the National Commission to Prevent Infant Mortality's recommendations for ways for the private sector to become more involved in promoting maternal and child health. The first chapter presents demographic data on changes affecting the workforce, including statistics on women in the workforce, changing family lifestyles,…

  1. Update in Maternal and Infant Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Elizabeth M.

    1989-01-01

    This review emphasizes research that confirms or questions established practices regarding maternal and infant nutrition. Controversial issues include weight gain and use of vitamins and mineral supplements during pregnancy and the effects of second-hand smoke. Infant nutrition topics include use of unmodified cow's milk, level of fat, and…

  2. Extraction of fetal ECG from maternal ECG

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Serdengecti; M. Engin; E. Z. Engin; S. Balci

    2009-01-01

    Biomedical signals taken from body surface by non-invasive methods include problems such as noise and mixing with other physiological signals. These problems also appear evidently during the extraction of fetal ECG's. Therefore, the fetal EKG signal is contaminated by maternal ECG signal and noise. In this study, the purpose is to determine the best algorithm for fetal ECG extraction by

  3. LETTERS TO THE EDITOR Maternal Cell Phone

    E-print Network

    Helle, Samuli

    LETTERS TO THE EDITOR Maternal Cell Phone Use and Behavioral Problems in Children To the Editor and postnatal exposure to cell phone use and behav- ioral problems in children. Epidemiology. 2008;19:523­529. 2 and postnatal mobile phone usage. They caution against assum- ing a causal relationship from exposure

  4. Family Structure Transitions and Maternal Parenting Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Carey E.; McLanahan, Sara S.; Meadows, Sarah O.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2009-01-01

    Data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 4,176) are used to examine family structure transitions and maternal parenting stress. Using multilevel modeling, we found that mothers who exit coresidential relationships with biological fathers or enter coresidential relationships with nonbiological fathers reported higher levels of…

  5. Effects of maternal vanadate treatment of fetal development.

    PubMed

    Ganguli, S; Reuland, D J; Franklin, L A; Deakins, D D; Johnston, W J; Pasha, A

    1994-01-01

    Oral vanadate treatment is effective in normalizing blood glucose in both Type I and Type II diabetics. Using Sprague Dawley rats we examined the effectiveness of such treatment in amelioration of hyperglycemia in diabetic pregnancy and its effect on fetal growth in both normal and diabetic pregnant dams. Initiation of vanadate treatment to diabetic and normal pregnant dams increased blood vanadium levels in both groups, but this concentration in the diabetic pregnant group reached approximately twice the value present in the normal group. Despite this high blood vanadium level in the diabetic pregnant dams, oral vanadate treatment was not effective in normalizing blood sugar in this group. Additionally, vanadate treatment was found to be toxic during diabetic pregnancy, causing death to 45% of the test animals. Maternal blood vanadium had a negative effect on fetal development, markedly reducing the number of live fetuses per pregnancy. In summary, oral vanadate treatment is toxic and ineffective during diabetic pregnancies and interferes with fetal growth and development in both normal and diabetic pregnancy. PMID:7934628

  6. Long-Term Consequences of Neonatal Rearing on Central Corticotropin-Releasing Factor Systems in Adult Male Rat Offspring

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul M Plotsky; K V Thrivikraman; Charles B Nemeroff; Christian Caldji; Shakti Sharma; Michael J Meaney

    2005-01-01

    In a series of studies on the long-term consequences of neonatal rearing, we compared hypothalamic and extrahypothalamic central corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) systems in male rats reared under conditions of animal facility rearing, nonhandling (HMS0), handling with brief maternal separation for 15 min (HMS15), or handling with moderate maternal separation for 180 min (HMS180) daily from postnatal days 2–14. CRF-like immunoreactivity

  7. Maternal smoking and behavior problems of children.

    PubMed

    Weitzman, M; Gortmaker, S; Sobol, A

    1992-09-01

    Numerous health consequences of children's exposure to maternal smoking have been demonstrated, including increased rates of low birth weight, infant mortality, respiratory infections, asthma, and modest impairments of cognitive development. There is little evidence, however, linking maternal smoking and increased rates of children's behavior problems. Data from the population-based National Longitudinal Survey of Youth were used to investigate the possible association of maternal smoking and behavior problems among 2256 children aged 4 through 11 years. In multiple regression analyses the authors controlled for child's race, age, sex, birth weight, and chronic asthma; family structure, income, and divorce or separation in the prior 2 years; mother's education, intelligence, self-esteem, employment status, chronic disabling health conditions, and use of alcohol during pregnancy; and the quality of the home environment as assessed by the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment-Short Form to investigate the relationship between maternal smoking and children's behavior problems. The measure of maternal smoking status reflected two levels of smoking intensity (less than a pack per day and a pack or more per day) for each of three different categories of children's exposure: prenatal only (mother smoked only during pregnancy), passive only (mother smoked only after pregnancy), and prenatal plus passive exposure (mother smoked both during and after pregnancy). Measures of children's behavior problems included the overall score on a 32-item parent-reported child Behavior Problem Index (PBI), scores on the BPI's subscales, and rates of extreme scores on the BPI.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1518686

  8. Microchimerism of maternal origin persists into adult life

    PubMed Central

    Maloney, Sean; Smith, Anajane; Furst, Daniel E.; Myerson, David; Rupert, Kate; Evans, Paul C.; Nelson, J. Lee

    1999-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that fetal cells persist in maternal blood for decades after pregnancy. Maternal cells are known to engraft and persist in infants with immunodeficiency, but whether maternal cells persist long-term in immunocompetent offspring has not specifically been investigated. We developed sensitive human leukocyte antigen–specific (HLA-specific) PCR assays and targeted nonshared maternal HLA genes to test for persistent maternal microchimerism in subjects with scleroderma and in healthy normal subjects. Nonshared maternal-specific DNA was found in 6 of 9 scleroderma patients. In situ hybridization with double labeling for X and Y chromosome–specific sequences revealed female cells in peripheral blood samples from 2 male scleroderma patients. HLA-specific PCR also frequently revealed persistent maternal microchimerism in healthy control subjects. The mean age of all subjects with maternal microchimerism was 28 years (range: 9–49 years). With few exceptions, mothers of subjects with persistent maternal microchimerism were HLA incompatible with subjects for class I and class II alleles. These results clearly indicate that HLA-disparate maternal cells can persist in immunocompetent offspring well into adult life. The biological significance of maternal microchimerism and whether it might contribute to autoimmune disease requires further investigation. PMID:10393697

  9. Maternal warming affects early life stages of an invasive thistle.

    PubMed

    Zhang, R; Gallagher, R S; Shea, K

    2012-03-01

    Maternal environment can influence plant offspring performance. Understanding maternal environmental effects will help to bridge a key gap in the knowledge of plant life cycles, and provide important insights for species' responses under climate change. Here we show that maternal warming significantly affected the early life stages of an invasive thistle, Carduus nutans. Seeds produced by plants grown in warmed conditions had higher germination percentages and shorter mean germination times than those produced by plants under ambient conditions; this difference was most evident at suboptimal germination temperatures. Subsequent seedling emergence was also faster with maternal warming, with no cost to seedling emergence percentage and seedling growth. Our results suggest that maternal warming may accelerate the life cycle of this species via enhanced early life-history stages. These maternal effects on offspring performance, together with the positive responses of the maternal generation, may exacerbate invasions of this species under climate change. PMID:22404764

  10. Epigenetic programming by maternal behavior and pharmacological intervention. Nature versus nurture: let's call the whole thing off.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Ian C G

    2007-01-01

    The nature of maternal care that an infant receives can effect the child's emotional and cognitive development, which is endured into adulthood. Similarly, maternal behavior in rodents is associated with long-term programming of individual differences in behavioral and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal responses to stress in the offspring. One critical question is how is such 'environmental programming' established and sustained in the offspring? This review discusses a novel mechanism to explain how maternal licking/grooming behavior in the rat can alter the hippocampal glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression in the offspring, which concomitantly alters the HPA axis and the stress responsiveness of these animals. Both in vivo and in vitro studies show that maternal behavior increases GR expression in the offspring via increased hippocampal serotonergic tone accompanied by increased histone acetylase transferase activity, histone acetylation and DNA demethylation mediated by the transcription factor NGFI-A. In summary, this research demonstrates that an epigenetic state of a gene can be established through early-in-life experience, and is potentially reversible in adulthood. Accordingly, epigenetic modifications of specific genomic regions in response to variations in environmental conditions might serve as a major source of variation in biological and behavioral phenotypes. PMID:17965624

  11. Food restriction affects reproduction and survival of F1 and F2 offspring of Rat-like hamster (Cricetulus triton).

    PubMed

    Liang, Hong; Zhang, Zhibin

    2006-03-30

    Food restriction in parent may have long-term consequence on the reproductive capabilities of the offspring, and these consequences may, in turn, play an important role in population regulation. In this paper, we systematically examined the effect of maternal food restriction on reproduction and survival of maternal individuals, and F1 and F2 offspring of Rat-like hamsters (Cricetulus triton). Food restriction to 75% of that eaten by ad libitum-fed hamsters (75% FR) did not affect the reproductive organs and hormone concentration of maternal females, but 50% FR significantly reduced the size of ovarian organ and estradiol concentration of maternal females. 75% FR significantly reduced the testosterone concentration of maternal males; 50% FR significantly reduced both the size of epididymides and concentration of testosterone of maternal males. 70% FR in maternal females significantly reduced the sizes of reproductive organs and hormone concentrations of both their male and female F1 offspring. FR maternal females also produced significantly more male than female F1 offspring. The sizes of reproductive organs or hormone concentration of F2 males of maternal FR continued to significantly decline, but no such effect was observed in F2 females. However, the number of F2 offspring per F1 female of FR maternal females at birth became significantly smaller and with significantly more males than females. Survival to weaning of F1 and F2 offspring of FR maternal females became significantly smaller during the period from birth to weaning. Thus, the effects of maternal food restriction could be an important mechanism to explain the prolonged low population density that is commonly observed after the population crash of this species. PMID:16458335

  12. Evaluation of Developmental Toxicity of Amitraz in Sprague-Dawley Rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. C. Kim; J. Y. Shin; Y. S. Yang; D. H. Shin; C. J. Moon; S. H. Kim; S. C. Park; Y. B. Kim; H. C. Kim; M. K. Chung

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the potential adverse effects of amitraz on the initiation and maintenance of pregnancy in Sprague-Dawley\\u000a rats as well as its effects on embryo–fetal development after maternal exposure during the entire pregnancy period. Amitraz\\u000a was administered to pregnant rats by gavage from days 1 to 19 of gestation at dose levels of 0, 3, 10, and 30 mg\\/kg\\/day.

  13. Endothelin receptor A antagonism prevents hypoxia-induced intrauterine growth restriction in the rat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Larry G. Thaete; Mark G. Neerhof; Michael S. Caplan

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to investigate the hypothesis that endothelin plays a critical role in maternal hypoxia-induced intrauterine growth restriction. STUDY DESIGN: Chronic indwelling venous and arterial catheters were placed on day 17 of a 22-day gestation in timed-pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats. Twelve rats were infused with saline solution and 12 with 6 mg\\/kg per day FR139317, an endothelin receptor A–specific

  14. Contemporary Labor Patterns and Maternal Age

    PubMed Central

    ZAKI, Mary N.; HIBBARD, Judith U.; KOMINIAREK, Michelle A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate labor progress and length according to maternal age. Methods Data were abstracted from the Consortium on Safe Labor, a multicenter retrospective study from 19 hospitals in the United States. We studied 120,442 laboring gravid women with singleton, term, cephalic fetuses with normal outcomes and without a prior cesarean delivery from 2002 to 2008. Maternal age categories were less than 20 years old, greater than or equal to 20 to less than 30, greater than or equal to 30 to less than 40 and greater than or 40 years old, with the reference being less than 20 years. Interval-censored regression analysis was used to determine median traverse times (progression cm by cm) with 95th percentiles, adjusting for covariates (race, admission body mass index, diabetes, gestational age, induction, augmentation, epidural use and birth weight). A repeated-measures analysis with an eighth-degree polynomial model was used to construct mean labor curves for each maternal age category, stratified by parity. Results Traverse times for nulliparous women demonstrated the time to progress from 4 to 10 cm decreased as age increased up to age 40 (median 8.5 hrs vs. 7.8 hrs in those greater than or equal to 20 to less than 30 year old group and 7.4 hrs in the greater than or equal to 30 to less than 40 year old group, p<0.001); the length of the second stage with and without epidural increased with age (p<0.001). For multiparous women, time to progress from 4 to 10 cm decreased as age increased (median 8.8 hrs, 7.5, 6.7 and 6.5 from the youngest to oldest maternal age groups, p<0.001). Labor progressed faster with increasing maternal age in both nulliparous and multiparous women in the labor curves analysis. Conclusion The first stage of labor progressed more quickly with increasing age for nulliparous up to age 40 and all multiparous women. Contemporary labor management should account for maternal age. PMID:24104787

  15. Gene Expression Profiling during Pregnancy in Rat Brain Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Mann, Phyllis E.

    2014-01-01

    The neurophysiological changes that occur during pregnancy in the female mammal have led to the coining of the phrases “expectant brain” and “maternal brain”. Although much is known of the hormonal changes during pregnancy, alterations in neurotransmitter gene expression have not been well-studied. We examined gene expression in the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH) during pregnancy based on the fact that this nucleus not only modulates the physiological changes that occur during pregnancy but is also involved in the development of maternal behavior. This study was designed to identify genes that are differentially expressed between mid- and late-pregnancy in order to determine which genes may be associated with the onset and display of maternal behavior and the development of the maternal brain. A commercially available PCR array containing 84 neurotransmitter receptor and regulator genes (RT2 Profiler PCR array) was used. Brains were harvested from rats on days 12 and 21 of gestation, frozen, and micropunched to obtain the VMH. Total RNA was extracted, cDNA prepared, and SYBR Green qPCR was performed. In the VMH, expression of five genes were reduced on day 21 of gestation compared to day 12 (Chrna6, Drd5, Gabrr2, Prokr2, and Ppyr1) whereas Chat, Chrm5, Drd4, Gabra5, Gabrg2, LOC289606, Nmu5r2, and Npy5r expression was elevated. Five genes were chosen to be validated in an additional experiment based on their known involvement in maternal behavior onset. This experiment confirmed that gene expression for both the CCK-A receptor and the GABAAR ?2 receptor increases at the end of pregnancy. In general, these results identify genes possibly involved in the establishment of the maternal brain in rats and indicate possible new genes to be investigated. PMID:24961703

  16. Neonatal stress-induced affective changes in adolescent Wistar rats: early signs of schizophrenia-like behavior

    PubMed Central

    Girardi, Carlos Eduardo Neves; Zanta, Natália Cristina; Suchecki, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders are multifactorial diseases with etiology that may involve genetic factors, early life environment and stressful life events. The neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia is based on a wealth of data on increased vulnerability in individuals exposed to insults during the perinatal period. Maternal deprivation (MD) disinhibits the adrenocortical response to stress in neonatal rats and has been used as an animal model of schizophrenia. To test if long-term affective consequences of early life stress were influenced by maternal presence, we submitted 10-day old rats, either deprived (for 22 h) or not from their dams, to a stress challenge (i.p. saline injection). Corticosterone plasma levels were measured 2 h after the challenge, whereas another subgroup was assessed for behavior in the open field, elevated plus maze (EPM), social investigation and the negative contrast sucrose consumption test in adolescence (postnatal day 45). Maternally deprived rats exhibited increased plasma corticosterone (CORT) levels which were higher in maternally deprived and stress challenged pups. Social investigation was impaired in maternally deprived rats only, while saline injection, independently of MD, was associated with increased anxiety-like behavior in the EPM and an impaired intake decrement in the negative sucrose contrast. In the open field, center exploration was reduced in all maternally-deprived adolescents and in control rats challenged with saline injection. The most striking finding was that exposure to a stressful stimulus per se, regardless of MD, was linked to differential emotional consequences. We therefore propose that besides being a well-known and validated model of schizophrenia in adult rats, the MD paradigm could be extended to model early signs of psychiatric dysfunction, and would particularly be a useful tool to detect early signs that resemble schizophrenia. PMID:25309370

  17. Maternal hormones during early pregnancy: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Tianhui; Lundin, Eva; Grankvist, Kjell; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Wulff, Marianne; Afanasyeva, Yelena; Schock, Helena; Johansson, Robert; Lenner, Per; Hallmans, Goran; Wadell, Goran; Toniolo, Paolo; Lukanova, Annekatrin

    2010-01-01

    Background Little is known about correlates of first trimester pregnancy hormones as in most studies maternal hormones have been measured later in gestation. We examined the associations of maternal characteristics and child sex with first trimester maternal concentrations of 4 hormones implicated in breast cancer: human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), ?-fetoprotein (AFP), insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and IGF-II. Methods 338 serum samples donated to the Northern Sweden Maternity Cohort (NSMC), 1975–2001, during the first trimester of uncomplicated pregnancies were analyzed for the hormones of interest as a part of a case-control study. The associations between maternal characteristics and child sex with hormone concentrations were investigated by correlation, general linear regression, and multivariate regression models. Results In the first trimester, greater maternal age was inversely correlated with IGF-I and IGF-II. In comparison with women carrying their first child, already parous women had higher IGF-I but lower hCG. Greater maternal weight and smoking were inversely correlated with hCG. No differences in hormone levels by child sex were observed. Conclusions Our analyses indicated that potentially modifiable maternal characteristics (maternal weight and smoking) influence first trimester pregnancy maternal hormone concentrations. PMID:20084544

  18. The difficulties of conducting maternal death reviews in Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Kongnyuy, Eugene J; van den Broek, Nynke

    2008-01-01

    Background Maternal death reviews is a tool widely recommended to improve the quality of obstetric care and reduce maternal mortality. Our aim was to explore the challenges encountered in the process of facility-based maternal death review in Malawi, and to suggest sustainable and logically sound solutions to these challenges. Methods SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats) analysis of the process of maternal death review during a workshop in Malawi. Results Strengths: Availability of data from case notes, support from hospital management, and having maternal death review forms. Weaknesses: fear of blame, lack of knowledge and skills to properly conduct death reviews, inadequate resources and missing documentation. Opportunities: technical assistance from expatriates, support from the Ministry of Health, national protocols and high maternal mortality which serves as motivation factor. Threats: Cultural practices, potential lawsuit, demotivation due to the high maternal mortality and poor planning at the district level. Solutions: proper documentation, conducting maternal death review in a blame-free manner, good leadership, motivation of staff, using guidelines, proper stock inventory and community involvement. Conclusion Challenges encountered during facility-based maternal death review are provider-related, administrative, client related and community related. Countries with similar socioeconomic profiles to Malawi will have similar 'pull-and-push' factors on the process of facility-based maternal death reviews, and therefore we will expect these countries to have similar potential solutions. PMID:18786267

  19. Maternal Antenatal Depression and Infant Disorganized Attachment at 12 months

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Lisa J.; Goodman, Sherryl H.; Carlson, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Although high rates of attachment disorganization have been observed in infants of depressed mothers, little is known about the role of antenatal depression as a precursor to infant attachment disorganization. The primary aim of this study was to examine associations between maternal antenatal depression and infant disorganization at 12 months in a sample of women (N = 79) at risk for perinatal depression. A secondary aim was to test the roles of maternal postpartum depression and maternal parenting quality as potential moderators of this predicted association. Among women with histories of major depressive episodes, maternal depressive symptoms were assessed at multiple times during pregnancy and the first year postpartum, maternal parenting quality was measured at 3 months postpartum, and attachment disorganization was assessed at 12 months postpartum. Results revealed that infants classified as disorganized had mothers with higher levels of depressive symptoms during pregnancy compared to infants classified as organized. Maternal parenting quality moderated this association, as exposure to higher levels of maternal depressive symptoms during pregnancy was only associated with higher rates of infant disorganized attachment when maternal parenting at 3 months was less optimal. These findings suggest that enhancing maternal parenting behaviors during this early period in development has the potential to alter pathways to disorganized attachment among infants exposed to antenatal maternal depressive symptoms, which could have enduring consequences for child wellbeing. PMID:23216358

  20. Genetic and environmental influence on diabetic rat embryopathy.

    PubMed

    Ejdesjö, A; Wentzel, P; Eriksson, U J

    2011-03-01

    We assessed genetic and environmental influence on fetal outcome in diabetic rat pregnancy. Crossing normal (N) and manifestly diabetic (MD) Wistar Furth (W) and Sprague-Dawley (L) females with W or L males yielded four different fetal genotypes (WW, LL, WL, and LW) in N or MD rat pregnancies for studies. We also evaluated fetal outcome in litters with enhanced or diminished severity of maternal MD state, denoted MD(+)WL and MD(-)LW. The MDWW litters had less malformations and resorptions (0 and 19%) than the MDLL litters (17 and 30%). The MDWL litters (0 and 8%) were less maldeveloped than the MDLW litters (9 and 22%), whereas the MD(+)WL (3 and 23%) and MD(-)LW (1 and 17%) litters showed increased and decreased dysmorphogenesis (compared with MDWL and MDLW litters). The pregnant MDW rats had lower serum levels of glucose, fructosamine, and branched-chain amino acids than the pregnant MDL rats, whereas the pregnant MD(+)W and MD(-)L rats had levels comparable with those of the MDL and MDW rats, respectively. The 8-iso-PGF2? levels of the malformed MDLW offspring were increased compared with the nonmalformed MDLW offspring. Diabetes decreased fetal heart Ret and increased Bmp-4 gene expression in the MDLW offspring and caused decreased GDNF and Shh expression in the malformed fetal mandible of the MDLW offspring. We conclude that the fetal genome controls the embryonic dysmorphogenesis in diabetic pregnancy by instigating a threshold level for the teratological insult and that the maternal genome controls the teratogenic insult by (dys)regulating the maternal metabolism. PMID:21119026

  1. Histoincompatibility and maternal immunological status as determinants of fetoplacental weight and litter size in rodents

    PubMed Central

    1975-01-01

    Studies conducted upon inbred strains of mice, hamsters and rats have shown that following the interstrain matings the now familiar covert reactivity of pregnant females to the alloantigens of their conceptuses may benefit the latter in two ways; firstly, it exerts a significant influence upon placental weight, and indirectly upon the birth weight of the fetus-allogeneic placentas tending to be heavier than syngeneic placentas, and mothers specifically presensitized against alien paternal tissue antigens gestate fetuses with heavier placentas than normal females. Specifically tolerant mothers, on the other hand, produce smaller, F1 hybrid, fetoplacental (fp) units. The classic notion that the disparity between the birth weights of F1 hybrid and homozygous offspring is due to hybrid vigor has been challenged by the finding that DA and (DA times F1)F1 hybrid blastocysts transferred to the uteri of genetically tolerant (DA times F1)F1 hybrid rats produce fp units of similar weight Maternal immunological reactivity against the fetus qua allograft may make a significant contribution here. Additional support for the premise that maternal reactivity against fetal alloantigens in some way promotes the growth of the fp unit was afforded by the finding that excision of the para-aortic lymph nodes (which drain the uterine horns) from females before interstrain matings resulted in smaller fp units than in females subjected to sham operations. The finding with one rat strain combination that passive immunization of females with serum against their F1 hybrid conceptuses promoted the growth of the latter suggests that a humoral rather than a cellular immunity may be involved. Secondly, in the three species studied, it was observed that genetic disparity between a conceptus and its mother significantly improved its chances of implantation and development to term. PMID:1097574

  2. BENOMYL-INDUCED CRANIOCEREBRAL ANOMALIES IN FETUSES OF ADEQUATELY NOURISHED AND PROTEIN-DEPRIVED RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Benomyl, a benzimidazole fungicide, produced craniocerebral and systemic malformations in fetal rats when administered by gavage in doses of 31.2, 62.5, and 125 mg/kg of maternal body weight on days 7-21 of gestation. Malformations increased in incidence and severity with increas...

  3. Comparison of nicotinic receptor binding and biotransformation of coniine in the rat and chick

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carol S. Forsythn; Robert C. Speth; Lynn Wecker; Francis D. Galey; Anthony A. Frank

    1996-01-01

    Coniine, an alkaloid from Conium maculatum (poison hemlock), is a known teratogen in many domestic species with maternal ingestion resulting in arthrogryposis of the offspring. We have previously shown that rats are not susceptible and rabbits only weakly susceptible to coniine-induced arthrogryposis. However, the chick embryo does provide a reproducible laboratory animal model of coniine-induced teratogenesis. The reason for this

  4. Effect of neonatal isolation on outcome following neonatal seizures in rats—The role of corticosterone

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ming-Chi Lai; Gregory L. Holmes; Ko-Hung Lee; San-Nan Yang; Chien-An Wang; Chia-Lu Wu; Mao-Meng Tiao; Chih-Sung Hsieh; Chiang-Hsuan Lee; Li-Tung Huang

    2006-01-01

    Emerging evidence indicates that early maternal care permanently modifies the activity of hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis and is a critical factor in determining the capacity of the brain to compensate for later encountered insults. The purpose of this study was to determine the role of corticosterone (CORT) in the detrimental effects of neonatal isolation (NI) on seizures. Rats were assigned randomly

  5. Erythropoietin Attenuates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced White Matter Injury in the Neonatal Rat Brain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abdullah Kumral; Huseyin Baskin; Didem Cemile Yesilirmak; Bekir Ugur Ergur; Simge Aykan; Sermin Genc; Kursad Genc; Osman Yilmaz; Kazim Tugyan; Ozlem Giray; Nuray Duman; Hasan Ozkan

    2007-01-01

    Periventricular leukomalacia (PVL), a common neonatal brain white matter (WM) lesion, is frequently associated with cerebral palsy. Growing evidence has indicated that in addition to ischemia\\/reperfusion injury, cytokine-induced brain injury associated with maternal or fetal infection may also play an important role in the pathogenesis of PVL. Recent studies have shown that administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to pregnant rats causes

  6. Behavioral deficits associated with fetal alcohol exposure are reversed by prenatal thyroid hormone treatment: a role for maternal thyroid hormone deficiency in FAE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J S Wilcoxon; A G Kuo; J F Disterhoft; E E Redei

    2005-01-01

    Children prenatally exposed to alcohol typically exhibit behavioral abnormalities, including hyperactivity, learning deficits, and an increased prevalence of depression. Similar impairments are found in children of hypothyroid mothers, and we have shown that alcohol-consuming rat dams have suppressed hypothalamic–pituitary–thyroid (HPT) function. Therefore, we hypothesized that suppressed maternal thyroid hormonal milieu may contribute to the deleterious consequences of prenatal alcohol exposure.

  7. Maternal mortality in St. Petersburg, Russian Federation.

    PubMed Central

    Gurina, Natalia A.; Vangen, Siri; Forsén, Lisa; Sundby, Johanne

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the levels and causes of maternal mortality in St. Petersburg, Russian Federation. METHODS: We collected data about all pregnancy-related deaths in St. Petersburg over the period 1992-2003 using several sources of information. An independent research group reviewed and classified all cases according to ICD-10 and the Confidential Enquiries into Maternal Deaths in the United Kingdom. We tested trends of overall and cause specific ratios (deaths per 100,000 births) for four 3-year intervals using the chi2 test. FINDINGS: The maternal mortality ratio for the study period was 43 per 100,000 live births. A sharp decline of direct obstetric deaths was observed from the first to fourth 3-year interval (49.8 for 1992-94 versus 18.5 for 2001-03). Sepsis and haemorrhage were the main causes of direct obstetric deaths. Among the total deaths from sepsis, 63.8% were due to abortion. Death ratios from sepsis declined significantly from the first to second study interval. In the last study interval (2001-03), 50% of deaths due to haemorrhage were secondary to ectopic pregnancies. The death ratio from thromboembolism remained low (2.9%) and stable throughout the study period. Among indirect obstetric deaths a non-significant decrease was observed for deaths from cardiac disease. Death ratios from infectious causes and suicides increased over the study period. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal mortality levels in St. Petersburg still exceed European levels by a factor of five. Improved management of abortion, emergency care for sepsis and haemorrhage, and better identification and control of infectious diseases in pregnancy, are needed. PMID:16628301

  8. Maternal and neonatal outcomes of macrosomic pregnancies

    PubMed Central

    Weissmann-Brenner, Alina; Simchen, Michal J.; Zilberberg, Eran; Kalter, Anat; Weisz, Boaz; Achiron, Reuven; Dulitzky, Mordechai

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background To compare maternal and neonatal outcomes of term macrosomic and adequate for gestational age (AGA) pregnancies. Material/Methods A retrospective analysis was performed on all term singleton macrosomic (birth weight ?4000 g) and AGA (birth weight >10th percentile and <4000 g) pregnancies delivered at our hospital between 2004 and 2008. Data collected included maternal age, gestational age at delivery, mode of delivery, birth weight, fetal gender, maternal and neonatal complications. Comparisons were made between macrosomic and AGA pregnancies and between different severities of macrosomia (4000–4250 g, 4250–4500 g and ?4500 g). Results The study population comprised of 34,685 pregnancies. 2077 neonates had birth weight ?4000 g. Maternal age and gestational age at delivery were significantly higher for macrosomic neonates. Significantly more macrosomic neonates were born by cesarean section, and were complicated with shoulder dystocia, neonatal hypoglycemia, and had longer hospitalization period (both in vaginal and cesarean deliveries). Specifically, the odds ratio (OR) relative to AGA pregnancies for each macrosomic category (4000–4250 g, 4250–4500 g and ?4500 g) of shoulder dystocia was 2.37, 2.24, 7.61, respectively, and for neonatal hypoglycemia 4.24, 4.41, 4.15, respectively. The risk of post partum hemorrhage was statistically increased when birth weight was >4500 g (OR=5.23) but not for birth weight between 4000–4500 g. No differences were found in the rates of extensive perineal lacerations between AGA and the different macrosomic groups. Conclusions Macrosomia is associated with increased rate of cesarean section, shoulder dystocia, neonatal hypoglycemia, and longer hospitalization, but not associated with excessive perineal tears. Increased risk of PPH was found in the >4500g group. PMID:22936200

  9. Costing maternal health services in South Tanzania

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claudia von Both; Albrecht Jahn; Steffen Fleßa

    2008-01-01

    The following paper presents the methodology and results of a costing exercise of maternal health services in Tanzania. The\\u000a main objective of this study was to determine the actual costs of antenatal and obstetric care in different health institutions\\u000a in a district in Tanzania as a basis of more efficient resource allocation. A costing tool was developed that allows the

  10. Rotavirus infections in a maternity unit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. M. Totterdell; I. L. Chrystie; J. E. Banatvala

    1976-01-01

    Between May and August 1975, rotaviruses were detected in the stools of 76 out of 174 (44%) newborn babies in the maternity unit at this hospital. Infection occurred less frequently in breast-fed than in bottle-fed babies (P less than 0.001). However, only 7 out of 76 (8%) babies who excreted rotaviruses had symptoms and these were mild. Complement fixation tests

  11. Teratogenic assessment of three methylated hydrazine derivatives in the rat.

    PubMed

    Keller, W C; Olson, C T; Back, K C; Gaworski, C L

    1984-01-01

    The embryotoxicity and teratogenicity of methylhydrazine, 1,1-dimethylhydrazine, and 1,2-dimethylhydrazine were investigated with pregnant Fischer-344 rats. The compounds were administered ip on d 6-15 of pregnancy. A dose-dependent reduction in maternal weight gains occurred for all three compounds. A dose-related teratogenic effect did not occur for any of the three compounds. Embryotoxicity, manifested as reduced 20-d fetal weights, occurred only in the 1,1-dimethylhydrazine and 1,2-dimethylhydrazine high-dose treatment groups. The results indicate that none of the three methylated hydrazine derivatives are selectively embryotoxic or teratogenic in the rat. PMID:6716510

  12. ‘Adoption’ by Maternal Siblings in Wild Chimpanzees

    PubMed Central

    Hobaiter, Catherine; Schel, Anne Marijke; Langergraber, Kevin; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    The adoption of unrelated orphaned infants is something chimpanzees and humans have in common. Providing parental care has fitness implications for both the adopter and orphan, and cases of adoption have thus been cited as evidence for a shared origin of an altruistic behaviour. We provide new data on adoptions in the free-living Sonso chimpanzee community in Uganda, together with an analysis of published data from other long-term field sites. As a default pattern, we find that orphan chimpanzees do not become adopted by adult group members but wherever possible associate with each other, usually as maternal sibling pairs. This occurs even if both partners are still immature, with older individuals effectively becoming ‘child household heads’. Adoption of orphans by unrelated individuals does occur but usually only if no maternal siblings or other relatives are present and only after significant delays. In conclusion, following the loss of their mother, orphaned chimpanzees preferentially associate along pre-existing social bonds, which are typically strongest amongst maternal siblings. PMID:25084521

  13. Why are most organelle genomes transmitted maternally?

    PubMed Central

    Greiner, Stephan; Sobanski, Johanna; Bock, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    Why the DNA-containing organelles, chloroplasts, and mitochondria, are inherited maternally is a long standing and unsolved question. However, recent years have seen a paradigm shift, in that the absoluteness of uniparental inheritance is increasingly questioned. Here, we review the field and propose a unifying model for organelle inheritance. We argue that the predominance of the maternal mode is a result of higher mutational load in the paternal gamete. Uniparental inheritance evolved from relaxed organelle inheritance patterns because it avoids the spread of selfish cytoplasmic elements. However, on evolutionary timescales, uniparentally inherited organelles are susceptible to mutational meltdown (Muller's ratchet). To prevent this, fall-back to relaxed inheritance patterns occurs, allowing low levels of sexual organelle recombination. Since sexual organelle recombination is insufficient to mitigate the effects of selfish cytoplasmic elements, various mechanisms for uniparental inheritance then evolve again independently. Organelle inheritance must therefore be seen as an evolutionary unstable trait, with a strong general bias to the uniparental, maternal, mode. PMID:25302405

  14. Lessons from 150 years of UK maternal hemorrhage deaths.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Robert Stuart; Weeks, Andrew David

    2015-06-01

    We have reviewed maternal hemorrhage death rates in the UK over the past 150 years in order to draw lessons from this material for current attempts to reduce global maternal mortality. Mortality rates from data in the UK Annual Reports from the Registrar General were entered into a database. Charts were created to display trends in hemorrhage mortality, allowing comparison with historical medical advances. Hemorrhage death rates fell steadily before the 1930s; between 1874 and 1926 they fell by 56%. In contrast, there was no consistent reduction in overall maternal mortality rates until the 1930s; from 1932 to 1952 they fell by 85%, primarily due to a reduction in sepsis deaths. In conclusion the majority of maternal hemorrhage mortality reductions in the UK occurred prior to the availability of effective oxytocics, antibiotics, and blood transfusion. Improving access to and standards of maternal care is key to addressing global maternal mortality today. PMID:25779748

  15. Maternal attachment representations, maternal sensitivity, and the infant-mother attachment relationship.

    PubMed

    Pederson, D R; Gleason, K E; Moran, G; Bento, S

    1998-09-01

    The role of maternal sensitivity as a mediator accounting for the robust association between maternal attachment representations and the quality of the infant-mother attachment relationship was examined. Sixty mother-infant dyads were observed at home and in the Strange Situation at 13 months, and mothers participated in the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) within the next 6 months. A strong association was found between AAI and Strange Situation classifications, and autonomous mothers were more sensitive at home than were nonautonomous mothers. Mothers in secure relationships were more sensitive at home than mothers in nonsecure relationships. Likewise, infants in secure relationships were more secure as assessed by the Waters' Attachment Q sort than infants in nonsecure relationships. A test of the mediational model revealed that maternal sensitivity accounted for 17% of the relation between AAI and Strange Situation classifications. PMID:9779739

  16. Intracranial Meningioma Diagnosed during Pregnancy Caused Maternal Death

    PubMed Central

    Kurdoglu, Zehra; Cetin, Orkun; Gulsen, Ismail; Bulut, M. Deniz

    2014-01-01

    Brain tumors are rarely diagnosed during pregnancy. Accelerated growth of intracranial meningiomas during pregnancy sometimes requires urgent surgical intervention. We describe a 41-year-old pregnant woman with severe neurological decompensation requiring immediate neurosurgery. Cesarean section resulted in maternal death. Meningioma diagnosed during a viable pregnancy should be managed according to the severity of maternal neurological symptoms and gestational age of pregnancy. Early intervention for intracranial tumors during pregnancy may save maternal and fetal lives. PMID:25295061

  17. Intracranial Meningioma Diagnosed during Pregnancy Caused Maternal Death.

    PubMed

    Kurdoglu, Zehra; Cetin, Orkun; Gulsen, Ismail; Dirik, Deniz; Bulut, M Deniz

    2014-01-01

    Brain tumors are rarely diagnosed during pregnancy. Accelerated growth of intracranial meningiomas during pregnancy sometimes requires urgent surgical intervention. We describe a 41-year-old pregnant woman with severe neurological decompensation requiring immediate neurosurgery. Cesarean section resulted in maternal death. Meningioma diagnosed during a viable pregnancy should be managed according to the severity of maternal neurological symptoms and gestational age of pregnancy. Early intervention for intracranial tumors during pregnancy may save maternal and fetal lives. PMID:25295061

  18. Glomerular hypertrophy aggravates epithelial cell injury in nephrotic rats.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, P L; Scholey, J W; Rennke, H G; Meyer, T W

    1990-01-01

    Glomerular function and structure were assessed after reduction of nephron number and restriction of protein intake in rats with adriamycin nephrosis. Rats received an injection of adriamycin and were divided into three groups with similar values for albuminuria after 4 wk. Group 1 rats then served as controls, group 2 rats were subjected to four-fifths renal ablation, and group 3 rats were placed on a low protein diet (8% protein) while group 1 and group 2 rats remained on a standard diet (24% protein). Micropuncture and morphometric studies were performed 10 d later. Estimated single-nephron albuminuria (SNalb) was increased by renal ablation in group 2 and decreased by protein restriction in group 3 (group 1, 20 +/- 2 micrograms/d; group 2, 68 +/- 7 micrograms/d; group 3, 12 +/- 1 microgram/d, P less than 0.05 groups 2 and 3 vs. 1). Increased SNalb was associated with increased glomerular volume in group 2 and reduced SNalb was associated with reduced glomerular volume in group 3. (group 1, 1.44 +/- 0.04 x 10(6) microns 3; group 2, 1.66 +/- 0.08 x 10(6) microns 3; group 3, 1.26 +/- 0.03 x 10(6) microns 3, P less than 0.05 groups 2 and 3 vs. 1). Increased SNalb in group 2 was not associated with an increase in glomerular transcapillary hydraulic pressure. The area of epithelial cell detachment from the peripheral capillary wall was markedly increased in group 2 but not perceptibly altered in group 3 (group 1, 16 +/- 5 x 10(2) microns 2; group 2, 65 +/- 17 x 10(2) microns 2; group 3, 18 +/- 5 x 10(2) microns 2; P less than 0.05 group 2 vs. 1). These studies show that glomerular hypertrophy is associated with increased epithelial cell detachment from the peripheral capillary wall and with increased remnant nephron albuminuria after reduction of nephron number in rats with established nephrosis. Images PMID:2318969

  19. Current and Past Maternal Depression, Maternal Interaction Behaviors, and Children’s Externalizing and Internalizing Symptoms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cynthia J. Ewell Foster; Judy Garber; Joseph A. Durlak

    2008-01-01

    Relations among past maternal depressive disorder, current depressive symptoms, current maternal interaction behaviors, and\\u000a children’s adjustment were examined in a sample of 204 women and their young adolescent offspring (mean age?=?11.86, SD?=?0.55).\\u000a Mothers either had (n?=?157) or had not (n?=?57) experienced at least one depressive disorder during the child’s life. Mothers and children participated in a problem-solving\\u000a task, video-taped for

  20. Maternal induction of ventral fate by zebrafish radar.

    PubMed

    Sidi, Samuel; Goutel, Carole; Peyriéras, Nadine; Rosa, Frédéric M

    2003-03-18

    In vertebrate embryos, maternal determinants are thought to preestablish the dorsoventral axis by locally activating zygotic ventral- and dorsal-specifying genes, e.g., genes encoding bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) and BMP inhibitors, respectively. Whereas the canonical Wntbeta-catenin pathway fulfills this role dorsally, the existence of a reciprocal maternal ventralizing signal remains hypothetical. Maternal noncanonical WntCa(2+) signaling may promote ventral fates by suppressing Wntbeta-catenin dorsalizing signals; however, whether any maternal determinant is directly required for the activation of zygotic ventral-specifying genes is unknown. Here, we show that such a function is achieved, in part, in the zebrafish embryo by the maternally encoded transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) signaling molecule, Radar. Loss-of-function experiments, together with epistasis analyses, identify maternal Radar as an upstream activator of bmps expression. Maternal induction of bmps by Radar is essential for zebrafish development as its removal results in larval-lethal dorsalized phenotypes. Double-morphant analyses further suggest that Radar functions through the TGF-beta receptor Alk8 to initiate the expression of bmp genes. Our results support the existence of a previously uncharacterized maternal ventralizing pathway. They might further indicate that maternal TGF-betaRdr and WntCa(2+) pathways complementarily specify ventral cell fates, with the former triggering bmps expression and the latter indirectly repressing genes encoding BMP antagonists. PMID:12601179

  1. Maternal induction of ventral fate by zebrafish radar

    PubMed Central

    Sidi, Samuel; Goutel, Carole; Peyriéras, Nadine; Rosa, Frédéric M.

    2003-01-01

    In vertebrate embryos, maternal determinants are thought to preestablish the dorsoventral axis by locally activating zygotic ventral- and dorsal-specifying genes, e.g., genes encoding bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) and BMP inhibitors, respectively. Whereas the canonical Wnt/?-catenin pathway fulfills this role dorsally, the existence of a reciprocal maternal ventralizing signal remains hypothetical. Maternal noncanonical Wnt/Ca2+ signaling may promote ventral fates by suppressing Wnt/?-catenin dorsalizing signals; however, whether any maternal determinant is directly required for the activation of zygotic ventral-specifying genes is unknown. Here, we show that such a function is achieved, in part, in the zebrafish embryo by the maternally encoded transforming growth factor ? (TGF-?) signaling molecule, Radar. Loss-of-function experiments, together with epistasis analyses, identify maternal Radar as an upstream activator of bmps expression. Maternal induction of bmps by Radar is essential for zebrafish development as its removal results in larval-lethal dorsalized phenotypes. Double-morphant analyses further suggest that Radar functions through the TGF-? receptor Alk8 to initiate the expression of bmp genes. Our results support the existence of a previously uncharacterized maternal ventralizing pathway. They might further indicate that maternal TGF-?/Rdr and Wnt/Ca2+ pathways complementarily specify ventral cell fates, with the former triggering bmps expression and the latter indirectly repressing genes encoding BMP antagonists. PMID:12601179

  2. Maternal Health Situation in India: A Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Mavalankar, Dileep V.; Ramani, K.V.; Upadhyaya, Mudita; Sharma, Bharati; Iyengar, Sharad; Gupta, Vikram; Iyengar, Kirti

    2009-01-01

    Since the beginning of the Safe Motherhood Initiative, India has accounted for at least a quarter of maternal deaths reported globally. India's goal is to lower maternal mortality to less than 100 per 100,000 livebirths but that is still far away despite its programmatic efforts and rapid economic progress over the past two decades. Geographical vastness and sociocultural diversity mean that maternal mortality varies across the states, and uniform implementation of health-sector reforms is not possible. The case study analyzes the trends in maternal mortality nationally, the maternal healthcare-delivery system at different levels, and the implementation of national maternal health programmes, including recent innovative strategies. It identifies the causes for limited success in improving maternal health and suggests measures to rectify them. It recommends better reporting of maternal deaths and implementation of evidence-based, focused strategies along with effective monitoring for rapid progress. It also stresses the need for regulation of the private sector and encourages further public-private partnerships and policies, along with a strong political will and improved management capacity for improving maternal health. PMID:19489415

  3. Levels of maternal serum corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) at midpregnancy in relation to maternal characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yumin; Holzman, Claudia; Chung, Hwan; Senagore, Patricia; Talge, Nicole M; Siler-Khodr, Theresa

    2009-01-01

    Summary BACKGROUND Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) in maternal blood originates primarily from gestational tissues and elevated levels in midpregnancy have been linked to adverse pregnancy outcomes. Investigators have hypothesized that high levels of maternal stress might lead to elevated CRH levels in pregnancy. Yet a few studies have measured maternal CRH levels among subgroups of women who experience disproportionate socioeconomic disadvantage, such as African-American and Hispanic women, and found that these groups have lower CRH levels in pregnancy. Our goal was to identify maternal characteristics related to CRH levels in midpregnancy and examine which if any of these factors help to explain race differences in CRH levels. METHODS The Pregnancy Outcomes and Community Health (POUCH) Study prospectively enrolled women at 15–27 weeks’ gestation from 52 clinics in five Michigan communities (1998–2004). Data from the POUCH Study were used to examine maternal demographics, anthropometrics, health behaviors, and psychosocial factors (independent variables) in relation to midpregnancy blood CRH levels modeled as log CRH pg/ml (dependent variable). Analyses were conducted within a subcohort from the POUCH Study (671 non-Hispanic Whites, 545 African Americans) and repeated in the subcohort subset with uncomplicated pregnancies (n=746). Blood levels of CRH and independent variables were ascertained at the time of enrollment. All regression models included week of enrollment as a covariate. In addition, final multivariable regression models alternately incorporated different psychosocial measures along with maternal demographics and weight. Psychosocial variables included measures of current depressive symptoms, perceived stress, coping style, hostility, mastery, anomie, and a chronic stressor (history of abuse as a child and adult). RESULTS In subcohort models, the adjusted mean CRH level was significantly lower in African Americans vs. non-Hispanic whites; the difference was ?0.48 pg/ml (P<0.01). This difference was reduced by 21% (?0.38 pg/ml, P<0.01) after inclusion of other relevant covariates. Adjusted mean CRH levels were also lower among women with < 12 years vs. ? 12 years of education (minimal difference =?0.19 pg/ml, P<0.05), and among women with high levels of depressive symptoms who did not use antidepressants vs. women with lower levels of depressive symptoms and no antidepressant use (minimal difference =?0.13 pg/ml, P<0.01). CRH levels were inversely associated with maternal weight (?0.03 pg/ml per 10 pound increase, P<.05) but unrelated to smoking and all other psychosocial measures. Results were similar in the subset of women with uncomplicated pregnancies, except that lower CRH levels were also linked to higher perceived stress. CONCLUSION African-American women have lower blood CRH levels at midpregnancy and the race difference in CRH levels is reduced modestly after adjustment for other maternal characteristics. CRH levels were not elevated among women with high levels of perceived stress or more chronic stressors. The inverse association between CRH levels and maternal weight is likely due to a hemodilution effect. Relations among maternal CRH levels and maternal race, educational level, and depressive symptoms are difficult to explain and invite further investigation. Our results highlight a group of covariates that merit consideration in studies that address CRH in the context of pregnancy and/or post-partum complications. PMID:20006448

  4. Agreement between maternal report and antenatal records for a range of pre and peri-natal factors: The influence of maternal and child characteristics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frances Rice; Allyson Lewis; Gordon Harold; Marianne van den Bree; Jacky Boivin; Dale F. Hay; Michael J. Owen; Anita Thapar

    2007-01-01

    Background: Events during pregnancy and labour may influence the future health and well-being of offspring. Many studies rely on maternal reports of pre and peri-natal factors. Both maternal and child characteristics may potentially influence the reliability and accuracy of maternal recall. However, this has not been previously examined. Aims: To examine agreement between information from maternally reported questionnaires and medical

  5. Effects of Maternal L-glutamine Supplementation on Fetus to Mitigate Teratogenic Effects of Alcohol 

    E-print Network

    Sawant, Onkar Balkrishna

    2013-12-05

    and glutamine related amino acids bioavailability in maternal and fetal plasma as well as in the fetal amniotic and allantoic fluid. Maternal glutamine supplementation improved the bioavailability and efficacy of amino acids in the maternal and fetal compartment...

  6. Developmental toxicity of the HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor (PPD10558) in rats and rabbits.

    PubMed

    Faqi, Ali S; Prohaska, David; Lopez, Rocio; McIntyre, Gail

    2012-02-01

    PPD10558 is an orally active, lipid-lowering 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitor (statin) being developed as a treatment for hypercholesterolemia in patients who have not been able to tolerate statins because of statin-associated myalgia. We have studied the potential developmental toxicity effects of PPD10558 in pregnant rats and rabbits given daily oral doses during the period of organogenesis. Rats were dosed with 0, 20, 80, or 320 mg/kg/day from Gestation Day (GD) 6 to 17 and rabbits received dose levels of 0, 12.5, 25, or 50 mg/kg/day from GD 6 to 18. Additional groups in both studies served as toxicokinetic animals and received the PPD10558 in the same manner as the main study groups at the same dose levels. Blood samples were collected from toxicokinetic animals at designated time points on GD 6 and 17 in rats and GD 6 and 18 in rabbits. Fetal exposure in rats was assessed on GD 20. Maternal and developmental parameters were evaluated in rats and rabbits on GD 20 and GD 29, respectively. No maternal and developmental toxicity was observed at any of the dose levels used in the rat study. Evidence of fetal exposure was determined in fetal plasma with mean fetal concentrations of PPD10558 and the metabolite (PPD11901) found to be between 1 and 6% of the mean maternal concentrations. In rabbits, marked maternal toxicity including mortality (eight deaths; 1 dose at 25 and 7 at 50 mg/kg/day), abortions (2 at 25 mg/kg/day and 6 at 50 mg/kg/day) and reduction in gestation body weight, gestation body weight changes and decreased food consumption were observed. In addition, fetal body weights of the combined sexes were significantly reduced at 50 mg/kg/day in comparison with the controls. Mean peak exposure (Cmax) and total exposure (AUC(0-24)) of PPD11901 in both rats and rabbits were higher than that of PPD10558 on GD 6 and GD 17 at each of the three dose levels.. Based on the results of these studies, the no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) for maternal and developmental toxicity in rats was considered to be ? 320 mg/kg/day, the highest dose level used in the study. The NOAEL for maternal and developmental toxicity in rabbits was 12.5 mg/kg/day and 25 mg/kg/day, respectively. PMID:22006546

  7. Maternal Hypoxia Decreases Capillary Supply and Increases Metabolic Inefficiency Leading to Divergence in Myocardial Oxygen Supply and Demand

    PubMed Central

    Hauton, David; Al-Shammari, Abdullah; Gaffney, Eamonn A.; Egginton, Stuart

    2015-01-01

    Maternal hypoxia is associated with a decrease in left ventricular capillary density while cardiac performance is preserved, implying a mismatch between metabolism and diffusive exchange. We hypothesised this requires a switch in substrate metabolism to maximise efficiency of ATP production from limited oxygen availability. Rat pups from pregnant females exposed to hypoxia (FIO2=0.12) at days 10-20 of pregnancy were grown to adulthood and working hearts perfused ex vivo. 14C-labelled glucose and 3H-palmitate were provided as substrates and metabolism quantified from recovery of 14CO2 and 3H2O, respectively. Hearts of male offspring subjected to Maternal Hypoxia showed a 20% decrease in cardiac output (P<0.05), despite recording a 2-fold increase in glucose oxidation (P<0.01) and 2.5-fold increase (P<0.01) in palmitate oxidation. Addition of insulin to Maternal Hypoxic hearts, further increased glucose oxidation (P<0.01) and suppressed palmitate oxidation (P<0.05), suggesting preservation in insulin signalling in the heart. In vitro enzyme activity measurements showed that Maternal Hypoxia increased both total and the active component of cardiac pyruvate dehydrogenase (both P<0.01), although pyruvate dehydrogenase sensitivity to insulin was lost (NS), while citrate synthase activity declined by 30% (P<0.001) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase activity was unchanged by Maternal Hypoxia, indicating realignment of the metabolic machinery to optimise oxygen utilisation. Capillary density was quantified and oxygen diffusion characteristics examined, with calculated capillary domain area increased by 30% (P<0.001). Calculated metabolic efficiency decreased 4-fold (P<0.01) for Maternal Hypoxia hearts. Paradoxically, the decline in citrate synthase activity and increased metabolism suggest that the scope of individual mitochondria had declined, rendering the myocardium potentially more sensitive to metabolic stress. However, decreasing citrate synthase may be essential to preserve local PO2, minimising regions of hypoxia and hence maximising the area of myocardium able to preserve cardiac output following maternal hypoxia. PMID:26030353

  8. Maternal hypoxia decreases capillary supply and increases metabolic inefficiency leading to divergence in myocardial oxygen supply and demand.

    PubMed

    Hauton, David; Al-Shammari, Abdullah; Gaffney, Eamonn A; Egginton, Stuart

    2015-01-01

    Maternal hypoxia is associated with a decrease in left ventricular capillary density while cardiac performance is preserved, implying a mismatch between metabolism and diffusive exchange. We hypothesised this requires a switch in substrate metabolism to maximise efficiency of ATP production from limited oxygen availability. Rat pups from pregnant females exposed to hypoxia (FIO2=0.12) at days 10-20 of pregnancy were grown to adulthood and working hearts perfused ex vivo. 14C-labelled glucose and 3H-palmitate were provided as substrates and metabolism quantified from recovery of 14CO2 and 3H2O, respectively. Hearts of male offspring subjected to Maternal Hypoxia showed a 20% decrease in cardiac output (P<0.05), despite recording a 2-fold increase in glucose oxidation (P<0.01) and 2.5-fold increase (P<0.01) in palmitate oxidation. Addition of insulin to Maternal Hypoxic hearts, further increased glucose oxidation (P<0.01) and suppressed palmitate oxidation (P<0.05), suggesting preservation in insulin signalling in the heart. In vitro enzyme activity measurements showed that Maternal Hypoxia increased both total and the active component of cardiac pyruvate dehydrogenase (both P<0.01), although pyruvate dehydrogenase sensitivity to insulin was lost (NS), while citrate synthase activity declined by 30% (P<0.001) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase activity was unchanged by Maternal Hypoxia, indicating realignment of the metabolic machinery to optimise oxygen utilisation. Capillary density was quantified and oxygen diffusion characteristics examined, with calculated capillary domain area increased by 30% (P<0.001). Calculated metabolic efficiency decreased 4-fold (P<0.01) for Maternal Hypoxia hearts. Paradoxically, the decline in citrate synthase activity and increased metabolism suggest that the scope of individual mitochondria had declined, rendering the myocardium potentially more sensitive to metabolic stress. However, decreasing citrate synthase may be essential to preserve local PO2, minimising regions of hypoxia and hence maximising the area of myocardium able to preserve cardiac output following maternal hypoxia. PMID:26030353

  9. Rat embryonic palatal shelves respond to TCDD in organ culture

    SciTech Connect

    Abbott, B.D.; Birnbaum, L.S. (National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (USA))

    1990-05-01

    TCDD (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin), a highly toxic environmental contaminant, is teratogenic in mice, inducing cleft palate (CP) and hydronephrosis at doses which are not overtly maternally or embryo toxic. Palatal shelves of embryonic mice respond to TCDD, both in vivo and in organ culture, with altered differentiation of medial epithelial cells. By contrast, in the rat TCDD produces substantial maternal, embryonic, and fetal toxicity, including fetal lethality, with few malformations. In this study the possible effects of maternal toxicity on induction of cleft palate were eliminated by exposure of embryonic rat palatal shelves in organ culture. The shelves were examined for specific TCDD-induced alterations in differentiation of the medial cells. On Gestation Day (GD) 14 or 15 palatal shelves from embryonic F344 rats were placed in organ culture for 2 to 3 days (IMEM:F12 medium, 5% FBS, 0.1% DMSO) containing 0, 1 x 10(-8), 1 x 10(-9), 1 x 10(-10), or 5 x 10(-11) M TCDD. The medial epithelial peridermal cells degenerated on shelves exposed to control media or 5 x 10(-11) M TCDD. Exposure to 10(-10), 10(-9), and 10(-8) M TCDD inhibited this degeneration in 20, 36, and 60% of the shelves, respectively, and was statistically significant at the two highest doses. A normally occurring decrease in (3H)TdR incorporation was inhibited in some GD 15 shelves cultured with 10(-10) and 10(-9) M TCDD. The medial cells of TCDD-exposed shelves continued to express high levels of immunohistochemically detected EGF receptors. The altered differentiation of rat medial epithelium is similar to that reported for TCDD-exposed mouse medial cells in vivo and in vitro. However, in order to obtain these responses, the cultured rat shelves require much higher concentrations of TCDD than the mouse shelves.

  10. The Determinants of Negative Maternal Parenting Behaviours: Maternal, Child, and Paternal Characteristics and Their Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopala-Sibley, Daniel C.; Zuroff, David C.; Koestner, Richard

    2012-01-01

    This study tested Belsky's determinants of parenting, namely maternal characteristics, child characteristics, and contextual issues, namely the mother's perception of the husband as a father, husband, and person. Three hundred and seventy-nine mothers first investigated by Sears, Maccoby, and Levin completed a standardised interview to assess…

  11. Maternal Depression Predicts Maternal Use of Corporal Punishment in Children with Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Mark A.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose We sought to determine if maternal depression contributed to the use of corporal punishment in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Patients and Methods The data were gathered through chart review of clinic-referred children with ADHD and their mothers who were evaluated at a psychiatric clinic located in a large academic medical center in Seoul, Korea. Daily records kept by parents and 13 items from the Physical Assault of the Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scales (CTSPC) were used to assess corporal punishment. Ninety-one children with ADHD and their mothers were included in this study. Results Mothers who used corporal punishment showed significantly higher scores on the Beck Depression Inventory (t = - 2.952, df = 89, p < 0.01) than mothers who did not. Moreover, maternal depression contributed to the use of corporal punishment in ADHD children (Nagelkerke R2 = 0.102, p < 0.05). Conclusion Maternal depression contributes to the use of corporal punishment with children with ADHD. Assessment and management of the maternal depression should be an important focus of evaluation of children with ADHD. PMID:18729299

  12. Maternal Control Strategies, Maternal Language Usage and Children's Language Usage at Two Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Nicole; Donovan, Wilberta; Miles, Sally; Leavitt, Lewis

    2009-01-01

    The present study determined whether parenting style, defined by control strategies varying in power-assertion mediated the established relation between maternal language usage (grammar and semantics) and child language (grammar, semantics and pragmatics) during toddlerhood (n = 60). Based upon their use of control strategies mothers were…

  13. Quantitative comparison of maternal ethanol and maternal tertiary butanol diet on postnatal development.

    PubMed

    Daniel, M A; Evans, M A

    1982-08-01

    The mechanism by which developmental anomalies associated with the fetal alcohol syndrome are produced is not understood. Current hypotheses include altered maternal function and direct action of ethanol or its metabolic product, acetaldehyde, on embryonic tissue. Pregnant mice were fed liquid diets containing either ethanol (3.6% w/v) or tertiary butanol in concentrations of 0.50, 0.75 and 1.00% (w/v) from day 6 to day 20 of gestation. Untreated surrogate maternal animals were substituted in half of the original litters to gain insight into the role played by maternal nutritional and behavioral factors. Quantitatively, t-butanol was approximately 5 times more potent than ethanol in producing a developmental delay in post-parturition physiological and psychomotor performance scores. The existence of significant postnatal maternal nutritional and behavioral factors affecting lactation and/or nesting behavior were also evident at the higher concentrations of alcohol. The results from this study are consistent with the hypothesis that ethanol per se and not acetaldehyde is primarily responsible for the fetal alcohol syndrome. PMID:7097549

  14. Parenting Stress Mediates between Maternal Maltreatment History and Maternal Sensitivity in a Community Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pereira, Jessica; Vickers, Kristin; Atkinson, Leslie; Gonzalez, Andrea; Wekerle, Christine; Levitan, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Maternal maltreatment history and current parenting stress are associated with parenting difficulties. However, researchers have not investigated the mechanism by which these variables are interlinked. We hypothesized that parenting stress mediates the relation between history of maltreatment and parenting behavior. Methods: We assessed…

  15. The entrance to the maternal garden: environmental and personal variables that explain maternal gatekeeping

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liat Kulik; Hani Tsoref

    2010-01-01

    This study examined variables that explain maternal gatekeeping (attitudes that restrict the involvement of fathers in child care) among a sample of Israeli women (n = 88) with young children aged between two and six. Based on a family systems approach, several main explanatory variables were examined: the mother's gender role ideology; desire for control; satisfaction with her husband's involvement in child

  16. Maternal Attachment Style and Responses to Adolescents’ Negative Emotions: The Mediating Role of Maternal Emotion Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Jason D.; Brett, Bonnie E.; Ehrlich, Katherine B.; Lejuez, Carl W.; Cassidy, Jude

    2014-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Objective Previous research has examined the developmental consequences, particularly in early childhood, of parents’ supportive and unsupportive responses to children’s negative emotions. Much less is known about factors that explain why parents respond in ways that may support or undermine their children’s emotions, and even less is known about how these parenting processes unfold with adolescents. We examined the associations between mothers’ attachment styles and their distress, harsh, and supportive responses to their adolescents’ negative emotions two years later and whether these links were mediated by maternal emotion regulation difficulties. Design Mothers in a longitudinal study (n = 230) reported on their attachment style, difficulties regulating their emotions, and their hypothetical responses to their adolescents’ negative emotions, respectively, at consecutive laboratory visits one year apart. Results Mothers who reported greater attachment-related avoidance and anxiety reported having greater difficulties with emotion regulation one year later. Emotion dysregulation, in turn, predicted more distressed, harsher, and less supportive maternal responses to adolescents’ negative emotions the following year. In addition, greater avoidance directly predicted harsher maternal responses two years later. Conclusions These findings extend previous research by identifying maternal attachment style as a predictor of responses to adolescent distress and by documenting the underlying role of emotion dysregulation in the link between adult attachment style and parenting. PMID:25568638

  17. Maternal obesity, metabolic disease, and allostatic load.

    PubMed

    Power, Michael L; Schulkin, Jay

    2012-04-12

    Maternal obesity is a risk factor for many metabolic diseases for the mother, both during gestation and post partum, and for the child in later life. Obesity and pregnancy both result in altered physiological states, significantly different from the state of the non-obese, non-reproductive adult female. The concept of allostasis may be more appropriate for understanding the physiology of both pregnancy and obesity. In pregnancy these altered physiological states are adaptive, in both the evolutionary and physiological senses of the word. Obesity, however, represents a state outside of the adaptive evolutionary experience of our species. In both cases the altered physiological state derives at least in part from signals from an active endocrine organ. In obesity this is adipose tissue, and in pregnancy it is the placenta. The signaling molecules from adipose tissue and placenta all have multiple functions and can affect multiple organ systems. Placenta acts as a central regulator of metabolism for both the maternal and fetal compartments, in essence acting as a "third brain" during pregnancy. Both adipose tissue and placenta express many proinflammatory cytokines; obesity and pregnancy are states of low-grade inflammation. Both obesity and pregnancy are also states of insulin resistance, and maternal obesity is associated with fetal insulin resistance. We argue that obesity during pregnancy leads to sustained and inappropriate activation of normally adaptive regulatory circuits due in part to competing and conflicting signaling from adipose tissue and placenta. This results in allostatic load, leading to the eventual break down of regulatory mechanisms. The result is impaired metabolic function of the mother, and altered development of metabolic systems and potentially altered neural appetite circuits for the offspring. PMID:21939681

  18. Maternal inheritance in cyclic vomiting syndrome.

    PubMed

    Boles, Richard G; Adams, Kathleen; Li, B U K

    2005-02-15

    Cyclic vomiting syndrome (CVS), characterized by severe discrete episodes of nausea, vomiting, and lethargy, is a fairly common, disabling, predominately-childhood condition most often associated with migraine and dysautonomic features. Our group recently reported that children with CVS and additional neuromuscular disease manifestations demonstrate strong maternal inheritance of multiple disease manifestations and abnormal urine organic acids, suggesting the presence of predisposing mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence variants. In order to determine if maternal inheritance is present in CVS in general, a clinical interview was administered regarding 80 unrelated individuals with CVS ascertained randomly from the database of the Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome Association (CVSA). Disease manifestations consistent with potential mitochondrial dysfunction were far more common in matrilineal (sharing the same mtDNA sequence) versus in non-matrilineal relatives, including mothers versus fathers (P = 3 x 10(-9)) and maternal versus paternal grandmothers (P = 2 x 10(-6)). Maternal inheritance is suggested in 52% of the 23 subjects with two or more neuromuscular abnormalities ("CVS+") and in 54% of the 44 subjects without any neuromuscular abnormalities ("CVS-"). In both the CVS+ and CVS- sub-groups, subjects, and affected matrilineal relatives of all ages suffer at a far higher incidence from several dysautonomic-related conditions, including migraine and irritable bowel, as well as depression and hypothyroidism, while neuromuscular and cognitive disorders such as hypotonia and ADHD are common only in affected children. We conclude that mtDNA sequences predispose towards the development of protean disease manifestations in CVS patients ascertained through a disease-specific association, as well as among their matrilineal relatives, whether or not neuromuscular disease is present in the proband. Since CVS was absent in all but one matrilineal relative of our probands, CVS is apparently a rare clinical presentation in individuals carrying the predisposing mtDNA sequences. The four conditions reported most frequently among the matrilineal relatives of our cases, migraine, depression, irritable bowel, and hypothyroidism, are known to segregate together in families, and our findings suggest that a common predisposing genetic factor is likely present on the mtDNA. PMID:15643622

  19. Maternal Uterine Vascular Remodeling During Pregnancy

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Maurizio Mandala (University of Calabria)

    2009-02-01

    Sufficient uteroplacental blood flow is essential for normal pregnancy outcome and is accomplished by the coordinated growth and remodeling of the entire uterine circulation, as well as the creation of a new fetal vascular organ: the placenta. The process of remodeling involves a number of cellular processes, including hyperplasia and hypertrophy, rearrangement of existing elements, and changes in extracellular matrix. In this review, we provide information on uterine blood flow increases during pregnancy, the influence of placentation type on the distribution of uterine vascular resistance, consideration of the patterns, nature, and extent of maternal uterine vascular remodeling during pregnancy, and what is known about the underlying cellular mechanisms.

  20. [Maternal fetal choriocarcinoma after normal delivery].

    PubMed

    Malbranche-Aupècle, M H; Chaboche, C; Théodore, C

    1993-01-01

    Materno-fetal choriocarcinoma discovered after a normal delivery is very rare. The risks for choriocarcinoma after a pregnancy at term is estimated at 1 in 100,000. All the same the ease with which the diagnosis is made by levels of plasma beta-hCG makes it possible to think of this possibility after delivery when there is maternal pathology which cannot be diagnosed or a fetal tumour that cannot be labelled. The transmission of this illness from mother to fetus evokes discussion about the tolerance of an allograft. PMID:8308208

  1. Maternal nutrition interventions to improve maternal, newborn, and child health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishnan, Usha; Imhoff-Kunsch, Beth; Martorell, Reynaldo

    2014-01-01

    Maternal undernutrition affects a large proportion of women in many developing countries, but has received little attention as an important determinant of poor maternal, newborn, and child health (MNCH) outcomes such as intrauterine growth restriction, preterm birth (PTB), and maternal and infant morbidity and mortality. We recently evaluated the scientific evidence on the effects of maternal nutrition interventions on MNCH outcomes as part of a project funded by the Gates Foundation to identify critical knowledge gaps and priority research needs. A standardized tool was used for study data abstraction, and the effect of nutrition interventions during pregnancy or of factors such as interpregnancy interval on MNCH outcomes was assessed by meta-analysis, when possible. Several nutrient interventions provided during pregnancy have beneficial effects on MNCH outcomes, but are not widely adopted. For example, prenatal calcium supplementation decreases the risk of PTB and increases birthweight; prenatal zinc, omega-3 fatty acids and multiple micronutrient supplements reduce the risk of PTB (<37 weeks), early PTB (<34 weeks) and low birthweight (LBW), respectively. Among currently implemented interventions, balanced protein-energy and iron-folic acid supplementation during pregnancy significantly reduce the risk of LBW by 20-30% in controlled settings, but variable programmatic experiences have led to questionable effectiveness. Early age at pregnancy and short interpregnancy intervals were also associated with increased risk of PTB, LBW and neonatal death, but major gaps remain on the role of women's nutrition before and during early pregnancy and nutrition education and counseling. These findings emphasize the need to examine the benefits of improving maternal nutrition before and during pregnancy both in research and program delivery. PMID:24504208

  2. The effect of prenatal nicotine on mRNA of central cholinergic markers and hematological parameters in rat fetuses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Caiping Mao; Xin Yuan; Hong Zhang; Juanxiu Lv; Junchang Guan; Liyan Miao; Linqi Chen; Yuying Zhang; Lubo Zhang; Zhice Xu

    2008-01-01

    A number of studies have demonstrated the influence of nicotine on fetal development. This study determined the expression of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT), and high-affinity choline transporter (CHT1) in the forebrain and hindbrain following chronic prenatal nicotine exposure in the rat fetus (maternal rats were subcutaneously injected with nicotine at different gestation periods). We also measured the

  3. The effect of chronic nitric oxide synthesis inhibition on blood pressure and angiotensin II responsiveness in the pregnant rat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suzanne L. Lubarsky; Robert A. Ahokas; Steven A. Friedman; Baha M. Sibai

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Our purpose was to determine whether blockade of inducible or endothelial nitric oxide synthesis prevents maternal vasodilation and blunting of angiotensin II responsiveness in the pregnant rat.STUDY DESIGN: Pregnant and nonpregnant rats were given (1) drinking water alone (untreated), (2) drinking water containing the inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitor aminoguanidine (0.5 gm\\/L), or (3) drinking water containing the nonselective

  4. Effects of prenatal exposure to the environmental pollutant 2-bromopropane on embryo-fetal development in rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jong-Choon Kim; Sung-Ho Kim; Dong-Ho Shin; Tae-Ho Ahn; Hyoung-Chin Kim; Yun-Bae Kim; Cheng-Zhe Jiang; Junghee Han; Moon-Koo Chung

    2004-01-01

    2-Bromopropane (2-BP), a halogenated propane analogue, is a substitute for chlorofluorocarbones. The present study was carried out to investigate the potential adverse effects of 2-BP on pregnant dams and embryo-fetal development after maternal exposure on gestational days (GD) 6 through 19 in Sprague-Dawley rats. The test chemical was administered subcutaneously to pregnant rats at dose levels of 0, 250, 500,

  5. 1H NMR-based urinary metabolic profiling reveals changes in nicotinamide pathway intermediates due to postnatal stress model in rat.

    PubMed

    Tomassini, Alberta; Vitalone, Annabella; Marini, Federico; Praticò, Giulia; Sciubba, Fabio; Bevilacqua, Marta; Delfini, Maurizio; Di Sotto, Antonella; Di Giacomo, Silvia; Mariani, Paola; Mammola, Caterina L; Gaudio, Eugenio; Miccheli, Alfredo; Mazzanti, Gabriela

    2014-12-01

    The maternal separation protocol in rodents is a widely recognized model of early life stress allowing acute and chronic physiological consequences to be studied. An (1)H NMR-based metabolomic approach was applied to urines to evaluate the systemic metabolic consequences of maternal separation stress in female rats after the beginning of weaning and 4 weeks later when the rats were reaching adulthood. Furthermore, because maternal separation is considered as a model mimicking the inflammatory bowel syndrome, the lactulose/mannitol test was used to evaluate the influence of postnatal maternal separation on gut permeability and mucosal barrier function by (1)H NMR spectroscopy analysis of urine. The results showed no statistical differences in gut permeability due to maternal separation. The application of ANOVA simultaneous component analysis allowed the contributions of physiological adaptations to the animal's development to be separated from the metabolic consequences due to postnatal stress. Systemic metabolic differences in the maternally separated pups were mainly due to the tryptophan/NAD pathway intermediate levels and to the methyladenosine level. Urinary NMR-based metabolic profiling allowed us to disentangle the metabolic adaptive response of the rats to postnatal stress during the animal's growth, highlighting the metabolic changes induced by weaning, gut closure, and maturity. PMID:25299838

  6. Maternal Stress Induces Epigenetic Signatures of Psychiatric and Neurological Diseases in the Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Zucchi, Fabiola C. R.; Yao, Youli; Ward, Isaac D.; Ilnytskyy, Yaroslav; Olson, David M.; Benzies, Karen; Kovalchuk, Igor; Kovalchuk, Olga; Metz, Gerlinde A. S.

    2013-01-01

    The gestational state is a period of particular vulnerability to diseases that affect maternal and fetal health. Stress during gestation may represent a powerful influence on maternal mental health and offspring brain plasticity and development. Here we show that the fetal transcriptome, through microRNA (miRNA) regulation, responds to prenatal stress in association with epigenetic signatures of psychiatric and neurological diseases. Pregnant Long-Evans rats were assigned to stress from gestational days 12 to 18 while others served as handled controls. Gestational stress in the dam disrupted parturient maternal behaviour and was accompanied by characteristic brain miRNA profiles in the mother and her offspring, and altered transcriptomic brain profiles in the offspring. In the offspring brains, prenatal stress upregulated miR-103, which is involved in brain pathologies, and downregulated its potential gene target Ptplb. Prenatal stress downregulated miR-145, a marker of multiple sclerosis in humans. Prenatal stress also upregulated miR-323 and miR-98, which may alter inflammatory responses in the brain. Furthermore, prenatal stress upregulated miR-219, which targets the gene Dazap1. Both miR-219 and Dazap1 are putative markers of schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder in humans. Offspring transcriptomic changes included genes related to development, axonal guidance and neuropathology. These findings indicate that prenatal stress modifies epigenetic signatures linked to disease during critical periods of fetal brain development. These observations provide a new mechanistic association between environmental and genetic risk factors in psychiatric and neurological disease. PMID:23451123

  7. Low female birth weight and advanced maternal age programme alterations in next-generation blastocyst development.

    PubMed

    Master, Jordanna S; Thouas, George A; Harvey, Alexandra J; Sheedy, John R; Hannan, Natalie J; Gardner, David K; Wlodek, Mary E

    2015-05-01

    Low birth weight is associated with an increased risk for adult disease development with recent studies highlighting transmission to subsequent generations. However, the mechanisms and timing of programming of disease transmission to the next generation remain unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of low birth weight and advanced maternal age on second-generation preimplantation blastocysts. Uteroplacental insufficiency or sham surgery was performed in late-gestation WKY pregnant rats, giving rise to first-generation (F1) restricted (born small) and control offspring respectively. F1 control and restricted females, at 4 or 12 months of age, were naturally mated with normal males. Second-generation (F2) blastocysts from restricted females displayed reduced expression of genes related to growth compared with F2 control (P<0.05). Following 24 h culture, F2 restricted blastocysts had accelerated development, with increased total cell number, a result of increased trophectoderm cells compared with control (P<0.05). There were alterations in carbohydrate and serine utilisation in F2 restricted blastocysts and F2 restricted outgrowths from 4-month-old females respectively (P<0.05). F2 blastocysts from aged restricted females were developmentally delayed at retrieval, with reduced total cell number attributable to reduced trophectoderm number with changes in carbohydrate utilisation (P<0.05). Advanced maternal age resulted in alterations in a number of amino acids in media obtained from F2 blastocyst outgrowths (P<0.05). These findings demonstrate that growth restriction and advanced maternal age can alter F2 preimplantation embryo physiology and the subsequent offspring growth. PMID:25667431

  8. Mediating links between maternal childhood trauma and preadolescent behavioral adjustment.

    PubMed

    Min, Meeyoung O; Singer, Lynn T; Minnes, Sonia; Kim, Hyunsoo; Short, Elizabeth

    2013-03-01

    Structural equation modeling was used to simultaneously examine maternal psychological distress and social support as mediators linking maternal childhood trauma (MCT) to both maternal and child-reported behavior at 9 years of age in 231 birth mother-child dyads, who were primarily poor, urban, and African American. One half of the mothers (n = 116) reported a history of childhood abuse and neglect. Although MCT was associated with both increased maternal psychological distress and limited social support at 6 years, the pathway to child behavior ratings at 9 years was informant dependent. MCT influenced maternal ratings of her child's behavior, with some effects mediated through psychological distress. MCT indirectly influenced children's self-perception of behavior through maternal experience of social support. Maternal ratings and child self-ratings of child behavior problems were moderately correlated. No significant gender interaction was found. Findings suggest a need for understanding trauma histories in the lives of mothers who seek assistance for parenting and child behavior problems, especially in urban low income communities. Interventions targeting both increasing maternal social support and reducing psychological distress may promote competency and resiliency among children for whom MCT poses a risk to optimal development. PMID:22935951

  9. Prenatal Exposure to Maternal Depression and Cortisol Influences Infant Temperament

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Elysia Poggi; Glynn, Laura M.; Schetter, Christine Dunkel; Hobel, Calvin; Chicz-Demet, Aleksandra; Sandman, Curt A.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Accumulating evidence indicates that prenatal maternal and fetal processes can have a lasting influence on infant and child development. Results from animal models indicate that prenatal exposure to maternal stress and stress hormones has lasting consequences for development of the offspring. Few prospective studies of human pregnancy…

  10. Infant and Maternal Outcomes in the Pregnancies of Asthmatic Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    KITAW DEMISSIE; MARY B. BRECKENRIDGE; GEORGE G. RHOADS

    1998-01-01

    We examined the relationship between infant and maternal outcomes and asthma complicating pregnancy, using historical cohort analysis of singleton live deliveries in New Jersey hospitals be- tween 1989 and 1992 (n 5 447,963). Subject mother-infant dyads were identified from linked birth certificate and maternal and newborn hospital claims data. Women with an International Classifica- tion of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical

  11. Maternal deaths associated with cesarean section in Enugu, Nigeria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. C Ozumba; S. E Anya

    2002-01-01

    Maternal deaths from cesarean sections in Nigeria are exceptionally high and result from avoidable causes such as hemorrhagic shock, sepsis and hypertensive disorders in pregnancy. Increased involvement of specialists in the care and improved intra and post-operative management of cases are advocated to reduce the high maternal mortality rate.

  12. Brief Report: Effect of Maternal Age on Severity of Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baxter, Alisa C.; Lotspeich, Linda J.; Spiker, Donna; Martin, Jacquelin L.; Grether, Judith K.; Hallmayer, Joachim F.

    2007-01-01

    The etiology of autism is complex, consisting of unknown genetic and environmental factors. Previous studies have revealed that maternal age is increased in autism compared to controls, making it a possible risk factor. This study examined the effects of maternal age on autism severity using IQ as a measure of cognitive severity and selected…

  13. Paternal and maternal effects on propagule size in Anthoxanthum odoratum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Janis Antonovics; Johanna Schmitt

    1986-01-01

    Propagules (caryopsis plus glumes) from a diallel cross among eight genotypes of Anthoxanthum odoratum were weighed to asses the relative contribution of nuclear, reciprocal, and environmental effects to propagule size. Maternal reciprocal effects were large whereas zygotic nuclear effects were small, although consitently present. There were no interactions between maternal reciprocal and nuclear effects. Environmental effects were large, including environmentally

  14. Young Mother-Father Dyads and Maternal Harsh Parenting Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yookyong; Guterman, Neil B.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study examined whether the age of parents predicted maternal harsh parenting behavior, specifically whether younger mothers might be at higher risk than older mothers, and which paternal characteristics might be associated with maternal parenting behavior. Methodology: This study used data from the Fragile Families and Child…

  15. Maternal Effects on Anogenital Distance in a Wild Marmot Population

    E-print Network

    Blumstein, Daniel T.

    Maternal Effects on Anogenital Distance in a Wild Marmot Population Timothe´e D. Fouqueray1 on a long-term study of wild yellow-bellied marmots (Marmota flaviventris) to study the importance, Blumstein DT, Monclu´s R, Martin JGA (2014) Maternal Effects on Anogenital Distance in a Wild Marmot

  16. Interferons and the maternal–conceptus dialog in mammals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Michael Roberts; Yizhen Chen; Toshihiko Ezashi; Angela M. Walker

    2008-01-01

    Two-way communication between the conceptus and the mother during early pregnancy is essential if the pregnancy is to survive. In this review, our primary focus is on biochemical communication between the conceptus and mother in the ruminant ungulate species. We emphasize, in particular, the role played by interferon-tau (IFNT) in triggering maternal responses in cattle and sheep and how maternal

  17. Transgenerational Epigenetics: The Role of Maternal Effects in Cardiovascular Development

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Dao H.

    2014-01-01

    Transgenerational epigenetics, the study of non-genetic transfer of information from one generation to the next, has gained much attention in the past few decades due to the fact that, in many instances, epigenetic processes outweigh direct genetic processes in the manifestation of aberrant phenotypes across several generations. Maternal effects, or the influences of maternal environment, phenotype, and/or genotype on offsprings’ phenotypes, independently of the offsprings’ genotypes, are a subcategory of transgenerational epigenetics. Due to the intimate role of the mother during early development in animals, there is much interest in investigating the means by which maternal effects can shape the individual. Maternal effects are responsible for cellular organization, determination of the body axis, initiation and maturation of organ systems, and physiological performance of a wide variety of species and biological systems. The cardiovascular system is the first to become functional and can significantly influence the development of other organ systems. Thus, it is important to elucidate the role of maternal effects in cardiovascular development, and to understand its impact on adult cardiovascular health. Topics to be addressed include: (1) how and when do maternal effects change the developmental trajectory of the cardiovascular system to permanently alter the adult’s cardiovascular phenotype, (2) what molecular mechanisms have been associated with maternally induced cardiovascular phenotypes, and (3) what are the evolutionary implications of maternally mediated changes in cardiovascular phenotype? PMID:24813463

  18. Infantile multicystic encephalomalacia after maternal bee sting anaphylaxis during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Erasmus, C; Blackwood, W; Wilson, J

    1982-01-01

    We report a case of infantile multicystic encephalomalacia after maternal bee sting anaphylaxis in the 30th week of pregnancy. The clinical features and findings at necropsy are described, and it is suggested that these are the result of severe fetal hypoxia secondary to maternal hypotension. ImagesFig. 2 PMID:7138068

  19. Professional Training Programs in Maternal and Child Nursing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Health Services and Mental Health Administration (DHEW), Rockville, MD. Maternal and Child Health Service.

    The Maternal and Child Health Service gives support to 13 graduate programs in maternal and child nursing with the objective of increasing the pool of nurse specialists in this field. Each program is briefly described in this pamphlet. Students accepted into a graduate program are eligible for stipends that cover living expenses, tuition, and a…

  20. Relationship between pregnancy outcome and maternal BMI and weight gain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maryam-sadat Hosseini; Jameie Nastaran

    2004-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have suggested the effects of maternal BMI and weight gain on pregnancy outcomes, thus, the present study was conducted over 106 parturients referring to Imam Hossein Hospital to determine the maternal BMI and weight gain and its relationship with pregnancy outcomes. Materials and methods: One hundred and six parturients had entered this longitudinal study. Initial data including

  1. Maternal and Child Health, FY 1983. Special Report to Congress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Child Health and Human Development (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    Providing several examples of current research efforts, this report describes the research on maternal and child health supported by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD). The Institute conducts a coordinated program of research and research training to advance knowledge related to pregnancy and maternal health,…

  2. Maternal Depression, Paternal Psychopathology, and Toddlers' Behavior Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dietz, Laura J.; Jennings, Kay Donahue; Kelley, Sue A.; Marshal, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This article examined the effects of maternal depression during the postpartum period (Time 1) on the later behavior problems of toddlers (Time 3) and tested if this relationship was moderated by paternal psychopathology during toddlers' lives and/or mediated by maternal parenting behavior observed during mother-child interaction (Time 2). Of the…

  3. Fearfulness Affects Quail Maternal Care and Subsequent Offspring Development

    PubMed Central

    Pittet, Florent; Houdelier, Cécilia; Le Bot, Océane; Leterrier, Christine; Lumineau, Sophie

    2014-01-01

    Our study investigated relationships between a precocial bird’s fearfulness and maternal care, and the implication of maternal care as a vector for non-genomic transmission of fearfulness to chicks. We compared care given to chicks between two sets of female Japanese quail selected to present either high (LTI) or low fearfulness (STI). Chicks, from a broiler line, were adopted by these females following a sensitization procedure. Chicks’ fearfulness after separation from their mother was assessed by well-established procedures. LTIs took longer to present maternal responses, pecked chicks more during the first days post-hatch, presented impaired maternal vocal behaviour and were globally less active than STI females. Chicks mothered by LTIs presented more fearful reactions than did chicks mothered by STIs, supporting the hypothesis of a non-genetic maternal transmission of fearfulness. We suggest that the longer latencies required by LTIs to become maternal are a consequence of their greater fear of chicks, and that their lower general and vocal activity could be components of a heightened antipredatory strategy. We discuss the transmission of maternal fearfulness to fostered chicks, taking into account the possible implication of several well-known mechanisms underlying maternal effects. PMID:25033292

  4. Abortion and Maternal Mortality in the Developing World

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Friday Okonofua

    Unsafe abortion is an important public health problem, accounting for 13% of maternal mortality in developing countries. Of an estimated annual 70 000 deaths from unsafe abortion worldwide, over 99% occur in the developing countries of sub-Saharan Africa, Central and Southeast Asia, and Latin America and the Caribbean. Factors associated with increased maternal mortality from unsafe abortion in developing countries

  5. Biological Fathers' Contributions to Maternal and Family Functioning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rebekah Levine Coley; Holly S. Schindler

    2008-01-01

    Objective. This study assessed the supposition that fathers' parenting and economic contributions help to support maternal and family functioning. Design. Using longitudinal data from a representative sample of low-income families with young children (N = 402), semidifference models assessed whether fathers' parenting, cash, and in-kind contributions predicted maternal functioning (mothers' psychological distress and parenting stress) and family functioning (cognitive stimulation

  6. Preeclampsia: An excessive maternal inflammatory response to pregnancy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher W. G. Redman; Gavin P. Sacks; Ian L. Sargent

    1999-01-01

    The maternal syndrome of preeclampsia has previously been ascribed to generalized maternal endothelial cell dysfunction. In this review we suggest that the endothelial dysfunction is a part of a more generalized intravascular inflammatory reaction involving intravascular leukocytes as well as the clotting and complement systems. We provide evidence from our recent work and that of others that not only supports

  7. Maternal overweight programs insulin and adiponectin signaling in the offspring

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gestational exposure to maternal overweight (OW) influences the risk of obesity in adult-life. Male offspring from OW dams gain greater body weight, fat mass and develop insulin resistance when fed high fat diets (45 percent fat). In this report we identify molecular targets of maternal OW-induced p...

  8. Maternal dietary effects on embryonic ovarian development in cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ovarian gametogenesis and folliculogenesis begins early in fetal development with peak numbers of follicles present in bovine fetal ovaries in the second trimester of gestation and may be altered by maternal nutrition. The objective was to determine whether maternal dietary energy intake by replacem...

  9. Molecular phenotype of monocytes at the maternal–fetal interface

    PubMed Central

    Basu, S; Leahy, P; Challier, JC; Minium, J; Catalano, PM; Hauguel-de Mouzon, S.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To gain insight into the pathways associated with inflammation at the maternal-fetal interface, this study examined the molecular characteristics of monocytes derived from the maternal circulation and the placental of obese women. Study design Mononuclear cells were isolated from placenta, venous maternal and umbilical cord blood at term delivery and, activated monocytes were separated using CD14 immunoselection. The genotype and expression pattern of the monocytes were analyzed by microarray and real time RT-PCR. Results The transcriptome of the maternal blood and placental CD14 monocytes exhibited 73 % homology with 10 % (1800 common genes) differentially expressed. Genes for immune sensing and regulation, matrix remodeling and lipid metabolism were enhanced 2–2006 fold in placenta compared to maternal monocytes. The CD14 placental monocytes exhibited a maternal genotype (9 % DYS14 expression) as opposed to the fetal genotype (90 % DYS14 expression) of the trophoblast cells. Conclusion CD14 monocytes from the maternal blood and the placenta share strong phenotypic and genotypic similarities with enhanced inflammatory pattern in the placenta. The functional traits of the CD14 blood and placental monocytes suggest that they both contribute to propagation of inflammation at the maternal-fetal interface. PMID:22071058

  10. Maternal environment effects on phenolic defenses in Abutilon theophrasti seeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The maternal plant may have considerable influence on a class of phenolic compounds implicated with seed survival, ortho-dihydroxyphenols (hereafter “o-DHP”), because seed phenolic compounds primarily occur in structures derived entirely from the maternal plant (e.g., seed coats). Based on reports ...

  11. Does Maternal Employment Predispose a Child to Depression?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romano, Bridget M.; Berndt, David J.

    This study investigated the question of whether maternal employment during childhood predisposed a child to depression. One hundred and eight college students completed self-report measures of depression and retrospecive accounts of maternal absence due to employment. Forty-five of the subjects had mothers who had worked before they were 12 years…

  12. Maternal and Paternal Depressive Symptoms as Predictors of Toddler Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinfield, Nancy S.; Ingerski, Lisa; Moreau, Stacey Coffey

    2009-01-01

    In this study we explored the relation between maternal and paternal depressive symptoms and toddler adjustment in a community sample, testing direct, additive, and interactive models of parental depressive symptoms and child adjustment. Participants were 49 families with 30-month-old children. Data were collected on maternal and paternal…

  13. Mother-Child Shared Book Reading and Maternal Mood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Samantha

    2009-01-01

    Maternal depression significantly influences parent-child interactions. While the existence of this impact is well established during playtime, little research has been conducted on the way that maternal depression relates to shared book reading. This is a particularly important activity because it relates to children's language and literacy…

  14. Trajectories of Postpartum Maternal Depressive Symptoms and Children's Social Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Yelena P.; Selig, James P.; Roberts, Michael C.; Steele, Ric G.

    2011-01-01

    The vast majority of new mothers experience at least some depressive symptoms. Postpartum maternal depressive symptoms can greatly influence children's outcomes (e.g., emotional, cognitive, language, and social development). However, there have been relatively few longitudinal studies of how maternal depressive symptoms may influence children's…

  15. Maternal stress in pregnancy: Considerations for fetal development

    PubMed Central

    DiPietro, Janet A.

    2012-01-01

    There is significant current interest in the degree to which prenatal exposures, including maternal psychological factors, influence child outcomes. Studies that detect an association between prenatal maternal psychological distress and child developmental outcomes are subject to a number of interpretative challenges in the inference of causality. Some of these are common to many types of prenatal exposures that must necessarily rely on observational designs. Such challenges include the correlation between prenatal and postnatal exposures and the potential role of other sources of shared influence, such as genetic factors. Others are more specific to this area of research. These include: confounding between maternal report of child outcomes and the maternal psychological attributes under study; difficulties in distinguishing maternal stress from more ubiquitous aspects of maternal personality; and the lack of association between cortisol and measures of maternal psychological stress. This article considers these methodological issues and offers an additional methodology focused on fetal neurobehavior for discerning potential mechanisms that may mediate associations between maternal psychological functioning and the developing fetal nervous system. PMID:22794531

  16. Maternal Sensitivity and Patterns of Infant-Mother Attachment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Philip B.; Pederson, David R.

    1988-01-01

    Studied maternal sensitivity as it related to the quality of attachment between 48 twelve-month-old infants and their mothers. Results suggested that different styles of maternal response to infant cues characterize secure, anxious-avoidant, and anxious-resistant attachment groups. (RJC)

  17. Maternal Affectionate Behavior and Infant-Mother Attachment Patterns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tracy, Russel L.; Ainsworth, Mary D. Salter

    1981-01-01

    Reports further analysis of longitudinal records of mother-infant interaction at home during the infant's first year of life. Analysis was designed to clarify the role of maternal affectionate behavior in defining maternal patterns and in discriminating anxious/avoidant mothers from secure mothers and from anxious/resistant mothers. (Author/DB)

  18. Maternal Employment and Adolescents' Relations with Parents, Siblings, and Peers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montemayor, Raymond

    1984-01-01

    Association between maternal employment status and adolescent relations with parents, sibling, and peers was investigated. Males had more arguments with their mothers and siblings when their mothers worked. The need to take a family system perspective in order to understand the relationship between maternal employment and adolescent development…

  19. Maternal effects and the endocrine regulation of mandrill growth.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Robin M; Setchell, Joanna M; Verrier, Delphine; Knapp, Leslie A

    2012-10-01

    Maternal effects can influence offspring growth and development, and thus fitness. However, the physiological factors mediating these effects in nonhuman primates are not well understood. We investigated the impact of maternal effects on variation in three important components of the endocrine regulation of growth in male and female mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx), from birth to 9 years of age. Using a mixed longitudinal set (N = 252) of plasma samples, we measured concentrations of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), growth hormone binding protein (GHBP), and free testosterone (free T). We evaluated the relationship of ontogenetic patterns of changes in hormone concentration to patterns of growth in body mass and body length, and determined that these endocrine factors play a significant role in growth of both young (infant and juvenile) and adolescent male mandrills, but only in growth of young female mandrills. We also use mixed models analysis to determine the relative contribution of the effects of maternal rank, parity, and age on variation in hormone and binding protein concentrations. Our results suggest that all of these maternal effects account for significant variation in hormone and binding protein concentrations in all male age groups. Of the maternal effects measured, maternal rank was the most frequently identified significant maternal effect on variation in hormone and binding protein concentrations. We suggest that these endocrine factors provide mechanisms that contribute to the maternal effects on offspring growth previously noted in this population. PMID:22696170

  20. Stability of Maternal Autonomy Support between Infancy and Preschool Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matte-Gagne, Celia; Bernier, Annie; Gagne, Christine

    2013-01-01

    The goals of this article were to examine (1) the relative and absolute stability of maternal autonomy support between infancy and preschool age, and (2) the moderating role of child gender, maternal attachment state of mind, and stressful life events. Sixty-nine mother-child dyads participated in five visits when the child was 8, 15, and 18…