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1

Intergenerational programming of impaired nephrogenesis and hypertension in rats following maternal protein restriction during pregnancy.  

PubMed

Associations between birth weight and CVD in adult life are supported by experiments showing that undernutrition in fetal life programmes blood pressure. In rats, the feeding of a maternal low-protein (MLP) diet during gestation programmes hypertension. The present study aimed to assess the potential for a nutritional insult to impact across several generations. Pregnant female Wistar (F0) rats were fed a control (CON; n 10) or MLP (n 10) diet throughout gestation. At delivery all animals were fed a standard laboratory chow diet. At 10 weeks of age, F1 generation offspring were mated to produce a second generation (F2) without any further dietary change. The same procedure produced an F3 generation. Blood pressure in all generations was determined at 4, 6 and 8 weeks of age and nephron number was determined at 10 weeks of age. F1 generation MLP-exposed offspring exhibited raised (P < 0.001) systolic blood pressure (male 143 (sem 4) mmHg; female 141 (sem 4) mmHg) compared with CON animals (male 132 (sem 3) mmHg; female 134 (sem 4) mmHg). Raised blood pressure and reduced nephron number was also noted in the F2 generation (P < 0.001) and this intergenerational transmission occurred via both the maternal and paternal lines, as all three possible offspring crosses (MLP x CON, CON x MLP and MLP x MLP) were hypertensive (132 (sem 3) mmHg) compared with CON animals (CON x CON; 123 (sem 2) mmHg). No effect was noted in the F3 generation. It is concluded that fetal protein restriction may play a critical role in determining blood pressure and overall disease risk in a subsequent generation. PMID:18778527

Harrison, Matthew; Langley-Evans, Simon C

2009-04-01

2

Programmed changes in the adult rat offspring caused by maternal protein restriction during gestation and lactation are attenuated by maternal moderate-low physical training.  

PubMed

The effects of maternal moderate-low physical training on postnatal development, glucose homeostasis and leptin concentration in adult offspring subjected to a low-protein diet during the perinatal period were investigated. Male Wistar rats (aged 150 d old) were divided into four groups according to maternal group: untrained (NTp, n 8); trained (Tp, n 8); untrained with a low-protein diet (NT+LPp, n 8); trained with a low-protein diet (T+LPp, n 8). The trained mothers were subjected to a protocol of moderate physical training over a period of 4 weeks (treadmill, 5 d/week, 60 min/d, at 65 % VO(2max)) before mating. At pregnancy, the intensity and duration of exercise was progressively reduced (50-20 min/d, at 65-30 % VO(2max)). The low-protein diet groups received an 8 % casein diet, and their peers received a 17 % casein diet during gestation and lactation. The pups' birth weight and somatic growth were recorded weekly up to the 150th day. Fasting blood glucose, cholesterol, serum leptin concentration, glucose and insulin tolerance tests were evaluated. The Tp animals showed no changes in somatic and biochemical parameters, while the NT+LPp group showed a greater abdominal circumference, hyperglycaemia, hypercholesterolaemia, glucose intolerance and lower plasma leptin. In the T+LPp animals, all of those alterations were reversed except for plasma leptin concentration. In conclusion, the effects of a perinatal low-protein diet on growth and development, glucose homeostasis and serum leptin concentration in the offspring were attenuated in pups from trained mothers. PMID:22717262

Fidalgo, Marco; Falcão-Tebas, Filippe; Bento-Santos, Adriano; de Oliveira, Elaine; Nogueira-Neto, José Firmino; de Moura, Egberto Gaspar; Lisboa, Patrícia Cristina; de Castro, Raul Manhães; Leandro, Carol Góis

2013-02-14

3

Maternal protein restriction induces alterations in insulin signaling and ATP sensitive potassium channel protein in hypothalami of intrauterine growth restriction fetal rats  

PubMed Central

It is well recognized that intrauterine growth restriction leads to the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus in adulthood. To investigate the mechanisms behind this ”metabolic imprinting” phenomenon, we examined the impact of maternal undernutrition on insulin signaling pathway and the ATP sensitive potassium channel expression in the hypothalamus of intrauterine growth restriction fetus. Intrauterine growth restriction rat model was developed through maternal low protein diet. The expression and activated levels of insulin signaling molecules and KATP protein in the hypothalami which were dissected at 20 days of gestation, were analyzed by western blot and real time PCR. The tyrosine phosphorylation levels of the insulin receptor substrate 2 and phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase p85? in the hypothalami of intrauterine growth restriction fetus were markedly reduced. There was also a downregulation of the hypothalamic ATP sensitive potassium channel subunit, sulfonylurea receptor 1, which conveys the insulin signaling. Moreover, the abundances of gluconeogenesis enzymes were increased in the intrauterine growth restriction livers, though no correlation was observed between sulfonylurea receptor 1 and gluconeogenesis enzymes. Our data suggested that aberrant intrauterine milieu impaired insulin signaling in the hypothalamus, and these alterations early in life might contribute to the predisposition of the intrauterine growth restriction fetus toward the adult metabolic disorders. PMID:23341697

Liu, Xiaomei; Qi, Ying; Gao, Hong; Jiao, Yisheng; Gu, Hui; Miao, Jianing; Yuan, Zhengwei

2013-01-01

4

Early and Late Postnatal Myocardial and Vascular Changes in a Protein Restriction Rat Model of Intrauterine Growth Restriction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease in later life. Early structural and functional changes in the cardiovascular system after IUGR may contribute to its pathogenesis. We tested the hypothesis that IUGR leads to primary myocardial and vascular alterations before the onset of hypertension. A rat IUGR model of maternal protein restriction during gestation was used.

Carlos Menendez-Castro; Fabian Fahlbusch; Nada Cordasic; Kerstin Amann; Kathrin Münzel; Christian Plank; Rainer Wachtveitl; Wolfgang Rascher; Karl F. Hilgers; Andrea Hartner; Pieter H. Reitsma

2011-01-01

5

Maternal protein restriction induce skeletal muscle changes without altering the MRFs MyoD and myogenin expression in offspring.  

PubMed

Stimuli during pregnancy, such as protein restriction, can affect morphophysiological parameters in the offspring with consequences in adulthood. The phenomenon known as fetal programming can cause short- and long-term changes in the skeletal muscle phenotype. We investigated the morphology and the myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs) MyoD and myogenin expression in soleus, SOL; oxidative and slow twitching and in extensor digitorum longus, EDL; glycolytic and fast twitching muscles in the offspring of dams subjected to protein restriction during pregnancy. Four groups of male Wistar offspring rats were studied. Offspring from dams fed a low-protein diet (6 % protein, LP) and normal protein diet (17 % protein, NP) were euthanized at 30 and 112 days old, and their muscles were removed and kept at -80 °C. Muscles histological sections (8 ?m) were submitted to a myofibrillar adenosine triphosphatase histochemistry reaction for morphometric analysis. Gene and protein expression levels of MyoD and myogenin were determined by RT-qPCR and western blotting. The major findings observed were distinct patterns of morphological changes in SOL and EDL muscles in LP offspring at 30 and 112 days old without changes in MRFs MyoD and myogenin expression. Our results indicate that maternal protein restriction followed by normal diet after birth induced morphological changes in muscles with distinct morphofunctional characteristics over the long term, but did not alter the MRFs MyoD and myogenin expression. Further studies are necessary to better understand the mechanisms underlying the maternal protein restriction response on skeletal muscle. PMID:22538480

Cabeço, Ludimila Canuto; Budri, Paulo Eduardo; Baroni, Mirella; Castan, Eduardo Paulino; Carani, Fernanda Regina; de Souza, Paula Aiello Tomé; Boer, Patrícia Aline; Matheus, Selma Maria Michelin; Dal-Pai-Silva, Maeli

2012-10-01

6

Maternal Protein Restriction Leads to Pancreatic Failure in Offspring: Role of Misexpressed MicroRNA-375.  

PubMed

The intrauterine environment of the fetus is a preeminent actor in long-term health. Indeed, mounting evidence shows that maternal malnutrition increases the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in progeny. Although the consequences of a disturbed prenatal environment on the development of the pancreas are known, the underlying mechanisms are poorly defined. In rats, restriction of protein during gestation alters the development of the endocrine pancreas and favors the occurrence of T2D later in life. Here we evaluate the potential role of perturbed microRNA (miRNA) expression in the decreased ?-cell mass and insulin secretion characterizing progeny of pregnant dams fed a low-protein (LP) diet. miRNA profiling shows increased expression of several miRNAs, including miR-375, in the pancreas of fetuses of mothers fed an LP diet. The expression of miR-375 remains augmented in neoformed islets derived from fetuses and in islets from adult (3-month-old) progeny of mothers fed an LP diet. miR-375 regulates the proliferation and insulin secretion of dissociated islet cells, contributing to the reduced ?-cell mass and function of progeny of mothers fed an LP diet. Remarkably, miR-375 normalization in LP-derived islet cells restores ?-cell proliferation and insulin secretion. Our findings suggest the existence of a developmental memory in islets that registers intrauterine protein restriction. Hence, pancreatic failure after in utero malnutrition could result from transgenerational transmission of miRNA misexpression in ?-cells. PMID:24834976

Dumortier, Olivier; Hinault, Charlotte; Gautier, Nadine; Patouraux, Stéphanie; Casamento, Virginie; Van Obberghen, Emmanuel

2014-10-01

7

Gestational protein restriction induces alterations in placental morphology and mitochondrial function in rats during late pregnancy.  

PubMed

The placenta acts a regulator of nutrient composition and supply from mother to fetus and is the source of hormonal signals that affect maternal and fetal metabolism. Thus, appropriate development of the placenta is crucial for normal fetal development. We investigated the effect of gestational protein restriction (GPR) on placental morphology and mitochondrial function on day 19 of gestation. Pregnant dams were divided into two groups: normal (NP 17 % casein) or low-protein diet (LP 6 % casein). The placentas were processed for biochemical, histomorphometric and ultrastructural analysis. The integrity of rat placental mitochondria (RPM) isolated by conventional differential centrifugation was measured by oxygen uptake (Clark-type electrode). LP animals presented an increase in adipose tissue and triacylglycerol and a decrease in serum insulin levels. No alterations were observed in body, liver, fetus, or placenta weight. There was also no change in serum glucose, total protein, or lipid content. Gestational protein restriction had tissue-specific respiratory effects, with the observation of a small change in liver respiration (~13 %) and considerable respiratory inhibition in placenta samples (~37 %). The higher oxygen uptake by RPM in the LP groups suggests uncoupling between respiration and oxidative phosphorylation. In addition, ultrastructural analysis of junctional zone giant cells from LP placenta showed a disorganized cytoplasm, with loss of integrity of most organelles and intense vacuolization. The present results led us to hypothesize that GPR alters placental structure and morphology, induces sensitivity to insulin, mitochondrial abnormalities and suggests premature aging of the placenta. Further studies are needed to test this hypothesis. PMID:23884563

Rebelato, Hércules Jonas; Esquisatto, Marcelo Augusto Marreto; Moraes, Camila; Amaral, Maria Esmeria Corezola; Catisti, Rosana

2013-12-01

8

Postnatal nutrition alters body composition in adult offspring exposed to maternal protein restriction.  

PubMed

The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system is altered with intra-uterine growth retardation and in adult metabolic disease. The aim of the present study was to observe effects of continued protein restriction on the IGF-I system and body composition in offspring of mothers fed a low-protein (LP) diet. Offspring from Wistar dams fed either a 20 % (CON) or 8 % (LP) protein diet during gestation and lactation were studied at birth, 10 d, weaning and at 12 weeks after maintenance on either the 8 % (lp) or 20 % (con) protein diet from weaning. LP offspring had reduced weaning weights (P < 0.05) and reduced serum insulin (P < 0.005). Serum IGF-I (P < 0.001) and acid-labile subunit (ALS) (P < 0.0001) were reduced at 10 and 21 d. Hepatic expression of IGF-I (P < 0.05) and ALS (P < 0.005) were reduced at 10 and 21 d. IGF binding protein (IGFBP)-1 hepatic expression was elevated at 10 d (P < 0.001) but not at 21 d. Adult LP-con offspring had reduced body weight (P < 0.05), lean (P < 0.0001) and bone (P < 0.0001) but not fat (P = 0.6) mass with no persistent effects on IGF-I, ALS and IGFBP-1.Postnatal lp feeding reduced lean mass (P < 0.0001) and bone mass (P < 0.0001) in CON and LP animals. Percentage fat (LP P = 0.04; CON P = 0.6) and IGFBP-1 (LP P = 0.01; CON P = 0.2) were increased in LP-lp but not CON-lp offspring. This suggests that postnatal nutrition is important in the effects of maternal protein restriction on adult body composition and that IGFBP-1 may be involved. PMID:19055852

Gosby, Alison K; Stanton, Lisa M L; Maloney, Christopher A; Thompson, Madeleine; Briody, Julie; Baxter, Robert C; Bryson, Janet M; Denyer, Gareth S; Caterson, Ian D

2009-06-01

9

Protein-restricted diet alters concentration of plasma membrane glycoproteins in rat liver.  

PubMed

Malnutrition is known to have adverse effects on the physiology and morphology of the liver. The aim of this investigation was to examine the effect of protein restriction on the content of plasma membrane proteins residing in the sinusoidal and bile canalicular domains of rat liver. Post-weanling rats maintained on low protein isocaloric diets showed marked growth retardation concomitant with reduced liver protein concentration compared to control animals. The content of leucine aminopeptidase, a bile canalicular enzyme, and asialoglycoprotein receptor, a sinusoidal receptor, in livers of protein-restricted rats was 66% and 50%, respectively, of control livers. In contrast, the relative concentrations of dipeptidyl peptidase IV and a cell adhesion molecule (GP 110), both canalicular proteins, were 160% and 121%, respectively, in rat livers upon protein restriction. After a 4-week rehabilitation period, the concentrations of all canalicular membrane proteins were similar to those in control livers, while the sinusoidal receptor was only 68% of control values. Protein restriction was found to adversely affect the concentrations of protein constituents, but not their localization in the hepatocyte plasma membrane. In general, altered concentrations of hepatocyte membrane proteins were reversed on the administration of a normal protein diet. PMID:8844476

Reif, S; El-Bendary, M; Bujanover, Y; Petell, J K; Lebenthal, E

1996-08-01

10

Dietary protein restriction in established renal injury in the rat. Selective role of glomerular capillary pressure in progressive glomerular dysfunction.  

PubMed Central

Dietary protein restriction imposed before renal injury is established in the remnant kidney model in the rat reduces glomerular hypertension and hyperperfusion and renal injury. We demonstrate that dietary protein restriction (6% vs. 20%) imposed on a background of established renal injury in the remnant model leads to a greater preservation of renal function as measured by glomerular filtration rate and fractional clearances of albumin and IgG, despite the persistence of systemic hypertension. In similarly prepared rats, dietary protein restriction (6% vs. 20%) led to a lower glomerular capillary hydraulic pressure, a higher ultrafiltration coefficient, and similar single nephron filtration rates. In addition, less impairment of glomerular permselectivity was demonstrable after protein restriction. Our data demonstrate that the preservation of renal function with dietary protein restriction after established glomerular injury follows upon reduction of glomerular capillary hydraulic pressure, despite constancy of single nephron filtration rate and plasma flow and persistence of arterial hypertension. PMID:3771792

Nath, K A; Kren, S M; Hostetter, T H

1986-01-01

11

Effects of oxidative stress on vascular reactivity in the offspring of protein-restricted stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats.  

PubMed

Oxidative stress was induced in 12-week-old offspring of protein-restricted (9% protein) and control (20% protein) protein-restricted stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP) by administering phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) for 4 weeks to determine the effects of oxidative stress on the vascular function of the SHRSP offspring. There was no significant difference in the blood pressure of offspring of the protein-restricted dams and control dams. The plasma diacron-reactive oxygen metabolite (dROM) level at 16 weeks of age was significantly higher in offspring of the protein-restricted dams, whereas the anti-oxidative enzyme activity was similar in both groups. Acetylcholine (Ach)-induced relaxation was significantly reduced in offspring of the protein-restricted dams. The expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) was lower and the expression of soluble guanylic acid cyclase (sGC) was higher in offspring of the protein-restricted dams. These results indicate that SHRSP offspring of the protein-restricted dams were sensitive to oxidative stress, and displayed the vascular dysfunction. PMID:23924731

Takemori, Kumiko; Tahara, Aki; Murakami, Tetsuo; Kometani, Takashi

2013-01-01

12

Time window-dependent effect of perinatal maternal protein restriction on insulin sensitivity and energy substrate oxidation in adult male offspring.  

PubMed

Epidemiological and experimental evidence suggests that a suboptimal environment during perinatal life programs offspring susceptibility to the development of metabolic syndrome and Type 2 diabetes. We hypothesized that the lasting impact of perinatal protein deprivation on mitochondrial fuel oxidation and insulin sensitivity would depend on the time window of exposure. To improve our understanding of underlying mechanisms, an integrative approach was used, combining the assessment of insulin sensitivity and untargeted mass spectrometry-based metabolomics in the offspring. A hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp was performed in adult male rats born from dams fed a low-protein diet during gestation and/or lactation, and subsequently exposed to a Western diet (WD) for 10 wk. Metabolomics was combined with targeted acylcarnitine profiling and analysis of liver gene expression to identify markers of adaptation to WD that influence the phenotype outcome evaluated by body composition analysis. At adulthood, offspring of protein-restricted dams had impaired insulin secretion when fed a standard diet. Moreover, rats who demonstrated catch-up growth at weaning displayed higher gluconeogenesis and branched-chain amino acid catabolism, and lower fatty acid ?-oxidation compared with control rats. Postweaning exposure of intrauterine growth restriction-born rats to a WD exacerbated incomplete fatty acid ?-oxidation and excess fat deposition. Control offspring nursed by protein-restricted mothers showed peculiar low-fat accretion through adulthood and preserved insulin sensitivity even after WD-exposure. Altogether, our findings suggest a testable hypothesis about how maternal diet might influence metabolic outcomes (insulin sensitivity) in the next generation such as mitochondrial overload and/or substrate oxidation inflexibility dependent on the time window of perinatal dietary manipulation. PMID:24808498

Agnoux, Aurore Martin; Antignac, Jean-Philippe; Simard, Gilles; Poupeau, Guillaume; Darmaun, Dominique; Parnet, Patricia; Alexandre-Gouabau, Marie-Cécile

2014-07-15

13

Accelerated aging of reproductive capacity in male rat offspring of protein-restricted mothers is associated with increased testicular and sperm oxidative stress.  

PubMed

Maternal protein restriction (MPR) in pregnancy causes life course organ dysfunction, but few studies link the developmental origins of disease hypothesis to early aging. Suboptimal developmental nutrition increases oxidative stress (OS) and male infertility, damaging sperm function. We hypothesized that MPR in pregnancy accelerates age-related changes in testicular and sperm function related to both maternal diet and increased testicular OS in rat offspring. We studied male rats whose pregnant mothers ate either control (C, 20 % casein) or restricted (R, 10 % casein) isocaloric diet. After birth, mothers and offspring ate C diet. Testes were retrieved at 19 days gestation and across the life course (postnatal day (PND) 21, 36, 110, and 850) to measure OS markers, antioxidant enzymes, serum FSH, LH, and testosterone, and PND 110 sperm OS and quality. Fertility rate was evaluated at PND 110, 450, and 850. Offspring showed age- and MPR-related changes in testosterone, testicular OS markers and antioxidant enzymes and fertility, and maternal diet-related OS and sperm antioxidant enzyme changes. Developmental programming is considered a key factor in predisposing to chronic disease. Our data show that programming also plays an important role in aging trajectory. This interaction is a little studied area in aging biology that merits more investigation. PMID:25354645

Rodríguez-González, Guadalupe L; Reyes-Castro, Luis A; Vega, Claudia C; Boeck, Lourdes; Ibáñez, Carlos; Nathanielsz, Peter W; Larrea, Fernando; Zambrano, Elena

2014-12-01

14

Pre- and/or postnatal protein restriction in rats impairs learning and motivation in male offspring  

PubMed Central

Suboptimal developmental environments program offspring to lifelong health complications including affective and cognitive disorders. Little is known about the effects of suboptimal intra-uterine environments on associative learning and motivational behavior. We hypothesized that maternal isocaloric low protein diet during pregnancy and lactation would impair offspring associative learning and motivation as measured by operant conditioning and the progressive ratio task, respectively. Control mothers were fed 20% casein (C) and restricted mothers (R) 10% casein to provide four groups: CC, RR, CR, and RC (first letter pregnancy diet and second letter lactation diet), to evaluate effects of maternal diet on male offspring behavior. Impaired learning was observed during fixed ratio-1 operant conditioning in RC offspring that required more sessions to learn vs. the CC offspring (9.4 ± 0.8 and 3.8 ± 0.3 sessions, respectively, p<0.05). Performance in fixed ratio-5 conditioning showed the RR (5.4 ± 1.1), CR (4.0 ± 0.8), and RC (5.0 ± 0.8) offspring required more sessions to reach performance criterion than CC offspring (2.5 ± 0.5, p<0.05). Furthermore, motivational effects during the progressive ratio test revealed less responding in the RR (48.1 ± 17), CR (74.7 ± 8.4), and RC (65.9 ± 11.2) for positive reinforcement vs. the CC offspring (131.5 ± 7.5, p<0.05). These findings demonstrate negative developmental programming effects due to perinatal isocaloric low protein diet on learning and motivation behavior with the nutritional challenge in the prenatal period showing more vulnerability in offspring behavior. PMID:21078378

Reyes-Castro, LA; Rodriguez, JS; Rodriguez-Gonzalez, GL; Wimmer, RD; McDonald, TJ; Larrea, F; Nathanielsz, PW; Zambrano, E

2011-01-01

15

Postnatal prebiotic fiber intake in offspring exposed to gestational protein restriction has sex-specific effects on insulin resistance and intestinal permeability in rats.  

PubMed

Maternal protein restriction (PR) during pregnancy is known to have numerous adverse effects on offspring, including increased adiposity and impaired glucose tolerance later in life. A few studies have shown that this adverse programming can be reversed by dietary or hormonal therapies early in postnatal life. The objective of this study was to determine if a weaning diet high in prebiotic fiber could mitigate some of the negative effects of maternal PR, such as increased adiposity and impaired glucose tolerance. Wistar rats were fed a low- (8%) or normal- (20%) protein diet during pregnancy. Male and female pups were weaned onto control (C; 5% fiber, 20% protein) or high (prebiotic) fiber (HF; 21% wt:wt, 1:1 ratio oligofructose and inulin at 4-10 wk; 10% wt:wt, 1:1 ratio oligofructose and inulin at 10-24 wk; 17.3% protein) diets. At 24 wk of age, glucose tolerance, body composition, satiety hormones, gut microbiota, and markers of intestinal permeability were measured in the offspring. Maternal PR reduced offspring birth weight by 5% and lean mass by 9% compared with the C offspring (P < 0.007). HF-fed offspring had lower body weights and percentage body fat (?23% in males, ?19% in females) at 24 wk than did C offspring (P < 0.02). Compared with C pups, pups fed the HF diet had greater cecal Bifidobacterium spp. (>5-fold) and plasma concentrations of the gut trophic hormone glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) (P < 0.05). In male PR offspring fed the HF diet, insulin resistance measured by the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance was reduced by 81% compared with those fed the C diet (P = 0.02). In female PR offspring fed the HF diet, plasma endotoxin was greater and colonic tight junction protein 1 (Tjp1) expression was lower than in those fed the C diet. A high prebiotic fiber weaning diet mitigated increased adiposity and insulin resistance associated with maternal PR, which could improve health and decrease risk of chronic disease in offspring born to malnourished dams. However, the functional importance of sex-specific changes in markers of intestinal barrier function warrants further investigation. PMID:25080539

Hallam, Megan C; Reimer, Raylene A

2014-10-01

16

Dietary protein restriction of pregnant rats in the F0 generation induces altered methylation of hepatic gene promoters in the adult male offspring in the F1 and F2 generations  

PubMed Central

Epidemiological studies and experimental models show that maternal nutritional constraint during pregnancy alters the metabolic phenotype of the offspring and that this can be passed to subsequent generations. In the rat, induction of an altered metabolic phenotype in the liver of the F1 generation by feeding a protein-restricted diet (PRD) during pregnancy involves altered methylation of specific gene promoters. We therefore investigated whether altered methylation of peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR?) and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) promoters is passed to the F2 generation. Females rats (F0) were fed a reference diet (RD, 18% protein) or PRD (9% protein) throughout gestation, and AIN76A during lactation. F1 offspring were weaned onto AIN76A. F1 females were mated and fed AIN76A throughout pregnancy and lactation. F1 and F2 males were killed on postnatal d 80. Hepatic PPAR? and GR promoter methylation was significantly (P<0.05) lower in the PRD group in the F1 (PPAR? 8%; GR 10%) and F2 (PPAR? 11%; GR 8%) generations. There were trends (P<0.1) towards higher expression of PPAR?, GR, acyl-CoA oxidase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) in the F1 and F2 males, although this was only significant for PEPCK. These data show for the first time that altered methylation of gene promoters induced in the F1 generation by maternal protein-restriction during pregnancy is transmitted to the F2 generation. This may represent a mechanism for the transmission of induced phenotypes between generations. PMID:17313703

Burdge, Graham C.; Slater-Jefferies, Jo; Torrens, Christopher; Phillips, Emma S.; Hanson, Mark A.; Lillycrop, Karen A.

2008-01-01

17

Dietary Protein Restriction during F0 Pregnancy in Rats Induces Transgenerational Changes in the Hepatic Transcriptome in Female Offspring  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is considerable evidence for non-genomic transmission between generations of phenotypes induced by environmental exposures during development, although the mechanism is poorly understood. We investigated whether alterations in expression of the liver transcriptome induced in F1 offspring by feeding F0 dams a protein-restricted (PR) diet during pregnancy were passed with or without further change to two subsequent generations. The number

Samuel P. Hoile; Karen A. Lillycrop; Nicola A. Thomas; Mark A. Hanson; Graham C. Burdge

2011-01-01

18

Inhibitory role of dietary protein restriction on the development and expression of immune-mediated antitubular basement membrane-induced tubulointerstitial nephritis in rats.  

PubMed Central

The protective effect of dietary protein restriction on the development and expression of immune-mediated interstitial nephritis was evaluated in Brown Norway rats with anti-tubular basement membrane disease. In the first series of experiments, pair-fed rats received low protein (LP) (3% casein) or normal protein (NP) (27% casein), normocaloric diets. After 6 wk, each group was immunized with renal tubular antigen in adjuvant to produce anti-tubular basement membrane antibody (alpha TBM-Ab) and tubulointerstitial nephritis. The kidneys harvested from NP rats after four more weeks on the diet had histologically more severe interstitial disease than the LP rats (histologic severity; NP = 3.1 +/- 0.2 vs. LP = 1.1 +/- 0.3; P less than 0.001), and serum creatinine values were concordantly different (NP = 1.34 +/- 0.02 vs. LP = 0.82 +/- 0.03). Titers of alpha TBM-Ab were similar in both groups, while the T cell-mediated immune response, as measured by delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH), was nonspecifically impaired in LP rats when compared with the NP group. Admixture cotransfers of LP plus NP cells failed to demonstrate active suppression as an explanation for the depressed DTH in LP rats. The therapeutic role of dietary protein restriction was also examined in rats with established alpha TBM disease. In these experiments, rats were first immunized and fed NP diets for 4 wk (histologic severity = 3.0 +/- 0.2; creatinine = 1.78 +/- 0.02), and then were divided into two groups and followed for six more weeks on either LP or NP diets. LP rats, under these conditions, developed less disease than those fed NP diet (histologic severity; NP = 3.2 +/- 0.3 vs. LP = 1.4 +/- 0.2; P less than 0.001), and serum creatinine values were concordantly different (NP = 1.92 +/- 0.05 vs. LP = 0.97 +/- 0.02). Again, the titers of alpha TBM-Ab in both LP and NP groups were similar. These data collectively suggest that LP diet has a protective effect both on the development and extent of tubulointerstitial nephritis that is perhaps, in part, related to the selective abrogation of effector T cell immunity. Images PMID:4044836

Agus, D; Mann, R; Cohn, D; Michaud, L; Kelly, C; Clayman, M; Neilson, E G

1985-01-01

19

Impact of Protein Restriction on the Regulation of Cardiac Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase by Malonyl-CoA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a rat model of isocaloric protein restriction (8v20% protein diet), the study tested the hypothesis that growth retardationin utero, induced by maternal protein malnutrition, influences cardiac carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT) activity and regulation by malonyl-CoA in the newborn period, as well as in the offspring's adult life. The susceptibility of cardiac CPT to inhibition by malonyl-CoA was greater in adulthood

Mark J Holness; David A Priestman; Mary C Sugden

1998-01-01

20

Effect of maternal low protein diet during pregnancy on the fetal liver of rats.  

PubMed

Maternal protein restriction plays a critical role in the developmental programming of later disease susceptibility of the fetus. Developmental insults could exert permanent effects on health through alteration of tissue morphology. As the liver has the greatest number of functions among other body organs, this study aimed at evaluating the effects of maternal dietary protein insufficiency on the structure and the proliferative capacity of the liver in rat fetuses. Morphometric histological studies and biochemical analysis were performed. Twenty adult Albino female Wistar rats were divided into two groups after confirmation of pregnancy. Group I (ST), serving as control, was fed a standard diet (20% protein) and group II (LP) a low protein diet (5% protein). Fetuses were extracted on the day 21.5 of pregnancy. Group II morphometric results revealed a significant decrease in the mothers' weight gain, number and weight of fetuses and weight of fetal livers, but there was also an increase in the mean area of hepatocytes. Histological results showed apoptosis, vacuolization of the hepatocytes, increased positivity of the Oil Red O stained fat droplets and the PAS-positive stained glycogen granules. Liver TUNEL showed increased apoptotic nuclei. Ki-67 immunostaining showed decreased proliferation of the hepatocytes. Ultrastructurally, the nucleus showed peripheral masses of heterochromatin besides irregular nuclear and cell membranes. Mitochondria varied in shape with loss of cristea. Biochemically, there was a significant decrease in the protein concentration and a significant increase in the glycogen concentration in livers of group II. It thus appears that the maternal metabolic condition not only reduced fetal growth in response to protein restriction, but also altered the structure of the liver. PMID:22877887

Ramadan, Wafaa S; Alshiraihi, Ilham; Al-karim, Saleh

2013-01-01

21

Protein Restriction during Gestation Alters Histone Modifications at the Glucose Transporter 4 (GLUT4) Promoter Region and Induces GLUT4 Expression in Skeletal Muscle of Female Rat Offspring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maternal nutrition during pregnancy is an intrauterine factor that results in alteration of the offspring genome and associates with disease risk in the offspring. We investigated the impact of a maternal low protein (LP) diet on the expression of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) in offspring skeletal muscle. GLUT4 is an insulin-regulated glucose transporter involved in insulin sensitivity and carbohydrate metabolism

Shasha Zheng; Michelle Rollet; Yuan-Xiang Pan

22

FGF21 is an endocrine signal of protein restriction.  

PubMed

Enhanced fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) production and circulation has been linked to the metabolic adaptation to starvation. Here, we demonstrated that hepatic FGF21 expression is induced by dietary protein restriction, but not energy restriction. Circulating FGF21 was increased 10-fold in mice and rats fed a low-protein (LP) diet. In these animals, liver Fgf21 expression was increased within 24 hours of reduced protein intake. In humans, circulating FGF21 levels increased dramatically following 28 days on a LP diet. LP-induced increases in FGF21 were associated with increased phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2? (eIF2?) in the liver, and both baseline and LP-induced serum FGF21 levels were reduced in mice lacking the eIF2? kinase general control nonderepressible 2 (GCN2). Finally, while protein restriction altered food intake, energy expenditure, and body weight gain in WT mice, FGF21-deficient animals did not exhibit these changes in response to a LP diet. These and other data demonstrate that reduced protein intake underlies the increase in circulating FGF21 in response to starvation and a ketogenic diet and that FGF21 is required for behavioral and metabolic responses to protein restriction. FGF21 therefore represents an endocrine signal of protein restriction, which acts to coordinate metabolism and growth during periods of reduced protein intake. PMID:25133427

Laeger, Thomas; Henagan, Tara M; Albarado, Diana C; Redman, Leanne M; Bray, George A; Noland, Robert C; Münzberg, Heike; Hutson, Susan M; Gettys, Thomas W; Schwartz, Michael W; Morrison, Christopher D

2014-09-01

23

MATERNAL AND DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY OF PERFLUOROOCTANE SULFONATE IN THE RAT  

EPA Science Inventory

MATERNAL AND DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY OF PERFLUOROOCTANE SULFONATE IN THE RAT. C. Lau and J.M. Rogers, Reproductive Toxicology Division, NHEERL, ORD, USEPA, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), an environmentally persistent compound used ...

24

Maternal diet influences DNA damage, aortic telomere length, oxidative stress, and antioxidant defense capacity in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low birth weight is associated with in- creased cardiovascular disease (CVD) in humans. Detri- mental effects of low birth weight are amplified by rapid catch-up growth. Conversely, slow growth during lactation reduces CVD risk. Gestational protein restriction causes low birth weight, vascular dysfunction, and accelerated aging in rats. Atherosclerotic aortic tissue has shortened telomeres, and oxidative stress accelerates telomere short-

J. L. Tarry-Adkins; M. S. Martin-Gronert; J.-H. Chen; R. L. Cripps; S. E. Ozanne

2008-01-01

25

Maternal deprivation increases cell death in the infant rat brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prolonged separation from the mother can interfere with normal growth and development and is a significant risk factor for adult psychopathology. In rodents, separation of a pup from its mother increases the behavioral and endocrine responses to stress for the lifetime of the animal. Here we investigated whether maternal deprivation could affect brain development of infant rats via changes in

Li-Xin Zhang; Seymour Levine; Gersham Dent; Yutian Zhan; Guoqiang Xing; Darren Okimoto; M Kathleen Gordon; Robert M Post; Mark A Smith

2002-01-01

26

Central v1b receptor antagonism in lactating rats: impairment of maternal care but not of maternal aggression.  

PubMed

Maternal behaviour in rodents is mediated by the central oxytocin and vasopressin systems, amongst others. The role of vasopressin, acting via the V1a receptor (V1aR), on maternal care and maternal aggression has recently been described. However, a potential involvement of the V1b receptor (V1bR) in maternal behaviour has only been demonstrated in knockout mice. The present study aimed to examine the effects of central pharmacological manipulation of the V1bR on maternal behaviour in lactating Wistar rats. On pregnancy day 18, female rats were implanted with a guide cannula targeting the lateral ventricle. After parturition, dams received an acute central infusion of a specific V1bR agonist (d[Leu4,Lys8]VP) or V1bR antagonist (SSR149415) once daily, followed by observations of maternal care [lactation day (LD) 1], maternal motivation in the pup retrieval test (LD 2), anxiety-related behaviour on the elevated plus-maze (LD 3) and maternal aggression in the maternal defence test followed by maternal care monitoring (LD 4). Our data demonstrate that, under nonstress conditions, the V1bR antagonist decreased the occurrence of both nursing and mother-pup interaction, whereas the V1bR agonist did not affect either parameter. Under stress conditions (i.e. after the maternal defence test), mother-pup interaction was decreased by infusion of the V1bR antagonist. During the maternal defence test, neither treatment affected aggressive or non-aggressive behaviour. Finally, neither treatment altered maternal motivation or anxiety. In conclusion, central V1bR antagonism modulates aspects of maternal care but not of maternal aggression or maternal motivation in lactating rats. These findings further extend our knowledge on the vasopressin system as a vital mediator of maternal behaviour. PMID:25283607

Bayerl, D S; Klampfl, S M; Bosch, O J

2014-12-01

27

Interaction of maternal separation on the UCh rat cerebellum.  

PubMed

Maternal care is the main source of signals and stimuli for proper development, growth, and production of adjustment responses to stressful factors. Adverse experiences in childhood are associated with a vulnerability to developing abusive ethanol ingestion via alterations of the response of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Alcoholism causes global brain abnormalities, with the cerebellum being one of the most susceptible areas. We evaluated the effect of maternal separation on the cerebellum structure of male UCh rats. Adult male UChA (low 10% ethanol consumption) and UChB (high 10% ethanol consumption) rats were divided in to four experimental groups: (1) UChA, (2) UChA maternal separation (MS), (3) UChB, and (4) UChB MS. The MS occurred between the 4th and 14th days of age, for 240 min day(-1) . Euthanasia was performed at 120 days of age. An image analysis system was used to measure cerebellar cortical height and Purkinje cellular area and height in five rats from each group. The cerebellar sections were stained with antibodies against IGFR-I. MS did not alter the ethanol consumption of UChA and UChB rats. Corticosterone level was significantly higher in UChA MS and UChB MS rats than in UChA and UChB rats. The Purkinje cellular area and height were higher in UChA MS rats. IGFR-I expression was observed in the cortical glomerular area of UChA MS and UChB MS rats. MS altered the Purkinje cells in the cerebella of male UCh rats. PMID:24203397

Oliveira, S A; Fontanelli, B A F; Stefanini, M A; Chuffa, L G A; Teixeira, G R; Lizarte, F S N; Tirapelli, L F; Quitete, V H A; Matheus, S M M; Padovani, C R; Martinez, M; Martinez, F E

2014-01-01

28

Immune responsiveness of Japanese quail selected for egg yolk testosterone content under severe protein restriction.  

PubMed

Yolk testosterone concentrations vary in response to environmental conditions and different testosterone contents can subsequently modify the phenotypic traits of offspring. Apart from effects on growth, proactive behaviour and secondary sexual characteristics, the possible negative impacts of maternal testosterone on the immune system are often considered a limitation for its deposition. The effects of maternal testosterone can be modulated by postnatal environmental conditions, such as the availability of food resources. However, the majority of studies considering the effects of maternal testosterone on the immune system have been conducted under optimum conditions. We evaluated the influence of genetic selection for high (HET) and low (LET) egg testosterone content in Japanese quail on immune responsiveness of offspring to phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation under severe protein restriction. Protein restriction negatively influenced body weight and performance in the PHA-test. We observed an increase in Cort (corticosterone) and He/Ly (heterophil/lymphocyte ratio) after LPS, while no changes occurred in total IgY levels in the protein-restricted group. HET quails showed higher body mass and total IgY levels and lower He/Ly ratio than LET quails, while the PHA index and Cort concentration did not differ between lines. No interactions were found between protein restriction and genetic line. In conclusion, the immune response was not compromised under conditions of severe protein restriction in the faster growing HET line compared with the LET line. We hypothesise that the immune responsiveness of birds with higher yolk testosterone may be linked with other maternally-derived substances in a context-dependent manner. PMID:25086332

Kankova, Zuzana; Okuliarova, Monika; Zeman, Michal

2014-11-01

29

MATERNAL HEPATIC AND EMBRYONIC EFFECTS OF 1,2,4- TRICHLOROBENZENE IN THE RAT  

EPA Science Inventory

The possible maternal hepatic and reproductive effects of 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene (TCB) were assessed in rats given 0, 36, 120, 360, and 1200 mg/kg/day of TCB on Days 9-13 of gestation. The animals were sacrificed on Day 14 of pregnancy. Maternal deaths (2/9 rats 6/6 rats) were re...

30

Neonatal maternal deprivation triggers long term alterations in colonic epithelial barrier and mucosal immunity in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Stressful events in the early period of life (for example, maternal deprivation) have been shown to modify adult immune and gastrointestinal tract functions. The present study aimed to establish whether maternal deprivation affects colonic epithelial barrier and the development of an experimental colitis in adult rats.Methods: Male Wistar rat pups were separated during postnatal days 2–14 or left undisturbed

F Barreau; L Ferrier; J Fioramonti; L Bueno

2004-01-01

31

Protein content and methyl donors in maternal diet interact to influence the proliferation rate and cell fate of neural stem cells in rat hippocampus.  

PubMed

Maternal diet during pregnancy and early postnatal life influences the setting up of normal physiological functions in the offspring. Epigenetic mechanisms regulate cell differentiation during embryonic development and may mediate gene/environment interactions. We showed here that high methyl donors associated with normal protein content in maternal diet increased the in vitro proliferation rate of neural stem/progenitor cells isolated from rat E19 fetuses. Gene expression on whole hippocampi at weaning confirmed this effect as evidenced by the higher expression of the Nestin and Igf2 genes, suggesting a higher amount of undifferentiated precursor cells. Additionally, protein restriction reduced the expression of the insulin receptor gene, which is essential to the action of IGFII. Inhibition of DNA methylation in neural stem/progenitor cells in vitro increased the expression of the astrocyte-specific Gfap gene and decreased the expression of the neuron-specific Dcx gene, suggesting an impact on cell differentiation. Our data suggest a complex interaction between methyl donors and protein content in maternal diet that influence the expression of major growth factors and their receptors and therefore impact the proliferation and differentiation capacities of neural stem cells, either through external hormone signals or internal genomic regulation. PMID:25317634

Amarger, Valérie; Lecouillard, Angèle; Ancellet, Laure; Grit, Isabelle; Castellano, Blandine; Hulin, Philippe; Parnet, Patricia

2014-01-01

32

Protein Content and Methyl Donors in Maternal Diet Interact to Influence the Proliferation Rate and Cell Fate of Neural Stem Cells in Rat Hippocampus  

PubMed Central

Maternal diet during pregnancy and early postnatal life influences the setting up of normal physiological functions in the offspring. Epigenetic mechanisms regulate cell differentiation during embryonic development and may mediate gene/environment interactions. We showed here that high methyl donors associated with normal protein content in maternal diet increased the in vitro proliferation rate of neural stem/progenitor cells isolated from rat E19 fetuses. Gene expression on whole hippocampi at weaning confirmed this effect as evidenced by the higher expression of the Nestin and Igf2 genes, suggesting a higher amount of undifferentiated precursor cells. Additionally, protein restriction reduced the expression of the insulin receptor gene, which is essential to the action of IGFII. Inhibition of DNA methylation in neural stem/progenitor cells in vitro increased the expression of the astrocyte-specific Gfap gene and decreased the expression of the neuron-specific Dcx gene, suggesting an impact on cell differentiation. Our data suggest a complex interaction between methyl donors and protein content in maternal diet that influence the expression of major growth factors and their receptors and therefore impact the proliferation and differentiation capacities of neural stem cells, either through external hormone signals or internal genomic regulation. PMID:25317634

Amarger, Valerie; Lecouillard, Angele; Ancellet, Laure; Grit, Isabelle; Castellano, Blandine; Hulin, Philippe; Parnet, Patricia

2014-01-01

33

Reduced brain corticotropin-releasing factor receptor activation is required for adequate maternal care and maternal aggression in lactating rats.  

PubMed

The brain corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) system triggers a variety of neuroendocrine and behavioural responses to stress. Whether maternal behaviour and emotionality in lactation are modulated by CRF has rarely been investigated. In the present study, we measured CRF mRNA expression within the parvocellular part of the paraventricular nucleus in virgin and lactating Wistar rats bred for high (HAB) and low (LAB) anxiety-related behaviour or non-selected for anxiety (NAB). Further, we intracerebroventricularly infused synthetic CRF or the CRF receptor (CRF-R) antagonist D-Phe to manipulate CRF-R1/2 non-specifically in lactating HAB, LAB, and NAB dams, and monitored maternal care, maternal motivation, maternal aggression, and anxiety. The CRF mRNA expression in the parvocellular part of the paraventricular nucleus was higher in HAB vs. LAB rats independent of reproductive status. The lactation-specific decrease of CRF mRNA was confirmed in LAB and NAB dams but was absent in HAB dams. Intracerebroventricular CRF decreased maternal care under basal conditions in the home cage in all breeding lines and reduced attack behaviour in HAB and LAB dams during maternal defence. In contrast, D-Phe rescued maternal care after exposure to maternal defence in the home cage without influencing maternal aggression. Furthermore, D-Phe decreased and CRF tended to increase anxiety in HAB/NAB and LAB dams, respectively, suggesting an anxiogenic effect of CRF in lactating females. In conclusion, low CRF-R activation during lactation is an essential prerequisite for the adequate occurrence of maternal behaviour. PMID:23742269

Klampfl, Stefanie M; Neumann, Inga D; Bosch, Oliver J

2013-09-01

34

IFITM Proteins Restrict Viral Membrane Hemifusion  

PubMed Central

The interferon-inducible transmembrane (IFITM) protein family represents a new class of cellular restriction factors that block early stages of viral replication; the underlying mechanism is currently not known. Here we provide evidence that IFITM proteins restrict membrane fusion induced by representatives of all three classes of viral membrane fusion proteins. IFITM1 profoundly suppressed syncytia formation and cell-cell fusion induced by almost all viral fusion proteins examined; IFITM2 and IFITM3 also strongly inhibited their fusion, with efficiency somewhat dependent on cell types. Furthermore, treatment of cells with IFN also markedly inhibited viral membrane fusion and entry. By using the Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus envelope and influenza A virus hemagglutinin as models for study, we showed that IFITM-mediated restriction on membrane fusion is not at the steps of receptor- and/or low pH-mediated triggering; instead, the creation of hemifusion was essentially blocked by IFITMs. Chlorpromazine (CPZ), a chemical known to promote the transition from hemifusion to full fusion, was unable to rescue the IFITM-mediated restriction on fusion. In contrast, oleic acid (OA), a lipid analog that generates negative spontaneous curvature and thereby promotes hemifusion, virtually overcame the restriction. To explore the possible effect of IFITM proteins on membrane molecular order and fluidity, we performed fluorescence labeling with Laurdan, in conjunction with two-photon laser scanning and fluorescence-lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM). We observed that the generalized polarizations (GPs) and fluorescence lifetimes of cell membranes expressing IFITM proteins were greatly enhanced, indicating higher molecularly ordered and less fluidized membranes. Collectively, our data demonstrated that IFITM proteins suppress viral membrane fusion before the creation of hemifusion, and suggested that they may do so by reducing membrane fluidity and conferring a positive spontaneous curvature in the outer leaflets of cell membranes. Our study provides novel insight into the understanding of how IFITM protein family restricts viral membrane fusion and infection. PMID:23358889

Golfetto, Ottavia; Bungart, Brittani; Li, Minghua; Ding, Shilei; He, Yuxian; Liang, Chen; Lee, James C.; Gratton, Enrico; Cohen, Fredric S.; Liu, Shan-Lu

2013-01-01

35

The effect of maternal diabetes on the synthesis and secretion of phosphatidylcholine in fetal and maternal rat lungs in vitro.  

PubMed

Incorporation of (methyl-14C)choline into phosphatidylcholine and the release of prelabelled phosphatidylcholine was investigated in vitro using lung slices from pregnant rats and their offspring near term. Tissue from normal, diabetic and insulin-treated diabetic pregnant rats and their offspring was utilized to assess the effects of maternal diabetes on fetal lung maturation. The results show that the synthesis of phosphatidylcholine in fetal/newborn lungs through the cytidine 5'-diphosphocholine pathway was not affected by maternal diabetes. However, secretion of phosphatidylcholine from the lungs of fetuses of diabetic mothers was very much suppressed one day after parturition. Insulin treatment of the diabetic pregnant rats restored secretion of phosphatidylcholine from the fetal/newborn lungs to control values. These results suggest that an impaired secretion of phosphatidylcholine from the lungs of fetuses of diabetic mothers may be partly responsible for the higher incidence of respiratory distress syndrome among children of diabetic mothers. The results also revealed some correlation between the secretion of phosphatidylcholine from maternal lungs, maternal serum phospholipids and synthesis of phosphatidylcholine by fetal lungs during late gestation, suggesting a possible relationship between maternal phospholipid metabolism and fetal lung maturation. PMID:6548458

Nijjar, M S; Khangura, B S; Juravsky, L I

1984-08-01

36

Relationship between maternal and fetal fuels and placental glucose transfer in rats with maternal diabetes of varying severity.  

PubMed

Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a nonhomogeneous entity known to affect fetal development in different ways in both rats and human beings. The degree of severity of diabetes could affect the maternal-fetal transfer of metabolic fuels and consequently influence fetal development. To study this hypothesis, pregnant rats were made diabetic by streptozocin (STZ) treatment (45 mg/kg) at day 7 of gestation and were treated with different daily doses of insulin until the 20th day of gestation, when they were killed and examined. Differences in plasma glucose levels in the groups studied were not accompanied by differences in plasma glycerol, beta-hydroxybutyrate (beta-OHB), or total amino acid levels in mothers or their fetuses. Fetal/maternal ratios of these circulating fuels were not modified by maternal diabetes, whereas the glucose level was enhanced in diabetic rats not treated with insulin. Placental glucose transfer was studied directly with a recently reported in situ experimental design and was found to increase linearly with maternal glycemia, independently of whether this was modified by insulin treatment or by acute intravenous (i.v.) infusion of glucose in normal animals. Lactate production by the fetal/placental unit decreased in proportion to the glucose level in the maternal circulation. The present data indicate that the diabetic condition of the mother rat does not modify the mechanisms of placental transfer of metabolic fuels to the fetus, and that the actual transfer is mainly dependent on the concentrations of these fuels in the maternal circulation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3888741

Herrera, E; Palacin, M; Martin, A; Lasuncion, M A

1985-06-01

37

Maternal adrenal hormone secretion mediates behavioural alterations induced by prenatal stress in male and female rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prenatal stress in rats has been shown to impair the regulation of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis and predispose to anxiogenic and depressive-like behaviour. In a previous study, abolition of excess corticosterone (COR) release during stress by maternal adrenalectomy prevented the dysregulation of the HPA axis. In the present study, we determined whether excess maternal COR is also responsible

Gal Zagron; Marta Weinstock

2006-01-01

38

The disposition of cocaethylene in rat maternal, placental, and fetal compartments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The aim of this project was to examine the disposition of maternally administered cocaethylene in the fetus. Study Design: Pregnant rats with long-term catheter placement received an intravenous infusion of cocaethylene during a period of 30 minutes. At either the completion of the infusion or 6 hours after the infusion the fetuses were delivered by hysterotomy. Maternal and fetal

Hisayo O. Morishima; Robert A. Whittington; Yi Zhang; Thomas B. Cooper

1999-01-01

39

MATERNALLY INDUCED TRANSPLANTATION IMMUNITY, TOLERANCE, AND RUNT DISEASE IN RATS  

PubMed Central

A previous report that the offspring of outbred Sprague-Dawley rats, born of mothers presensitized or tolerant with respect to tissue antigens of the Lewis strain, and reinoculated with Lewis cells during their pregnancy, reject test grafts of Lewis skin in an accelerated manner has been confirmed. This "maternally induced" alteration in reactivity of the progeny has been found to be long lasting, immunologically specific, and probably not due to transfer of humoral antibody. It has been established that the reexposure of the mothers to donor cellular antigen during pregnancy augmented the influence of the prior states of tolerance or sensitivity. To obviate the complications inherent in working with the outbred Sprague-Dawley rats, the key experiments summarized above were repeated with isogenic Fischer rats as parents and Lewis rats as the tissue donors as before. With this combination it was found that a state of prior sensitization or tolerance in the mothers resulted in the apparent induction of tolerance in some of their progeny. Reinoculation of either the tolerant or sensitized mothers during pregnancy slightly increased the incidence and degree of impairment of their offsprings' capacity to reject Lewis skin grafts. A single intraperitoneal injection of 100 x 106 million Lewis lymphoid cells into normal Fischer rats in the 14th–16th day of pregnancy also weakened the reactivity of their progeny to Lewis test grafts. Further to test the premise that this weakened reactivity might be due to maternal induction of tolerance, by antenatal transmission of alien cells, the lymphohematopoietic tissue system of adult Fischer females was replaced by that from Lewis donors with the aid of cyclophosphamide. It was anticipated that when these animals were mated with Fischer males, sufficient Lewis leukocytes might cross the placentas to induce high degrees of tolerance. Although normal sized healthy litters were born, about 50% of the infants succumbed to graft-versus-host (GVH) or runt disease within 40 days, many of them giving evidence of being tolerant of Lewis grafts. The mothers, too, developed chronic GVH disease. The offspring of Fischer females made chimeric with cells from (Fischer x Lewis)F1 hybrid donors, as well as their mothers, remained healthy. Intraperitoneal injection of normal Fischer females, in the 15th–17th day of pregnancy, with 100 million lymphoid cells from specifically sensitized Lewis rats, also caused fatal runt disease to develop in about 50% of their offspring, but left the mothers unscathed. Taken together, these various findings indicate that in some genetic contexts at least the extent of the natural surreptitious transplacental cellular traffic can be considerably augmented experimentally, though how this comes about and why lymphocytic cells that are foreign to the mother can apparently gain access to fetuses more readily than her own cells remain to be determined. PMID:4553013

Beer, Alan E.; Billingham, R. E.; Yang, S. L.

1972-01-01

40

The effects of dopaminergic/serotonergic reuptake inhibition on maternal behavior, maternal aggression, and oxytocin in the rat?  

PubMed Central

Studies using dopaminergic and serotonergic agonists or antagonists implicate involvement of these systems in various aspects of early maternal behavior and postpartum aggression towards an intruder in rats, both of which are associated with the presence of oxytocin in specific brain regions. It is unclear however, if or how long-term uptake inhibition of either neurotransmitter system alone or in combination, affects oxytocin system dynamics or maternal behavior/aggression. Pregnant women frequently take drugs (antidepressants, cocaine) that induce long-term reuptake inhibition of dopamine and/or serotonin, thus it is important to understand these effects on behavior and biochemistry. Rat dams were treated throughout gestation with amfonelic acid, fluoxetine, or a combination of both, to investigate effects of reuptake inhibition of dopamine and serotonin systems respectively, on maternal behavior, aggression and oxytocin. The more appetitive aspects of maternal behavior (nesting, licking, touching) and activity were increased by the low dose of amfonelic acid, high dose of fluoxetine, or the high dose combination more than other treatments. Aggression was decreased by amfonelic acid and somewhat increased by fluoxetine. Dopamine uptake inhibition appears to have a strong effect on hippocampal oxytocin levels, while receptor dynamics may be more strongly affected by serotonin uptake inhibition. PMID:15996723

Johns, J.M.; Joyner, P.W.; McMurray, M.S.; Elliott, D.L.; Hofler, V.E.; Middleton, C.L.; Knupp, K.; Greenhill, K.W.; Lomas, L.M.; Walker, C.H.

2011-01-01

41

Variations in maternal care in the rat as a mediating influence for the effects of environment on development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variations in maternal care have been widely considered as a critical influence in development. In the rat, variations in maternal behavior, particularly in licking\\/grooming, regulate the development of endocrine, emotional and cognitive responses to stress. These studies form the basis of a potentially useful model for the study of maternal effects in mammals. In this paper we provide a detailed

Frances A. Champagne; Darlene D. Francis; Adam Mar; Michael J. Meaney

2003-01-01

42

Puerperal blockade of cholecystokinin (CCK 1 ) receptors disrupts maternal behavior in lactating rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blockade of cholecystokinin (CCK) receptors potentiates the morphine-induced disruption of maternal behavior. The present\\u000a study was undertaken to determine whether treatment with lorglumide, a CCK1 antagonist during late pregnancy and early lactation can influence the maternal behavior during lactation. A possible influence\\u000a of this treatment on general activity was also assessed. Twenty-seven female Wistar rats were pretreated with lorglumide (1.0mg\\/kg\\/day;

Cláudia M. Miranda-Paiva; Antonia G. Nasello; Alberto J. Yim; Lucianoo F. Felicio

2002-01-01

43

Effects of maternally exposed food coloring additives on laryngeal histology in rats.  

PubMed

Experimental reports showed carcinogenic effects of artificial food colors and additives (AFCAs) on many organs, including the head and neck region. We aimed to investigate the effect of AFCAs on laryngeal histomorphology and immunohistochemical expression in maternally exposed rats. "No observable adverse effect levels" of commonly used AFCAs as a mixture were given to female rats before and during gestation. Histopathological and immunohistochemical findings were evaluated in their offspring. Significant decreasing in goblet cell count and cilia loss were observed with AFCAs in maternally exposed rats (p<0.05). Immunohistochemically, the Ki67 index was significantly increased and villin expression was significantly reduced in laryngeal epithelium in the study group (p<0.05), whereas expression of cyclooxygenase type 2, Muc-2, Muc-5AC, p53, and epidermal growth factor receptors did not differ between the groups. This study demonstrated that maternal exposure of AFCAs plays a role in the mucosal defense system and possibly in carcinogenesis. PMID:24941295

Ba?ak, Kayhan; Doguç, Duygu Kumbul; Aylak, Firdevs; Karadayi, Nimet; Gültekin, Fatih

2014-01-01

44

Leptin levels in rat offspring are modified by the ratio of linoleic to ? -linolenic acid in the maternal diet  

Microsoft Academic Search

The supply of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) is important for optimal fetal and postnatal development. We have previously shown that leptin levels in suckling rats are reduced by maternal PUFA deficiency. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of maternal dietary intake of (n-3) and (n-6) PUFA on the leptin content in rat milk and serum leptin levels in

Marina Korotkova; Britt Gabrielsson; Malin Lönn; Lars-Åke Hanson; Brigitta Strandvik

2002-01-01

45

Maternal deprivation induces depressive-like behaviour and alters neurotrophin levels in the rat brain.  

PubMed

The present study was aimed to evaluate the behavioral and molecular effects of maternal deprivation in adult rats. To this aim, male rats deprived and non-deprived were assessed in the forced swimming and open-field tests in adult phase. In addition adrenocorticotrophin hormone (ACTH) levels was assessed in serum and brain-derived-neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) and nerve growth factor (NGF) protein levels were assessed in prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and amygdala. We observed that maternal deprivation increased immobility time, and decreased climbing time, without affecting locomotor activity. ACTH circulating levels were increased in maternal deprived rats. Additionally, BDNF protein levels were reduced in the amygdala and NT-3 and NGF were reduced in both hippocampus and amygdala in maternal deprived rats, compared to control group. In conclusion, our results support the idea that behavioral, ACTH circulating levels and neurotrophins levels altered in maternal deprivation model could contribute to stress-related diseases, such as depression. PMID:21161589

Réus, Gislaine Z; Stringari, Roberto B; Ribeiro, Karine F; Cipriano, Andreza L; Panizzutti, Bruna S; Stertz, Laura; Lersch, Camila; Kapczinski, Flávio; Quevedo, João

2011-03-01

46

The effects of adrenalectomy and corticosterone replacement on induction of maternal behavior in the virgin female rat  

E-print Network

to the rapid onset of maternal behavior shown at parturition by the new mother rat, virgin female and male rats in the virgin female rat Stephanie L. Rees a , Sonia Panesar a , Meir Steiner b , Alison S. Fleming a evidence to show that corticosterone enhances mother rats' memory for pups during the postpartum period

Sokolowski, Marla

47

Developmental Triclosan Exposure Decreases Maternal and Offspring Thyroxine in Rats*  

EPA Science Inventory

Epidemiological and laboratory data have demonstrated that disruption of maternal thyroid hormones during fetal developmental may result in irreversible neurological consequences in offspring. In a short-term exposure paradigm, triclosan decreased systemic thyroxine (T4) concentr...

48

Comparative developmental and maternal neurotoxicity following acute gestational exposure to chlorpyrifos in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chlorpyrifos (CPF), an organophosphorus (OP) insecticide, exerts toxicity through inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE). In the present study, pregnant Sprague?Dawley rats were given CPF (200 mg\\/kg, sc) as a single dose on gestation d 12 (GD12) and then sacrificed on either GD16, GD20, or postnatal d 3 (PND3) for measurement of maternal and developmental indicators of toxicity. While most CPF?treated rats

S. M. Chanda; P. Harp; J. Liu; C. N. Pope

1995-01-01

49

Broad Epigenetic Signature of Maternal Care in the Brain of Adult Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundMaternal care is associated with long-term effects on behavior and epigenetic programming of the NR3C1 (GLUCOCORTICOID RECEPTOR) gene in the hippocampus of both rats and humans. In the rat, these effects are reversed by cross-fostering, demonstrating that they are defined by epigenetic rather than genetic processes. However, epigenetic changes at a single gene promoter are unlikely to account for the

Patrick O. McGowan; Matthew Suderman; Aya Sasaki; Tony C. T. Huang; Michael Hallett; Michael J. Meaney; Moshe Szyf; Angela Sirigu

2011-01-01

50

Toxic effects of maternal zearalenone exposure on uterine capacity and fetal development in gestation rats.  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of high-dose and early gestational exposure to zearalenone (ZEN) in female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats, to correlate the maternal uterus with the fetus, and to explore the development and malformation of fetuses. Pregnant female SD rats were fed diets containing 0.3, 48.5, 97.6, or 146.0 mg/kg ZEN on gestational days (GDs) 0 through 7. All the females survived until GD 20, at which point a cesarean section was performed to harvest the organs, blood, and fetuses. The results indicated that exposure to ZEN during early gestation can impact the maternal reproductive capability. Delayed fetal development was directly linked to maternal toxicity. The toxic effects of ZEN caused early deaths more frequently than late deaths, and the deleterious effects lasted through the end of pregnancy. PMID:24357638

Zhang, Yuanyuan; Jia, Zhiqiang; Yin, Shutong; Shan, Anshan; Gao, Rui; Qu, Zhe; Liu, Min; Nie, Shaoping

2014-06-01

51

Early maternal separation increases symptoms of activity-based anorexia in male and female rats.  

PubMed

Running activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, increasing the release of stress hormones known to exert anorexic effects. HPA axis reactivity is strongly influenced by early postnatal manipulations, including removal of pups from the dam for short (handling) or prolonged (maternal separation) durations during the preweaning period. The authors examined the effects of handling and maternal separation on food intake, body weight loss, and running rates of young adult male and female rats in the activity-based anorexia (ABA) paradigm. Postnatal treatment did not affect adaptation to a 1-hr restricted feeding schedule before the introduction of wheel running. During the ABA paradigm, maternally separated animals lost weight faster, ate less, ran more, and required fewer days to reach removal criterion compared with handled rats. Females were particularly vulnerable. These findings indicate that early postnatal treatment and sex influence ABA. PMID:19594284

Hancock, Stephanie; Grant, Virginia

2009-07-01

52

REPEATED MATERNAL SEPARATION IN THE NEONATAL RAT: CELLULAR MECHANISMS CONTRIBUTING TO BRAIN GROWTH SPARING  

EPA Science Inventory

Separation of rat neonates from their dam has been shown to evoke acutely a variety of biochemical and physiological responses. n the current study, we examined whether these responses were extended to pups who were subject to daily episodes of maternal deprivation, and whether t...

53

Exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonate during pregnancy in rat and mouse. I: maternal and prenatal evaluations  

EPA Science Inventory

Abstract: The maternal and developmental toxicities of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS, C8F17SO3-) were evaluated in the rat and mouse. PFOS is an environmentally persistent compound used as a surfactant and occurs as a degradation product of both perfluorooctane sulfonyl fluorid...

54

The prostate of weaned pups is altered by maternal malnutrition during lactation in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of maternal malnutrition during lactation on prostate growth and estradiol serum concentration in the prostate of pups. At delivery, nine Wistar rats were separated into three groups: control group (C) with free access to a standard laboratory diet containing 22% protein; protein–energy-restricted group (PER) with free access to an isoenergy

Cristiane da F. Ramos; Marcio A. Babinski; Waldemar S. Costa; Francisco J. B. Sampaio

2010-01-01

55

Maternal Hyperglycemia Modifies Extracellular Matrix Signaling Pathways in Neonatal Rat Lung  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Maternal diabetes is associated with numerous adverse effects in fetal and neonatal organs, including the lungs. Objective: To investigate the effects of intrauterine hyperglycemia on neonatal lung biological signaling, we performed a microarray analysis in the lungs of four 14-day-old rat pups born to a hyperglycemic dam and in four age mate control pup lungs. Methods: Total RNA was

Anna Koskinen; Asta Laiho; Heikki Lukkarinen; Pekka Kääpä; Hanna Soukka

2010-01-01

56

MATERNAL AND DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY OF PERFLUOROOCATANE SULFONATE (PFOS) IN THE RAT  

EPA Science Inventory

MATERNAL AND DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY OF PERFLUOROOCTANE SULFONATE (PFOS) IN THE RAT. C. Lau1, J.M. Rogers1, J.R. Thibodeaux1, R.G. Hanson1, B.E. Grey1, B.D. Barbee1, J.H. Richards2, J.L. Butenoff3. 1Reprod. Tox. Div., 2Exp. Tox. Div., NHEERL, USEPA, Research Triangle Park, NC, 3...

57

Developmental toxicity of benzyl benzoate in rats after maternal exposure throughout pregnancy.  

PubMed

The maternal and fetal toxicity of benzyl benzoate, commonly used as antiparasitic insecticide, was evaluated in pregnant rats after a daily oral dose of 25 and 100 mg/kg. Biochemical, histopathological, and morphological examinations were performed. Dams were observed for maternal body weights and food and water consumption and subjected to caesarean section on (GD) 20. Maternal and fetal liver, kidney, heart, brain, and placenta were examined histopathologically under light microscope. Maternal and fetal liver and placenta were stained immunohistochemically for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Morphometric analysis of fetal body lengths, placental measurements, and fetal skeletal stainings was performed. Statistically significant alterations in biochemical parameters and placental and skeletal measurements were determined in treatment groups. In addition to histopathological changes, considerable differences were observed in the immunolocalization of VEGF in treatment groups. These results demonstrated that benzyl benzoate and its metabolites can transport to the placenta and eventually enter the fetuses. PMID:21922633

Koçkaya, E Arzu; K?l?ç, Aysun

2014-01-01

58

Selective retrieving by maternal and nonmaternal female rats.  

PubMed

An earler study reported that nonpregnant females do not selectively retrieve a pup over a small plastic toy, while lactating mothers retrieve the pup more often than the toy. The present study was undertaken to see whether nonpregnant females made maternal by exposure to pups would act more like nonmaternal females than lactating mothers. The behavior toward a pup and a toy was studied in 1 group of nonmaternal virgins, 2 groups of maternal virgins, and 1 group of lactating mothers, during 7 daily 5-min. tests. Measures of the frequency and duration of retrieving-related behavior and analysis of behavioral sequences in relation to the pup and toy showed that pup-induced maternal virgins more closely resemble the lactating mothers than nonmaternal virgins. PMID:1167224

Rosenblatt, J S

1975-02-01

59

Maternal separation affects dopamine transporter function in the Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat: An in vivo electrochemical study  

PubMed Central

Background Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a developmental disorder characterised by symptoms of inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity. The spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) is a well-characterised model of this disorder and has been shown to exhibit dopamine dysregulation, one of the hypothesised causes of ADHD. Since stress experienced in the early stages of life can have long-lasting effects on behaviour, it was considered that early life stress may alter development of the dopaminergic system and thereby contribute to the behavioural characteristics of SHR. It was hypothesized that maternal separation would alter dopamine regulation by the transporter (DAT) in ways that distinguish SHR from control rat strains. Methods SHR and control Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats were subjected to maternal separation for 3 hours per day from postnatal day 2 to 14. Rats were tested for separation-induced anxiety-like behaviour followed by in vivo chronoamperometry to determine whether changes had occurred in striatal clearance of dopamine by DAT. The rate of disappearance of ejected dopamine was used as a measure of DAT function. Results Consistent with a model for ADHD, SHR were more active than WKY in the open field. SHR entered the inner zone more frequently and covered a significantly greater distance than WKY. Maternal separation increased the time that WKY spent in the closed arms and latency to enter the open arms of the elevated plus maze, consistent with other rat strains. Of note is that, maternal separation failed to produce anxiety-like behaviour in SHR. Analysis of the chronoamperometric data revealed that there was no difference in DAT function in the striatum of non-separated SHR and WKY. Maternal separation decreased the rate of dopamine clearance (k-1) in SHR striatum. Consistent with this observation, the dopamine clearance time (T100) was increased in SHR. These results suggest that the chronic mild stress of maternal separation impaired the function of striatal DAT in SHR. Conclusions The present findings suggest that maternal separation failed to alter the behaviour of SHR in the open field and elevated plus maze. However, maternal separation altered the dopaminergic system by decreasing surface expression of DAT and/or the affinity of DAT for dopamine, increasing the time to clear dopamine from the extracellular fluid in the striatum of SHR. PMID:22133315

2011-01-01

60

Release of Zn from maternal tissues in pregnant rats deficient in Zn or Zn and Ca  

SciTech Connect

Earlier studies have shown that diets that increase tissue catabolism reduce the teratogenic effects of Zn deficiency. The hypothesis that Zn may be released from body tissues when the metabolic state is altered was further tested. Nonpregnant Sprague Dawley females were injected with Zn-65; after equilibration, the two major pools of Zn, bone and muscle, had different specific activities (SA), muscle being much higher. Females were mated and fed diets adequate in Zn and Ca (C) or deficient in Zn (ZnD) or deficient in both Zn and Ca (ZnCaD). Calculations using weight loss in ZnD and ZnCaD rats, Zn content of maternal bone and muscle, and total fetal Zn at term indicated that in ZnCaD rats a relatively small amount of Zn from bone early in pregnancy was sufficient to prevent abnormal organogenesis, but most fetal Zn came from breakdown of maternal muscle in the last 3 days of pregnancy. Isotope data supported this conclusion. SA of Zn in ZnD fetuses was equal and high, indicating that most Zn came from the same maternal tissue. High muscle SA prior to mating, and increased SA in tibia and liver during pregnancy suggest that muscle provided Zn for other maternal tissues as well as fetuses. In contrast, SA in C fetuses was less than 30% of that of the D groups, consistent with the earlier hypothesis that most fetal Zn in C rats is accrued directly from the diet.

Hurley, L.S.; Masters, D.G.; Lonnerdal, B.; Keen, C.L.

1986-03-05

61

Maternal and fetal toxicity of methylmercuric chloride administered to pregnant Fischer 344 rats.  

PubMed

Various doses of methylmercuric chloride (MMC) were administered orally to pregnant Fischer 344 rats on d 7 of gestation. On d 20 of gestation the dams were laparotomized under ether anesthesia, and the fetuses were removed. Maternal body weights were decreased for 2 d and 6 d in rats given 10 and 20 mg/kg MMC, and were continuously decreased for those given 30 mg/kg MMC. Maternal weight gain of each group was decreased to 86.2%, 78.9%, and 61.9% of control group on d 20 of gestation. The reduction of litter weight was greatly enhanced with increasing MMC doses, presumably due to postimplantation loss, which was already increased at high treatment levels. The LD50 of MMC for fetuses was determined to be 16.5 mg/kg. Mercury content in maternal organs was highest in kidney, followed by blood, spleen, liver, and brain, while in fetal organs it was highest in liver. Fetal liver and brain contained more mercury than maternal liver and brain. However, fetal kidney retained less mercury than maternal kidney. Fetal ossification center was not completely formed in sternebrae, particularly in fifth and second bones, pelvic bones, and pectoral phalanges of fetuses in rats treated with 30 mg/kg MMC. The ossified lengths of skeletal bone stained with alizarin red S were developed least in fifth sternebrae, metacarpals in the pectoral girdle, and ischium in the pelvic girdle, and were severely retarded in development as position of the ribs goes from the sixth bone (center) to the first and 13th bone (each edge). These results indicate that MMC is embryotoxic in Fischer 344 rats. PMID:7643429

Lee, J H; Han, D H

1995-08-01

62

Effect of cocaine sensitization prior to pregnancy on maternal care and aggression in the rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale  Although many studies have investigated the effects of gestational and lactational cocaine use on maternal behavior, few studies\\u000a have examined the effects of prior adult cocaine use on maternal behavior.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  In the current study, intraperitoneal cocaine or saline was administered to adult female rats for 10 days, treatments were\\u000a stopped for 4 days, and the females were then mated. Litter size and

Benjamin C. Nephew; Marcelo Febo

2010-01-01

63

Alteration of pituitary hormone-immunoreactive cell populations in rat offspring after maternal dietary exposure to endocrine-active chemicals  

Microsoft Academic Search

We previously performed dose–response studies of genistein, diisononyl phthalate, 4-nonylphenol, methoxychlor (MXC), and bisphenol A to examine the impact of maternal dietary exposure from gestational day 15 to postnatal day 10 on the development of rat reproductive system in later life. Among the chemicals MXC alone showed typical estrogenic effects only at the maternally toxic 1200 ppm. The present study was

Naoya Masutomi; Makoto Shibutani; Hironori Takagi; Chikako Uneyama; Kyoung-Youl Lee; Masao Hirose

2004-01-01

64

Long lasting alteration in REM sleep of female rats submitted to long maternal separation.  

PubMed

Early adverse experiences represent risk factors for the development of anxiety and mood disorders. Maternal separation can induce biobehavioral alterations in male rodents similar to those seen in depressed humans, such as hyperresponsiveness to stress and sleep disturbances. Nonetheless, no study has yet explored the effects of early life events on the relationship between stress and sleep in female rats. Whole litters of Wistar rats were submitted to brief- or long maternal separations (15 [BMS] or 180 min/day [LMS], from postnatal days 2-14) or kept undisturbed with their mothers (CTL). When adults, female rats were sleep-recorded for 22 h before (baseline) and after a 1 h exposure to cold stress (post-stress). Additional subsets of animals were sacrificed before, 1 or 3 h after the stressor for plasma corticosterone determination. No differences in baseline sleep were observed among the groups. Female rats submitted to LMS exhibited a significant increase of REM sleep on the night following a 1 h exposure to cold stress, whereas the sleep of BMS rats was barely altered by stress. All groups exhibited similar basal and stress-induced corticosterone levels. The present results are compared to a previous study performed in male rats, and corroborate that manipulations applied during infancy modify the expression of stress-induced sleep rebound. PMID:17997461

Tiba, Paula Ayako; Tufik, Sergio; Suchecki, Deborah

2008-02-27

65

Cocaine Treatment and Prenatal Environment Interact to Disrupt Intergenerational Maternal Behavior in Rats  

PubMed Central

The link between impaired maternal behavior (MB) and cocaine treatment could result from drug-induced decreases in maternal reactivity to offspring, prenatal drug exposure (PDE) in offspring that could alter their ability to elicit MB, or the interaction of both, which could subsequently impair MB of the 1st-generation dams. Following chronic or intermittent cocaine or saline treatment during gestation, rat dams rearing natural or cross-fostered litters were compared along with untreated dams for MB. Untreated 1st-generation females with differentially treated rearing dams and PDE were tested for MB with their natural litters. The authors report disruptions in MB in dams and their 1st-generation offspring, attributable to main and interaction effects of maternal treatment, litter PDE, and rearing experience. PMID:16420163

Johns, Josephine M.; Elliott, Deborah L.; Hofler, Vivian E.; Joyner, Paul W.; McMurray, Matthew S.; Jarrett, Thomas M.; Haslup, Amber M.; Middleton, Christopher L.; Elliott, Jay C.; Walker, Cheryl H.

2011-01-01

66

Effects of early life social stress on endocrinology, maternal behavior, and lactation in rats  

PubMed Central

Exposure to early life stress is a predictor of mental health disorders, and two common forms of early life stress are social conflict and impaired maternal care, which are predominant features of postpartum mood disorders. Exposure of lactating female rats to a novel male intruder involves robust social conflict and induces deficits in maternal care towards the F1 offspring. This exposure is an early life social stressor for female F1 pups that induces inefficient lactation associated with central changes in oxytocin (OXT), prolactin (PRL), and arginine vasopressin (AVP) gene expression in adult F1 females. The mothers of the rats in the current study were either allowed to raise their pups without exposure to a social stressor (control), or presented with a novel male intruder for 1 hour each day on lactation days 2-16 (chronic social stress). The effects of this early life chronic social stress (CSS) exposure on subsequent peripheral endocrinology, maternal behavior, and physiology were assessed. Exposure of female pups to early life CSS resulted in persistent alterations in maternal endocrinology at the end of lactation (attenuated prolactin and elevated corticosterone), depressed maternal care and aggression, increased restlessness and anxiety-related behavior, impaired lactation, and decreased saccharin preference. The endocrine and behavioral data indicate that early life CSS has long-term effects which are similar to changes seen in clinical populations of depressed mothers, and provide support for the use of the chronic social stress paradigm as an ethologically relevant rodent model for maternal disorders such as postpartum depression and anxiety. PMID:24005186

Carini, Lindsay M.; Nephew, Benjamin C.

2013-01-01

67

Maternal hepatic and embryonic effects of 1,2,3,4-tetrachlorobenzene in the rat.  

PubMed

To assess possible maternal hepatic and reproductive effects of this uncharged, low molecular weight, lipophilic chlorinated benzene 0, 100, 300 and 1000 mg/kg/day of 1,2,3,4-tetrachlorobenzene (TCB) was orally administered to pregnant rats on days 9-13 of gestation and the animals were killed on day 14 of pregnancy. Phenobarbital and beta-naphthoflavone were administered to other pregnant rats as positive hepatic controls. Maternal mortality (7/19 rats) was increased and body weight gain was greatly decreased in the 1000 mg/kg/day TCB group. Liver to body weight ratio and hepatic microsomal protein content were unaffected by any TCB treatment. On day 14 maternal NADPH-cytochrome c reductase activity was increased at 1000 mg/kg/day, while the maternal hepatic microsomal cytochrome P-450 content was significantly induced by both 300 and 1000 mg/kg/day of TCB. Microsomal N-demethylation of aminopyrine was increased from 2.6 to 4.0 and 4.5 nmol/mg protein/min at doses of 300 and 1000 mg/kg TCB, respectively. However, maternal hepatic microsomal ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase activity was not consistently increased by TCB. Hepatic glutathione S-transferase activity towards 1,2-dichloro-4-nitrobenzene was increased only by the 1000 mg/kg/day TCB treatment. The rate of microsomal p-nitrophenol and phenolphthalein glucuronidation was increased by TCB administration. Embryonic growth was adversely affected by TCB treatment. Yolk sac diameter, embryonic crown-rump length, and head length were all decreased by treatment with 300 mg/kg/day TCB. This TCB treatment did not significantly elevate the number of dead or abnormal embryos. PMID:6857697

Kitchin, K T; Ebron, M T

1983-01-01

68

Maternal perinatal undernutrition alters neuronal and neuroendocrine differentiation in the rat adrenal medulla at weaning.  

PubMed

Epidemiological studies suggest that chronic adult diseases, such as type 2 diabetes and hypertension, can be programmed during fetal and early postnatal life. The nervous system regions governing vegetative functions and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis are particularly sensitive to the perinatal nutritional status. Despite recent reports demonstrating that the activity of the sympathoadrenal system can be altered by early life events, the effects of maternal nutrient restriction on the adrenal medulla remain unknown. Using a rat model of maternal perinatal 50% food restriction (FR50) from the second week of gestation until weaning, immunohistochemical experiments revealed alterations in chromaffin cell aggregation and in nerve fiber fasciculation in the adrenal medulla of FR50 pups. These morphological changes were associated with enhanced circulating levels of catecholamines after decapitation (epinephrine by 55% and norepinephrine by 41%). Using macroarrays, we identified several genes whose expression was affected by maternal nutrient restriction. Semiquantitative RT-PCR confirmed the overexpression of four genes involved in neuroendocrine differentiation and neuronal plasticity (chromogranin B, growth-associated protein 43, neurofilament 3, and Slit2) in the adrenal glands of FR50 rats. Using in situ hybridization, we showed that these genes are solely expressed in the adrenal medulla. Together, our results suggest that perinatal maternal undernutrition markedly alters the differentiation of the adrenal medulla during postnatal life, resulting in enhanced activity of chromaffin cells at weaning. These alterations may persist in adulthood and participate to the programming of chronic adult diseases. PMID:16497807

Molendi-Coste, Olivier; Grumolato, Luca; Laborie, Christine; Lesage, Jean; Maubert, Eric; Ghzili, Hafida; Vaudry, Hubert; Anouar, Youssef; Breton, Christophe; Vieau, Didier

2006-06-01

69

26Al incorporation into the tissues of suckling rats through maternal milk  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aluminium (Al) is highly neurotoxic and inhibits prenatal and postnatal development of the brain in humans and experimental animals. However, Al incorporation into the brain of sucklings through maternal milk has not yet been well clarified because Al lacks a suitable isotope for radioactive tracer experiments. Using 26Al as a tracer, we measured 26Al incorporation into the brain of suckling rats by accelerator mass spectrometry. Lactating rats were subcutaneously injected with 26AlCl3 from day 1 to day 20 postpartum. Suckling rats were weaned from day 21 postpartum. From day 5 to day 20 postpartum, the 26Al levels measured in the brain, liver, kidneys and bone of suckling rats increased significantly. After weaning, the amounts of 26Al in the liver and kidneys decreased remarkably. However, the 26Al amount in the brain had diminished only slightly up to 140 days after weaning.

Yumoto, S.; Nagai, H.; Kobayashi, K.; Tada, W.; Horikawa, T.; Matsuzaki, H.

2004-08-01

70

Ethanol prevents NMDA receptor reduction by maternal separation in neonatal rat hippocampus  

Microsoft Academic Search

We measured the effects of ethanol on glutamate receptor levels in the hippocampus of neonatal Wistar rats using a vapor chamber model. Two control groups were used; a normal suckle group and a maternal separation group. Levels of NMDA receptors were not significantly altered in ethanol-treated animals compared to the normal suckle control group, as shown by [3H]MK-801 binding and

Frederick P. Bellinger; Mark S. Davidson; Kuldip S. Bedi; Peter A. Wilce

2006-01-01

71

Behavioral Responses of Juvenile Rats (Rattus norvegicus) to Neonates After Infusion of Maternal Blood Plasma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individual 18- or 30-day-old male and female Wistar rats (juveniles) were continuously exposed to 3–8-day-old pups for 5 days (sensitization) after intravenous (iv) infusion of maternal blood plasma (PL group) or 5% dextrose and water (IC group) through chronically implanted cannulas and were compared with nonhandled littermate controls (NHC group). The results showed complex interactions with sex and age of

Susan A. Brunelli; Richard D. Shindledecker; Myron A. Hofer

1987-01-01

72

Effects of Love Canal soil extracts on maternal health and fetal development in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of a solvent extract of the surface soil of the Love Canal chemical dump site, Niagara Falls, New York, and of a natural extract, or leachate, which is drained from the canal for treatment, on the maternal health and fetal development were determined in rats. The solvent extract, which was contaminated with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2, 3,7,8-TCDD) at 170 ppb

J. B. Silkworth; C. Tumasonis; R. G. Briggs; A. S. Narang; R. S. Narang; R. Rej; V. Stein; D. N. McMartin; L. S. Kaminsky

1986-01-01

73

Long-term Effects of Maternal Magnesium Restriction on Adiposity and Insulin Resistance in Rat Pups  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:We investigated the long-term effects of maternal\\/postnatal magnesium (Mg) restriction on adiposity, glucose tolerance, and insulin secretion in the offspring and the probable biochemical mechanisms associated with them.Methods and Procedures:Female weanling Wistar\\/NIN (WNIN) rats received a control diet or 70% Mg-restricted (MgR) diet for 9 weeks and mated with control males. A third of the restricted dams were shifted to

Lagishetty Venu; Inagadapa J. N. Padmavathi; Yedla D. Kishore; Nandiwada V. Bhanu; Kalashikam R. Rao; Pothaganti B. Sainath; Manisha Ganeshan; Manchala Raghunath

2008-01-01

74

Maternal behavior as an early modulator of neurobehavioral offspring responses by Sprague-Dawley rats.  

PubMed

Maternal care plays an important role as an early modeler of neurodevelopment and brain function, and its effects remain until adulthood. Such modeling or programming has shown to influence the stress response and represents a key susceptibility factor in the development of mood disorders. In order to characterize such process which is still not clear, male offspring were classified in animals with low, medium and high licking/grooming (LG) according to the maternal behavior. Juvenile animals were subjected to the open field test (OFT) and the forced swimming test (FST), and offspring of low and high LG mothers were compared. Seven days after the FST, neurochemical and gene expression analyses were carried out in order to identify possible changes on relevant targets. Maternal care did determine locomotor behaviors in the OFT, supporting an anxiogenic effect of low maternal investment. This effect seems to be associated with the serotonergic systems in both nucleus accumbens (NAc) and hippocampus (HPC), since offspring of low LG mothers showed decreased 5-HT neurotransmission in those brain regions compared with animals of high LG mothers. Furthermore, TrkB expression was higher in offspring of high LG compared to the group of low LG mothers, supporting its influence as a mechanistic intermediate of such effect, at least in the NAc. Taken together, these findings strongly support the influence of differential maternal care on the neurodevelopment and responsivity of juvenile rats. PMID:23018125

Sequeira-Cordero, Andrey; Masís-Calvo, Marianela; Mora-Gallegos, Andrea; Fornaguera-Trías, Jaime

2013-01-15

75

Maternal separation attenuates the effect of adolescent social isolation on HPA axis responsiveness in adult rats.  

PubMed

Adverse early life experiences that occur during childhood and adolescence can have negative impacts on behavior later in life. The main goal of our work was to assess how the association between stressful experiences during neonatal and adolescent periods may influence stress responsiveness and brain plasticity in adult rats. Stressful experiences included maternal separation and social isolation at weaning. Three hours of separation from the pups (3-14 PND) significantly increased frequencies of maternal arched-back nursing and licking-grooming across the first two weeks postpartum. Separation also induced a long-lasting increase in dams blood levels of corticosterone. Maternal separation did not modify brain and plasma allopregnanolone and corticosterone levels in adult offspring, but they demonstrate partial recovery from the reduction induced by social isolation during adolescence. Moreover, the enhancement of corticosterone and allopregnanolone levels induced by foot shock stress in socially isolated animals that were subjected to maternal separation was markedly reduced with respect to that observed in animals that were just socially isolated. All experimental groups showed a significant reduction of BDNF and Arc protein expression in the hippocampus. However, the reduction of BDNF observed in animals that were maternally separated and subjected to social isolation was less significantly pronounced than in animals that were just socially isolated. The results sustained the mismatch hypothesis stating that aversive experiences early in life trigger adaptive processes, thereby rendering an individual to be better adapted to aversive challenges later in life. PMID:24745548

Biggio, F; Pisu, M G; Garau, A; Boero, G; Locci, V; Mostallino, M C; Olla, P; Utzeri, C; Serra, M

2014-07-01

76

Effects of Shiga Toxin Type 2 on Maternal and Fetal Status in Rats in the Early Stage of Pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Shiga toxin type 2 (Stx2), a toxin secreted by Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), could be one of the causes of maternal and fetal morbimortality not yet investigated. In this study, we examined the effects of Stx2 in rats in the early stage of pregnancy. Sprague-Dawley pregnant rats were intraperitoneally (i.p.) injected with sublethal doses of Stx2, 0.25 and 0.5?ng Stx2/g of body weight (bwt), at day 8 of gestation (early postimplantation period of gestation). Maternal weight loss and food and water intake were analyzed after Stx2 injection. Another group of rats were euthanized and uteri were collected at different times to evaluate fetal status. Immunolocalization of Stx2 in uterus and maternal kidneys was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. The presence of Stx2 receptor (globotriaosylceramide, Gb3) in the uteroplacental unit was observed by thin layer chromatography (TLC). Sublethal doses of Stx2 in rats caused maternal weight loss and pregnancy loss. Stx2 and Gb3 receptor were localized in decidual tissues. Stx2 was also immunolocalized in renal tissues. Our results demonstrate that Stx2 leads to pregnancy loss and maternal morbidity in rats in the early stage of pregnancy. This study highlights the possibility of human pregnancy loss and maternal morbidity mediated by Stx2. PMID:25157355

Sacerdoti, Flavia; Amaral, Maria M.; Zotta, Elsa; Franchi, Ana M.; Ibarra, Cristina

2014-01-01

77

Prenatal exposure to a low fipronil dose disturbs maternal behavior and reflex development in rats.  

PubMed

Fipronil (FPN) is a phenylpyrazole insecticide used in veterinary services and agriculture, and it is of considerable concern to public health. It inhibits the chloride channels associated with gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) receptors in mammals and also inhibits the chloride channels associated with GABA and glutamate (Glu) receptors in insects. In this study, a commercial product containing fipronil was orally administered to pregnant Wistar rats at dose levels of 0.1, 1.0, or 10.0mg/kg/day from the sixth to twentieth day of gestation (n=10 pregnant rats/group). Its toxicity was evaluated based on maternal toxicity, reproductive quality, maternal behavior, and offspring physical as well as reflex development. All parameters observed in the observed offspring were assigned to one ink-marked couple in each litter (n=20 animals/group - 10 males and 10 females). The offspring couple represented the litter. Slight maternal toxicity presented during the second week of gestation for each fipronil dose and during the third gestational week at the highest dose due to lower chow intake. However, no effects were observed for gestational weight gain or gestation time, and the reproductive quality was not impaired, which suggests no adverse maternal effects from the doses during pregnancy. Moreover, the lowest fipronil dose compromised the active and reflexive maternal responses, but the highest dose induced a stereotyped active response without interfering in the reflexive reaction. For offspring development, no differences in physical growth parameters were observed between the groups. However, considering reflex development, our results showed that negative geotaxis reflex development was delayed in the offspring at the lowest fipronil dose, and palmar grasp was lost earlier at the lowest and intermediate fipronil doses. These results suggest that the alterations observed herein may be due to either the GABAergic system or endocrine disruption, considering that fipronil also acts as an endocrine disruptor. PMID:24978116

Udo, Mariana S B; Sandini, Thaísa M; Reis, Thiago M; Bernardi, Maria Martha; Spinosa, Helenice S

2014-01-01

78

A low maternal protein diet during pregnancy and lactation has sex- and window of exposure-specific effects on offspring growth and food intake, glucose metabolism and serum leptin in the rat  

PubMed Central

Extensive epidemiological and experimental evidence indicates that a sub-optimal environment during fetal and neonatal development in both humans and animals may programme offspring susceptibility to later development of chronic diseases including obesity and diabetes that are the result of altered carbohydrate metabolism. We determined the effects of protein restriction during pregnancy and/or lactation on growth, serum leptin, and glucose and insulin responses to a glucose tolerance test in male and female offspring at 110 days postnatal life. We fed Wistar rats a normal control 20% casein diet (C) or a restricted diet (R) of 10% casein during pregnancy. Female but not male R pups weighed less than C at birth. After delivery, mothers received the C or R diet during lactation to provide four offspring groups: CC (first letter maternal pregnancy diet and second maternal lactation diet), RR, CR and RC. All offspring were fed ad libitum with C diet after weaning. Relative food intake correlated inversely with weight. Offspring serum leptin correlated with body weight and relative, but not absolute, food intake in both male and female pups. Serum leptin was reduced in RR female pups compared with CC and increased in RC males compared with CC at 110 days of age. Offspring underwent a glucose tolerance test (GTT) at 110 days postnatal life. Female RR and CR offspring showed a lower insulin to glucose ratio than CC. At 110 days of age male RR and CR also showed some evidence of increased insulin sensitivity. Male but not female RC offspring showed evidence of insulin resistance compared with CC. Cholesterol was similar and triglycerides (TG) higher in male compared with female CC. Cholesterol and TG were higher in males than females in RR, CR and RC (P < 0.05). Cholesterol and TG did not differ between groups in females. Cholesterol and TG were elevated in RC compared with CC males. Nutrient restriction in lactation increased relative whole protein and decreased whole lipid in both males and females. RC females showed decreased relative levels of protein and increased fat. We conclude that maternal protein restriction during either pregnancy and/or lactation alters postnatal growth, appetitive behaviour, leptin physiology, TG and cholesterol concentrations and modifies glucose metabolism and insulin resistance in a sex- and time window of exposure-specific manner. PMID:16339179

Zambrano, E; Bautista, C J; Deas, M; Martinez-Samayoa, P M; Gonzalez-Zamorano, M; Ledesma, H; Morales, J; Larrea, F; Nathanielsz, P W

2006-01-01

79

Predation threat exerts specific effects on rat maternal behaviour and anxiety-related behaviour of male and female offspring  

E-print Network

January 2009 Available online xxxx Keywords: Predator odour Stress Sex difference Hippocampus NGFI-A GRPredation threat exerts specific effects on rat maternal behaviour and anxiety-related behaviour, Long­Evans rat dams were exposed to the odour of a predator (cat) at two different time points during

Champagne, Frances A.

80

Effects of maternal caffeine ingestion on neonatal growth in rats.  

PubMed

When caffeine (1,3,7-trimethylxanthine) was introduced into the diet of rats throughout pregnancy and lactation at levels of consumption of 10 mg/kg/day, offspring of successive pregnancies showed growth reductions. This finding was not accompanied by teratogenic effects. However, following four pregnancies severely reduced offspring growth and neonatal mortality was demonstrated. The birthweights of these offspring were 72.5% of control. This study mimicked the mode of intake and quantities of caffeine consumed in many societies. PMID:7295838

Dunlop, M; Court, J M

1981-01-01

81

Transplacental passage of 26Al from pregnant rats to fetuses and 26Al transfer through maternal milk to suckling rats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aluminium (Al) is toxic to the growth of fetuses and sucklings. However, the incorporation of Al into fetuses and sucklings in the periods of gestation and lactation has not been well clarified because Al lacks a suitable isotope for a tracer experiment. In this study, we used 26Al (a radioisotope of Al with half-life of 716,000 yr) as a tracer, and measured 26Al incorporation into fetuses and sucklings by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). To investigate Al incorporation into fetuses through transplacental passage, 26Al ( 26AlCl 3) was subcutaneously injected into pregnant rats on day 15 of gestation. 26Al was also subcutaneoulsy injected into lactating rats from day 1 to day 20 postpartum. By day 20 of gestation, 0.2% of the 26Al injected into a pregnant rat had been transferred to the fetuses, and 26Al was detected in the brain and liver of the fetuses. On day 9 postpartum, high levels of 26Al were demonstrated in the brain, liver, kidneys and blood of suckling rats. It is concluded that 26Al subcutaneously injected into pregnant rats and/or lactating rats is incorporated into their offspring through transplacental passage and/or maternal milk.

Yumoto, S.; Nagai, H.; Matsuzaki, H.; Kobayashi, T.; Tada, W.; Ohki, Y.; Kakimi, S.; Kobayashi, K.

2000-10-01

82

Effects of Love Canal soil extracts on maternal health and fetal development in rats  

SciTech Connect

The effects of a solvent extract of the surface soil of the Love Canal chemical dump site, Niagara Falls, New York, and of a natural extract, or leachate, which is drained from the canal for treatment, on the maternal health and fetal development were determined in rats. The solvent extract, which was contaminated with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2, 3,7,8-TCDD) at 170 ppb and numerous other chlorinated organic compounds with the primary identified components being the isomers of benzenehexachloride (BHC), was dissolved in corn oil and administered by gavage to pregnant rats at 0,25,75, or 150 mg crude extract/kg/day on Days 6-15 of gestation. A 67% mortality was observed at the highest dose. The rats were sacrificed on Day 20. Dose-related increases in relative liver weight accompanied by hepatocyte hypertrophy were observed at all dose levels. Fetal birthweight was decreased at 75 and 150 mg extract/kg/day. No major treatment-related soft tissue or skeletal malformations, except for delayed ossification, were observed. Based on literature values for BHC, all of the observed toxicity could be accounted for by the BHC contaminants of the extract. The crude organic phase of the leachate was administered to pregnant rats at 0,10,100, or 250 mg/kg/day as described above. Maternal weight gain decreased at 100 and 250 mg/kg/day, accompanied by 5 and 14% maternal mortality, and 1 and 3 dead fetuses, respectively. Early resorptions and the percentage of dead implants increased whereas fetal birthweights were decreased at 250 mg/kg/day. No major treatment-related soft tissue or skeletal malformations, except for delayed ossification, were observed. The primary components of the complex leachate by mass were tetrachloroethanes; however, 2,3,7,8-TCDD, which was present at 3 ppm, probably accounted for all the observed toxicity.

Silkworth, J.B.; Tumasonis, C.; Briggs, R.G.; Narang, A.S.; Narang, R.S.; Rej, R.; Stein, V.; McMartin, D.N.; Kaminsky, L.S.

1986-10-01

83

Periaqueductal gray ? and ? opioid receptors determine behavioral selection from maternal to predatory behavior in lactating rats.  

PubMed

Every mother must optimize her time between caring for her young and her subsistence. The rostro lateral portion of the periaqueductal grey (rlPAG) is a critical site that modulates the switch between maternal and predatory behavior. Opioids play multiple roles in both maternal behavior and this switching process. The present study used a pharmacological approach to evaluate the functional role of rlPAG ? and ? opioid receptors in behavioral selection. Rat dams were implanted with a guide cannula in the rlPAG and divided into three experiments in which we tested the role of opioid agonists (Experiment 1), the influence of ? and ? opioid receptor blockade in the presence of morphine (Experiment 2), and the influence of ? and ? opioid receptor blockade (Experiment 3). After behavioral test, in Experiment 4, we evaluated rlPAG ? and ? receptor activation in all Experiments 1-3. The results showed that massive opioidergic activation induced by morphine in the rlPAG inhibited maternal behavior without interfering with predatory hunting. No behavioral changes and no receptor activation were promoted by the specific agonist alone. However, ? receptor blockade increased hunting behavior and increased the level of ? receptor activation in the rlPAG. Thus, endogenous opioidergic tone might be modulated by a functional interaction between opioid receptor subtypes. Such a compensatory receptor interaction appears to be relevant for behavioral selection among motivated behaviors. These findings indicate a role for multiple opioid receptor interactions in the modulation of behavioral selection between maternal and predatory behaviors in the PAG. PMID:25116253

Klein, Marianne Orlandini; Cruz, Aline de Mello; Machado, Franciele Corrêa; Picolo, Gisele; Canteras, Newton Sabino; Felicio, Luciano Freitas

2014-11-01

84

Examining maternal influence on OLETF rats' early overweight: Insights from a cross-fostering study  

PubMed Central

Obese female OLETF rats display increased nursing time and frequency compared to lean LETO controls, suggesting a maternal contribution to pup pre-obesity. In previous studies, OLETF pups presented high adiposity, showed greater suckling efficiency, initiative and weight gain from nursing than controls throughout lactation. To further elucidate maternal-infant interactions contributing to pup pre-obesity, we cross-fostered pups a day after birth and examined maternal behavior. Nursing frequency decreased in OLETF dams raising LETO pups (OdLp) in the third postnatal week, while LETO dams raising OLETF pups showed no significant changes. Fat % was greater in the milk of OLETF vs. LETO dams. OdLp pups showed long-term body weight (BW) increase, suggesting that maternal environment can induce BW increases even in the absence of a genetic tendency. Additionally, interaction between OLETF dams and pups produces high nursing frequency, exposing the pups to abundant high-fat milk, thus strengthening their pre-obese phenotype. PMID:19365796

Schroeder, Mariana; Schechter, Michal; Fride, Ester; Moran, Timothy H.; Weller, Aron

2009-01-01

85

Characterization of maternal transfer of decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) administered to pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats.  

PubMed

To evaluate maternal transfer of decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209), Sprague-Dawley rats were given daily oral doses of 5 ?mol/kgb.w. BDE-209 in peanut oil from gestation day (GD) 7 to postpartum day (PD) 4. BDE-209 was increased temporally in maternal blood, placenta, fetuses and neonates. Furthermore, more BDE-209 was found in neonate whole-body samples obtained during lactational period (PD 4) than in that of fetal whole-body samples during pregnancy GD 15 and 21. Overall an increase was observed over time for nona-BDE levels in maternal blood and placenta, but these congeners were decreased in fetuses or neonates. Slight changes were observed for octa-BDEs in both maternal blood and placenta while a significant decrease was observed in the fetuses or neonates for BDE-196 and 198/203. These results demonstrated that BDE-209 and its metabolites can transport to the placenta and milk, and eventually enter the fetuses and/or the neonates. PMID:20851178

Cai, Yunmei; Zhang, Wenbing; Hu, Junjie; Sheng, Guoying; Chen, Dunjin; Fu, Jiamo

2011-01-01

86

Long-Term Effects of Maternal Deprivation on the Neuronal Soma Area in the Rat Neocortex  

PubMed Central

Early separation of rat pups from their mothers (separatio a matrem) is considered and accepted as an animal model of perinatal stress. Adult rats, separated early postnatally from their mothers, are developing long-lasting changes in the brain and neuroendocrine system, corresponding to the findings observed in schizophrenia and affective disorders. With the aim to investigate the morphological changes in this animal model we exposed 9-day-old (P9) Wistar rats to a 24?h maternal deprivation (MD). At young adult age rats were sacrificed for morphometric analysis and their brains were compared with the control group bred under the same conditions, but without MD. Rats exposed to MD had a 28% smaller cell soma area in the prefrontal cortex (PFCX), 30% in retrosplenial cortex (RSCX), and 15% in motor cortex (MCX) compared to the controls. No difference was observed in the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein in the neocortex of MD rats compared to the control group. The results of this study demonstrate that stress in early life has a long-term effect on neuronal soma size in cingulate and retrosplenial cortex and is potentially interesting as these structures play an important role in cognition. PMID:24895554

Aksic, Milan; Radonjic, Nevena V.; Aleksic, Dubravka; Jevtic, Gordana; Markovic, Branka; Petronijevic, Natasa; Radonjic, Vidosava; Filipovic, Branislav

2014-01-01

87

Maternal hypoxia alters matrix metalloproteinase expression patterns and causes cardiac remodeling in fetal and neonatal rats.  

PubMed

Fetal hypoxia leads to progressive cardiac remodeling in rat offspring. The present study tested the hypothesis that maternal hypoxia results in reprogramming of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression patterns and fibrillar collagen matrix in the developing heart. Pregnant rats were treated with normoxia or hypoxia (10.5% O(2)) from day 15 to 21 of gestation. Hearts were isolated from 21-day fetuses (E21) and postnatal day 7 pups (PD7). Maternal hypoxia caused a decrease in the body weight of both E21 and PD7. The heart-to-body weight ratio was increased in E21 but not in PD7. Left ventricular myocardium wall thickness and cardiomyocyte proliferation were significantly decreased in both fetal and neonatal hearts. Hypoxia had no effect on fibrillar collagen content in the fetal heart, but significantly increased the collagen content in the neonatal heart. Western blotting revealed that maternal hypoxia significantly increased collagen I, but not collagen III, levels in the neonatal heart. Maternal hypoxia decreased MMP-1 but increased MMP-13 and membrane type (MT)1-MMP in the fetal heart. In the neonatal heart, MMP-1 and MMP-13 were significantly increased. Active MMP-2 and MMP-9 levels and activities were not altered in either fetal or neonatal hearts. Hypoxia significantly increased tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-3 and TIMP-4 in both fetal and neonatal hearts. In contrast, TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 were not affected. The results demonstrate that in utero hypoxia reprograms the expression patterns of MMPs and TIMPs and causes cardiac tissue remodeling with the increased collagen deposition in the developing heart. PMID:21856922

Tong, Wenni; Xue, Qin; Li, Yong; Zhang, Lubo

2011-11-01

88

Evidence for active maternal-fetal transport of Na+ across the placenta of the anaesthetized rat.  

PubMed Central

1. In order to investigate mechanisms of Na+ transfer, the unidirectional maternal-fetal clearance (Kmf) of 22Na+ and of 51Cr-EDTA (a marker of paracellular diffusion) was measured across the intact or umbilically or dually perfused placenta of the anaesthetized rat. 2. The Kmf of 22Na+ in the intact preparation (18.5 +/- 2.7 microliters min-1, mean +/- S.D., n = 105 placentas) exceeded that of 51Cr-EDTA in the same experiments (1.4 +/- 0.3 microliters min-1) by more than ten times, whereas the difference in their diffusion coefficients in water was only 2-fold. In the perfused preparations the difference in the Kmf values was 6-fold. 3. Assuming that a simple model of paracellular diffusion through wide pores was one component of transfer, the Kmf of 51Cr-EDTA and the diffusion coefficients were used to calculate a component of 22Na+ clearance (Kmf,residual) and of Na+ flux (Jmf,residual) across the perfused placentas which could not be accounted for by transfer through the paracellular route. 4. Kmf,residual of 22Na+ across the dually perfused placenta was significantly lower when temperature was reduced, the temperature quotient (Q10) of the transfer being about 2. Kmf,residual was also significantly lower when 0.1 mM ouabain was perfused on the fetal side. Jmf,residual exhibited saturation kinetics characterized by an apparent Michaelis constant (Km) of 90 mM. Kmf,residual was not influenced by 0.5 mM frusemide, 0.5 mM amiloride or by 0.5 mM hydrochlorothiazide administered to the maternal side. It was significantly increased by 1 mM alanine on the maternal side suggesting that the coupled transfer of Na+ and amino acids may contribute significantly to the maternal-fetal flux of Na+. 5. These observations suggest that most (80%) of the maternal-fetal flux of Na+ across the rat placenta is effected by active transcellular transport. This transport involves passive entry of Na+ into the trophoblast from the maternal side by a largely unknown saturable mechanism and active extrusion of Na+ from trophoblast to the fetal side by Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase. PMID:8308747

Stulc, J; Stulcova, B; Sibley, C P

1993-01-01

89

Additive effects of maternal iron deficiency and prenatal immune activation on adult behaviors in rat offspring.  

PubMed

Both iron deficiency (ID) and infection are common during pregnancy and studies have described altered brain development in offspring as a result of these individual maternal exposures. Given their high global incidence, these two insults may occur simultaneously during pregnancy. We recently described a rat model which pairs dietary ID during pregnancy and prenatal immune activation. Pregnant rats were placed on iron sufficient (IS) or ID diets from embryonic day 2 (E2) until postnatal day 7, and administered the bacterial endotoxin, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or saline on E15/16. In this model, LPS administration on E15 caused greater induction of the pro-inflammatory cytokines, interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-?, in ID dams compared to IS dams. This suggested that the combination of prenatal immune activation on a background of maternal ID might have more adverse neurodevelopmental consequences for the offspring than exposure to either insult alone. In this study we used this model to determine whether combined exposure to maternal ID and prenatal immune activation interact to affect juvenile and adult behaviors in the offspring. We assessed behaviors relevant to deficits in humans or animals that have been associated with exposure to either maternal ID or prenatal immune activation alone. Adult offspring from ID dams displayed significant deficits in pre-pulse inhibition of acoustic startle and in passive avoidance learning, together with increases in cytochrome oxidase immunohistochemistry, a marker of metabolic activity, in the ventral hippocampus immediately after passive avoidance testing. Offspring from LPS treated dams showed a significant increase in social behavior with unfamiliar rats, and subtle locomotor changes during exploration in an open field and in response to amphetamine. Surprisingly, there was no interaction between effects of the two insults on the behaviors assessed, and few observed alterations in juvenile behavior. Our findings show that long-term effects of maternal ID and prenatal LPS were additive, such that offspring exposed to both insults displayed more adult behavioral abnormalities than offspring exposed to one alone. PMID:24930842

Harvey, Louise; Boksa, Patricia

2014-08-01

90

Neuroanatomical substrates of the disruptive effect of olanzapine on rat maternal behavior as revealed by c-Fos immunoreactivity  

PubMed Central

Olanzapine is one of the most widely prescribed atypical antipsychotic drugs in the treatment of schizophrenia. Besides its well-known side effect on weight gain, it may also impair human parental behavior. In this study, we took a preclinical approach to examine the behavioral effects of olanzapine on rat maternal behavior and investigated the associated neural basis using the c-Fos immunohistochemistry. On postpartum Days 6–8, Sprague-Dawley mother rats were given a single injection of sterile water or olanzapine (1.0, 3.0 or 5.0 mg/kg, sc). Maternal behavior was tested 2 h later, after which rats were sacrificed and brain tissues were collected. Ten brain regions that were either implicated in the action of antipsychotic drugs and/or in the regulation of maternal behavior were examined for c-Fos immunoreactivity. Acute olanzapine treatment dose-dependently disrupted various components of maternal behavior (e.g., pup retrieval, pup licking, nest building, crouching) and increased c-Fos immunoreactivity in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), nucleus accumbens shell and core (NAs and NAc), dorsolateral striatum (DLSt), ventral lateral septum (LSv), central amygdala (CeA) and ventral tegmental area (VTA), important brain areas generally implicated in the incentive motivation and reward processing. In contrast, olanzapine treatment did not alter c-Fos in the medial preoptic nucleus (MPN), ventral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (vBST) and medial amygdala (MeA), the core brain areas directly involved in the mediation of rat maternal behavior. These findings suggest that olanzapine disrupts rat maternal behavior primarily by suppressing incentive motivation and reward processing via its action on the mesocorticolimbic dopamine systems, other limbic and striatal areas, but not by disrupting the core processes involved in the mediation of maternal behavior in particular. PMID:22960130

Zhao, Changjiu; Li, Ming

2012-01-01

91

Lamotrigine treatment reverses depressive-like behavior and alters BDNF levels in the brains of maternally deprived adult rats.  

PubMed

Lamotrigine is an anticonvulsant and has an antiglutamatergic action, which may contribute to its antidepressant effects, since glutamate has been linked to depression. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the behavioral and molecular effects of lamotrigine treatment in maternally deprived rats. To this aim, deprived and non-deprived male rats were treated with lamotrigine (20 mg/kg) once a day for 14 days during their adult phase. Their behavior was then assessed in the forced swimming and open field tests. In addition to this, the BDNF and NGF levels were assessed in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and amygdala. In the course of this study we demonstrated that maternally deprived rats treated with saline and lamotrigine showed an increase in their immobility time and a decrease in the climbing and swimming times when compared with non-deprived rats treated with saline alone. Treatment with lamotrigine reversed the increase in the immobility time in the deprived rats. The BDNF levels were decreased in the amygdala in deprived rats treated with saline, and treatment with lamotrigine reversed this decrease. The NGF levels were decreased in the hippocampus in deprived rats treated with saline, but treatment with lamotrigine did not reverse this decrease. In conclusion, lamotrigine showed antidepressant effects in the forced swimming test, and it presented positive effects on the BDNF protein levels in the amygdala of maternally deprived rats. PMID:22306746

Abelaira, Helena M; Réus, Gislaine Z; Ribeiro, Karine F; Zappellini, Giovanni; Cipriano, Andreza L; Scaini, Giselli; Streck, Emilio L; Quevedo, João

2012-05-01

92

Dopamine D1 Receptor Stimulation of the Nucleus Accumbens or the Medial Preoptic Area Promotes the Onset of Maternal Behavior in Pregnancy-Terminated Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is good evidence that interference with the mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system results in impaired maternal responding in postpartum female rats. However, whether activation of the mesolimbic DA system is capable of promoting maternal behavior has not been investigated. This study examined whether increasing DA activity in various brain regions of pregnancy-terminated, naive female rats would stimulate the onset of

Danielle S. Stolzenberg; Jonathan B. McKenna; Samantha Keough; Rebecca Hancock; Marilyn J. Numan; Michael Numan

2007-01-01

93

Molecular Patterns of Neurodevelopmental Preconditioning: A Study of the Effects of Antenatal Steroid Therapy in a Protein-Restriction Mouse Model  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Prenatal programming secondary to maternal protein restriction renders an inherent susceptibility to neural compromise in neonates and any addition of glucocorticosteroids results in further damage. This is an investigation of consequent global gene activity due to effects of antenatal steroid therapy on a protein restriction mouse model. Methods. C57BL/6N pregnant mice were administered control or protein restricted diets and subjected to either 100??g/Kg of dexamethasone sodium phosphate with normosaline or normosaline alone during late gestation (E10–E17). Nontreatment groups were also included. Brain samples were collected on embryonic day 17 and analyzed by mRNA microarray analysis. Results. Microarray analyses presented 332 significantly regulated genes. Overall, neurodevelopmental genes were overrepresented and a subset of 8 genes allowed treatment segregation through the hierarchical clustering method. The addition of stress or steroids greatly affected gene regulation through glucocorticoid receptor and stress signaling pathways. Furthermore, differences between dexamethasone-administered treatments implied a harmful effect during conditions of high stress. Microarray analysis was validated using qPCR. Conclusion. The effects of antenatal steroid therapy vary in fetuses according to maternal-fetal factors and environmental stimuli. Defining the key regulatory networks that signal either beneficial or damaging corticosteroid action would result in valuable adjustments to current treatment protocols. PMID:25006477

Ito, Takuya; Endo, Miyuki; Funamoto, Kiyoe; Yaegashi, Nobuo

2014-01-01

94

Maternal IgG suppresses NMDA-induced spasms in infant rats and inhibits NMDA-mediated neurotoxicity in hippocampal neurons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maternal immunoglobulin G (IgG) was derived from Wistar rats that just delivered the new offsprings. We examined the effect of this maternal IgG on infantile spasms induced by N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) in immature rats. Pup animals were treated subcutaneously with 10 mg\\/kg\\/day maternal IgG from day 11 to day 15 after birth followed by a single intraperitoneal dose of NMDA (15 mg\\/kg). Administration

Li-Ping Zou; Wei-Hua Zhang; Hong-Mei Wang; Min Zen; Kesi Chen; Eilhard Mix

2006-01-01

95

Maternal hyperglycemia leads to fetal cardiac hyperplasia and dysfunction in a rat model.  

PubMed

Accelerated fetal myocardial growth with altered cardiac function is a well-documented complication of human diabetic pregnancy, but its pathophysiology is still largely unknown. Our aim was to explore the mechanisms of fetal cardiac remodeling and cardiovascular hemodynamics in a rat model of maternal pregestational streptozotocin-induced hyperglycemia. The hyperglycemic group comprised 107 fetuses (10 dams) and the control group 219 fetuses (20 dams). Fetal cardiac function was assessed serially by Doppler ultrasonography. Fetal cardiac to thoracic area ratio, newborn heart weight, myocardial cell proliferative and apoptotic activities, and cardiac gene expression patterns were determined. Maternal hyperglycemia was associated with increased cardiac size, proliferative, apoptotic and mitotic activities, upregulation of genes encoding A- and B-type natriuretic peptides, myosin heavy chain types 2 and 3, uncoupling proteins 2 and 3, and the angiogenetic tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 12A. The genes encoding Kv channel-interacting protein 2, a regulator of electrical cardiac phenotype, and the insulin-regulated glucose transporter 4 were downregulated. The heart rate was lower in fetuses of hyperglycemic dams. At 13-14 gestational days, 98% of fetuses of hyperglycemic dams had holosystolic atrioventricular valve regurgitation and decreased outflow mean velocity, indicating diminished cardiac output. Maternal hyperglycemia may lead to accelerated fetal myocardial growth by cardiomyocyte hyperplasia. In fetuses of hyperglycemic dams, expression of key genes that control and regulate cardiomyocyte electrophysiological properties, contractility, and metabolism are altered and may lead to major functional and clinical implications on the fetal heart. PMID:23839525

Lehtoranta, Lara; Vuolteenaho, Olli; Laine, V Jukka; Koskinen, Anna; Soukka, Hanna; Kytö, Ville; Määttä, Jorma; Haapsamo, Mervi; Ekholm, Eeva; Räsänen, Juha

2013-09-01

96

Functional mapping of the neural circuitry of rat maternal motivation: effects of site-specific transient neural inactivation  

PubMed Central

The present review focuses on recent studies from our laboratory examining the neural circuitry subserving rat maternal motivation across postpartum. We employed a site-specific neural inactivation method by infusion of bupivacaine to map the maternal motivation circuitry using two complementary behavioral approaches: unconditioned maternal responsiveness and choice of pup- over cocaine-conditioned incentives in a concurrent pup/cocaine choice conditioned place preference task. Our findings revealed that during the early postpartum period, distinct brain structures, including the medial preoptic area, ventral tegmental area and medial prefrontal cortex infralimbic and anterior cingulate subregions, contribute a pup-specific bias to the motivational circuitry. As the postpartum period progresses and the pups grow older, our findings further revealed that maternal responsiveness becomes progressively less dependent on medial preoptic area and medial prefrontal cortex infralimbic activity, and more distributed in the maternal circuitry, such that additional network components, including the medial prefrontal cortex prelimbic subregion, are recruited with maternal experience, and contribute to the expression of late postpartum maternal behavior. Collectively, our findings provide strong evidence that the remarkable ability of postpartum females to successfully care for their developing infants is subserved by a distributed neural network that carries out efficient and dynamic processing of complex, constantly changing incoming environmental and pup-related stimuli, ultimately allowing the progression of appropriate expression and waning of maternal responsiveness across the postpartum period. PMID:21815954

Pereira, Mariana; Morrell, Joan I.

2011-01-01

97

Maternal dietary omega-3 fatty acid intake increases resolvin and protectin levels in the rat placenta.  

PubMed

Placental inflammation is associated with several pregnancy disorders. Inflammation is limited by anti-inflammatory and proresolving mechanisms, the latter partly mediated by resolvins and protectins derived from omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3PUFA). We examined effects of dietary n-3PUFAs on levels of resolvins, protectins, and lipoxygenase (ALOX) enzymes in the rat placenta. Rats consumed standard (Std) or high n-3PUFA (Hn3) diets from day 1 of pregnancy; tissues were collected on day 17 or 22 (term = day 23). Maternal Hn3 diet increased resolvin and protectin precursors, 18R/S-HEPE (P < 0.001), and 17R/S-HDHA (P < 0.01) at both days. Resolvins (17R-RvD1 and RvD1) increased at day 22 (P < 0.001) after Hn3 consumption, coincident with higher Alox15b and Alox5 mRNA expression, while RvD2 increased at both days (P < 0.05). Protectins, PD1, and 10S,17S-DiHDHA increased over late gestation (P < 0.001), coincident with higher Alox15 mRNA expression (P < 0.001) and further increased with Hn3 diet (P < 0.05). Maternal systemic and placental proinflammatory mediators were not suppressed by Hn3 diet; systemic IL1?, placental Il1?, and Il6 mRNA expression increased marginally with Hn3 at day 22 (P < 0.001), while Ptgs1 (Cox1) expression increased both days (P < 0.05). Our data indicate that maternal n-3PUFA supplementation enhances expression of enzymes in the n-3PUFA metabolic pathway and increases placental levels of resolvins and protectins. PMID:23723388

Jones, Megan L; Mark, Peter J; Keelan, Jeffrey A; Barden, Anne; Mas, Emilie; Mori, Trevor A; Waddell, Brendan J

2013-08-01

98

Maternal dietary omega-3 fatty acid intake increases resolvin and protectin levels in the rat placenta  

PubMed Central

Placental inflammation is associated with several pregnancy disorders. Inflammation is limited by anti-inflammatory and proresolving mechanisms, the latter partly mediated by resolvins and protectins derived from omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3PUFA). We examined effects of dietary n-3PUFAs on levels of resolvins, protectins, and lipoxygenase (ALOX) enzymes in the rat placenta. Rats consumed standard (Std) or high n-3PUFA (Hn3) diets from day 1 of pregnancy; tissues were collected on day 17 or 22 (term = day 23). Maternal Hn3 diet increased resolvin and protectin precursors, 18R/S-HEPE (P < 0.001), and 17R/S-HDHA (P < 0.01) at both days. Resolvins (17R-RvD1 and RvD1) increased at day 22 (P < 0.001) after Hn3 consumption, coincident with higher Alox15b and Alox5 mRNA expression, while RvD2 increased at both days (P < 0.05). Protectins, PD1, and 10S,17S-DiHDHA increased over late gestation (P < 0.001), coincident with higher Alox15 mRNA expression (P < 0.001) and further increased with Hn3 diet (P < 0.05). Maternal systemic and placental proinflammatory mediators were not suppressed by Hn3 diet; systemic IL1?, placental Il1?, and Il6 mRNA expression increased marginally with Hn3 at day 22 (P < 0.001), while Ptgs1 (Cox1) expression increased both days (P < 0.05). Our data indicate that maternal n-3PUFA supplementation enhances expression of enzymes in the n-3PUFA metabolic pathway and increases placental levels of resolvins and protectins. PMID:23723388

Jones, Megan L.; Mark, Peter J.; Keelan, Jeffrey A.; Barden, Anne; Mas, Emilie; Mori, Trevor A.; Waddell, Brendan J.

2013-01-01

99

Early maternal deprivation-induced modifications in the neurobiological, neurochemical and behavioral profile of adult rats.  

PubMed

Early maternal deprivation (MD) is an animal model of neurodevelopmental stress associated with a variety of abnormalities during adulthood. The present study investigated specific behavioral, neurochemical and neurobiological parameters related to dopaminergic and serotonergic function in adult rats subjected to early life MD. Behavioral responses, including the reaction to novelty, the response to d-amphetamine (d-AMP) and the susceptibility to apomorphine (APO) were evaluated in adulthood. Dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) levels, their metabolites along with their turnover ratios were assessed in distinct rat brain regions. The impact of MD on DARPP-32 protein, D2 and 5-HT2A receptor expression was also estimated in the same brain regions during adulthood. Our results indicated that MD rats were more reactive to novelty behavior and more sensitive to dopaminergic agonists compared to controls. MD rats displayed elevated dopaminergic and serotonergic function in the amygdala and prefrontal cortex, whereas in the striatum only the dopaminergic activity was also increased. Interestingly, MD induced a region-dependent modulation of D2, 5-HT2A receptor and DARPP-32 protein expression. Our findings clearly indicated that early MD stress produces long term behavioral impairments and region-dependent modifications in various neurochemical and neurobiological indices of dopaminergic and serotonergic function in brain regions holding critical roles in the pathophysiology of central nervous system disorders. PMID:23395600

Rentesi, Georgia; Antoniou, Katerina; Marselos, Marios; Syrrou, Marika; Papadopoulou-Daifoti, Zeta; Konstandi, Maria

2013-05-01

100

[The influence of the rat maternal environment on the behavior of offspring].  

PubMed

In Wistar's rats, the postnatal influence of maternal behaviour on the motor and emotional state and the anxiety level of the posterity born from the intact rat-mothers-ambidexter but reared by the intact mothers-ambidexter with the motor deficit, were investigated. From the first day of life, the rat-mothers with the removed part of the sense-motor cortex (right or left) nursed and reared the litter. It was discovered that the reduction of motor activity and increase of negative emotional responses occurred in experimental litter at the age of 1 month as compared with the control group (intact litter reared by the ersatz healthy rat-mothers). In the test of elevated cruciform maze, a high level of anxiety was discovered. The experimental posterity showed an emotional tension as the dominant state. Left-side lesion of the sense-motor cortex of the ersatz mother resulted in a rougher disorder in the emotional state and movement than after right-side lesion. PMID:16408642

Avaliani, T V; Fedotova, O R; Lazarenko, N S

2005-11-01

101

Treadmill exercise during pregnancy ameliorates post?traumatic stress disorder?induced anxiety?like responses in maternal rats.  

PubMed

Post?traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an anxiety disorder triggered by life?threatening events that cause intense fear. Exercise is known to have protective effects on neuropsychiatric diseases. The present study investigated whether treadmill exercise during pregnancy reduced or alleviated symptoms of PTSD in maternal rats. To induce predator stress in pregnant rats, rats were exposed to a hunting dog in an enclosed room. Exposure time was three 10?min daily sessions separated by 1 h, starting at week 1 of pregnancy until delivery. Pregnant rats in the exercise group were forced to run on a treadmill for 30 min once a day, starting one week following pregnancy until delivery. Rats receiving predator stress during pregnancy exhibited PTSD anxiety?like behaviors following delivery. Expression of 5?hydroxytryptamine (5?HT) and its synthesizing enzyme tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) in the dorsal raphe was increased compared with unstressed rats. Expression of c?Fos and neuronal nitric oxide synthases (nNOS) in the hypothalamus and locus coeruleus were higher in the rats receiving stress during pregnancy compared with unstressed rats. By contrast, treadmill exercise during pregnancy ameliorated anxiety?like behaviors and reduced the expression of 5?HT, TPH, c?Fos and nNOS in the PTSD maternal rats. The results of the present study indicate that exercise during pregnancy is suitable for use as a therapeutic strategy to reduce anxiety?related disorders, including PTSD. PMID:23174863

Seo, Jin-Hee; Kim, Tae-Woon; Kim, Chang-Ju; Sung, Yun-Hee; Lee, Sam-Jun

2013-02-01

102

Effects of dose, administration route, and/or vehicle on decabromodiphenyl ether concentrations in plasma of maternal, fetal, and neonatal rats and in milk of maternal rats.  

PubMed

The effects of route and vehicle on blood and milk levels of decabromodiphenyl ether (DecaBDE; CASRN 1163-19-5) were investigated in the rat to assist in the design and conduct of a developmental neurotoxicity study. Blood plasma and/or milk concentrations were determined in dams, fetuses, and/or nursing pups after repeated DecaBDE administration by gavage throughout gestation or gestation and lactation using corn oil (CO) or soyaphospholipon/Lutrol F 127-water (SPL) as the vehicle. The impact of vehicle on plasma levels was also investigated in pups derived from naive dams after a single postnatal dose. This study reports for the first time fetal and neonatal plasma concentrations concurrent with those of maternal plasma and/or milk. Higher concentrations of DecaBDE were achieved in plasma and in milk with CO than with SPL. Furthermore, pups derived from dams treated with only SPL were lower in body weight, compared with those from dams treated with either CO, CO and DecaBDE, or SPL and DecaBDE. The study further shows that exposure to DecaBDE is relatively consistent across the dose range of 100 to 1000 mg/(kg · day) when administered in CO. PMID:20581093

Biesemeier, John A; Beck, Melissa J; Silberberg, Hanna; Myers, Nicole R; Ariano, John M; Bodle, Eric S; Sved, Daniel W; Jacobi, Sylvia; Stump, Donald G; Hardy, Marcia; Stedeford, Todd

2010-10-01

103

Maternal attenuation of hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus norepinephrine switches avoidance learning to preference learning in preweanling rat pups  

PubMed Central

Infant rats learn to prefer stimuli paired with pain, presumably due to the importance of learning to prefer the caregiver to receive protection and food. With maturity, a more ‘adult-like’ learning system emerges that includes the amygdala and avoidance/fear learning. The attachment and ’adult-like’ systems appear to co-exist in older pups with maternal presence engaging the attachment system by lowering corticosterone (CORT). Specifically, odor-shock conditioning (11 odor-0.5mA shock trials) in 12-day old pups results in an odor aversion, although an odor preference is learned if the mother is present during conditioning. Here, we propose a mechanism to explain pups ability to ‘switch’ between the dual learning systems by exploring the effect of maternal presence on hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) neural activity, norepinephrine (NE) levels and learning. Maternal presence attenuates both PVN neural activity and PVN NE levels during odor-shock conditioning. Intra-PVN NE receptor antagonist infusion blocked the odor aversion learning with maternal absence, while intra-PVN NE receptor agonist infusion permitted odor aversion learning with maternal presence. These data suggest maternal control over pup learning acts through attenuation of PVN NE to reduce the CORT required for pup odor aversion learning. Moreover, these data also represent pups’ continued maternal dependence for nursing, while enabling aversion learning outside the nest to prepare for pups future independent living. PMID:17675020

Shionoya, Kiseko; Moriceau, Stephanie; Bradstock, Peter; Sullivan, Regina M.

2009-01-01

104

Stress-Induced Visceral Hypersensitivity in Maternally Separated Rats Can Be Reversed by Peripherally Restricted Histamine-1-Receptor Antagonists  

PubMed Central

Background The histamine-1 receptor (H1R) antagonist ketotifen increased the threshold of discomfort in hypersensitive IBS patients. The use of peripherally restricted and more selective H1R antagonists may further improve treatment possibilities. We examined the use of fexofenadine and ebastine to reverse post-stress visceral hypersensitivity in maternally separated rats. Methods The visceromotor response to colonic distension was assessed in adult maternally separated and nonhandled rats pre- and 24 hours post water avoidance. Subsequently rats were treated with vehicle alone or different dosages of fexofenadine (1.8 and 18 mg/kg) or ebastine (0.1 and 1.0 mg/kg) and re-evaluated. Colonic tissue was collected to assess relative RMCP-2 and occludin expression levels by Western blot and histamine-1 receptor by RT-qPCR. ?-hexosaminidase release by RBL-2H3 cells was used to establish possible mast cell stabilizing properties of the antagonists. Key results Water avoidance only induced enhanced response to distension in maternally separated rats. This response was reversed by 1.8 and 18 mg/kg fexofenadine. Reversal was also obtained by 1.0 but not 0.1 mg/kg ebastine. RMCP-2 expression levels were comparable in these two ebastine treatment groups but occludin was significantly higher in 1.0 mg/kg treated rats. There were no differences in histamine-1 receptor expression between nonhandled and maternally separated rats. Fexofenadine but not ebastine showed mast cell stabilizing quality. Conclusions Our results indicate that the peripherally restricted 2nd generation H1-receptor antagonists fexofenadine and ebastine are capable of reversing post stress visceral hypersensitivity in rat. These data justify future IBS patient trials with these well tolerated compounds. PMID:23776699

Stanisor, Oana I.; van Diest, Sophie A.; Yu, Zhumei; Welting, Olaf; Bekkali, Noor; Shi, Jing; de Jonge, Wouter J.; Boeckxstaens, Guy E.; van den Wijngaard, Rene M.

2013-01-01

105

Maternal Di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate Exposure Influences Essential Fatty Acid Homeostasis in Rat Placenta  

PubMed Central

Maintaining essential fatty acid (EFA) homeostasis during pregnancy is critical for fetal development. As the organ that controls the maternal-to-fetal supply of nutrients, the placenta plays a significant role in guiding EFA transfer to the fetus. Many EFA homeostasis proteins are regulated by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs). The metabolites of di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (DEHP), a ubiquitous environmental contaminant, might influence EFA homeostasis via trans-activation of PPARs with subsequent downstream effects on EFA transporters and enzymes. To investigate DEHP’s effect on placental/fetal EFA homeostasis, female Sprague-Dawley rats were orally gavaged with either vehicle or DEHP at 750 or 1500 mg/kg/day from gestational day (GD) 0 to GD 19. Changes in the expression of several EFA homeostasis regulating proteins were determined in the junctional (JXN) and labyrinthine (LAB) zones of the placenta, including PPAR isoforms (?, ? and ?), fatty acid translocase (FAT/CD36), fatty acid transport protein 1 (FATP1), plasma membrane fatty acid binding protein (FABPpm), heart cytoplasmic fatty acid binding protein (HFABP), cytochrome P450 (CYP) 4A1, and cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and -2. Additionally, effects of DEHP maternal exposure on the placental transfer and fetal distribution of representative EFAs, arachidonic acid (AA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and the placental production of prostaglandins (PGs) were investigated. Expression of PPAR?, PPAR?, FAT/CD36, FATP1, HFABP and CYP4A1 was up-regulated in JXN and/or LAB while COX-2 was down-regulated in JXN. PPAR?, FABPpm, and COX-1 demonstrated variable expression. Reduced directional maternal-to-fetal placental transfer and altered fetal distribution of AA and DHA were observed in concordance with a decreased total placental PG production. These results correlate with previous in vitro data, suggesting that DEHP could influence placental EFA homeostasis with potential downstream effects in the developing fetus. PMID:18829104

Xu, Yan; Agrawal, Shruti; Cook, Thomas J.; Knipp, Gregory T.

2008-01-01

106

Maternal allergen exposure reprograms the developmental lung transcriptome in atopic and normoresponsive rat pups  

PubMed Central

The “fetal origins hypothesis” argued that physiological changes consequent to in utero exposures ultimately contribute to disease susceptibility in later life. The dramatic increase in asthma prevalence is attributed to early exposures acting on preexisting asthma-susceptible genotypes. We showed previously that distinct transcriptome signatures distinguish the developmental respiratory phenotype of atopic (Brown Norway, BN) and normoresponsive (Lewis) rats. We aimed to determine whether maternal allergen exposure would influence asthma pathogenesis by reprogramming primary patterns of developmental lung gene expression. Postnatal offspring of dams sensitized to ovalbumin before mating and challenged during pregnancy were assessed for lung function, inflammatory biomarkers, and respiratory gene expression. Although maternal ovalbumin exposure resulted in characteristic features of an allergic response (bronchoalveolar lavage neutrophils, IgE, methacholine-induced lung resistance) in offspring of both strains, substantial strain-specific differences were observed in respiratory gene expression. Of 799 probes representing the top 5% of transcriptomic variation, only 112 (14%) were affected in both strains. Strain-specific gene signatures also exhibited marked differences in enrichment for gene ontologies, with immune regulation and cell proliferation being prominent in the BN strain, cell cycle and microtubule assembly gene sets in the Lewis strain. Multiple ovalbumin-specific probes in both strains were also differentially expressed in lymphoblastoid cell lines from human asthmatic vs. nonasthmatic sibling pairs. Our data point to the existence of distinct, genetically programmed responses to maternal exposures in developing lung. These different response patterns, if recapitulated in human fetal development, can contribute to long-term pulmonary health including interindividual susceptibility to asthma. PMID:22983352

Carpe, Nicole; Mandeville, Isabel; Kho, Alvin T.; Qiu, Weiliang; Martin, James G.; Tantisira, Kelan G.; Raby, Benjamin A.; Weiss, Scott T.

2012-01-01

107

Maternally Administered Sustained-Release Naltrexone in Rats Affects Offspring Neurochemistry and Behaviour in Adulthood  

PubMed Central

Naltrexone is not recommended during pregnancy. However, sustained-release naltrexone implant use in humans has resulted in cases of inadvertent foetal exposure. Here, we used clinically relevant dosing to examine the effects of maternally administered sustained-release naltrexone on the rat brain by examining offspring at birth and in adulthood. Maternal treatment (naltrexone or placebo implant) started before conception and ceased during gestation, birth or weaning. Morphometry was assessed in offspring at birth and adulthood. Adult offspring were evaluated for differences in locomotor behaviour (basal and morphine-induced, 10 mg/kg, s.c.) and opioid neurochemistry, propensity to self-administer morphine and cue-induced drug-seeking after abstinence. Blood analysis confirmed offspring exposure to naltrexone during gestation, birth and weaning. Naltrexone exposure increased litter size and reduced offspring birth-weight but did not alter brain morphometry. Compared to placebo, basal motor activity of naltrexone-exposed adult offspring was lower, yet they showed enhanced development of psychomotor sensitization to morphine. Developmental naltrexone exposure was associated with resistance to morphine-induced down-regulation of striatal preproenkephalin mRNA expression in adulthood. Adult offspring also exhibited greater operant responding for morphine and, in addition, cue-induced drug-seeking was enhanced. Collectively, these data show pronounced effects of developmental naltrexone exposure, some of which persist into adulthood, highlighting the need for follow up of humans that were exposed to naltrexone in utero. PMID:23300784

Krstew, Elena V.; Tait, Robert J.; Hulse, Gary K.

2012-01-01

108

The possible mechanisms by which maternal hypothyroidism impairs insulin secretion in adult male offspring in rats.  

PubMed

Previous studies have recently shown that maternal hypothyroidism leads to impaired glucose metabolism and reduced insulin secretion in adult offspring in rats. The aim of this study was to locate the defect in the insulin secretion pathway induced by maternal hypothyroidism. Pregnant Wistar rats were divided into two groups; the control group consumed water, while the hypothyroid (FH) group received water containing 0.025% 6-propyl-2-thiouracil during gestation. An intravenous glucose tolerance test was carried out on 5-month-old male offspring. In in vitro studies, the effects of various secretagogues and inhibitors acting at different levels of the insulin secretion cascade were investigated, and insulin content, insulin secretion and glucokinase activity of the islets were compared. Although insulin content of the FH islets did not differ from that of control islets, insulin secretion from FH islets was reduced when it was challenged by glucose or arginine. Compared with control islets, activities of both hexokinase and glucokinase were also significantly decreased in the FH islets. Although, in both groups, increasing glibenclamide and nifedipine concentrations in the presence of 16.7 mmol l(-1) glucose increased and decreased insulin secretion, respectively, the percentage of changes in secretion of FH islets was significantly lower compared with control islets. The response of FH islets to high extracellular potassium concentration and diazoxide was also significantly lower than that of the control islets. These findings demonstrate that impaired insulin secretion in the FH group is probably related to alterations in different steps of the insulin secretion pathway and not in the insulin pool of ?-cells. PMID:24097159

Karbalaei, Narges; Ghasemi, Asghar; Hedayati, Mehdi; Godini, Aliashraf; Zahediasl, Saleh

2014-04-01

109

Abnormal inflammation leads to maternal coagulopathies associated with placental haemostatic alterations in a rat model of foetal loss.  

PubMed

Spontaneous pregnancy loss is often associated with aberrant maternal inflammation and systemic coagulopathies. However, the role of inflammation in the development of obstetric coagulopathies is poorly understood. Further, questions remain as to whether systemic coagulopathies are linked to placental haemostatic alterations, and whether these local alterations contribute to a negative foetal outcome. Using a model of spontaneous foetal loss in which pregnant rats are given a single injection of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), we characterised the systemic maternal coagulation status following LPS administration using thromboelastography (TEG), a global haemostatic assay that measures the kinetics of clot formation. Systemic maternal coagulopathy was evident in 82% of LPS-treated rats. Specifically, we observed stage-I, -II, and -III disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) and hypercoagulability. Modulation of inflammation through inhibition of tumour necrosis factor ? with etanercept resulted in a 62% reduction in the proportion of rats exhibiting coagulopathy. Moreover, inflammation-induced systemic coagulopathies were associated with placental haemostatic alterations, which included increased intravascular, decidual, and labyrinth fibrin deposition in cases of DIC-I and hypercoagulability, and an almost complete absence of fibrin deposition in cases of DIC-III. Furthermore, systemic and placental haemostatic alterations were associated with impaired utero-placental haemodynamics, and inhibition of these haemostatic alterations by etanercept was associated with maintenance of utero-placental haemodynamics. These findings indicate that modulation of maternal inflammation may be useful in the prevention of coagulopathies associated with complications of pregnancy. PMID:22234563

Falcón, Bani J; Cotechini, Tiziana; Macdonald-Goodfellow, Shannyn K; Othman, Maha; Graham, Charles H

2012-03-01

110

Evidences that maternal swimming exercise improves antioxidant defenses and induces mitochondrial biogenesis in the brain of young Wistar rats.  

PubMed

Physical exercise during pregnancy has been considered beneficial to mother and child. Recent studies showed that maternal swimming improves memory in the offspring, increases hippocampal neurogenesis and levels of neurotrophic factors. The objective of this work was to investigate the effect of maternal swimming during pregnancy on redox status and mitochondrial parameters in brain structures from the offspring. Adult female Wistar rats were submitted to five swimming sessions (30 min/day) prior to mating with adult male Wistar rats, and then trained during the pregnancy (five sessions of 30-min swimming/week). The litter was sacrificed when 7 days old, when cerebellum, parietal cortex, hippocampus, and striatum were dissected. We evaluated the production of reactive species and antioxidant status, measuring the activities of superoxide-dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione-peroxidase (GPx), as well as non-enzymatic antioxidants. We also investigated a potential mitochondrial biogenesis regarding mitochondrion mass and membrane potential, through cytometric approaches. Our results showed that maternal swimming exercise promoted an increase in reactive species levels in cerebellum, parietal cortex, and hippocampus, demonstrated by an increase in dichlorofluorescein oxidation. Mitochondrial superoxide was reduced in cerebellum and parietal cortex, while nitrite levels were increased in cerebellum, parietal cortex, hippocampus, and striatum. Antioxidant status was improved in cerebellum, parietal cortex, and hippocampus. SOD activity was increased in parietal cortex, and was not altered in the remaining brain structures. CAT and GPx activities, as well as non-enzymatic antioxidant potential, were increased in cerebellum, parietal cortex, and hippocampus of rats whose mothers were exercised. Finally, we observed an increased mitochondrial mass and membrane potential, suggesting mitochondriogenesis, in cerebellum and parietal cortex of pups subjected to maternal swimming. In conclusion, maternal swimming exercise induced neurometabolic programing in the offspring that could be of benefit to the rats against future cerebral insults. PMID:23639877

Marcelino, T B; Longoni, A; Kudo, K Y; Stone, V; Rech, A; de Assis, A M; Scherer, E B S; da Cunha, M J; Wyse, A T S; Pettenuzzo, L F; Leipnitz, G; Matté, C

2013-08-29

111

The timing of maternal separation affects morris water maze performance and long-term potentiation in male rats.  

PubMed

The increasing evidences showed that adverse early life events have profound long lasting consequences in adult rats including neural, behavioral, and cognitive effects. Early maternal separation was one of the models of adverse early life stress, but which period acts critically was unknown until now. The purpose of this paper was to explore the effects of maternal separation in different periods, that is, postnatal Day 2-9 and postnatal Day 14-21, on spatial learning and memory and long-term potentiation (LTP) in hippocampus of adolescent rats. Rat pups were assigned to three groups: early maternal separation from postnatal Day 2-9 (EMS2-9), separation from postnatal Day 14-21 (EMS14-21), and control (Con)--rats stayed with their mother all the time before weaning. Morris water maze test (MWM) and electrophysiological test were performed at 40-50 days of age. The results indicated that EMS14-21 impaired spatial learning and memory ability. For the excitatory postsynaptic potential long-term potentiation (EPSP LTP), both the two maternal separation groups showed decreased values compared to control group. In terms of population spike long-term potentiation (PS LTP), both the two maternal separation groups also showed lower values compared with control group, but only EMS14-21 group had significant difference compared with control group. In conclusion, our results revealed that EMS14-21 showed worst in both escape latency in Morris Water Maze test and LTP compared to control group and EMS2-9 group. PMID:23712516

Cao, Xiujing; Huang, Shenghai; Cao, Jiejie; Chen, Tingting; Zhu, Ping; Zhu, Rui; Su, Puyu; Ruan, Diyun

2014-07-01

112

Effects of essential oil from Chamaecyparis obtusa on cytokine genes in the hippocampus of maternal separation rats.  

PubMed

We investigated the effects of an essential oil from Chamaecyparis obtusa (EOCO) on early life stress, using maternal separation (MS) rats and a microarray method to analyze the changes in gene expressions caused by EOCO in the hippocampus of MS rats. Rats in the MS groups were separated from their respective mothers from postnatal day (pnd) 14 to 28. Rats in the EOCO-treated groups were exposed to EOCO for 1 or 2 h by inhalation from pnd 21 to 28. The EOCO-treated MS rats showed decreased anxiety-related behaviors compared with the untreated MS rats in the elevated plus-maze (EPM) test. In the microarray analysis, we found that EOCO downregulated the expressions of cytokine genes such as Ccl2, Il6, Cxcl10, Ccl19, and Il1rl in the hippocampus of MS rats, and also confirmed that using reverse transcriptase - PCR. In particular, the expressions of Ccl2 and Il6 were predominantly decreased by EOCO in the hippocampus of MS rats. Interestingly, protein expression was also reduced by EOCO in MS rats. These results indicate that EOCO decreases MS-induced anxiety-related behaviors, and modulates cytokines, particularly Ccl2 and Il6, in the hippocampus of MS rats. PMID:24502631

Park, Hae Jeong; Kim, Su Kang; Kang, Won Sub; Woo, Jong-Min; Kim, Jong Woo

2014-02-01

113

Localization of glycogen in the placenta and fetal and maternal livers of cadmium-exposed diabetic pregnant rats.  

PubMed

This study was designed to investigate the effects of Cd exposure on the glycogen localization in the placenta and in fetal and maternal livers in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced-diabetic pregnant rats. Ninety-nine virgin female Wistar rats (200-220 g) were mated with 33 males for at least 12 h. From the onset of pregnancy, the rats were divided into four experimental groups (control, Cd treated, STZ treated, and Cd+STZ treated). The Cd-treated group was injected subcutaneously daily with CdCl2 dissolved in isotonic NaCl, starting at the onset of pregnancy throughout the experiment. Diabetes was induced on d 13 of pregnancy by a single intraperitoneal injection of STZ in the STZ-treated group. In addition to the daily injection of Cd, a single intraperitoneal injection of STZ was also given on d 13 of pregnancy in the Cd+STZ-treated group. The rats received the last injection 24 h before being sacrificed and 10 randomly selected rats in each group were sacrificed on d 15 and d 20 of pregnancy. Blood samples were taken for determination of the serum glucose and insulin levels. Fetal and maternal livers of sacrificed rats in all groups were harvested on d 15 and d 20 of pregnancy, whereas placentas were harvested only on d 20 of pregnancy for histochemical examination. Although both Cd and STZ caused hyperglycemia and decreased insulin secretion, Cd-alone treatment increased the glycogen content only in the placental labyrinth, whereas STZ-alone treatment increased the glycogen content only in the maternal part of the placenta. Increased glycogen localization was observed in both the placental labyrinth and the maternal part of placenta when Cd and STZ were given together. Fetal and maternal livers of control and other treatment groups were not different regarding the glycogen content on d 15 or d 20 of pregnancy. It was concluded that Cd exposure during pregnancy might produce a glycogen localization in the placenta of diabetic rats. However, the function and the mechanisms of increased glycogen contents in the placenta of Cd-exposed pregnant diabetic rats remain unclear and further studies are needed. PMID:14716101

Yoruk, Mecit; Kanter, Mehmet; Meral, Ismail; Agaoglu, Zahid

2003-01-01

114

Effects of Maternal Dietary Restriction of Vitamin B-6 on Neocortex Development in Rats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this investigation was to quantitate the effects of a dietary restriction in Vitamin B-6 during gestation or gestation and lactation on neurogenesis, neuron longevity and neuron differentiation in the neocortex of rats. Sprague Dawley female rats were fed, ad libitum, a Vitamin B-6 free diet (AIN 76) supplemented with 0.0 or 0.6 mg pyridoxine (PN)/kg diet during gestation followed by a control level of 7.0 mg PN/kg diet during lactation, or were fed the Vitamin B-6 free diet supplemented with 0.6 or 7.0 mg PN/kg diet throughout gestation and lactation. The neocortex of progeny of these animals were examined at 30 days of age employing light and electron microscopy. Analyses of neurogenesis, neuron longevity and differentiation of neurons (size of somata, dendritic arborization and spine density in Golgi Cox preparations, and synaptic density in E.M. preparations) were conducted. Each of the Vitamin B-6 restricted treatments adversely affected neurogenesis, neuron longevity and neuron differentiation. The degree of adverse effects paralleled the severity (dose or duration) of the restriction imposed. Expressed as percentage reduction from control values, the findings indicated that neuron longevity and differentiation of neurons in the neocortex were more severely affected than neurogenesis by a maternal dietary restriction in Vitamin B-6.

Groziak, Susan Marie

115

Maternal separation exaggerates spontaneous recovery of extinguished contextual fear in adult female rats.  

PubMed

Early life stress increases the risk of posttraumatic stress disorders (PTSD). Patients with PTSD show impaired extinction of traumatic memory, and in women, this occurs more often when PTSD is preceded by child trauma. However, it is still unclear how early life stress accounts for extinction impairment. Here, we studied the effects of maternal separation (MS, postnatal day 2 to 14) on contextual fear extinction in adult female rats. Additionally, to examine changes in synaptic function affected by MS, we measured long-term potentiation (LTP) in prefrontal cortex and hippocampus in vitro, both of which have been implicated in fear extinction. We found that adult female rats had been subjected to MS exhibited significant spontaneous recovery of fear to the extinguished context. Furthermore, MS exposure resulted in LTP impairment in both infralimbic prefrontal cortex layer 2/3-layer 5 and hippocampal SC-CA1 pathways. Interestingly, no obvious effects of MS on contextual fear conditioning, fear recall as well as extinction training and recall were observed. Innate fear in the elevated plus maze or open field test remained nearly unaffected. These findings provided the first evidence that MS may exaggerate spontaneous recovery after contextual fear extinction, for which LTP impairment in the medial prefrontal cortex and hippocampus may be responsible, thereby possibly leading to impaired extinction associated with PTSD. PMID:24746487

Xiong, Gui-Jing; Yang, Yuan; Wang, Li-Ping; Xu, Lin; Mao, Rong-Rong

2014-08-01

116

Maternal prolactin inhibition at the end of lactation affects learning\\/memory and anxiety-like behaviors but not novelty-seeking in adult rat progeny  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maternal hypoprolactinemia at the end of lactation in rats reduces milk production and is associated with offspring's malnutrition. Since malnutrition during development is also known to have long lasting effects on cognition and emotion, in the present study we tested the hypothesis that maternal hypoprolactinemia, induced by bromocriptine treatment, at the end of the lactating period affects memory\\/learning, novelty-seeking and

Mabel C. Fraga; Egberto G. Moura; Juliana Oliveira Silva; Isabela Teixeira Bonomo; Cláudio C. Filgueiras; Yael Abreu-Villaça; Magna C. F. Passos; Patrícia C. Lisboa; Alex C. Manhães

2011-01-01

117

Neonatal maternal separation causes colonic dysfunction in rat pups including impaired host resistance.  

PubMed

Previous studies have shown that early life stress in the form of intermittent maternal separation (MS) predisposes adult rats to develop stress-induced intestinal mucosal dysfunction and visceral hypersensitivity. However, the mechanism involved in the functional abnormalities is unclear. Our aim was to study immature animals during or shortly after exposure to MS to determine whether there are early pathophysiological changes in the gut. Sprague-Dawley rat pups were individually separated from the dam for 3 h/d from 4 to 21 d of age; nonseparated (NS) control pups remained in the home cage with the dam. On d 19-20, d 24-25, and d 29-30, blood was collected for corticosterone measurement, and colonic tissues were removed for functional and morphologic assessment. Corticosteroid levels were elevated in MS pups compared with NS, indicating that MS was indeed stressful. The distal colon demonstrated significantly enhanced ion secretion and macromolecular permeability at d 19-20 and d 24-25, returning to normal by d 29-30. Electron microscopy and bacterial culture studies indicated bacteria adhering to and penetrating into the colonic epithelium of the MS pups at all time points, while such events were rare in NS pups. The pathophysiological changes were inhibited by injecting pups sc with a corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) receptor antagonist daily during MS. Our studies indicate that early psychological trauma predisposes neonatal rats to develop persistent mucosal barrier dysfunction, including impaired host defense to luminal bacteria, by a mechanism involving peripheral CRH receptors. PMID:16326990

Gareau, Mélanie G; Jury, Jennifer; Yang, Ping Chang; MacQueen, Glenda; Perdue, Mary H

2006-01-01

118

Subcortical band heterotopia in rat offspring following maternal hypothyroxinaemia: structural and functional characteristics.  

PubMed

Thyroid hormones (TH) play crucial roles in brain maturation and are important for neuronal migration and neocortical lamination. Subcortical band heterotopia (SBH) represent a class of neuronal migration errors in humans that are often associated with childhood epilepsy. We have previously reported the presence of SBH in a rodent model of low level hypothyroidism induced by maternal exposure to the goitrogen, propylthiouracil (PTU). In the present study, we report the dose-response characteristics of this developmental malformation and the connectivity of heterotopic neurones with other brain regions, as well as their functionality. Pregnant rats were exposed to varying concentrations of PTU through the drinking water (0-10 p.p.m.) beginning on gestational day 6 to produce graded levels of TH insufficiency. Dose-dependent increases in the volume of the SBH present in the corpus callosum were documented in the adult offspring, with a clear presence at concentrations of PTU that resulted in minor (< 15%) reductions in maternal serum thyroxine as measured when pups were weaned. SBH contain neurones, oligodendrocytes, astrocytes and microglia. Monoaminergic and cholinergic processes were prevalent and many of the axons were myelinated. Anatomical connectivity of SBH neurones to cortical neurones and the synaptic functionality of these anatomical connections was verified by ex vivo field potential recordings. SBH persisted in adult offspring despite a return to euthyroid status on termination of exposure and these offspring displayed an increased sensitivity to seizures. Features of this model are attractive with respect to the investigation of the molecular mechanisms of cortical development, the effectiveness of therapeutic intervention in hypothyroxinaemia during pregnancy and the impact of the very modest TH imbalance that accompanies exposure to environmental contaminants. PMID:24889016

Gilbert, M E; Ramos, R L; McCloskey, D P; Goodman, J H

2014-08-01

119

Ultrastructural studies on the placentae of streptozotocin induced maternal diabetes in the rat.  

PubMed

Following induction of diabetes by a single injection of (IP) streptozotocin (STZ) to pregnant Wistar rats on days 2, 4 and 6 to 12 of gestation, fetuses and placentae were collected on day 20. The controls were either untreated or vehicle treated; alternatively following STZ injection, 2-6 IU of insulin was administered (sc) daily until term. The placentae were fixed in a glutaraldehyde and paraformaldehyde mixture and ultrathin sections were examined under the electron microscope. The structure of the vehicle treated control resembled that of the untreated control. The insulin control group had pathological changes similar to those of the diabetic group but with considerably less frequency. The giant cells in the basal zone of STZ group were numerous; they had abundant dilated cisternae of rough endoplasmic reticulum, intracytoplasmic fibrinoid and nuclear inclusions. The trophospongial cells presented numerous clear vacuoles, lysosomes and myelin bodies. Enlarged vacuoles often impinged deeply on the nucleus. The glycogen cells disintegrated resulting in cyst formation. In the labyrinthine zone, layer I trophoblast revealed increased number of large pores through which layer II trophoblast projected into the maternal sinusoid. Layer II had abundant glycogen, lipid droplets and lysosomes. Layer III had imbibed much fluid and appeared foamy with swollen organelles. Fibrinoid substance was produced by the giant cells, basophils and the trophoblast bordering the maternal sinusoids. Cyst development was preceded by degeneration of glycogen cells in the basal zone and of the trophoblast in the labyrinthine zone. Pronounced development of gonadotropin/somatotropin granule-like 'secretory granules' and smooth endoplasmic reticulum associated lipid droplets also characterised the labyrinthine trophoblast. The observed placental pathology appears to correlate well with the intrauterine growth retardation and fetal malformations recorded in this animal model. PMID:2220022

Padmanabhan, R; al-Zuhair, A G

1990-01-01

120

Functional connectivity in prenatally stressed rats with and without maternal treatment with ladostigil, a brain-selective monoamine oxidase inhibitor.  

PubMed

Stress during pregnancy in humans is known to be a risk factor for neuropsychiatric disorders in the offspring. Prenatal stress in rats caused depressive-like behavior that was restored to that of controls by maternal treatment with ladostigil (8.5 mg/kg per day), a brain-selective monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitor that prevented increased anxiety-like behavior in stressed mothers. Ladostigil inhibited maternal striatal MAO-A and -B by 45-50% at the time the pups were weaned. Using resting state-functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging on rat male offspring of control mothers, and mothers stressed during gestation with and without ladostigil treatment, we identified neuronal connections that differed between these groups. The percentage of significant connections within a predefined predominantly limbic network in control rats was 23.3 within the right and 22.0 within the left hemisphere. Prenatal stress disturbed hemispheric symmetry, resulting in 30.2 and 21.6%, significant connections in the right and left hemispheres, respectively, but this was fully restored in the maternal ladostigil group to 24.6% in both hemispheres. All connections that were modified in prenatally stressed rats and restored by maternal drug treatment were associated with the dopaminergic system. Specifically, we observed that restoration of the connections of the right nucleus accumbens shell with frontal areas, the cingulate, septum and motor and sensory cortices, and those of the right globus pallidus with the infra-limbic and the dentate gyrus, were most important for prevention of depressive-like behavior. PMID:24862938

Goelman, G; Ilinca, R; Zohar, I; Weinstock, M

2014-09-01

121

Ventral Striatum Dopamine D2 Receptor Activity Inhibits Rat Pups' Vocalization Response to Loss of Maternal Contact  

PubMed Central

Most mammalian infants vocalize when isolated. The vocalization promotes caregiver proximity, which is critical to survival. If, before isolation, a rat pup has contact with its dam, its isolation vocalization rate is increased (maternal potentiation) relative to isolation preceded only by littermate contact. Prior work showed that systemic administration of a D2 receptor agonist blocks maternal potentiation at doses that do not alter baseline vocalization. In this study, infusion of quinpirole (2 µg/side) into the nucleus accumbens also blocks maternal potentiation. Infusion of the accumbens with the D2 antagonist raclopride (4 µg/side) prevents systemic quinpirole from blocking potentiation. Quinpirole infusion in the dorsal striatum did not affect maternal potentiation and infusion of raclopride in the dorsal striatum did not reverse the block of maternal potentiation by systemic quinpirole. Vocalization results after a second vehicle infusion on a given day are no different than the results following an initial vehicle infusion, so experimental design can not account for the effects of drug infusions. Because activity level was increased by both dorsal and ventral striatum infusions, activity level can not account for the results. PMID:18298255

Muller, Jeff M.; Moore, Holly; Myers, Michael M.; Shair, Harry N.

2010-01-01

122

Development of rats' maternally directed orienting behaviors from birth to day 2.  

PubMed

We previously observed 2- to 3-day-old (P2-3) rats perform maternally directed orienting behaviors (MDOBs)-locomotion, torso flexion, rotation to the supine orientation, and snout probing, accompanied by audible vocalizations (barking)-under surfaces having properties of the dam's ventrum, which result in close contact between the pup's ventrum and the surface. We now report on the development of MDOBs from birth through P2. Wistar rats (24 litters) were tested at one of four times: 1 hr after birth before the first nursing bout (P0pre), on the day of birth after the first nursing bout (P0post), on postnatal Day 1 (P1), or on postnatal Day 2 (P2). Pups were placed prone on a warmed platform inside a corral where, for 4 min, they encountered one of two motherlike surfaces at head height: (a) a soft cotton roof or (b) a patch of the pup's own anesthetized dam's ventrum. Control pups received no overhead stimulus. The behaviors we had identified as MDOBs and others, including limb behaviors, are easily recognized at P0pre, and, in aggregate, are more frequent then than at any later age. The differential responsiveness of most of the behaviors to the dam's ventrum compared to the cotton roof or open condition is relatively low at P0pre, but rises rapidly through P2. Behavioral structure develops quickly from a rudimentary principal component with two behaviors at P0pre to two principal components incorporating seven behavior classes by P2. MDOBs are discussed in relation to late-term fetal behaviors, early postnatal righting responses, and the oral nipple grasp, and as a model of the development of filial attachment in an altricial mammal. PMID:11857324

Polan, H J; Milano, D; Eljuga, L; Hofer, M A

2002-03-01

123

Neonatal maternal separation of rat pups results in abnormal cholinergic regulation of epithelial permeability.  

PubMed

Neonatal maternal separation (MS) predisposes adult rats to develop stress-induced mucosal barrier dysfunction/visceral hypersensitivity and rat pups to develop colonic epithelial dysfunction. Our aim was to examine if enhanced epithelial permeability in such pups resulted from abnormal regulation by enteric nerves. Pups were separated from the dam for 3 h/day (days 4-20); nonseparated (NS) pups served as controls. On day 20, colonic tissues were removed and mounted in Ussing chambers. Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) flux was used to measure macromolecular permeability. HRP flux was increased in MS versus NS pups. The enhanced flux was inhibited by the cholinergic muscarinic antagonist atropine and the nicotinic antagonist hexamethonium. The cholinergic component was greater in tissues from MS versus NS pups, suggesting that increased cholinergic activity was responsible for the MS elevated permeability. Western blots and immunohistochemistry of colonic tissues demonstrated increased expression of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) in MS pups, indicating greater synthesis of acetylcholine. Since a previous study indicated that corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) mediates barrier dysfunction in MS pups, we examined if the two pathways were linked. In MS tissues, nonselective CRF receptor antagonism inhibited the enhanced flux, and the addition of atropine did not produce further inhibition. Using selective receptor antagonists, we identified that CRF receptor 2 was involved in mediating this effect. These findings suggest that CRF, via CRF receptor 2, acts on cholinergic nerves to induce epithelial barrier dysfunction. Our study provides evidence that MS stimulates synthesis of acetylcholine, which, together with released CRF, creates a condition conducive to the development of epithelial barrier defects. PMID:17510196

Gareau, Mélanie G; Jury, Jennifer; Perdue, Mary H

2007-07-01

124

Protein restoration in low-birth-weight rat offspring derived from maternal low-protein diet leads to elevated hepatic CYP3A and CYP2C11 activity in adulthood.  

PubMed

The World Health Organization has identified hypercholesterolemia to be one of the major symptoms encompassing the metabolic syndrome. Moreover, epidemiologic evidence indicates that low-birth-weight offspring are at greater risk of developing the metabolic syndrome. Previous work in our laboratory demonstrated that maternal protein restriction (MPR) results in impaired fetal growth and hypercholesterolemia in adulthood. This was attributed to repression of hepatic CYP7A1, a rate-limiting enzyme that catabolizes cholesterol to bile acids. Another important function of hepatic cytochrome P450 enzymes is the phase I oxidative metabolism of drugs (i.e., statins for hypercholesterolemia), which can significantly impact pharmacokinetics. We hypothesized that MPR offspring may have altered ability to metabolize drugs in adulthood. To address this hypothesis, we maintained Wistar rats on a 20% protein diet (control) or a low 8% protein diet throughout prenatal and postnatal life (LP1) or exclusively during prenatal life and weaning (LP2). Intriguingly CYP3A and CYP2C11 intrinsic clearance (Vmax/Km) was significantly increased exclusively in LP2 offspring at postnatal day 130 compared with control or LP1 offspring, as evaluated by testosterone enzyme kinetics in liver microsomes. The increase in activity was secondary to an increase in CYP3A23 and CYP2C11 mRNA. Collectively, these findings suggest that a low-birth-weight offspring with postnatal catch-up growth may have a diminished response to xenobiotics metabolized by CYP3A and CYP2C11 enzymes. PMID:24212381

Sohi, Gurjeev; Barry, Eric J; Velenosi, Thomas J; Urquhart, Bradley L; Hardy, Daniel B

2014-02-01

125

Influence of the destabilisation of the maternal digestive microflora on that of the newborn rat.  

PubMed

By destabilising the digestive flora of pregnant rats by antibiotic treatment, it was shown that part of the digestive microflora of the neonate originated from the maternal faeces. A mixture of ampicillin, bacitracin neomycin and streptomycin associated with nystatin were administered ad libitum at three different times, 1-3, 3-5, and more than 5 days before the estimated date of littering. For each treatment, samples were taken from the faeces, teats, and vagina of dams and from the digestive tracts of neonates aged between 6 and 120 h, and analysed for the presence of staphylococci, enterococci, lactobacilli and coliform bacteria. Antibiotic treatment reduced digestive flora populations to levels lower than 10(2) g-1 but had less effect on the vaginal and cutaneous mammary flora. In the digestive microflora of the neonate, the enterococci were unevenly affected, whereas the staphylococci were considerably decreased and the lactobacilli almost completely eliminated; coliform bacteria were found sporadically and in small numbers. The traces of antibiotics found in milk are not sufficient to explain these modifications. Counts made in control animals on media fed the same antibiotic concentrations were not modified. This work underlined the awful consequences for the newborn of a serious perturbation of the mother flora and the necessity of its presence for a normal installation of the digestive microflora of the newborn. PMID:8513029

Brunel, A; Gouet, P

1993-01-01

126

Maternal exercise during pregnancy reduces risk of mammary tumorigenesis in rat offspring.  

PubMed

Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women. Emerging research indicates that modifying lifestyle factors during pregnancy may convey long-term health benefits to offspring. This study was designed to determine whether maternal exercise during pregnancy leads to reduced mammary tumorigenesis in female offspring. Pregnant rats were randomly assigned to exercised and sedentary groups, with the exercised group having free access to a running wheel and the sedentary group housed with a locked wheel during pregnancy. Female pups from exercised or sedentary dams were weaned at 21 days of age and fed a high fat diet without access to a running wheel. At 6 weeks, all pups were injected with the carcinogen N-methyl-N-nitrosourea. Mammary tumor development in all pups was monitored for 15 weeks. Pups from exercised dams had a substantially lower tumor incidence (42.9%) compared with pups from sedentary dams (100%). Neither tumor latency nor histological grade differed between the two groups. These data are the first to demonstrate that exercise during pregnancy potentiates reduced tumorigenesis in offspring. This study provides an important foundation towards developing more effective modes of behavior modification for cancer prevention. PMID:24950432

Camarillo, Ignacio G; Clah, Leon; Zheng, Wei; Zhou, Xuanzhu; Larrick, Brienna; Blaize, Nicole; Breslin, Emily; Patel, Neal; Johnson, Diamond; Teegarden, Dorothy; Donkin, Shawn S; Gavin, Timothy P; Newcomer, Sean

2014-11-01

127

The effect of maternal administration of enalapril on fetal development in the rat.  

PubMed

Enalapril (MK, 421), an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, was tested for teratogenicity using Wistar rats. The drug was given by oral intubation, from 6-15 days of gestation, at the doses of 0, 3, 10 and 30 mg/kg/day. Reduction in body weight and food consumption were observed in the treated dams. However, food efficiency index, assessed at different periods of gestation was found to be unaffected. On day 20 of gestation, all the dams were sacrificed by cervical dislocation and sign of maternal toxicity, reproduction indices and fetal measures were recorded. The dams treated with enalapril at only the doses of 10 and 30 mg/kg, produced significant decrease in numbers of implants, litter size and incidence of reabsorbed fetuses, and also reduced neonatal growth. No such effects were observed at the lowest dose level (3 mg/kg) used. External, visceral and skeletal examinations of the fetuses of enalapril-treated dams showed several types of variations in all groups, but no consistent pattern were observed. However, a slight increase in skeletal variations was seen with the highest dose (30 mg/kg) group. The data of the present study under the conditions described herein and at the doses employed, revealed no evidence of teratogenesis, but numerous deleterious effects on the fetus were evident. PMID:1455073

al-Harbi, M M; al-Shabanah, O A; al-Gharably, N M; Islam, M W

1992-09-01

128

EFFECTS ON THE FETAL RAT INTESTINE OF MATERNAL MALNUTRITION AND EXPOSURE TO NITROFEN (2,4-DICHLOROPHENYL-P-NITROPHENYL ETHER)  

EPA Science Inventory

The effects of maternal protein-energy malnutrition and exposure to nitrofen on selected aspects of intestinal morphology and function were studied in the fetal rat. Pregnant rats were fed, throughout gestation, diets containing 24% or 6% casein as the sole source of protein. Red...

129

Selective carbohydrate or protein restriction: Effects on subsequent food intake and cravings  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to determine the effects of selective food restriction on subsequent food intake and cravings, participants were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: carbohydrate-restriction, protein-restriction, or control (no restriction). Participants in the restriction conditions were asked to restrict their intake of either complex carbohydrates or animal proteins for 3 days, before coming to the laboratory for an experimental

Jennifer S. Coelho; Janet Polivy; C. Peter Herman

2006-01-01

130

Research report Selective carbohydrate or protein restriction: Effects on subsequent food intake and cravings  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to determine the effects of selective food restriction on subsequent food intake and cravings, participants were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: carbohydrate-restriction, protein-restriction, or control (no restriction). Participants in the restriction conditions were asked to restrict their intake of either complex carbohydrates or animal proteins for 3 days, before coming to the laboratory for an experimental

Jennifer S. Coelho; Janet Polivy; C. Peter Herman

131

Maternal Contact Differentially Modulates Central and Peripheral Oxytocin in Rat Pups During a Brief Regime of Mother-Pup Interaction that Induces a Filial Huddling Preference  

PubMed Central

Central oxytocin mediates the acquisition of a filial preference for maternal odour in rat pups, manifested by their huddling preferences. The present study was designed to examine whether maternal care modulates oxytocin concentrations in rat pups and, if so, how different types of maternal contact are associated with the pups’ oxytocin concentrations. Pairs of 14-day-old littermates were removed from their home cage for 1 h and then placed with a lactating foster mother for 2 h, or they remained isolated at room temperature. Enzyme immunoassays revealed that maternal care and maternal separation can differentially modulate pups’ oxytocin concentrations. Both hypothalamic and serum oxytocin increased during the 1-h separation. Pups placed with a foster mother after the separation maintained the same concentrations in the hypothalamus and serum through the fostering period. By contrast, pups placed with no mother showed a further increase in hypothalamic oxytocin but serum oxytocin decreased. Behavioural analyses revealed that skin-to-skin contact with the mother, but not simple physical contact or maternal licking / grooming, was positively correlated with the pups’ hypothalamic oxytocin concentrations. These neuroendocrine data match previous findings showing that skin-to-skin contact with mother facilitates the acquisition of the pups’ huddling preference for a maternally-associated odour. Taken together, the present study suggests that maternal skin-to-skin contact stimulates pups’ central oxytocin, at the same time as creating the conditions for inducing a preference for maternal odour and establishing a social affiliation in rat pups; the natural schedule of maternal separation and reunion may modulate pups’ oxytocin concentrations, providing scaffolding for the acquisition of their filial huddling preference. PMID:22260655

Kojima, S.; Stewart, R. A.; Demas, G. E.; Alberts, J. R.

2014-01-01

132

Maternal toxicity.  

PubMed

Although demonstration of some degree of maternal toxicity is required in regulatory developmental toxicology studies, marked maternal toxicity may be a confounding factor in data interpretation. Reduction in maternal body weight gain is the far most frequently used endpoint of toxicity, but alternative endpoints, like organ toxicity or exaggerated pharmacological response, can also be taken into consideration. The following conclusions are based on literature data and discussions at maternal toxicity workshops attended by representatives from regulatory agencies, academia, and industry: (1) Available results do not support that maternal toxicity (defined as clinical signs, decreased body weight gain or absolute body weight loss of up to 15% in rats or 7% in rabbits) can be used to explain the occurrence of major malformations. (2) There is clear evidence that substantial reductions in maternal weight gain (or absolute weight loss) are linked with other manifestations of developmental toxicity. Among these can be mentioned decreased fetal weight, and skeletal anomalies (e.g., wavy ribs) in rats and decreased fetal weights, post implantation loss, abortions, and some skeletal anomalies in rabbits. (3) There are several examples of misinterpretation among companies, where it was incorrectly expected that regulatory authorities would not label chemicals/drugs as "teratogens/developmental toxicants" because embryo fetal adverse effects were only observed at doses also causing signs of maternal toxicity. (4) Similarly, even if mechanistic studies indicate that a substance causes developmental toxicity via exaggerated pharmacological effects in the mother, such a mechanism does not automatically negate the observed fetal adverse effects.From a regulatory perspective, an observed developmental toxic finding is considered to be of potential human relevance (even if it is mediated via maternal pharmacological effects or occur at doses causing signs of maternal toxicity) unless the company can provide appropriate mechanistic and/or other convincing evidence to the contrary. PMID:23138914

Danielsson, Bengt R

2013-01-01

133

Sugared water consumption by adult offspring of mothers fed a protein-restricted diet during pregnancy results in increased offspring adiposity: the second hit effect.  

PubMed

Poor maternal nutrition predisposes offspring to metabolic disease. This predisposition is modified by various postnatal factors. We hypothesised that coupled to the initial effects of developmental programming due to a maternal low-protein diet, a second hit resulting from increased offspring postnatal sugar consumption would lead to additional changes in metabolism and adipose tissue function. The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of sugared water consumption (5% sucrose in the drinking-water) on adult offspring adiposity as a 'second hit' following exposure to maternal protein restriction during pregnancy. We studied four offspring groups: (1) offspring of mothers fed the control diet (C); (2) offspring of mothers fed the restricted protein diet (R); (3) offspring of control mothers that drank sugared water (C-S); (4) offspring of restricted mothers that drank sugared water (R-S). Maternal diet in pregnancy was considered the first factor and sugared water consumption as the second factor - the second hit. Body weight and total energy consumption, before and after sugared water consumption, were similar in all the groups. Sugared water consumption increased TAG, insulin and cholesterol concentrations in both the sexes of the C-S and R-S offspring. Sugared water consumption increased leptin concentrations in the R-S females and males but not in the R offspring. There was also an interaction between sugared water and maternal diet in males. Sugared water consumption increased adipocyte size and adiposity index in both females and males, but the interaction with maternal diet was observed only in females. Adiposity index and plasma leptin concentrations were positively correlated in both the sexes. The present study shows that a second hit during adulthood can amplify the effects of higher adiposity arising due to poor maternal pregnancy diet in an offspring sex dependent fashion. PMID:24124655

Cervantes-Rodríguez, M; Martínez-Gómez, M; Cuevas, E; Nicolás, L; Castelán, F; Nathanielsz, P W; Zambrano, E; Rodríguez-Antolín, J

2014-02-01

134

Probiotic treatment of rat pups normalises corticosterone release and ameliorates colonic dysfunction induced by maternal separation  

PubMed Central

Background We previously showed that neonatal maternal separation (MS) of rat pups causes immediate and long?term changes in intestinal physiology. Aim To examine if administration of probiotics affects MS?induced gut dysfunction. Methods MS pups were separated from the dam for 3?h/day from days 4 to 19; non?separated (NS) pups served as controls. Twice per day during the separation period, 108 probiotic organisms (two strains of Lactobacillus species) were administered to MS and NS pups; vehicle?treated pups received saline. Studies were conducted on day 20, when blood was collected for corticosterone measurement as an indication of hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis activity, and colonic function was studied in tissues mounted in Ussing chambers. Ion transport was indicated by baseline and stimulated short?circuit current (Isc); macromolecular permeability was measured by flux of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) across colonic tissues; and bacterial adherence/penetration into the mucosa was quantified by culturing tissues in selective media. Colonic function and host defence were also evaluated at day 60. Results Isc and HRP flux were significantly higher in the colon of MS versus NS pups. There was increased adhesion/penetration of total bacteria in MS pups, but a significant reduction in Lactobacillus species. Probiotic administration ameliorated the MS?induced gut functional abnormalities and bacterial adhesion/penetration at both day 20 and 60, and reduced the elevated corticosterone levels at day 20. Conclusions The results indicate that altered enteric flora are responsible for colonic pathophysiology. Probiotics improve gut dysfunction induced by MS, at least in part by normalisation of HPA axis activity. PMID:17339238

Gareau, Melanie G; Jury, Jennifer; MacQueen, Glenda; Sherman, Philip M; Perdue, Mary H

2007-01-01

135

Effects of alpha-lipoic acid supplementation on maternal diabetes-induced growth retardation and congenital anomalies in rat fetuses.  

PubMed

The mechanism of diabetic embryopathy is not known. Excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced in diabetes may be causally related to foetal anomalies. The objective of this study was to determine whether supplementation with the antioxidant lipoic acid (LA) could prevent maternal diabetes-related foetal malformations and intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) in rats. Pregnant rats were non-treated (Group I) or made diabetic on gestation day (GD) 2 by injecting streptozotocin (Group II). Group III was injected with 20 mg kg(-1) of LA daily starting on GD 6 and continued through GD 19. Group IV was administered only Tris buffer on the corresponding days. Group V was a set of STZ-treated animals, which were supplemented with a daily dose of 20 mg kg(-1) of LA from GD 6 through GD 19. All fetuses were collected on GD 20. Lipoic acid did not affect the blood sugar levels of diabetic animals significantly but improved their body weight gain and reduced food and water consumption. Diabetic group had a high incidence of embryonic resorption, IUGR, craniofacial malformations, supernumerary ribs and skeletal hypoplasia. Lipoic acid significantly reduced these abnormalities. These data support the hypothesis that ROS are causally related to fetal maldevelopment and IUGR associated with maternal diabetes in the rat. They also highlight the possible role of antioxidants in the normal processes of embryo survival, growth and development. PMID:15362495

Al Ghafli, M H M; Padmanabhan, R; Kataya, H H; Berg, B

2004-06-01

136

Early Maternal Separation Increases Symptoms of Activity-Based Anorexia in Male and Female Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Running activates the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis, increasing the release of stress hormones known to exert anorexic effects. HPA axis reactivity is strongly influenced by early postnatal manipulations, including removal of pups from the dam for short (handling) or prolonged (maternal separation) durations during the preweaning period. The authors examined the effects of handling and maternal separation on food intake, body

Stephanie Hancock; Virginia Grant

2009-01-01

137

Interactive effects of prenatal cocaine and nicotine exposure on maternal toxicity, postnatal development, and behavior in the rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments were performed to investigate the interactive effects of prenatal coadministration of cocaine hydrochloride\\u000a (C) and nicotine tartrate (N). Experiment I was designed to determine doses of C and N that could be coadministered without\\u000a altering maternal gestational parameters and\\/or fetal viability. Exposure of Sprague-Dawley rats to combined high-dose C (20\\u000a mg\\/kg) and high-dose N (5.0 mg\\/kg) on gestation

Sonya K. Sobrian; S. F. Ali; W. Slikker; R. Robert Holson

1995-01-01

138

Effects of 5-hydroxytryptamine 2C receptor agonist MK212 and 2A receptor antagonist MDL100907 on maternal behavior in postpartum female rats.  

PubMed

Maternal behavior in rats is a highly motivated and well-organized social behavior. Given the known roles of serotonin (5-HT) in emotion, motivation, social behavior, and major depression - and its known interaction with dopamine - it is likely that serotonin also plays a crucial role in this behavior. So far, there are surprisingly few studies focusing on 5-HT in maternal behavior, except for maternal aggression. In the present study, we examined the effects of 5-HT2C receptor agonism and 5-HT2A receptor antagonism on maternal behavior in postpartum female rats. We hypothesized that activation of 5-HT2C receptors and blockade of 5-HT2A receptors would produce a functionally equivalent disruption of maternal behavior because these two receptor subtypes often exert opposite effects on various brain functions and psychological processes relevant to rat maternal behavior. On postpartum Days 5, 7, and 9, Sprague-Dawley mother rats were given a single injection of 0.9% NaCl solution, the 5-HT2C agonist MK212 (0.5, 1.0 or 2.0 mg/kg, ip), or the 5-HT2A antagonist MDL100907 (0.05, 0.5 or 2.0 mg/kg, ip). Maternal behavior was tested 30 min before and 30 min, 120 min, 240 min after injection. Acute injection of MK212 significantly disrupted pup retrieval, pup licking, pup nursing, and nest building in a dose-dependent fashion. At the tested doses, MDL100907 had little effect on various components of rat maternal behavior. Across the 3 days of testing, no apparent sensitization or tolerance associated with repeated administration of MK212 and MDL100907 was found. We concluded that rat maternal performance is critically dependent on 5-HT2C receptors, while the role of 5-HT2A receptors is still inconclusive. Possible behavioral mechanisms of actions of 5-HT2C receptor in maternal behavior are discussed. PMID:24321440

Chen, Weihai; Zhang, Qi; Su, Wenxin; Zhang, Haorong; Yang, Yu; Qiao, Jing; Sui, Nan; Li, Ming

2014-02-01

139

Maternal Low-Protein Diet or Hypercholesterolemia Reduces Circulating Essential Amino Acids and Leads to Intrauterine Growth Restriction  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE—We have examined maternal mechanisms for adult- onset glucose intolerance, increased adiposity, and atherosclerosis using two mouse models for intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR): maternal protein restriction and hypercholesterolemia. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—For these studies, we measured the amino acid levels in dams from two mouse models for IUGR: 1) feeding C57BL\\/6J dams a protein-restricted diet and 2) feeding C57BL\\/6J LDL

Kum Kum; S. Bhasin; Atila van Nas; Lisa J. Martin; Richard C. Davis; Sherin U. Devaskar; Aldons J. Lusis

2009-01-01

140

Increased incidence of congenital malformations in the offspring of diabetic rats and their prevention by maternal insulin therapy.  

PubMed

Intensive care of the pregnant mother with diabetes has dramatically decreased the incidence of diabetic fetopathy. The persistently high rate of fetal and neonatal mortality in diabetic pregnancies is nowadays mainly due to the increased incidence of serious congenital malformations. However, attempts to elucidate the precise teratogenic mechanisms have been sparse, presumably because of a lack of relevant animal models. In the present study we recorded the incidence and types of skeletal malformations in live offspring of normal rats and in rats made diabetic with the B-cytotoxic agent streptozotocin (SZ) at least 2 wk before conception. In some of the diabetic animals insulin treatment was begun 1 wk after the SZ injection and continued throughout pregnancy. In addition, the fetal development was followed by assessing the calcification of the skeleton on gestational days 20 and 22 with the aid of Alazarin Red S staining. Manifest diabetes in the pregnant rat induced a decrease in fetal weight and viability and marked retardation of skeletal maturation. In addition, about 20% of 135 viable fetuses showed skeletal malformations comprising either micrognathia or caudal dysgenesis. These defects were not found in 314 offspring of the control rats. Only two cases of caudal dysgenesis and none of micrognathia were detected among 233 offspring of the insulin-treated rats. The present data underscore the importance of a strict differentiation in the offspring of the diabetic rat between transient development retardations and true malformations. They also demonstrate that correction of the maternal glucose intolerance is crucial for preventing the fetus from developing skeletal malformations. Altogether the data suggest that fetal malformations in the diabetic rat are attributable either to the hyperglycemia as such or to some accompanying metabolic consequence of insulin deficiency. PMID:6759206

Eriksson, U; Dahlström, E; Larsson, K S; Hellerström, C

1982-01-01

141

Maternal calorie restriction modulates placental mitochondrial biogenesis and bioenergetic efficiency: putative involvement in fetoplacental growth defects in rats.  

PubMed

Low birth weight is associated with an increased risk for developing type 2 diabetes and metabolic diseases. The placental capacity to supply nutrients and oxygen to the fetus represents the main determiner of fetal growth. However, few studies have investigated the effects of maternal diet on the placenta. We explored placental adaptive proteomic processes implicated in response to maternal undernutrition. Rat term placentas from 70% food-restricted (FR30) mothers were used for a proteomic screen. Placental mitochondrial functions were evaluated using molecular and functional approaches, and ATP production was measured. FR30 drastically reduced placental and fetal weights. FR30 placentas displayed 14 proteins that were differentially expressed, including several mitochondrial proteins. FR30 induced a marked increase in placental mtDNA content and changes in mitochondrial functions, including modulation of the expression of genes implicated in biogenesis and bioenergetic pathways. FR30 mitochondria showed higher oxygen consumption but failed to maintain their ATP production. Maternal undernutrition induces placental mitochondrial abnormalities. Although an increase in biogenesis and bioenergetic efficiency was noted, placental ATP level was reduced. Our data suggest that placental mitochondrial defects may be implicated in fetoplacental pathologies. PMID:23092912

Mayeur, Sylvain; Lancel, Steve; Theys, Nicolas; Lukaszewski, Marie-Amélie; Duban-Deweer, Sophie; Bastide, Bruno; Hachani, Johan; Cecchelli, Roméo; Breton, Christophe; Gabory, Anne; Storme, Laurent; Reusens, Brigitte; Junien, Claudine; Vieau, Didier; Lesage, Jean

2013-01-01

142

Structural equation modeling and nested ANOVA: Effects of lead exposure on maternal and fetal growth in rats  

SciTech Connect

This study provided an assessment of the effects of lead on early growth in rats based on structural equation modeling and nested analysis of variance (ANOVA). Structural equation modeling showed that lead in drinking water (250, 500, or 1000 ppm) had a direct negative effect on body weight and tail length (i.e., growth) in female rats during the first week of exposure. During the following 2 weeks of exposure, high correlation between growth measurements taken over time resulted in reduced early postnatal growth. By the fourth week of exposure, reduced growth was not evident. Mating began after 8 weeks of exposure, and exposure continued during gestation. Decreased fetal body weight was detected when the effects of litter size, intrauterine position, and sex were controlled in a nested ANOVA. Lead exposure did not appear to affect fetal skeletal development, possibly because lead did not alter maternal serum calcium and phosphorus levels. The effect of lead on individual fetal body weight suggests that additional studies are needed to examine the effect of maternal lead exposure on fetal development and early postnatal growth. 24 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

Hamilton, J.D. (Rohm and Haas Company, Spring House, PA (United States)); O'Flaherty, E.J.; Shukla, R.; Gartside, P.S. (Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States)); Ross, R. (Univ. of Cincinnati Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH (United States))

1994-01-01

143

Maternal nicotinamide supplementation causes global DNA hypomethylation, uracil hypo-incorporation and gene expression changes in fetal rats.  

PubMed

Recent evidence shows that excess nicotinamide can cause epigenetic changes in developing rats. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of maternal nicotinamide supplementation on the fetus. Female rats were randomised into four groups fed a standard chow diet (control group) or diets supplemented with 1 g/kg of nicotinamide (low-dose group), 4 g/kg of nicotinamide (high-dose group) or 4 g/kg of nicotinamide plus 2 g/kg of betaine (betaine group) for 14-16 d before mating and throughout the study. Fetal tissue samples were collected on the 20th day of pregnancy. Compared with the control group, the high-dose group had a higher fetal death rate, and the average fetal body weight was higher in the low-dose group but lower in the high-dose group. Nicotinamide supplementation led to a decrease in placental and fetal hepatic genomic DNA methylation and genomic uracil contents (a factor modifying DNA for diversity) in the placenta and fetal liver and brain, which could be completely or partially prevented by betaine. Moreover, nicotinamide supplementation induced tissue-specific alterations in the mRNA expression of the genes encoding nicotinamide N-methyltransferase, DNA methyltransferase 1, catalase and tumour protein p53 in the placenta and fetal liver. High-dose nicotinamide supplementation increased fetal hepatic ?-fetoprotein mRNA level, which was prevented by betaine supplementation. It is concluded that maternal nicotinamide supplementation can induce changes in fetal epigenetic modification and DNA base composition. The present study raises the concern that maternal nicotinamide supplementation may play a role in the development of epigenetic-related diseases in the offspring. PMID:24507733

Tian, Yan-Jie; Luo, Ning; Chen, Na-Na; Lun, Yong-Zhi; Gu, Xin-Yi; Li, Zhi; Ma, Qiang; Zhou, Shi-Sheng

2014-05-01

144

Intergenerational effects of cocaine on maternal aggressive behavior and brain oxytocin in rat dams  

PubMed Central

Gestational cocaine treatment results in significantly increased maternal aggression towards an intruder by postpartum day six, while acute postpartum treatment dose dependently decreases maternal aggressive (MA) behavior. Both increased and decreased aggression in the cocaine-treated dams are correlated with either decreased or increased levels of oxytocin in the amygdala, respectively. The current study was an effort to determine whether the effect of gestational cocaine on maternal aggression is transient or would continue into the postpartum period; whether an intermittent cocaine treatment regimen, which incorporates gestational and postpartum intermittent cocaine treatment, would differ from chronic daily gestational treatment; and finally, whether next generation female offspring of cocaine-treated or control dams would have altered MA behavior and oxytocin system changes attributable to either prenatal drug exposure, rearing condition or both. We now report no increase in maternal aggression following chronic gestational treatment and significantly lower levels of aggression in intermittently treated dams on postpartum day eight, with no significant effects in either group on postpartum day 12. Young adult female offspring of the cocaine-treated and control dams, who reared their own natural litters and were tested on postpartum day eight for maternal aggression, had higher levels of maternal aggression towards an intruder attributable to both prenatal cocaine exposure and rearing condition. Higher aggression in cocaine-reared next generation dams was associated with lower levels of oxytocin in the amygdala. Intergenerational effects of cocaine were apparent with respect to aggression and oxytocin system changes. PMID:18609307

Mcmurray, M.S.; Joyner, P.W.; Middleton, C.W.; Jarrett, T.M.; Elliott, D.L.; Black, M.A.; Hofler, V.E.; Walker, C.H.; Johns, J.M.

2011-01-01

145

Effects of maternal separation, early handling, and standard facility rearing on orienting and impulsive behavior of adolescent rats.  

PubMed

Effects of maternal separation in rats have been extensively investigated, but no studies have examined its effects in rat adolescence. We examined the effects of neonatal infant-mother separation (MS) for 6h/day and early handling (EH) for 10 days during the first 2 weeks of life by comparing MS and EH groups to standard facility reared (SFR) controls. At adolescence, the animals were evaluated in a novel and familiar open-field, the light-dark box, and the sucrose consumption test. Behavioral indices included orienting behavior (rearing frequency and duration), impulsive behavior (movement velocity and risk taking by entering the center of the open field or the light compartment of the light-dark box), hyperactivity (ambulatory distance and stereotypic movement), and reward-seeking behavior (sucrose drinking time). The prolonged MS during the first 2 weeks of life resulted in decreased orienting behavior and increased impulsive behavior in adolescence. Measures of ambulatory and stereotypic movements showed that MS rats were hyperactive in the novel environment whereas EH rats were less active overall. The impulsive/hyperactive phenotype produced by this MS protocol may provide a useful animal model to investigate the neurological basis for the similar behavioral phenotype found in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. PMID:16242858

Colorado, Rene A; Shumake, Jason; Conejo, Nelida M; Gonzalez-Pardo, Hector; Gonzalez-Lima, F

2006-01-10

146

1,25(OH) sub 2 D sub 3 and Ca-binding protein in fetal rats: Relationship to the maternal vitamin D status  

SciTech Connect

The autonomy and functional role of fetal 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D{sub 3} (1,25(OH){sub 2}D{sub 3}) were investigated in nondiabetic and diabetic BB rats fed diets containing 0.85% calcium-0.7% phosphorus or 0.2% calcium and phosphorus and in semistarved rats on the low calcium-phosphorus diet. The changes in maternal and fetal plasma 1,25(OH){sub 2}D{sub 3} were similar: the levels were increased by calcium-phosphorus restriction and decreased by diabetes and semistarvation. Maternal and fetal 1,25(OH){sub 2}D{sub 3} levels were correlated. The vitamin D-dependent calcium-binding proteins (CaBP{sub 9K} and CaBP{sub 28K}) were measured in multiple maternal and fetal tissues and in the placenta of nondiabetic, diabetic, and calcium-phosphorus-restricted rats. The distributions of CaBP{sub 9K} and CaBP{sub 28K} in the pregnant rat were similar to that of the growing rat. The increased maternal plasma 1,25(OH){sub 2}D{sub 3} levels in calcium-phosphorus-restricted rats were associated with higher duodenal CaBP{sub 9K} and renal CaBPs, but placental CaBP{sub 9K} was not different. In diabetic pregnant rats, duodenal CaBP{sub 9K} was not different. In diabetic pregnant rats, duodenal CaBP{sub 9K} tended to be lower, while renal CaBPs were normal; placental CaBP{sub 9K} was decreased. The results indicate that in the rat fetal 1,25(OH){sub 2}D{sub 3} depends on maternal 1,25(OH){sub 2}D{sub 3} or on factors regulating maternal 1,25(OH){sub 2}D{sub 3}. The lack of changes in fetal CaBP in the presence of altered fetal plasma 1,25(OH){sub 2}D{sub 3} levels confirms earlier data showing that 1,25(H){sub 2}D{sub 3} has a limited hormonal function during perinatal development in the rat.

Verhaeghe, J.; Thomasset, M.; Brehier, A.; Van Assche, F.A.; Bouillon, R. (Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (Belgium) Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medical (France))

1988-04-01

147

Enhanced Maternal Aggression and Associated Changes in Neuropeptide Gene Expression in Multiparous Rats  

PubMed Central

While it has often been speculated that prior reproductive experience improves subsequent maternal care, few studies have examined specific changes in behavior during a first versus second lactation. During lactation mothers display heightened aggression toward male intruders, purportedly to protect vulnerable young. In the current study, maternal aggression was examined in primiparous and age-matched, multiparous females on postpartum days 5 (PPD5) and PPD15. Expression of oxytocin (OXT), oxytocin receptor (OXT-R), arginine vasopressin (AVP), arginine vasopressin V1a receptors (V1a), and corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRH) mRNA was measured following aggression testing at both time points using real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) in brain regions previously implicated in the regulation of maternal aggression. Multiparity significantly enhanced maternal aggression on PPD5 but not on PPD15. In addition, this increased aggression was associated with region and gene specific changes in mRNA expression. These findings indicate that reproductive experience enhances maternal aggression, an effect that may be mediated by region specific alterations in neuropeptidergic activity. The adaptations observed in multiparous females provide an innate model for the study of neuroplasticity in the regulation of aggression. PMID:19824761

Nephew, Benjamin C.; Bridges, Robert S.; Lovelock, Dennis F.; Byrnes, Elizabeth M.

2009-01-01

148

Effects of Maternal Exposure to a Reconstituted Mixture of Polychlorinated Biphenyls on Sex-Dependent Behaviors and Steroid Hormone Concentrations in Rats: Dose–Response Relationship  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a previous experiment, maternal exposure to a polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) mixture reconstituted according to the congener pattern found in human breast milk resulted in decreased aromatase activity in the brain of newborn male rats, together with feminization of sweet preference behavior in adult male littermates. Both mixtures led to similar reductions of serum testosterone and testes weights. The purpose

Hatice Kaya; Jürgen Hany; Annemarie Fastabend; Astrid Roth-Härer; Gerhard Winneke; Hellmuth Lilienthal

2002-01-01

149

Heightened fear in response to a safety cue and extinguished fear cue in a rat model of maternal immune activation  

PubMed Central

Maternal immune activation (MIA) during pregnancy is an environmental risk factor for psychiatric illnesses such as schizophrenia and autism in the offspring. Hence, changes in an array of behaviors, including behavioral flexibility, consistent with altered functioning of cortico-limbic circuits have been reported in rodent models of MIA. Surprisingly, previous studies have not examined the effect of MIA on the extinction of fear conditioning which depends on cortico-limbic circuits. Thus, we tested the effects of treating pregnant Long Evans rats with the viral mimetic polyI:C (gestational day 15; 4 mg/kg; i.v.) on fear conditioning and extinction in the male offspring using two different tasks. In the first experiment, we observed no effect of polyI:C treatment on the acquisition or extinction of a classically conditioned fear memory in a non-discriminative auditory cue paradigm. However, polyI:C-treated offspring did increase contextual freezing during the recall of fear extinction in this non-discriminative paradigm. The second experiment utilized a recently developed task to explicitly test the ability of rats to discriminate among cues signifying fear, reward, and safety; a task that requires behavioral flexibility. To our surprise, polyI:C-treated rats acquired the task in a manner similar to saline-treated rats. However, upon subsequent extinction training, they showed significantly faster extinction of the freezing response to the fear cue. In contrast, during the extinction recall test, polyI:C-treated offspring showed enhanced freezing behavior before and after presentation of the fear cue, suggesting an impairment in their ability to regulate fear behavior. These behavioral results are integrated into the literature suggesting impairments in cortico-limbic brain function in the offspring of rats treated with polyI:C during pregnancy. PMID:24847231

Sangha, Susan; Greba, Quentin; Robinson, Paul D.; Ballendine, Stephanie A.; Howland, John G.

2014-01-01

150

Influence of Maternal Exposure to 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin on Socioemotional Behaviors in Offspring Rats  

PubMed Central

Effects of dioxins on cognitive functions were reported in previous studies conducted in humans and animals. In the present study, we investigated the influence of dioxin exposure during pregnancy on social interaction and on the activity of offspring, which are related to neurodevelopmental disturbances. In addition, we analyzed neurochemical alterations of the limbic system of rat brains to suggest one mechanism of dioxin effects on brain function. We believe that this manuscript is suitable for publication in “Environmental Health Insights” because it provides an interesting topic for a wide global audience. To clarify the relationships between maternal dioxin exposure and socioemotional functions of rat offspring, dams were given TCDD (1.0 ?g/kg) on gestational day 15. Social interactions and forced swimming time were compared between TCDD-exposed and control offspring in each gender. Frequency and duration of locomotion were higher, and durations per one behavior of proximity and social contact were significantly lower in the exposed males, while only the duration of proximity was lower in the exposed females. Forced swimming time on the first day was significantly longer in the exposed males. In the limbic system of the rat brain, the levels and/or activity of CaMKII? were decreased in males and were increased in females in the exposed offspring. These results suggest that prenatal TCDD exposure induces hyperactivity and socioemotional deficits, particularly in the male offspring due to alterations in CaMKII? activity in the limbic system of the brain. PMID:23493046

Nguyen, Anh T.N.; Nishijo, Muneko; Hori, Etsuro; Nguyen, Nui M.; Pham, Tai T.; Fukunaga, Kohji; Nakagawa, Hideaki; Tran, Anh H.; Nishijo, Hisao

2013-01-01

151

Protein quality affects bone status during moderate protein restriction in growing mice.  

PubMed

Adequate protein intake during development is critical to ensure optimal bone gain and to attain a higher peak bone mass later on. We hypothesized that the quality of the dietary protein is of prime importance for bone physiology during moderate protein restriction. The target population was growing Balb/C mice. We compared two protein restricted diets (6% of total energy as protein), one based on soy (LP-SOY) and one based on casein (LP-CAS). For comparison, a normal protein soy-based control group (NP-SOY) and a low protein group receiving an anabolic daily parathyroid hormone (PTH) 1-34 injection (LP-SOY+PTH) were included in the protocol. After 8weeks, LP-SOY mice had reduced body weights related to a lower lean mass whereas LP-CAS mice were not different from the NP-SOY group. LP-SOY mice were characterized by lower femoral cortical thickness, bone volume, trabecular number and thickness and increased medullar adiposity when compared to both the LP-CAS and NP-SOY groups. However, the dietary intervention had no effect on the vertebral parameters. The negative effect of the LP-SOY diet was correlated to an impaired bone formation as shown by the reduced P1NP serum level as well as the reduced osteoid surfaces and bone formation rate in the femur. PTH injection in LP-SOY mice had no effect on total weight or lean mass, but improved all bone parameters at both femoral and vertebral sites, suggesting that amino acid deficiency was not the primary reason for degraded bone status in mice consuming soy protein. In conclusion, our study showed that under the same protein restriction (6% of energy), a soy diet leads to impaired bone health whereas a casein diet has little effect when compared to a normal protein control. PMID:24495359

Rouy, Emilien; Vico, Laurence; Laroche, Norbert; Benoit, Valérie; Rousseau, Brigitte; Blachier, François; Tomé, Daniel; Blais, Anne

2014-02-01

152

Brain-blood amino acid correlates following protein restriction in murine maple syrup urine disease  

PubMed Central

Background Conventional therapy for patients with maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) entails restriction of protein intake to maintain acceptable levels of the branched chain amino acid, leucine (LEU), monitored in blood. However, no data exists on the correlation between brain and blood LEU with protein restriction, and whether correction in blood is reflected in brain. Methods To address this question, we fed intermediate MSUD mice diets of 19% (standard) and 6% protein, with collection of sera (SE), striata (STR), cerebellum (CE) and cortex (CTX) for quantitative amino acid analyses. Results LEU and valine (VAL) levels in all brain regions improved on average 28% when shifting from 19% to 6% protein, whereas the same improvements in SE were on average 60%. Isoleucine (ILE) in brain regions did not improve, while the SE level improved 24% with low-protein consumption. Blood-branched chain amino acids (LEU, ILE, and VAL in sera (SE)) were 362-434 ?M, consistent with human values considered within control. Nonetheless, numerous amino acids in brain regions remained abnormal despite protein restriction, including glutamine (GLN), aspartate (ASP), glutamate (GLU), gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), asparagine (ASN), citrulline (CIT) and serine (SER). To assess the specificity of these anomalies, we piloted preliminary studies in hyperphenylalaninemic mice, modeling another large neutral aminoacidopathy. Employing an identical dietary regimen, we found remarkably consistent abnormalities in GLN, ASP, and GLU. Conclusions Our results suggest that blood amino acid analysis may be a poor surrogate for assessing the outcomes of protein restriction in the large neutral amino acidopathies, and further indicate that chronic neurotransmitter disruptions (GLU, GABA, ASP) may contribute to long-term neurocognitive dysfunction in these disorders. PMID:24886632

2014-01-01

153

FETAL ANEMIA FOLLOWING MATERNAL EXPOSURE TO 5-FLUOROURACIL IN THE RAT  

EPA Science Inventory

This study examined dose-dependent changes in fetal hematology after maternal 5-FU exposure (0, 20, 30, 40 mg/kg on GD14) to assess 1) hematopoiesis as a potential target for its developmental toxicity, and 2) the significance of the resultant fetal anemia to developmental outcom...

154

Gestational Ethanol and Nicotine Exposure: Effects on Maternal Behavior, Oxytocin, and Offspring Ethanol Intake in the Rat  

PubMed Central

Alcohol consumption and smoking during pregnancy is common, despite the known adverse effects of these drugs on fetal development. Though studies on the effects of each drug separately are published, little is known about the effect of concurrent use of alcohol and nicotine in humans or in preclinical models. In this report, we examined the impact of continuous gestational exposure to both ethanol via liquid diet and nicotine via an osmotic minipump on maternal behavior, offspring ethanol intake, and oxytocin levels in a rat model. Dams were tested for the onset of maternal behavior with litters of unexposed surrogate pups and then killed to examine oxytocin levels within specific brain regions. Drug-exposed offspring reared by surrogate dams were tested for ethanol intake at either adolescence or adulthood, and oxytocin levels were measured in relevant brain regions after behavioral tests. Dams exhibited minor deficits in maternal care, which were associated with lower oxytocin levels in both the ventral tegmental and medial preoptic areas compared to control dams. Prenatal exposure altered sex-specific ethanol intake, with differential effects at adolescence and adulthood. Oxytocin system changes were also apparent in the ventral tegmental and medial preoptic regions of drug-exposed adolescent and adult offspring. These results suggest that dam treatment with ethanol and nicotine can somewhat negatively affect the early rearing environment, and that prenatal exposure to both of these drugs results in drinking behavior differing from what would be expected from either drug alone. Oxytocin’s possible involvement in the mediation of these effects is highlighted. PMID:18664381

McMurray, M.S.; Williams, S.K.; Jarrett, T.M.; Cox, E.T.; Fay, E.E.; Overstreet, D.H.; Walker, C.H.; Johns, J.M.

2008-01-01

155

Maternal prolactin inhibition during lactation affects physical performance evaluated by acute exhaustive swimming exercise in adult rat offspring.  

PubMed

Maternal prolactin inhibition at the end of lactation programs for metabolic syndrome and hypothyroidism in adult offspring, which could negatively affect exercise performance. We evaluated the effects of maternal hypoprolactinemia in late lactation on physical performance in adult progeny. Lactating Wistar rats were treated with bromocriptine (BRO, 1?mg per day) or saline on days 19, 20, and 21 of lactation and offspring were followed until 180 days old. Physical performance was recorded in untrained rats at 90 and 180 days by an acute exhaustive swimming test (exercise group-Ex). At day 90, BRO offspring showed higher visceral fat mass, higher plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, lower total antioxidant capacity, higher liver glycogen, lower glycemia, and normal insulinemia. Although thyroid hormones (TH) levels were unchanged, mitochondrial glycerol phosphate dehydrogenase (mGPD) activity was lower in muscle and in brown adipose tissue (BAT). At this age, BRO-Ex offspring showed higher exercise capacity, lower blood lactate, higher serum T3, and higher muscle and BAT mGPD activities. At day 180, BRO offspring showed central obesity, hypothyroidism, insulin resistance, and lower EDL (extensor digitorum longus) muscle glycogen with unaltered plasma oxidative stress markers. This group showed no alteration of exercise capacity or blood lactate. After exercise, EDL and liver glycogen were lower, while T3 levels, BAT and muscle mGPD activities were normalized. Liver glycogen seem to be related with higher exercise capacity in younger BRO offspring, while the loss of this temporary advantage maybe related to the hypothyroidism and insulin resistance developed with age. PMID:22314333

Casimiro-Lopes, G; Lisboa, P C; Koury, J C; Boaventura, G; Passos, M C F; Moura, E G

2012-02-01

156

Histological, histochemical and electron microscopic changes of the placenta induced by maternal exposure to hyperthermia in the rat.  

PubMed

Both clinical and experimental investigations have shown that maternal hyperthermia during critical stages of embryo development can induce malformations in the offspring. Studies of the effect of heat stress on the placental functions are limited to the ewes, but that on microscopic structure is unknown. In the present study, rats were exposed to 41 or 42 degrees C for 1 h on gestation day (GD) 9. The controls were sham treated. Fetuses and placentas were collected on GD 20. Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) and several craniofacial malformations were observed in the fetuses of the heat-treated group. The placentas of the 42 degrees C group were significantly lighter in weight than those of the control. Light microscopy (LM) revealed thickening, hyalinization and occasional lymphocytic infiltration of the decidua basalis. Giant cells were prominent and glycogen cells had degenerated, leaving behind large cysts in the basal (spongy) zone. Best's carmine stain with or without diastase indicated the reduction in number and degeneration of glycogen cells and cyst formation. The labyrinthine zone was relatively thin in comparison to that of the controls. Perivascular fibrosis and paucity of vascularization were other features of the placentas of the hyperthermia group. Electron microscopy (EM) revealed lipid droplet accumulation in the trophoblast, the presence of myelin bodies and an increased production of collagen in the basal zone. Perivascular fibrosis appeared to have contributed to placental barrier thickening. EM also revealed accumulation of glycogen and lipid droplets in the trophoblasts and fibrin secretion into the extracellular space of the labyrinthine zone. These data suggest that placental pathology possibly contributes to fetal growth retardation in maternally heat-stressed rat fetuses. PMID:15764349

Padmanabhan, R; Al-Menhali, N M; Ahmed, I; Kataya, H H; Ayoub, M A

2005-02-01

157

SENSITIVITY OF FETAL RAT TESTICULAR STEROIDOGENESIS TO MATERNAL PROCHLORAZ EXPOSURE AND THE UNDERLYING MECHANISM OF INHIBITION  

EPA Science Inventory

Since prochloraz (PCZ) is an imidazole fungicide that inhibits gonadal steroidogenesis and antagonizes the androgen receptor (AR), we hypothesized that pubertal exposure to PCZ would delay male rat reproductive development. Sprague Dawley rats were dosed by gavage with 0, 31.3, ...

158

Effects of endurance exercise on expressions of glial fibrillary acidic protein and myelin basic protein in developing rats with maternal infection-induced cerebral palsy  

PubMed Central

Periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) is a common white matter lesion affecting the neonatal brain. PVL is closely associated with cerebral palsy (CP) and characterized by increase in the number of astrocytes, which can be detected by positivity for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). Change in myelin basic protein (MBP) is an early sign of white matter abnormality. Maternal or placental infection can damage the neonatal brain. In the present study, we investigated the effects of treadmill walking exercise on GFAP and MBP expressions in rats with maternal lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced PVL. Immunohistochemistry was performed for the detection of GFAP and MBP. The present results showed that intracervical maternal LPS injection during pregnancy increased GFAP expression in the striatum and decreased MBP expression in the corpus callosum of rats. The results also showed that treadmill walking exercise suppressed GFAP expression and enhanced MBP expression in the brains of rats with maternal LPS-induced PVL. The present study revealed that treadmill walking exercise is effective for the suppressing astrogliosis and hypomyelination associated with PVL. Here in this study, we showed that treadmill walking exercise may be effective therapeutic strategy for alleviating the detrimental effects of CP. PMID:24678499

Kim, Kijeong; Shin, Mal-Soon; Cho, Han-Sam; Kim, Young-Pyo

2014-01-01

159

FIRING PATTERNS OF MATERNAL RAT PRELIMBIC NEURONS DURING SPONTANEOUS CONTACT WITH PUPS  

PubMed Central

Extracellular single unit activity was recorded from medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of postpartum dams over the course of 3 days while they engaged in spontaneous pup-directed behaviors and non-specific exploratory behavior. Out of 109 units identified over the course of the experiment, 15 units were observed to be pup-responsive and 15 increased their discharge rates non-specifically while not attending to pups. An association between neuronal activity and typical maternal behaviors (e.g., retrieval, pup-grooming, nursing) was not observed. Instead, brief bouts of snout contact with pups were accompanied by phasic increases and decreases in spike rates. The observed pup contact responsive cells might play a role in processing of sensory feedback from pups or the transmission of modulatory output to other subcortical maternal brain areas. PMID:22643133

Febo, Marcelo

2012-01-01

160

EFFECTS ON THE FETUS OF MATERNAL BENOMYL EXPOSURE IN THE PROTEIN-DEPRIVED RAT  

EPA Science Inventory

The separate and combined effects of protein deprivation and benomyl ((methyl 1-butylcarbomoyl)2-benzimidazole carbamate) exposure were studied in the pregnant rat fed a diet containing 24% (control) or 8% (deficient) casein throughout gestation. Within each diet group, subgroups...

161

Hypercapnic ventilatory response of anesthetized female rats subjected to neonatal maternal separation: insight into the origins of panic attacks?  

PubMed

Neonatal maternal separation (NMS) is a form of stress that interferes with the regulation of the stress response, an effect that predisposes to the emergence of panic and anxiety related disorders. We previously showed that at adulthood, awake female (but not male) rats subjected to NMS show a hypercapnic ventilatory response (HCVR; 5% CO2) that is 63% greater than controls (Genest et al., 2007). To understand the mechanisms underlying the sex-specific effects of NMS on the ventilatory response to CO2, we used two different anesthetized female rat preparations to assess central CO2 chemosensitivity and contribution of sensory afferents (stretch receptors and peripheral chemoreceptors) that influence the HCVR. Data show that anesthesia eliminated the respiratory phenotype observed previously in awake females and CO2 chemosensitivity did not differ between groups. Finally, the assessment of the ovarian hormone levels across the oestrus cycle failed to reveal significant differences between groups. Since anesthesia did not affect the manifestation of NMS-related respiratory dysfunction in males (including the hypercapnic ventilatory response) (Kinkead et al., 2005; Dumont and Kinkead, 2010), we propose that the panic or anxiety induced by CO2 during wakefulness is responsible for enhancement of the HCVR in NMS females. PMID:21147276

Dumont, Frédéric S; Biancardi, Vivian; Kinkead, Richard

2011-02-15

162

Neonatal maternal separation predisposes adult rats to colonic barrier dysfunction in response to mild stress.  

PubMed

Intestinal dysfunction is related to stress and early life events, but the mechanisms are largely unknown. Our aim was to determine whether early trauma predisposes adult rats to intestinal mucosal dysfunction in response to stress. Neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats were individually separated from their mothers for 3 h/day at 4-21 days of age. Between days 80 and 90, separated and control rats were subjected to mild acute stress (30-min water avoidance) or sham stress. Mucosal barrier function and ion transport were assessed in colonic tissues mounted in Ussing chambers. Mild stress increased short-circuit current, conductance, and transepithelial transport of macromolecules in separated rats, while having minimal effects in controls. Pretreatment of the separated rats with a corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) antagonist, the peptide alpha-helical CRH(9-41) injected intraperitoneally 20 min before stress, abolished the stress-induced mucosal changes. Our results indicate that neonatal trauma can induce phenotypic changes in adulthood, including enhanced vulnerability of the gut mucosa to stress via mechanisms involving peripherally located CRH receptors. PMID:12388189

Söderholm, Johan D; Yates, Derrick A; Gareau, Mélanie G; Yang, Ping-Chang; MacQueen, Glenda; Perdue, Mary H

2002-12-01

163

High Fat Diet and In Utero Exposure to Maternal Obesity Disrupts Circadian Rhythm and Leads to Metabolic Programming of Liver in Rat Offspring  

PubMed Central

The risk of obesity in adulthood is subject to programming beginning at conception. In animal models, exposure to maternal obesity and high fat diets influences the risk of obesity in the offspring. Among other long-term changes, offspring from obese rats develop hyperinsulinemia, hepatic steatosis, and lipogenic gene expression in the liver at weaning. However, the precise underlying mechanisms leading to metabolic dysregulation in the offspring remains unclear. Using a rat model of overfeeding-induced obesity, we previously demonstrated that exposure to maternal obesity from pre-conception to birth, is sufficient to program increased obesity risk in the offspring. Offspring of obese rat dams gain greater body weight and fat mass when fed high fat diet (HFD) as compared to lean dam. Since, disruptions of diurnal circadian rhythm are known to detrimentally impact metabolically active tissues such as liver, we examined the hypothesis that maternal obesity leads to perturbations of core clock components and thus energy metabolism in offspring liver. Offspring from lean and obese dams were examined at post-natal day 35, following a short (2 wk) HFD challenge. Hepatic mRNA expression of circadian (CLOCK, BMAL1, REV-ERB?, CRY, PER) and metabolic (PPAR?, SIRT1) genes were strongly suppressed in offspring exposed to both maternal obesity and HFD. Using a mathematical model, we identified two distinct biological mechanisms that modulate PPAR? mRNA expression: i) decreased mRNA synthesis rates; and ii) increased non-specific mRNA degradation rate. Moreover, our findings demonstrate that changes in PPAR? transcription were associated with epigenomic alterations in H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 histone marks near the PPAR? transcription start site. Our findings indicated that offspring from obese rat dams have detrimental alternations to circadian machinery that may contribute to impaired liver metabolism in response to HFD, specifically via reduced PPAR? expression prior to obesity development. PMID:24416203

Borengasser, Sarah J.; Kang, Ping; Faske, Jennifer; Gomez-Acevedo, Horacio; Blackburn, Michael L.; Badger, Thomas M.; Shankar, Kartik

2014-01-01

164

Effect of maternal exposure of fluoride on oxidative stress markers and amelioration by selected antioxidants in developing central nervous system of rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluoride has been implicated as a pathologic mediator of fluorosis. Interestingly neuronal destruction, synaptic injury occurs\\u000a by a mechanism involving oxidative stress, however, its effects in developmental stages of life, during maternal fluoride\\u000a exposure and amelioration are not elucidated. In the present study, pregnant Wistar albino rats were exposed to 50 and 150\\u000a ppm fluoride in drinking water during gestation

Piler Mahaboob Basha; Narayanaswamy Madhusudhan

2011-01-01

165

Developmental timing of the effects of maternal care on gene expression and epigenetic regulation of hormone receptor levels in female rats.  

PubMed

Maternal care experienced during postnatal development has enduring effects on neuroendocrine function and behavior. Previous studies in rats have illustrated the effect of maternal licking/grooming (LG) on hormone receptors and maternal behavior of adult female offspring associated with altered DNA methylation. However, the developmental timing of these effects, which provide insight into the cellular and molecular pathways through which early experience alters later behavior, had not been explored. Here, we demonstrate the developmental emergence of these outcomes and use cross-fostering to identify sensitive periods for these effects. Estrogen receptor (ER)? and ER? mRNA levels within the medial preoptic area (MPOA) of the hypothalamus were increased by postnatal day (PN)21 in female offspring of high LG dams; LG-associated increases in oxytocin receptor mRNA levels were observed beyond the weaning period. Quantification of ER?-immunoreactivity indicated a high degree of neuroanatomical specificity of LG effects within the MPOA that were observed by PN6. Reduced DNA methylation and histone 3 lysine 9 tri-methylation and increased histone 3 lysine 4 tri-methylation at the ER? gene promoter (Esr1) were detected at PN21 in high LG female offspring. Latency to engage in maternal behavior toward donor pups was significantly shorter among high LG females. Cross-fostering revealed that maternal sensitization and MPOA ER? levels are sensitive to maternal care experienced before but not after PN10. Differential windows of plasticity were identified for ER? and oxytocin receptor mRNA levels. These studies contribute significantly to our understanding of the molecular, neurobiological, and behavioral pathways through which variation in maternal behavior is transmitted from one generation to the next. PMID:24002038

Peña, Catherine Jensen; Neugut, Y Dana; Champagne, Frances A

2013-11-01

166

EFFECTS ON THE FETUS OF MATERNAL NITROFEN EXPOSURE IN THE PROTEIN-DEPRIVED RAT  

EPA Science Inventory

The separate and combined effects of protein deprivation and nitrofen exposure were studied in the pregnant rat. Animals were fed diets containing 24, 8, 6 or 4% casein throughout gestation. Within each diet group, sub-groups were gavage-fed with 12.5 (lower dose) and 25 (higher ...

167

ASSESSMENT OF MATERNAL TOXICITY, EMBRYOTOXICITY AND TERATOGENIC POTENTIAL OF SODIUM CHLORITE IN SPRAGUE-DAWLEY RATS  

EPA Science Inventory

Groups of up to 13 pregnant rats were individually caged. Body weight, food and water consumption were recorded at days 1, 8, 15 and 22 of gestation and the dams were treated on days 8-15 with sodium chlorite, 0.1%, 0.5% or 2% in drinking water or by injection of 10, 20, or 50 mg...

168

Maternal mobile phone exposure adversely affects the electrophysiological properties of Purkinje neurons in rat offspring.  

PubMed

Electromagnetic field (EMF) radiations emitted from mobile phones may cause structural damage to neurons. With the increased usage of mobile phones worldwide, concerns about their possible effects on the nervous system are rising. In the present study, we aimed to elucidate the possible effects of prenatal EMF exposure on the cerebellum of offspring Wistar rats. Rats in the EMF group were exposed to 900-MHz pulse-EMF irradiation for 6h per day during all gestation period. Ten offspring per each group were evaluated for behavioral and electrophysiological evaluations. Cerebellum-related behavioral dysfunctions were analyzed using motor learning and cerebellum-dependent functional tasks (Accelerated Rotarod, Hanging and Open field tests). Whole-cell patch clamp recordings were used for electrophysiological evaluations. The results of the present study failed to show any behavioral abnormalities in rats exposed to chronic EMF radiation. However, whole-cell patch clamp recordings revealed decreased neuronal excitability of Purkinje cells in rats exposed to EMF. The most prominent changes included afterhyperpolarization amplitude, spike frequency, half width and first spike latency. In conclusion, the results of the present study show that prenatal EMF exposure results in altered electrophysiological properties of Purkinje neurons. However, these changes may not be severe enough to alter the cerebellum-dependent functional tasks. PMID:23906636

Haghani, M; Shabani, M; Moazzami, K

2013-10-10

169

OFFSPRING MORTALITY AND MATERNAL LUNG PATHOLOGY IN FEMALE RATS FED HEXACHLOROBENZENE  

EPA Science Inventory

Female Sprague-Dawley CD rats were fed 0, 60, 80, 100, 120 and 140 ppm hexachlorobenzene (HCB) continuously in the diet and 2 successive litters raised. These doses were selected to range from approximately the no observable effect level to lethality in suckling offspring of trea...

170

Brain corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) circuits in the developing rat: Effect of maternal deprivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early in life, there is a delicate and critical balance aimed to maintain low hormone responses derived from the stress responsive hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis (HPA). However, in the infant rat hypothalamic corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) stress responses to environmental events are clearly seen even though other elements of the HPA axis may have limited responses. In view of the role of CRH

Delia M. Vazquez; Charles Bailey; Gersham W. Dent; Darren K. Okimoto; Amy Steffek; Juan F. López; Seymour Levine

2006-01-01

171

Maternal prolactin inhibition during lactation is associated to renal dysfunction in their adult rat offspring.  

PubMed

The renal function of rats whose mothers had hypoprolactinemia at the end of lactation was evaluated during development. Lactating Wistar rats were treated with bromocriptine (BRO, 1?mg twice a day, s.c.) or saline on days 19, 20, and 21 of lactation, and their male offspring were followed from weaning until 180 days old. 1 rat from each of the 12 litters/group was evaluated at 2 time points (90 and 180 days). Body and kidney weights, sodium, potassium, and creatinine were measured. Values were considered significant when p<0.05. Adult BRO-treated offspring presented higher body weight (+10%), lower relative renal weight at 90 and 180 days (-9.2% and -15.7%, respectively), glomerulosclerosis, and peritubular fibrosis. At 90 and 180 days, creatinine clearance was lower (-32% and -30%, respectively), whereas serum potassium was higher (+19% and +29%, respectively), but there were no changes in serum sodium. At 180 days, higher proteinuria (+36%) and serum creatinine levels (+20%) were detected. Our data suggest that prolactin inhibition during late lactation programs renal function damage in adult offspring that develops gradually, first affecting the creatinine clearance and potassium serum levels with further development of hyperproteinuria and higher serum creatinine, without affecting sodium. Thus, precocious weaning programs some components of the metabolic syndrome, which can be a risk factor for further development of kidney disease. PMID:21823059

Passos, M A R F; Passos, M C F; Oliveira, E; Trotta, P A; Nogueira-Neto, J F; Bonomo, I T; Lisboa, P C; de Moura, E G

2011-08-01

172

The effect of maternal administration of captopril on fetal development in rat.  

PubMed

Captopril an angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, was evaluated for teratogenic potential in Wistar rats. The drug was administered daily from 6 to 15 day of gestation by gavage (0, 3, 10 and 30 mg/kg/day) and perinatal studies were conducted. Captopril decreased food consumption and suppressed gain in body weight. However, no alteration in food efficiency index was observed. The treatment of rats with captopril in doses of 10 and 30 mg/kg, significantly reduced the mean number of implants per litter size and produced intrauterine growth retardation. The incidence of external and visceral malformations were neither dose related nor significantly different from those of controls. In addition, animal treated with these dose levels showed decreased ossification of digits, sternum and skull of the offsprings. The data of the present study indicates that captopril was not found to be teratogenic to Wistar rats. However, adverse effects on intrauterine growth, fetal ossification, neonatal growth and survival rate were seen among the pups. PMID:1784836

al-Shabanah, O A; al-Harbi, M M; alGharably, N M; Islam, M W

1991-08-01

173

Variations in postnatal maternal care and the epigenetic regulation of metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 expression and hippocampal function in the rat  

PubMed Central

Variations in maternal care in the rat affect hippocampal morphology and function as well as performance on hippocampal-dependent tests of learning and memory in the offspring. Preliminary genome-wide analyses of gene transcription and DNA methylation of the molecular basis for such maternal effects suggested differences in the epigenetic state and transcriptional activity of the Grm1 gene in the rat as a function of maternal care. Grm1 encodes the type I metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR1), and we found increased mGluR1 mRNA and protein in hippocampus from the adult offspring of mothers showing an increased frequency of pup licking/grooming (i.e., high-LG mothers) that was associated with a decrease in the methylation of Grm1. ChIP assays showed increased levels of histone 3 lysine 9 acetylation and histone 3 lysine 4 trimethylation of Grm1 in hippocampus from the adult offspring of high-LG compared with low-LG mothers. These histone posttranslational modifications were highly correlated, and both associate inversely with DNA methylation and positively with transcription. Studies of mGluR1 function showed increased hippocampal mGluR1-induced long-term depression in the adult offspring of high-LG compared with low-LG mothers, as well as increased paired-pulse depression (PPD). PPD is an inhibitory feedback mechanism that prevents excessive glutamate release during high-frequency stimulation. The maternal effects on both long-term depression and PPD were eliminated by treatment with an mGluR1-selective antagonist. These findings suggest that variations in maternal care can influence hippocampal function and cognitive performance through the epigenetic regulation of genes implicated in glutamatergic synaptic signaling. PMID:23045678

Bagot, Rosemary C.; Zhang, Tie-Yuan; Wen, Xianglan; Nguyen, Thi Thu Thao; Nguyen, Huy-Binh; Diorio, Josie; Wong, Tak Pan; Meaney, Michael J.

2012-01-01

174

Differential expression of the Wnt/?-catenin pathway in the genital tubercle (GT) of fetal male rat following maternal exposure to di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP).  

PubMed

Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) is one of the most abundantly produced endocrine disruptors that leaches out from polyvinyl chloride plastics and can cause hypospadias in male rats during maternal exposure. The objective of this study was to first explore the roles of Wnt/?-catenin pathway in the fetal rat genital tubercle (GT) following in-utero exposure to DBP. Timed-pregnant rats were given DBP by gastric intubation at a dose of 750?mg/kg body weight (bw)/day from gestation day (GD) 14 to GD18 to establish a rat model of hypospadias. On GD19, genital tubercle down-regulation of ?-catenin, Phospho-GSK-3?, and up-regulation of GSK-3? (glycogen synthase kinase-3?), NF?B in fetal male rats was observed by western blot analysis. ?-catenin was located in the urethral plate epithelium (UPE). Immunochemistry showed that the relative expression of ?-catenin decreased in the DBP-treated fetal rat GT compared to the normal control. These findings, for the first time, indicate that DBP may affect the development of GT by down-regulating the Wnt/?-catenin pathway in fetal male rats. PMID:21657945

Zhang, Li-Feng; Qin, Chao; Wei, Yun-Fei; Wang, Yong; Chang, Jun-Kai; Mi, Yuan-Yuan; Ma, Long; Jiang, Jun-Tao; Feng, Ning-Han; Wang, Zeng-Jun; Zhang, Wei

2011-10-01

175

Early postnatal maternal separation causes alterations in the expression of ?3-adrenergic receptor in rat adipose tissue suggesting long-term influence on obesity  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: •High-fat diet intake following maternal separation did not cause body weight gain. •However, levels of metabolism-related molecules in adipose tissue were altered. •Increased levels of prohibitin mRNA in white fat were observed. •Attenuated levels of ?3-adrenergic receptor mRNA were observed in brown fat. •Such alterations in adipose tissue may contribute to obesity later in life. -- Abstract: The effects of early postnatal maternal deprivation on the biological characteristics of the adipose tissue later in life were investigated in the present study. Sprague–Dawley rats were classified as either maternal deprivation (MD) or mother-reared control (MRC) groups. MD was achieved by separating the rat pups from their mothers for 3 h each day during the 10–15 postnatal days. mRNA levels of mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1 (UCP-1), ?3-adrenergic receptor (?3-AR), and prohibitin (PHB) in the brown and white adipose tissue were determined using real-time RT-PCR analysis. UCP-1, which is mediated through ?3-AR, is closely involved in the energy metabolism and expenditure. PHB is highly expressed in the proliferating tissues/cells. At 10 weeks of age, the body weight of the MRC and MD rats was similar. However, the levels of the key molecules in the adipose tissue were substantially altered. There was a significant increase in the expression of PHB mRNA in the white adipose tissue, while the ?3-AR mRNA expression decreased significantly, and the UCP-1 mRNA expression remained unchanged in the brown adipose tissue. Given that these molecules influence the mitochondrial metabolism, our study indicates that early postnatal maternal deprivation can influence the fate of adipose tissue proliferation, presumably leading to obesity later in life.

Miki, Takanori, E-mail: mikit@med.kagawa-u.ac.jp [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University (Japan)] [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University (Japan); Liu, Jun-Qian; Ohta, Ken-ichi; Suzuki, Shingo [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University (Japan)] [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University (Japan); Kusaka, Takashi [Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University (Japan)] [Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University (Japan); Warita, Katsuhiko [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University (Japan)] [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University (Japan); Yokoyama, Toshifumi [Department of Bioresource and Agrobiosciences, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kobe University (Japan)] [Department of Bioresource and Agrobiosciences, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kobe University (Japan); Jamal, Mostofa [Department of Forensic Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University (Japan)] [Department of Forensic Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University (Japan); Ueki, Masaaki [Department of Anesthesia, Nishiwaki Municipal Hospital (Japan)] [Department of Anesthesia, Nishiwaki Municipal Hospital (Japan); Yakura, Tomiko; Tamai, Motoki [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University (Japan)] [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University (Japan); Sumitani, Kazunori [Department of Medical Education, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University (Japan)] [Department of Medical Education, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University (Japan); Hosomi, Naohisa [Department of Clinical Neuroscience and Therapeutics, Hiroshima University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences (Japan)] [Department of Clinical Neuroscience and Therapeutics, Hiroshima University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences (Japan); Takeuchi, Yoshiki [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University (Japan)] [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University (Japan)

2013-12-06

176

Dietary Protein Restriction Stress in the Domestic Turkey ( Meleagris gallopavo) Induces Hypofunction and Remodeling of Adrenal Steroidogenic Tissue  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, we investigated the influence of dietary protein restriction stress on adrenal steroidogenic function of the domestic turkey. Immature male turkeys (2 weeks old) were fed isocaloric synthetic diets containing either 28% (control) or 8% (restriction) soy protein for 4 weeks. Trunk plasma was processed for the determination of adrenocorticotropin (ACTH), corticosterone, aldosterone, and total 3, 5,

Rocco V. Carsia; Patrick J. McIlroy

1998-01-01

177

Maternal prolactin inhibition at the end of lactation affects learning/memory and anxiety-like behaviors but not novelty-seeking in adult rat progeny.  

PubMed

Maternal hypoprolactinemia at the end of lactation in rats reduces milk production and is associated with offspring's malnutrition. Since malnutrition during development is also known to have long lasting effects on cognition and emotion, in the present study we tested the hypothesis that maternal hypoprolactinemia, induced by bromocriptine treatment, at the end of the lactating period affects memory/learning, novelty-seeking and anxiety-like behaviors in adult male Wistar rats using, respectively, the radial arm water maze (RAWM), the hole board (HB) arena and the elevated plus-maze (EPM). We also analyzed serum corticosterone and thyroid hormone levels at postnatal day (PN) 21. Lactating dams were treated with bromocriptine (BRO, 1mg twice a day, inhibiting prolactin) or saline from PN19 to 21 (the last 3 days of lactation). BRO offspring had hypercorticosteronemia and hypothyroidism at PN21. In the RAWM, reductions in latency observed in CON rats were initially more accentuated than in BRO ones. By the end of the testing period, latencies became similar between groups. No difference was observed between groups regarding the number of nose-pokes in the HB. In the EPM, BRO rats stayed less time in and had fewer entries into the open-arms than CON ones. This pattern of results indicates that maternal bromocriptine treatment at the end of the lactating period results in poorer memory/learning performance and in higher levels of anxiety-like behavior in the adult offspring, demonstrating that even a relatively short period of malnutrition during development can have long lasting detrimental effects regarding cognition and emotion. PMID:21777608

Fraga, Mabel C; Moura, Egberto G; Silva, Juliana Oliveira; Bonomo, Isabela Teixeira; Filgueiras, Cláudio C; Abreu-Villaça, Yael; Passos, Magna C F; Lisboa, Patrícia C; Manhães, Alex C

2011-11-01

178

Effects of Altered Maternal Folic Acid, Vitamin B12 and Docosahexaenoic Acid on Placental Global DNA Methylation Patterns in Wistar Rats  

PubMed Central

Potential adverse effects of excess maternal folic acid supplementation on a vegetarian population deficient in vitamin B12 are poorly understood. We have previously shown in a rat model that maternal folic acid supplementation at marginal protein levels reduces brain omega-3 fatty acid levels in the adult offspring. We have also reported that reduced docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels may result in diversion of methyl groups towards DNA in the one carbon metabolic pathway ultimately resulting in DNA methylation. This study was designed to examine the effect of normal and excess folic acid in the absence and presence of vitamin B12 deficiency on global methylation patterns in the placenta. Further, the effect of maternal omega 3 fatty acid supplementation on the above vitamin B12 deficient diets was also examined. Our results suggest maternal folic acid supplementation in the absence of vitamin B12 lowers plasma and placental DHA levels (p<0.05) and reduces global DNA methylation levels (p<0.05). When this group was supplemented with omega 3 fatty acids there was an increase in placental DHA levels and subsequently DNA methylation levels revert back to the levels of the control group. Our results suggest for the first time that DHA plays an important role in one carbon metabolism thereby influencing global DNA methylation in the placenta. PMID:21423696

Kulkarni, Asmita; Dangat, Kamini; Kale, Anvita; Sable, Pratiksha; Chavan-Gautam, Preeti; Joshi, Sadhana

2011-01-01

179

Effects of maternally exposed colouring food additives on cognitive performance in rats.  

PubMed

Artificial food colourings and additives (AFCAs) have long been suggested to adversely affect the learning and behaviour in children. In this study, we aimed to provide additional data to clarify the possible side effects of colouring additives on behaviour and memory. We administered acceptable daily intake values of AFCAs as a mixture (Eritrosin, Ponceau 4R, Allura Red AC, Sunset Yellow FCF, Tartrazin, Amaranth, Brilliant Blue, Azorubin and Indigotin) to female rats before and during gestation and then tested their effects on behaviour and on spatial working memory in their offspring. Effects on spatial learning and memory were evaluated by Morris water maze, behavioural effects were evaluated by open-field test and forced swim test. Our results showed that commonly used artificial food colourings have no adverse effects on spatial working memory and did not create a depressive behaviour in offspring. But they showed a few significant effects on locomotor activity as AFCAs increased some parameters of locomotor activity. PMID:22323474

Doguc, Duygu Kumbul; Ceyhan, Betul Mermi; Ozturk, Mustafa; Gultekin, Fatih

2013-08-01

180

Developmental stages of the CD (Sprague-Dawley) rat skeleton after maternal exposure to ethylene glycol.  

PubMed

Ethylene glycol (EG), a chemical which causes skeletal malformations in rats, was administered by gavage to sperm positive CD rats on gestational days (gd) 6 through 15 at doses of 0 or 2,500 mg/kg/day to assess its effects on the pre- and postnatal skeletal development. Dams and fetuses/pups were killed on gd 18, 20, postnatal day (pnd) 1, 4, 14, 21, or 63, and offspring were double-stained for examination of skeletal malformations and degree of ossification of rapidly developing skeletal districts. No difference in gestational day of delivery between controls and the EG-treated dams was seen. Fetal weights per litter were significantly decreased with EG treatment in both the gd 18 and 20 groups. Pup body weight on pnd 1 was significantly below controls; however, EG had no effect on pup body weight on pnd 4-63. The percentage of fetuses/pups with skeletal malformations per litter was significantly increased after EG exposure for all time points except at pnd 63, with a predominance of axial skeletal defects. The percentages of total ossification, of sternabrae ossified, and of vertebral centra ossified were significantly reduced in the EG groups on gd 20 and on pnd 1-21, but not on gd 18 or on pnd 63. When the ossification data were subjected to statistical analysis with fetal/pup weights as a covariate, the values for EG-exposed pups on gd 20 were not statistically significantly different from the control values. The reduced ossification values for EG-exposed pups on pnd 1-21 retained statistical significance even after covariate analysis. There was no effect of dose or body weight on ossification of fore- or hindlimb digits. In conclusion, the differences in incidence of skeletal alterations observed prenatally and through pnd 21 were not evident by pnd 63, suggesting that perinatal skeletal abnormalities may not always be permanent. PMID:1440420

Marr, M C; Price, C J; Myers, C B; Morrissey, R E

1992-08-01

181

Maternal dietary docosahexanoic acid content affects the rat pup auditory system.  

PubMed

Previous studies of the effects of dietary docosahexanoic acid (DHA), 22:6n3, on neurodevelopment have focused mainly on visual-evoked potentials and indices of visual activity, measures that may be confounded by effects on the retina rather than on neural pathways. We investigated the effect of pre- and postnatal maternal dietary DHA content on auditory brainstem conduction times (ABCTs), the appearance of the auditory startle reflex (ASR), and 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (CNPase) activity in brainstem homogenates. Timed pregnant dams were fed, beginning on day 2 of gestation and throughout lactation, a purified diet containing one of three levels of DHA (0, 1, or 3% of total fatty acids, or 0, 0.4 or 1.2% of total energy). On postnatal day (PND) 3, pups were randomly crossfostered within diet groups to minimize litter effects and culled to 10 per litter. Cerebrums and milk from culled pups stomachs were collected for lipid analysis. The timing of appearance of the ASR was determined between PND 10 through 14 and ABCTs were measured in pups on PND 24 and 31. Pups were sacrificed on PND 31 and cerebrums were removed. In each of two replicated studies, pups in the 1% DHA group weighed significantly less on PND 3 and they gained significantly less weight from PND 3 to 31 compared with pups in the 0 or 3% groups (p<0.01). The auditory studies were not conducted on the 1% DHA group since measures of auditory function are in part a function of somatic growth. The tissue fatty acid data for the 1% DHA group did not show unexpected findings. Higher dietary DHA was reflected in milk and pup cerebrums, and levels of arachidonic acid were inversely related to levels of DHA. In the pups of dams fed diets containing 3% versus 0% DHA, the ASR appeared significantly later (p<0.001) and the ABCTs were longer (p<0.05) on PND 31. CNPase activity levels were not different between the 0 and 3% DHA groups. This study demonstrated that the auditory brainstem response is sensitive for identifying effects of diet on neurodevelopment, and that diets supplemented with high levels of DHA may exert a negative influence on central nervous system development, potentially through effects on myelin. This study suggests the need for further studies of pre- and postnatal long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid dietary supplementation. PMID:12121805

Haubner, Laura Y; Stockard, Janet E; Saste, Monisha D; Benford, Valerie J; Phelps, Christopher P; Chen, Li T; Barness, Lewis; Wiener, Doris; Carver, Jane D

2002-05-01

182

Leptin and prolactin, but not corticosterone, modulate body weight and thyroid function in protein-malnourished lactating rats.  

PubMed

To understand the role of hormonal changes in the lower food ingestion and body weight in protein-restricted lactating rats as well as the higher serum T (3), higher deiodination, iodide and T (3) milk transfer, we measured maternal serum prolactin, leptin, TSH and corticosterone, which are hormones that could influence those parameters. After birth, dams were separated into: control-fed with a 23 % protein diet (n = 12) and PR (protein-restricted)-fed with an 8 % protein diet (n = 12). At the 4 (th) and 21 (st) day of lactation, half of the animals in each group were sacrificed. PR dams presented hyperleptinemia (day 4: + 20 %; day 21: + 19 %; p < 0.05) and hypoprolactinemia (day 4: - 85 %; day 21: - 92 %; p < 0.05), which could help explain the lower food consumption and body weight in lactating PR rats since leptin is anorexigenic and prolactin is orexigenic. Also, this hyperleptinemia could contribute for the increase in serum T (3) of PR dams, since leptin stimulates T (3) production, especially acting on deiodinases. Serum corticosterone was not different between PR and C groups, and TSH was lower only at the end of lactation. Thus, we suggest that both leptin and prolactin could play an important role in the body weight and thyroid hormone changes observed in protein-malnourished lactating rats. PMID:16718624

Lisboa, P C; Passos, M C; Dutra, S C; Bonomo, I T; Denolato, A T; Reis, A M; Moura, E G

2006-05-01

183

Low-Protein Diet during Lactation and Maternal Metabolism in Rats  

PubMed Central

Some metabolic alterations were evaluated in Wistar rats which received control or low-protein (17%; 6%) diets, from the pregnancy until the end of lactation: control non-lactating (CNL), lactating (CL), low-protein non-lactating (LPNL) and lactating (LPL) groups. Despite the increased food intake by LPL dams, both LP groups reduced protein intake and final body mass was lower in LPL. Higher serum glucose occurred in both LP groups. Lactation induced lower insulin and glucagon levels, but these were reduced by LP diet. Prolactin levels rose in lactating, but were impaired in LPL, followed by losses of mammary gland (MAG) mass and, a fall in serum leptin in lactating dams. Lipid content also reduced in MAG and gonadal white adipose tissue of lactating and, in LPL, contributed to a decreased daily milk production, and consequent impairment of body mass gain by LPL pups. Liver mass, lipid content and ATP-citrate enzyme activity were increased by lactation, but malic enzyme and lipid: glycogen ratio elevated only in LPL. Conclusion. LP diet reduced the development of MAG and prolactin secretion which compromised milk production and pups growth. Moreover, this diet enhanced the store of lipid to glycogen ratio and suggests a higher risk of fatty liver development. PMID:21637364

Moretto, Vera L.; Ballen, Marcia O.; Goncalves, Talita S. S.; Kawashita, Nair H.; Stoppiglia, Luiz F.; Veloso, Roberto V.; Latorraca, Marcia Q.; Martins, Maria Salete F.; Gomes-da-Silva, Maria Helena G.

2011-01-01

184

Maternal Exposure to Low Levels of Corticosterone during Lactation Protects against Experimental Inflammatory Colitis-Induced Damage in Adult Rat Offspring  

PubMed Central

Opposing emotional events (negative/trauma or positive/maternal care) during the postnatal period may differentially influence vulnerability to the effects of stress later in life. The development and course of intestinal disorders such as inflammatory bowel disease are negatively affected by persistent stress, but to date the role of positive life events on these pathologies has been entirely unknown. In the present study, the effect of early life beneficial experiences in the development of intestinal dysfunctions, where inflammation and stress stimuli play a primary role, was investigated. As a “positive” experimental model we used adult male rat progeny nursed by mothers whose drinking water was supplemented with moderate doses of corticosterone (CORT) (0.2 mg/ml) during the lactation period. Such animals have been generally shown to cope better with different environmental situations during life. The susceptibility to inflammatory experimental colitis induced by intracolonic infusion of TNBS (2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulphonic acid) was investigated in CORT-nursed rats in comparison with control rats. This mild increase in maternal corticosterone during lactation induced, in CORT-nursed rats, a long lasting protective effect on TNBS-colitis, characterized by improvements in some indices of the disease (increased colonic myeloperoxidase activity, loss of body weight and food intake) and by the involvement of endogenous peripheral pathways known to participate in intestinal disorder development (lower plasma corticosterone levels and colonic mast cell degranulation, alterations in the colonic expression of both corticotrophin releasing factor/CRF and its receptor/CRH-1R). All these findings contribute to suggesting that the reduced vulnerability to TNBS-colitis in CORT-nursed rats is due to recovery from the colonic mucosal barrier dysfunction. Such long lasting changes induced by mild hormonal manipulation during lactation, making the adult also better adapted to colonic inflammatory stress, constitute a useful experimental model to investigate the etiopathogenetic mechanisms and therapeutic treatments of some gastrointestinal diseases. PMID:25405993

Petrella, Carla; Giuli, Chiara; Agostini, Simona; Bacquie, Valérie; Zinni, Manuela; Theodorou, Vassilia; Broccardo, Maria; Casolini, Paola; Improta, Giovanna

2014-01-01

185

Exposure to AT1 Receptor Autoantibodies during Pregnancy Increases Susceptibility of the Maternal Heart to Postpartum Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in Rats  

PubMed Central

Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that women with a history of preeclampsia have a two-fold increased risk of developing cardiovascular diseases in later life. It is not known whether or not this risk is associated with angiotensin II receptor type 1 autoantibody (AT1-AA), an agonist acting via activation of AT1 receptor (AT1R), which is believed to be involved in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. The objective of the present study was to confirm the hypothesis that AT1-AA exposure during pregnancy may change the maternal cardiac structure and increase the susceptibility of the postpartum heart to ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI). In the present study, we first established a preeclampsia rat model by intravenous injection of AT1-AA extracted from the plasma of rats immunized with AT1R, observed the susceptibility of the postpartum maternal heart to IRI at 16 weeks postpartum using the Langendorff preparation, and examined the cardiac structure using light and transmission electron microscopy. The modeled animals presented with symptoms very similar to the clinical symptoms of human preeclampsia during pregnancy, including hypertension and proteinuria. The left ventricular weight (LVW) and left ventricular mass index (LVMI) in AT1-AA treatment group were significantly increased as compared with those of the control group (p < 0.01), although there was no significant difference in final weight between the two groups. AT1-AA acting on AT1R not only induced myocardial cell hypertrophy, mitochondrial swelling, cristae disorganization and collagen accumulation in the interstitium but affected the left ventricular (LV) function and delayed recovery from IRI. In contrast, co-treatment with AT1-AA + losartan completely blocked AT1-AA-induced changes in cardiac structure and function. These data indicate that the presence of AT1-AA during pregnancy was strongly associated with the markers of LV geometry changes and remodeling, and increased the cardiac susceptibility to IRI in later life of postpartum maternal rats. PMID:24979132

Wang, Hui-Ping; Zhang, Wen-Hui; Wang, Xiao-Fang; Zhu, Jin; Zheng, Yan-Qian; Xia, Qin; Zhi, Jian-Ming

2014-01-01

186

Maternal epileptic seizure induced by Pentylenetetrazol: Apoptotic neurodegeneration and decreased GABAB1 receptor expression in prenatal rat brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epilepsy is a prominent sign of neurological dysfunction in children with various fetal and maternal deficiencies. However, the detailed mechanism and influences underlying epileptic disorders are still unrevealed. The hippocampal neurons are vulnerable to epilepsy-induced pathologic changes and often manifests as neuronal death. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of maternal epileptic seizure on apoptotic neuronal death,

Muhammad Imran Naseer; Li Shupeng; Myeong Ok Kim

2009-01-01

187

Variations in maternal care in the rat as a mediating influence for the effects of environment on development  

E-print Network

, Quebec, Canada H4H 1R3 Received 4 April 2003; accepted 17 April 2003 Abstract Variations in maternal care multiple litters, and are not associated with differences in litter size, weaning weight of pups, or gender as the mechanism of transmission. In mammalian species, experimental evidence for the role of maternal care

Champagne, Frances A.

188

Trigeminal Lesions and Maternal Behavior in Norway Rats: I. Effects of Cutaneous Rostral Snout Denervation on Maintenance of Nurturance and Maternal Aggression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cutaneous desensitization of the upper, rostral snout by bilateral section of the infraorbital nerves in lactating Norway rat dams markedly, but transiently, disrupted retrieval and licking of pups, nursing behavior, and fighting with a strange male intruder. Removal of the mystacial vibrissae, which provide major inputs to the infraorbital nerves, or cutaneous desensitization of the chin by bilateral sectioning of

Judith M. Stern; Jane M. Kolunie

1991-01-01

189

Brief maternal exposure of rats to the xenobiotics dibutyl phthalate or diethylstilbestrol alters adult-type Leydig cell development in male offspring.  

PubMed

Maternal exposure to estrogenic xenobiotics or phthalates has been implicated in the distortion of early male reproductive development, referred to in humans as the testicular dysgenesis syndrome. It is not known, however, whether such early gestational and/or lactational exposure can influence the later adult-type Leydig cell phenotype. In this study, Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to dibutyl phthalate (DBP; from gestational day (GD) 14.5 to postnatal day (PND) 6) or diethylstilbestrol (DES; from GD14.5 to GD16.5) during a short gestational/lactational window, and male offspring subsequently analysed for various postnatal testicular parameters. All offspring remained in good health throughout the study. Maternal xenobiotic treatment appeared to modify specific Leydig cell gene expression in male offspring, particularly during the dynamic phase of mid-puberty, with serum INSL3 concentrations showing that these compounds led to a faster attainment of peak values, and a modest acceleration of the pubertal trajectory. Part of this effect appeared to be due to a treatment-specific impact on Leydig cell proliferation during puberty for both xenobiotics. Taken together, these results support the notion that maternal exposure to certain xenobiotics can also influence the development of the adult-type Leydig cell population, possibly through an effect on the Leydig stem cell population. PMID:23314658

Ivell, Richard; Heng, Kee; Nicholson, Helen; Anand-Ivell, Ravinder

2013-03-01

190

Brief maternal exposure of rats to the xenobiotics dibutyl phthalate or diethylstilbestrol alters adult-type Leydig cell development in male offspring  

PubMed Central

Maternal exposure to estrogenic xenobiotics or phthalates has been implicated in the distortion of early male reproductive development, referred to in humans as the testicular dysgenesis syndrome. It is not known, however, whether such early gestational and/or lactational exposure can influence the later adult-type Leydig cell phenotype. In this study, Sprague–Dawley rats were exposed to dibutyl phthalate (DBP; from gestational day (GD) 14.5 to postnatal day (PND) 6) or diethylstilbestrol (DES; from GD14.5 to GD16.5) during a short gestational/lactational window, and male offspring subsequently analysed for various postnatal testicular parameters. All offspring remained in good health throughout the study. Maternal xenobiotic treatment appeared to modify specific Leydig cell gene expression in male offspring, particularly during the dynamic phase of mid-puberty, with serum INSL3 concentrations showing that these compounds led to a faster attainment of peak values, and a modest acceleration of the pubertal trajectory. Part of this effect appeared to be due to a treatment-specific impact on Leydig cell proliferation during puberty for both xenobiotics. Taken together, these results support the notion that maternal exposure to certain xenobiotics can also influence the development of the adult-type Leydig cell population, possibly through an effect on the Leydig stem cell population. PMID:23314658

Ivell, Richard; Heng, Kee; Nicholson, Helen; Anand-Ivell, Ravinder

2013-01-01

191

Sexually dimorphic effects of maternal separation stress on corticotrophin-releasing factor and vasopressin systems in the adult rat brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neonatal maternal separation has been widely used to model the well-established causal relationship between stress in early life and the later development of depression. As corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) and vasopressin (AVP) have been implicated in depression, we aimed to determine the long-term effects of maternal separation stress on these neuropeptide systems, and also to explore whether these effects are gender-dependent.

Lieve Desbonnet; Lillian Garrett; Emma Daly; Kieran W. McDermott; Timothy G. Dinan

2008-01-01

192

Chronic Maternal Vitamin B12 Restriction Induced Changes in Body Composition & Glucose Metabolism in the Wistar Rat Offspring Are Partly Correctable by Rehabilitation  

PubMed Central

Maternal under-nutrition increases the risk of developing metabolic diseases. We studied the effects of chronic maternal dietary vitamin B12 restriction on lean body mass (LBM), fat free mass (FFM), muscle function, glucose tolerance and metabolism in Wistar rat offspring. Prevention/reversibility of changes by rehabilitating restricted mothers from conception or parturition and their offspring from weaning was assessed. Female weaning Wistar rats (n?=?30) were fed ad libitum for 12 weeks, a control diet (n?=?6) or the same with 40% restriction of vitamin B12 (B12R) (n?=?24); after confirming deficiency, were mated with control males. Six each of pregnant B12R dams were rehabilitated from conception and parturition and their offspring weaned to control diet. While offspring of six B12R dams were weaned to control diet, those of the remaining six B12R dams continued on B12R diet. Biochemical parameters and body composition were determined in dams before mating and in male offspring at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months of their age. Dietary vitamin B12 restriction increased body weight but decreased LBM% and FFM% but not the percent of tissue associated fat (TAF%) in dams. Maternal B12R decreased LBM% and FFM% in the male offspring, but their TAF%, basal and insulin stimulated glucose uptake by diaphragm were unaltered. At 12 months age, B12R offspring had higher (than controls) fasting plasma glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR and impaired glucose tolerance. Their hepatic gluconeogenic enzyme activities were increased. B12R offspring had increased oxidative stress and decreased antioxidant status. Changes in body composition, glucose metabolism and stress were reversed by rehabilitating B12R dams from conception, whereas rehabilitation from parturition and weaning corrected them partially, highlighting the importance of vitamin B12 during pregnancy and lactation on growth, muscle development, glucose tolerance and metabolism in the offspring. PMID:25398136

Kumar, Kalle Anand; Lalitha, Anumula; Reddy, Umakar; Chandak, Giriraj Ratan; Sengupta, Shantanu; Raghunath, Manchala

2014-01-01

193

Female-dependent impaired fear memory of adult rats induced by maternal separation, and screening of possible related genes in the hippocampal CA1.  

PubMed

Early life stress is one of the major susceptible factors for stress-related pathologies like posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Recent studies in rats suggest that rather than being overall unfavorable, early life stress may prepare the organism to perform optimally to stressful environments later in life. In this study, severely adverse early life stress was conducted by six consecutive hours of maternal separation (MS), from PND1 to PND21, and contextual fear conditioning model was used on PND90 to mimic the second stress in adulthood and the re-experiencing symptom of PTSD. It was observed that in this investigation pups experienced MS showed decreased sensibility to contextual fear conditioning in adulthood, and there sex plays an important role. For example, female rats suffered MS had much lower freezing than males and controls. Meanwhile, Morris water maze test indicated that MS did not impair rat's performance of spatial learning and memory. Furthermore, suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) was used to screen the related genes of fear memory, by examining the changes of mRNA expression in CA1 area between female MS and control rats after contextual fear conditioning. Finally, nine up-regulated and one down-regulated genes, including ?2-MG, MAF, Nd1-L, TorsinA and MACF1 gene were found in this study. It is assumed that the TorsinA, MACF1 and Nd1-L gene may contribute to the decreased sensitivity of PTSD induced by MS. PMID:24667363

Sun, Xiu-Min; Tu, Wen-Qiang; Shi, Yan-Wei; Xue, Li; Zhao, Hu

2014-07-01

194

The effects of dietary protein restriction on chorda tympani nerve taste responses and terminal field organization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prenatal dietary sodium restriction produces profound developmental effects on rat functional taste responses and formation of neural circuits in the brainstem. Converging evidence indicates that the underlying mechanisms for these effects are related to a compromised nutritional state and not to direct stimulus-receptor interactions. We explored whether early malnourishment produces similar functional and structural effects to those seen following dietary

J. E. Thomas; D. L. Hill

2008-01-01

195

Effects of maternal vitamin E and selenium status during the perinatal period on age-related changes in tissue concentration of vitamin E in rat pups.  

PubMed

Long-Evans hooded female rats previously acclimated to one of four experimental diets differing in their vitamin E (E) and selenium (Se) contents were used in these studies. The basal diet (-E -Se) was marginal in E (15 IU/kg) and Se (0.03 mg/kg) content. Three additional diets, -E, +Se, +E-Se and +E +Se were prepared by supplementing the basal diet with dl-alpha-tocopheryl acetate to contain 150 IU/kg or with sodium selenite to contain 0.5 mg/kg, as required. The rats were mated and the pups born were used to provide plasma, heart, lung and liver tissue for E analyses at postpartum intervals from birth (prior to nursing) to 21 days of age. Differences in Se nutrition of the dams during the perinatal period did not affect the E content of tissues of the rat pups. There were no significant differences (P > 0.05) in E content of plasma or liver tissue at birth in rat pups regardless of the maternal E status. Heart and lung tissue, however, were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in E concentration at birth in pups whose dams were fed the +E diets. Rat pups nursing -E dams had consistently low E content in each of the tissues throughout the postpartum period which did not differ from levels determined prior to nursing. Pups nursing +E dams had elevated E concentration in each of the tissues during the postpartum period. Liver tissue provided the most remarkable response in that E concentration increased approximately 30-fold within 4 days postpartum and then decreased abruptly. The results of these studies suggest a differential transfer of E to rat tissues during gestation. Net placental transfer of E to fetal liver appeared to be very low and was not influenced by marked differences in maternal dietary E. In contrast, preferential incorporation into heart and lung tissue during gestation was shown by the data. In all tissues, increased E content following birth was attributed to ingestion of colostrum and milk containing elevated amounts of the vitamin. PMID:8843987

Pazak, H E; Scholz, R W

1996-01-01

196

The effect of a prolonged magnesium restriction on the humoral immune response in maternal rats and their offspring  

E-print Network

Figure 12 P, elationship between thymus weight and plaque-forming cell (PFC) response in rat dams . . 55 Figure 13 Relationship be. ween thymus weight and plaque-forming ce 1 1 (PFC) resoonse ', n rat dams Figure 14 Pelationship between femur... magnesium concentration and plaqu, . -forming cell (PFC) response in rat dams. . . . , . 5p, Figure 15 Relationship between relative thymus weight and pl aque-forming cel 1 (PFC) response in rat pups. 60 Figure 16 Relationship between femur magnesium...

Cohill, Diane T

2012-06-07

197

Variations in maternal care alter corticosterone and 17beta-estradiol levels, estrous cycle and folliculogenesis and stimulate the expression of estrogen receptors alpha and beta in the ovaries of UCh rats  

PubMed Central

Background Variations in maternal care are associated with neonatal stress, hormonal disturbances and reproductive injuries during adulthood. However, the effects of these variations on sex hormones and steroid receptors during ovary development remain undetermined. This study aimed to investigate whether variations in maternal care are able to influence the hormonal profile, follicular dynamics and expression of AR, ER-alpha and ER-beta in the ovaries of UCh rat offspring. Methods Twenty-four adult UCh rats, aged 120 days, were randomly divided into two groups (UChA and UChB) and mated. Maternal care was assessed from birth (day 0) to the 10th postnatal day (PND). In adulthood, twenty adult female rats (UChA and UChB offspring; n = 10/group), aged 120 days, were euthanized by decapitation during the morning estrus. Results UChA females (providing high maternal care) more frequently displayed the behaviors of carrying pups, as well as licking/grooming and arched back nursing cares. Also, mothers providing high care had elevated corticosterone levels. Additionally, offspring receiving low maternal care showed the highest estrous cycle duration, increased corticosterone and 17beta-estradiol levels, overexpression of receptors ER-alpha and ER-beta, increased numbers of primordial, antral and mature follicles and accentuated granulosa cell proliferation. Conclusions Our study suggests that low maternal care alters corticosterone and 17beta-estradiol levels, disrupting the estrous cycle and folliculogenesis and differentially regulating the expression of ER-alpha and ER-beta in the ovaries of adult rats. PMID:22192617

2011-01-01

198

Characterisation of the Maternal Response to Chronic Phase Shifts during Gestation in the Rat: Implications for Fetal Metabolic Programming  

PubMed Central

Disrupting maternal circadian rhythms through exposure to chronic phase shifts of the photoperiod has lifelong consequences for the metabolic homeostasis of the fetus, such that offspring develop increased adiposity, hyperinsulinaemia and poor glucose and insulin tolerance. In an attempt to determine the mechanisms by which these poor metabolic outcomes arise, we investigated the impact of chronic phase shifts (CPS) on maternal and fetal hormonal, metabolic and circadian rhythms. We assessed weight gain and food consumption of dams exposed to either CPS or control lighting conditions throughout gestation. At day 20, dams were assessed for plasma hormone and metabolite concentrations and glucose and insulin tolerance. Additionally, the expression of a range of circadian and metabolic genes was assessed in maternal, placental and fetal tissue. Control and CPS dams consumed the same amount of food, yet CPS dams gained 70% less weight during the first week of gestation. At day 20, CPS dams had reduced retroperitoneal fat pad weight (?15%), and time-of-day dependent decreases in liver weight, whereas fetal and placental weight was not affected. Melatonin secretion was not altered, yet the timing of corticosterone, leptin, glucose, insulin, free fatty acids, triglycerides and cholesterol concentrations were profoundly disrupted. The expression of gluconeogenic and circadian clock genes in maternal and fetal liver became either arrhythmic or were in antiphase to the controls. These results demonstrate that disruptions of the photoperiod can severely disrupt normal circadian profiles of plasma hormones and metabolites, as well as gene expression in maternal and fetal tissues. Disruptions in the timing of food consumption and the downstream metabolic processes required to utilise that food, may lead to reduced efficiency of growth such that maternal weight gain is reduced during early embryonic development. It is these perturbations that may contribute to the programming of poor metabolic homeostasis in the offspring. PMID:23342007

Varcoe, Tamara J.; Boden, Michael J.; Voultsios, Athena; Salkeld, Mark D.; Rattanatray, Leewen; Kennaway, David J.

2013-01-01

199

Visceral hyperalgesia induced by neonatal maternal separation is associated with nerve growth factor-mediated central neuronal plasticity in rat spinal cord.  

PubMed

Neonatal maternal separation (NMS) has been shown to trigger alterations in neuroendocrine, neurochemical and sensory response to nociceptive stimuli along the brain-gut axis. These alterations may be the result of a cascade of events that are regulated by neurotrophic factors. Nerve growth factor (NGF), a member of the neurotrophin family, is essential for the development and maintenance of sensory neurons and for the formation of central pain circuitry. The present study aimed to investigate whether NMS causes changes in neuronal plasticity and the relationship of these changes in plasticity with the expression of NGF and its high affinity tyrosine kinase receptor A (TrkA) in the lumbosacral spinal cord in adult rats. Male Wistar rat pups were either subjected to 180 min daily of NMS or not handled (NH) for 13 consecutive days. The expression of NGF and TrkA was examined in NH and NMS rats with or without colorectal distention (CRD) as determined by Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry. The present results of Western blot analysis indicated NMS and CRD have a significant effect on NGF protein level in the lumbosacral spinal cord of rats. Assessments of optical densities revealed that NMS enhanced TrkA-ir fiber densities in laminae I-III and laminae V-VI of rats in both conditions with or without CRD. Double immunofluorescence revealed that TrkA co-expressed with calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in afferent fibers, while no significant difference in terms of the intensity of TrkA-ir in these fibers was found among groups. Quantitative analysis of TrkA-ir neurons indicated a significant interactive effect of NMS and CRD on the mean number of TrkA-ir neurons in laminae V-VI of rats, in which significant difference was found between NMS+CRD and NH+CRD. Double immunofluorescence of TrkA and Fos showed that CRD has a significant effect on TrkA expression in Fos-positive neurons in laminae V-VI and lamina X of rats, while no significant difference was found between NMS+CRD and NH+CRD. These results demonstrate that NMS induced alterations in NGF protein level and TrkA expression in adult rat spinal cord and indicate that NGF is a crucial mediator for the changes in neuronal plasticity that occur in NMS-induced visceral hyperalgesia. PMID:17913374

Chung, E K Y; Zhang, X-J; Xu, H-X; Sung, J J Y; Bian, Z-X

2007-11-01

200

Levels of Pesticides and Their Metabolites in Wistar Rat Amniotic Fluids and Maternal Urine upon Gestational Exposure  

PubMed Central

Concentrations of pesticides and selected metabolites in rat urine and amniotic fluid were determined as biomarker upon oral administration of Wistar rats to two pesticide mixtures consisting of three to five pesticides (bitertanol, propiconazole, cypermethrin, malathion, and terbuthylazine). The pesticides and their metabolites were found in rat amniotic fluid and urine, generally in dose-response concentrations in relation to dosage. The measurement of the substances in the amniotic fluid indicated that the fetus was exposed to the pesticides as well as their metabolites. Moreover, the pesticides detected in urine demonstrated the exposure as well as the ability of the rat to excrete these compounds. PMID:23736656

Bossi, Rossana; Vinggaard, Anne Marie; Taxvig, Camilla; Boberg, Julie; Bonefeld-J?rgensen, Eva Cecilie

2013-01-01

201

Acute Changes in Maternal Thyroid Hormone Induce Rapid and Transient Changes in Gene Expression in Fetal Rat Brain  

E-print Network

Acute Changes in Maternal Thyroid Hormone Induce Rapid and Transient Changes in Gene Expression, Massachusetts 01655 Despite clinical evidence that thyroid hormone is essential for brain development before birth, effects of thyroid hormone on the fetal brain have been largely unexplored. One mechanism

Zoeller, R. Thomas

202

Postpartum Behavioral Profiles in Wistar Rats Following Maternal Separation - Altered Exploration and Risk-Assessment Behavior in MS15 Dams.  

PubMed

The rodent maternal separation (MS) model is frequently used to investigate the impact of early environmental factors on adult neurobiology and behavior. The majority of MS studies assess effects in the offspring and few address the consequences of repeated pup removal in the dam. Such studies are of interest since alterations detected in offspring subjected to MS may, at least in part, be mediated by variations in maternal behavior and the amount of maternal care provided by the dam. The aim of this study was to investigate how daily short (15 min; MS15) and prolonged (360 min; MS360) periods of MS affects the dam by examining postpartum behavioral profiles using the multivariate concentric square field (MCSF) test. The dams were tested on postpartum days 24-25, i.e., just after the end of the separation period and weaning. The results reveal a lower exploratory drive and lower risk-assessment behavior in MS15 dams relative to MS360 or animal facility reared dams. The present results contrast some of the previously reported findings and provide new information about early post-weaning behavioral characteristics in a multivariate setting. Plausible explanations for the results are provided including a discussion how the present results fit into the maternal mediation hypothesis. PMID:20617189

Daoura, Loudin; Hjalmarsson, My; Oreland, Sadia; Nylander, Ingrid; Roman, Erika

2010-01-01

203

Maternal flaxseed diet during pregnancy or lactation increases female rat offspring's susceptibility to carcinogen-induced mammary tumorigenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flaxseed contains several dietary components that have been linked to low breast cancer risk; i.e., n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), lignans and fiber, but it also contains detectable levels of cadmium, a heavy metal that activates the estrogen receptor (ER). Since estrogenic exposures early in life modify susceptibility to develop breast cancer, we wondered whether maternal dietary intake of 5%

Galam Khan; Pauliina Penttinen; Anna Cabanes; Aaron Foxworth; Antonia Chezek; Kristen Mastropole; Bin Yu; Annika Smeds; Teemu Halttunen; Carolyn Good; Sari Mäkelä; Leena Hilakivi-Clarke

2007-01-01

204

A Morphometeric Study on CA3 Hippocampal Field in Young Rats Following Maternal Administration of Boswellia Serrata Resin During Gestation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective It has previously been shown that prenatal maternal administration of Boswellia serrata gum resin (Frankincense) improved learning and memory performance associated with an increase in the size of neuronal bodies in CA3 (Cornu Ammonis) of hippocampus. Continuing the previous work, a morphometric study was designed on CA3 field to examine precisely the effect of prenatal administration of frankincense on

Mohamad Hosseini Sharifabad; Ebrahim Esfandiary

2007-01-01

205

Immunotoxic effects of exposure of rats to xenobiotics via maternal lactation. Part I 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin.  

PubMed Central

Exposure of lactating female Leeds rats to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) resulted in a reduction in the body, spleen and liver weights of their male offspring at 130 days of age. None of the total administered doses (0.2, 1.0 or 5.0 micrograms/kg b.wt over 18 days) induced thymic atrophy in the offspring of either sex as adults. Most of the growth inhibition occurred during the suckling period and the effect was near maximal following maternal exposure to the lowest dose of TCDD. After this dose, at post-natal day 130 the body weights of the female offspring remained depressed, while those of the males had recovered to untreated control values. Maternal exposure to TCDD affected the immunocompetence of the adult offspring: in vitro T cell dependent and T cell independent responses and mitogen induced in vitro production of interleukin 1 (IL-1) and interleukin 2 (IL-2) were suppressed at post-natal day 130. The total dose of TCDD that has to be administered to dams over an 18-day nursing period in order to reduce the humoral responses of their offspring as adults by 50% of the maximum was estimated to be in the range 0.3-1.0 micrograms/kg b.wt to the antigens SRBC, DNP-Ficoll or TNP-LPS and 3.5-3.9 micrograms/kg b.wt. to the antigen LPS. PMID:8652363

Badesha, J. S.; Maliji, G.; Flaks, B.

1995-01-01

206

Maternal high fat feeding does not have long-lasting effects on body composition and bone health in female and male Wistar rat offspring at young adulthood.  

PubMed

High fat diets adversely affect body composition, bone mineral and strength, and alter bone fatty acid composition. It is unclear if maternal high fat (HF) feeding permanently alters offspring body composition and bone health. Female rats were fed control (CON) or HF diet for 10 weeks, bred, and continued their diets throughout pregnancy and lactation. Male and female offspring were studied at weaning and 3 months, following consumption of CON diet. At weaning, but not 3 months of age, male and female offspring from dams fed HF diet had lower lean mass and higher fat and bone mass, and higher femur bone mineral density (females only) than offspring of dams fed CON diet. Male and female offspring femurs from dams fed HF diet had higher monounsaturates and lower n6 polyunsaturates at weaning than offspring from dams fed CON diet, where females from dams fed HF diet had higher saturates and lower n6 polyunsaturates at 3 months of age. There were no differences in strength of femurs or lumbar vertebrae at 3 months of age in either male or female offspring. In conclusion, maternal HF feeding did not permanently affect body composition and bone health at young adulthood in offspring. PMID:24322493

Miotto, Paula M; Castelli, Laura M; Amoye, Foyinsola; LeBlanc, Paul J; Peters, Sandra J; Roy, Brian D; Ward, Wendy E

2013-01-01

207

Effects of maternal exposure to 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl or propylthiouracil in rats trained to discriminate apomorphine from saline.  

PubMed

In the present experiment drug discrimination was examined in rats after maternal exposure to 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB 77) using apomorphine (APO) as the training drug at a dose reported to act on dopamine D2 receptors. A group with maternal exposure to 6n-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU) was included as a positive control for effects induced by PCB 77 on thyroid hormones. On gestational day (GD) 19 reduced levels of free and total thyroxine (FT4, TT4) and free triiodothyronine (FT3) were detected in dams exposed to PCB 77 or PTU. In the offspring decreases in levels of FT4 and TT4 were found in both treated groups on postnatal day (PND) 21, while reductions of FT3 were observed only in the PTU group. PTU-treated rats needed more daily sessions for successful discrimination between apomorphine and saline. There were no differences between groups in generalization tests and sessions with the D2/D3 agonist quinpirole, the D2 antagonist haloperidol plus APO, or with the GABAergic drug pentobarbital and only minor differences in sessions with the D1 agonist SKF-38393. Differences between controls and groups exposed to PCB 77 or PTU were detected in a blocking test using the mixed serotonin 5-HT1A agonist and partial D2 antagonist buspirone. This outcome suggests long-lasting effects by developmental exposure to PCB 77 on the interaction between dopaminergic and serotonergic processes which may be mediated by effects on thyroid hormone levels. PMID:9299608

Lilienthal, H; Weinand-Härer, A; Winterhoff, H; Winneke, G

1997-09-01

208

Adolescence fluoxetine increases serotonergic activity in the raphe-hippocampus axis and improves depression-like behaviors in female rats that experienced neonatal maternal separation.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to examine if fluoxetine, a selective 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) reuptake inhibitor, would reverse adverse behavioral effects of neonatal maternal separation in female rats. Sprague-Dawley pups were separated from dam daily for 3h during postnatal day (PND) 1-14 (maternal separation; MS) or left undisturbed (non-handled; NH). Female NH and MS pups received intraperitoneal injection of fluoxetine (10mg/kg) or vehicle daily from PND 35 until the end of the whole experimental period. Rats were either subjected to behavioral tests during PND 44-54, or sacrificed for neurochemical analyses during PND 43-45. Daily food intake and weight gain of both NH and MS pups were suppressed by fluoxetine, with greater effects in MS pups. MS experience increased immobility and decrease swimming in forced swim test. Swimming was increased, although immobility was not significantly decreased, in MS females by adolescence fluoxetine. However, adolescence fluoxetine increased immobility during forced swim test and decreased time spent in open arms during elevated plus maze test in NH females. Fluoxetine normalized MS-induced decrease of the raphe 5-HT levels and increased 5-HT metabolism in the hippocampus in MS females, and increased the hypothalamic 5-HT both in NH and MS. Fluoxetine decreased the raphe 5-HT and increased the plasma corticosterone in NH females. Results suggest that decreased 5-HTergic activity in the raphe nucleus is implicated in the pathophysiology of depression-like behaviors, and increased 5-HTergic activities in the raphe-hippocampus axis may be a part of anti-depressant efficacy of fluoxetine, in MS females. Also, an extra-hypothalamic 5-HTergic activity may contribute to the increased anorectic efficacy of fluoxetine in MS females. Additionally, decreased 5-HT in the raphe and elevated plasma corticosterone may be related with fluoxetine-induced depression- and/or anxiety-like behaviors in NH females. PMID:23010142

Yoo, Sang Bae; Kim, Bom-Taeck; Kim, Jin Young; Ryu, Vitaly; Kang, Dong-Won; Lee, Jong-Ho; Jahng, Jeong Won

2013-06-01

209

Influence of maternal ingestion of Aroclor 1254[reg sign] (PCB) or FireMaster BP-6[reg sign] (PBB) on unstimulated and stimulated corticosterone levels in young rats  

SciTech Connect

The organohalides polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and polybrominated biphenyl (PBB) remain troublesome environmental pollutants. For example, the percentage of the population in which PCB is detectable in adipose tissue remains high. These compounds are of particular interest to residents of the North Central United States, especially in regions surrounding the Great Lakes where contaminated fish may be a regular component of the diet. Additionally, PBB was mistakenly fed to cattle and chickens in Michigan during the early 1970s, products of which were ingested by humans. Among the physiological effects of ingestion of PCB or PBB is the depression of thyroid status, which has been reported in adult humans, in adult experimental animals, and in the offspring of these animals. In adult rats, circulating levels of thyroid hormones are inversely proportional to dose of PCB or PBB in the diet. On the other hand, reports of effects of these organohalides on adrenocortical function remain equivocal, describing both PCB- and PBB-induced depression, and absence of effect in rats and monkeys. Despite the possible consequences of maternal ingestion of PCB or PBB on future generations, little work has been done previously to determine whether consumption of these materials by pregnant and lactating animals confers hypothyroidism on their offspring, and/or influences other mechanisms of endocrine control in the young. Since early studies showed that hypothyroidism induced by feeding pregnant rats the goitrogen thiouracil altered the functional capabilities in their young of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, as revealed by circulating corticosterone levels, the present study was done to determine whether ingestion of either PCB (Aroclor 1254[reg sign]) or PBB (FireMaster BP-6[reg sign]) by pregnant and lactating rats resulted in depressed thyroid status and/or modified HPA axis function in their 15 day old young. 19 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Meserve, L.A.; Murray, B.A.; Landis, J.A. (Bowling Green State Univ., Bowling Green, OH (United States))

1992-05-01

210

Maternal exposure to fluoxetine during gestation and lactation affects the DNA methylation programming of rat's offspring: modulation by folic acid supplementation.  

PubMed

Fluoxetine is an antidepressant that has been largely used for treatment of depression in pregnancy. In the present study we evaluated the effects of the exposure to fluoxetine during gestation and lactation on DNA methylation of rat brain regions. Female Wistar rats were treated with 5mg/kg of fluoxetine during pregnancy and lactation. In order to assess the effects of fluoxetine in the context of maternal folic acid supplementation we performed an additional combined treatment composed by folic acid (8 mg/kg/day) and fluoxetine (5 mg/kg/day). On the postnatal day 22, male rats were euthanized and hippocampus, cortex, hypothalamus, and periaqueductal gray area were removed. Global DNA methylation was quantified using a high-throughput ELISA-based method. Neurofunctional changes were addressed using validated behavioral tests: hot plate, elevated plus maze and open field. A decrease in the global DNA methylation profile of hippocampus was associated to the exposure to fluoxetine, whereas an increase in methylation was observed in cortex. The combined treatment induced an increase in the methylation of hippocampus indicating the potential of folic acid to modulate this epigenetic alteration. Increase in the latency to the thermal nociceptive response was observed in animals exposed to fluoxetine whereas this effect was abolished in animals from the combined treatment. In summary we demonstrated that exposure to fluoxetine during gestation and lactation affect the DNA methylation of brain and the nociceptive response of rats. Furthermore our data reveal the potential of folic acid to modulate epigenetic and functional changes induced by early exposure to fluoxetine. PMID:24583191

Toffoli, L V; Rodrigues, G M; Oliveira, J F; Silva, A S; Moreira, E G; Pelosi, G G; Gomes, M V

2014-05-15

211

Frequency of maternal licking and grooming correlates negatively with vulnerability to cocaine and alcohol use in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because licking and grooming behavior of dams with pups can influence some behaviors of pups when they are adults, we tested if licking and grooming scores in a maternal separation protocol correlated with cocaine or ethanol self-administration in the pups as adults. The protocol produced litters that were separated from dams for 0 (MS0), 15 (MS15) or 180 (MS180) min,

D. D. Francis; M. J. Kuhar

2008-01-01

212

Maternal Separation Enhances Conditioned Fear and Decreases the mRNA Levels of the Neurotensin Receptor 1 Gene with Hypermethylation of This Gene in the Rat Amygdala  

PubMed Central

Stress during postnatal development is associated with an increased risk for depression, anxiety disorders, and substance abuse later in life, almost as if mental illness is able to be programed by early life stressors. Recent studies suggest that such “programmed” effects can be caused by epigenetic regulation. With respect to conditioned fear, previous studies have indicated that early life stress influences its development in adulthood, whereas no potential role of epigenetic regulation has been reported. Neurotensin (NTS) is an endogenous neuropeptide that has receptors densely located in the amygdala and hippocampus. Recently, NTS systems have constituted an emerging target for the treatment of anxiety. The aim of the present work is to clarify whether the NTS system is involved in the disturbance of conditioned fear in rats stressed by maternal separation (MS). The results showed that MS enhanced freezing behaviors in fear-conditioned stress and reduced the gene expression of NTS receptor (NTSR) 1 but not of NTS or NTSR2 in the amygdalas of adult rats. The microinjection of a NTSR1 antagonist into the amygdala increased the percentage of freezing in conditioned fear, whereas the microinjection of NTSR1 agonist decreased freezing. These results suggest that NTSR1 in the amygdala may play a role in the effects of MS on conditioned fear stress in adult rats. Moreover, MS increased DNA methylation in the promoter region of NTSR1 in the amygdala. Taken together, MS may leave epigenetic marks in the NTSR1 gene in the amygdala, which may enhance conditioned fear in adulthood. The MS-induced alternations of DNA methylation in the promoter region of NTSR1 in the amygdala may be associated with vulnerability to the development of anxiety disorders and depression in adulthood. PMID:24831231

Toda, Hiroyuki; Boku, Shuken; Nakagawa, Shin; Inoue, Takeshi; Kato, Akiko; Takamura, Naoki; Song, Ning; Nibuya, Masashi; Koyama, Tsukasa; Kusumi, Ichiro

2014-01-01

213

Effects of noradrenergic alpha-2 receptor antagonism or noradrenergic lesions in the ventral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and medial preoptic area on maternal care in female rats  

PubMed Central

Rationale Maternal behavior in laboratory rats requires a network of brain structures including the ventral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BSTv) and medial preoptic area (mPOA). Neurotransmitter systems in the BSTv and mPOA influencing maternal behaviors are not well understood, although norepinephrine is an excellent candidate because the BSTv contains the densest noradrenergic fiber plexus in the forebrain and norepinephrine in the mPOA is known to influence other female reproductive functions. Objectives We hypothesized that downregulated noradrenergic activity in the BSTv and mPOA is necessary for mothering. Methods Postpartum mother-litter interactions were observed after BSTv infusion of yohimbine (an ?2 autoreceptor antagonist that increases norepinephrine release), and after BSTv or mPOA infusion of the more selective ?2 autoreceptor antagonist idazoxan. Lastly, noradrenergic input to the BSTv/mPOA was selectively lesioned in nulliparous rats with anti-DBH-saporin to determine if this would facilitate mothering. Results BSTv yohimbine almost abolished retrieval of pups but did not significantly affect dams’ ability to initiate contact, lick or nurse them. BSTv idazoxan disrupted retrieval somewhat less than yohimbine, but significantly reduced nursing. mPOA idazoxan impaired retrieval more severely than that found after BSTv infusion. Anti-DBH-saporin almost eliminated noradrenergic terminals in the BSTv and reduced them by over 60% in the mPOA, but did not promote maternal responding. It also did not affect females’ anxiety-related behavior. Conclusions Downregulated noradrenergic activity in the BSTv and mPOA is necessary for postpartum maternal behavior in rats, but eliminating this system alone is insufficient to promote maternal behaviors in nulliparous females. PMID:22644129

Smith, Carl D.; Holschbach, M. Allie; Olsewicz, Joshua; Lonstein, Joseph S.

2013-01-01

214

Maternal omega 3 fatty acid supplementation during pregnancy to a micronutrient-imbalanced diet protects postnatal reduction of brain neurotrophins in the rat offspring.  

PubMed

An altered one carbon cycle (folic acid, vitamin B(12)) and omega 3 fatty acid metabolism during pregnancy can increase the risk for neurodevelopmental disorders in the offspring. Our earlier studies have shown that a maternal diet imbalanced with micronutrients like folic acid, vitamin B(12) reduces levels of brain docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and neurotrophins in the offspring at birth. The present study examines whether these effects can be reversed by a postnatal diet. Pregnant female rats were divided into six treatment groups at two levels of folic acid both in the presence and absence of vitamin B(12). Omega 3 fatty acid supplementation was given to the vitamin B(12)-deficient groups. Following delivery, eight dams from each group were randomly shifted back to control and remaining eight continued on the same treatment diet. Plasma homocysteine levels could be normalized by a postnatal control diet. Brain DHA levels were similar in all the groups irrespective of the diet consumed during lactation. Brain-derived nerve growth factor (BDNF) and nerve growth factor (NGF) levels were lower in both the vitamin B(12)-deficient groups even after consuming a diet with normal levels of vitamin B(12) during lactation (p<0.05 for all) indicating that the effects of maternal programing with respect to neurotrophins cannot be reversed by a postnatal diet. Our findings for the first time suggest that omega 3 fatty acid supplementation to a micronutrient-imbalanced diet, during pregnancy and lactation protects the levels of BDNF and NGF. This may have significant implications in the development of psychiatric disorders/cognitive deficits in later life. PMID:22579981

Sable, P S; Dangat, K D; Joshi, A A; Joshi, S R

2012-08-16

215

Embryo transfer cannot delineate between the maternal pregnancy environment and germ line effects in the transgenerational transmission of disease in rats.  

PubMed

Adverse conditions in utero can have transgenerational effects, in the absence of a subsequent insult. We aimed to investigate the contribution of the maternal pregnancy environment vs. germ line effects in mediating alterations to cardiorenal and metabolic physiology in offspring from mothers born small. Uteroplacental insufficiency was induced by bilateral uterine artery and vein ligation (Restricted group) or sham surgery (Control group) in Wistar-Kyoto rats. Restricted and control female offspring (F1) were mated with either breeder males (embryo donor) or vasectomized males (embryo recipient). Embryo transfer was performed at embryonic day (E) 1, whereby second-generation (F2) embryos gestated (donor-in-recipient) in either a control (Cont-in-Cont, Rest-in-Cont) or restricted (Cont-in-Rest, Rest-in-Rest) mother. In male and female offspring, glomerular number and size were measured at postnatal day (PN) 35, and systolic blood pressure, glucose control, insulin sensitivity, and pancreatic ?-cell mass were measured in separate sibling cohorts at 6 mo. Rest-in-Rest offspring were hypothesized to have similar characteristics (reduced growth, altered metabolic control, and hypertension) to non-embryo-transferred Rest, such that embryo transfer would not be a confounding experimental influence. However, embryo-transferred Rest-in-Rest offspring underwent accelerated growth during the peripubertal phase, followed by slowed growth between 2 and 3 mo of age compared with non-embryo-transferred Rest groups. Furthermore, renal function and insulin response to a glucose load were different to respective non-embryo-transferred groups. Our data demonstrate the long-term effects of in vitro embryo manipulation, which confounded the utility of this approach in delineating between the maternal pregnancy environment and germ line effects that drive transgenerational outcomes. PMID:24523338

Tran, Melanie; Gallo, Linda A; Hanvey, Alanna N; Jefferies, Andrew J; Westcott, Kerryn T; Cullen-McEwen, Luise A; Gardner, David K; Moritz, Karen M; Wlodek, Mary E

2014-04-15

216

Maternal Neurofascin-Specific Autoantibodies Bind to Structures of the Fetal Nervous System during Pregnancy, but Have No Long Term Effect on Development in the Rat  

PubMed Central

Neurofascin was recently reported as a target for axopathic autoantibodies in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), a response that will exacerbate axonal pathology and disease severity in an animal model of multiple sclerosis. As transplacental transfer of maternal autoantibodies can permanently damage the developing nervous system we investigated whether intrauterine exposure to this neurofascin-specific response had any detrimental effect on white matter tract development. To address this question we intravenously injected pregnant rats with either a pathogenic anti-neurofascin monoclonal antibody or an appropriate isotype control on days 15 and 18 of pregnancy, respectively, to mimic the physiological concentration of maternal antibodies in the circulation of the fetus towards the end of pregnancy. Pups were monitored daily with respect to litter size, birth weight, growth and motor development. Histological studies were performed on E20 embryos and pups sacrificed on days 2, 10, 21, 32 and 45 days post partum. Results: Immunohistochemistry for light and confocal microscopy confirmed passively transferred anti-neurofascin antibody had crossed the placenta to bind to distinct structures in the developing cortex and cerebellum. However, this did not result in any significant differences in litter size, birth weight, or general physical development between litters from control mothers or those treated with the neurofascin-specific antibody. Histological analysis also failed to identify any neuronal or white matter tract abnormalities induced by the neurofascin-specific antibody. Conclusions: We show that transplacental transfer of circulating anti-neurofascin antibodies can occur and targets specific structures in the CNS of the developing fetus. However, this did not result in any pre- or post-natal abnormalities in the offspring of the treated mothers. These results assure that even if anti-neurofascin responses are detected in pregnant women with multiple sclerosis these are unlikely to have a negative effect on their children. PMID:24465550

Hochmeister, Sonja; Pekar, Thomas; Lindner, Maren; Kitic, Maja; Haindl, Michaela; Storch, Maria; Fazekas, Franz; Linington, Christopher

2014-01-01

217

Comparative effects of prenatal cocaine, alcohol, and undernutrition on maternal\\/fetal toxicity and fetal body composition in the Sprague-Dawley rat with observations on strain-dependent differences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pregnant rats received either 20, 30, 40, or 50 mg\\/kg cocaine HCl (SC) twice daily from gestation days 7 through 19. Pair-fed and untreated control groups and a group receiving 3.0 g\\/kg alcohol (PO) twice daily served as comparison groups. Females were sacrificed on gestation day 20 and the fetuses examined. Maternal weight gain and food consumption showed dose-dependent decreases.

Michael W. Church; Connie A. Morbach; Marappa G. Subramanian

1995-01-01

218

Effects of high fat diet on Morris maze performance, oxidative stress, and inflammation in rats: Contributions of maternal diet  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of prenatal and postnatal exposure to high fat diet on the brain. Female rats were divided into high fat diet (HFD) and control diet (CD) groups 4 weeks prior to breeding and throughout gestation and lactation. After weaning, male progeny were placed on a chow diet until 8 weeks old, and then segregated into

Christy L. White; Paul J. Pistell; Megan N. Purpera; Sunita Gupta; Sun-Ok Fernandez-Kim; Taylor L. Hise; Jeffrey N. Keller; Donald K. Ingram; Christopher D. Morrison; Annadora J. Bruce-Keller

2009-01-01

219

Maternal separation during a specific postnatal time window prevents reinforcement of hippocampal long-term potentiation in adolescent rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an attempt to develop an animal model to study the etiology of brain dysfunction in relation to early life experience, we tested the hypothesis that early-life stress during specific postnatal time windows affects long-term potentiation (LTP) reinforcement in adolescence. Male Wistar rat pups were stressed by separation from their dams for 24 h at postnatal day (PND) 4, 9,

M. Gruss; K. Braun; J. U. Frey; V. Korz

2008-01-01

220

Lifelong Impact of Variations in Maternal Care on Dendritic Structure and Function of Cortical Layer 2\\/3 Pyramidal Neurons in Rat Offspring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maternal licking and grooming (LG) exerts profound influence on hippocampal development and function in the offspring. However, little information is available on the effects of variations in maternal care on other brain regions. Here we examined the effects of variation in the frequency of maternal LG on morphological and electrophysiological properties of layer 2\\/3 pyramidal neurons in the somatosensory cortex

Laura A. Smit-Rigter; Danielle L. Champagne; Johannes A. van Hooft; Rafael Linden

2009-01-01

221

Impact of maternal dietary exposure to endocrine-acting chemicals on progesterone receptor expression in microdissected hypothalamic medial preoptic areas of rat offspring.  

PubMed

We have previously examined the impact of perinatal exposure to ethinylestradiol (EE), methoxychlor (MXC), diisononyl phthalate (DINP), and genistein (GEN) in maternal diet on rat offspring, and found developmental and/or reproductive toxicity with 0.5 ppm EE, 1200 ppm MXC, and 20,000 ppm DINP. Although the toxicological profile with MXC was similar to the EE case, the population changes in pituitary hormone-producing cells totally differed between the two cases, changes being evident from 240 ppm with MXC. In the present study, to assess the impact of these agents on brain sexual differentiation, region-specific mRNA expression of estrogen receptors (ER) alpha and beta, the progesterone receptor (PR), gonadotrophin-releasing hormone, steroid receptor coactivators (SRC)-1 and -2, and calbindin-D in microdissected hypothalamic medial preoptic areas (MPOAs) at postnatal day 10 was first analyzed in rats exposed to 0.5 ppm-EE from gestational day 15 by real-time RT-PCR. Sexually dimorphic expression of ER alpha and PR was noted with predominance in females and males, respectively, EE up-regulating SRC-1 in males and ER beta and PR in females. Next, we similarly examined expression changes of ER alpha and beta, PR, and SRC-1 in animals exposed to MXC at 24, 240, and 1200 ppm, DINP at 4000 and 20,000 ppm, and GEN at 1000 ppm. MXC at 1200 ppm down- and up-regulated PR in males and females, respectively, and DINP at 20,000 ppm down-regulated PR in females, while GEN did not exert any clear effects. The results thus suggest that agents causing developmental and/or reproductive abnormalities in later life may affect hypothalamic PR expression during the exposure period in early life. PMID:16183386

Takagi, Hironori; Shibutani, Makoto; Lee, Kyoung-Youl; Masutomi, Naoya; Fujita, Haruka; Inoue, Kaoru; Mitsumori, Kunitoshi; Hirose, Masao

2005-10-15

222

Maternal Separation during Breastfeeding Induces Gender-Dependent Changes in Anxiety and the GABA-A Receptor Alpha-Subunit in Adult Wistar Rats  

PubMed Central

Different models of rodent maternal separation (MS) have been used to investigate long-term neurobiological and behavioral changes, associated with early stress. However, few studies have involved the analysis of sex-related differences in central anxiety modulation. This study investigated whether MS during breastfeeding affected adult males and females in terms of anxiety and brain GABA-A receptor-alpha-subunit immunoreactivity. The brain areas analyzed were the amygdale (AM), hippocampus (HP), medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), medial preoptic area (POA) and paraventricular nucleus (PVN). Rats were housed under a reversed light/dark cycle (lights off at 7?00 h) with access to water and food ad libitum. Animals underwent MS twice daily during the dark cycle from postnatal day 1 to postnatal day 21. Behavior was tested when rats were 65–70 days old using the elevated plus maze and after brains were treated for immunohistochemistry. We found that separated females spent more time in the open arms and showed more head dipping behavior compared with controls. The separated males spent more time in the center of the maze and engaged in more stretching behavior than the controls. Immunohistochemistry showed that separated females had less immunostained cells in the HP, mPFC, PVN and POA, while separated males had fewer immunolabeled cells in the PFC, PVN and AM. These results could indicate that MS has gender-specific effects on anxiety behaviors and that these effects are likely related to developmental alterations involving GABA-A neurotransmission. PMID:23826356

Leon Rodriguez, Diego Armando; Duenas, Zulma

2013-01-01

223

Maternal separation impairs long term-potentiation in CA1-CA3 synapses and hippocampal-dependent memory in old rats.  

PubMed

Exposure to chronic stress during the neonatal period is known to induce permanent long-term changes in the central nervous system and hipothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis reactivity that are associated with increased levels of depression, anxiety, and cognitive impairments. In rodents, a validated model of early life stress is the maternal separation (MS) paradigm, which has been shown to have long-term consequences for the pups that span to adulthood. We hypothesized that the early life stress-associated effects could be exacerbated with aging, because it is often accompanied by cognitive decline. Using a MS model in which rat pups were separated from their mothers for 3 hours daily, during postnatal days 2-14, we evaluated the long-term functional consequences to aged animals (70-week-old), by measuring synaptic plasticity and cognitive performance. The baseline behavioral deficits of aged control rats were further exacerbated in MS animals, indicating that early-life stress induces sustained changes in anxiety-like behavior and hippocampal-dependent memory that are maintained much later in life. We then investigated whether these differences are linked to impaired function of hippocampal neurons by recording hippocampal long-term potentiation from Schaffer collaterals/CA1 synapses. The magnitude of the hippocampal long-term potentiation induced by high-frequency stimulation was significantly lower in aged MS animals than in age-matched controls. These results substantiate the hypothesis that the neuronal and endocrine alterations induced by early-life stress are long lasting, and are able to exacerbate the mild age-associated deficits. PMID:24559649

Sousa, Vasco C; Vital, Joana; Costenla, Ana Rita; Batalha, Vânia L; Sebastião, Ana M; Ribeiro, Joaquim A; Lopes, Luísa V

2014-07-01

224

Maternal administration of flutamide during late gestation affects the brain and reproductive organs development in the rat male offspring.  

PubMed

We have previously demonstrated that male rats exposed to stress during the last week of gestation present age-specific impairments of brain development. Since the organization of the fetal developing brain is subject to androgen exposure and prenatal stress was reported to disrupt perinatal testosterone surges, the aim of this research was to explore whether abnormal androgen concentrations during late gestation affects the morphology of the prefrontal cortex (PFC), hippocampus (HPC) and ventral tegmental area (VTA), three major areas that were shown to be affected by prenatal stress in our previous studies. We administered 10-mg/kg/day of the androgen receptor antagonist flutamide (4'nitro-3'-trifluoromethylsobutyranilide) or vehicle injections to pregnant rats from days 15-21 of gestation. The antiandrogenic effects of flutamide were confirmed by the analysis of androgen-dependent developmental markers: flutamide-exposed rats showed reduced anogenital distance, delay in the completion of testis descent, hypospadias, cryptorchidism and atrophied seminal vesicles. Brain morphological studies revealed that prenatal flutamide decreased the number of MAP2 (a microtubule-associated protein type 2, present almost exclusively in dendrites) immunoreactive neuronal processes in all evaluated brain areas, both in prepubertal and adult offspring, suggesting that prenatal androgen disruption induces long-term reductions of the dendritic arborization of several brain structures, affecting the normal connectivity between areas. Moreover, the number of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-immunopositive neurons in the VTA of prepubertal offspring was reduced in flutamide rats but reach normal values at adulthood. Our results demonstrate that the effects of prenatal flutamide on the offspring brain morphology resemble several prenatal stress effects suggesting that the mechanism of action of prenatal stress might be related to the impairment of the organizational role of androgens on brain development. PMID:25130562

Pallarés, M E; Adrover, E; Imsen, M; González, D; Fabre, B; Mesch, V; Baier, C J; Antonelli, M C

2014-10-10

225

Long-term effects of calorie or protein restriction on serum IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 concentration in humans  

PubMed Central

Summary Reduced function mutations in the insulin/IGF-I signaling pathway increase maximal lifespan and health span in many species. Calorie restriction (CR) decreases serum IGF-1 concentration by ~40%, protects against cancer and slows aging in rodents. However, the long-term effects of CR with adequate nutrition on circulating IGF-1 levels in humans are unknown. Here we report data from two long-term CR studies (1 and 6 years) showing that severe CR without malnutrition did not change IGF-1 and IGF-1 : IGFBP-3 ratio levels in humans. In contrast, total and free IGF-1 concentrations were significantly lower in moderately protein-restricted individuals. Reducing protein intake from an average of 1.67 g kg ?1 of body weight per day to 0.95 g kg ?1 of body weight per day for 3 weeks in six volunteers practicing CR resulted in a reduction in serum IGF-1 from 194 ng mL ?1 to 152 ng mL ?1 . These findings demonstrate that, unlike in rodents, long-term severe CR does not reduce serum IGF-1 concentration and IGF-1 : IGFBP-3 ratio in humans. In addition, our data provide evidence that protein intake is a key determinant of circulating IGF-1 levels in humans, and suggest that reduced protein intake may become an important component of anticancer and anti-aging dietary interventions. PMID:18843793

Fontana, Luigi; Weiss, Edward P.; Villareal, Dennis T.; Klein, Samuel; Holloszy, John O.

2009-01-01

226

Protein restriction ameliorates renal tubulointerstitial nephritis and reduces renal transforming growth factor-beta expression in unilateral ureteral obstruction.  

PubMed

In contrast to the substantial evidence for attenuation of the glomerular lesions by a low-protein (LP) diet, it remains to be determined whether and how such a diet lessens the progression of tubulointerstitial lesions, which show the strongest correlation with renal function. Chronic unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) results in interstitial fibrosis of the affected kidney. We investigated the therapeutic effects of an LP diet on the progression of interstitial fibrosis in UUO mice. Sixty ICR mice underwent UUO or sham operation; half of these mice were fed a normal-protein (NP) and the other half a LP diet. They were sacrificed at 3, 7 and 14 days postoperatively. The degree of tubular lesion, the distribution of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta), alpha-smooth muscle actin and fibronectin and the activated TGF-beta 1 level were determined. The LP diet significantly reduced the progression of tubular injury, depositions of fibronectin, tubulointerstitial myofibroblast formation, the interstitial expression of TGF-beta-positive cells (at 14 days; NP = 6.91 +/- 3.35 vs. LP = 1.67 +/- 0.41; p < 0.005), and renal active TGF-beta 1 concentration (at 14 days; NP = 5.72 +/- 2.03 vs. LP = 2.96 +/- 0.72; p < 0.01). We conclude that protein restriction may aid the attenuation of progression of tubulointerstitial fibrosis through the reduction in tubulointerstitial expression of TGF-beta. PMID:11803200

Sawashima, Ko; Mizuno, Shinya; Mizuno-Horikawa, Yoko; Kudo, Tadaaki; Kurosawa, Tsutomu

2002-01-01

227

Maternal immunization.  

PubMed

Maternal immunization has the potential to protect the pregnant woman, fetus, and infant from vaccine-preventable diseases. Maternal immunoglobulin G is actively transported across the placenta, providing passive immunity to the neonate and infant prior to the infant's ability to respond to vaccines. Currently inactivated influenza, tetanus toxoid, and acellular pertussis vaccines are recommended during pregnancy. Several other vaccines have been studied in pregnancy and found to be safe and immunogenic and to provide antibody to infants. These include pneumococcus, group B Streptococcus, Haemophilus influenzae type b, and meningococcus vaccines. Other vaccines in development for potential maternal immunization include respiratory syncytial virus, herpes simplex virus, and cytomegalovirus vaccines. PMID:24799324

Chu, Helen Y; Englund, Janet A

2014-08-15

228

Foxp2 mediates sex differences in ultrasonic vocalization by rat pups and directs order of maternal retrieval  

PubMed Central

The FOXP2 gene is central to acquisition of speech and language in humans and vocal production in birds and mammals. Rodents communicate via ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) and newborn pups emit distress USVs when separated from their dam, thereby facilitating their retrieval. We observed that isolated male rat pups emitted substantially more USV calls and these were characterized by a significantly lower frequency and amplitude compared to female rat pups. Moreover, the dam was more likely to first retrieve male pups back to the nest, then females. The amount of Foxp2 protein was significantly higher in multiple regions of the developing male brain compared to females and, a reduction of brain Foxp2 by siRNA eliminated the sex differences in USVs and altered the order of pup retrieval. Our results implicate Foxp2 as a component of the neurobiological basis of sex differences in vocal communication in mammals. We extended these observations to humans, a species reported to have gender differences in language acquisition, and found the amount of FOXP2 protein in the left hemisphere cortex of 4-year-old boys was significantly lower than in age-matched girls. PMID:23426656

Bowers, J. Michael; Perez-Pouchoulen, Miguel; Edwards, N. Shalon; McCarthy, Margaret M.

2013-01-01

229

Effect of exercise and protein intake during pregnancy on maternal and fetal zinc content in the Sprague-Dawley rat  

SciTech Connect

Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats (179) were divided into four groups: sedentary-standard protein diet, sedentary-high protein diet, exercising-standard protein diet and exercising-high protein diet. The standard protein diet contained 24.77% protein; all other nutrients were supplied in amounts required for normal parturition. After aclimitization, the exercising dams, regardless of diet, were forced to swim continuously for one and one-half hours/day until sacrifice. The four major groups were further subdivided into 28 groups, designated by three-day intervals according to gestational day - days 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18 and 21. Uterine tissues were analyzed for zinc; fetal and placental tissues were separated from uterine tissue for days 15 through 21 only. Uterine zinc was affected solely by gestation; absolute placental zinc values were lowest in the sedentary-high and exercising-low protein groups, while the exercising-high protein group possessed the greatest. No significant difference was detected in fetal zinc concentrations. Fetal tissues from exercising dams weighed significantly less than fetal tissue from the sedentary dams; and sedentary-high protein dams produced significantly more fetuses than the exercising-high protein dams. Both protein intake and exercise significantly affect normal parturition and zinc metabolism in the rat.

Asente, R.A.; Cameron, S.R.; Taper, L.J.

1986-03-05

230

Foxp2 mediates sex differences in ultrasonic vocalization by rat pups and directs order of maternal retrieval.  

PubMed

The FOXP2 gene is central to acquisition of speech and language in humans and vocal production in birds and mammals. Rodents communicate via ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) and newborn pups emit distress USVs when separated from their dam, thereby facilitating their retrieval. We observed that isolated male rat pups emitted substantially more USV calls and these were characterized by a significantly lower frequency and amplitude compared with female rat pups. Moreover, the dam was more likely to first retrieve male pups back to the nest, then females. The amount of Foxp2 protein was significantly higher in multiple regions of the developing male brain compared with females and a reduction of brain Foxp2 by siRNA eliminated the sex differences in USVs and altered the order of pup retrieval. Our results implicate Foxp2 as a component of the neurobiological basis of sex differences in vocal communication in mammals. We extended these observations to humans, a species reported to have gender differences in language acquisition, and found the amount of FOXP2 protein in the left hemisphere cortex of 4-year-old boys was significantly lower than in age-matched girls. PMID:23426656

Bowers, J Michael; Perez-Pouchoulen, Miguel; Edwards, N Shalon; McCarthy, Margaret M

2013-02-20

231

Effects of maternally exposed coloring food additives on receptor expressions related to learning and memory in rats.  

PubMed

Exposure to artificial food colors and additives (AFCAs) has been implicated in the induction and severity of some childhood behavioral and learning disabilities. N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nACHRs) are thought to be effective in the learning and memory-generating process. In this study, we investigated the effects of intrauterine exposure to AFCAs on subunit concentrations of NMDARs and nAChRs isoforms in rats. We administered a mixture of AFCAs (Eritrosin, Ponceau 4R, Allura Red AC, Sunset Yellow FCF, Tartrazin, Amaranth, Brilliant Blue, Azorubin and Indigotin) to female rats before and during gestation. The concentration of NR2A and NR2B subunits and nAChR ?7, ?4?2 isoforms in their offspring's hippocampi were measured by Western Blotting. Expressions of NR2B and nAChR ?2 were significantly increased (17% and 6.70%, respectively), whereas expression of nAChR ?4 was significantly decreased (5.67%) in male experimental group compared to the male control group (p<0.05). In the female experimental group, AFCAs caused a 14% decrease in NR2B expression when compared to the female control group (p<0.05). Our results indicate that exposure to AFCAs during the fetal period may lead to alterations in expressions of NMDARs and nAChRs in adulthood. These alterations were different between male and female genders. PMID:23429044

Ceyhan, Betul Mermi; Gultekin, Fatih; Doguc, Duygu Kumbul; Kulac, Esin

2013-06-01

232

Changes in Maternal liver Cyp2c and Cyp2d Expression and Activity During Rat Pregnancy  

PubMed Central

During human pregnancy, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP2D6 activities are altered. The aim of the current study was to determine if this phenomenon can be replicated in the rat, and to evaluate the mechanisms that contribute to the changes in Cyp2c and Cyp2d activity during pregnancy. The intrinsic clearance of dextromethorphan O-demethylation, a measure of Cyp2d2 activity, was decreased 80% at both days 9 and 19 of gestation when compared to nonpregnant controls. The decreased intrinsic clearance was a result of both decreased Vmax and increased Km -values at both days of gestation. Quantitative RT-PCR revealed that transcripts of Cyp2d2 and Cyp2d4 were significantly decreased at day 19 of pregnancy (p<0.05) when compared to day 9 and nonpregnant controls. The decrease in Cyp2d mRNA levels correlated with a decrease in several nuclear receptor mRNA levels (RAR?, RXR?, HNF1 and HNF3?) but not with the mRNA levels of nuclear receptors usually associated with regulation of P450 enzymes (PXR, CAR and HNF4?). In contrast, Cyp2c12 and Cyp2c6 transcription and protein expression were not significantly altered during rat pregnancy although the intrinsic clearance of Cyp2c6-mediated diclofenac 4?-hydroxylation was increased 2-fold on day 19 of gestation when compared to nonpregnant controls. The increase in intrinsic clearance was due to a decrease in the Km-value for 4?-hydroxydiclofenac formation. These data show that pregnancy significantly alters the expression and activity of drug metabolizing enzymes in an enzyme and gestational stage specific manner. These changes are likely to have toxicological and therapeutic implications. PMID:18342837

Dickmann, Leslie J.; Tay, Suzanne; Senn, Tauri D.; Zhang, Huixia; Visone, Anthony; Unadkat, Jashvant D.; Hebert, Mary F.; Isoherranen, Nina

2009-01-01

233

Exposure to maternal consumption of cafeteria diet during the lactation period programmes feeding behaviour in the rat.  

PubMed

Lactational overfeeding programmes obesity in the adult rat, and also impacts on adult emotional behaviour. The present study investigated the impact of exposing the lactating female to a hypercaloric diet on structural aspects of feeding behaviour in the adult offspring as measured by the behavioural satiety sequence (BSS). Lactating Wistar rats were fed a hypercaloric cafeteria diet (CD) in addition to chow. Controls were fed on chow only. All offspring were chow fed after weaning. BSS was tested in 12-15 week old offspring. At 20 weeks of age, monoamine neurotransmitter levels were measured in selected brain regions. When exposed to a palatable 1-h test meal, offspring responded with the same latency to feed, regardless of lactational diet. Total food intake during the test was unaffected by lactational diet. Control offspring showed a normal BSS pattern. Male CD offspring displayed shorter feeding bouts (P<0.05) with an overall higher bout frequency (P<0.001) and their latency to rest was delayed (P<0.001). Overall eating frequency (P<0.05), but not duration was increased in male CD offspring. Although the transition from feeding to resting was not affected by lactational CD, CD males fed for longer at the beginning of the test meal and were more active towards the end. CD females displayed an increased number of feeding bouts (P<0.05) and they spent more time eating (P<0.05). Resting latency was delayed (P<0.05) and overall time spent resting was shortened (P<0.01). Frequency of eating was increased in the middle of the test meal. The onset of satiety as indicated by the transition point between eating and resting was delayed in CD females (P<0.001). In both sexes, hypothalamic 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) was increased (P<0.05 in females, P<0.01 in males) and 5-HT turnover was reduced by lactational CD (P<0.001 in females, P<0.01 in males). Lactational CD led also to an increase in dopamine (DA) (P<0.01). Hypothalamic DA metabolism (DOPAC+HVA/DA ratio) was overall lower in females than in males (P<0.01). This study indicates a programming effect of lactational CD on feeding behaviour and brain monoaminergic neurons. PMID:22004940

Wright, Thomas M; Fone, Kevin C F; Langley-Evans, Simon C; Voigt, Jörg-Peter W

2011-12-01

234

Maternal separation decreases adult hippocampal cell proliferation and impairs cognitive performance but has little effect on stress sensitivity and anxiety in adult Wistar rats.  

PubMed

Stressful events during childhood are thought to increase the risk for the development of adult psychopathology. A widely used animal model for early life stress is maternal separation (MS), which is thought to affect development and cause alterations in neuroendocrine stress reactivity and emotionality lasting into adulthood. However, results obtained with this paradigm are inconsistent. Here we investigated whether this variation may be related to the type of stressor or the tests used to assess adult stress sensitivity and behavioral performance. Rat pups were exposed to a 3h daily MS protocol during postnatal weeks 1-2. In adulthood, animals were subjected to a wide variety of stressors and tests to obtain a better view on the effects of MS on adult hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis regulation, anxiety-like behavior, social interaction and cognition. Also, the influence of MS on adult hippocampal neurogenesis was studied because it might underlie changes in neuroendocrine regulation and behavioral performance. The results show that, independent of the nature of the stressor, MS did not affect the neuroendocrine response. MS did not influence anxiety-like behavior, explorative behavior and social interaction, but did affect cognitive function in an object recognition task. The amount of new born cells in the hippocampal dentate gyrus was significantly decreased in MS animals; yet, cell differentiation and survival were not altered. In conclusion, while interfering with the mother-infant relationship early in life did affect some aspects of adult neuroplasticity and cognitive function, it did not lead to permanent changes in stress sensitivity and emotionality. PMID:20816703

Hulshof, Henriëtte J; Novati, Arianna; Sgoifo, Andrea; Luiten, Paul G M; den Boer, Johan A; Meerlo, Peter

2011-01-20

235

Diverse developmental toxicity of di-n-butyl phthalate in both sexes of rat offspring after maternal exposure during the period from late gestation through lactation.  

PubMed

To evaluate developmental toxicity of di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) with exposure during the period from late gestation to following lactation, maternal rats were given DBP at dietary concentrations of 0, 20, 200, 2000 and 10,000 ppm from gestational day 15 to postnatal day (PND) 21. At 10,000 ppm, male offspring showed a decreased neonatal anogenital distance and retention of nipples (PND 14), while females showed a slight non-significant delay in the onset of puberty. At PND 21, reduction of testicular spermatocyte development was evident from 20 ppm, as well as mammary gland changes at low incidence in both sexes. At this time point, population changes of pituitary hormone-immunoreactive cells were observed at 10,000 ppm with a similar pattern of increase in the percentages of luteinizing hormone (LH)-positive and decrease in follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and prolactin producing cells in both sexes, effects also being evident on FSH from 200 ppm and LH from 2000 ppm in females. During postnatal week (PNW) 8-11, marginal increase of the number of cases with extended diestrus was found at 10,000 ppm. At adult stage necropsy, testicular lesions appeared to be very faint in most cases, but degeneration and atrophy of mammary gland alveoli were observed in males from 20 ppm. Although without clear monotonic dose-dependence, relative pituitary weights were increased with the intermediate doses in males at PNW 11. In females, relative pituitary weights were decreased after 10,000 ppm at PNW 11, and from 200 ppm at PNW 20. The proportion of FSH-positive cells in the pituitaries at PNW 11 was increased in both sexes at 10,000 ppm. Thus, developmental exposure to DBP affected female sexual development involving pituitary function, while in males testicular toxicity was mostly reversible but mammary gland toxicity was persistent at a dose level as low as 20 ppm. PMID:15363597

Lee, Kyoung-Youl; Shibutani, Makoto; Takagi, Hironori; Kato, Natsumi; Takigami, Shu; Uneyama, Chikako; Hirose, Masao

2004-10-15

236

Ornithine decarboxylase, transglutaminase, diamine oxidase and total diamines and polyamines in maternal liver and kidney throughout rat pregnancy.  

PubMed Central

Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC; EC 4.1.1.17), transglutaminase (EC 2.3.2.13), diamine oxidase (DAO; EC 1.4.3.6) and total di- and poly-amines were studied in rat liver and kidney cortex throughout pregnancy. In liver, ODC activity exhibited two major peaks (4.5-5 times the control activities) on days 15 and 17. Also putrescine and spermidine increased biphasically (3-4-fold), but no variation in spermine content was observed. Transglutaminase activity showed slight variations only near the end of gestation. In kidney, ODC activity did not fluctuate significantly during pregnancy, whereas both transglutaminase activity and putrescine content showed three major increases, in very early, middle and late pregnancy. No significant variations in spermidine and spermine were observed. In both organs, DAO activity, very low or undetectable until day 10, dramatically increased (10- and 20-fold in kidney and liver respectively) in the second half of pregnancy, reaching maxima on days 16-17 and 19. The results obtained for transglutaminase, ODC and total di- and poly-amines are interpreted on the basis of hyperplastic and hypertrophic events in the liver and kidney respectively. The behaviour of DAO suggests that the enzyme plays an important role in the control of intracellular diamine concentration. PMID:2872883

Piacentini, M; Sartori, C; Beninati, S; Bargagli, A M; Ceru-Argento, M P

1986-01-01

237

ROLE OF METALLOTHIONEIN INDUCTION AND ALTERED ZINC STATUS AS MATERNAL MEDIATORS OF DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY IN RATS: COMPARISON OF THE EFFECTS OF URETHANE AND STYRENE  

EPA Science Inventory

We hypothesize that maternal metallothionein (MT) induction by toxic dosages of chemicals may contribute to or cause developmental toxicity by the following chain of events: ) maternal hepatic MT induction; 2) redistribution of Zn to the newly synthesized MT; 3) decreased circula...

238

Transcriptome analysis of porcine M. semimembranosus divergent in intramuscular fat as a consequence of dietary protein restriction  

PubMed Central

Background Intramuscular fat (IMF) content is positively correlated with aspects of pork palatability, including flavour, juiciness and overall acceptability. The ratio of energy to protein in the finishing diet of growing pigs can impact on IMF content with consequences for pork quality. The objective of this study was to compare gene expression profiles of Musculus semimembranosus (SM) of animals divergent for IMF as a consequence of protein dietary restriction in an isocaloric diet. The animal model was derived through the imposition of low or high protein diets during the finisher stage in Duroc gilts. RNA was extracted from post mortem SM tissue, processed and hybridised to Affymetrix porcine GeneChip® arrays. Results IMF content of SM muscle was increased on the low protein diet (3.60?±?0.38% versus 1.92?±?0.35%). Backfat depth was also greater in animals on the low protein diet, and average daily gain and feed conversion ratio were lower, but muscle depth, protein content and moisture content were not affected. A total of 542 annotated genes were differentially expressed (DE) between animals on low and high protein diets, with 351 down-regulated and 191 up-regulated on the low protein diet. Transcript differences were validated for a subset of DE genes by qPCR. Alterations in functions related to cell cycle, muscle growth, extracellular matrix organisation, collagen development, lipogenesis and lipolysis, were observed. Expression of adipokines including LEP, TNF? and HIF1? were increased and the hypoxic stress response was induced. Many of the identified transcriptomic responses have also been observed in genetic and fetal programming models of differential IMF accumulation, indicating they may be robust biological indicators of IMF content. Conclusion An extensive perturbation of overall energy metabolism in muscle occurs in response to protein restriction. A low protein diet can modulate IMF content of the SM by altering gene pathways involved in lipid biosynthesis and degradation; however this nutritional challenge negatively impacts protein synthesis pathways, with potential consequences for growth. PMID:23829541

2013-01-01

239

Maternal sepsis.  

PubMed

Maternal sepsis is relatively common. Most of these infections are the result of tissue damage during labor and delivery and physiologic changes normally occurring during pregnancy. These infections, whether directly pregnancy-related or simply aggravated by normal pregnancy physiology, ultimately have the potential to progress to severe sepsis and septic shock. This article discusses commonly encountered entities and septic shock. The expeditious recognition of common maternal sepsis and meticulous attention to appropriate management to prevent the progression to severe sepsis and septic shock are emphasized. Also discussed are principles and new approaches for the management of septic shock. PMID:23466138

Morgan, Jamie; Roberts, Scott

2013-03-01

240

Maternal Employment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The overwhelming evidence from years of research is that maternal employment, by itself, has little influence on the behaviors of children. More relevant issues are: mother's reasons for working, family's acceptance of mother's employment, quality of substitute child care, family's social and emotional health, and economic conditions. (Author/AJ)

Clark, Sam

1975-01-01

241

Activation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase is associated with colorectal distension-induced spinal and supraspinal neuronal response and neonatal maternal separation-induced visceral hyperalgesia in rats.  

PubMed

The activation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) is essential for pain sensation and development of hyperalgesia in chronic pathological pain. Neonatal maternal separation (NMS) could trigger behavioral hyperalgesia and upregulate central neuronal activity in rats. The present study aims to investigate whether ERK associates with the colorectal distension (CRD)-evoked neuronal response and the upregulated central sensitivity to CRD in NMS rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rat pups were either subjected to NMS or not handled (NH) from postnatal day 2 to day 14. The protein expression of phospho-ERK (p-ERK) and c-fos at the spinal and supraspinal levels of adult rats were quantified and their correlation was analyzed. Western blot analysis revealed significant NMS effect on p-ERK expression in the lumbosacral dorsal horn and thalamus. Immunohistochemistry analysis demonstrated that CRD elevated p-ERK and c-fos expression in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG), laminae I-II of the lumbosacral dorsal horn, thalamic nucleus central medial (CM), paraventricular thalamic nucleus (PV), and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Significant NMS effect on p-ERK and c-fos expression was observed in the DRG, and laminae I-II, III-IV, and X of the lumbosacral dorsal horn. Furthermore, a significant interactive effect of NMS and CRD on p-ERK expression was observed in laminae III-IV of the lumbosacral dorsal horn. Correlation analysis revealed the positive association between c-fos- and p-ERK-immunoreactive nuclei numbers in the DRG, lumbosacral dorsal horn, and ACC. These results demonstrate that ERK is actively involved in CRD-evoked neuronal activation in both NH and NMS rats. Moreover, ERK is associated with the upregulated central neuronal sensitivity to noxious CRD in NMS rats, which may be responsible for the behavioral hyperalgesia in NMS rat. PMID:18649147

Zhang, X-J; Li, Z; Chung, E K Y; Zhang, H-Q; Xu, H-X; Sung, J J Y; Bian, Z-X

2009-03-01

242

Prenatal immune challenge in rats: altered responses to dopaminergic and glutamatergic agents, prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle, and reduced route-based learning as a function of maternal body weight gain after prenatal exposure to poly IC.  

PubMed

Prenatal maternal immune activation has been used to test the neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia. Most of the data are in mouse models; far less is available for rats. We previously showed that maternal weight change in response to the immune activator polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (Poly IC) in rats differentially affects offspring. Therefore, we treated gravid Harlan Sprague-Dawley rats i.p. on embryonic day 14 with 8 mg/kg of Poly IC or Saline. The Poly IC group was divided into those that lost or gained the least weight, Poly IC (L), versus those that gained the most weight, Poly IC (H), following treatment. The study design controlled for litter size, litter sampling, sex distribution, and test experience. We found no effects of Poly IC on elevated zero maze, open-field activity, object burying, light-dark test, straight channel swimming, Morris water maze spatial acquisition, reversal, or shift navigation or spatial working or reference memory, or conditioned contextual or cued fear or latent inhibition. The Poly IC (H) group showed a significant decrease in the rate of route-based learning when visible cues were unavailable in the Cincinnati water maze and reduced prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle in females, but not males. The Poly IC (L) group exhibited altered responses to acute pharmacological challenges: exaggerated hyperactivity in response to (+)-amphetamine and an attenuated hyperactivity in response to MK-801. This model did not exhibit the cognitive, or latent inhibition deficits reported in Poly IC-treated rats but showed changes in response to drugs acting on neurotransmitter systems implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia (dopaminergic hyperfunction and glutamatergic hypofunction). PMID:22473973

Vorhees, Charles V; Graham, Devon L; Braun, Amanda A; Schaefer, Tori L; Skelton, Matthew R; Richtand, Neil M; Williams, Michael T

2012-08-01

243

Maternal and Littermate Deprivation Disrupts Maternal  

E-print Network

Maternal and Littermate Deprivation Disrupts Maternal Behavior and Social-Learning of Food, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 48: 209�219, 2006. Keywords: maternal and littermate deprivation; maternal; Wiesner & Sheard, 1933). In this way, the pups receive warmth, nutrients, protection, and sensory

Sokolowski, Marla

244

Association between Maternal Serum Perfluoroalkyl Substances during Pregnancy and Maternal and Cord Thyroid Hormones: Taiwan Maternal and Infant Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Background: Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are synthetic compounds that are widely used in industry and are often detectable in humans. In pregnant rats and their pups, PFASs can interfere with thyroid hormone homeostasis. In humans, maternal thyroid hormones supply the fetus throughout pregnancy, and thyroid hormones play a critical role in fetal growth and neurodevelopment. Objectives: We investigated the association between maternal PFAS exposure and thyroid hormone status in pregnant women and neonates. Methods: In a study of environmental exposure and health in Taiwan, we measured serum concentrations of nine PFASs and four thyroid hormones for 285 pregnant women in their third trimester, and also measured cord serum thyroid hormones for 116 neonates. Associations between maternal PFASs and maternal and cord thyroid hormones were examined in multiple linear regression models. Results: Perfluorohexanesulfonic acid concentrations were positively associated with maternal thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels. Pregnant women with higher levels of perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA), and perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoDA) had lower free thyroxine (T4) and total T4 levels. For example, we estimated that maternal free T4 levels decreased 0.019 ng/dL (95% CI: –0.028, –0.009) with each nanogram per milliliter increase in maternal PFNA. Finally, maternal PFNA, PFUnDA, and PFDoDA levels were associated with lower cord total triiodothyronine (T3) and total T4 levels, and maternal perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDeA) was associated with lower cord total T3. Conclusions: Our results suggest that exposure to some PFASs during pregnancy may interfere with thyroid hormone homeostasis in pregnant women and fetuses. Citation: Wang Y, Rogan WJ, Chen PC, Lien GW, Chen HY, Tseng YC, Longnecker MP, Wang SL. 2014. Association between maternal serum perfluoroalkyl substances during pregnancy and maternal and cord thyroid hormones: Taiwan Maternal and Infant Cohort Study. Environ Health Perspect 122:529–534;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1306925 PMID:24577800

Rogan, Walter J.; Chen, Pau-Chung; Lien, Guang-Wen; Chen, Hsiao-Yen; Tseng, Ying-Chih; Longnecker, Matthew P.

2014-01-01

245

DIBUTYL PHTHALATE: MATERNAL EFFECTS VERSUS FETOTOXICITY (JOURNAL VERSION)  

EPA Science Inventory

Dibutyl phthalate, a plasticizer, is a teratogen in mice and rabbits but produces fetal loss in the rat. Long-term dosing studies indicating reduced fertility in the rat suggested a maternal effect of the compound. The decidual cell response (DCR) and pregnant rats were used to e...

246

The effect of different maternal deprivation paradigms on the expression of hippocampal glucocorticoid receptors, calretinin and calbindin-D28k in male and female adolescent rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maternal deprivation (MD) is a well-established protocol used to investigate neurobiological changes that are associated with the etiology of and vulnerability to stress-related diseases in animal models. The resulting psychophysiological effects, the timing and duration of these adverse stimuli, and the method by which they exert their effects on the animals remain unclear. This study characterized differences in the hippocampal

Hongyu Xu; Wendong Hu; Xuesi Zhang; Wei Gao; Ming Liang; Tao Chen; Xiaosheng He; Zhian Hu

2011-01-01

247

Protein Nutrition of Southern Plains Small Mammals: Immune Response to Variation in Maternal and Offspring Dietary Nitrogen  

EPA Science Inventory

Maternal nutrition during pregnancy and postnatal offspring nutrition may influence offspring traits. We investigated the effects of maternal and postweaning offspring dietary nitrogen on immune function and hematology in two species of rodent: the hispid cotton rat (Sigmodon his...

248

Maternal stress and high-fat diet effect on maternal behavior, milk composition, and pup ingestive behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic variable prenatal stress or maternal high-fat diet results in offspring that are significantly heavier by the end of the first postnatal week with increased adiposity by weaning. It is unclear, however, what role maternal care and diet play in the ontogenesis of this phenotype and what contributions come from differences already established in the rat pups. In the present

Ryan H. Purcell; Bo Sun; Lauren L. Pass; Michael L. Power; Timothy H. Moran; Kellie L. K. Tamashiro

2011-01-01

249

Pups Call, Mothers Rush: Does Maternal Responsiveness Affect the Amount of Ultrasonic Vocalizations in Mouse Pups?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In rats and mice, the ultrasonic vocalizations emitted by pups have been suggested to modulate maternal behavior. In the present study we show that the number of calls emitted by mouse pups can reflect maternal responsiveness. Maternal responsiveness towards pups was evaluated on postnatal day 8 using a three-compartment cage test where the mother, to reach the pups, had to

Francesca R. D’Amato; Elisabetta Scalera; Celeste Sarli; Anna Moles

2005-01-01

250

Supplementation of the maternal diet during pregnancy with chocolate and fructose interacts with the high-fat diet of the young to facilitate the onset of metabolic disorders in rat offspring.  

PubMed

Obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease are the most common metabolic disorders in society today. Previously, we found that supplementing the maternal diet during pregnancy with chocolate and fructose has negative effects on the well-being of the offspring that were ameliorated if the offspring were fed a normal diet during postnatal life. In the present study, we investigated whether feeding offspring a high-fat diet would augment the maternal programming effects and whether extra protein supply can correct the low birth weight resulting from the chocolate-supplemented maternal diet. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups and fed either standard chow (normal nutrition; NN), chocolate- and fructose-supplemented standard chow with casein sodium (overnutrition; ON) or the supplemented standard chow without casein sodium (malnutrition; MN) throughout pregnancy. Male offspring were weaned on either standard or high-fat chow. Dams in the MN group exhibited moderate weight gain, consumed 50% less protein (P < 0.001) but more carbohydrates during gestation and delivered pups with a 12% lower birth weight (P < 0.05) than pups in the NN group, results that are consistent with previous findings. When fed on a high-fat diet after birth, pups from dams in the MN group (MNHD) had 30% more body fat (P = 0.023) and liver triglyceride (TG) levels that were double (P < 0.01) those in offspring in the other groups, leading to fatty livers in these offspring at 14 weeks of age. Hepatic expression of the PPAR?, ApoB100, MTTP, CPT1 and SREBP1c genes was significantly downregulated in the MNHD group (P < 0.05 for all), indicating changes in lipid metabolism. Although dams in the ON group exhibited marked gestational weight gain (P < 0.01), they gave birth to normal weight pups that only manifested mild increases in body fat and liver TG content (P < 0.05), without significant changes in the expression of most genes when fed with the high-fat diet. The results suggest that the extra protein supply in the form of casein sodium was able to correct some negative programming effects of the chocolate and fructose supplementation of the maternal diet, which, in conjunction with a high-fat diet in the offspring, may facilitate the onset of metabolic disorders, with impaired liver gene expression possibly a key contributor. PMID:23819696

Zhang, Zhi-Yun; Dai, Yun-Bin; Wang, Hao-Nan; Wang, Ming-Wei

2013-09-01

251

Foetal life protein restriction in male mink (Neovison vison) kits lowers post-weaning protein oxidation and the relative abundance of hepatic fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase mRNA.  

PubMed

Foetal life malnutrition has been studied intensively in a number of animal models. Results show that especially foetal life protein malnutrition can lead to metabolic changes later in life. This might be of particular importance for strict carnivores, for example, cat and mink (Neovison vison) because of their higher protein requirement than in other domestic mammals. This study aimed to investigate the effects of low protein provision during foetal life to male mink kits on their protein metabolism during the early post-weaning period of rapid growth and to investigate whether foetal life protein deficiency affects the response to adequate or deficient protein provision post weaning. Further, we intended to study whether the changes in the gene expression of key enzymes in foetal hepatic tissue caused by maternal protein deficiency were manifested post-weaning. A total of 32 male mink kits born to mothers fed either a low-protein diet (LP), that is, 14% of metabolizable energy (ME) from protein (foetal low - FL), n = 16, or an adequate-protein (AP) diet, that is, 29% of ME from protein (foetal adequate - FA), n = 16) in the last 16.3 ± 1.8 days of pregnancy were used. The FL offspring had lower birth weight and lower relative abundance of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (Fru-1,6-P2ase) and pyruvate kinase mRNA in foetal hepatic tissue than FA kits. The mothers were fed a diet containing adequate protein until weaning. At weaning (7 weeks of age), half of the kits from each foetal treatment group were fed an AP diet (32% of ME from protein; n = 8 FA and 8 FL) and the other half were fed a LP diet (18% of ME from protein; n = 8 FA and 8 FL) until 9.5 weeks of age, yielding four treatment groups (i.e. FA-AP, FA-LP, FL-AP and FL-LP). Low protein provision in foetal life lowered the protein oxidation post-weaning compared with the controls (P = 0.006), indicating metabolic flexibility and a better ability to conserve protein. This could not, however, be supported by changes in liver mass because of foetal life experience. A lower relative abundance of Fru-1,6-P2ase mRNA was observed (P < 0.05), being lower in 9.5-week-old FL than in FA kits. It can be concluded that foetal life protein restriction leads to changes in post-weaning protein metabolism through lower protein oxidation of male mink kits. PMID:22436154

Matthiesen, C F; Blache, D; Thomsen, P D; Tauson, A-H

2012-01-01

252

Early maternal separation followed by later stressors leads to dysregulation of the HPA-axis and increases in hippocampal NGF and NT3 levels in a rat model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early adverse life events, followed by subsequent stressors, appear to increase susceptibility for subsequent onset of psychiatric\\u000a disorders in humans. The molecular mechanisms that underlie this phenomenon remain unclear, but dysregulation of the HPA axis\\u000a and alterations in neurotrophic factors have been implicated. The present study investigated the effects in rodents of early\\u000a maternal separation, followed by stress in adolescence

Jacqueline Faure; Joachim D. K. Uys; Lelanie Marais; Dan J. Stein; Willie M. U. Daniels

2006-01-01

253

Toxicity study of maternal transfer of polychlorinated biphenyls and diethyl phthalate to 21-day-old male and female weanling pups of Wistar rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are environmental pollutants known to act as xenoestrogens. PCBs and diethylphthalate (DEP) are ubiquitous environmental pollutants because both are used as plasticizers and in various other industrial applications. Therefore, a study was undertaken to evaluate the interactive toxicity of DEP and PCB in 21-day-old male and female pups of Wistar rats. Healthy young male and female albino

Contzen Pereira; C. Vaman Rao

2007-01-01

254

Effects of experimentally induced maternal hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism on the development of rat offspring: II-the developmental pattern of neurons in relation to oxidative stress and antioxidant defense system.  

PubMed

Excessive concentrations of free radicals in the developing brain may lead to neurons maldevelopment and neurons damage and death. Thyroid hormones (THs) states play an important role in affecting the modulation of oxidative stress and antioxidant defense system. Thus, the objective of this study was to clarify the effect of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism in rat dams on the neurons development of different brain regions of their offspring at several postnatal weeks in relation to changes in the oxidative stress and antioxidant defense system. The adult female rats were administered methimazole (MMI) in drinking water (0.02% w/v) from gestation day 1 to lactation day 21 to induce hypothyroidism and exogenous thyroxine (T4) in drinking water (0.002% w/v) beside intragastric incubation of 50--200 T4 ?g/kg body weight (b. wt.) to induce hyperthyroidism. In normal female rats, the sera total thyroxine (TT4) and total triiodothyronine (TT3) levels were detectably increased at day 10 post-partum than those at day 10 of pregnancy. Free thyroxine (FT4), free triiodothyronine (FT3), thyrotropin (TSH) and growth hormone (GH) concentrations in normal offspring were elevated at first, second and third postnatal weeks in an age-dependent manner. In hypothyroid group, a marked depression was observed in sera of dam TT3 and TT4 as well as offspring FT3, FT4 and GH, while there was a significant increase in TSH level with the age progress. The reverse pattern to latter state was recorded in hyperthyroid group. Concomitantly, in control offspring, the rate of neuron development in both cerebellar and cerebral cortex was increased in its density and complexity with age progress. This development may depend, largely, on THs state. Both maternal hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism caused severe growth retardation in neurons of these regions of their offspring from the first to third weeks. Additionally, in normal offspring, seven antioxidant enzymes, four non-enzymatic antioxidants and one oxidative stress marker (lipid peroxidation, LPO) followed a synchronized course of alterations in cerebrum, cerebellum and medulla oblongata. In both thyroid states, the oxidative damage has been demonstrated by the increased LPO and inhibition of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants in most examined ages and brain regions. These disturbances in the antioxidant defense system led to deterioration in the neuronal maturation and development. In conclusion, it can be suggested that the maldevelopment of neurons and dendrites in different brain regions of offspring of hypothyroid and hyperthyroid mother rat dams may be attributed, at least in part, to the excess oxidative stress and deteriorated antioxidant defense system in such conditions. PMID:22664656

Ahmed, O M; Ahmed, R G; El-Gareib, A W; El-Bakry, A M; Abd El-Tawab, S M

2012-10-01

255

Accelerated Maternal Responding Following Intra-VTA Pertussis Toxin Treatment  

PubMed Central

Prior studies have supported a role for mesolimbic dopaminergic mechanisms in the regulation of maternal behavior. Accordingly, the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and its dopaminergic projections to the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) have been implicated in both the onset and maintenance of normal maternal behavior. To date, studies of direct manipulation of VTA neurochemistry at the onset of maternal behavior have been limited. The current study was undertaken to directly test the hypothesis that enhancement of dopaminergic transmission in the mesolimbic dopamine system can stimulate maternal activity using a pup-induced virgin model. Nulliparous female rats were stereotaxically infused with pertussis toxin (PTX 0, 0.1, or 0.3 ?g/hemisphere) into the VTA to chronically stimulate the activity of dopaminergic projection neurons. After 3 days of recovery, maternal responding to donor pups was tested daily, and latency (in days) to full maternal behavior was recorded. Intra-VTA PTX treatment produced a robust dose-dependent decrease in maternal behavior latency, and a long-lasting increase in locomotor activity. These effects were associated with significantly decreased dopamine D1 receptor mRNA expression in the NAc. No effects of PTX treatment on mesolimbic dopamine utilization or mPFC receptor expression were observed. The findings indicate that chronic neural activation in the VTA accelerates the onset of maternal behavior in virgin female rats via modification of the NAc dopamine D1 receptor. PMID:21571006

Byrnes, John J.; Gleason, Erin D.; Schoen, Mathew T.; Lovelock, Dennis F.; Carini, Lindsay M.; Byrnes, Elizabeth M.; Bridges, Robert S.

2011-01-01

256

HIV and maternal mortality.  

PubMed

The majority of the 17million women globally that are estimated to be infected with HIV live in Sub-Saharan Africa. Worldwide, HIV-related causes contributed to 19 000-56 000 maternal deaths in 2011 (6%-20% of maternal deaths). HIV-infected pregnant women have two to 10 times the risk of dying during pregnancy and the postpartum period compared with uninfected pregnant women. Many of these deaths can be prevented with the implementation of high-quality obstetric care, prevention and treatment of common co-infections, and treatment of HIV with ART. The paper summarizes what is known about HIV disease progression in pregnancy, specific causes of HIV-related maternal deaths, and the potential impact of treatment with antiretroviral therapy on maternal mortality. Recommendations are proposed for improving maternal health and decreasing maternal mortality among HIV-infected women based on existing evidence. PMID:25097142

Lathrop, Eva; Jamieson, Denise J; Danel, Isabella

2014-11-01

257

Sensory, hormonal, and neural basis of maternal aggression in rodents.  

PubMed

We review existing knowledge of the neural, hormonal, and sensory basis of maternal aggression in the female rat. Although females may express different kinds of aggression, such as defense or dominance, the most frequent and conspicuous form of aggressive behavior among females is the one associated with motherhood. Maternal aggression occurs in various vertebrate and invertebrate species; however, our emphasis will be on maternal aggression in rats because most of the physiological investigations have been performed in this species. Firstly, we address those factors that predispose the female to attack, such as the endocrine profile, the maternal state, and the stimulation provided by the pups, as well as those that trigger the aggressive response, as the intruder's characteristics and the context. As the postpartum aggression is a fundamental component of the maternal repertoire, we emphasize its association with maternal motivation and the reduction of fear and anxiety in dams. Finally, we outline the neurocircuitry involved in the control of maternal aggression, stressing the role of the ventro-orbital region of prefrontal cortex and the serotoninergic system. PMID:24841427

de Almeida, Rosa Maria Martins; Ferreira, Annabel; Agrati, Daniella

2014-01-01

258

Postnatal maternal separation enhances tonic GABA current of cortical layer 5 pyramidal neurons in juvenile rats and promotes genesis of GABAergic neurons in neocortical molecular layer and subventricular zone in adult rats.  

PubMed

Postnatal maternal separation (PMS) has been shown to be associated with an increased vulnerability to psychiatric illnesses in adulthood. However, the underlying neurological mechanisms are not well understood. Here we evaluated its effects on neurogenesis and tonic GABA currents of cortical layer 5 (L5) pyramidal neurons. PMS not only increased cell proliferation in the subventricular zone, cortical layer 1 and hippocampal dentate gyrus in the adult brain, but also promoted the newly generated cells to differentiate into GABAergic neurons, and PMS adult brain maintained higher ratios of GABAergic neurons in the survival of newly generated cells within 5 days immediately post PMS. Additionally, PMS increased the tonic currents at P7-10 and P30-35 in cortical L5 pyramidal cells. Our results suggest that the newly generated GABAergic neurons and the low GABA concentration-activated tonic currents may be involved in the development of psychiatric disorders after PMS. PMID:24304720

Feng, Mei; Sheng, Guoxia; Li, Zhongxia; Wang, Jiangping; Ren, Keming; Jin, Xiaoming; Jiang, Kewen

2014-03-01

259

Effects of Intake of Maternal Dietary Elaidic Acids during Pregnancy and Lactation on the Fatty Acid Composition of Plasma, Erythrocyte Membrane, and Brain in Rat Pups  

PubMed Central

To investigate the effects of a dam's dietary elaidic acid (EA) intake during pregnancy and lactation on the fatty acid composition of plasma, erythrocyte membrane, and brain in rat pups, we fed two groups of dams either a soybean oil diet (SOD) or a shortening diet (SHD) containing soybean oil (10%) or shortening (10%), respectively. Although EA was not detected in the SOD, EA accounted for 25.3% of all fatty acid content in the SHD. On day 8 after birth, the EA levels in the stomach, plasma, and erythrocyte membrane of pups nursed by the dams fed the SHD were 11.6 ± 1.03%, 7.18 ± 1.20%, and 5.82 ± 1.00%, respectively. Although on day 8 after birth the EA level of the brains of pups nursed by SHD-fed dams was 0.56 ± 0.24%, EA was not detected on day 21 or day 82 after birth. These results suggest that EA intake during pregnancy and lactation supplies EA to plasma, remains in the erythrocyte membrane of pups, and moves into the brain in early infancy. PMID:24194980

Eda, Ayumi; Kameoka, Rie; Nakashima, Yoko

2013-01-01

260

Timing of ischemic insult alters fetal growth trajectory, maternal angiogenic balance, and markers of renal oxidative stress in the pregnant rat  

PubMed Central

Increased uterine artery resistance and angiogenic imbalance characterized by increased soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1) and decreased free vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) are often associated with placental insufficiency and preeclampsia but not synonymous with hypertension. We hypothesized chronic reductions in utero-placental perfusion (RUPP) for 5 days (d) during either mid- (d12–d17) or late (d14–d19) gestation would have disparate effects on plasma sFlt-1 and VEGF levels and blood pressure. Five days of chronic RUPP was achieved by placement of silver clips on the abdominal aorta and ovarian arteries on either gestational d12 or d14. Arterial pressure was increased (P < 0.05) in RUPP vs. normal pregnant (NP) in both d17 (10%) and d19 (25%) groups, respectively. Circulating free VEGF was decreased (P < 0.05) and sFlt-1:VEGF ratio increased (P < 0.05) after 5 days of RUPP ending on d19 but not d17 compared with NP controls. Angiogenic imbalance, measured by an endothelial tube formation assay, was present in the d19 RUPP but not the d17 RUPP compared with age-matched NP rats. Five days of RUPP from days 14 to 19 decreased fetal and placental weights 10% (P < 0.01) compared with d19 NP controls. After 5 days of RUPP, from days 12 to 17 of pregnancy, fetal weights were 21% lighter (P < 0.01) compared with d17 NP controls, but placental weight was unchanged. These findings suggest that the timing during which placental insufficiency occurs may play an important role in determining the extent of alterations in angiogenic balance, fetal growth restriction, and the severity of placental ischemia-induced hypertension. PMID:22832532

Banek, Christopher T.; Bauer, Ashley J.; Gingery, Anne

2012-01-01

261

Timing of ischemic insult alters fetal growth trajectory, maternal angiogenic balance, and markers of renal oxidative stress in the pregnant rat.  

PubMed

Increased uterine artery resistance and angiogenic imbalance characterized by increased soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1) and decreased free vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) are often associated with placental insufficiency and preeclampsia but not synonymous with hypertension. We hypothesized chronic reductions in utero-placental perfusion (RUPP) for 5 days (d) during either mid- (d12-d17) or late (d14-d19) gestation would have disparate effects on plasma sFlt-1 and VEGF levels and blood pressure. Five days of chronic RUPP was achieved by placement of silver clips on the abdominal aorta and ovarian arteries on either gestational d12 or d14. Arterial pressure was increased (P < 0.05) in RUPP vs. normal pregnant (NP) in both d17 (10%) and d19 (25%) groups, respectively. Circulating free VEGF was decreased (P < 0.05) and sFlt-1:VEGF ratio increased (P < 0.05) after 5 days of RUPP ending on d19 but not d17 compared with NP controls. Angiogenic imbalance, measured by an endothelial tube formation assay, was present in the d19 RUPP but not the d17 RUPP compared with age-matched NP rats. Five days of RUPP from days 14 to 19 decreased fetal and placental weights 10% (P < 0.01) compared with d19 NP controls. After 5 days of RUPP, from days 12 to 17 of pregnancy, fetal weights were 21% lighter (P < 0.01) compared with d17 NP controls, but placental weight was unchanged. These findings suggest that the timing during which placental insufficiency occurs may play an important role in determining the extent of alterations in angiogenic balance, fetal growth restriction, and the severity of placental ischemia-induced hypertension. PMID:22832532

Banek, Christopher T; Bauer, Ashley J; Gingery, Anne; Gilbert, Jeffrey S

2012-09-15

262

Maternal Hypothyroidism Selectively Affects the Expression of Neuroendocrine-Specific Protein A  

E-print Network

is whether thy- roid hormone of maternal origin is essential in guiding fetal brain development. In both hormone of maternal origin exerts specific receptor-mediated effects on fetal brain development A Messenger Ribonucleic Acid in the Proliferative Zone of the Fetal Rat Brain Cortex* AMY L. S. DOWLING, ERIC

Zoeller, R. Thomas

263

Stress During Gestation Alters Postpartum Maternal Care and the Development of the Offspring in a  

E-print Network

Stress During Gestation Alters Postpartum Maternal Care and the Development of the Offspring that environmental adversity can alter parental care and thus influence child development. We addressed the question differences in maternal behavior. Methods: Lactating rat mothers were characterized as high or low in pup

Champagne, Frances A.

264

Maternal protein deficiency affects mesenchymal stem cell activity in the developing offspring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemiological studies suggest that environmental influences such as maternal nutrition, programme skeletal growth during intrauterine and early postnatal life. However, the mechanism whereby the skeletal growth trajectory is modified remains unclear. We have addressed this using a rat model of maternal protein insufficiency to investigate the cellular mechanisms involved in the programming of bone development. The aims of this study

Richard O. C Oreffo; Benjamin Lashbrooke; Helmtrud I Roach; Nicholas M. P Clarke; Cyrus Cooper

2003-01-01

265

Effect of insulin and dexamethasone on fetal assimilation of maternal glucose.  

PubMed

The growing fetus depends upon transfer of glucose from maternal blood to fetal tissues. Insulin and glucocorticoid impact maternal glucose metabolism, but the effects of these hormones on fetal glucose assimilation in vivo are understudied. We thus used positron emission tomography imaging to determine the disposition of [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) in rats on gestational d 20, quantifying the kinetic competition of maternal tissues and fetus for glucose. Three fasting maternal states were studied: after 2-d dexamethasone (DEX), during euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp insulin receiving (INS), and control (CON). In CON and DEX mothers, FDG accumulation in fetuses and placentae was substantial, rivaling that of maternal brain. By contrast, FDG accumulation was reduced in INS fetuses, placentae, and maternal brain by approximately 2-fold, despite no diminution in FDG extraction kinetics from maternal blood into these structures. The reduced FDG accumulation was due to more rapid clearance of FDG from the circulation in INS mothers, related to increased FDG avidity in INS select maternal tissues, including skeletal muscle, brown adipose tissue, and heart. DEX treatment of mothers reduced fetal weight by nearly 10%. Nonetheless, the accumulation of FDG into placentae and fetuses was similar in DEX and CON mothers. In our rat model, fetal growth restriction induced by DEX does not involve diminished glucose transport to the fetus. Maternal insulin action has little effect on the inherent avidity of the fetal-placental unit for glucose but increases glucose utilization by maternal tissues, thus indirectly reducing the glucose available to the fetus. PMID:21084442

Norris, Andrew W; Wang, Chunlin; Yao, Jianrong; Walsh, Susan A; Sawatzke, Alexander B; Hu, Shanming; Sunderland, John J; Segar, Jeffrey L; Ponto, Laura L B

2011-01-01

266

The maternal autopsy  

PubMed Central

Careful study of reports prepared for the Confidential Enquiries into Maternal Deaths in England and Wales has made it clear that many maternal autopsy reports are not as informative as they might be. This is, in part at least, because no pathologist who does not work in a maternity unit can expect to see more than a handful of such deaths in a working lifetime. This paper describes briefly the particular features to look for at autopsy, stresses the importance of taking adequate material for histology and discusses some of the more significant histological findings, both of conditions which cause death and of those commonly associated with it. Images PMID:7119126

Rushton, DI; Dawson, IMP

1982-01-01

267

Effect of maternal deprivation on acetylcholinesterase activity and behavioral changes on the ketamine-induced animal model of schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Maternal deprivation has been associated with physiological and developmental changes that may be related to an increased risk for childhood and adult neuropsychiatric diseases. A growing number of studies demonstrated the importance of childhood experiences in the development of psychosis and schizophrenia in adulthood. Therefore, the present study investigated different behavior responses in rats following maternal deprivation and/or ketamine treatment in adulthood. Male rats were subjected to maternal deprivation for 180min from postnatal day-01 to postnatal day-10. We evaluated locomotor activity, avoidance task and social interaction of adult male rats deprived or not deprived that were administered with saline or acute subanesthetic doses of ketamine (5, 15 and 25mg/kg, i.p.). Our results show that only ketamine (25mg/kg, i.p.) treatment in the adult rats lead to hyperlocomotion but not ketamine (5 and 15mg/kg) and maternal deprivation alone. However, maternally deprived rats treated with ketamine (5mg/kg) induced hyperlocomotion. Additionally, ketamine (25mg/kg) and maternal deprivation alone induced cognitive deficit in the avoidance task. Rats deprived of and treated with ketamine (5, 15 and 25mg/kg) also lead to memory deficit. Moreover, ketamine (25mg/kg) and maternal deprivation alone increased latency to start social behavior. However, ketamine (5mg/kg) and maternal deprivation lead to an increase of latency to start social behavior. Biochemistry data showed that all doses of ketamine and ketamine plus maternal deprivation increased the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and striatum. The major doses of ketamine associated with maternal deprivation induced a major increase of AChE activity. Together, our results suggest that animals subjected to maternal deprivation had an increased risk for schizophrenia-like behavior and cholinergic alteration. PMID:23769892

Zugno, A I; de Miranda, I M; Budni, J; Volpato, A M; Luca, R D; Deroza, P F; de Oliveira, M B; Heylmann, A S; da Rosa Silveira, F; Wessler, P; Antunes Mastella, G; Cipriano, A L; Quevedo, J

2013-09-17

268

Maternity care in China.  

PubMed

China's 1-child policy has intensified couple's desire for the safe delivery of a healthy infant and necessitated improvements in maternity care. Since the late 1970s, systematic maternity care has been available to women in China from early pregnancy to 42 days after delivery. In addition, over 50 major cities offer sophisticated perinatal care services, including prenatal intrauterine diagnosis and genetic consultations. The maternal mortality rate has declined from 15/1000 in 1949 to the present rate of 0.5/1000 while infant mortality dropped from about 200/1000 to 35/1000 in this same period. 15-20% of current deliveries are by cesarean section, often through the use of acupuncture which minimizes blood loss. To encourage rural women to deliver in hospitals, a 50% discount is provided for surgical costs. To encourage better infant care and raise the breast-feeding rate among working mothers, the Ministry of Labor and Personnel has proposed a 90-day maternity leave regulation. The Chinese Government pays a 5-yuan allowance to only children until they reach the age of 15 years and 1-child families are given priorities in kindergarten, school, housing, and employment assignments. China's well-organized maternity care network consists of 3 levels: on-the-street stations, clinics that keep detailed records on pregnant patients, and hospitals that handle high-risk pregnancies. PMID:3367797

Zhang, N H

1988-04-01

269

Media representation of maternal neonaticide  

E-print Network

of mothers who commit neonaticide. Both fictional and non-fictional media sources exhibited aspects of the monstrous maternal theme and the strain defense theme. The monstrous maternal theme consists of words and statements that indicate the descriptions...

Lewis, Jocelyn Renee

2008-10-10

270

Long-Lasting Effect of Perinatal Exposure to L-tryptophan on Circadian Clock of Primary Cell Lines Established from Male Offspring Born from Mothers Fed on Dietary Protein Restriction  

PubMed Central

Background & Aims Maternal undernutrition programs metabolic adaptations which are ultimately detrimental to adult. L-tryptophan supplementation was given to manipulate the long-term sequelae of early-life programming by undernutrition and explore whether cultured cells retain circadian clock dysregulation. Methods Male rat pups from mothers fed on low protein (8%, LP) or control (18%, CP) diet were given, one hour before light off, an oral bolus of L-tryptophan (125 mg/kg) between Day-12 and Day-21 of age. Body weight, food intake, blood glucose along with the capacity of colonization of primary cells from biopsies were measured during the young (45–55 days) and adult (110–130 days) phases. Circadian clock oscillations were re-induced by a serum shock over 30 hours on near-confluent cell monolayers to follow PERIOD1 and CLOCK proteins by Fluorescent Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay (FLISA) and period1 and bmal1 mRNA by RT-PCR. Cell survival in amino acid-free conditions were used to measure circadian expression of MAP-LC3B, MAP-LC3B-FP and Survivin. Results Tryptophan supplementation did not alter body weight gain nor feeding pattern. By three-way ANOVA of blood glucose, sampling time was found significant during all phases. A significant interaction between daily bolus (Tryptophan, saline) and diets (LP, CP) were found during young (p?=?0.0291) and adult (p?=?0.0285) phases. In adult phase, the capacity of colonization at seeding of primary cells was twice lower for LP rats. By three-way ANOVA of PERIOD1 perinuclear/nuclear immunoreactivity during young phase, we found a significant effect of diets (p?=?0.049), daily bolus (p<0.0001) and synchronizer hours (p?=?0.0002). All factors were significantly interacting (p?=?0.0148). MAP-LC3B, MAP-LC3B-FP and Survivin were altered according to diets in young phase. Conclusions Sequelae of early-life undernutrition and the effects of L-tryptophan supplementation can be monitored non-invasively by circadian sampling of blood D-glucose and on the expression of PERIOD1 protein in established primary cell lines. PMID:23460795

Nascimento, Elizabeth; Guzman-Quevedo, Omar; Delacourt, Nellie; da Silva Aragao, Raquel; Perez-Garcia, Georgina; de Souza, Sandra Lopes; Manhaes-de-Castro, Raul; Bolanos-Jimenez, Francisco; Kaeffer, Bertrand

2013-01-01

271

Maternal immunization against viral disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The protective effect of maternal antibody against many viral diseases has been recognized. The use of maternal immunization has been considered as a means to augment this protection in the young infant against disease. Advantages of maternal immunization include the fact that young infants are most susceptible to infections but least responsive to vaccines, that pregnant women are accessible to

Janet Englund; W. Paul Glezen; Pedro A. Piedra

1998-01-01

272

Maternity Leave in Taiwan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using the first nationally representative birth cohort study in Taiwan, this paper examines the role that maternity leave policy in Taiwan plays in the timing of mothers returning to work after giving birth, as well as the extent to which this timing is linked to the amount of time mothers spend with their children and their use of breast milk…

Feng, Joyce Yen; Han, Wen-Jui

2010-01-01

273

The politics of maternity.  

PubMed

Changes in the culture of health care require that, to be effective, midwifery practice should become more woman-centred. This may be facilitated by adopting a stronger community orientation. In this way the hegemony of maternity care may be addressed. This paper seeks to draw readers' attention to political developments and to inspire midwives to greater awareness and, possibly, activity. PMID:24600828

Mander, Rosemary; Edwards, Nadine; McHugh, Nessa; Murphy-Lawless, Jo; Patterson, Jenny

2014-02-01

274

Brain vasopressin is an important regulator of maternal behavior independent of dams' trait anxiety  

PubMed Central

The neuropeptide arginine vasopressin (AVP) is arguably among the most potent regulators of social behaviors in mammals identified to date. However, only the related neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT) has been shown to promote maternal behavior. Here, we assess the role of AVP in maternal care, in particular in arched back nursing, pup retrieval, and pup contact by using complementary pharmacological and genetic approaches. Also, experiments were performed in rat dams with differences in trait anxiety, i.e., rats bred for either high (HAB) or low (LAB) anxiety-related behavior as well as nonselected (NAB) dams. Viral vector-mediated up-regulation of AVP V1a receptors (AVP-Rs) within the medial preoptic area of lactating NAB rats and chronic central AVP treatment of NAB and LAB dams improved, whereas local blockade of AVP-R expression by means of antisense oligodeoxynucleotides or central AVP-R antagonism impaired, maternal care in NAB dams. Also, in HAB rats with a genetically determined elevated brain AVP activity, intrinsically high levels of maternal care were reversed by blockade of AVP-R actions. Treatment-induced impairment of AVP-mediated maternal behavior increased adult emotionality and impaired social interactions in male offspring of NAB dams. These findings provide direct evidence for an essential and highly potent role of brain AVP in promoting maternal behavior, which seems to be independent of the dam's trait anxiety. PMID:18955705

Bosch, Oliver J.; Neumann, Inga D.

2008-01-01

275

Maternal Low-protein Diet Alters Ovarian Expression of Folliculogenic and Steroidogenic Genes and Their Regulatory MicroRNAs in Neonatal Piglets  

PubMed Central

Maternal malnutrition during pregnancy may give rise to female offspring with disrupted ovary functions in adult age. Neonatal ovary development predisposes adult ovary function, yet the effect of maternal nutrition on the neonatal ovary has not been described. Therefore, here we show the impact of maternal protein restriction on the expression of folliculogenic and steroidogenic genes, their regulatory microRNAs and promoter DNA methylation in the ovary of neonatal piglets. Sows were fed either standard-protein (SP, 15% crude protein) or low-protein (LP, 7.5% crude protein) diets throughout gestation. Female piglets born to LP sows showed significantly decreased ovary weight relative to body weight (p<0.05) at birth, which was accompanied with an increased serum estradiol level (p<0.05). The LP piglets demonstrated higher ratio of bcl-2 associated X protein/B cell lymphoma/leukemia-2 mRNA (p<0.01), which was associated with up-regulated mRNA expression of bone morphogenic protein 4 (BMP4) (p<0.05) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) (p<0.05). The steroidogenic gene, cytochrome P450 aromatase (CYP19A1) was significantly down-regulated (p<0.05) in LP piglets. The alterations in ovarian gene expression were associated with a significant down-regulation of follicle-stimulating hormone receptor mRNA expression (p<0.05) in LP piglets. Moreover, three microRNAs, including miR-423-5p targeting both CYP19A1 and PCNA, miR-378 targeting CYP19A1 and miR-210 targeting BMP4, were significantly down-regulated (p<0.05) in the ovary of LP piglets. These results suggest that microRNAs are involved in mediating the effect of maternal protein restriction on ovarian function through regulating the expression of folliculogenic and steroidogenic genes in newborn piglets. PMID:25358362

Sui, Shiyan; Jia, Yimin; He, Bin; Li, Runsheng; Li, Xian; Cai, Demin; Song, Haogang; Zhang, Rongkui; Zhao, Ruqian

2014-01-01

276

Child Health, Maternal Marital and Socioeconomic Factors, and Maternal Health  

PubMed Central

While maternal socioeconomic status and health predict in part children’s future health and socioeconomic prospects, it is possible that the intergenerational association flows in the other direction such that child health affects maternal outcomes. Previous research demonstrates that poor child health increases the risk of adverse maternal physical and mental health outcomes. We hypothesize that poor child health may also increase the risk of poor maternal health outcomes through an interaction between child health and factors associated with health outcomes, such as marital status, marital quality, and socioeconomic status. Using data on women in the National Longitudinal Study of Youth 1979 cohort (N = 2,279), we find evidence that the effects of certain maternal marital quality and socioeconomic factors on maternal physical and mental health depend on child health status and vice versa. PMID:23788824

Witt, Whitney P.

2012-01-01

277

Maternal ingestion of locoweed  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated whether exposure of ewes to locoweed (Oxytropis sericea; Leguminosae) during gestation would affect ewe behaviour during parturition, ewe–lamb bonding and related behaviours postpartum, and maternal responsiveness of ewes to alien and own lambs. Twenty-nine nulliparous Columbia-Targhee ewes bearing a single fetus were divided into two feeding treatments: (1) locoweed (L, n=15), fed as a 10% locoweed pellet

J. A. Pfister; J. B. Astorga; K. E. Panter; B. L. Stegelmeier; R. J. Molyneux

2006-01-01

278

Maternal Health and HIV  

Microsoft Academic Search

The HIV\\/AIDS epidemic is one of the major factors affecting women's health, with 20 million women living with HIV and more than two million pregnancies in HIV-positive women each year. Most HIV infections in women are in resource-constrained settings where the risk of maternal morbidity and mortality is also unacceptably high, and where most of the 529,000 deaths from complications

James McIntyre

2005-01-01

279

Comparison of the “Nursing” and Other Parental Behaviors of Nulliparous and Lactating Female Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Virgin female rats display maternal behaviors after continuous exposure to pups (sensitization) that are in some respects similar to those of postpartum females. We herein provide a detailed comparison of the “nursing” and other parental behaviors of maternally sensitized virgin females and postpartum lactating dams. Ovariectomized and intact virgin females were exposed to pups until displaying maternal behavior. On the

Joseph S. Lonstein; Christine K. Wagner; Geert J. De Vries

1999-01-01

280

Maternal socialization of emotion : child, maternal, and relational factors.  

E-print Network

??"Previous research has implicated maternal emotion socialization as an important predictor of children's future social competence and behavior. However, the factors related to emotion socialization… (more)

Stone, Caitlin Elizabeth

2005-01-01

281

The effect of maternal depression on maternal ratings of child behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

There have been continuing concerns about the extent to which maternal depression may influence maternal reports of child behavior. To examine this issue, a series of structural equation models of the relationships between maternal depression and errors in maternal reports of child behavior was proposed and tested. These models assumed that (a) maternal depression was unrelated to maternal reporting behavior;

David M. Fergusson; Michael T. Lynskey; L. John Horwood

1993-01-01

282

Maternal Depression, Maternal Expressed Emotion, and Youth Psychopathology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Across development, maternal depression has been found to be a risk factor for youth psychopathology generally and youth depression specifically. Maternal Expressed Emotion (EE) has been examined as a predictor of outcome among youth with depression. The present study explored the associations between youth psychopathology and two…

Tompson, Martha C.; Pierre, Claudette B.; Boger, Kathryn Dingman; McKowen, James W.; Chan, Priscilla T.; Freed, Rachel D.

2010-01-01

283

Transitioning to Family Centered Maternity Care from Traditional Maternity Care  

Microsoft Academic Search

United States perinatal statistics indicate that maternity care needs improvement. In this evidence-based project, guided by the promoting action on research implementation in health services (PARIHS) framework, it is posited that no practice change will occur unless nurses understand and appreciate the relevance of evidence-based maternity care. A within-group design was used to address the clinical question, \\

Kathleen Kleefisch

2011-01-01

284

Maternal employment, breastfeeding, and health: Evidence from maternity leave mandates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Public health agencies around the world have renewed efforts to increase the incidence and duration of breastfeeding. Maternity leave mandates present an economic policy that could help achieve these goals. We study their efficacy focusing on a significant increase in maternity leave mandates in Canada. We find very large increases in mothers' time away from work post-birth and in the

Michael Baker; Kevin S. Milligan

2007-01-01

285

Maternal behavior and offspring resiliency to maternal separation in C57Bl/6 mice.  

PubMed

Adverse early life experience, such as childhood abuse, neglect, and trauma, increases lifetime risk for mental illness. To investigate underlying mechanisms, the maternal separation (MS) paradigm was developed and validated as an animal model of early adversity in rats, reliably effecting long-term changes to anxiety, gene expression, and stress response. However, across-species validation of core findings in mice has met with limited success. To re-visit parameters governing the effectiveness of MS in mice, this study investigated the effect of MS on maternal care, offspring behavior, and offspring stress-induced corticosterone response in the c57bl/6 mouse strain. The results from this study suggest that: (i) levels of maternal care increase as a function of separation duration immediately after daily MS, but long-term care remains unchanged; and (ii) c57bl/6 mice are resilient to MS, exhibiting subtle decreases in anxiety and unchanged stress-induced corticosterone response as adults, irrespective of separation duration. PMID:23195752

Own, Lawrence S; Patel, Paresh D

2013-03-01

286

Maternal and neonatal behavior.  

PubMed

Maternal and neonatal behavior differs among food-producing mammals, and our management must reflect these differences. Sows will show more elaborate preparturient behavior than the other species as they attempt to build a nest that will last for several days. Because the nest is the focal point of maternal behavior for several days, the sow does not need to recognize her piglets until they are about 1 week of age. Although this facilitates the fostering of piglets between litters, the teat order developed by piglets during the first day or two makes it difficult for alien piglets to suckle when first fostered. Piglets are weaned at a relatively early age, and this results in conflict as neonatal behavior persists in an environment that requires better developed feeding patterns. Restrictions placed on ewes and cows by confinement at the time of parturition may result in their being unable to select an appropriate birth site. Our management must accommodate these needs by providing sites that are protected from the harsh environment and also allow separation from the rest of the flock. This is particularly important for ewes bearing multiple young, for lambs frequently become separated from the ewe while she is caring for another lamb. Both cows and ewes must be allowed to bond to their offspring soon after birth if they are to provide adequate maternal care. Fostering in these species involves manipulation of identifying stimuli to overcome the dam's ability to recognize her own young shortly after birth. Suckling problems, due to pendulous udders on cows and multiple lambs in sheep, may require attention by the stockman shortly after birth. Weaning does not result in major behavioral problems in sheep or beef cattle that are weaned after the young are consuming solid feed on a regular basis. Dairy calves, which are initially weaned onto milk replacer at a very early age, may develop inappropriate sucking behaviors that persist beyond weaning onto a solid diet. Despite our growing knowledge of maternal and neonatal behavior, mortality among piglets, lambs, and calves is still high. However, many of the most recent findings have yet to be incorporated into management procedures or standard practice. As this occurs, we should be able to reduce losses of young animals. PMID:3304573

Gonyou, H W; Stookey, J M

1987-07-01

287

Maternal Gatekeeping: Antecedents and Consequences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined maternal gatekeeping, its background and psychological antecedents, and its consequences for paternal and maternal involvement in child care. In sum, 209 couples with 6- to 36-month-old children completed extensive questionnaires. Analyses revealed that various dimensions of gate-keeping were differentially associated with the…

Gaunt, Ruth

2008-01-01

288

Maternal mortality in southern Israel.  

PubMed

Between 1969 and 1991 there were 166,410 births in Southern Israel with 13 maternal deaths (7.8/100,000). In the Jewish population there were 119,130 deliveries with 7 maternal deaths (5.9/100,000), and the Bedouins had 47,280 deliveries with 6 maternal deaths (12.7/100,000). Prenatal care was an important preventive factor. 7 maternal deaths occurred among 151,088 women who had received prenatal care (4.6/100,000), whereas 6 such deaths occurred among 15,322 without prenatal care (39.1/100,000) (P value 0.0005). Ten of the 13 women who died were over 24 years old. Eight of the 13 patients were multiparous. Live births occurred in 6 patients and stillbirths in 5 patients. Hemorrhage, preeclampsia-eclampsia and pulmonary embolism were the leading causes of maternal death. PMID:8512350

Leiberman, J R; Fraser, D; Mazor, M; Glezerman, M

1993-01-01

289

The Maternal Diet during Pregnancy Programs Altered Expression of the Glucocorticoid Receptor and Type 2 11 -Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase: Potential Molecular Mechanisms Underlying the Programming of Hypertension in Utero  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potential mechanisms underlying prenatal programming of hy- pertension in adult life were investigated using a rat model in which maternal protein intake was restricted to 9% vs. 18% casein (control) during pregnancy. Maternal low protein (MLP) offspring exhibit glu- cocorticoid-dependent raised systolic blood pressure throughout life (20 -30 mm Hg above the control). To determine the molecular mechanisms underlying the

C. Bertram; A. R. TROWERN; N. COPIN; A. A. JACKSON; C. B. WHORWOOD

2001-01-01

290

Physiological remodelling of the maternal uterine circulation during pregnancy.  

PubMed

Sufficient uteroplacental blood flow is essential for normal pregnancy outcome and is accomplished by the coordinated growth and remodelling of the entire maternal uterine vasculature. The main focus of this MiniReview is to provide information on upstream (pre-placental) maternal uterine vascular remodelling that facilitates gestational increases in uterine blood flow. Consideration of the three-dimensional pattern of remodelling (circumferential enlargement versus axial elongation), changes in vessel biomechanical properties, and underlying mechanisms [shear stress, nitric oxide, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)/placental growth factor (PlGF), the renin-angiotensin system] and pathways (local versus systemic; venoarterial exchange) are provided using the rat as the principal animal model, although findings from other species are incorporated wherever possible to provide a comparative perspective. The process of maternal gestational uterine vascular remodelling involves a number of cellular processes and mechanisms, including trophoblast invasion, hyperplasia and hypertrophy, and changes in extracellular matrix composition. In addition, changes in cellular function, e.g. the secretory and contractile properties of smooth muscle and an up-regulation of endothelial vasodilatory influences may contribute to uteroplacental blood flow increases through changes in tone as well as in structure. Future studies aimed at better understanding the inter-relationship between changes in vessel structure (remodelling) and function (reactivity) would likely generate new mechanistic insights into the fascinating process of maternal gestational uterine vascular adaptation and provide a more physiological perspective of the underlying cellular processes involved in its regulation. PMID:21902814

Mandala, Maurizio; Osol, George

2012-01-01

291

Maternal intra-partum fever.  

PubMed

Maternal intra-partum fever commonly complicates the process of labour. Its occurrence is often regarded as being synonymous with the presence of chorioamnionitis. This inevitably results in the administration of antibiotics to the affected mother. Review of the literature however suggests that this approach is not always appropriate. Non-infective causes of this condition that are often overlooked include the use of epidural analgesia for pain relief, normal thermal physiological changes in women not using any form of analgesia and delivery in an overheated room. Women with certain risk factors such as nulliparity and a long latent phase of labour are also more prone to developing maternal intra-partum fever. Irrespective of its aetiology, maternal intra-partum fever carries risks both for the mother and her unborn child. Putting more thought into the care of these patients will go a long way in reducing the maternal and neonatal morbidity associated with this complication. PMID:17365450

Apantaku, O; Mulik, V

2007-01-01

292

Interactive Fly: Maternally transcribed genes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The maternally transcribed genes section of the award-winning and comprehensive site: Interactive fly. It thoroughly discusses genes, tissues, biochemical paths, and developmental processes in the fruit fly, Drosophila.

PhD Thomas B Brody (NIH Laboratory of Neurochemistry)

2006-11-13

293

Maternal thyroid status regulates the expression of neuronal and astrocytic cytoskeletal proteins in the fetal brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maternal thyroid hormone (TH) crosses the placenta and is postulated to regulate fetal brain development. How- ever, TH-dependent stages of fetal brain development remain to be characterised. We have therefore compared the levels of several neuronal and glial cytoskeletal proteins in fetal brains from normal (N) and partially thyroidect- omised (TX) rat dams by immunoblotting. Pregnancies were studied both before

D Sampson; M R Pickard; A K Sinha; I M Evans; A J Leonard; R P Ekins

2000-01-01

294

MATERNAL HYPOTHYROXENEMIA LEADS TO PERSISTENT DEFICITS IN HIPPOCAMPAL SYNAPTIC TRANSMISSION AND LEARNING IN OFFSPRING.  

EPA Science Inventory

MATERNAL HYPOTHYROXINEMIA LEADS TO PERSISTENT DEFICITS IN HIPPOCAMPAL SYNAPTIC TRANSMISSION AND LEARNING IN RAT OFFSPRING. M.E. Gilbert1 and Li Sui2, Neurotoxicology Division, 1US EPA and 2National Research Council, Research Triangle Pk, NC 27711. While severe hypothyroidis...

295

Mild Diabetes Models and Their Maternal-Fetal Repercussions  

PubMed Central

The presence of diabetes in pregnancy leads to hormonal and metabolic changes making inappropriate intrauterine environment, favoring the onset of maternal and fetal complications. Human studies that explore mechanisms responsible for changes caused by diabetes are limited not only for ethical reasons but also by the many uncontrollable variables. Thus, there is a need to develop appropriate experimental models. The diabetes induced in laboratory animals can be performed by different methods depending on dose, route of administration, and the strain and age of animal used. Many of these studies are carried out in neonatal period or during pregnancy, but the results presented are controversial. So this paper, addresses the review about the different models of mild diabetes induction using streptozotocin in pregnant rats and their repercussions on the maternal and fetal organisms to propose an adequate model for each approached issue. PMID:23878822

Damasceno, D. C.; Sinzato, Y. K.; Bueno, A.; Netto, A. O.; Dallaqua, B.; Gallego, F. Q.; Iessi, I. L.; Corvino, S. B.; Serrano, R. G.; Marini, G.; Piculo, F.; Calderon, I. M. P.; Rudge, M. V. C.

2013-01-01

296

Ascorbate prevents placental oxidative stress and enhances birth weight in hypoxic pregnancy in rats  

PubMed Central

This study isolated the effects of maternal hypoxia independent of changes in maternal nutrition on maternal circulatory and placental molecular indices of oxidative stress and determined whether maternal antioxidant treatment conferred protection. Pregnant rats were subjected to normoxic pregnancy or 13% O2 chronic hypoxia for most of gestation with and without maternal treatment with vitamin C in the drinking water. Maternal hypoxia with and without vitamin C did not affect maternal food or water intake and led to a significant increase in maternal and fetal haematocrit. At gestational day 20, maternal plasma urate and l-cysteine concentrations, and placental levels of 4-hydroxynonenal and heat shock protein 70 were increased while placental heat shock protein 90 levels were decreased in hypoxic pregnancy. The induction of maternal circulatory and placental molecular indices of oxidative stress in hypoxic pregnancies was prevented by maternal treatment with vitamin C. Maternal hypoxia during pregnancy with or without vitamin C increased placental weight, but not total or compartmental volumes. Maternal treatment with vitamin C increased birth weight in both hypoxic and normoxic pregnancies. The data show that maternal hypoxia independent of maternal undernutrition promotes maternal and placental indices of oxidative stress, effects that can be prevented by maternal treatment with vitamin C in hypoxic pregnancy. While vitamin C may not be the ideal candidate of choice for therapy in pregnant women, and taking into consideration differences in ascorbic acid metabolism between rats and humans, the data do underlie that antioxidant treatment may provide a useful intervention to improve placental function and protect fetal growth in pregnancy complicated by fetal hypoxia. PMID:22289909

Richter, H G; Camm, E J; Modi, B N; Naeem, F; Cross, C M; Cindrova-Davies, T; Spasic-Boskovic, O; Dunster, C; Mudway, I S; Kelly, F J; Burton, G J; Poston, L; Giussani, D A

2012-01-01

297

Denial or receipt of expected reward through maternal contact during the neonatal period differentially affect the development of the rat amygdala and program its function in adulthood in a sex-dimorphic way.  

PubMed

Early experiences affect brain development and thus adult brain function and behavior. We employed a novel early experience model involving denial (DER) or receipt of expected reward (RER) through maternal contact in a T-maze. Exposure to the DER experience for the first time, on postnatal day 10 (PND10), was stressful for the pups, as assessed by increased corticosterone levels, and was accompanied by enhanced activation of the amygdala, as assessed by c-Fos immunohistochemistry. Re-exposure to the same experience on days 11-13 led to adaptation. Corticosterone levels of the RER pups did not differ on the first and last days of training (PND10 and 13 respectively), while on PND11 and 12 they were lower than those of the CTR. The RER experience did not lead to activation of the amygdala. Males and females exposed as neonates to the DER or RER experience, and controls were tested as adults in the open field task (OF), the elevated plus maze (EPM), and cued and contextual fear conditioning (FC). No group differences were found in the EPM, while in the OF, both male and female DER animals, showed increased rearings, compared to the controls. In the FC, the RER males had increased memory for both context and cued conditioned fear, than either the DER or CTR. On the other hand, the DER males, but not females showed an increased activation, as assessed by c-Fos expression, of the amygdala following fear conditioning. Our results show that the DER early experience programmed the function of the adult amygdala as to render it more sensitive to fearful stimuli. This programming by the DER early experience could be mediated through epigenetic modifications of histones leading to chromatin opening, as indicated by our results showing increased levels of phospho-acetyl-histone-3 in the amygdala of the DER males. PMID:23490071

Diamantopoulou, Anastasia; Raftogianni, Androniki; Stamatakis, Antonios; Tzanoulinou, Stamatina; Oitzl, Melly S; Stylianopoulou, Fotini

2013-09-01

298

Exposure to a maternal n-3 fatty acid-deficient diet during brain development provokes excessive hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis responses to stress and behavioral indices of depression and anxiety in male rat offspring later in life.  

PubMed

Brain docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) accumulates rapidly during brain development and is essential for normal neurological function. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether brain development was the critical period in which DHA deficiency leads to dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in response to stress later in life. Rats were exposed to an n-3 fatty acid-deficient diet or the same diet supplemented with fish oil as an n-3 fatty acid-adequate diet either throughout the preweaning period from embryo to weaning at 3 weeks old or during the postweaning period from 3 to 10 weeks old. Exposure to the n-3 fatty acid-deficient diet during the preweaning period resulted, at weaning, in a significant decrease in hypothalamic DHA levels and a reduced male offspring body weight. DHA deficiency during the preweaning period significantly increased and prolonged restraint stress-induced changes in colonic temperature and serum corticosterone levels, caused a significant increase in GABA(A) antagonist-induced heart rate changes and enhanced depressive-like behavior in the forced swimming test and anxiety-like behavior in the plus-maze test in later life. These effects were not seen in male rats fed the n-3 fatty acid-deficient diet during the postweaning period. These results suggest that brain development is the critical period in which DHA deficiency leads to excessive HPA responses to stress and elevated behavioral indices of depression and anxiety in adulthood. We propose that these effects of hypothalamic DHA deficiency during brain development may involve a GABA(A) receptor-mediated mechanism. PMID:22818715

Chen, Hui-Feng; Su, Hui-Min

2013-01-01

299

Relationships between Maternal Adult Attachment Security, Child Perceptions of Maternal Support, and Maternal Perceptions of Child Responses to Sexual Abuse.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Study assessed the relationships between maternal adult attachment style, children's perceptions of maternal support following disclosure of sexual abuse, and maternal perceptions of children's behavioral and emotional responses to sexual abuse. Findings indicate that fostering parent-child attachment is important in order to decrease the risk for…

Leifer, Myra; Kilbane, Teresa; Skolnick, Linda I.

2002-01-01

300

Web Sites Related to Maternal and Child Health Web Sites Related to Maternal and Child Health  

E-print Network

Web Sites Related to Maternal and Child Health Web Sites Related to Maternal and Child Health://www.aap.org Association of Maternal and Child Health Programs http://www.amchp1.org Center on Children & the Law http://www.abanet.org/child of Dimes Birth Defects Foundation http://www.modimes.org Maternal and Child Health Neighborhood http

de Lijser, Peter

301

Effects of Taurine Supplementation on Hepatic Markers of Inflammation and Lipid Metabolism in Mothers and Offspring in the Setting of Maternal Obesity  

PubMed Central

Maternal obesity is associated with obesity and metabolic disorders in offspring. However, intervention strategies to reverse or ameliorate the effects of maternal obesity on offspring health are limited. Following maternal undernutrition, taurine supplementation can improve outcomes in offspring, possibly via effects on glucose homeostasis and insulin secretion. The effects of taurine in mediating inflammatory processes as a protective mechanism has not been investigated. Further, the efficacy of taurine supplementation in the setting of maternal obesity is not known. Using a model of maternal obesity, we examined the effects of maternal taurine supplementation on outcomes related to inflammation and lipid metabolism in mothers and neonates. Time-mated Wistar rats were randomised to either: 1) control : control diet during pregnancy and lactation (CON); 2) CON supplemented with 1.5% taurine in drinking water (CT); 3) maternal obesogenic diet (high fat, high fructose) during pregnancy and lactation (MO); or 4) MO supplemented with taurine (MOT). Maternal and neonatal weights, plasma cytokines and hepatic gene expression were analysed. A MO diet resulted in maternal hyperinsulinemia and hyperleptinemia and increased plasma glucose, glutamate and TNF-? concentrations. Taurine normalised maternal plasma TNF-? and glutamate concentrations in MOT animals. Both MO and MOT mothers displayed evidence of fatty liver accompanied by alterations in key markers of hepatic lipid metabolism. MO neonates displayed a pro-inflammatory hepatic profile which was partially rescued in MOT offspring. Conversely, a pro-inflammatory phenotype was observed in MOT mothers suggesting a possible maternal trade-off to protect the neonate. Despite protective effects of taurine in MOT offspring, neonatal mortality was increased in CT neonates, indicating possible adverse effects of taurine in the setting of normal pregnancy. These data suggest that maternal taurine supplementation may ameliorate the adverse effects observed in offspring following a maternal obesogenic diet but these effects are dependent upon prior maternal nutritional background. PMID:24146946

Li, Minglan; Reynolds, Clare M.; Sloboda, Deborah M.; Gray, Clint; Vickers, Mark H.

2013-01-01

302

Effects of taurine supplementation on hepatic markers of inflammation and lipid metabolism in mothers and offspring in the setting of maternal obesity.  

PubMed

Maternal obesity is associated with obesity and metabolic disorders in offspring. However, intervention strategies to reverse or ameliorate the effects of maternal obesity on offspring health are limited. Following maternal undernutrition, taurine supplementation can improve outcomes in offspring, possibly via effects on glucose homeostasis and insulin secretion. The effects of taurine in mediating inflammatory processes as a protective mechanism has not been investigated. Further, the efficacy of taurine supplementation in the setting of maternal obesity is not known. Using a model of maternal obesity, we examined the effects of maternal taurine supplementation on outcomes related to inflammation and lipid metabolism in mothers and neonates. Time-mated Wistar rats were randomised to either: 1) control : control diet during pregnancy and lactation (CON); 2) CON supplemented with 1.5% taurine in drinking water (CT); 3) maternal obesogenic diet (high fat, high fructose) during pregnancy and lactation (MO); or 4) MO supplemented with taurine (MOT). Maternal and neonatal weights, plasma cytokines and hepatic gene expression were analysed. A MO diet resulted in maternal hyperinsulinemia and hyperleptinemia and increased plasma glucose, glutamate and TNF-? concentrations. Taurine normalised maternal plasma TNF-? and glutamate concentrations in MOT animals. Both MO and MOT mothers displayed evidence of fatty liver accompanied by alterations in key markers of hepatic lipid metabolism. MO neonates displayed a pro-inflammatory hepatic profile which was partially rescued in MOT offspring. Conversely, a pro-inflammatory phenotype was observed in MOT mothers suggesting a possible maternal trade-off to protect the neonate. Despite protective effects of taurine in MOT offspring, neonatal mortality was increased in CT neonates, indicating possible adverse effects of taurine in the setting of normal pregnancy. These data suggest that maternal taurine supplementation may ameliorate the adverse effects observed in offspring following a maternal obesogenic diet but these effects are dependent upon prior maternal nutritional background. PMID:24146946

Li, Minglan; Reynolds, Clare M; Sloboda, Deborah M; Gray, Clint; Vickers, Mark H

2013-01-01

303

Nutrition and Maternal Survival in Developing Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maternal mortality continues to be high and maternal nutrition poor in the developing world. However, the specific role of\\u000a nutrition in affecting maternal health and survival remains unclear. Recent trials provide support for a specific and perhaps\\u000a important place for nutrition in reducing the burden of maternal mortality in developing countries. Specific nutrition interventions\\u000a have been shown to be efficacious

Parul Christian

304

Suramin-restricted blood volume in the placenta of normal and diabetic rats is normalized by vitamin E treatment.  

PubMed

Previously maternal and fetal alterations resembling human pre-eclampsia were induced in pregnant rats by injections of the angiogenesis inhibitor Suramin. These alterations were aggravated by maternal diabetes and partly rectified by vitamin E supplementation. In the present study we evaluated the morphology of placentae and kidneys in this model. Non-diabetic and streptozotocin-induced diabetic pregnant rats of two rat strains (U and H) were treated with Suramin or saline, and given standard or vitamin E-enriched food. On gestational day 20 one placenta and the left kidney of the mother were collected for morphological and stereological analysis. In the placental trophospongium Suramin treatment caused cysts, which were further enhanced by maternal diabetes. Vitamin E treatment had no effect on the vacuolization. In the placental labyrinth of the non-diabetic rats Suramin treatment restricted maternal placental blood volume and increased the interface between maternal and fetal circulation. These changes were reversed by vitamin E treatment. Diabetes increased slightly the interface between the circulations in both rat strains. Suramin treatment decreased the interface, and vitamin E further decreased the interface in the diabetic U rats, whereas neither treatment affected the maternal-fetal interface in the diabetic H rats. The kidneys of Suramin-treated and diabetic rats were heavier compared to controls. Suramin treatment and maternal diabetes damaged renal glomeruli to a similar extent. Vitamin E treatment diminished the Suramin- and diabetes-induced glomerular damage in U rats, but not in H rats. The average cell count per glomerulus was decreased by Suramin in the U rats. Vitamin E treatment did not affect cell number per glomerulus in any group. We conclude that Suramin-injected pregnant rats constitute a valid animal model for placental dysfunction and pre-eclampsia, also from the histological perspective. The present work supports the notion that one important effect of untreated maternal diabetes may be impaired placentation, leading to oxidative stress, morphological damage, and compromised placental function. PMID:16920189

Nash, P; Eriksson, U J

2007-01-01

305

Reproductive and neurobehavioral outcome of drinking purified water under magnesium deficiency in the rat’s diet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taking magnesium deficient diet and drinking soft water (including purified water, essentially mineral free) are common consumed in the world. The present study was conducted to assess the potential combined influence of maternal drinking purified water and taking magnesium deficient diet on postnatal development and behavior in the offspring of exposed rats. Sprague–Dawley (SD) rat were assigned to four groups:

Hui Zeng; Wei-qun Shu; Qing Zhao; Qiang Chen

2008-01-01

306

Chronic Maternal Depression and Children's Injury Risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective A substantial number of mothers of young children suffer from depression. One understudied consequence of maternal depression is how it affects toddlers' injury risk. This study examined links between chronic maternal depression and child injury. Methods A national sample of 1,364 American children was studied. Results Chronic levels of severe maternal depression placed children at increased risk of concurrent

David C. Schwebel; Carl M. Brezausek

2008-01-01

307

Maternal Nutrition Participant Materials for Notebook  

E-print Network

. By actively participating in Maternal Nutrition, you will have: · Appraised conditions during pregnancy gain and other changes during pregnancy is for your background knowledge. In your role as a nutritionUNIT 16: Maternal Nutrition Participant Materials for Notebook #12;Navigating for Success Maternal

308

Prenatal Maternal Stress Programs Infant Stress Regulation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Prenatal exposure to inappropriate levels of glucocorticoids (GCs) and maternal stress are putative mechanisms for the fetal programming of later health outcomes. The current investigation examined the influence of prenatal maternal cortisol and maternal psychosocial stress on infant physiological and behavioral responses to stress.…

Davis, Elysia Poggi; Glynn, Laura M.; Waffarn, Feizal; Sandman, Curt A.

2011-01-01

309

Interventions designed to prevent adverse programming outcomes resulting from exposure to maternal obesity during development  

PubMed Central

Maternal obesity is a global epidemic affecting the developed and developing world. Human and animal studies indicate that maternal obesity programs development predisposing offspring to later-life chronic diseases. Several mechanisms act together to produce these adverse health problems. There is a need for effective interventions that prevent these outcomes and guide management in human pregnancy. We report here dietary and exercise intervention studies in both altricial and precocial species, rats and sheep, designed to prevent adverse offspring outcomes. Both interventions present exciting opportunities to at least in part prevent adverse metabolic and other outcomes in mother and offspring. PMID:24147928

Nathanielsz, PW; Ford, SP; Long, NM; Vega, CC; Reyes-Castro, LA; Zambrano, E

2013-01-01

310

[Maternal and perinatal health].  

PubMed

After a year-long diagnosis of Chile's health situation, the Ministry of Health in 1991 formulated a new maternal-child health program designed to assure that all pregnancies would be desired and would occur under optimal conditions. Orientation for responsible parenthood will be an important part of the process. Other objectives include reducing the incidence of adolescent pregnancy and of sexually transmitted diseases. The pregnancy rate for young women 15-19 changed very little in Chile between 1952-82, because of the lack of sex education and family planning services. Family planning programs designed especially for adolescents would help to combat unwanted pregnancies and could offer the methods most suitable for young women. The well-known longitudinal study in Czechoslovakia which followed the development of children whose mothers were denied legal abortions in the 1960s showed the children to be at increased risk of unsatisfactory social adjustment in later life and suggested some consequences of unwanted pregnancy. A study of unwanted pregnancy in Chile was initiated in 4 prenatal care centers in a working class area of Santiago in 1984. 2485 women in the 6th or 7th month of pregnancy were classified according to their existing family sizes. Only 33.1% of the women desired the pregnancy at that time and 38.4% desired it but at a later time. 28.5% did not desire it at all. Women who did not desire the pregnancy waited significantly longer to obtain prenatal care than women who desired it. Age, economic problems, being single, family conflicts, already having the desired number of children, and short intervals since the most recent birth were associated with not desiring the current pregnancy. Of the 1663 women who did not desire the pregnancy, only 13.1% of those single, 35.8% of those in union, and 44.0% of those married used a contraceptive method. 2133 of the mothers were interviewed 6 months and 1977 12 months after delivery. Birth weights did not vary according to the mother's expressed desire for the child. Low birth weights were significantly more common in children of nulliparas and women with 3 or more previous births. Of the 2133 women reinterviewed at 6 months, 72 had not yet reported the child's birth to the Civil Register, 132 were registered by the mother only, 482 were registered as illegitimate but recognized by the father, and 1447 were registered as legitimate. The proportion of mothers not initially desiring the pregnancy who stated that if they were able to decide they would not have had the pregnancy or would be indifferent declined form 58.4% at 6 months to 42.0% at 12 months. Mothers initially desiring the pregnancy had higher rates of attendance at routine well-child clinic appointments and of completion of immunization requirements. The proportion of women not using a contraceptive method declined form 54.9% at the prenatal interview to 14.1% among 1879 women interviewed at 12 months. PMID:12317327

1991-01-01

311

Plotting Maternity in Three Persons  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This performance text examines complexities of personal and maternal identity in family life. Speaking in first, second, and third person voices, the author offers autoethnographic accounts of the tensions between separateness and connectedness, normative and subjective motherhood, and novice and seasoned perspectives. The piece functions as a…

Kinser, Amber E.

2012-01-01

312

Maternal Employment and Adolescent Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates how maternal employment is related to the outcomes of 10 and 11 year olds, controlling for a wide variety of child, mother and family characteristics. The results suggest that limited amounts of work by mothers benefit youths who are relatively \\

Christopher J. Ruhm

2005-01-01

313

Maternal employment and child care  

Microsoft Academic Search

Highlights selected demographic, social, and economic forces related to the increase in employment of women and notes the benefits and stresses experienced by employed mothers. These include difficulties associated with finding and affording good day care, concerns about the effects of maternal employment and day care on children, and the difficulties frequently inherent in managing the 2 full-time jobs of

Kathleen H. Dunlop

1981-01-01

314

Maternal employment and adolescent development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates how maternal employment is related to the cognitive development and body weight of 10 and 11 year olds, controlling for a wide variety of child, mother and family characteristics. The results suggest that limited market work benefits youths who are relatively “disadvantaged” and even long hours, which occur infrequently, are unlikely to leave them much worse off. By

Christopher J. Ruhm

2008-01-01

315

Effect of postnatal maternal protein intake on prenatal programming of hypertension.  

PubMed

This study examined whether postnatal maternal dietary protein deprivation during the time of nursing can program hypertension when the offspring are studied as adults. Rats were fed either a 6% or 20% protein diet during the second half of pregnancy and continued on the same diet while rats were nursing their pups. The neonates of all of the rats were cross-fostered to a different mother and studied as adults. Adult rats that had a normal prenatal environment but were reared by mothers fed a low-protein diet until weaning (20%-6%) were hypertensive, had a higher renal Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransporter (NKCC2) and Na(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter (NCC) protein abundance yet a comparable number of glomeruli, and had higher plasma renin and angiotensin II levels compared to control (20%-20%). Rats whose mothers were fed a 6% protein diet and cross-fostered to a different rat fed a 6% protein diet until weaning (6%-6%) were hypertensive, had elevated plasma renin and angiotensin II levels, and had a reduction in nephron number but had NKCC2 and NCC levels comparable to 20% to 20% offspring. The 6% to 20% had blood pressure and glomerular numbers comparable to 20% to 20% rats. The hypertension resulting from prenatal dietary protein deprivation can be normalized by improving the postnatal environment. Combined prenatal and postnatal maternal dietary protein deprivation and maternal dietary protein deprivation while nursing alone (20%-6%) results in hypertension, but the mechanism for the hypertension in these groups is different. PMID:24740990

Siddique, Khurrum; Guzman, German Lozano; Gattineni, Jyothsna; Baum, Michel

2014-12-01

316

Maternal Characteristics Predicting Young Girls' Disruptive Behavior  

PubMed Central

Little is known about the relative predictive utility of maternal characteristics and parenting skills on the development of girls’ disruptive behavior. The current study used five waves of parent and child-report data from the ongoing Pittsburgh Girls Study to examine these relationships in a sample of 1,942 girls from age 7 to 12 years. Multivariate Generalized Estimating Equation (GEE) analyses indicated that European American race, mother’s prenatal nicotine use, maternal depression, maternal conduct problems prior to age 15, and low maternal warmth explained unique variance. Maladaptive parenting partly mediated the effects of maternal depression and maternal conduct problems. Both current and early maternal risk factors have an impact on young girls’ disruptive behavior, providing support for the timing and focus of the prevention of girls’ disruptive behavior. PMID:21391016

van der Molen, Elsa; Hipwell, Alison E.; Vermeiren, Robert; Loeber, Rolf

2011-01-01

317

Repeated multiple maternities in triplet families.  

PubMed

In earlier studies, scientists have attempted to identify genetic and environmental factors affecting the rate of multiple maternities among humans. We contribute to these studies by analysing the frequencies of multiple maternities in sibships containing triplets. Use of the Hellin transformation is included in evaluation of the triplet rate. Our results indicate greater frequencies of repeated multiple maternities in the sibships than expected, based on population frequencies. The excesses obtained are more marked in triplet maternities than in twin maternities. The transformed triplet rate shows results similar to the twinning rate. The findings also indicate that in families, the influence of maternal factors on the frequencies of multiple maternities is stronger than the influence of paternal factors. PMID:24717303

Fellman, Johan; Eriksson, Aldur W

2014-06-01

318

The Evolution of Multivariate Maternal Effects  

PubMed Central

There is a growing interest in predicting the social and ecological contexts that favor the evolution of maternal effects. Most predictions focus, however, on maternal effects that affect only a single character, whereas the evolution of maternal effects is poorly understood in the presence of suites of interacting traits. To overcome this, we simulate the evolution of multivariate maternal effects (captured by the matrix M) in a fluctuating environment. We find that the rate of environmental fluctuations has a substantial effect on the properties of M: in slowly changing environments, offspring are selected to have a multivariate phenotype roughly similar to the maternal phenotype, so that M is characterized by positive dominant eigenvalues; by contrast, rapidly changing environments favor Ms with dominant eigenvalues that are negative, as offspring favor a phenotype which substantially differs from the maternal phenotype. Moreover, when fluctuating selection on one maternal character is temporally delayed relative to selection on other traits, we find a striking pattern of cross-trait maternal effects in which maternal characters influence not only the same character in offspring, but also other offspring characters. Additionally, when selection on one character contains more stochastic noise relative to selection on other traits, large cross-trait maternal effects evolve from those maternal traits that experience the smallest amounts of noise. The presence of these cross-trait maternal effects shows that individual maternal effects cannot be studied in isolation, and that their study in a multivariate context may provide important insights about the nature of past selection. Our results call for more studies that measure multivariate maternal effects in wild populations. PMID:24722346

Kuijper, Bram; Johnstone, Rufus A.; Townley, Stuart

2014-01-01

319

Prolactin inhibition at the end of lactation programs for a central hypothyroidism in adult rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Malnutrition during lactation is associated with hypoprolacti- nemia and failure in milk production. Adult rats whose mothers were malnourished presented higher body weight and serum tri- iodothyronine (T3). Maternal hypoprolactinemia at the end of lactation caused higher body weight in adult life, suggesting an association between maternal prolactin (PRL) level and programming of the offspring's adult body weight. Here, we

Isabela Teixeira Bonomo; Patricia Cristina Lisboa; M. C. F. Passos; S. B. Alves; A. M. Reis; E. G. de Moura

2008-01-01

320

KIDNEY MORPHOLOGY AND FUNCTION IN THE YOUNG OF RATS MALNOURISHED AND EXPOSED TO NITROFEN DURING PREGNANCY  

EPA Science Inventory

The separate and combined effects of prenatal protein deficiency (65 casein) and prenatal nitrofen exposure (12.5 mg/kg on gestational days 7-21) on renal morphology in the 21-day fetal and postnatal rat were examined. Maternal protein deprivation reduced maternal feed intake, fe...

321

Postnatal treadmill exercise alleviates short-term memory impairment by enhancing cell proliferation and suppressing apoptosis in the hippocampus of rat pups born to diabetic rats  

PubMed Central

During pregnancy, diabetes mellitus exerts detrimental effects on the development of the fetus, especially the central nervous system. In the current study, we evaluated the effects of postnatal treadmill exercise on short-term memory in relation with cell proliferation and apoptosis in the hippocampus of rat pups born to streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic maternal rats. Adult female rats were mated with male rats for 24 h. Two weeks after mating, the pregnant female rats were divided into two groups: control group and STZ injection group. The pregnant rats in the STZ injection group were administered 40 mg/kg of STZ intraperitoneally. After birth, the rat pups were divided into the following four groups: control group, control with postnatal exercise group, maternal STZ-injection group, and maternal STZ-injection with postnatal exercise group. The rat pups in the postnatal exercise groups were made to run on a treadmill for 30 min once a day, 5 times per week for 2 weeks beginning 4 weeks after birth. The rat pups born to diabetic rats were shown to have short-term memory impairment with suppressed cell proliferation and increased apoptosis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus. Postnatal treadmill exercise alleviated short-term memory impairment by increased cell proliferation and suppressed apoptosis in the rat pups born to diabetic rats. These findings indicate that postnatal treadmill exercise may be used as a valuable strategy to ameliorate neurodevelopmental problems in children born to diabetics. PMID:25210695

Kim, Young Hoon; Sung, Yun-Hee; Lee, Hee-Hyuk; Ko, Il-Gyu; Kim, Sung-Eun; Shin, Mal-Soon; Kim, Bo-Kyun

2014-01-01

322

Glucose utilization by fetal muscles during maternal fasting S. HAUGUEL, A. LETURQUE M. GILBERT J. KAND, J. GIRARD  

E-print Network

had free access to water and commercial food (65 % carbohydrate, 24 % protein, 11 % fat for the rat determined. Glucose utilization indexes in fetal tissues were measured by a tracer technique using/I) of maternal fasting without modifications of fetal insulin level. In the rabbit, fetal glycemia remained

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

323

Maternal Mortality in British Columbia  

PubMed Central

Between 1955 and 1962, 145 maternal deaths were reported in the Province of British Columbia. One hundred of them were due to obstetrical causes. Of these deaths, hemorrhage was by far the commonest cause (40 cases), followed in frequency by vascular accidents (23 cases), infections (17 cases), toxemia (10 cases), anesthetic deaths (five cases), and other causes (five cases). Significant avoidable factors were noted in 80%. Indirect obstetrical deaths accounted for 29 cases, or 20% of all maternal mortalities. The most frequently encountered causes of indirect obstetrical deaths were cardiac (nine cases) and vascular accidents (six cases). Avoidable factors were considered to be present in 19 of the 29, an incidence of 65%. When all deaths were considered together, 72% were felt to have significant avoidable factors when judged against an academic standard. It was also apparent that some 40% to 50% of deaths were intimately involved with social factors. PMID:14232190

Carpenter, C. W.; Bryans, F. E.

1965-01-01

324

Effects of gestational stress: 1. Evaluation of maternal and juvenile offspring behavior.  

PubMed

In both humans and animals, stress experienced during gestation is associated with physiological changes and disruptions in emotional function and cognitive ability in offspring; however, much less is known about the effects of such stress in mothers. In animal models, physical restraint is commonly employed to induce stress during gestation and results in elevated postpartum maternal anxiety and changes in maternal care. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the consequences of restraint stress applied on gestation days 10 through 19 in mother rats and their juvenile offspring. Progeny were reared by birth mothers. Preterm anxiety was assessed in the elevated plus maze and maternal behavior in the retrieval test. Cognitive (T-maze) and anxiety measures (elevated plus maze and emergence) were applied to a subset of male and female offspring at 30-31 days of age. Weight and litter characteristics were also recorded. Mother rats exposed to stress during gestation had attenuated weight gain, elevated anxiety-like behavior, and reduced maternal care. Stressed mothers also had fewer pups and an elevated offspring mortality rate. The consequences of gestational stress in offspring were subtle and gender-dependent. Only juvenile females displayed marginal effects of gestational stress in the form of elevated anxiety-like behavior and attenuated weight gain. In the current study, although gestational stress had robust effects in the mother rat, these did not translate to similar changes in offspring behavior. The importance of focusing research on maternal responses to gestational stress is highlighted by these findings. PMID:18456246

Baker, Stephanie; Chebli, Mark; Rees, Stephanie; Lemarec, Nathalie; Godbout, Roger; Bielajew, Catherine

2008-06-01

325

Maternal Melatonin Programs the Daily Pattern of Energy Metabolism in Adult Offspring  

PubMed Central

Background Shift work was recently described as a factor that increases the risk of Type 2 diabetes mellitus. In addition, rats born to mothers subjected to a phase shift throughout pregnancy are glucose intolerant. However, the mechanism by which a phase shift transmits metabolic information to the offspring has not been determined. Among several endocrine secretions, phase shifts in the light/dark cycle were described as altering the circadian profile of melatonin production by the pineal gland. The present study addresses the importance of maternal melatonin for the metabolic programming of the offspring. Methodology/Principal Findings Female Wistar rats were submitted to SHAM surgery or pinealectomy (PINX). The PINX rats were divided into two groups and received either melatonin (PM) or vehicle. The SHAM, the PINX vehicle and the PM females were housed with male Wistar rats. Rats were allowed to mate and after weaning, the male and female offspring were subjected to a glucose tolerance test (GTT), a pyruvate tolerance test (PTT) and an insulin tolerance test (ITT). Pancreatic islets were isolated for insulin secretion, and insulin signaling was assessed in the liver and in the skeletal muscle by western blots. We found that male and female rats born to PINX mothers display glucose intolerance at the end of the light phase of the light/dark cycle, but not at the beginning. We further demonstrate that impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and hepatic insulin resistance are mechanisms that may contribute to glucose intolerance in the offspring of PINX mothers. The metabolic programming described here occurs due to an absence of maternal melatonin because the offspring born to PINX mothers treated with melatonin were not glucose intolerant. Conclusions/Significance The present results support the novel concept that maternal melatonin is responsible for the programming of the daily pattern of energy metabolism in their offspring. PMID:22719949

Ferreira, Danilo S.; Amaral, Fernanda G.; Mesquita, Caroline C.; Barbosa, Ana Paula L.; Lellis-Santos, Camilo; Turati, Ariane O.; Santos, Laila R.; Sollon, Carolina S.; Gomes, Patricia R.; Faria, Juliana A.; Cipolla-Neto, José; Bordin, Silvana; Anhê, Gabriel F.

2012-01-01

326

Effect of Maternal Care on Hearing Onset Induced by Developmental Changes in the Auditory Periphery  

PubMed Central

Handling (H) and cross-fostering (CF) rodent pups during postnatal development triggers changes in maternal behavior which in turn trigger long-term physiological changes in the offspring. However, less is known about the short-term effects of H and CF on infant development. In this study we hypothesized that manipulations of maternal care affect the onset of hearing in Wistar rats. To test this hypothesis we obtained auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) and micro-CT x-ray scans to measure changes in the development of the auditory periphery in H and CF pups manipulated at postnatal day (P)1, P5, or P9. We found evidence of changes in hearing development in H and CF pups compared with naive pups, including changes in the percentage of animals with ABRs during development, a decrease in ABR thresholds between P13 and P15, and anatomical results consistent with an accelerated formation of the middle ear cavity and opening of the ear canal. Biochemical measurements showed elevated levels of thyroid hormone in plasma from naive and CF pups. These results provide evidence that manipulations of maternal care accelerate hearing onset in Wistar rats. Understanding the mechanisms by which maternal care affects hearing onset opens new opportunities to study experience-dependent development of mammalian hearing. PMID:24671998

Adise, Shana; Saliu, Aminat; Maldonado, Natalia; Khatri, Vivek; Cardoso, Luis

2014-01-01

327

Maternal self-esteem, exposure to lead, and child neurodevelopment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The notion that maternal personality characteristics influence cognitive development in their children has been grounded in stress moderation theory. Maternal personality traits, such as self-esteem, may buffer maternal stressors or lead to improved maternal–child interactions that directly impact neurodevelopment. This can be extended to suggest that maternal personality may serve to attenuate or exacerbate the effects of other neurotoxicants, although

Pamela J. Surkan; Lourdes Schnaas; Rosalind J. Wright; Martha M. Téllez-Rojo; Héctor Lamadrid-Figueroa; Howard Hu; Mauricio Hernández-Avila; David C. Bellinger; Joel Schwartz; Estela Perroni; Robert O. Wright

2008-01-01

328

Early growth restriction leads to down regulation of protein kinase C zeta and insulin resistance in skeletal muscle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemiological studies have revealed a relationship between early growth restriction and the subsequent development of type 2 diabetes. A rat model of maternal protein restriction has been used to investigate the mech- anistic basis of this relationship. This model causes insulin resistance and diabetes in adult male offspring. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of

S E Ozanne; G S Olsen; L L Hansen; K J Tingey; B T Nave; C L Wang; K Hartil; C J Petry; A J Buckley

2003-01-01

329

The effect of maternal prolactin infusion during pregnancy on fetal adipose tissue development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study determines whether maternal administration of prolactin (PRL) to dams promotes the abundance of the brown adipose tissue-specific uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1) in fetal and neonatal rat pups. Recombinant PRL (24 µg\\/kg per day), or an equivalent volume of saline, were infused into dams (n=19 per group) throughout pregnancy from 12 h after mating. Interscapular brown adipose tissue was

H Budge; A Mostyn; V Wilson; A Khong; A M Walker; M E Symonds; T Stephenson

2002-01-01

330

Maternal fatness and viability of preterm infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the effect of maternal fatness on the mortality of infants born preterm up to the corrected age of 18 months 795 mother-infant pairs were studied. Maternal fatness was defined by Quetelet's index (weight\\/(height2)) and all infants weighed less than 1850 g at birth. In 771 mother-infant pairs maternal age, complications of pregnancy, mode of delivery, parity, social class,

A Lucas; R Morley; T J Cole; M F Bamford; A Boon; P Crowle; J F B Dossetor; R Pearse

1988-01-01

331

Supplemental Data A Maternal-Zygotic Effect Gene, Zfp57, Maintains Both Maternal and Paternal Imprints  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of the maternal function based on the genetic data is consistent with the observed expression of Zfp57 specifically in the maturing oocytes within the follicles of the ovary (Figure 1E). The oocyte-specific nature of the maternal contribution to the maternal-zygotic embryonic lethality was further confirmed by employing a ZP3-Cre transgene to ablate the maternal function of Zfp57 specifically

Xiajun Li; Mitsuteru Ito; Fen Zhou; Neil Youngson; Xiaopan Zuo; Philip Leder; Anne C. Ferguson-Smith

332

Black and white college women's maternal employment outcome expectations and their desired timing of maternal employment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an attempt to better understand college women's maternal employment plans, this study compared the ability of different\\u000a types of maternal employment outcome expectations to predict college women's desired timing of their maternal employment.\\u000a A mailed questionnaire examined Black (n= 113) and White (n= 189) college women's maternal employment timing preference and their perceptions of the likelihood of 30 possible

Judith S. Bridges; Claire Etaugh

1996-01-01

333

Inequalities in maternal health: national cohort study of ethnic variation in severe maternal morbidities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To describe on a national basis ethnic differences in severe maternal morbidity in the United Kingdom.Design National cohort study using the UK Obstetric Surveillance System (UKOSS).Setting All hospitals with consultant led maternity units in the UK.Participants 686 women with severe maternal morbidity between February 2005 and February 2006.Main outcome measures Rates, risk ratios, and odds ratios of severe maternal

Marian Knight; Jennifer J Kurinczuk; Patsy Spark; Peter Brocklehurst

2009-01-01

334

Nutritional Recovery Promotes Hypothalamic Inflammation in Rats during Adulthood.  

PubMed

We evaluated whether protein restriction in fetal life alters food intake and glucose homeostasis in adulthood by interfering with insulin signal transduction through proinflammatory mechanisms in the hypothalamus and peripheral tissues. Rats were divided into the following: a control group (C); a recovered group (R); and a low protein (LP) group. Relative food intake was greater and serum leptin was diminished in LP and R compared to C rats. Proinflammatory genes and POMC mRNA were upregulated in the hypothalamus of R group. Hypothalamic NPY mRNA expression was greater but AKT phosphorylation was diminished in the LP than in the C rats. In muscle, AKT phosphorylation was higher in restricted than in control animals. The HOMA-IR was decreased in R and C compared to the LP group. In contrast, the K itt in R was similar to that in C and both were lower than LP rats. Thus, nutritional recovery did not alter glucose homeostasis but produced middle hyperphagia, possibly due to increased anorexigenic neuropeptide expression that counteracted the hypothalamic inflammatory process. In long term protein deprived rats, hyperphagia most likely resulted from increased orexigenic neuropeptide expression, and glucose homeostasis was maintained, at least in part, at the expense of increased muscle insulin sensitivity. PMID:25258479

Silva, Hellen Barbosa Farias; de Almeida, Ana Paula Carli; Cardoso, Katarine Barbosa; Ignacio-Souza, Letícia Martins; Reis, Silvia Regina de Lima; Reis, Marise Auxiliadora de Barros; Latorraca, Márcia Queiroz; Milanski, Marciane; Arantes, Vanessa Cristina

2014-01-01

335

Nutritional Recovery Promotes Hypothalamic Inflammation in Rats during Adulthood  

PubMed Central

We evaluated whether protein restriction in fetal life alters food intake and glucose homeostasis in adulthood by interfering with insulin signal transduction through proinflammatory mechanisms in the hypothalamus and peripheral tissues. Rats were divided into the following: a control group (C); a recovered group (R); and a low protein (LP) group. Relative food intake was greater and serum leptin was diminished in LP and R compared to C rats. Proinflammatory genes and POMC mRNA were upregulated in the hypothalamus of R group. Hypothalamic NPY mRNA expression was greater but AKT phosphorylation was diminished in the LP than in the C rats. In muscle, AKT phosphorylation was higher in restricted than in control animals. The HOMA-IR was decreased in R and C compared to the LP group. In contrast, the Kitt in R was similar to that in C and both were lower than LP rats. Thus, nutritional recovery did not alter glucose homeostasis but produced middle hyperphagia, possibly due to increased anorexigenic neuropeptide expression that counteracted the hypothalamic inflammatory process. In long term protein deprived rats, hyperphagia most likely resulted from increased orexigenic neuropeptide expression, and glucose homeostasis was maintained, at least in part, at the expense of increased muscle insulin sensitivity. PMID:25258479

Silva, Hellen Barbosa Farias; de Almeida, Ana Paula Carli; Cardoso, Katarine Barbosa; Ignacio-Souza, Leticia Martins; Reis, Silvia Regina de Lima; Reis, Marise Auxiliadora de Barros; Milanski, Marciane; Arantes, Vanessa Cristina

2014-01-01

336

Culturally specific maternity care in Wisconsin.  

PubMed

There are significant health disparities in maternity care in the United States. One way to decrease these disparities may be to improve prenatal care among underserved minority women. This article reviews cultural and ethnic issues that may impact maternity care within 5 different groups of women commonly seen by maternity care providers in Wisconsin: African American, Latina, Hmong, Amish, and immigrant women. Understanding concerns that are specific to each group (such as higher rates of gestational diabetes in Latina women or desires to limit pelvic exams among Hmong women) may help clinicians provide more patient-centered maternity care. PMID:21473511

Luce, Helen; Redmer, Jackie; Gideonsen, Mark; Dresang, Lee; Potter, Beth; Schrager, Sarina

2011-02-01

337

The Neuroendocrinology of Primate Maternal Behavior  

PubMed Central

In nonhuman primates and humans, similar to other mammals, hormones are not strictly necessary for the expression of maternal behavior, but nevertheless influence variation in maternal responsiveness and parental behavior both within and between individuals. A growing number of correlational and experimental studies have indicated that high circulating estrogen concentrations during pregnancy increase maternal motivation and responsiveness to infant stimuli, while effects of prepartum or postpartum estrogens and progestogens on maternal behavior are less clear. Prolactin is thought to play a role in promoting paternal and alloparental care in primates, but little is known about the relationship between this hormone and maternal behavior. High circulating cortisol levels appear to enhance arousal and responsiveness to infant stimuli in young, relatively inexperienced female primates, but interfere with the expression of maternal behavior in older and more experienced mothers. Among neuropeptides and neurotransmitters, preliminary evidence indicates that oxytocin and endogenous opioids affect maternal attachment to infants, including maintenance of contact, grooming, and responses to separation. Brain serotonin affects anxiety and impulsivity, which in turn may affect maternal behaviors such as infant retrieval or rejection of infants’ attempts to make contact with the mother. Although our understanding of the neuroendocrine correlates of primate maternal behavior has grown substantially in the last two decades, very little is known about the mechanisms underlying these effects, e.g., the extent to which these mechanisms may involve changes in perception, emotion, or cognition. PMID:20888383

Saltzman, Wendy; Maestripieri, Dario

2010-01-01

338

The Effect of Maternal Depressive Symptomatology on Maternal Behaviors Associated With Child Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

National prevalence rates for depression among women are twofold compared with those of men, with women of childbearing age at greatest risk. Maternal depression not only negatively affects the health of the mother but may also influence the health and development of her offspring. This study examined the relationship between maternal depression and its influence on certain maternal behaviors associated

Jenn Leiferman

2002-01-01

339

Evidence from Maternity Leave Expansions of the Impact of Maternal Care on Early Child Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We study the impact of maternal care on early child development using an expansion in Canadian maternity leave entitlements. Following the leave expansion, mothers who took leave spent 48-58 percent more time not working in their children's first year of life. This extra maternal care primarily crowded out home-based care by unlicensed…

Baker, Michael; Milligan, Kevin

2010-01-01

340

Maternal characteristics, parenting quality, and child behavior problems.  

E-print Network

??This study examined maternal characteristics, parenting behaviors, and child behavior problems in 27 mothers and their 2-year-old children. Maternal personality, maternal parental stress, childrearing attitudes,… (more)

Creech, Amber L.

2009-01-01

341

A Dimensional Approach to Maternal Attachment State of Mind: Relations to Maternal Sensitivity and Maternal Autonomy Support  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to examine the developmental significance of the newly developed dimensional approach to attachment state of mind by investigating its capacity to predict individual differences in the quality of two caregiving behaviors--maternal sensitivity and maternal autonomy support--that are linked to numerous important child…

Whipple, Natasha; Bernier, Annie; Mageau, Genevieve A.

2011-01-01

342

Marathon Maternity Oral History Project  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To explore how birthing and maternity care are understood and valued in a rural community. Design Oral history research. Setting The rural community of Marathon, Ont, with a population of approximately 3500. Participants A purposive selection of mothers, grandmothers, nurses, physicians, and community leaders in the Marathon medical catchment area. Methods Interviews were conducted with a purposive sample, employing an oral history research methodology. Interviews were conducted non-anonymously in order to preserve the identity and personhood of participants. Interview transcripts were edited into short narratives. Oral histories offer perspectives and information not revealed in other quantitative or qualitative research methodologies. Narratives re-personalize and humanize medical research by offering researchers and practitioners the opportunity to bear witness to the personal stories affected through medical decision making. Main findings Eleven stand-alone narratives, published in this issue of Canadian Family Physician, form the project’s findings. Similar to a literary text or short story, they are intended for personal reflection and interpretation by the reader. Presenting the results of these interviews as narratives requires the reader to participate in the research exercise and take part in listening to these women’s voices. The project’s narratives will be accessible to readers from academic and non-academic backgrounds and will interest readers in medicine and allied health professions, medical humanities, community development, gender studies, social anthropology and history, and literature. Conclusion Sharing personal birthing experiences might inspire others to reevaluate and reconsider birthing practices and services in other communities. Where local maternity services are under threat, Marathon’s stories might contribute to understanding the meaning and challenges of local birthing, and the implications of losing maternity services in rural Canada. PMID:24452565

Orkin, Aaron; Newbery, Sarah

2014-01-01

343

Framing maternal morbidity: WHO scoping exercise  

PubMed Central

Background Maternal morbidity estimations are not based on well-documented methodologies and thus have limited validity for informing efforts to address the issue and improve maternal health. To fill this gap, maternal morbidity needs to be clearly defined, driving the development of tools and indicators to measure and monitor maternal health. This article describes the scoping exercise conducted by the World Health Organization’s Department of Reproductive of Health and Research (WHO/RHR), as an essential first step in this process. Methods A literature review was conducted to identify the range of definitions and conditions included in various studies of maternal morbidity with a special focus on the similarities and discrepancies of the definitions used across the studies. Furthermore a questionnaire was developed which included sections on key areas identified during the review and was sent out electronically to 130 international experts in the field of maternal health. Results Maternal morbidities have been categorized in a variety of ways based on the causes, types of complications, and/or timeline. Issues regarding the time frame, severity, identification and classification and demographics were identified as key areas in the literature that require further investigation to achieve consensus on a maternal morbidity definition. Fifty-five (N?=?55) individuals responded with completed questionnaires. Respondents’ views on the time frame for the postpartum period varied from 6 weeks to beyond one year postpartum, it was noted that time frame depended on the type of complication. The majority of respondents said maternal morbidity should comprise a continuum of severity, whereas the identification of the cases should use a mixed criteria employing multiple methods. Conclusions Significant discrepancy in literature and expert opinion exists concerning elements of a maternal morbidity definition. There is a clear need for a concrete definition that would allow for consistent measurement and monitoring of maternal morbidity across settings and time. PMID:24252359

2013-01-01

344

Understanding Global Trends in Maternal Mortality  

PubMed Central

CONTEXT Despite the fact that most maternal deaths are preventable, maternal mortality remains high in many developing countries. Target A of Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 5 calls for a three-quarters reduction in the maternal mortality ratio (MMR) between 1990 and 2015. METHODS We derived estimates of maternal mortality for 172 countries over the period 1990–2008. Trends in maternal mortality were estimated either directly from vital registration data or from a hierarchical or multilevel model, depending on the data available for a particular country. RESULTS The annual number of maternal deaths worldwide declined by 34% between 1990 and 2008, from approximately 546,000 to 358,000 deaths. The estimated MMR for the world as a whole also declined by 34% over this period, falling from 400 to 260 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births. Between 1990 and 2008, the majority of the global burden of maternal deaths shifted from Asia to Sub-Saharan Africa. Differential trends in fertility, the HIV/ AIDS epidemic and access to reproductive health are associated with the shift in the burden of maternal deaths from Asia to Sub-Saharan Africa. CONCLUSIONS Although the estimated annual rate of decline in the global MMR in 1990–2008 (2.3%) fell short of the level needed to meet the MDG 5 target, it was much faster than had been thought previously. Targeted efforts to improve access to quality maternal health care, as well as efforts to decrease unintended pregnancies through family planning, are necessary to further reduce the global burden of maternal mortality. PMID:23584466

Zureick-Brown, Sarah; Newby, Holly; Chou, Doris; Mizoguchi, Nobuko; Say, Lale; Suzuki, Emi; Wilmoth, John

2013-01-01

345

Response of regional brain glutamate transaminases of rat to aluminum in protein malnutrition  

PubMed Central

Background The mechanism of aluminum-induced neurotoxicity is not clear. The involvement of glutamate in the aluminium-induced neurocomplications has been suggested. Brain glutamate levels also found to be altered in protein malnutrition. Alterations in glutamate levels as well as glutamate-?-decarboxylase in different regions of rat brain has been reported in response to aluminum exposure. Thus the study of glutamate metabolising enzymes in different brain regions of rats maintained on either normal or restricted protein diet may be of importance for understanding the neurotoxicity properties of aluminium. Results Dietary protein restrictions does not have an significant impact on regional aluminum content of the brain. The interaction of aluminum intoxication and protein restriction is significant in the thalamic area and the midbrain-hippocampal region in cases of glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase. In the case of gluatmate pyruvate transaminase, this interaction is significant only in thalamic area. Conclusion The metabolism of amino acids, as indicated by activities of specific transaminases, of brain is altered in response to aluminum exposure. These alterations are region specific and are dependent on dietary protein intake or manipulation of the brain amino acid homeostasis. PMID:12197946

Nayak, Prasunpriya; Chatterjee, Ajay K

2002-01-01

346

Can Home Visitation Enhance Maternal Social Support?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the impacts of Healthy Start, a statewide, home visitation program, on the social support systems of 212 disadvantaged mothers in Oahu, Hawaii. Maternal support was assessed at the time these mothers gave birth and 12 months later with the Maternal Social Support Index. Comparisons of mothers randomly assigned to visited (n = 108) or nonvisited (n =

Karen McCurdy

2001-01-01

347

Maternal behavior of socially deprived Rhesus monkeys  

Microsoft Academic Search

The maternal behavior of 4 monkeys separated from their mothers at birth and denied opportunity to interact with other monkeys during the first 18 mo. of life is described and compared with the maternal behavior of 4 normal feral monkeys. The 4 socially deprived monkeys were grossly inadequate mothers, but the social development of the infants of these inadequate mothers

Bill Seay; Bruce K. Alexander; Harry F. Harlow

1964-01-01

348

Infant Communicative Behaviors and Maternal Responsiveness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: This study applies attachment and transactional theories in evaluating the dyadic interactions observed between a mother and her infant. Infant communication and maternal responsivity are highlighted as the medium for positive interaction. Objective: The impact of individualized maternal training on mother infant communicative…

DiCarlo, Cynthia F.; Onwujuba, Chinwe; Baumgartner, Jennifer I.

2014-01-01

349

Maternal health and the measurement trap  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on the contribution of measurement-related factors to the neglect of maternal health in resource allocation for programmes and in public health research. As the recent interest in maternal health has now progressed beyond the need for information primarily for the purpose of advocacy, measurement-related factors have emerged as powerful constraints on programme action. Three outstanding needs for

Wendy J. Graham; Oona M. R. Campbell

1992-01-01

350

Update and Review: Maternal Serum Screening  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maternal serum levels of alpha fetoprotein (AFP), human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), and unconjugated estriol (uE3) can be used to screen pregnancies for neural tube defects, Down syndrome, Trisomy 18, and pregnancy complications. This article summarizes the most recent information regarding maternal serum screening, including genetic counseling issues.

Kelly E. Ormond

1997-01-01

351

Autism Symptom Topography and Maternal Socioemotional Functioning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Researchers examining the relationship of autism "symptomatology" and maternal stress have defined symptomatology in terms of level of severity, frequency of occurrence, or symptom type. In the present study, the relationship of maternal perceptions of these dimensions, along with a fourth, symptom diversity, and negative and positive indices of…

Ekas, Naomi; Whitman, Thomas L.

2010-01-01

352

Maternal Labor Supply and Children's Cognitive Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes the relationship between maternal labor supply and children's cognitive development using a sample of three- and four-year-old children of female respondents from the 1986 National Longitudinal Survey Youth Cohort. Maternal employment is found to have a negative impact when it occurs during the first year of the child's life and a potentially offsetting positive effect when it

Francine D Blau; Adam J Grossberg

1992-01-01

353

Bangladesh reduces maternal mortality through policy change.  

PubMed

Only nine out of 75 countries are on track to achieve the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) target to reduce the maternal mortality ratio (MMR, maternal deaths per 100,000 live births) by three quarters between 1990 and 2015. PMID:25351063

2014-10-29

354

Maternal Corticosteroid Use and Hypospadias  

PubMed Central

Objective To explore whether women who reported corticosteroid use during pregnancy were more likely to deliver an infant with hypospadias than women who did not. Study design The analysis encompassed data on deliveries with an estimated due date between 1997 and 2004 from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, a large population-based, case-control study conducted in the United States. Included were 1165 cases of moderate to severe hypospadias and 3000 nonmalformed male controls. Results The mothers of 39 cases (3.3%) and 62 controls (2.1%) reported using a corticosteroid medication during the period extending from 4 weeks before conception to 14 weeks after conception. The odds ratio (OR) for any corticosteroid exposure versus no corticosteroid exposure was 1.6 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.1 to 2.5); after adjustment for maternal race/ethnicity, education, age, and study site, it was 1.3 (95% CI = 0.8 to 2.0). Analyses by route of administration and specific component suggest that elevated ORs occurred only for nasal spray/inhaled corticosteroids (OR = 1.5; 95% CI = 0.9 to 2.6). Conclusions Maternal use of corticosteroid medications was weakly associated with risk of hypospadias, but the association was negligible after adjustment for potential confounders. PMID:19394038

Carmichael, Suzan L.; Ma, Chen; Werler, Martha M.; Olney, Richard S.; Shaw, Gary M.

2009-01-01

355

Early maternal separation: a rodent model of depression and a prevailing human condition.  

PubMed

The early life of most mammals is spent in close contact with the mother, and for the neonate, early maternal separation is a traumatic event that, depending on various conditions, may shape its behavioral and neurochemical phenotype in adulthood. Studies on rodents demonstrated that a very brief separation followed by increased maternal care may positively affect the development of the offspring but that prolonged separation causes significant amounts of stress. The consequences of this stress (particularly the hyperreactivity of the HPA (hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal) axis are expressed in adulthood and persist for life. Maternal separation in rodents, particularly rats, was used as a model for various psychotic conditions, especially depression. The most popular separation procedure of a 3-h daily separation from the second to the 12th postpartum day yields a depression model of high construct and predictive validity. The results of studies on maternal separation in rats and monkeys prompt a discussion of the consequences of traditional procedures in the maternity wards of developed countries where attention is focused on the hygiene of the neonates and not on their psychological needs. This alternate focus results in a drastic limitation of mother-infant contact and prolonged periods of separation. It is tempting to speculate that differences in the course and severity of various mental disorders, which are usually less prevalent in underdeveloped countries than in developed countries (as noted by Kraepelin), may be related to different modes of infant care. Only recently has so-called kangaroo mother care (establishing mother-infant skin-to-skin contact immediately after birth) become popular in developed countries. In addition to its instant benefits for the neonates, this procedure may also be beneficial for the mental health of the offspring in adulthood. PMID:24552992

Vetulani, Jerzy

2013-01-01

356

Maternal dietary tryptophan deficiency alters cardiorespiratory control in rat pups  

PubMed Central

Malnutrition during pregnancy adversely affects postnatal forebrain development; its effect upon brain stem development is less certain. To evaluate the role of tryptophan [critical for serotonin (5-HT) synthesis] on brain stem 5-HT and the development of cardiorespiratory function, we fed dams a diet ?45% deficient in tryptophan during gestation and early postnatal life and studied cardiorespiratory variables in the developing pups. Deficient pups were of normal weight at postnatal day (P)5 but weighed less than control pups at P15 and P25 (P < 0.001) and had lower body temperatures at P15 (P < 0.001) and P25 (P < 0.05; females only). Oxygen consumption (V?o2) was unaffected. At P15, deficient pups had an altered breathing pattern and slower heart rates. At P25, they had significantly lower ventilation (V?e) and V?e-to-V?o2 ratios in both air and 7% CO2. The ventilatory response to CO2 (% increase in V?e/V?o2) was significantly increased at P5 (males) and reduced at P15 and P25 (males and females). Deficient pups had 41–56% less medullary 5-HT (P < 0.01) compared with control pups, without a difference in 5-HT neuronal number. These data indicate important interactions between nutrition, brain stem physiology, and age that are potentially relevant to understanding 5-HT deficiency in the sudden infant death syndrome. PMID:20966190

Penatti, Eliana M.; Barina, Alexis E.; Raju, Sharat; Li, Aihua; Kinney, Hannah C.; Commons, Kathryn G.

2011-01-01

357

Predicting Maternal Rat and Pup Exposures: How Different Are They?  

EPA Science Inventory

Risk and safety assessments for early life exposures to environmental chemicals or pharmaceuticals based on cross-species extrapolation would greatly benefit from information on chemical dosimetry in the young. Although relevant toxicity studies involve exposures during multiple ...

358

Predicting Maternal Rat and Pup Exposures: How Different are They?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Risk and safety assessments for early life exposures to environmental chemicals or pharmaceuticals based on cross- species extrapolation would greatly benefit from information on chemical dosimetry in the young. Although relevant toxicity studies involve exposures during multiple life stages, the mother's exposure dose is frequently used for extrapolation of rodent toxicity findings to humans and represents a substantial source of

Miyoung Yoon; Hugh A. Barton

2007-01-01

359

Sex-specific susceptibility to cocaine in rats with a history of prenatal stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Across species, maternal stress during prenatal life (prenatal stress [PS]) increases the expression of health complications in the developing offspring. While numerous reports indicate that male rats with a history of PS are vulnerable to psychiatric disease-like symptoms and drugs of abuse, comparable studies with females have been more limited. Here, the effects of PS in male and female rats

Mark B. Thomas; Ming Hu; Theresa M. Lee; Seema Bhatnagar; Jill B. Becker

2009-01-01

360

Effects of early rearing conditions on cognitive performance in prepubescent male and female rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interactions between a mother and her offspring during early postnatal life impact cognitive development in altricial species. The current study examined the influence of postnatal rearing conditions on subsequent cognitive functioning in male and female Long-Evans rats prior to puberty. Maternal conditions were manipulated by repeated separations of rat pups from their dams on postnatal days 2 though 14.

Kathryn A. Frankola; Arianna L. Flora; Amanda K. Torres; Elin M. Grissom; Stacy Overstreet; Gary P. Dohanich

2010-01-01

361

CELL NUMBER AND SIZE IN SELECTED ORGANS OF FETUSES OF RATS MALNOURISHED AND EXPOSED TO NITROFEN  

EPA Science Inventory

The effects of maternal exposure to nitrofen or protein-energy malnutrition on the number and sizes of cells in selected organs of the fetal rat have been studied. Pregnant rats were fed either an adequate (CON) or protein-energy deficient diet (PEM) throughout gestation. Materna...

362

Maternal caloric restriction partially rescues the deleterious effects of advanced maternal age on offspring  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY While many studies have focused on the detrimental effects of advanced maternal age and harmful prenatal environments on progeny, little is known about the role of beneficial non-Mendelian maternal inheritance on aging. Here we report the effects of maternal age and maternal caloric restriction (CR) on the lifespan and healthspan of offspring for a clonal culture of the monogonont rotifer Brachionus manjavacas. Mothers on CR regimens of chronic CR (CCR) or intermittent fasting (IF) had increased lifespan compared to mothers fed ad libitum (AL). With increasing maternal age, lifespan and fecundity of female offspring of AL fed mothers decreased significantly and lifespan of male offspring was unchanged, while body size of both male and female offspring increased. Maternal CR partially rescued these effects, increasing the mean lifespan of AL fed female offspring but not male offspring and increasing the fecundity of AL fed female offspring compared to offspring of mothers of the same age. Both maternal CR regimens decreased male offspring body size, but only maternal IF decreased body size of female offspring, while maternal CCR caused a slight increase. Understanding the genetic and biochemical basis of these different maternal effects on aging may guide effective interventions to improve healthspan and lifespan. PMID:24661622

Gribble, Kristin E.; Jarvis, George; Bock, Martha; Mark Welch, David B.

2014-01-01

363

Maternal Age at Holocaust Exposure and Maternal PTSD Independently Influence Urinary Cortisol Levels in Adult Offspring  

PubMed Central

Background: Parental traumatization has been associated with increased risk for the expression of psychopathology in offspring, and maternal posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) appears to increase the risk for the development of offspring PTSD. In this study, Holocaust-related maternal age of exposure and PTSD were evaluated for their association with offspring ambient cortisol and PTSD-associated symptom expression. Method: Ninety-five Holocaust offspring and Jewish comparison subjects received diagnostic and psychological evaluations, and 24?h urinary cortisol was assayed by RIA. Offspring completed the parental PTSD questionnaire to assess maternal PTSD status. Maternal Holocaust exposure was identified as having occurred in childhood, adolescence, or adulthood and examined in relation to offspring psychobiology. Results: Urinary cortisol levels did not differ for Holocaust offspring and comparison subjects but differed significantly in offspring based on maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD status. Increased maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD were each associated with lower urinary cortisol in offspring, but did not exhibit a significant interaction. In addition, offspring PTSD-associated symptom severity increased with maternal age at exposure and PTSD diagnosis. A regression analysis of correlates of offspring cortisol indicated that both maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD were significant predictors of lower offspring urinary cortisol, whereas childhood adversity and offspring PTSD symptoms were not. Conclusion: Offspring low cortisol and PTSD-associated symptom expression are related to maternal age of exposure, with the greatest effects associated with increased age at exposure. These effects are relatively independent of the negative consequences of being raised by a trauma survivor. These observations highlight the importance of maternal age of exposure in determining a psychobiology in offspring that is consistent with increased risk for stress-related pathology. PMID:25071719

Bader, Heather N.; Bierer, Linda M.; Lehrner, Amy; Makotkine, Iouri; Daskalakis, Nikolaos P.; Yehuda, Rachel

2014-01-01

364

Maternal Preeclampsia and Neonatal Outcomes  

PubMed Central

Preeclampsia is a multiorgan, heterogeneous disorder of pregnancy associated with significant maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. Optimal strategies in the care of the women with preeclampsia have not been fully elucidated, leaving physicians with incomplete data to guide their clinical decision making. Because preeclampsia is a progressive disorder, in some circumstances, delivery is needed to halt the progression to the benefit of the mother and fetus. However, the need for premature delivery has adverse effects on important neonatal outcomes not limited to the most premature infants. Late-preterm infants account for approximately two thirds of all preterm deliveries and are at significant risk for morbidity and mortality. Reviewed is the current literature in the diagnosis and obstetrical management of preeclampsia, the outcomes of late-preterm infants, and potential strategies to optimize fetal outcomes in pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia. PMID:21547086

Backes, Carl H.; Markham, Kara; Moorehead, Pamela; Cordero, Leandro; Nankervis, Craig A.; Giannone, Peter J.

2011-01-01

365

Mobilising financial resources for maternal health.  

PubMed

Coverage of cost-effective maternal health services remains poor due to insufficient supply and inadequate demand for these services among the poorest groups. Households pay too great a share of the costs of maternal health services, or do not seek care because they cannot afford the costs. Available evidence creates a strong case for removal of user fees and provision of universal coverage for pregnant women, particularly for delivery care. To be successful, governments must also replenish the income lost through the abolition of user fees. Where insurance schemes exist, maternal health care needs to be included in the benefits package, and careful design is needed to ensure uptake by the poorest people. Voucher schemes should be tested in low-income settings, and their costs and relative cost-effectiveness assessed. Further research is needed on methods to target financial assistance for transport and time costs. Current investment in maternal health is insufficient to meet the fifth Millennium Development Goal (MDG), and much greater resources are needed to scale up coverage of maternal health services and create demand. Existing global estimates are too crude to be of use for domestic planning, since resource requirements will vary; budgets need first to be developed at country-level. Donors need to increase financial contributions for maternal health in low-income countries to help fill the resource gap. Resource tracking at country and donor levels will help hold countries and donors to account for their commitments to achieving the maternal health MDG. PMID:17055948

Borghi, Jo; Ensor, Tim; Somanathan, Aparnaa; Lissner, Craig; Mills, Anne

2006-10-21

366

Transgenerational effects of maternal exposure to chemicals on the functional development of the brain in the offspring.  

PubMed

In order to prevent health risk from environmental chemicals, particularly for progeny, we have been performing a risk assessment for various chemicals including therapeutic agents. This paper reports the functional effects of maternal exposure to psychoactive drugs, anticancer drugs, or herbicides on the offspring of rats. Maternal exposure to imipramine in a dose equivalent to the therapeutic dose per unit body weight induced hyperthermic response to chlorpromazine in the male offspring, while normal control rats showed a marked hypothermia. Exposure to ethosuximide resulted in an increase in play fighting behavior in young offspring that was fostered by lactating normal mothers. Single exposures to nimustine or cisplatin, anticancer drugs, at a different gestational stage resulted in an acceleration of growth when exposed at the earlier stage of gestation. Moreover, cisplatin-exposed rats were emotionally unstable, showing a short latent time to the first line-crossing in an open-field during infantile period. The rats exposed to glufosinate ammonium, an herbicide, during the time of neurogenesis in the hippocampus showed a decrease in the wet-dog shakes response to kainic acid at six weeks of age. These results suggest that maternal exposure to chemicals during pregnancy induces a variety of functional abnormalities in the brain of the offspring dependent on the pharmacologic action of chemicals and the stage of gestation even with a single exposure. PMID:9498910

Fujii, T

1997-05-01

367

Maternal separation alters nerve growth factor and corticosterone levels but not the DNA methylation status of the exon 1 7 glucocorticoid receptor promoter region  

Microsoft Academic Search

Separating rat pups from their mothers during the early stages of life is an animal model commonly used to study the development\\u000a of psychiatric disorders such as anxiety and depression. The present study investigated how soon after the termination of\\u000a the maternal separation period behavioural and neuroendocrine abnormalities relevant to above-mentioned illnesses would manifest.\\u000a Sprague Dawley rat pups were subjected

W. M. U. Daniels; L. R. Fairbairn; G. van Tilburg; C. R. E. McEvoy; M. J. Zigmond; V. A. Russell; D. J. Stein

2009-01-01

368

Lessons from the confidential enquiry into maternal deaths, Malaysia.  

PubMed

Malaysia has successfully reduced maternal mortality through several efforts which, in the broad sense, include (i) the overall socio-economic development of the country; (ii) strengthened health services; and (iii) specific efforts and initiatives for the reduction of maternal mortality, one of which is the audit of maternal deaths by the confidential enquiry into maternal deaths. PMID:25236633

Ravichandran, J; Ravindran, J

2014-09-01

369

Maternal control of early mouse development  

PubMed Central

The hiatus between oocyte and embryonic gene transcription dictates a role for stored maternal factors in early mammalian development. Encoded by maternal-effect genes, these factors accumulate during oogenesis and enable the activation of the embryonic genome, the subsequent cleavage stages of embryogenesis and the initial establishment of embryonic cell lineages. Recent studies in mice have yielded new findings on the role of maternally provided proteins and multi-component complexes in preimplantation development. Nevertheless, significant gaps remain in our mechanistic understanding of the networks that regulate early mammalian embryogenesis, which provide an impetus and opportunities for future investigations. PMID:20179092

Li, Lei; Zheng, Ping; Dean, Jurrien

2010-01-01

370

Parsing the Construct of Maternal Insensitivity: Distinct Longitudinal Pathways Associated with Early Maternal Withdrawal  

PubMed Central

The current paper expands on Ainsworth’s seminal construct of maternal sensitivity by exploring the developmental pathways associated with one particular form of insensitivity, maternal withdrawal. Drawing on longitudinal data from infancy to age 20 in a high-risk cohort, we highlight how maternal withdrawal over the first eight years of life is associated with child caregiving behavior and with maternal role confusion, as well as with features of borderline and antisocial personality disorders. We also present evidence for the specificity of this pathway in relation to other aspects of maternal insensitivity and other aspects of child adaptation. To illuminate these pathways we both review recent published work and report new findings on the middle childhood and adolescent components of these trajectories. Finally, we consider the implications for assessment of maternal behavior in high-risk samples and indicate directions for productive future work. PMID:24299135

Lyons-Ruth, Karlen; Bureau, Jean-Francois; Easterbrooks, M. Ann; Obsuth, Ingrid; Hennighausen, Kate

2013-01-01

371

Sildenafil Citrate and Fetal Outcome in Pregnant Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine the effects of sildenafil citrate on fetal growth in maternal rats exposed to hypoxia. Methods: Timed pregnant rats were randomized to either hypoxia or control on gestational days (GD) 18–20, and received either sildenafil (45 mg\\/kg) orally every 12 h on GD 18–21 or an equal volume of sterile water. Fetal pups were retrieved by laparotomy on

Jerrie S. Refuerzo; Robert J. Sokol; Jacob V. Aranda; Mordechai Hallak; John W. Hotra; Michael Kruger; Yoram Sorokin

2006-01-01

372

The effect of maternal obesity on the offspring.  

PubMed

Maternal obesity is inextricably linked to adverse health outcomes for the mother and her children. The peripartum period is a critical period of risk. In this chapter, we examine the importance of maternal prepregnancy weight status, gestational weight gain, breastfeeding, and postpartum weight loss in relation to subsequent risk for maternal obesity and obesity in the offspring. Promoting optimal maternal weight during the preconception, pregnancy, and postpartum periods will provide lifelong benefits for maternal health and the health of her progeny. PMID:24936914

Williams, Christine B; Mackenzie, Kusaynyonon C; Gahagan, Sheila

2014-09-01

373

The Maternal to Zygotic Transition in Mammals  

PubMed Central

Prior to activation of the embryonic genome, the initiating events of mammalian development are under maternal control and include fertilization, the block to polyspermy and processing sperm DNA. Following gamete union, the transcriptionally inert sperm DNA is repackaged into the male pronucleus which fuses with the female pronucleus to form a 1-cell zygote. Embryonic transcription begins during the maternal to zygotic transfer of control in directing development. This transition occurs at species-specific times after one or several rounds of blastomere cleavage and is essential for normal development. However, even after activation of the embryonic genome, successful development relies on stored maternal components without which embryos fail to progress beyond initial cell divisions. Better understanding of the molecular basis of maternal to zygotic transition including fertilization, the activation of the embryonic genome and cleavage-stage development will provide insight into early human development that should translate into clinical applications for regenerative medicine and assisted reproductive technologies. PMID:23352575

Li, Lei; Lu, Xukun; Dean, Jurrien

2013-01-01

374

The maternal to zygotic transition in mammals.  

PubMed

Prior to activation of the embryonic genome, the initiating events of mammalian development are under maternal control and include fertilization, the block to polyspermy and processing sperm DNA. Following gamete union, the transcriptionally inert sperm DNA is repackaged into the male pronucleus which fuses with the female pronucleus to form a 1-cell zygote. Embryonic transcription begins during the maternal to zygotic transfer of control in directing development. This transition occurs at species-specific times after one or several rounds of blastomere cleavage and is essential for normal development. However, even after activation of the embryonic genome, successful development relies on stored maternal components without which embryos fail to progress beyond initial cell divisions. Better understanding of the molecular basis of maternal to zygotic transition including fertilization, the activation of the embryonic genome and cleavage-stage development will provide insight into early human development that should translate into clinical applications for regenerative medicine and assisted reproductive technologies. PMID:23352575

Li, Lei; Lu, Xukun; Dean, Jurrien

2013-10-01

375

Prenatal maternal stress programs infant stress regulation.  

E-print Network

and Infant Stress Regulation The results of this studyResults from animal models indicate that fetal exposure to both maternal stress andstress responses was examined using hierarchical linear growth curve modeling. Results—

Davis, Elysia Poggi; Glynn, Laura M; Waffarn, Feizal; Sandman, Curt A

2011-01-01

376

Maternity leaves and the Pregnancy Discrimination Act.  

PubMed

More than 50% of mothers in the United States work. An important issue facing working women is maternity leave and the Pregnancy Discrimination Act (PDA). The nurse should recognize the childbearing-related problems the working woman may encounter and initiate appropriate referrals. Understanding both maternity leaves and the Pregnancy Discrimination Act will enhance the nurse's ability to provide appropriate counseling and referral. PMID:6556373

Brucker, M C; Reedy, N J

1983-01-01

377

Maternal Immune Activation, Cytokines and Autism  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Normal pregnancy involves an elevated inflammatory state, both systemically in the mother and in the placenta. However, further\\u000a increases in inflammation, as with maternal infection, can enhance the risk of autism and schizophrenia in the offspring.\\u000a Animal studies show that maternal immune activation (MIA) increases inflammatory cytokines in the fetal environment, as well\\u000a as in the fetal brain. Since the

Paul H. Patterson; Wensi Xu; Stephen E. P. Smith; Benjamin E. Devarman

378

Maternal methadone dose and neonatal withdrawal  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine whether maternal methadone dosage correlates with neonatal withdrawal in a large heroin-addicted pregnant population.STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective review of all maternal\\/neonatal records of pregnancies that were maintained on methadone therapy in our institution was conducted. After in-hospital stabilization, women were given daily methadone therapy under direct surveillance, with liberal dosage increases

Vincenzo Berghella; Pearl J Lim; Mary K Hill; Jennifer Cherpes; Jennifer Chennat; Karol Kaltenbach

2003-01-01

379

Maternal Smoking during Pregnancy and Childhood Obesity  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recent cohort study suggested that maternal smoking during pregnancy might be a risk factor for childhood obesity. Data from the obligatory school entry health examination in six Bavarian (Germany) public health offices in 1999-2000 were used to assess the relation between maternal smoking during pregnancy and childhood obesity (n = 6,483 German children aged 5.00-6.99 years). A body mass

Rüdiger von Kries; André Michael Toschke; Berthold Koletzko; William Slikker

2002-01-01

380

Suppression of glial activation is involved in the protection of IL10 on maternal E. coli induced neonatal white matter injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

White matter damage (WMD) is an important cause of disability including cerebral palsy in preterm, low birth-weight infants. Maternal infection is now recognized as one of the risk factors for WMD. Previously we reported that intrauterine inoculation of Escherichia coli to pregnant rats resulted in WMD in offspring and interleukin-10 (IL-10) was protective against this damage. The objective of this

Yi Pang; Sheryl Rodts-Palenik; Zhengwei Cai; William A. Bennett; Philip G. Rhodes

2005-01-01

381

Exposure to Perfluorooctane Sulfonate during Pregnancy in Rat and Mouse. II: Postnatal Evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

survived for a longer period of time (8 -12 h). Over 95% of these animals died within 24 h. Approximately 50% of offspring died at 3 mg\\/kg for rat and 10 mg\\/kg for mouse. Cross-fostering the PFOS-exposed rat neonates (5 mg\\/kg) to control nursing dams failed to improve survival. Serum concentrations of PFOS in newborn rats mirrored the maternal administered

Christopher Lau; Julie R. Thibodeaux; Roger G. Hanson; John M. Rogers; Brian E. Grey; Mark E. Stanton; John L. Butenhoff; Lisa A. Stevenson

2003-01-01

382

Decay of maternal antibodies in broiler chickens.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine the decay rate of maternal antibodies against major broiler chicken pathogens. A total of 30 one-day-old broiler chicks were obtained from a commercial hatchery and reared in isolation. These chicks were retrieved from a parent flock that received a routine vaccination program. Chicks were bled at hatch and sequentially thereafter every 5 d through 30 d of age. Maternal antibody titers were measured by ELISA for avian encephalomyelitis (AEV), avian influenza virus (AIV), chicken anemia virus (CAV), infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV), Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG), Mycoplasma synoviae (MS), and reovirus (Reo). Maternal antibody titers for Newcastle disease virus (NDV) were measured using a hemagglutination inhibition test. Half-life estimates of maternal antibody titers were 5.3, 4.2, 7, 5.1, 3.9, 3.8, 4.9, 4.1, 6.3, and 4.7 d for AEV, AIV, CAV, IBDV, IBV, ILTV, MG, MS, NDV, and Reo, respectively. The statistical analysis revealed significant differences among half-lives of maternal antibody titers against certain pathogens. Furthermore, all maternal antibody titers were depleted by 10 d of age except for IBDV. PMID:23960115

Gharaibeh, Saad; Mahmoud, Kamel

2013-09-01

383

BIOLOGICALLY-BASED DOSE-RESPONSE MODELING IN DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICOLOGY: BIOCHEMICAL AND CELLULAR SEQUELAE OF 5-FLUOROURACIL EXPOSURE IN THE DEVELOPING RAT  

EPA Science Inventory

Mechanistically-based dose-response models for developmental toxicity require elucidation of biological events that intervene between maternal exposure and adverse developmental outcome. We examined some of the major events in the rat embryo following subcutaneous injection of 5-...

384

Assessment of maternal mortality in Tanzania.  

PubMed

The results from a prospective community survey, a sisterhood method survey, and a hospital survey were compared in order to ascertain a reliable and inexpensive method for estimating direct deaths from obstetric complications of pregnancy. The maternal mortality ratio was used to express risk of dying during pregnancy. The surveys were conducted in Kwimba District in Mwanza region of northwestern Tanzania: in August 1989 to March 1991 in the community study within the primary health care area of Sumve Hospital, which supplied data on maternal mortality between 1986 and 1990. The sisterhood survey was conducted in 2 villages in 1990, of which 1 village was included in the community survey. The village study included 447 women, of whom 421 remained in the survey and delivered 427 infants (415 live born); there was 1 maternal death. The sisterhood method engaged 2865 respondents and the lifetime risk of maternal death was estimated at 297 and the proportional maternal mortality rate was 13.9%. There were 82 maternal deaths and 589 deaths from all causes among sisters aged 15 years and older. 7526 women were included in the hospital survey, of which 7335 births were represented; there were 62 maternal deaths. The maternal mortality risk was 845 among hospital admissions. 69% of all maternal deaths were accounted for by direct causes. Most deaths were attributed to the top 5 worldwide causes: obstructed labor, puerperal sepsis, postpartum hemorrhage, complications of abortion, and preeclampsia. There were few reports of abortions and abortion-related mortality. Relapsing fever or Borrelia infection was an indirect cause of death common to the region and particularly hazardous to pregnant women. Many hospital deaths were emergency admissions. The conclusion was that the sisterhood method provided a better indication of the extent of maternal mortality within the community. Other advantages were the small sample and the speed, quickness, and low cost. Hospital data provided more detailed causes of death and substandard care factors. Community data would require a very large sample in order to achieve greater reliability. PMID:8018613

Walraven, G E; Mkanje, R J; van Roosmalen, J; van Dongen, P W; Dolmans, W M

1994-05-01

385

Teratology Studies on Lewisite and Sulfur Mustard Agents: Effects of Sulfur Mustard in Rats and Rabbits  

SciTech Connect

Sulfur mustard (HD) was administered to rats and rabbits by intragastric intubation. Rats were dosed daily from 6 through 15 days of gestation (dg) with 0. 0.5, 1.0 or 2.0 mg of HD/kg; rabbits were dosed with 0, 0.4, 0.6 or 0.8 mg/kg on 6 through 19 dg. Maternal animals were weighed periodically and, at necropsy, were examined for gross lesions of major organs and reproductive performance; live fetuses were weighed and examined for external, internal and skeletal defects. In rats, reductions in body weights were observed in maternal animals and their female fetuses at the lowest administered dose (0.5 mg/kg), but the incidence of fetal malformations was not increased. In rabbits the highest administered dose (0.8 mg/kg) induced maternal mortality and depressed body weight measures but did not affect fetal development. These results suggest that orally administered HD is not teratogenic in rats and rabbits since fetal effects were observed only at dose levels that induced frank maternal toxicity. Estimations of dose ranges for "no observable effects levels" in rats and rabbits, respectively, were: < 0.5 and < 0.4 mg/kg in maternal animals and < 0.5 and > 0.8 mg/kg in their fetuses.

Hackett, P. L.; Rommereim, R. L.; Burton, F. G.; Buschbom, R. L.; Sasser, L . B.

1987-09-30

386

The Relations among Maternal Depressive Disorder, Maternal Expressed Emotion, and Toddler Behavior Problems and Attachment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Direct and indirect relations among maternal depression, maternal Expressed Emotion (EE: Self- and Child-Criticism), child internalizing and externalizing symptoms, and child attachment were examined. Participants were mothers with depression (n = 130) and comparison mothers (n = 68) and their toddlers (M age = 20 mo.; 53% male). Assessments…

Gravener, Julie A.; Rogosch, Fred A.; Oshri, Assaf; Narayan, Angela J.; Cicchetti, Dante; Toth, Sheree L.

2012-01-01

387

Maternal Psychopathology and Infant Development at 18 Months: The Impact of Maternal Personality Disorder and Depression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: No previous longitudinal study has examined the impact of comorbid maternal personality disorder (PD) and depression on child development. We set out to examine whether maternal PD and depression assessed at 2 months post partum would be independently associated with adverse developmental outcomes at 18 months of age. Method: Women were…

Conroy, Susan; Pariante, Carmine M.; Marks, Maureen N.; Davies, Helen A.; Farrelly, Simone; Schacht, Robin; Moran, Paul

2012-01-01