Increasing Knowledge Increasing Knowledge 29
Fay, Noah
issues. #12;30 Increasing Knowledge Dr. Dave Meko reads trees like books history books, to be exact. The Writing in the Rings "A network of tree-ring sites can give a record of several hundred years of moisture
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Klemballa, Carolyn
In light of the persistent shortage of qualified mathematics and science teachers and the new teacher qualification provisions of the recently passed No Child Left Behind Act, This study tested the impact of an educational intervention designed to enhance interest in public school teaching careers among undergraduate students who were declared/intended majors in mathematics and/or natural science. Besides salary, research reveals content fear as the biggest roadblock to attracting mathematics and science teachers. Because of this, liberal arts majors in mathematics and science are a target pool of individuals to recruit into teaching. The researcher hypothesized that knowledge and attitudinal favorability would both increase after an intervention about teaching careers and that an increase in one variable would be associated with the other. Also, knowledge and attitudinal favorability would have a greater increase after a more intensive intervention than a less intensive intervention or no intervention. The researcher also hypothesized that if undergraduates were less decided in their career, lower classmen, and female, their attitudes toward the teaching profession would increase the most. One hundred eighty-nine college students, 73 males and 116 females, including 85 freshmen, 67 sophomores, 18 juniors and 19 seniors, at University A and University B were randomly assigned to a workshop, reading, or control group. The workshop group attended a workshop about the teaching profession. The reading group read articles with the same information presented in the workshop. The control group read unrelated articles. The findings from this study indicate that an intervention about teaching does significantly increase both knowledge and attitudinal favorability toward teaching (p < .01). A low significant correlation was found between knowledge and attitudinal favorability (p < .05). Findings also suggested that a more intensive intervention yields a higher increase in both knowledge and attitudinal favorability than a less intensive intervention (p < .01). Lastly, the level of career indecision, undergraduate class, and gender did not have a significant relationship with attitudinal favorability towards teaching. Based on these findings, the researcher made recommendations for future research and policy, in particular urging more communication between schools of education and liberal arts.
Transfer of Mathematical Knowledge: Series
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Akgun, Levent; Isik, Cemalettin; Tatar, Enver; Isleyen, Tevfik; Soylu, Yasin
2012-01-01
The aim of this study is to explain students' ability to transfer their knowledge about mathematical series to the problems that they encounter. The data of the study were obtained by using two different tests, namely "Problem Solving Test (PST)" and "Series Character Identification Test (SCT)" which were developed by the researchers. The study…
Mathematical knowledge: a case study in empirical philosophy of mathematics
Amsterdam, University of
Mathematical knowledge: a case study in empirical philosophy of mathematics Benedikt LÂ¨owe1 for the philosopher of mathematics who takes mathematical practice seriously: Empirical Philosophy of Mathematics) to evaluate empirical questions connected to or derived from philosophical positions about mathematics
A Tough Nut for Mathematical Knowledge Management
Kerber, Manfred
A Tough Nut for Mathematical Knowledge Management Manfred Kerber1 and Martin Pollet2 1 School formalization entails another. The latter question is a tough nut for mathematical knowledge management systems was mastered by different proof procedures, it is still a challenge for mathematical knowledge management
A Tough Nut for Mathematical Knowledge Management
Kerber, Manfred
A Tough Nut for Mathematical Knowledge Management Manfred Kerber 1 and Martin Pollet 2 1 School formalization entails another. The latter question is a tough nut for mathematical knowledge management systems was mastered by di#erent proof procedures, it is still a challenge for mathematical knowledge management. In Mc
Pedagogical Content Knowledge and Content Knowledge of Secondary Mathematics Teachers
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Krauss, Stefan; Brunner, Martin; Kunter, Mareike; Baumert, Jurgen; Neubrand, Michael; Blum, Werner; Jordan, Alexander
2008-01-01
Drawing on the work of L. S. Shulman (1986), the authors present a conceptualization of the pedagogical content knowledge and content knowledge of secondary-level mathematics teachers. They describe the theory-based construction of tests to assess these knowledge categories and the implementation of these tests in a sample of German mathematics…
A language for mathematical knowledge management
Spirtes, Peter
A language for mathematical knowledge management Steven Kieffer1 , Jeremy Avigad2 , and Harvey of digital means of storing, communicating, accessing, and manipulating mathematical knowledge, it becomes important to develop appro- priate formal languages for the representation of such knowledge. But the scope
Mathematics Teachers' Knowledge Base: Preliminary Results
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Harel, Guershon; Lim, Kien H.
2004-01-01
Student learning depends on the teacher's actions, which are, in turn, dependent on the teacher's knowledge base--defined here by three components: knowledge of mathematics content, knowledge of student epistemology, and knowledge of pedagogy. The purpose of this study is to construct models for teachers' knowledge base and for their development…
Public knowledge about AIDS increasing.
Campbell, M J; Waters, W E
1987-04-01
In response to concern over the perceived limited effectiveness of Department of Health and Social Security (UK) advertising campaigns to inform the public of the basic facts of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS), a prospective questionnaire study was undertaken in Southampton, England to test the effectiveness of government education prior to a January, 1987 government television/leaflet advertising campaign. 300 questionnaires about AIDS were mailed in December of 1986 to a sample drawn from electoral rolls. The response rate was 61%. Most of the questions were drawn from material covered in the campaign. The results seemed to indicate a small overall increase in knowledge about AIDS. Some changes from a June survey were noted, e.g.: more people were aware that AIDS is a virus for which there is no cure and that it is not readily transmitted by sharing washing, eating or drinking utensils; more people believed that the statement that women are at greater risk for catching AIDS is false. Respondents were generally favorable to the government's continued use of television, even with explicit language, and to its use of the schools, for AIDS education. Many were not aware of the dangers to intravenous drug users or of the symptoms of AIDS. Other surveys have shown an increasing knowledge of AIDS dangers. It is possible that television coverage of the problem will continue to be necessary, in order that less literate populations be reached. Further AIDS health education in general is needed. PMID:3105789
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Capraro, Robert M.; Capraro, Mary Margaret; Parker, Dawn; Kulm, Gerald; Raulerson, Tammy
2005-01-01
This paper outlines the nexus between mathematics content knowledge and pedagogical knowledge in developing pedagogical content knowledge. Increasing expectations about what students should know and be able to do, breakthroughs in research on how children learn, and the increasing diversity of the student population have put significant pressure…
Can Mathematics Students Be Successful Knowledge Engineers?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kadijevich, Djordje
1998-01-01
Describes a study of high school students that investigated the kind of knowledge bases mathematics students can develop and the difficulties that may appear. Discusses knowledge-base development within LISD (Learning through Intelligent Software Development), an approach to teaching and learning mathematical problem solving, specifically word…
Elementary Mathematics Teachers' Knowledge of Equity Pedagogy
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jackson, Christa
2013-01-01
Currently, mathematics instruction in U.S. classrooms is far from achieving equity for African American students. This qualitative study reports the results of eight successful elementary mathematics teachers' knowledge of equity pedagogy, specifically their knowledge of culturally relevant pedagogy, cultural competence, and critical…
Developing Mathematical Content Knowledge for Teaching Elementary School Mathematics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Thanheiser, Eva; Browning, Christine A.; Moss, Meg; Watanabe, Tad; Garza-Kling, Gina
2010-01-01
In this paper the authors present three design principles they use to develop preservice teachers' mathematical content knowledge for teaching in their mathematics content and/or methods courses: (1) building on currently held conceptions, (2) modeling teaching for understanding, (3) focusing on connections between content knowledge and other…
Connected Knowledge in Science and Mathematics Education
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Zohar, Anat
2006-01-01
While the traditional meaning of connected knowledge is valuable in some school subjects, it does not address the main activities of knowledge acquisition in subjects such as physics and mathematics. The goal of this article is to analyze the relationships between the concepts "learning for understanding" and "connected knowledge", a central theme…
Didactics and History of Mathematics: Knowledge and Self-Knowledge
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fried, Michael N.
2007-01-01
The basic assumption of this paper is that mathematics and history of mathematics are both forms of knowledge and, therefore, represent different ways of knowing. This was also the basic assumption of Fried (2001) who maintained that these ways of knowing imply different conceptual and methodological commitments, which, in turn, lead to a conflict…
Considering Indigenous Knowledges and Mathematics Curriculum
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sterenberg, Gladys
2013-01-01
Across Canada, significant program changes in school mathematics have been made that encourage teachers to consider Aboriginal perspectives. In this article, I investigate one Aboriginal teacher's approaches to integrating Indigenous knowledges and the mandated mathematics curriculum in a Blackfoot First Nation school. Using a framework that…
Preservice Secondary Mathematics Teachers' Knowledge of Students
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kilic, Hulya
2011-01-01
The aim of this paper is to present the nature of preservice secondary mathematics teachers' knowledge of students as emerged from a study investigating the development of their pedagogical content knowledge in a methods course and its associated field experience. Six preservice teachers participated in the study and the data were collected in the…
Emergence of Mathematical Knowledge Structures. Introspection
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Stehlikova, Nada
2003-01-01
In the study, a part of longitudinal research focused on the emergence of mathematical knowledge structures in a learner's mind is presented. It concentrates on the analysis of introspective data gained from the author's study of a non-standard arithmetic structure in terms of the model of abstraction in context (Hershkowitz, Schwarz and Dreyfus).…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alpaslan, Mustafa; I??ksal, Mine; Haser, Çi?dem
2013-10-01
This study examined pre-service mathematics teachers' knowledge of history of mathematics and their attitudes and beliefs towards using history of mathematics in mathematics education based on year level in teacher education program and gender. The sample included 1,593 freshman, sophomore, junior, and senior pre-service middle school (grades 4-8) mathematics teachers from nine universities in Turkey. Data were collected through Knowledge of History of Mathematics Test and Attitudes and Beliefs towards the Use of History of Mathematics in Mathematics Education Questionnaire. Results indicate that pre-service teachers have moderate knowledge of history of mathematics and positive attitudes and beliefs towards using history of mathematics. Their knowledge scores increase as the year level in teacher education program advanced. Males' knowledge scores are significantly higher than females' scores in the first 2 years. This situation reverses in the last 2 years, but it is not statistically significant. Pre-service teachers have more positive attitudes and availing beliefs towards using history of mathematics as they progress in their teacher education program. Females have greater attitudes and beliefs mean scores than males in each of the years. The results indicate that the teacher education program may have enhanced the pre-service teachers' knowledge of history of mathematics by related courses. However, the moderate knowledge scores indicate that there is a need for revision of these courses. The pre-service teachers' positive attitudes and beliefs towards using history of mathematics stress the importance of teacher education program in order to prepare them for implementing this alternative strategy in the future.
Identifying the borders of mathematical knowledge
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nascimento Silva, Filipi; Travençolo, Bruno A. N.; Viana, Matheus P.; da Fontoura Costa, Luciano
2010-08-01
Based on a divide and conquer approach, knowledge about nature has been organized into a set of interrelated facts, allowing a natural representation in terms of graphs: each 'chunk' of knowledge corresponds to a node, while relationships between such chunks are expressed as edges. This organization becomes particularly clear in the case of mathematical theorems, with their intense cross-implications and relationships. We have derived a web of mathematical theorems from Wikipedia and, thanks to the powerful concept of entropy, identified its more central and frontier elements. Our results also suggest that the central nodes are the oldest theorems, while the frontier nodes are those recently added to the network. The network communities have also been identified, allowing further insights about the organization of this network, such as its highly modular structure.
Views of Content and Pedagogical Knowledges for Teaching Mathematics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Piccolo, Diana
2008-01-01
Multiple views have been presented on how mathematical content knowledge should be taught in order to ensure quality instruction in the classroom. However, the ability to teach mathematics content is influenced by general pedagogy, pedagogical content knowledge and mathematical content knowledge. Nevertheless, all pedagogical competencies and…
Integrating pedagogical content knowledge and pedagogical/psychological knowledge in mathematics
Harr, Nora; Eichler, Andreas; Renkl, Alexander
2014-01-01
In teacher education at universities, general pedagogical and psychological principles are often treated separately from subject matter knowledge and therefore run the risk of not being applied in the teaching subject. In an experimental study (N = 60 mathematics student teachers) we investigated the effects of providing aspects of general pedagogical/psychological knowledge (PPK) and pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) in an integrated or separated way. In both conditions (“integrated” vs. “separated”), participants individually worked on computer-based learning environments addressing the same topic: use and handling of multiple external representations, a central issue in mathematics. We experimentally varied whether PPK aspects and PCK aspects were treated integrated or apart from one another. As expected, the integrated condition led to greater application of pedagogical/psychological aspects and an increase in applying both knowledge types simultaneously compared to the separated condition. Overall, our findings indicate beneficial effects of an integrated design in teacher education. PMID:25191300
Knowledge concerning the mathematical horizon: a close view
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guberman, Raisa; Gorev, Dvora
2015-06-01
The main objective of this study is to identify components of teachers' mathematical knowledge for teaching, associated with the knowledge of mathematical horizon (KMH) in order to describe this type of knowledge from the viewpoint of elementary school mathematics teachers. The research population of this study consisted of 118 elementary school mathematics teachers who responded to an open-ended questionnaire. Findings of this study illustrate that KMH can be considered as a separate category according to teachers' voice. An analysis of teachers' utterances resulted in three KMH characteristics: insight of subject matter, mathematical connections, and understanding of meta-mathematics.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Burke, Margaret Meg Kathleen
2013-01-01
The research indicated effective mathematics teaching to be more complex than assuming the best predictor of student achievement in mathematics is the mathematical content knowledge of a teacher. This dissertation took a novel approach to addressing the idea of what it means to examine how a teacher's knowledge of mathematics impacts student…
Slowing presentation speed increases illusions of knowledge.
Fazio, Lisa K; Marsh, Elizabeth J
2008-02-01
Prior research on false memories has shown that suggestibility is often reduced when the presentation rate is slowed enough to allow monitoring. We examined whether slowing presentation speed would reduce factual errors learned from fictional stories. Would subjects use the extra time to detect the errors in the stories, reducing reproduction of these errors on a later test? Surprisingly, slowing presentation speed increased the production of story errors on a later general knowledge test. Instructing the reader to mark whether each sentence contained an error, however, did decrease suggestibility. Readers appear to passively accept information presented in stories and need a constant reminder to monitor for errors. These results highlight differences between typical episodic false memories and illusions of knowledge (such as learning from fiction). Manipulations that reduce suggestibility for episodic false memories do not always reduce suggestibility for illusions of knowledge. PMID:18605500
Requirements for Building up Large Mathematical Knowledge Bases
Kerber, Manfred
Requirements for Building up Large Mathematical Knowledge Bases Manfred Kerber 1 Abstract tency of mathematical knowledge bases cannot be proved in general, but it is possible to restrict and theorems are proved to be consequences. In order to build up large knowledge bases, different formalisms
SWiM -- A Semantic Wiki for Mathematical Knowledge Management
Lange, Christoph
2010-01-01
SWiM is a semantic wiki for collaboratively building, editing and browsing mathematical knowledge represented in the domain-specific structural semantic markup language OMDoc. It motivates users to contribute to collections of mathematical knowledge by instantly sharing the benefits of knowledge-powered services with them. SWiM is currently being used for authoring content dictionaries, i. e. collections of uniquely identified mathematical symbols, and prepared for managing a large-scale proof formalisation effort.
Prentice Starkey; Alice Klein; Ann Wakeley
2004-01-01
There is growing evidence that socioeconomic (SES)-related differences in mathematical knowledge begin in early childhood, because young children from economically disadvantaged families receive less support for mathematical development than their middle-class peers receive. A pre-kindergarten mathematics intervention, including a pre-kindergarten mathematics curriculum, was developed and implemented in public and private preschools serving low- and middle-income families. Mathematical knowledge of intervention
ONTIC: A Knowledge Representation System for Mathematics
McAllester, David Allen
1987-07-01
Ontic is an interactive system for developing and verifying mathematics. Ontic's verification mechanism is capable of automatically finding and applying information from a library containing hundreds of mathematical ...
Building Mathematical Knowledge in an Authentic Mobile Phone Environment
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Daher, Wajeeh
2010-01-01
Although many researchers have examined knowledge building in traditional settings and distance learning, few have examined middle school students' building of mathematical knowledge using mobile phones. The present study uses two well-known models of knowledge building to carry out the examination: the interactive analysis model of knowledge…
Prospective Middle Grade Mathematics Teachers' Knowledge of Algebra for Teaching
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Huang, Rongjin; Kulm, Gerald
2012-01-01
This study examined prospective middle grade mathematics teachers' knowledge of algebra for teaching with a focus on knowledge for teaching the concept of function. 115 prospective teachers from an interdisciplinary program for mathematics and science middle teacher preparation at a large public university in the USA participated in a survey. It…
The Framing Discussion: Connecting Student Experience with Mathematical Knowledge
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Henning, John E.; Balong, Megan
2011-01-01
This article introduces the framing discussion, an informal discussion of a mathematical problem that takes place at the beginning of a lesson or unit. The purpose of the framing discussion is to assess student knowledge, motivate student interest, and to serve as a basis for guiding students to more formal mathematical knowledge. The article…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kwiatkowski-Egizio, Erica
2013-01-01
The two research questions that guided this study were: (1) How do preservice teachers develop mathematical knowledge for teaching during a coordinated math methods course and field experience? and (2) What types of portfolio tasks lend themselves to documenting mathematical knowledge in teaching? Six, female, elementary (K-8) teacher candidates…
The Microevolution of Mathematical Knowledge: The Case of Randomness.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pratt, Dave; Noss, Richard
2002-01-01
Explores the growth of mathematical knowledge and the relationship between abstraction and context. Builds on work to construct a viable model of the micro-evolution of mathematical knowledge in context whose central feature is the visibility of its mechanisms. Illustrates a case study of 10-11-year-old children's construction of meanings for…
Elementary Teachers' Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching Prerequisite Algebra Concepts
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Welder, Rachael M.; Simonsen, Linda M.
2011-01-01
The current study investigated the effects of an undergraduate mathematics content course for pre-service elementary teachers. The participants' content knowledge was quantitatively measured using an instrument comprised of items from the Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching Measures (Hill, Schilling, & Ball, 2004). Using a one-group…
Contrasting Knowledge for Elementary and Secondary Mathematics Teaching
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rowland, Tim
2012-01-01
This paper describes and analyses two mathematics lessons, one with very young pupils, about subtraction, the other for lower secondary school pupils, about gradients [slopes] and graphs. The focus of the analysis is on teacher knowledge, and on the fundamental mathematical and mathematics-pedagogical prerequisites that underpin teaching these…
The Cognitive Blending of Mathematics and Physics Knowledge
Thomas J. Bing; Edward F. Redish
2007-01-01
Numbers, variables, and equations are used differently in a physics class than in a pure mathematics class. In physics, these symbols not only obey formal mathematical rules but also carry physical ideas and relations. This paper focuses on modeling how this combination of physical and mathematical knowledge is constructed. The cognitive blending framework highlights both the different ways this combination
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Zazkis, Rina; Zazkis, Dov
2011-01-01
Our study investigates perspectives of mathematics teacher educators related to the usage of their mathematical knowledge in teaching "Methods of Teaching Elementary Mathematics" courses. Five mathematics teacher educators, all with experience in teaching methods courses for prospective elementary school teachers, participated in this study. In a…
SWiM - A Semantic Wiki for Mathematical Knowledge Management
Christoph Lange
2008-01-01
SWiM is a semantic wiki for collaboratively building, edit- ing and browsing mathematical knowledge represented in the domain- specific structural semantic markup language OMDoc. It motivates users to contribute to collections of mathematical knowledge by instantly shar- ing the benefits of knowledge-powered services with them. SWiM is cur- rently being used for authoring content dictionaries, i.e. collections of uniquely identified
How Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching May Profit from the Study of History of Mathematics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mosvold, Reidar; Jakobsen, Arne; Jankvist, Uffe Thomas
2013-07-01
In this theoretical article, we aim at theorizing the old statement that mathematics teachers might profit from studying the history of mathematics. We do this by drawing upon the theoretical framework of mathematical knowledge for teaching (MKT). A selection of international studies on the history and pedagogy of mathematics is used as starting points for discussing how the different domains of teachers' MKT—to a larger or smaller degree—can profit from the history of mathematics.
The Transition from Informal to Formal Mathematical Knowledge: Mediation by Numeral Knowledge
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Purpura, David J.; Baroody, Arthur J.; Lonigan, Christopher J.
2013-01-01
The purpose of the present study was to determine if numeral knowledge--the ability to identify Arabic numerals and connect Arabic numerals to their respective quantities--mediates the relation between informal and formal mathematical knowledge. A total of 206 3- to 5-year-old preschool children were assessed on 6 informal mathematics tasks and 2…
Mathematical Ability Relies on Knowledge, Too
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sweller, John; Clark, Richard E.; Kirschner, Paul A.
2011-01-01
Recent "reform" curricula both ignore the absence of supporting data and completely misunderstand the role of problem solving in cognition. If, the argument goes, teachers are not really teaching people mathematics but rather are teaching them some form of general problem solving, then mathematical content can be reduced in importance. According…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hartman, David R.
2010-01-01
This study offers an analysis of the learning of practicing teachers as they acquire a deeper knowledge of mathematics. While some professional developers have shifted part of their focus to helping practicing teachers acquire a deeper knowledge of mathematics (e.g., Stein & Silver, 1996), the results from studies often describe what translates…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Basitere, Moses; Ivala, Eunice
2015-01-01
This paper reports on a study carried out at a University of Technology, South Africa, aimed at identifying the existence of the mathematical knowledge gap and evaluating the intervention designed to bridge the knowledge gap amongst students studying first year mathematics at the Chemical Engineering Extended Curriculum Program (ECP). In this…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Van Harpen, Xianwei Y.; Presmeg, Norma C.
2013-01-01
The importance of students' problem-posing abilities in mathematics has been emphasized in the K-12 curricula in the USA and China. There are claims that problem-posing activities are helpful in developing creative approaches to mathematics. At the same time, there are also claims that students' mathematical content knowledge could be highly…
Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge of Secondary Mathematics Teachers
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Handal, Boris; Campbell, Chris; Cavanagh, Michael; Petocz, Peter; Kelly, Nick
2013-01-01
The integration of technology, pedagogy, and content in the teaching of secondary mathematics was explored among 280 secondary mathematics teachers in the State of New South Wales, Australia. The study adopted the technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPCK) model through the administration of a 30-item instrument called TPCK-M. The…
Peer review and knowledge by testimony in mathematics
Koolen, Marijn
Peer review and knowledge by testimony in mathematics Christian Geist1 , Benedikt L¨owe1,2,3 , Bart Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Brussels, Belgium Abstract The peer review process has been the topic of many the process of peer review. Is mathematical peer review different from peer review in other disciplines
Interconnections of Knowledge and Beliefs in Teaching Mathematics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Holm, Jennifer; Kajander, Ann
2012-01-01
As part of a 5-year project that examined teachers' knowledge and beliefs about mathematics and teaching mathematics, interviews were conducted with preservice elementary teachers during their certification year. The transcripts of five of these sets of pretest/posttest interviews were chosen as illustrative of the significant challenges that…
Toward a Framework for the Development of Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Silverman, Jason; Thompson, Patrick W.
2008-01-01
Shulman (1986, 1987) coined the term "pedagogical content knowledge" (PCK) to address what at that time had become increasingly evident--that content knowledge itself was not sufficient for teachers to be successful. Throughout the past two decades, researchers within the field of mathematics teacher education have been expanding the notion of PCK…
Active learning increases student performance in science, engineering, and mathematics
Hutcheon, James M.
Active learning increases student performance in science, engineering, and mathematics Scott science, technology, engineer- ing, and mathematics (STEM) courses under traditional lecturing versus impact student performance in un- dergraduate courses across the science, technology, engineering
Exploring the Mathematical Knowledge Needed for Teaching Teachers
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Castro Superfine, Alison; Li, Wenjuan
2014-01-01
The purpose of this study is to explore the knowledge demands of teacher educators as they teach disciplinary content to preservice elementary teachers, specifically in mathematics, and to understand how such knowledge is different from that used by K-12 teachers. Drawing from a database including teaching and learning artifacts from five…
Exploring Kindergarten Teachers' Pedagogical Content Knowledge of Mathematics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lee, Joohi
2010-01-01
The purpose of this study was to assess 81 kindergarten teachers' pedagogical content knowledge of mathematics on six subcategory areas such as number sense, pattern, ordering, shapes, spatial sense, and comparison. The data showed participants possessed a higher level of pedagogical content knowledge of "number sense" (M = 89.12) compared to…
Preservice Teachers' Subject Matter Knowledge of Mathematics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Menon, Ramakrishnan
2009-01-01
Sixty four preservice teachers taking a mathematics methods class for middle schools were given 3 math problems: multiply a three digit number by a two digit number; divide a whole number by a fraction; and compare the volume of two cylinders made in different ways from the same rectangular sheet. They were to a) solve them, explaining their…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Alpaslan, Mustafa; Isiksal, Mine; Haser, Çigdem
2014-01-01
This study examined pre-service mathematics teachers' knowledge of history of mathematics and their attitudes and beliefs towards using history of mathematics in mathematics education based on year level in teacher education program and gender. The sample included 1,593 freshman, sophomore, junior, and senior pre-service middle school (grades…
Spagnolo, Filippo
Indigenous Mathematical Knowledge at South African Cultural Villages: Opportunities for Integration and basket makers, and many other laborious and creative African men and women alike. Both men and women
Learning and Teaching Engineering Mathematics for the Knowledge Society
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Booth, S.
2008-01-01
This paper addresses the issue of teaching and learning engineering mathematics in order to support a future of life-long learning in the knowledge society, based on a form of understanding that goes beyond facts, theorems and algorithms. Drawing on three research studies, the importance is shown of students' experience of reflection on study,…
Measuring Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching Fractions with Drawn Quantities
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Izsak, Andrew; Jacobson, Erik; de Araujo, Zandra; Orrill, Chandra Hawley
2012-01-01
Researchers have recently used traditional item response theory (IRT) models to measure mathematical knowledge for teaching (MKT). Some studies (e.g., Hill, 2007; Izsak, Orrill, Cohen, & Brown, 2010), however, have reported subgroups when measuring middle-grades teachers' MKT, and such groups violate a key assumption of IRT models. This study…
What Knowledge Is Shaping Teacher Preparation in Early Childhood Mathematics?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Parks, Amy Noelle; Wager, Anita A.
2015-01-01
This article examines the bodies of knowledge that influence and inform the teaching of mathematics methods courses for preservice early childhood teachers, focusing on the U.S. context. In particular, the article reports on an analysis of scholarship published over the last 20 years in four journals (two focused on early childhood education and…
The Mathematical Content Knowledge of Prospective Teachers in Iceland
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Johannsdottir, Bjorg
2013-01-01
This study focused on the mathematical content knowledge of prospective teachers in Iceland. The sample was 38 students in the School of Education at the University of Iceland, both graduate and undergraduate students. All of the participants in the study completed a questionnaire survey and 10 were interviewed. The choice of ways to measure the…
The Transfer of Knowledge from Physics and Mathematics to Engineering Applications
Roman Ya. Kezerashvili; Candido Cabo; Djafar K. Mynbaev
2007-08-20
The objective of this paper is to describe a development of an innovative approach to enable students studying science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) to apply the concepts learned in physics and mathematics to engineering problem-solving challenges. Our goal is to facilitate students transfer of knowledge from theory to engineering applications, thereby increasing student academic performance, retention, persistence, and graduation. To achieve the goal we are creating a virtual community of students and faculty as a vehicle for promoting the transfer of knowledge using e-learning and e-teaching mechanisms.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Subramaniam, Karthigeyan
2014-01-01
Prospective secondary mathematics teachers' pedagogical knowledge for teaching the estimation of length measurements was investigated by examining their personal benchmarks for measurement estimation. Benchmarks for measurement estimation are the meaningful representations of units that serve to increase one's understanding of…
The Effective Mathematics Department: Adding Value and Increasing Participation?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Noyes, Andrew
2013-01-01
Given the commonly accepted view that having a mathematically well-educated populace is strategically important, there is considerable international interest in raising attainment, and increasing participation, in post-compulsory mathematics education. In this article, multilevel models are developed with the use of datasets from the UK Department…
Elementary school quality, the mathematics curriculum and the role of local knowledge
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Balfanz, Robert
1990-03-01
This article uses data from several elementary school classrooms in Chicago on how students learn to calculate, and reviews similar data from a number of developing countries to examine the strengths and limitations of using the mathematical knowledge which students develop on their own outside of formal schooling to increase the amount, range and power of mathematical knowledge which is acquired through formal schooling. In so doing it attempts to reconcile the views of those who believe that the key to improving elementary school quality lies in improving the technology of instruction and those who believe that it lies in a deeper understanding of the mental life of children. It concludes by arguing that the quality of elementary schooling can be improved through skilled management of the environmentally acquired knowledge which students bring to instruction, if this knowledge is transformed through pedagogic and curricular interventions into a set of portable intellectual skills.
A Review of Mathematical Knowledge Jacques Carette and William M. Farmer
Farmer, William M.
of MKM, and in sec- tion 3, we review the history of "mathematical knowledge management", as a survey who teach and learn mathematics; publish- ers who offer mathematical textbooks and disseminate newA Review of Mathematical Knowledge Management Jacques Carette and William M. Farmer Department
A Review of Mathematical Knowledge Jacques Carette and William M. Farmer
Carette, Jacques
A Review of Mathematical Knowledge Management Jacques Carette and William M. Farmer Department and Olga Caprotti organized the First Inter- national Workshop on Mathematical Knowledge Management [6, 7 the field of Mathematical Knowledge Management (MKM)1 and was the first in a se- ries of international [6, 7
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Speer, Natasha M.; King, Karen D.; Howell, Heather
2015-01-01
The construct "mathematical knowledge for teaching" (MKT) has received considerable attention in the mathematics education community in recent years. The development and refinement of the MKT construct, including the components of common content knowledge (CCK) and specialized content knowledge (SCK), came from research into elementary…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ernest, Paul, Ed.
This book illustrates the breadth of theoretical and philosophical perspectives that can be brought to bear on mathematics and education. Part 1, "Constructivism and the Learning of Mathematics," contains the following chapters: (1) "A Radical Constructivist View of Basic Mathematical Concepts" (E. von Glasersfeld); (2) "Interaction and Children's…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wilkie, Karina J.
2015-08-01
A key aspect of learning algebra in the middle years of schooling is exploring the functional relationship between two variables: noticing and generalising the relationship, and expressing it mathematically. This article describes research on the professional learning of upper primary school teachers for developing their students' functional thinking through pattern generalisation. This aspect of algebra learning has been explicitly brought to the attention of upper primary teachers in the recently introduced Australian curriculum. Ten practising teachers participated over 1 year in a design-based research project involving a sequence of geometric pattern generalisation lessons with their classes. Initial and final survey responses and teachers' interactions in regular meetings and lessons were analysed from cognitive and situated perspectives on professional learning, using a theoretical model for the different types of knowledge needed for teaching mathematics. The teachers demonstrated an increase in certain aspects of their mathematical knowledge for teaching algebra as well as some residual issues. Implications for the professional learning of practising and pre-service teachers to develop their mathematics knowledge for teaching functional thinking, and challenges with operationalising knowledge categories for field-based research are presented.
Increasing burn prevention knowledge: Web-based versus classroom education.
Lehna, Carlee; Myers, John
2014-01-01
Increasing burn prevention (BP) knowledge in nurse practitioners leads to better care for patients who suffer a burn injury. Web-based and classroom-based approaches to increasing an individual's knowledge, in general and specifically to BP knowledge, is currently an area of interest for researchers. As a result, the purpose of this study was to test and evaluate the influence two methods (classroom and Web-based) has on BP knowledge; and whether a difference existed between teaching modalities. Generalized mixed-effects modeling techniques were used to test for differences in scores across three time points: 1) baseline, 2) immediately after viewing the educational module online (recall), and 3) at least 2 weeks after viewing the educational module (retention); and between the groups. There was no difference in scores between online vs classroom education method (P = .894); therefore, a pooled analysis was performed (n=54). Mean scores on the BP knowledge exam increased over time (P = .003) (regardless of educational method), establishing that the education module significantly increases BP knowledge in nurse practitioners over time. Mean score before receiving the education module was 75.6%; the mean score was 81.9% immediately after the module; and 85.6% 2 weeks after receiving the education module. Either method can be used to educate and train health care providers in BP, which may provide health care providers with useful and cost-effective ways in which to improve BP knowledge and the quality of care for patients who suffer a burn injury. PMID:25100539
Increasing military social work knowledge: an evaluation of learning outcomes.
Forgey, Mary Ann; Young, Sharon L
2014-02-01
Service members and veterans face a myriad of health, mental health, and social challenges stemming from the combat and operational stressors experienced during deployment and the challenges ofreintegration to civilian life. To intervene effectively with this population, social workers must be knowledgeable about these issues and the cultural context within which they occur. Although schools of social work across the country are developing course work in military social work, little is known about the learning outcomes of these courses. This article describes a military social work course that was developed to increase student preparedness to work with a military or veteran population and the learning outcomes achieved. Using a quasi-experimental pre-post design, this study compared the learning outcomes of students enrolled in the course with a group of students who had not taken the course. To measure this knowledge, the authors developed a 50-item Military Social Work Knowledge Scale for the study. Significant differences between pre- and posttest scores were found for the social work students enrolled in the course. Specific areas of knowledge that increased for the class participants included knowledge about cultural sensitivity to military populations and knowledge about service and advocacy frameworks. PMID:24693599
An Exploration of the Common Content Knowledge of High School Mathematics Teachers
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bansilal, Sarah; Brijlall, Deonarain; Mkhwanazi, Thokozani
2014-01-01
Many studies point to the problem of poor mathematics content knowledge of mathematics teachers in South Africa. The purpose of this study was to investigate teachers' knowledge of the mathematics they are themselves teaching. Data was generated from the teachers' (n = 253) written responses to test that was a shortened form of a…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Koichu, Boris
2010-01-01
This article discusses an issue of inserting mathematical knowledge within the problem-solving processes. Relatively advanced mathematical knowledge is defined in terms of "three mathematical worlds"; relatively advanced problem-solving behaviours are defined in terms of taxonomies of "proof schemes" and "heuristic behaviours". The relationships…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Zulnaidi, Hutkemri; Zakaria, Effandi
2010-01-01
The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of information mapping strategy on mathematics conceptual knowledge of junior high school students in Rokan Hulu Riau, Indonesia. The study also examined the relationship between mathematics conceptual knowledge and mathematics achievement. Using a quasi-experimental method, the study was…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Matthews, Michael E.; Seaman, Walter I.
2007-01-01
Preservice elementary teachers have been shown to generally possess poor mathematical knowledge (e.g. Goulding, Rowland, & Barber, 2002) and also strong negative attitudes toward mathematics (e.g. MacNab & Payne, 2004). Recently, national organizations have proposed interventions to address these issues (Conference Board of the Mathematical…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Novikasari, Ifada; Darhim, Didi Suryadi
2015-01-01
This study explored the characteristics of pre-service primary teachers (PSTs) influenced by mathematical belief and mathematical knowledge for teaching (MKT) PSTs'. A qualitative approach was used to investigate the levels of PSTs on mathematical belief and MKT. The two research instruments used in this study were an interview-based task and a…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Harrell, Pamela Esprivalo; Eddy, Colleen McLean
2011-01-01
This study examined mathematics teacher content knowledge in terms of policy maker recommendations, college coursework and teacher certification mathematics test scores. Transcript analysis indicated poor alignment of national policy maker recommendations for mathematics teachers and college degrees in mathematics. Teacher certification test…
Using Manipulative Materials to Increase Student Achievement in Mathematics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lett, Steven W.
2007-01-01
This is an action research project to test a null hypothesis, which states that the use of manipulative materials within the context of mathematics instruction will not yield a significant increase in student achievement. Based on the research, using manipulative materials should have a positive impact on student achievement. Allowing students to…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Davis, Brent; Renert, Moshe
2013-01-01
We discuss the teachers' disciplinary knowledge of mathematics in this article, arguing two main points as we report on a 2-year study involving 22 practicing teachers. First we argue that teachers' knowledge of mathematics might be productively construed as a complex evolving form, a significant dimension of which is tacit knowledge. Second,…
Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching Teachers: The Case of Multiplication and Division of Fractions
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Olanoff, Dana E.
2011-01-01
This study attempts to answer the question, "What is the mathematical knowledge required by teachers of elementary mathematics content courses in the area of multiplication and division of fractions?" Beginning in the mid-1980s, when Shulman (1986) introduced the idea of pedagogical content knowledge, researchers have been looking at the knowledge…
An assessment of middle grades preservice teachers' mathematics knowledge for teaching
Mohr, Margaret Joan
2009-06-02
in mathematics knowledge for teaching in enrollment characteristics, in courses taken and currently taking, and in three different cohorts, each at different stages in the program, of 122 preservice middle grades mathematics teachers at a large public university...
Mussels matter: Research team increasing knowledge of mussels
Wythe, Kathy
2013-01-01
between the water column and stream bo?om, increase habitat diversity, and are a food source for some ?shes, mammals and birds. ?So when mussels start declining in a river or stream, it?s going to impact other species that depend on them, whether... it be for food or for habitat,? he said. Of the ?? mussel species known to occur in Texas, ?? were listed as state-threatened in ???? because of declines in their distribution and abundance. Story by Kathy Wythe Research team increasing knowledge...
Generative Adolescent Mathematical Learners: The Fabrication of Knowledge
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lawler, Brian R.
2008-01-01
This dissertation is embedded in a deconstruction of the field of Mathematics Education in order to reconstitute the mathematics student as a generative mathematical learner. The purpose of the dissertation is to understand how generative adolescent mathematical learners (GAMLs) maneuver through their mathematics courses while maintaining such a…
Primary Teachers' Knowledge for Teaching Ratio and Proportion in Mathematics: The Case of Indonesia
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ekawati, Rooselyna; Lin, Fou-Lai; Yang, Kai-Lin
2015-01-01
In this study, we aimed at examining Indonesian In-Service primary Teachers' Mathematics Content Knowledge (MCK) and Mathematics Pedagogical Content Knowledge (MPCK) for teaching ratio and proportion. The instruments were administered to 271 in-service primary teachers with various education background. There were three underlined factors on MCK…
The Pedagogical Content Knowledge of Middle School, Mathematics Teachers in China and the U.S.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
An, Shuhua; Kulm, Gerald; Wu, Zhonghe
2004-01-01
This study compared the pedagogical content knowledge of mathematics in U.S. and Chinese middle schools. The results of this comparative study indicated that mathematics teachers' pedagogical content knowledge in the two countries differs markedly, which has a deep impact on teaching practice. The Chinese teachers emphasized developing procedural…
The Nature and Predictors of Elementary Teachers' Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hill, Heather C.
2010-01-01
This article explores elementary school teachers' mathematical knowledge for teaching and the relationship between such knowledge and teacher characteristics. The Learning Mathematics for Teaching project administered a multiple-choice assessment covering topics in number and operation to a nationally representative sample of teachers (n = 625)…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Livy, Sharyn; Vale, Colleen
2011-01-01
In this article, pre-service teachers' mathematics content knowledge is explored through the analysis of two items about ratio from a Mathematical Competency, Skills and Knowledge Test. Pre-service teachers' thinking strategies, common errors and misconceptions in their responses are presented and discussed. Of particular interest was the range…
Knowledge Levels of Pre-Service Mathematics Teachers on the Concept of Set
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sirmaci, Nur; Tas, Fatih
2013-01-01
This study aims to investigate knowledge levels of pre-service mathematics teachers about set. The study was carried out on a total of 196 students studying at the Department of Mathematics Teaching at Kazim Karabekir Faculty of Education in Ataturk University. Concept testing consisting of 7 open-ended questions aiming to analyze the knowledge of…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Silverman, Jason
2011-01-01
In this paper, we report on our efforts to support teachers' development of mathematical knowledge for teaching through online professional development focusing on authentic engagement in collaborative mathematical problem solving. In particular, this paper seeks to explore and understand the relationship between online mathematical collaboration…
arXiv:math/0703427v1[math.HO]14Mar2007 MATHEMATICAL KNOWLEDGE
Tomforde, Mark
of "Mathematics and Culture", ed. by C. Bartocci and P. Odifreddi. 1 #12;2 on human bodies was to be testedarXiv:math/0703427v1[math.HO]14Mar2007 MATHEMATICAL KNOWLEDGE: INTERNAL, SOCIAL AND CULTURAL are doing. Second, one can argue that mathematics is a human activity deeply rooted in reality
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Youngs, Peter; Qian, Hong
2013-01-01
In this article, we draw on survey data to investigate associations between Chinese elementary teaching candidates’ mathematical knowledge for teaching (MKT) and their experiences in mathematics courses, mathematics methods courses, and student teaching. In our study, we found that (a) Chinese teaching candidates' completion of courses in number…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rayner, Vanessa; Pitsolantis, Nicole; Osana, Helena
2009-01-01
The objective of the present study was to examine the relationship between mathematics anxiety and the procedural and conceptual knowledge of fractions in prospective teachers. Thirty-two preservice teachers enrolled in an elementary mathematics methods course were administered the Revised Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale (RMARS, Baloglu, 2002).…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Basaran, Mehmet; Özalp, Gülümser; Kalender, Ilker; Alacaci, Cengiz
2015-01-01
One important function of school mathematics curriculum is to prepare high school students with the knowledge and skills needed for university education. Identifying them empirically will help making sound decisions about the contents of high school mathematics curriculum. It will also help students to make informed choices in course selection at…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Curcio, Frances R.
This study was designed to extend the schema-theoretic perspective of understanding general discourse to include graph comprehension. The sample included 204 fourth-grade and 185 seventh-grade pupils. Data were collected on achievement in reading and mathematics, sex, prior knowledge of topic, mathematical content, graphical form, and graph…
Orienteering in knowledge spaces: the hyperbolic geometry of Wikipedia Mathematics.
Leibon, Gregory; Rockmore, Daniel N
2013-01-01
In this paper we show how the coupling of the notion of a network with directions with the adaptation of the four-point probe from materials testing gives rise to a natural geometry on such networks. This four-point probe geometry shares many of the properties of hyperbolic geometry wherein the network directions take the place of the sphere at infinity, enabling a navigation of the network in terms of pairs of directions: the geodesic through a pair of points is oriented from one direction to another direction, the pair of which are uniquely determined. We illustrate this in the interesting example of the pages of Wikipedia devoted to Mathematics, or "The MathWiki." The applicability of these ideas extends beyond Wikipedia to provide a natural framework for visual search and to prescribe a natural mode of navigation for any kind of "knowledge space" in which higher order concepts aggregate various instances of information. Other examples would include genre or author organization of cultural objects such as books, movies, documents or even merchandise in an online store. PMID:23844017
Curricular Knowledge and the Work of Mathematics Teacher Educators
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chauvot, Jennifer B.
2008-01-01
"Mathematics teacher educator-researcher-mentor" is a mouthful, but an accurate title to describe the range of roles of mathematics teacher educators across the nation and around the world. There is limited research about the professional development of teacher educators and even less research specific to mathematics teacher educators. This…
The Development of Beginning Mathematics Teacher Pedagogical Content Knowledge
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lannin, John K.; Webb, Matthew; Chval, Kathryn; Arbaugh, Fran; Hicks, Sarah; Taylor, Cynthia; Bruton, Rebecca
2013-01-01
Recent research efforts (Schmidt et al. in "The preparation gap: teacher education for middle school mathematics in six countries," MSU Center for Research in Mathematics and Science Education, 2007) demonstrate that teacher development programs in high-performing countries offer experiences that are designed to develop both mathematical…
Measuring Knowledge of Mathematical Functions: Validity of Scores and Profiles of Participants
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Higley, Kelli
2009-01-01
Knowledge of mathematical functions is expected of university students. This knowledge was measured in this dissertation using two previously untested instruments. The aim of this dissertation was to validate the scores from these measures. The first instrument measured function knowledge in its declarative, procedural, or conditional form. The…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Serafino, Kathleen; Cicchelli, Terry
2003-01-01
Tested the effects of prior knowledge and two instructional models--structured problem solving and guided generation (GG)--on mathematical problem solving and transfer to an analogous task. Data on students with high and low prior knowledge highlighted significant main effects for prior knowledge, significant differences on transfer to analogous…
Re-Thinking Teachers' Mathematical Knowledge: A Focus on Thinking Practices
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Brodie, Karin
2004-01-01
This article elaborates on the notion of mathematical knowledge for teaching. It argues that the well-known conceptual/procedural distinction is limited and limiting, and that a more useful notion has to go beyond dichotomies in conceptualising knowledge, as well as beyond dichotomies between knowledge and practice. The article argues that…
Knowledge Management for Agent-Based Tutoring Systems Computer and Mathematical Science Department
Ding, Wei
Knowledge Management for Agent-Based Tutoring Systems Ping Chen Computer and Mathematical Science: 281-283-3869 #12;KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT FOR AGENT-BASED TUTORING SYSTEMS ABSTRACT As the educational of the crucial issues for these educational systems as appropriate knowledge management is the key to more
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Faulkner, Valerie N.; Cain, Chris R.
2013-01-01
Student performance in mathematics has been linked to the mathematical knowledge of the teacher. Based on this finding, a 5-day professional development module was created to improve teachers' mathematical knowledge and their understanding of number sense. We found no difference prior to the professional development in mathematical content…
Multilingualism in an EFL Practicum: Increasing Student Teachers' Pedagogical Knowledge
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Olivero, María Matilde
2015-01-01
Research in second language teacher education has demonstrated that novice teachers have difficulty in using their pedagogical knowledge, which partly results from a heavy focus on theory offered in teacher training programs (e.g., Bartels, 2005, 2009; Tarone & Allwright, 2005). In order to better equip student teachers with the knowledge…
Strengthening Pre-Service Teachers' Mathematical Content Knowledge
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hine, Gregory S. C.
2015-01-01
Over the past two decades there has been a growing body of literature concerning the preparation of pre-service mathematics teachers. Research efforts have focused principally on approaches conducted by tertiary educators to adequately prepare pre-service teachers (PST) for the mathematics classroom. Despite the extensive literature there is no…
Using Problem Solving to Assess Young Children's Mathematics Knowledge
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Charlesworth, Rosalind; Leali, Shirley A.
2012-01-01
Mathematics problem solving provides a means for obtaining a view of young children's understanding of mathematics as they move through the early childhood concept development sequence. Assessment information can be obtained through observations and interviews as children develop problem solutions. Examples of preschool, kindergarten, and primary…
The effects of teacher mathematics knowledge and pedagogy on student achievement in rural Guatemala
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marshall, Jeffery H.; Sorto, M. Alejandra
2012-04-01
Why are some teachers more effective than others? The importance of understanding the interplay between teacher preparation, pedagogy and student achievement has motivated a new line of research focusing on teacher knowledge. This study analyses the effects of teacher mathematics knowledge on student achievement using longitudinal data from rural Guatemalan primary schools. After presenting a conceptual framework for linking the work of the teacher with student learning in mathematics together with an overview of the different forms of teacher knowledge, the paper introduces the Guatemalan context and the analytical framework including the sample, data and methods. Overall, the results provide some empirical support for a widely held, if infrequently tested, belief in mathematics education: effective teachers have different kinds of mathematical knowledge. The results also suggest specific mechanisms by which effective teachers can make substantial impacts on student learning, even in extremely poor contexts.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Provost, Lauren E.
2013-01-01
This work investigates middle school teachers' mathematics knowledge for teaching (MKT) as defined by Hill (2007). Within this two-part dissertation, the level of MKT was considered as well as the role of teacher beliefs in actual specialized content knowledge (SCK) use, a specific type of mathematics knowledge for teaching vital in quality…
Construction of Mathematical Knowledge Using Graphic Calculators (CAS) in the Mathematics Classroom
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hitt, Fernando
2011-01-01
Mathematics education researchers are asking themselves about why technology has impacted heavily on the social environment and not in the mathematics classroom. The use of technology in the mathematics classroom has not had the expected impact, as it has been its use in everyday life (i.e. cell phone). What about teachers' opinions? Mathematics…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hsieh, Feng-Jui
2013-01-01
This paper discusses different conceptual frameworks for measuring mathematics pedagogical content knowledge (MPCK) in international comparison studies. Two large-scale international comparative studies, "Mathematics Teaching in the Twenty-First Century" (MT21; Schmidt et al., 2011) and the "Teacher Education and Development Study…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Morris, Anne K.; Hiebert, James; Spitzer, Sandy M.
2009-01-01
The goal of this study is to uncover the successes and challenges that preservice teachers are likely to experience as they unpack lesson-level mathematical learning goals (i.e., identify the subconcepts and subskills that feed into target learning goals). Unpacking learning goals is a form of specialized mathematical knowledge for teaching, an…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Roche, Anne; Clarke, Doug M.
2013-01-01
This article reports on a study that was conducted with 378 primary teachers from Catholic schools in Victoria who participated in the first year of a 2-year research and professional learning program in mathematics. One aim of the program was to enhance teacher knowledge in mathematics in its many forms. As part of the larger study, the teachers…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Levenson, Esther; Tsamir, Pessia; Tirosh, Dina; Dreyfus, Tommy; Barkai, Ruthi; Tabach, Michal
2012-01-01
This paper focuses on the first session of a professional development course revolving around the topic of mathematical statements and their appropriate proving methods. It analyzes the interactive development of the teachers' knowledge by focusing on the relation between the mathematical statements, the instructor, and the teachers. Different…
Investigating Level of Mathematics Knowledge for Students Attending Vocational Schools in Turkey
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Colakoglu, Nurdan
2013-01-01
Students attend mathematics courses in Turkey for totally 11 years, throughout education life ranging from primary school to university, including eight years in primary education and three years in secondary education (four years based on new arrangement); however, level of mathematic knowledge of students is upsetting when they reach university…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Merrill, Chris; Devine, Kevin L.; Brown, Joshua W.; Brown, Ryan A.
2010-01-01
In the summer of 2009, a professional development partnership was established between the Peoria Public School District (PPSD), a local education agency (LEA), and Illinois State University (ISU) to improve geometric and trigonometric knowledge and skill for high school mathematics teachers as part of the Illinois Mathematics and Science…
Increasing levels of assistance in refinement of knowledge-based retrieval systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baudin, Catherine; Kedar, Smadar; Pell, Barney
1994-01-01
The task of incrementally acquiring and refining the knowledge and algorithms of a knowledge-based system in order to improve its performance over time is discussed. In particular, the design of DE-KART, a tool whose goal is to provide increasing levels of assistance in acquiring and refining indexing and retrieval knowledge for a knowledge-based retrieval system, is presented. DE-KART starts with knowledge that was entered manually, and increases its level of assistance in acquiring and refining that knowledge, both in terms of the increased level of automation in interacting with users, and in terms of the increased generality of the knowledge. DE-KART is at the intersection of machine learning and knowledge acquisition: it is a first step towards a system which moves along a continuum from interactive knowledge acquisition to increasingly automated machine learning as it acquires more knowledge and experience.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ottmar, Erin R.; Rimm-Kaufman, Sara E.; Larsen, Ross A.; Berry, Robert Q.
2015-01-01
This study investigates the effectiveness of the Responsive Classroom (RC) approach, a social and emotional learning intervention, on changing the relations between mathematics teacher and classroom inputs (mathematical knowledge for teaching [MKT] and standards-based mathematics teaching practices) and student mathematics achievement. Work was…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Evans, Brian R.
2010-01-01
The purpose of this study was to understand the relationships between mathematical content knowledge, perceptions of teaching self-efficacy, and attitudes toward mathematics in one cohort of Teach for America teachers who took the New York State Content Special Test in mathematics at the start of their program, and a mathematics attitude…
Food-based Science Curriculum Increases 4(th) Graders Multidisciplinary Science Knowledge.
Hovland, Jana A; Carraway-Stage, Virginia G; Cela, Artenida; Collins, Caitlin; Díaz, Sebastián R; Collins, Angelo; Duffrin, Melani W
2013-10-01
Health professionals and policymakers are asking educators to place more emphasis on food and nutrition education. Integrating these topics into science curricula using hand-on, food-based activities may strengthen students' understanding of science concepts. The Food, Math, and Science Teaching Enhancement Resource (FoodMASTER) Initiative is a compilation of programs aimed at using food as a tool to teach mathematics and science. Previous studies have shown that students experiencing the FoodMASTER curriculum were very excited about the activities, became increasingly interested in the subject matter of food, and were able to conduct scientific observations. The purpose of this study was to: 1) assess 4(th) graders food-related multidisciplinary science knowledge, and 2) compare gains in food-related science knowledge after implementation of an integrated, food-based curriculum. During the 2009-2010 school year, FoodMASTER researchers implemented a hands-on, food-based intermediate curriculum in eighteen 4(th) grade classrooms in Ohio (n=9) and North Carolina (n=9). Sixteen classrooms in Ohio (n=8) and North Carolina (n=8), following their standard science curricula, served as comparison classrooms. Students completed a researcher-developed science knowledge exam, consisting of 13 multiple-choice questions administered pre- and post-test. Only subjects with pre- and post-test scores were entered into the sample (Intervention n=343; Control n=237). No significant differences were observed between groups at pre-test. At post-test, the intervention group scored (9.95±2.00) significantly higher (p=.000) than the control group (8.84±2.37) on a 13-point scale. These findings suggest the FoodMASTER intermediate curriculum is more effective than a standard science curriculum in increasing students' multidisciplinary science knowledge related to food. PMID:25152539
Food-based Science Curriculum Increases 4th Graders Multidisciplinary Science Knowledge
Hovland, Jana A.; Carraway-Stage, Virginia G.; Cela, Artenida; Collins, Caitlin; Díaz, Sebastián R.; Collins, Angelo; Duffrin, Melani W.
2013-01-01
Health professionals and policymakers are asking educators to place more emphasis on food and nutrition education. Integrating these topics into science curricula using hand-on, food-based activities may strengthen students’ understanding of science concepts. The Food, Math, and Science Teaching Enhancement Resource (FoodMASTER) Initiative is a compilation of programs aimed at using food as a tool to teach mathematics and science. Previous studies have shown that students experiencing the FoodMASTER curriculum were very excited about the activities, became increasingly interested in the subject matter of food, and were able to conduct scientific observations. The purpose of this study was to: 1) assess 4th graders food-related multidisciplinary science knowledge, and 2) compare gains in food-related science knowledge after implementation of an integrated, food-based curriculum. During the 2009–2010 school year, FoodMASTER researchers implemented a hands-on, food-based intermediate curriculum in eighteen 4th grade classrooms in Ohio (n=9) and North Carolina (n=9). Sixteen classrooms in Ohio (n=8) and North Carolina (n=8), following their standard science curricula, served as comparison classrooms. Students completed a researcher-developed science knowledge exam, consisting of 13 multiple-choice questions administered pre- and post-test. Only subjects with pre- and post-test scores were entered into the sample (Intervention n=343; Control n=237). No significant differences were observed between groups at pre-test. At post-test, the intervention group scored (9.95±2.00) significantly higher (p=.000) than the control group (8.84±2.37) on a 13-point scale. These findings suggest the FoodMASTER intermediate curriculum is more effective than a standard science curriculum in increasing students’ multidisciplinary science knowledge related to food. PMID:25152539
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wilburne, Jane M.; Long, Michael
2010-01-01
Seventy secondary mathematics pre-service teachers from two universities were assessed on their content knowledge, vocabulary knowledge, and their perceived confidence in teaching the content addressed on the eleventh grade state assessment. The results indicate the pre-service teachers had significant content weakness in data analysis, algebra,…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
McCray, Jennifer S.; Chen, Jie-Qi
2012-01-01
This study examines the construct validity of a new teacher interview designed to assess teachers' pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) for preschool mathematics. PCK describes the subject matter knowledge a teacher needs for effective teaching. Data from 22 teachers and 113 Head Start children in a large midwestern city in the United States were…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Nezhnov, Peter; Kardanova, Elena; Vasilyeva, Marina; Ludlow, Larry
2015-01-01
The present study tested the possibility of operationalizing levels of knowledge acquisition based on Vygotsky's theory of cognitive growth. An assessment tool (SAM-Math) was developed to capture a hypothesized hierarchical structure of mathematical knowledge consisting of procedural, conceptual, and functional levels. In Study 1, SAM-Math was…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Akkas, Elif Nur; Türnüklü, Elif
2014-01-01
Pedagogical content knowledge is consisted of two components: student knowledge and teaching strategies. Teaching strategies was defined under two sub-headings as strategies for specific topics and specific strategies for any topic. The purpose of this study was to examine the method with which quadrilaterals were taught by mathematics teachers…
Kelly, Ronald R; Gaustad, Martha G
2007-01-01
This study of deaf college students examined specific relationships between their mathematics performance and their assessed skills in reading, language, and English morphology. Simple regression analyses showed that deaf college students' language proficiency scores, reading grade level, and morphological knowledge regarding word segmentation and meaning were all significantly correlated with both the ACT Mathematics Subtest and National Technical Institute for the Deaf (NTID) Mathematics Placement Test scores. Multiple regression analyses identified the best combination from among these potential independent predictors of students' performance on both the ACT and NTID mathematics tests. Additionally, the participating deaf students' grades in their college mathematics courses were significantly and positively associated with their reading grade level and their knowledge of morphological components of words. PMID:16901954
Jason Silverman; Ellen L. Clay
2009-01-01
In this article the authors describe their efforts to support teachers' development of deep, connected understandings of school mathematics and to find ways to make use of the teachers' learning as a context for subsequent mathematical and pedagogical development. The authors detail the evolution of their model for Online Asynchronous Collaboration (OAC), which is grounded in current research in mathematics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sophian, Catherine
2013-01-01
Hachey's (2013) article celebrates a revolution that is taking place in early childhood mathematics education, fueled in part by developmental research demonstrating the mathematical capabilities of young children. At the same time, Hachey notes that the mathematics revolution she describes is not yet complete. In this commentary, the author…
Designing Knowledge Scaffolds to Support Mathematical Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rittle-Johnson, Bethany; Koedinger, Kenneth R.
2005-01-01
We present a methodology for designing better learning environments. In Phase 1, 6th-grade students' (n = 223) prior knowledge was assessed using a difficulty factors assessment (DFA). The assessment revealed that scaffolds designed to elicit contextual, conceptual, or procedural knowledge each improved students' ability to add and subtract…
Active learning increases student performance in science, engineering, and mathematics
Freeman, Scott; Eddy, Sarah L.; McDonough, Miles; Smith, Michelle K.; Okoroafor, Nnadozie; Jordt, Hannah; Wenderoth, Mary Pat
2014-01-01
To test the hypothesis that lecturing maximizes learning and course performance, we metaanalyzed 225 studies that reported data on examination scores or failure rates when comparing student performance in undergraduate science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) courses under traditional lecturing versus active learning. The effect sizes indicate that on average, student performance on examinations and concept inventories increased by 0.47 SDs under active learning (n = 158 studies), and that the odds ratio for failing was 1.95 under traditional lecturing (n = 67 studies). These results indicate that average examination scores improved by about 6% in active learning sections, and that students in classes with traditional lecturing were 1.5 times more likely to fail than were students in classes with active learning. Heterogeneity analyses indicated that both results hold across the STEM disciplines, that active learning increases scores on concept inventories more than on course examinations, and that active learning appears effective across all class sizes—although the greatest effects are in small (n ? 50) classes. Trim and fill analyses and fail-safe n calculations suggest that the results are not due to publication bias. The results also appear robust to variation in the methodological rigor of the included studies, based on the quality of controls over student quality and instructor identity. This is the largest and most comprehensive metaanalysis of undergraduate STEM education published to date. The results raise questions about the continued use of traditional lecturing as a control in research studies, and support active learning as the preferred, empirically validated teaching practice in regular classrooms. PMID:24821756
Active learning increases student performance in science, engineering, and mathematics.
Freeman, Scott; Eddy, Sarah L; McDonough, Miles; Smith, Michelle K; Okoroafor, Nnadozie; Jordt, Hannah; Wenderoth, Mary Pat
2014-06-10
To test the hypothesis that lecturing maximizes learning and course performance, we metaanalyzed 225 studies that reported data on examination scores or failure rates when comparing student performance in undergraduate science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) courses under traditional lecturing versus active learning. The effect sizes indicate that on average, student performance on examinations and concept inventories increased by 0.47 SDs under active learning (n = 158 studies), and that the odds ratio for failing was 1.95 under traditional lecturing (n = 67 studies). These results indicate that average examination scores improved by about 6% in active learning sections, and that students in classes with traditional lecturing were 1.5 times more likely to fail than were students in classes with active learning. Heterogeneity analyses indicated that both results hold across the STEM disciplines, that active learning increases scores on concept inventories more than on course examinations, and that active learning appears effective across all class sizes--although the greatest effects are in small (n ? 50) classes. Trim and fill analyses and fail-safe n calculations suggest that the results are not due to publication bias. The results also appear robust to variation in the methodological rigor of the included studies, based on the quality of controls over student quality and instructor identity. This is the largest and most comprehensive metaanalysis of undergraduate STEM education published to date. The results raise questions about the continued use of traditional lecturing as a control in research studies, and support active learning as the preferred, empirically validated teaching practice in regular classrooms. PMID:24821756
Increasing the Knowledge of Stratification in Shallow Coastal Environments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ojo, T.; Bonner, J.; Hodges, B.; Maidment, D.; Montagna, P.; Minsker, B.
2006-12-01
A testbed has been established using Corpus Christi Bay as an environmental field facility to study the phenomenon of hypoxia that has been observed to develop at certain periods during the year. Stratification affects vertical turbulent mixing of heat, momentum and mass (or constituents) within the water column, in turn influencing the transport of material. The mixing threshold is dependent on the value of the Richardson Number, Ri with inhibition due to stratification occurring at low values (< 0.25) and complete vertical mixing occurring at high values (> 0.25) of Ri. Corpus Christi Bay with average depth of ~3 m is the largest among a system of five bays has been known to stratify due to inflows of hypersaline water (up to 50 psu) from adjoining bays, the Laguna Madre and Oso Bay. Laguna Madre is separated from the Gulf of Mexico by a barrier island and becomes hypersaline because of the imbalance between inflow of freshwater and bay evaporation. Hypersalinity also occurs in Oso Bay due to anthropogenic forcing from a power plant that draws 400 MGD of cooling water from the upper Laguna Madre, discharging waste water into Oso Bay. Several wastewater treatment plants also discharge directly into Oso Bay or its tributary streams. The objective of this study is to develop a methodology for prescribing a set of parameters required for modeling and characterization of hypoxia in this shallow wind-driven bay. The extent to which Ri is dependent on external forcing at the surface boundary was measured using our fully instrumented sensor platforms. Each sensor platform includes sensors for synchronic near-surface meteorological (wind velocity, barometric pressure, air temperature) and water column oceanographic (current, water temperature, conductivity, particle size distribution, particulate concentration, dissolved oxygen, nutrient) variables. These were measured using fixed and mobile vertical profiling sensor platforms. A 2D hydrodynamic model was initially developed for the bay and results indicate that water mass is conserved through a strong vortex spawning from the ~ 20 m deep ship channel that runs east-west along the northernmost portion of the bay. HF radar "observations" however does not indicate this vortical structure suggesting that water conservation is maintained through vertical eddies, captured by 3D current measurements using Acoustic Doppler profilers. This is an example of where advanced sensors indicate needs for more advanced modeling, leading us toward the development of 3D hydrodynamic model for the bay. The geomorphology of the bay (shallow with respect to the deep ship channel) poses a challenge in this model development. Knowledge of stratification in this system of bays has been increased through this study. Measurements taken using the instrument suite deployed by our research facility was coupled with (observed and predicted) hydrodynamic and meteorological data, providing new insight into stratification in Corpus Christi Bay. The bay was observed as cycling through quiescent and well-mixed periods under strong wind influence with the onset of hypoxia during the summer months (June through August). Quiescent periods, when combined with tidal cycling and inland horizontal gradient propagation (from adjoining water bodies as described) lead to conditions favorable to stratification.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Flynn, Natalie P.
This study developed a survey from the existing literature in an attempt to illuminate the processes, tools, insights, and events that allow university science and mathematics content experts (Ph.D.'s) unpack their expertise in order to teach develop and teach undergraduate students. A pilot study was conducted at an urban university in order to refine the survey. The study consisted of 72 science or mathematics Ph.D. faculty members that teach at a research-based urban university. Follow-up interviews were conducted with 21 volunteer faculty to further explore their methods and tools for developing and implementing teaching within their discipline. Statistical analysis of the data revealed: faculty that taught while obtaining their Ph.D. were less confident in their ability to teach successful and faculty that received training in teaching believed that students have difficult to change misconceptions and do not commit enough time to their course. Student centered textbooks ranked the highest among tools used to gain teaching strategies followed by grading of exams and assignments for gaining insights into student knowledge and difficulties. Science and mathematics education literature and university provided education session ranked the lowest in rating scale for providing strategies for teaching. The open-ended survey questions were sub-divided and analyzed by the number of years of experience to identify the development of teaching knowledge over time and revealed that teaching became more interactive, less lecture based, and more engaging. As faculty matured and gained experience they became more aware of student misconceptions and difficulties often changing their teaching to eliminate such issues. As confidence levels increase their teaching included more technology-based tools, became more interactive, incorporated problem based activities, and became more flexible. This change occurred when and if faculty members altered their thinking about their knowledge from an expert centered perspective to a student centric view. Follow-up interviews of twenty faculty yielded a wide variety of insights into the complicated method of deconstructing expert science and mathematics content. The interviews revealed a major disconnect between education research and researchers and the science and mathematics content experts who teach. There is a pervasive disregard for science and mathematics education and training. Faculty members find little to no support for teaching. Though 81% obtained their Ph.D. with the intent to enter an academic setting, pedagogical training was non-existent or limited, both prior to and after obtaining faculty positions. Experience alone did not account for confidence or ability to successfully teach. Faculty that were able to 'think like a student' and view their material from a student's perspective' seemed to be the most confident and flexible in their teaching methods. Grading and having an open and interactive teaching style, being on the 'side of the students' also seemed to allow faculty to connect more deeply with the students and learn about common misconceptions and difficulties. Though most faculty claimed to not teach as they were taught and not recall having specific content difficulties, this essential interaction with many students facilitated a shift in thinking about their content. This shift allowed for a reversal from teacher centered classrooms to student centered. Multiple issues arise when teaching at a traditional larger lecture style found in the majority of universities science and mathematics courses that constrain and provide unique teaching challenges. Many faculty have developed unique tools to incorporate successful teaching strategies, such as daily pre-quizzes and smart-phone questioning as well as small group work, computer posted guides, strategic class breaks, and limiting lecture style in favor of a more active engaged classroom. (Abstract shortened by UMI.).
Knowledge-based modelling of voting protocols Chennai Mathematical Institute
Ramanujam, R.
, India abaskar@cmi.ac.in R. Ramanujam Institute of Mathematical Sciences Chennai, India jam@imsc.res.in S elec- tion, with each voter allowed to vote for exactly one can- didate. On election day, during political elections for office, many corporate decisions (regarding projects, elec- tion to positions
Identity, Knowledge and Departmental Practices: Mathematics of Engineers and Mathematicians
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bingolbali, Erhan; Monaghan, John
2004-01-01
This report explores first year undergraduate mechanical engineering and mathematics students' conceptions of the derivative and the contribution that membership of different departments may have on these conceptions. Quantitative results suggest that mechanical engineering students develop a proclivity for rate of change aspects of the derivative…
Mathematical Vocabulary: Fixers of Knowledge or Points of Exploration?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Leung, Constant
2005-01-01
This paper examines the idea that in mathematics education it is important to wean pupils off the use of informal everyday language and to privilege the use of formal technical vocabulary. I will first make some observations on the use of formal and informal language in the Dimensions transcript. The main focus of the next part of the discussion…
Pre-Service Teachers' Beliefs about Knowledge, Mathematics, and Science
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cady, Jo Ann; Rearden, Kristin
2007-01-01
This study examines the beliefs of K-8 preservice teachers during a content methods course. The goals of this course included exposing the preservice teachers to student-centered instructional methods for math and science and encouraging the development of lessons that would integrate mathematics and science. Prior research suggested that one must…
Participation, Knowledge and Beliefs: A Community Perspective on Mathematics Learning.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Boaler, Jo
1999-01-01
Illustrates the use of a particular situated method of interpretation in the analysis of data from three-year case studies of two schools. Analyzes various classroom incidents demonstrating that the particular constraints and affordances of formalized mathematics classrooms to which students become attuned contribute to the development of learning…
Educators' Expectations and Aspirations around Young Children's Mathematical Knowledge
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Perry, Bob; MacDonald, Amy
2015-01-01
Let's Count is a mathematics professional learning programme for preschool educators in Australia, managed by a prominent non-government organisation and sponsored by industry. It has been implemented in both face-to-face and online modes over 2013/14. Let's Count is based on the constructs that all young children are powerful mathematicians and…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Aguirre, Julia M.; Zavala, Maria del Rosario; Katanyoutanant, Tiffany
2012-01-01
This study documents and describes efforts to develop robust forms of pre-service teachers' pedagogical content knowledge through a culturally responsive mathematics teaching approach. Embedded in a university K-8 mathematics methods course emphasising the connections among mathematics, children's mathematical thinking, and…
Realms: A Structure for Consolidating Knowledge about Mathematical Theories
Farmer, William M.
) interconnected by meaning-preserving views (morphisms). The "little/tiny theories approach" first put forward in [FGT92] has been very fruitful for formal developments of math- ematical knowledge, but it has
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Murphy, Carol
2006-01-01
This paper examines theoretical and empirical evidence related to primary teachers' subject knowledge in mathematics and considers the relevance of an audit of higher-level subject knowledge to the subject knowledge required for teaching primary mathematics. Questionnaires and interviews were carried out to determine the views of generalist…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sullivan, Peter; Clarke, Doug; Clarke, Barbara
2009-01-01
As part of a research and professional development project that focused on the opportunities and constraints provided by different kinds of mathematical tasks, a group of 67 primary and 40 secondary practising teachers of mathematics were asked to complete a survey focusing on their use of tasks. In this article, we discuss responses to one…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Silverman, Jason; Clay, Ellen L.
2010-01-01
In this article the authors describe their efforts to support teachers' development of deep, connected understandings of school mathematics and to find ways to make use of the teachers' learning as a context for subsequent mathematical and pedagogical development. The authors detail the evolution of their model for Online Asynchronous…
The Nature and Development of Middle School Mathematics Teachers' Knowledge
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Beswick, Kim; Callingham, Rosemary; Watson, Jane
2012-01-01
In this article, we report on the use of a teacher profiling instrument with 62 middle school teachers at the start of a 3-year professional learning programme. The instrument was designed to assess the aspects of teachers' knowledge identified by Shulman ("1987") refined by Ball et al. ("2008") and extended to include teachers' confidence to use…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Brese, Falk, Ed.
2012-01-01
The goal for selecting the released set of test items was to have approximately 25% of each of the full item sets for mathematics content knowledge (MCK) and mathematics pedagogical content knowledge (MPCK) that would represent the full range of difficulty, content, and item format used in the TEDS-M study. The initial step in the selection was to…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Aguirre, Julia M.; Turner, Erin E.; Bartell, Tonya Gau; Kalinec-Craig, Crystal; Foote, Mary Q.; Roth McDuffie, Amy; Drake, Corey
2013-01-01
This study examines the ways prospective elementary teachers (PSTs) made connections to children's mathematical thinking and children's community funds of knowledge in mathematics lesson plans. We analyzed the work of 70 PSTs from across three university sites associated with an instructional module for elementary mathematics methods courses that…
Validation of instruments to measure students' mathematical knowledge
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khatimin, Nuraini; Zaharim, Azami; Aziz, Azrilah Abd
2015-02-01
This paper describes instruments' validation process to identify the suitability and accuracy of the final examination questions for engineering mathematics. As a compulsory subject for second year students from 4 departments in Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, the Differential Equations 1 course (KKKQ2124) was considered in this study. The data used in this study consists of the raw marks for final examination of semester 2, 2012/2013 session. The data then will be run and analyzed using the Rasch measurement model. Rasch model can also examine the ability of students and redundancy of instrument constructs.
Iterating between Lessons on Concepts and Procedures Can Improve Mathematics Knowledge
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rittle-Johnson, Bethany; Koedinger, Kenneth
2009-01-01
Background: Knowledge of concepts and procedures seems to develop in an iterative fashion, with increases in one type of knowledge leading to increases in the other type of knowledge. This suggests that iterating between lessons on concepts and procedures may improve learning. Aims: The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the…
Charlotte F. Young; John A. Witter
1994-01-01
Although knowledge of environmental problems has been identified as an important predictor of environmentally responsible behavior, few studies have empirically evaluated educational information for promoting such knowledge. This study evaluated the effectiveness of educational brochures in increasing participants' knowledge about the environmental problem of gypsy moth infestations and associated action strategies. The results suggest that brochures that rated high in
[Four numbers and a bit more basic knowledge of mathematics].
Günther, Judith; Briel, Matthias; Suter, Katja
2015-02-01
In addition to relative risk, relative risk reduction and absolute risk reduction there circulates another effect size for binary endpoints in the scientific medical literature: the odds ratio. Relative risk and odds ratio are alternative ways of reflecting study results. Both, relative risk (RR) and odds ratio (OR), can easily be calculated from the "2 x 2-table". Advantage of OR: odds ratios can be calculated in every type of controlled study design, including retrospective studies. Furthermore, odds ratios--the biostatisticians are swarming--offer beautiful mathematical properties and therefore are often used in meta-analysis as an effect size for calculating a pooled estimate of the results of different studies with the same clinical question. Disadvantage of OR: In clinical studies the presentation of the results as "odds ratios" may result in an overestimation of the intervention effect. This article shows the difference between "chance" and "risk" and how odds ratio and relative risk are associated. PMID:26376541
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Thanheiser, Eva; Browning, Christine; Edson, Alden J.; Kastberg, Signe; Lo, Jane-Jane
2013-01-01
This survey of the literature summarizes and reflects on research findings regarding elementary preservice teachers' (PSTs') mathematics conceptions and the development thereof. Despite the current focus on teacher education, peer-reviewed journals offer a surprisingly sparse insight in these areas. The limited research that exists…
Technological pedagogical content knowledge and teaching practice of mathematics trainee teachers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tajudin, Nor'ain Mohd.; Kadir, Noor Zarinawaty Abd.
2014-07-01
This study aims to identify the level of technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPCK) of mathematics trainee teachers at Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris (UPSI) and explore their teaching practices during practical training at school. The study was conducted in two phases using a mix-method research. In the first phase, a survey method using a questionnaire was carried out on 156 trainee teachers of Bachelor of Mathematics Education (AT14) and Bachelor of Science (Mathematics) with Education (AT48). The instrument used was a questionnaire that measures the level of content knowledge, pedagogy, technology and TPCK of mathematics. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, namely the mean. While in the second phase, the interview method involved four trainee teachers were performed. The instrument used was the semi-structured interview protocol to assess the trainee teacher's TPCK integration in their teaching practice. Data were analyzed using the content analysis. The findings showed that the level of knowledge of TPCK among trainee teachers was moderate with overall mean score of 3.60. This level did not show significant differences between the two programs with mean scores of 3.601 for the AT14 group and 3.603 for the AT48 group. However, there was a difference for gender classification such that the female trainees had mean score of 3.58 and male trainees with mean score of 3.72. Although students' TPCK level was moderate, the level of content knowledge (CK), technological knowledge (TK) and pedagogical knowledge (PK), showed a higher level with overall mean scores of 3.75, 3.87 and 3.84 respectively. The findings also showed that in terms of content knowledge, trainee teacher's learning mathematics background was good, but the knowledge of mathematics was limited in the curriculum, philosophy and application aspect. In terms of pedagogical content knowledge, all respondents tend to use lecture and discussion methods in teaching Trigonometry topic in almost the entire teaching and learning sessions. In terms of using technology in teaching and learning process, all respondents were more likely to use PowerPoint presentation as well as assisted by the use of a scientific calculator. The use of PowerPoint was limited in explaining the title and its content and the calculators were used during practice sessions. The four trainee teachers were still at the recognizing and acceptance levels of TPCK integration during their teaching practice. This study indicates that UPSI trainee teachers should be given exposure in the use of information and communication technology and trained to provide alternative teaching strategies in more creative ways if there are obstacles when integrating technology in teaching and learning process.
Ding, Wei
A Lexical Knowledge Representation Model for Natural Language Understanding Ping Chen Department of Computer and Mathematical Sciences University of Houston-Downtown Wei Ding Department of Computer Science support for commonsense reasoning and natural language processing. SenseNet is formalized with a Hidden
Developing Mathematics Teacher Knowledge: The Paradidactic Infrastructure of "Open Lesson" in Japan
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Miyakawa, Takeshi; Winslow, Carl
2013-01-01
In this paper, we first present a theoretical approach to study mathematics teacher knowledge and the conditions for developing it, which is firmly rooted in a systemic approach to didactic phenomena at large, namely the anthropological theory of the didactic. Then, a case of open lesson is presented and analysed, using this theoretical approach,…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cagirgan Gulten, Dilek
2013-01-01
This research aims to investigate primary preservice mathematics teachers' views on distance education and web pedagogical content knowledge in terms of the subscales of general web, communicative web, pedagogical web, web pedagogical content and attitude towards web based instruction. The research was conducted with 46 senior students in the…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Phillips, Beth M.; Morse, Erika E.
2011-01-01
This paper presents findings from a stratified-random survey of family child care providers' backgrounds, caregiving environments, practices, attitudes, and knowledge related to language, literacy, and mathematics development for preschool children. Descriptive results are consistent with prior studies suggesting that home-based providers are…
Vamos a Jugar Counters! Learning Mathematics through Funds of Knowledge, Play, and the Third Space
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Razfar, Aria
2012-01-01
Drawing on Cultural Historical Activity Theory (CHAT), funds of knowledge, and third space, this article presents a model for practitioners and researchers to think about how Latina/o, bilingual children develop explicit mathematics strategies through multilingual and multigenerational interactions. Using data collected through fieldwork in an…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
DeFlorio, Lydia; Beliakoff, Amber
2015-01-01
Research Findings: Children from families of lower socioeconomic status (SES) enter kindergarten with less developed mathematical knowledge compared to children from middle SES families. This discrepancy is present at age 3 years and likely stems from differences in the home learning environment. This study reports SES-related differences both in…
Measuring Pre-Service Primary Teachers' Knowledge for Teaching Mathematics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Beswick, Kim; Goos, Merrilyn
2012-01-01
This paper reports on the knowledge for teaching mathematics of 294 pre-service primary teachers from seven Australian universities participating in a project aimed at establishing a culture of evidence-based improvement of teacher education. The project was funded by the Australian Learning and Teaching Council. Rasch measurement techniques were…
Developing Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching in a Methods Course: The Case of Function
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Steele, Michael D.; Hillen, Amy F.; Smith, Margaret S.
2013-01-01
This study describes teacher learning in a teaching experiment consisting of a content-focused methods course involving the mathematical knowledge for teaching function. Prospective and practicing teachers in the course showed growth in their ability to define function, to provide examples of functions and link them to the definition, in the…
Does Strategy Knowledge Influence Working Memory in Children with Mathematical Disabilities?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Keeler, Marsha L.; Swanson, H. Lee
2001-01-01
A study investigated the relationship between working memory (WM), declarative strategy knowledge, and math achievement in 111 children with and without mathematical disabilities (MD). Results found verbal and visual-spatial WM, stable verbal strategy choices, and expert strategy choices related to visual-spatial processing all contributed…
Preservice Mathematics Teachers' Knowledge of Students about the Algebraic Concepts
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tanisli, Dilek; Kose, Nilufer Yavuzsoy
2013-01-01
The aim of this study was to evaluate preservice primary mathematics teachers' ability to discuss and investigate students' thinking process about the concepts of variable, equality and equation, to analyse their ability to predict student difficulties and misconceptions and, in this respect, to present their subject-matter knowledge and…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ozmantar, Mehmet Fatih
2011-01-01
This study reconsiders the notion of pedagogy for pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) in the context of teaching mathematics. The perspectives of critical pedagogy are employed for this reconsideration, stressing the operation of historical, social, ideological, political, institutional and cultural forces in the production of pedagogical…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kelly, Ronald R.; Gaustad, Martha G.
2007-01-01
This study of deaf college students examined specific relationships between their mathematics performance and their assessed skills in reading, language, and English morphology. Simple regression analyses showed that deaf college students' language proficiency scores, reading grade level, and morphological knowledge regarding word segmentation and…
A Collaborative Inquiry to Promote Pedagogical Knowledge of Mathematics in Practice
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Moghaddam, Alireza; Sarkar Arani, Mohammad Reza; Kuno, Hiroyuki
2015-01-01
The present study attempts to report a collaborative cycle of professional development in teaching elementary school mathematics through lesson study. It explores a practice of lesson study conducted by teachers aiming to improve their knowledge of pedagogy. The study adopts an ethnographic approach to examine how collaborative teaching within an…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Santos-Trigo, Manuel; Barrera-Mora, Fernando
2011-01-01
The study documents the extent to which high school teachers reflect on their need to revise and extend their mathematical and practicing knowledge. In this context, teachers worked on a set of tasks as a part of an inquiring community that promoted the use of different computational tools in problem solving approaches. Results indicated that the…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Doerr, Helen M.; Wood, Terry
2004-01-01
This research forum addresses the question: what is the nature of the mathematical knowledge that is needed for secondary teaching? Six international contributors: (1) Australia (Kaye Stacey); (2) Brazil (Marcelo Borba); (3) Israel (Ruhama Even); (4) Norway (Bodil Kleve and Barbara Jaworski); (5) Taiwan (Fou-Lai Lin); and (6) USA (Helen Doerr)…
Mathematics, Innate Knowledge and Neuroscience A talk presented on September 27, 2012, by
Fokas, A. S.
1 Mathematics, Innate Knowledge and Neuroscience A talk presented on September 27, 2012 the context of the astounding modern achievements of Neuroscience. In particular, 'bottom up' processes which.fokas@damtp.cam.ac.uk #12; 2 1. Introduction It is difficult to find a scientific field in which Hellenic thought did
Mathematical Learning Models that Depend on Prior Knowledge and Instructional Strategies
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pritchard, David E.; Lee, Young-Jin; Bao, Lei
2008-01-01
We present mathematical learning models--predictions of student's knowledge vs amount of instruction--that are based on assumptions motivated by various theories of learning: tabula rasa, constructivist, and tutoring. These models predict the improvement (on the post-test) as a function of the pretest score due to intervening instruction and also…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Henning, Elizabeth
2013-01-01
This article about the discourse of pedagogy as related to child cognition in mathematics addresses the issue of what constitutes the main disciplinary content and the pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) of foundation-phase teachers. I argue that, unless child cognition itself is the primary disciplinary content of foundation-phase teacher's…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bidaibekov, Yessen Y.; Kornilov, Viktor S.; Kamalova, Guldina B.; Akimzhan, Nagima Sh.
2015-09-01
Methodical aspects of teaching students of higher educational institutions of natural science orientations of training of inverse problems for differential equations are considered in the article. A fact that an academic knowledge and competence in the field of applied mathematics is formed during such training is taken into consideration.
Yao, Yiyu
Interval-Set Algebra for Qualitative Knowledge Representation Y.Y. Yao Department of Mathematical Sciences, Lakehead University Thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada P7B 5E1 Abstract The notion of interval sets is introduced as a new kind of sets, represented by a pair of sets, namely, the lower and upper bounds
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
van Klinken, Eduarda
2010-01-01
Poor results in Queensland Year Three NAPLAN Numeracy tests have provided a focus to critically review the classroom practices of lower primary mathematics teachers. This paper outlines how pedagogical content knowledge can be strengthened by emphasising conceptual understanding, by utilising dynamic classroom discourse, by an awareness of…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tularam, Gurudeo Anand; Hulsman, Kees
2015-01-01
This study focuses on students in first year environmental science degree programs, where traditionally mathematical emphasis has been much less than within the strict science or math majors. The importance now placed on applied mathematics, however, means that students need to gain more conceptual and quantitative knowledge of mathematics in not…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Toh, Tin Lam; Kaur, Berinderjeet; Koay, Phong Lee
2013-01-01
In this article, we explore the mathematical content knowledge of one entire cohort of pre-service teachers (N = 107) through analysing their performance in a Secondary Mathematics Audit that was developed for the International Comparative Studies in Mathematics Teacher Training that was initiated by the University of Plymouth. We study how their…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chichekian, Tanya; Shore, Bruce M.
2013-01-01
This collaborative concept-mapping exercise was conducted in a second-year mathematics methods course. Teachers' visual representations of their mathematical content and pedagogical knowledge provided insight into their understanding of how students learn mathematics. We collected 28 preservice student teachers' concept maps and analyzed them by…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Young, Charlotte F.; Witter, John A.
1994-01-01
This study evaluated the effectiveness of educational brochures in increasing participants' knowledge about the environmental problem of gypsy moth infestations and associated action strategies. Results suggest that brochures rated high in communication effectiveness were most useful in increasing knowledge. (Contains 28 references.) (Author/MDH)
Evaluation of a Web Course to Increase Evidence-Based Practice Knowledge Among Nurses.
Allen, Nicole; Lubejko, Barbara G; Thompson, Julie; Turner, Barbara S
2015-10-01
Evidence-based practice (EBP) is essential for quality health care, and EBP knowledge needs to be increased among nurses. Web-based courses may effectively deliver such education. In this study, data were collected about the Oncology Nursing Society web course "Developing Skills for Evidence-Based Practice" and evaluated for demographic characteristics and EBP knowledge test scores.?At a GlanceNo significant correlation was seen between knowledge test scores and participants' education or experience levels.Course participants had significant improvement on knowledge test scores after web course completion.?Additional studies are needed to explore the impact of EBP knowledge on clinical practice. PMID:26414582
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Moss, Joan; Beatty, Ruth
2010-01-01
Three classrooms of Grade 4 students from different schools and diverse backgrounds collaborated in early algebra research to solve a series of linear and quadratic generalizing problems. Results revealed that high- and low-achieving students were able to solve problems of recognized difficulty. We discuss Knowledge Building principles and…
Increasing Cognitive Inhibition with a Difficult Prior Task: Implications for Mathematical Thinking
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Attridge, Nina; Inglis, Matthew
2015-01-01
Dual-process theories posit two distinct types of cognitive processing: Type 1, which does not use working memory making it fast and automatic, and Type 2, which does use working memory making it slow and effortful. Mathematics often relies on the inhibition of pervasive Type 1 processing to apply new skills or knowledge that require Type 2…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Niemeier, Brandi S.; Tande, Desiree L.; Hwang, Joyce; Stastny, Sherri; Hektner, Joel M.
2010-01-01
Because children's eating habits predict their adult eating habits, educating children about healthy foods is essential (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2000). A Midwest Extension Service created and delivered an educational experience for preschool children to increase knowledge of fruits and vegetables. The knowledge assessment…
Ethnic Differences in Knowledge and Attitudes about BRCA1 Testing in Women at Increased Risk.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hughes, Chanita; Gomez-Caminero, Andres; Benkendorf, Judith; Kerner, Jon; Isaacs, Claudine; Barter, James; Lerman, Caryn
1997-01-01
Knowledge about the inheritance of breast cancer and attitudes about genetic testing for breast-ovarian cancer susceptibility in women at increased risk were studied in Caucasian and African-American women (N=407). Participants had at least one first-degree relative with cancer. Differences in knowledge and attitudes toward risk may be attributed…
A Guide to Mathematics Coaching: Processes for Increasing Student Achievement
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hull, Ted H.; Balka, Don S.; Miles, Ruth Harbin
2010-01-01
Math coaches play a vital role in strengthening math instruction and learning in schools. However, without a collegial relationship with the teachers they are trying to help, it is difficult to foster productive collaborations that lead to better teaching practice and increased student achievement. This resource helps coaches confidently clarify,…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ruthven, Kenneth
2014-01-01
Reports from 13 Further Mathematics Knowledge Networks supported by the National Centre for Excellence in the Teaching of Mathematics [NCETM] are analysed. After summarizing basic characteristics of the networks regarding leadership, composition and pattern of activity, each of the following aspects is examined in greater depth: Developmental aims…
Hands-On Mathematics: Two Cases from Ancient Chinese Mathematics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wang, Youjun
2009-01-01
In modern mathematical teaching, it has become increasingly emphasized that mathematical knowledge should be taught by problem-solving, hands-on activities, and interactive learning experiences. Comparing the ideas of modern mathematical education with the development of ancient Chinese mathematics, we find that the history of mathematics in…
CONNECTING COMMUNITY, CRITICAL, AND CLASSICAL KNOWLEDGE IN TEACHING MATHEMATICS FOR SOCIAL JUSTICE
Eric Gutstein
In this article, I describe conceptually, and give an example of, an aspect of teaching mathematics for social justice—teachers' attempts to connect three forms of knowledge: community, critical, and classical. The setting is a Chicago public high school, oriented toward social justice, whose students are all low-income African Americans and Latinas\\/os. Drawing from the experience of creating and teaching a
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mahon, Lee
1997-01-01
The purpose of this proposal was to field test and evaluate a Teacher Training program that would prepare teachers to increase the motivation and achievement of culturally diverse students in the areas of science and mathematics. Designed as a three year program, this report covers the first two years of the training program at the Ronald McNair School in the Ravenswood School district, using the resources of the NASA Ames Research Center and the California Framework for Mathematics and Science.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Llinares, Salvador; Valls, Julia
2009-01-01
This study explores how preservice primary teachers became engaged in meaning-making mathematics teaching when participating in online discussions within learning environments integrating video-clips of mathematics teaching. We identified different modes of participation in the online discussions and different levels of knowledge-building. The…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kinuthia, Wanjira; Brantley-Dias, Laurie; Clarke, Pier Angeli Junor
2010-01-01
This qualitative case study explores the potential of technology integration teaching cases to develop preservice mathematics teachers' Pedagogical Technology Integration Content Knowledge (PTICK). A cohort of eight mathematics education students was enrolled in a technology integration course at a large southeastern university that emphasizes…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Silverman, Jason
2012-01-01
We report on our efforts to support teachers' development of mathematical knowledge for teaching through online professional development focusing on authentic engagement in collaborative mathematical problem solving. In particular, this paper seeks to explore and understand the relationship between teachers' participation in professional…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Roth McDuffie, Amy; Foote, Mary Q.; Bolson, Catherine; Turner, Erin E.; Aguirre, Julia M.; Bartell, Tonya Gau; Drake, Corey; Land, Tonia
2014-01-01
As part of a larger research project aimed at transforming preK-8 mathematics teacher preparation, the purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which prospective teachers notice children's competencies related to children's mathematical thinking, and children's community, cultural, and linguistic funds of knowledge or what…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Nikolakaki, Maria; Dossa, Katerina; Moraiti, Tzeni
2012-01-01
Through analysis of exercises offered in mathematics textbooks, this article investigates the discursive practice of cross-curricularity and group work teaching that was advocated in the 2007 reform of mathematics education in Greek primary schools. The conclusion of the research is that the organisation of school knowledge is vertical, and strong…
Validity issues in the evaluation of a measure of science and mathematics teacher knowledge
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Talbot, Robert M., III
2011-12-01
This study investigates the reliability and validity of an instrument designed to measure science and mathematics teachers' strategic knowledge . Strategic knowledge is conceptualized as a construct that is related to pedagogical knowledge and is comprised of two dimensions: Flexible Application (FA) and Student Centered Instruction (SCI). The FA dimension describes how a science teacher invokes, applies and modifies her instructional repertoire in a given teaching context. The SCI dimension describes how a science teacher conceives of a given situation as an opportunity for active engagement with the students. The Flexible Application of Student-Centered Instruction (FASCI) survey instrument was designed to measure science teachers' strategic knowledge by eliciting open-ended responses to scenario-based items. This study addresses the following overarching question: What are some potential issues pertaining to the validity of measures of science and mathematics teacher knowledge? Using a validity argument framework, different sources of evidence are identified, collected, and evaluated to examine support for a set or propositions related to the intended score interpretation and instrument use: FASCI scores can be used to compare and distinguish the strategic knowledge of novice science and mathematics teachers in the evaluation of teacher education programs. Three separate but related studies are presented and discussed. These studies focus on the reliability of FASCI scores, the effect of adding specific science content to the scenario-based items, and the observation of strategic knowledge in teaching practice. Serious issues were found with the reliability of scores from the FASCI instrument. It was also found that adding science content to the scenario-based items has an effect on FASCI scores, but not for the reason hypothesized. Finally, it was found that more evidence is needed to make stronger claims about the relationship between FASCI scores and novice teachers' practice. In concluding this work, a set of four recommendations are presented for others who are engaged in similar measure development efforts. These recommendations focus on the areas of construct definition, item design and development, rater recruitment and training, and the validation process.
Effectiveness of interpretive signs in increasing the environmental knowledge of campers
Webster, Nevin Burt
1981-01-01
chose information retention as one of her cri teria for examining the effectiveness of active language in interpretive trail signs and rules leaflets (40) . Feldman gave a multiple choice quiz to test knowledge of motorists who listened to audio...EFFECTIVENESS OF INTERPRE' , IVE SIGNS IN INCREASING THE ENVIRO, 'IMENTAL KNOWLEDGE OF CAMPERS A Thesis by NEVIN BURT WEBSTER, JR. Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement...
How do students learn to apply their mathematical knowledge to interpret graphs in physics?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Woolnough, Jim
2000-09-01
This paper describes a laboratory-based program in physics designed to help students build effective links between the mathematical equations used to solve problems in mechanics and the real world of moving objects. Through the analysis of straight line graphs derived from their own data students have been able to achieve a considerable development towards a concept of slope, or gradient, and how it relates to the concept of proportionality, but they continue to demonstrate a great resistance to applying their mathematical knowledge to physics. A model designed to help us apply current research ideas to this problem is described. The work described in this paper was carried out at Dickson College, a government senior secondary college (Years 11 and 12) in the Australian Capital Territory, where the author taught physics and biology.
Characterizing the Use of Mathematical Knowledge in Boundary-Crossing Situations at Work
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kent, Phillip; Noss, Richard; Guile, David; Hoyles, Celia; Bakker, Arthur
2007-01-01
The first aim of this article is to present a characterization of the techno-mathematical literacies needed for effective practice in modern, technology-rich workplaces that are both highly automated and increasingly focused on flexible response to customer needs. The second aim is to introduce an epistemological dimension to activity theory,…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Yigit, Melike
2014-01-01
In recent years, researchers have advanced the Technological, Pedagogical, and Content Knowledge (TPACK) framework to describe both in-service and pre-service teachers' knowledge related to effectively integrating technology. This study is a systematic literature review about pre-service mathematics teachers' (PSMTs) development of…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Yigit, Melike
2014-01-01
In recent years, researchers have advanced the Technological, Pedagogical, and Content Knowledge (TPACK) framework to describe both in-service and pre-service teachers' knowledge related to effectively integrating technology. This study is a systematic literature review about pre-service mathematics teachers' (PSMTs) development of TPACK, and the…
Morgan, Paul L.; Farkas, George; Wu, Qiong
2015-01-01
We used a large sample of children (N ? 7,400) participating in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study – Kindergarten Cohort to estimate kindergarten children’s academic achievement growth trajectories in reading and mathematics. We were particularly interested in whether the growth trajectories of children with learning disabilities (LD) or speech language impairments (SLI)—as well as those of other groups of children—were consistent with a cumulative or compensatory developmental cycle. Both LD and SLI children displayed significantly lower levels of kindergarten reading achievement than non-disabled children. However, and over the subsequent five years of elementary school, only children with SLI lagged increasingly behind non-disabled peers in their reading skills growth. We observed a different pattern for mathematics achievement. Children with LD, but not SLI, lagged increasingly behind non-disabled children in their mathematics skills growth. We also observed some consistency in “poor-get-poorer” effects across reading and mathematic achievement for additional population subgroups. Those kindergarten children who were from lower socio-economic status (SES) families, who were African-American, and who more frequently displayed learning-related behaviors problems initially had lower levels of reading and mathematics achievement and also lagged increasingly behind in their acquisition of these skills over time. Some groups of children, including those with SLI, experience a cumulative rather than compensatory cycle of achievement growth. PMID:21856991
Morgan, Paul L; Farkas, George; Wu, Qiong
2011-01-01
The authors used a large sample of children (N ? 7,400) participating in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study--Kindergarten Cohort (ECLS-K) to estimate kindergarten children's academic achievement growth trajectories in reading and mathematics. The authors were particularly interested in whether the growth trajectories of children with learning disabilities (LD) or speech language impairments (SLI)--as well as those of other groups of children--were consistent with a cumulative or compensatory developmental cycle. Both LD and SLI children displayed significantly lower levels of kindergarten reading achievement than nondisabled children. However, and over the subsequent 5 years of elementary school, only children with SLI lagged increasingly behind nondisabled peers in their reading skills growth. The authors observed a different pattern for mathematics achievement. Children with LD, but not SLI, lagged increasingly behind nondisabled children in their mathematics skills growth. The authors also observed some consistency in "poor-get-poorer" effects across reading and mathematic achievement for additional population subgroups. Those kindergarten children who were from lower socioeconomic status families, who were African American, and who more frequently displayed learning-related behavior problems initially had lower levels of reading and mathematics achievement and also lagged increasingly behind in their acquisition of these skills over time. Some groups of children, including those with SLI, experience a cumulative rather than a compensatory cycle of achievement growth. PMID:21856991
Student Content Knowledge Increases After Participation in a Hands-on Biotechnology Intervention
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bigler, Amber M.; Hanegan, Nikki L.
2011-06-01
Implementing biotechnology education through hands-on teaching methods should be considered by secondary biology teachers. This study is an experimental research design to examine increased student content knowledge in biotechnology after a hands-on biotechnology intervention. The teachers from both school groups participated in, Project Crawfish, a biotechnology professional development program. Students from both schools completed a pre and post assessment. The classroom was the unit of analysis. When the assessment was analyzed, each school had statistically significant increases in student content knowledge ( p < 0.0001 for the intervention school and p = 0.0481 for the control school). When the schools were compared to each other, a p-value of 0.0543 provided a suggestive relationship that the biotechnology intervention school had a larger increase in student content knowledge overall. When the assessment was divided into the five components, the intervention school showed significant increases in all five components. The control school had significant increases in student content knowledge in the PCR and DNA sequencing components ( p = 0.0459, p = 0.0043, respectively).
Mathematical learning models that depend on prior knowledge and instructional strategies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pritchard, David E.; Lee, Young-Jin; Bao, Lei
2008-06-01
We present mathematical learning models—predictions of student’s knowledge vs amount of instruction—that are based on assumptions motivated by various theories of learning: tabula rasa, constructivist, and tutoring. These models predict the improvement (on the post-test) as a function of the pretest score due to intervening instruction and also depend on the type of instruction. We introduce a connectedness model whose connectedness parameter measures the degree to which the rate of learning is proportional to prior knowledge. Over a wide range of pretest scores on standard tests of introductory physics concepts, it fits high-quality data nearly within error. We suggest that data from MIT have low connectedness (indicating memory-based learning) because the test used the same context and representation as the instruction and that more connected data from the University of Minnesota resulted from instruction in a different representation from the test.
Mathematics/Arithmetic Knowledge-Based Way of Thinking and Its Maintenance Needed for Engineers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Harada, Shoji
Examining curriculum among universities revealed that no significant difference in math class or related subjects can be seen. However, amount and depth of those studies, in general, differed depending on content of curriculum and the level of achievement at entrance to individual university. Universalization of higher education shows that students have many problems in learning higher level of traditional math and that the memory of math they learned quickly fades away after passing in exam. It means that further development of higher math knowledgebased engineer after graduation from universities. Under these circumstances, the present author, as one of fun of math, propose how to maintain way of thinking generated by math knowledge. What necessary for engineer is to pay attention to common books, dealing with elementary mathematics or arithmetic- related matters. This surely leads engineer to nourish math/arithmetic knowledge-based way of thinking.
Gillespie-Lynch, Kristen; Brooks, Patricia J; Someki, Fumio; Obeid, Rita; Shane-Simpson, Christina; Kapp, Steven K; Daou, Nidal; Smith, David Shane
2015-08-01
College students with autism may be negatively impacted by lack of understanding about autism on college campuses. Thus, we developed an online training to improve knowledge and decrease stigma associated with autism among college students. Participants (N = 365) completed a pre-test, online training, and post-test. Women reported lower stigma towards autism than men. Participation in the training was associated with decreased stigma and increased knowledge about autism. Although participants exhibited relatively high baseline knowledge of autism, misconceptions were common, particularly in open-ended responses. Participants commonly confused autism with other disorders, such as learning disabilities. This study suggests that online training may be a cost-effective way to increase college students' understanding and acceptance of their peers with autism. PMID:25796194
Student Content Knowledge Increases after Participation in a Hands-on Biotechnology Intervention
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bigler, Amber M.; Hanegan, Nikki L.
2011-01-01
Implementing biotechnology education through hands-on teaching methods should be considered by secondary biology teachers. This study is an experimental research design to examine increased student content knowledge in biotechnology after a hands-on biotechnology intervention. The teachers from both school groups participated in, Project Crawfish,…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Watson, Bernardine H.; Leibbrand, Jane A.
2010-01-01
This brief is a summary of "Increasing the Application of Developmental Sciences Knowledge in Educator Preparation: Policy Issues and Recommendations" by Robert C. Pianta, Randy Hitz and Blake West. It includes highlights and policy recommendations contained in that paper. This brief argues that teachers and education administrators need…
A Simple and Effective Program to Increase Faculty Knowledge of and Referrals to Counseling Centers
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Nolan, Susan A.; Pace, Kristi A.; Iannelli, Richard J.; Palma, Thomas V.; Pakalns, Gail P.
2006-01-01
The authors describe a simple, cost-effective, and empirically supported program to increase faculty referrals of students to counseling centers (CCs). Incoming faculty members at 3 universities received a mailing and personal telephone call from a CC staff member. Faculty assigned to the outreach program had greater knowledge of and rates of…
Increasing Access to Evidence-Based Practices and Knowledge and Attitudes: A Pilot Study
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Leathers, Sonya J.; Strand, Tonya C.
2013-01-01
Objective: This pilot study examined the effect of increasing field instructors access to information about evidence-based practices (EBPs) on their level of knowledge and attitudes about EBPs. Method: Eighteen field instructors received training and access to a library with extensive online journals. Half were randomly selected to also receive a…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Zhao, Yan-jun
2011-01-01
Ethnic students will face the problem of "cultural discontinuities" when they learn school mathematics. "Cultural discontinuity" is the main obstacle when they learn school mathematics. Teachers should put up the bridge for introducing ethnic mathematical knowledge into school mathematics teaching. The concrete tactics are: widening ethnic…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gobithaasan, R. U.; Miura, Kenjiro T.; Hassan, Mohamad Nor
2014-07-01
Computer Aided Geometric Design (CAGD) which surpasses the underlying theories of Computer Aided Design (CAD) and Computer Graphics (CG) has been taught in a number of Malaysian universities under the umbrella of Mathematical Sciences' faculty/department. On the other hand, CAD/CG is taught either under the Engineering or Computer Science Faculty. Even though CAGD researchers/educators/students (denoted as contributors) have been enriching this field of study by means of article/journal publication, many fail to convert the idea into constructive innovation due to the gap that occurs between CAGD contributors and practitioners (engineers/product/designers/architects/artists). This paper addresses this issue by advocating a number of technologies that can be used to transform CAGD contributors into innovators where immediate impact in terms of practical application can be experienced by the CAD/CG practitioners. The underlying principle of solving this issue is twofold. First would be to expose the CAGD contributors on ways to turn mathematical ideas into plug-ins and second is to impart relevant CAGD theories to CAD/CG to practitioners. Both cases are discussed in detail and the final section shows examples to illustrate the importance of turning mathematical knowledge into innovations.
Gimeno Garcia, Antonio Z.; Hernandez Alvarez Buylla, Noemi; Nicolas-Perez, David; Quintero, Enrique
2014-01-01
Colorectal cancer ranks as one of the most incidental and death malignancies worldwide. Colorectal cancer screening has proven its benefit in terms of incidence and mortality reduction in randomized controlled trials. In fact, it has been recommended by medical organizations either in average-risk or family-risk populations. Success of a screening campaign highly depends on how compliant the target population is. Several factors influence colorectal cancer screening uptake including sociodemographics, provider and healthcare system factors, and psychosocial factors. Awareness of the target population of colorectal cancer and screening is crucial in order to increase screening participation rates. Knowledge about this disease and its prevention has been used across studies as a measurement of public awareness. Some studies found a positive relationship between knowledge about colorectal cancer, risk perception, and attitudes (perceived benefits and barriers against screening) and willingness to participate in a colorectal cancer screening campaign. The mentioned factors are modifiable and therefore susceptible of intervention. In fact, interventional studies focused on average-risk population have tried to increase colorectal cancer screening uptake by improving public knowledge and modifying attitudes. In the present paper, we reviewed the factors impacting adherence to colorectal cancer screening and interventions targeting participants for increasing screening uptake. PMID:24729896
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
American Univ., Washington, DC. Mid-Atlantic Equity Center.
This publication is a practical guide to implementing the Mathematics, Science, and Minorities: K-6 (MSM: K-6) Project, a program to increase minority student participation in mathematics and sciences in the kindergarten through sixth grade levels. The guide is organized into five parts. Part 1 is an introduction that explains why minority…
Alpert, Anna Pat
2013-08-09
, (3) Mathematics Tests/Assessments, (4) Teaching and Learning Mathematics, and (5) Mathematical Experiences, Hopes and Dreams. Each theme is discussed. Using Microsoft Excel, bootstrapping is presented to instructors of first year introductory...
Zacharias, Tresa; Wang, Winnie; Dao, Doan; Wojciechowski, Helena; Lee, William M; Do, Son; Singal, Amit G
2015-08-01
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) testing and vaccination rates remain low among Asian-American/Pacific Islanders (APIs) despite high rates of HBV infection. The aim of our study was to assess the effectiveness of an outreach campaign to increase HBV knowledge, testing, and vaccination among a cohort of APIs. Vietnamese Americans were invited to participate in a free HBV screening and vaccination outreach program though pubic service announcements. Attendees completed a survey to assess barriers to vaccination and HBV-related knowledge before and after a 30-min education session by a bilingual board-certified gastroenterologist. Among 98 participants, 100% (22/22) of HBV naïve patients were provided a HBV vaccination series at no cost and over 75% (14/18) of HBV-infected patients were connected to further medical care. Notable reported barriers to prior testing and/or vaccination were cost of the vaccine, concern about missing work for evaluation, and lack of provider recommendation. Knowledge levels about HBV risk factors, potential consequences, and treatment options were poor at baseline but significantly increased after the education session (49 vs. 64%, p < 0.001). Outreach campaigns linked with education can successfully address several barriers to HBV testing and offer an approach to improve HBV awareness and prevention among difficult-to-reach populations. PMID:25476035
Evaluation of a fotonovela to increase depression knowledge and reduce stigma among Hispanic adults.
Unger, Jennifer B; Cabassa, Leopoldo J; Molina, Gregory B; Contreras, Sandra; Baron, Melvin
2013-04-01
Fotonovelas-small booklets that portray a dramatic story using photographs and captions-represent a powerful health education tool for low-literacy and ethnic minority audiences. This study evaluated the effectiveness of a depression fotonovela in increasing depression knowledge, decreasing stigma, increasing self-efficacy to recognize depression, and increasing intentions to seek treatment, relative to a text pamphlet. Hispanic adults attending a community adult school (N = 157, 47.5 % female, mean age = 35.8 years, 84 % immigrants, 63 % with less than high school education) were randomly assigned to read the fotonovela or a low-literacy text pamphlet about depression. They completed surveys before reading the material, immediately after reading the material, and 1 month later. The fotonovela and text pamphlet both produced significant improvements in depression knowledge and self-efficacy to identify depression, but the fotonovela produced significantly larger reductions in antidepressant stigma and mental health care stigma. The fotonovela also was more likely to be passed on to family or friends after the study, potentially increasing its reach throughout the community. Results indicate that fotonovelas can be useful for improving health literacy among underserved populations, which could reduce health disparities. PMID:22485012
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Beach, Dennis; Player-Koro, Catarina
2012-01-01
Two related ethnographic research projects on mathematics teacher education in Sweden are presented in this paper. They represent a response to recent policy developments that reaffirm the value of authoritative subject studies content as the central and most important component in the professional knowledge base of would-be teachers and…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gann, Linda
2013-01-01
The research centered on secondary mathematics teachers' beliefs, attitudes, knowledge base, and practices in meeting the academic and language needs of English language learners. Using socio-cultural theory and social practice theory to frame the study, the research design employed a mixed methods approach incorporating self-reported…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Matthews, Mary Elizabeth
2013-01-01
This literature review examines the models, theories, and research in mathematics education that are informed by Lee S. Shulman's construct, Pedagogical Content Knowledge. The application of the concept differs in nature and volume across levels of schooling. The research includes substantial work at the elementary level, fewer studies at the…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Polly, Drew
2011-01-01
Technological pedagogical and content knowledge (TPACK) has been advanced as a construct to describe teachers' understandings related to effectively teaching with technology. This study examined the development of TPACK of two teachers during their mathematics teaching after participating in a learner-centered professional development (LCPD)…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kim, Rae Young; Ham, Seung-Hwan; Paine, Lynn W.
2011-01-01
As a comparative analysis of teacher preparation in its sociohistorical contexts, this study examines the official educational aims and curricula of 49 mathematics teacher preparation programs in South Korea and the United States, where substantial differences have been observed in both student achievement and teacher knowledge. Overall, the…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jacobson, Erik; Izsák, Andrew
2015-01-01
Past studies have suggested that in light of recent curriculum standards, many US teachers make limited use of drawn models in their mathematics instruction. To gain insight into this phenomenon, we investigated relationships between US teachers' opportunities to learn about, knowledge of, motivation for, and instructional use of drawn models for…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cheriani, Cheriani; Mahmud, Alimuddin; Tahmir, Suradi; Manda, Darman; Dirawan, Gufran Darma
2015-01-01
This study aims to determine the differences in learning output by using Problem Based Model combines with the "Buginese" Local Cultural Knowledge (PBL-Culture). It is also explores the students activities in learning mathematics subject by using PBL-Culture Models. This research is using Mixed Methods approach that combined quantitative…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pape, Stephen J.; Prosser, Sherri K.; Griffin, Cynthia C.; Dana, Nancy Fichtman; Algina, James; Bae, Jungah
2015-01-01
This study sought to identify components of an asynchronous online teacher professional development program, "Prime Online," that potentially affected participants' mathematical knowledge for teaching (MKT). Twenty-three third- through fifth-grade general education and special education teachers completed a yearlong online teacher…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hoffer, Alan R.
1993-01-01
Discusses the potential that school mathematics has for being a source of exploration and discovery for students and teachers. Provides a process-oriented definition of understanding mathematics. Presents activities in which students construct computer and actual models of polyhedra and make conjectures regarding a medical research application of…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kalinec-Craig, Crystal
2012-01-01
This dissertation study examines the experiences of four Latina/o pre-service teachers (PSTs) as they learn about teaching mathematics for understanding (TM4U) and integrating a child's out-of-school mathematical knowledge and experiences during instruction. Studying the knowledge and experiences of Latina/o PSTs is necessary because PSTs…
Ebola Outbreak in Nigeria: Increasing Ebola Knowledge of Volunteer Health Advisors.
Patel, Unnati; Pharr, Jennifer R; Ihesiaba, Chidi; Oduenyi, Frances U; Hunt, Aaron T; Patel, Dina; Obiefune, Michael; Chukwumerije, Nkem; Ezeanolue, Echezona E
2015-01-01
In many low-income countries, volunteer health advisors (VHAs) play an important role in disseminating information, especially in rural or hard-to-reach locations. When the world's largest outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) occurred in 2014, a majority of cases were concentrated in the West African countries of Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone. Twenty cases were reported in Nigeria initially and there was a need to rapidly disseminate factual information on Ebola virus. In southeast Nigeria, a group of VHAs was being used to implement the Healthy Beginning Initiative [HBI], a congregation based intervention to increase HIV testing among pregnant women and their male partners. The purpose of this study was to assess the baseline and post EVD training knowledge of VHAs during the outbreak in Nigeria. In September 2014, 59 VHAs attending a HBI training workshop in the Enugu State of Nigeria participated in an Ebola awareness training session. Participants completed a 10-item single-answer questionnaire that assessed knowledge of Ebola epidemiology, symptoms, transmission, prevention practices, treatment and survival prior to the Ebola awareness training. After the training, the VHAs repeated the questionnaire. Answers to pre and post questionnaires were analyzed using paired t-tests. Multiple linear regression was used to examine the relationship between pre and post total questionnaire scores and age, education, current location and employment. The average pre-test score was 7.3 and average post-test score was 7.8 which was a significant difference (t=-2.5, p=0.01). Prior to the training, there was a significant difference in Ebola knowledge based on the VHAs education only (p<0.01). After training, education was no longer significant for Ebola knowledge. Existing community health programs can be used as a platform to train VHAs in times of epidemics for quick dissemination of vital health information in areas lacking adequate health infrastructure and personnel. PMID:26234990
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Graham, Suzanne E.; Provost, Lauren E.
2012-01-01
In this brief, authors Suzanne Graham and Lauren Provost examine whether attending a school in a rural, urban, or suburban community is related to children's mathematics achievement in kindergarten, and whether increases in mathematics achievement between kindergarten and eighth grade differ for children in rural, urban, and suburban schools. They…
Multi-Media Educational Tool Increases Knowledge of Clinical Trials in Uganda
Castelnuovo, Barbara; Newell, Kevin; Manabe, Yukari C.; Robertson, Gavin
2014-01-01
Background Informed consent is premised on the participants’ understanding the scope of the research and the associated risks and benefits. The objective was to evaluate the improvement in knowledge in a population unfamiliar with clinical trial concepts about “what it means to be part of a clinical trial” using an innovative educational tool called the ‘Speaking Book’. Methods This was a randomized controlled trial conducted at a research site in Uganda. 201 participants were randomized to: 1) clinical trials information session control arm, or 2) clinical trials information session followed by instruction in the use of the Speaking Book with a take-home copy (intervention arm). After the session, participants of both groups completed a 22-item multiple-choice test on the rights and responsibilities of participants. Participants returned after one week to complete the same test to assess knowledge retention. The mean pre- and post-test score difference was assessed according to trial arm using an unpaired t-test of proportions. Results Ninety-one (90%) participants completed both the initial and follow-up tests in the control arm and 100 (100%) in the intervention arm. The average age of participants was 38 years, 53% were female and 67% were employed; 20% had previously been invited to participate in a clinical trial; of these, 19% had participated. The mean difference in proportion of correct responses from test 1 to test 2 was 2.7% (95%CI 0.3%–5.0%) for the control arm and 11.6% (95%CI 9.3%–13.7%) for the intervention arm (t-score= ?5.3, p-value<0.0001). Conclusion Participants who had instruction in the use of the Speaking Book had a larger increase in knowledge than those who had no access to this tool. To better engage patients unfamiliar with clinical trial concepts, innovative educational techniques can assist to increase knowledge to make an informed decision about participation in a clinical trial. PMID:24795832
Eskicioglu, Cagla; Pearsall, Emily; Victor, J Charles; Aarts, Mary-Anne; Okrainec, Allan; McLeod, Robin S
2015-01-01
The successful transfer of evidence into clinical practice is a slow and haphazard process. We report the outcome of a 5-year knowledge translation (KT) strategy to increase adherence with a clinical practice guideline (CPG) for mechanical bowel preparation (MBP) for elective colorectal surgery patients. A locally tailored CPG recommending MBP practices was developed. Data on MBP practices were collected at six University of Toronto hospitals before CPG implementation as well as after two separate KT strategies. KT strategy #1 included development of the CPG, education by opinion leaders, reminder cards, and presentations of data. KT strategy #2 included selection of hospital champions, development of communities of practice, education, reminder cards, electronic updates, pre-printed standardized orders, and audit and feedback. A total of 744 patients (400 males, 344 females, mean age 57.0) were included. Compliance increased from 58.6 to 70.4% after KT strategy #1 and to 81.1% after KT strategy #2 (p?increased compliance was observed with CPG recommendations over time suggesting that a longitudinal KT strategy is required to increase and sustain compliance with recommendations. Furthermore, different strategies may be required at different times (i.e., educational sessions initially and reminders and standardized orders to maintain adherence). PMID:25238813
Ismail, S Y; Luchtenburg, A E; Timman, R; Zuidema, W C; Boonstra, C; Weimar, W; Busschbach, J J V; Massey, E K
2014-08-01
Our aim was to develop and test an educational program to support well-informed decision making among patients and their social network regarding living donor kidney transplantation (LDKT). One hundred sixty-three patients who were unable to find a living donor were randomized to standard care or standard care plus home-based education. In the education condition, patients and members of their social network participated in home-based educational meetings and discussed renal replacement therapy options. Patients and invitees completed pre-post self-report questionnaires measuring knowledge, risk perception, communication, self-efficacy and subjective norm. LDKT activities were observed for 6 months postintervention. Patients in the experimental group showed significantly more improvements in knowledge (p?increases in knowledge (p?
Minimalism as a Guiding Principle: Linking Mathematical Learning to Everyday Knowledge
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Inoue, Noriyuki
2008-01-01
Studies report that students often fail to consider familiar aspects of reality in solving mathematical word problems. This study explored how different features of mathematical problems influence the way that undergraduate students employ realistic considerations in mathematical problem solving. Incorporating familiar contents in the word…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Norton, Anderson; McCloskey, Andrea; Hudson, Rick A.
2011-01-01
In order to evaluate the effectiveness of an experimental elementary mathematics field experience course, we have designed a new assessment instrument. These video-based prediction assessments engage prospective teachers in a video analysis of a child solving mathematical tasks. The prospective teachers build a model of that child's mathematics…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hannigan, Ailish; Gill, Olivia; Leavy, Aisling M.
2013-01-01
The development of statistical literacy is fast becoming the focus of a large part of mathematics instruction at primary, secondary and tertiary levels. This broadening of the mathematics curriculum to encompass a focus on statistics makes considerable demands on teachers. Most mathematics teachers acknowledge the practical importance of…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
James, Susanne M.
2011-01-01
Special educators' knowledge of reading concepts are not only influenced by their understanding of the subject matter, but also by an amalgam of content and pedagogy that enables teachers to integrate this information to meet the diverse needs of students with disabilities. This study documented the conceptual knowledge that special education…
Harrison, Lindsay
2012-01-01
Led by the agency director, the agency engaged in a Strategic Review, based on a comprehensive assessment of agency performance that identified strategies to improve organizational effectiveness through increased data-informed practice and knowledge management. The Strategic Review gathered information on staff perceptions, perceptions of external stakeholders, changing citywide and neighborhood demographics, policy mandates, and budget and workload issues. The need for the review was based upon multiple, substantial changes not addressed in the 2000 Strategic Plan, including the 2004 merger of the Department of Human Services and the Department of Aging and Adult Services, changes among the executive management team, transitions among key political entities, new policy mandates and changing budget allocations. This case study describes the Strategic Review process and content, summarizing key challenges and lessons related to addressing workload demands, fostering positive staff attitudes, balancing internal and external information needs, and integrating data use and planning processes across the agency. PMID:22409611
Increasing Aspiring Principals' Readiness to Serve: Knowledge and Skill Application Laboratories
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Eiseman, Jeffrey W.; Militello, Matthew
2008-01-01
Most leadership programs emphasize knowledge over skills, being skillful over how to be skillful, knowledge about skills over skill application, and ad hoc and hard-to-assess field activities over focused and observable skill practice. "Knowledge and skill application laboratories" provide opportunities to experiment with--and receive…
James, Susanne Marie
2011-07-21
). In order to reach an outcome, it is necessary to produce certain objects (e.g., experiences, knowledge, and physical products). These objects are visible forms of mental processes teachers undertake as they try to make sense of a literacy concept like... conditional on how well the class was managed. That is, teachers were deemed knowledgeable based on student outcomes or products achieved within the process through which the lesson was taught (e.g., see Good & Brophy, 1971, 2008). Fenstermacher (1978) argued...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wan Salleh, Masturah; Sulaiman, Hajar
2013-04-01
The use of technology in the teaching of mathematics at the university level has long been introduced; but many among the lecturers, especially those that have taught for many years, still opt for a traditional teaching method, that is, by lecture talk. One reason is that lecturers themselves were not exposed to the technologies available and how it can assist in the teaching and learning procedures (T&L) in mathematics. GeoGebra is a mathematical software which is open and free and has just recently been introduced in Malaysia. Compared with the software Cabri Geometry and Geometer's Sketchpad (GSP), which only focus on geometry, GeoGebra is able to connect geometry, algebra and numerical representation. Realizing this, the researchers have conducted a study to expose the university lecturers on the use of GeoGebra in T&L. The researchers chose to do the research on mathematics lecturers at the Department of Computer Science and Mathematics (JSKM), Universiti Teknologi Mara (UiTM), Penang. The objective of this study is to determine whether an exposure to GeoGebra software can affect the conceptual knowledge and procedural teaching of mathematics at the university level. This study is a combination of descriptive and qualitative. One session was conducted in an open workshop for all the 45 lecturers. From that total, four people were selected as a sample. The sample was selected by using a simple random sampling method. This study used materials in the form of modules during the workshop. In terms of conceptual knowledge, the results showed that the GeoGebra software is appropriate, relevant and highly effective for in-depth understanding of the selected topics. While the procedural aspects of teaching, it can be one of the teaching aids and considerably facilitate the lecturers.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Online-Offline, 1999
1999-01-01
This theme issue on knowledge includes annotated listings of Web sites, CD-ROMs and computer software, videos, books, and additional resources that deal with knowledge and differences between how animals and humans learn. Sidebars discuss animal intelligence, learning proper behavior, and getting news from the Internet. (LRW)
Cernusak, Lucas [Australian National University, Canberra, Australia; Winter, Klaus [Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute; Dalling, James [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; Holtum, Joseph [James Cook University; Jaramillo, Carlos [Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute; Korner, Christian [University of Basel; Leakey, Andrew D.B. [University of Illinois; Norby, Richard J [ORNL; Poulter, Benjamin [Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environement, France; Turner, Benjamin [Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute; Wright, S. Joseph [Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute
2013-01-01
Elevated atmospheric [CO2] (ca) will undoubtedly affect the metabolism of tropical forests worldwide; however, critical aspects of how tropical forests will respond remain largely unknown. Here we review the current state of knowledge about physiological and ecological responses, with the aim of providing a framework that can help to guide future experimental research. Modelling studies have indicated that elevated ca can potentially stimulate photosynthesis more in the tropics than at higher latitudes, because suppression of photorespiration by elevated ca increases with temperature. However, canopy leaves in tropical forests could also potentially reach a high temperature threshold under elevated ca that will moderate the rise in photosynthesis. Belowground responses, including fine root production, nutrient foraging, and soil organic matter processing, will be especially important to the integrated ecosystem response to elevated CO2. Water-use efficiency will increase as ca rises, potentially impacting upon soil moisture status and nutrient availability. Recruitment may be differentially altered for some functional groups, potentially decreasing ecosystem carbon storage. Whole-forest CO2 enrichment experiments are urgently needed to test predictions of tropical forest functioning under elevated ca. Smaller scale experiments in the understory and in gaps would also be informative, and could provide stepping stones toward stand-scale manipulations.
The Role of Learning Goals in Building a Knowledge Base for Elementary Mathematics Teacher Education
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jansen, Amanda; Bartell, Tonya; Berk, Dawn
2009-01-01
In this article, we describe features of learning goals that enable indexing knowledge for teacher education. Learning goals are the key enabler for building a knowledge base for teacher education; they define what counts as essential knowledge for prospective teachers. We argue that 2 characteristics of learning goals support knowledge-building…
Mathematical Knowledge of Technology and Design Student Teachers: Diagnosis and Remediation
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bell, Irene Teresa; Gibson, Ken
2009-01-01
This research examines how e-assessment and e-resources were used to assess and support the mathematics of Technology and Design students undertaking a B.Ed. (post-primary) teacher education course. The students participated in two similar tests in order to ascertain if their mathematical difficulties were in the underlying concepts of the…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Walker-Glenn, Michelle Lynn
2010-01-01
Although most high schools espouse school-wide literacy initiatives, few schools place equal emphasis on numeracy, or quantitative literacy. This lack of attention to quantitative skills is ironic in light of documented deficiencies in student mathematics achievement. While significant research exists regarding best practices for mathematics…
How Important Is Where You Start? Early Mathematics Knowledge and Later School Success
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Claessens, Amy; Engel, Mimi
2013-01-01
Background: Children's early skills are essential for their later success in school. Recent evidence highlights the importance of early mathematics, relative to reading and socioemotional skills, for elementary school achievement. Key advocacy groups for both early childhood and mathematics education have issued position statements on the…
Truth and the Renewal of Knowledge: The Case of Mathematics Education
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Brown, Tony
2010-01-01
Mathematics education research must enable adjustment to new conditions. Yet such research is often conducted within familiar conceptualisations of teaching, of learning and of mathematics. It may be necessary to express ourselves in new ways if we are to change our practices successfully, and potential changes can be understood in many…
Choice and Use of Examples as a Window on Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chick, Helen
2009-01-01
Examples play a central role in mathematics learning and teaching. Although they involve specific situations, their purpose is to exemplify more general mathematical principles. A critical task of teaching, therefore, is to choose appropriate examples and implement them in pedagogically productive ways. This study considers the examples used by…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dreher, Anika; Kuntze, Sebastian
2015-01-01
Teachers notice through the lens of their professional knowledge and views. This study hence focuses not solely on teachers' noticing, but also on their knowledge and views, which allows insight into how noticing is informed and shaped by professional knowledge. As a discipline-specific perspective for noticing we chose dealing with multiple…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dunekacke, Simone; Jenßen, Lars; Blömeke, Sigrid
2015-01-01
This study addresses the relation of pre-school teachers' mathematics content knowledge and their performance--how they perceive mathematical learning situations and whether they are able to plan adequate actions that foster children's learning--in the informal settings of pre-schools. It thus addresses a serious gap in teacher research that has…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Polly, Drew
2014-01-01
This paper presents the findings of a study that examined pre-service teachers' development of knowledge about technology, pedagogy and content (TPACK) during a mathematics pedagogy course focused on elementary school mathematics in the United States. Data sources included work samples from pre-service teachers as well as an open-ended survey…
Jan Johanson; Jan-Erik Vahlne
1977-01-01
On the basis of empirical research, a model of the internationalization process of the firm is developed. The model focuses on the gradual acquisition, integration and use of knowledge about foreign markets and operations, and on the incrementally increasing commitments to foreign markets. In particular, attention is concentrated on the increasing involvement in the individual foreign country.© 1977 JIBS. Journal
Scott-Sheldon, Lori A. J.; Carey, Michael P.; Carey, Kate B.; Cain, Demetria; Simbayi, Leickness C.; Mehlomakhulu, Vuyelwa; Kalichman, Seth C.
2015-01-01
HIV testing benefits those who test positive, allowing them to receive treatment but the benefits for those who test negative remain controversial. We evaluated the impact of testing on HIV knowledge and sexual risk among men in South Africa. Men were recruited from townships outside Cape Town and completed a survey that assessed testing history, knowledge, and sexual behaviors. Among the 820 participants, 516 (63%) reported being tested (82% tested negative, 6% tested positive, and 12% unknown). Compared to those who had never been tested for HIV, men who tested for HIV were more knowledgeable about HIV transmission but did not differ on sexual risk behavior. Knowledge moderated the effect of testing on sexual risk such that men reported fewer sexual partners (IRR = 0.91, 95% CI = 0.84, 0.98) and fewer unprotected anal sex events (IRR = 0.81, 95% CI = 0.66, 1.00) if they had been tested for HIV and were knowledgeable about HIV transmission. For men testing HIV-negative, knowledge predicted fewer sexual risk behaviors. Having been tested for HIV is associated with enhanced knowledge, which moderates sexual risk behavior among South African men living in Cape Town. Results suggest that HIV testing may increase knowledge and lead to reductions in sexual risk even when results are negative. PMID:25871481
KAREN B. SCHMALING; ARTHUR W. BLUME
2009-01-01
The purpose of this study was to assess the short-term effectiveness of ethics courses in enhancing responsible conduct of research (RCR) knowledge and moral judgment among graduate students in health-related disciplines. Forty-eight graduate students completed a questionnaire about research experience, knowledge and judgments about appropriate research practices, and a standardized test of moral judgment at the beginning and end of
Piccolo, Diana Lynne
2009-05-15
In the Teaching Principle (National Council of Teachers of Mathematics [NCTM], 2000), it explained that development and utilization of pedagogical content knowledge required teachers to continually increase their knowledges of mathematics content...
Knowledge brokerage - potential for increased capacities and shared power in impact assessment
Rosario Partidario, Maria, E-mail: mrp@civil.ist.utl.pt [Instituto Superior Tecnico, Lisbon, Portugal, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 LISBOA (Portugal); Sheate, William R., E-mail: w.sheate@imperial.ac.uk [Centre for Environmental Policy, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Collingwood Environmental Planning Ltd, London, 1E, The Chandlery, 50 Westminster Bridge Road, London SE1 7QY (United Kingdom)
2013-02-15
Constructive and collaborative planning theory has exposed the perceived limitations of public participation in impact assessment. At strategic levels of assessment the established norm can be misleading and practice is illusive. For example, debates on SEA effectiveness recognize insufficiencies, but are often based on questionable premises. The authors of this paper argue that public participation in strategic assessment requires new forms of information and engagement, consistent with the complexity of the issues at these levels and that strategic assessments can act as knowledge brokerage instruments with the potential to generate more participative environments and attitudes. The paper explores barriers and limitations, as well as the role of knowledge brokerage in stimulating the engagement of the public, through learning-oriented processes and responsibility sharing in more participative models of governance. The paper concludes with a discussion on building and inter-change of knowledge, towards creative solutions to identified problems, stimulating learning processes, largely beyond simple information transfer mechanisms through consultative processes. The paper argues fundamentally for the need to conceive strategic assessments as learning platforms and design knowledge brokerage opportunities explicitly as a means to enhance learning processes and power sharing in IA. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Debates on SEA recognize insufficiencies on public participation Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We propose new forms of engagement consistent with complex situations at strategic levels of decision-making Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Constructive and collaborative planning theories help explain how different actors acquire knowledge and the value of knowledge exchange Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Strategic assessments can act as knowledge brokerage instruments Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The paper argues for strategic assessments as learning platforms as a means to enhance learning processes and power sharing in IA.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kiss, Gabor
2012-01-01
An analysis of Information Technology knowledge of Hungarian and Romanian students was made with the help of a self developed web based Informatics Test. The goal of this research is an analysis of the Computer Science knowledge level of Hungarian and Romanian students attending a Science course or a Mathematics-Informatics course. Analysed was…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Barham, Peter J.
2012-01-01
New undergraduate students arriving to study physics at the University of Bristol from 1975 onwards have all taken the same test of their knowledge and understanding of physics and mathematics. Many of the questions test knowledge of material that has been in the A-level syllabus for maths or physics throughout this period. The ability of incoming…
The use of direct mail to increase clinician knowledge: an intervention study.
Sadowsky, D; Kunzel, C
1991-01-01
A probability sample of American general practitioner dentists, 40 years of age or older, in solo private practice, was the target of two direct mail interventions offered at two different times, to test whether knowledge regarding prophylaxis of patients at risk for infective endocarditis could be improved. Tests of knowledge were responses in a mail questionnaire to clinical vignettes, designed to elicit the content of antibiotic regimens used for patients at risk. The research design enabled detection of (1) the effect of the interventions; (2) the differences in their effect; (3) the attenuation of their effect; and (4) the effect of time. Where baseline knowledge was low, it was improved and did not rapidly disappear. Both mail interventions were equally effective, in most instances, and there was no attenuation of the interventions' effect and no effect of time on the control groups' knowledge over a 4 1/2 month period. The results suggest that it is possible to improve clinicians' knowledge of expert recommendations through direct mail intervention. PMID:2053675
2010-01-01
Biological problems in the twenty-first century are complex and require mathematical insight, often resulting in mathematical models of biological systems. Building mathematical–biological models requires cooperation among biologists and mathematicians, and mastery of building models. A new course in mathematical modeling presented the opportunity to build both content and process learning of mathematical models, the modeling process, and the cooperative process. There was little guidance from the literature on how to build such a course. Here, I describe the iterative process of developing such a course, beginning with objectives and choosing content and process competencies to fulfill the objectives. I include some inductive heuristics for instructors seeking guidance in planning and developing their own courses, and I illustrate with a description of one instructional model cycle. Students completing this class reported gains in learning of modeling content, the modeling process, and cooperative skills. Student content and process mastery increased, as assessed on several objective-driven metrics in many types of assessments. PMID:20810966
Measuring Technological and Content Knowledge of Undergraduate Primary Teachers in Mathematics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Doukakis, Spyros; Chionidou-Moskofoglou, Maria; Mangina-Phelan, Eleni; Roussos, Petros
Twenty-five final-year undergraduate students of primary education who were attending a course on mathematics education participated in a research project during the 2009 spring semester. A repeated measures experimental design was used. Quantitative data on students' computer attitudes, self-efficacy in ICT, attitudes toward educational software, and self-efficacy in maths were collected. Data analysis showed a statistically non-significant improvement on participants' computer attitudes and self-efficacy in ICT and ES, but a significant improvement of self-efficacy in mathematics.
Effects of Increased Parental Knowledge of Development of Children with Disabilities
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Susman, Louisa
2012-01-01
This research addresses the link between parental competence, specifically the characteristic of parental knowledge, and its influence on their child with a disability's participation in age-appropriate activities through their influence on the physical and social home environment. This study examined pathways through which parents mediate…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pianta, Robert C.; Hitz, Randy; West, Blake
2010-01-01
This is the second of two reports commissioned by the National Council for the Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE) intended to address the dire need for teacher preparation policy and programs to reflect recent advances in scientific knowledge of child and adolescent development. In the first report, "Principles and Exemplars for…
Importance of Health-Related Fitness Knowledge to Increasing Physical Activity and Physical Fitness
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ferkel, Rick C.; Judge, Lawrence W.; Stodden, David F.; Griffin, Kent
2014-01-01
Physical inactivity is expanding across all ages in the United States. Research has documented a deficiency in health-related fitness knowledge (HRFK) among elementary- through college-aged students. The need for a credible and reliable resource that provides research-based information regarding the importance of HRFK is significant. The purpose…
Increasing Knowledge of Sexual Abuse: A Study with Elementary School Children in Hawai'i
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Baker, Charlene K.; Gleason, Kristen; Naai, Rachel; Mitchell, Jennifer; Trecker, Christine
2013-01-01
Objective: Child sexual abuse is a significant health problem with potential long-term consequences for victims. Therefore, prevention and education programs are critical. This preliminary study evaluates changes in children’s knowledge of sexual abuse using a school-based train-the-trainer curriculum. Emphasis was placed on developing a…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gillespie-Lynch, Kristen; Brooks, Patricia J.; Someki, Fumio; Obeid, Rita; Shane-Simpson, Christina; Kapp, Steven K.; Daou, Nidal; Smith, David Shane
2015-01-01
College students with autism may be negatively impacted by lack of understanding about autism on college campuses. Thus, we developed an online training to improve knowledge and decrease stigma associated with autism among college students. Participants (N = 365) completed a pre-test, online training, and post-test. Women reported lower stigma…
Usable AI Requires Commonsense Knowledge Artificial Intelligence techniques are increasingly being
Lieberman, Henry
, such as "Things fall down, not up", and "People eat breakfast in the morning". One reason that conventional Classification Keywords I.2 Artificial Inteliigence, I.2.8 Problem Solving, I.2.4 Knowledge Representation, I.2 for this specific case and initiate that specific action. One reason why this kind of thing is not implemented
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bausmith, Jennifer Merriman; Barry, Carol
2011-01-01
For over a decade, professional learning communities (PLCs) have been touted as an effective way to build upon the knowledge and skills of experienced teachers, yet much of the evidence base is derived from self-reports by practitioners. Although several generations of school reform (the standards movement, No Child Left Behind, and now the Common…
An e-health intervention for increasing diabetes knowledge in African Americans.
Moussa, Mahaman; Sherrod, Dennis; Choi, Jeungok
2013-09-01
An evidence-based e-health program, eCare We Care, was developed to disseminate information on diabetes management through web-based interactive tutorials. This study examined the effect of the eCare We Care program on diabetes knowledge development in African American adults with low diabetes literacy. Forty-six African American adults with type 1 or type 2 diabetes and low diabetes literacy were recruited from two health-care centres in eastern Winston Salem, North Carolina. The eCare We Care program included four weekly sessions: introduction to diabetes; eye complications; foot care; and meal planning. Significant differences in scores on the diabetes knowledge survey were demonstrated between the eCare We Care program participants and the comparison group. Study findings indicate the eCare We Care program is more effective in improving diabetes knowledge of African American adults with low diabetes literacy than paper-based, text-only tutorials. The eCare We Care program can be an effective educational strategy for improving diabetes knowledge and decreasing diabetes disparities among African American adults. PMID:24090296
Changing Pre-Service Elementary Teachers' Beliefs about Mathematical Knowledge
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Stohlmann, Micah; Moore, Tamara; Cramer, Kathleen; Maiorca, Cathrine
2015-01-01
Studies have reported that pre-service teachers often enter teacher preparation programs with beliefs and attitudes not conducive to teaching the subject conceptually. In the USA, the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics have brought a renewed focus on procedural and conceptual understanding. However, many U.S. pre-service teachers have…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
McLeod, Julie; Vasinda, Sheri; Dondlinger, Mary Jo
2012-01-01
This article adds to the growing body of research surrounding the use of virtual manipulatives for mathematics learning. The study reported herein used five different virtual manipulatives from four different websites, all within a sixth grade unit on proportional thinking. While many studies have reported on student achievement when using virtual…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bannister, Vanessa R. Pitts
2014-01-01
The concept of multiple representations of functions and the ability to make translations among representations are important topics in secondary school mathematics curricula (Moschkovich, Schoenfeld, & Arcavi, 1993; NCTM, 2000). Research related to students in this domain is fruitful, while research related to teachers is underdeveloped. This…
The Community of the Mathematics Classroom: Situated Insights into Knowledge Development and Use.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Boaler, Jo
This paper continues the analysis of data from 3-year case studies of two United Kingdom schools presented in an earlier edition of the Journal of Research in Mathematics Education (v29, n1) in order to illustrate the use of a particular situated method of interpretation. Various classroom incidents are analyzed, demonstrating that the constraints…
Effects of Gender and Ethnicity on Fourth Graders' Knowledge States in Mathematics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Birenbaum, M.; Nasser, F.; Tatsuoka, C.
2007-01-01
This study sheds light on the achievement gap between two culturally diverse populations in Israel by employing a diagnostic model for analysing responses of a representative sample of Jewish and Arab fourth graders on a national mathematics test. The results indicated large significant differences, in favour of the Jewish group, on most…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Davis, Robert B.; And Others
1992-01-01
Describes research project utilizing video cameras to record behavior while students worked on a combinatorics task in second grade and five months later when they were in third grade. Results describe student development of new mathematical ideas over an extended period of time. Authors argue that videotaping can play an important role in making…
Developing Mathematics Knowledge Keepers--Issues at the Intersection of Communities of Practice
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Siemon, Dianne E.
2009-01-01
This paper discusses some issues that arose in the context of a three-year research project on Indigenous mathematics teacher education in the Northern Territory of Australia. The project was based on the premise that Indigenous student numeracy outcomes are more likely to be improved where students can work on key number ideas and strategies in…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
McGuire, Patrick
2013-01-01
This article describes how a free, web-based intelligent tutoring system, (ASSISTment), was used to create online error analysis items for preservice elementary and secondary mathematics teachers. The online error analysis items challenged preservice teachers to analyze, diagnose, and provide targeted instructional remediation intended to help…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Flores, Margaret M.; Patterson, DaShaunda; Shippen, Margaret E.; Hinton, Vanessa; Franklin, Toni M.
2010-01-01
The purpose of this study was to conduct a survey of special education and general education teachers' mathematical skill and perception of competence. The participants (n=206) were current (n-32) or future (n=174) elementary (K-6) and middle level (4-8) general and special education teachers enrolled in two major state universities in the…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bodovski, Katerina; Farkas, George
2007-01-01
We used the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study--Kindergarten Cohort (ECLS-K) data to examine how important mathematics readiness levels are to subsequent achievement growth and the efficacy of instruction and engagement in producing such growth. The ECLS-K selected a nationally representative sample of kindergartners in fall 1998 and is following…
How Do Students Learn To Apply Their Mathematical Knowledge To Interpret Graphs in Physics?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Woolnough, Jim
2000-01-01
Describes a laboratory-based program in physics designed to help students build effective links between the mathematical equations used to solve problems in mechanics and the real world of moving objects. Conducts the study among senior college students and points out the value of laboratory work in science education for development of thinking…
Liu, Bo; Wu, Huayi; Wang, Yandong; Liu, Wenming
2015-01-01
Main road features extracted from remotely sensed imagery play an important role in many civilian and military applications, such as updating Geographic Information System (GIS) databases, urban structure analysis, spatial data matching and road navigation. Current methods for road feature extraction from high-resolution imagery are typically based on threshold value segmentation. It is difficult however, to completely separate road features from the background. We present a new method for extracting main roads from high-resolution grayscale imagery based on directional mathematical morphology and prior knowledge obtained from the Volunteered Geographic Information found in the OpenStreetMap. The two salient steps in this strategy are: (1) using directional mathematical morphology to enhance the contrast between roads and non-roads; (2) using OpenStreetMap roads as prior knowledge to segment the remotely sensed imagery. Experiments were conducted on two ZiYuan-3 images and one QuickBird high-resolution grayscale image to compare our proposed method to other commonly used techniques for road feature extraction. The results demonstrated the validity and better performance of the proposed method for urban main road feature extraction. PMID:26397832
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Krawczyk, Andrea; Lau, Elsa; Perez, Samara; Delisle, Vanessa; Amsel, Rhonda; Rosberger, Zeev
2012-01-01
Objective: To compare the efficacy of 2 human papillomavirus (HPV) educational interventions on increasing HPV knowledge and vaccination intentions in college students. Participants: Male (n = 60) and female (n = 140) undergraduates (M[subscript age] = 20.4, SD = 2.3) recruited from a university in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, from October 2009 to…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pearson, Elissa; Dorrian, Jillian; Litchfield, Carla
2011-01-01
Many animals are currently facing extinction. Conservation education which highlights the impacts of our behaviour on other species survival is crucial. This study provides evidence for the use of visual media to increase knowledge, attitudes and conservation behaviours regarding the highly endangered orangutan. University students (n = 126) were…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Meunier, Ryan A.; Talbert, B. Allen; Latour, Mickey A.
2003-01-01
Agricultural literacy materials on incubators in the classroom were used by 373 Indiana fourth graders and 19 teachers. Comparison of the treatment group's pretest/postest results with those of controls (363 students, 20 teachers) showed the materials increased student and teacher knowledge of agricultural professions; students were significantly…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ferrara, Margaret M.
2009-01-01
This study describes various strategies used by a university educator to integrate parent involvement curriculum into pre-existing teacher preparation courses. This curriculum infusion was not only effective in increasing preservice teacher knowledge but also in raising course instructors' level of awareness about the importance and necessity of…
Prospective Mathematics Teachers‘ Knowledge for Teaching Algebra in China and the U.S
Huang, Rongjin
2012-02-14
This study examined teachers‘ knowledge for teaching algebra, with a particular focus on teaching the concept of function and quadratic relations in China and the United States. An embedded mixed methods design was adapted, a design in which...
Salazar, A; Howells, J
2000-01-01
This paper explores the specific trend and challenges facing the pharmaceutical industry regarding the exploitation of Internet e-commerce technology and virtual organisation to develop and maintain competitive advantage. There are two important facets of the current trend. One is the rapid development of a complex network of alliances between the established pharmaceutical companies and the specialised biotechnology company start-ups. The other is the rapid growth of internet e-commerce companies dedicated to developing specialised technological platforms for acquiring and selling genetic and biochemical knowledge. The underlying challenge is how big pharmaceutical companies can emulate some of the innovation processes of smaller biotechnology company start-ups, and how they can appropriate and applied new technological knowledge on the development of new drugs. Pharmaceutical companies in order to retain competitive advantage need to continuously monitor all aspects of knowledge management with regard to the R&D and manufacturing process (as well as customer management and marketing). Technological change and organisational restructuring should be aimed at boosting the capacity of large firms to innovate rapidly. PMID:11214458
Use of a web site to increase knowledge and awareness of hunger-related issues.
Jennings, Sharla; Cotugna, Nancy; Vickery, Connie E.
2003-01-01
The purpose of this study was to determine the current level of knowledge and awareness of hunger-related issues among a convenience sample of Delawareans. We also assessed whether raising knowledge and awareness of the hunger problem through the FBD's newly designed web site would encourage participation in antihunger activities. Via e-mail, 1,719 individuals were invited to participate in a three-phase, online survey, and 392 agreed. Phase-I questions were answered prior to viewing the web site, phase II (n=217) immediately afterward, and phase III (n=61) six weeks later. Responses indicated a high level of awareness about general hunger issues but specific knowledge proved to be at a lower level. No statistically significant differences were noted when data were collapsed across gender, age, educational level, or work setting. In a six-week post-survey, 41% of subjects were motivated by the web site to engage in an antihunger activity; 34% had told others about the web site and indicated it may be a useful tool in antihunger outreach efforts for the FBD. PMID:14651376
Result-Indistinguishable Zero-Knowledge Proofs: Increased Power and Constant-Round Protocols
Giovanni Di Crescenzo; Kouichi Sakurai; Moti Yung
1998-01-01
\\u000a We investigate result-indistinguishable perfect zero-knowledge proof systems [8] for “transferring the decision of whether\\u000a the membership of an input in a language is true or not”. Previously only a single number-theoretic language was known to\\u000a have such a proof system and possible extensions were left as an open question. We show that all known random self-reducible\\u000a languages (e.g., graph isomorphism,
Assessing Mathematical Problem Solving Using Comparative Judgement
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jones, Ian; Swan, Malcolm; Pollitt, Alastair
2015-01-01
There is an increasing demand from employers and universities for school leavers to be able to apply their mathematical knowledge to problem solving in varied and unfamiliar contexts. These aspects are however neglected in most examinations of mathematics and, consequentially, in classroom teaching. One barrier to the inclusion of mathematical…
Mathematical learning models that depend on prior knowledge and instructional strategies
Pritchard, David E.; Lee, Young-Jin; Bao, Lei
2008-05-01
new way to make inferences about the type of learning that is occurring. II. MODELS The dependent variable in our models is the student’s knowledge after a specified amount of instruction. We divide the test domain, T, into a fraction KT#1;t#2... of unknown knowledge in the test domain. dUT#1;t#2; /dt is the negative of the learning rate since UT#1;t#2;=1?KT#1;t#2;. The differential equations for UT#1;t#2; are simpler than those for KT#1;t#2;, in part because instruction is generally considered...
2010-01-01
Bracing is the main non-surgical intervention in the treatment of idiopathic scoliosis during growth, in hyperkyphosis (and Scheuermann disease) and occasionally for spondylolisthesis; it can be used in adult scoliosis, in the elderly when pathological curves lead to a forward leaning posture or in adults after traumatic injuries. Bracing can be defined as the application of external corrective forces to the trunk; rigid supports or elastic bands can be used and braces can be custom-made or prefabricated. The state of research in the field of conservative treatment is insufficient and while it can be stated that there is some evidence to support bracing, we must also acknowledge that today we do not have a common and generally accepted knowledge base, and that instead, individual expertise still prevails, giving rise to different schools of thought on brace construction and principles of correction. The only way to improve the knowledge and understanding of brace type and brace function is to establish a single and comprehensive source of information about bracing. This is what the Scoliosis Journal is going to do through the "Brace Technology" Thematic Series, where technical papers coming from the different schools will be published. PMID:20205874
Hall, Allison Cohen; Timmons, Jaimie Ciulla; Boeltzig, Heike; Hamner, Doris; Fesko, Sheila
2006-01-01
The Workforce Investment Act of 1998 (USA) mandates that partners in the One-Stop Career Center system be prepared to serve a diverse customer base. Effective service delivery depends in part on a focus on human resources and professional development. This article presents innovative strategies for One-Stop Career Center staff training related to serving customers with disabilities. Findings from case study research conducted in several One-Stops across the country revealed that staff struggled with both knowledge and attitudes around disability issues. To address these concerns, local leaders developed practices that provided opportunities to gain practical skills and put acquired knowledge to use. These included a formalized curriculum focused on disability issues; informal support and consultation from a disability specialist; and exposure and learning through internships for students with disabilities. Implications are offered to stimulate thinking and creativity in local One-Stops regarding the most effective ways to facilitate staff learning and, in turn, improve services for customers with disabilities. PMID:16788255
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Morgan, Paul L.; Farkas, George; Wu, Qiong
2011-01-01
The authors used a large sample of children (N [is approximately equal to] 7,400) participating in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort (ECLS-K) to estimate kindergarten children's academic achievement growth trajectories in reading and mathematics. The authors were particularly interested in whether the growth trajectories…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Long, Gary W.
2010-01-01
Success rates in California community college developmental mathematics courses have hovered around 50% for decades. These gatekeeper courses have prevented many students from earning college degrees. Since community college is the starting point for the majority of California's potential college graduates and the majority of these students…
Forecast: Changing Mathematics Curriculum and Increasing Pressure for Higher-Level Thinking Skills.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Niess, Margaret L.
1993-01-01
Presents a unit developed by the 1991 Oregon Mathematics Teachers of Middle School project in which students investigate the average temperature, precipitation, and snowfall in their town using spreadsheets and graphing packages. Students compare the averages over a period of 30 years to a particular year. (MDH)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cavallo, Ann M. L.; Ferreira, Maria M.; Roberts, Sally K.
2005-01-01
Urban schools across the United States face a pervasive problem in their science and mathematics programs-a disproportionate number of the teachers in these classrooms are not certified, thus making them underqualified to teach these subject areas. Furthermore, urban schools deal with teacher shortages and attrition in these critical areas. The…
Leifer, M S
2015-01-01
In this essay, I argue that mathematics is a natural science---just like physics, chemistry, or biology---and that this can explain the alleged "unreasonable" effectiveness of mathematics in the physical sciences. The main challenge for this view is to explain how mathematical theories can become increasingly abstract and develop their own internal structure, whilst still maintaining an appropriate empirical tether that can explain their later use in physics. In order to address this, I offer a theory of mathematical theory-building based on the idea that human knowledge has the structure of a scale-free network and that abstract mathematical theories arise from a repeated process of replacing strong analogies with new hubs in this network. This allows mathematics to be seen as the study of regularities, within regularities, within ..., within regularities of the natural world. Since mathematical theories are derived from the natural world, albeit at a much higher level of abstraction than most other scientif...
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Houser, Chris; Garcia, Sonia; Torres, Janet
2015-01-01
Summer research experiences are an increasingly popular means of increasing awareness of, and developing interest in, the geosciences and other science, technology, engineering, and math programs. We describe and report the preliminary results of a 1-wk Geosciences Exploration Summer Program in the College of Geosciences at Texas A&M…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
An, Shuhua; Wu, Zhonghe
2012-01-01
This study focuses on teacher learning of student thinking through grading homework, assessing and analyzing misconceptions. The data were collected from 10 teachers at fifth-eighth grade levels in the USA. The results show that assessing and analyzing misconceptions from grading homework is an important approach to acquiring knowledge of…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Manno, Christopher M.
This study explores the role of teacher leader subject content knowledge in the promotion of professional development and instructional reform. Consistent with a distributed leadership perspective, many have asserted that the promotion of school effectiveness can be enhanced through the application of teacher leadership (Frost & Durrant, 2003; Harris, 2002a; Sherrill, 1999; Silva, Gimbert, & Nolan, 2000; York-Barr & Duke, 2004). There has been much discussion in the research about the significance of teachers' subject content knowledge in teaching and learning which has generally asserted a positive relationship with instructional practice and student achievement (Darling-Hammond, 2000; Newton & Newton, 2001; Parker & Heywood, 2000). The role of content knowledge in teacher leader work has been less researched. This study focused on deepening understanding of perceptions regarding teacher leaders' roles in improving instructional practice. Based on a framework of common teacher leader tasks, qualitative methods were used to investigate the relationship between teacher leader subject content knowledge and perceptions of effectiveness in promoting professional development and instructional reform. The study indicates that content experts behave differently than their non-expert counterparts. Content experts recognize deficiencies in colleagues' content knowledge as a primary problem in the implementation of math or science reform. Content experts view their work as advocacy for improved curriculum and instruction for all children, and work within a small set of task categories to promote discussions about teaching, learning, and content. Content experts develop trust and rapport with colleagues by demonstrating expertise, and are respected for their deep knowledge and efforts to help teachers learn the content. They also differ from non-content experts in the professional growth experiences in which they engage. The consideration of content expertise as an influence to teacher leader work helps to refine our conception of teacher leadership. A task-focused model of content expert teacher leadership is presented, and provides guidance for recruitment, selection, and development of future teacher leaders. Content expertise is presented as a form of human capital that promotes task-focused distributed leadership. Practical recommendations for future teacher leadership initiatives and suggestions for future research are presented.
Kristen D. Holtz; Greta K. Tessman
2007-01-01
This study examines the impact of a video-based intervention to increase children’s knowledge and positive attitudes toward\\u000a a peer with Tourette Syndrome (TS). TS, a neurological disorder characterized by verbal and motor tics, is a confusing and\\u000a potentially stigmatizing disorder. Although symptoms wax and wane over the life span, TS typically begins in childhood and\\u000a peaks at puberty. The available
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Reys, Robert; Reys, Rustin
2011-01-01
In their dual roles as mathematics teachers and tennis coaches, the authors have worked with tennis players who have never thought about how a knowledge of mathematics might help them become "better" tennis players. They have also worked with many mathematics students who have never considered how much mathematics is associated with tennis. This…
Increasing the Representation of People with Disabilities in Science, Engineering, and Mathematics
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Burgstahler, Sheryl
This academic paper identifies three main factors that cause individuals with disabilities to be under-represented in science, engineering, and mathematics fields: preparation of students with disabilities; access to facilities, programs, and equipment; and acceptance by educators, employers and co-workers. This paper explores the role of information technology, describes a campus program designed to positively influence each of the factors, and makes a series of recommendations for action.
All Kidding Aside: Humor Increases Learning at Knowledge and Comprehension Levels
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hackathorn, Jana; Garczynski, Amy M.; Blankmeyer, Katheryn; Tennial, Rachel D.; Solomon, Erin D.
2011-01-01
It has been argued that humor is beneficial in the classroom because it increases social bonding between instructor and student, salience of information, and ultimately recall and retention. The current study sought to add to the literature by empirically testing some assumptions about humor as a pedagogical tool. Specifically, we predicted that…
Jordan, Scott A.; Cunningham, David G.; Marles, Robin J.
2010-03-01
Although herbal medicinal products (HMP) have been perceived by the public as relatively low risk, there has been more recognition of the potential risks associated with this type of product as the use of HMPs increases. Potential harm can occur via inherent toxicity of herbs, as well as from contamination, adulteration, plant misidentification, and interactions with other herbal products or pharmaceutical drugs. Regulatory safety assessment for HMPs relies on both the assessment of cases of adverse reactions and the review of published toxicity information. However, the conduct of such an integrated investigation has many challenges in terms of the quantity and quality of information. Adverse reactions are under-reported, product quality may be less than ideal, herbs have a complex composition and there is lack of information on the toxicity of medicinal herbs or their constituents. Nevertheless, opportunities exist to capitalise on newer information to increase the current body of scientific evidence. Novel sources of information are reviewed, such as the use of poison control data to augment adverse reaction information from national pharmacovigilance databases, and the use of more recent toxicological assessment techniques such as predictive toxicology and omics. The integration of all available information can reduce the uncertainty in decision making with respect to herbal medicinal products. The example of Aristolochia and aristolochic acids is used to highlight the challenges related to safety assessment, and the opportunities that exist to more accurately elucidate the toxicity of herbal medicines.
Moodi, Mitra; Zamanipour, Nosrat; Sharifirad, Golam-Reza; Shahnazi, Hossein
2013-01-01
Background: Puberty is one of the most critical periods in a female adolescents’ life. This intervening study aimed to evaluate the effect of educational program for puberty health on improving intermediate and high school female students’ knowledge in Birjand, Iran. Materials and Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, 325 female intermediate and high school students were selected through randomized cluster sampling during several stages. Then, researcher-made questionnaire including 20 questions, each having one point regarding puberty health, was distributed. After completion of the questionnaires were gathered. Following this, under a systemic educational plan all intermediate and high school selected students were given the same instruction by trained instructors. Instruction time for each meeting was estimated 1.5 hours. One month after the educational program and handing out the pamphlets in schools, the previous questionnaires were again distributed among the students to fill out. At the end, 302 students who had filled out the questionnaires before and after intervention were studied. Results: Out of 302 students, 151 were intermediate and 151 high school students. Knowledge level among intermediate students was 5.03 ± 3.7 before intervention and was 10.8 ± 4.8 after intervention. Among high school students, the scores were 4.1 ± 2.3 and 8.7 ± 3.8, respectively. There was a significant difference between pre and post intervention stages in both groups (P < 0.001). Furthermore, mean knowledge grade in all the students increased from 4.6 ± 3.1 before intervention to 9.7 ± 4.4 after intervention (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Performing educational programs during puberty has a crucial role in young girls’ knowledge increase. Since young girls often do not share their problems with their parents and their peers during the period, instructional classes in schools provide a good opportunity for them to present their problems and finding solutions. PMID:24520555
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Carter, Carolyn S.; Cohen, Sara; Keyes, Marian; Kusimo, Patricia S.; Lunsford, Crystal
This guide contains hands-on mathematics activities to connect middle-school students to the traditional knowledge of their grandparents and elders. Because girls often lose interest in math at the middle-school level, and because women in some communities (especially in rural areas) are seldom involved in work with an obvious math basis, the…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Laschke, Christin
2013-01-01
How individual characteristics affect the acquisition of knowledge in teacher education has been widely unexplored thus far. The "Teacher Education and Development Study--Learning to Teach Mathematics (TEDS-M)" provides a database for examining this research question across countries. Based on the Taiwanese and German sample of TEDS-M,…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ekawati, Rooselyna; Lin, Fou-Lai; Yang, Kai-Lin
2015-01-01
In this study, we developed an instrument for assessing teachers' mathematics content knowledge (MCK) on ratio and proportion and examined the profile of Indonesian primary teacher's MCK on this topic. The MCK items were administered to 271 Indonesian in-service primary teachers with a variety of educational backgrounds and teaching…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Narli, Serkan
2011-01-01
This study investigates the long-term effects of instructing Cantor set theory using constructivist learning approach on student knowledge retention. The participants included 60 first-year secondary mathematics pre-service teachers. Students were divided into two classes one of which was taught via traditional lecture (n = 30) and the other was…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Burgess, Hilary; Mayes, Ann Shelton
2008-01-01
This article explores the effectiveness of a mathematics subject knowledge development model that integrates conventional text-based distance learning with an e-learning coaching and peer group conferencing environment. The effectiveness of the model in supporting 194 trainee primary (pupil's aged 5-11 years) teachers achievement of the subject…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lee, Chun-Yi; Chen, Ming-Puu.
2009-01-01
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of type of question prompt and level of prior knowledge on non-routine mathematical problem solving. A computer game was blended within the pattern reasoning tasks, along with question prompts, in order to demonstrate and enhance the connections between viable problem-solving strategies and…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tucker, Tommy Howard
2009-01-01
The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between using computer-assisted instruction (CAI) size and success on the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) mathematics exam with fifth-grade students in Texas compared to the effect of alternative improvement approaches used by a control group. Research explored the use of…
Omar M. Muammar
2011-01-01
In this article, I presented a pragmatic approach for transforming theoretical knowledge of mathematics, sciences, engineering to solve real-life problems. The article is based on 10 years of experience in developing summer enrichment programs for gifted students in Saudi Arabia. These programs were hosted by major institutions and sponsored by King Abdullaziz & his Companions Foundation for Giftedness & Creativity.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mousavi, Shima; Radmehr, Farzad; Alamolhodaei, Hasan
2012-01-01
Introduction: The main objective of this study is (a) to investigate whether cognitive styles and working memory capacity could predict mathematical performance and which variable is relatively most important in predicting mathematical performance and b) to explore whether cognitive styles and working memory capacity could predict mathematical…
Annette R Baturo; Tom J Cooper; Katherine Doyle
2008-01-01
The interaction between Australia's Eurocentric education and the complex culture of remote Indigenous communities often results in Indigenous disempowerment and educational underperformance. This paper reports on a mathematics-education research project in a remote community to support Indigenous teacher assistants (ITAs) in mathematics and mathematics tutoring in an attempt to reverse Indigenous mathematics underperformance. It discusses teachers' and ITAs' power and
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hoskinson, Anne-Marie
2010-01-01
Biological problems in the twenty-first century are complex and require mathematical insight, often resulting in mathematical models of biological systems. Building mathematical-biological models requires cooperation among biologists and mathematicians, and mastery of building models. A new course in mathematical modeling presented the opportunity…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Winstead, Lisa
2004-01-01
The overlap of cognitive principles and inherently motivational strategies used to increase memory retention can be seen in reading, writing, and math. These are just of the few principles and corresponding strategies described in this report that can be used to increase academic motivation as well as increased cognition -- strategies that are…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cook, G. W.
2014-12-01
Conflict minerals, including their uses and methods of extraction, are associated with significant societal and environmental issues in today's world. Minerals such as columbite-tantalite (also referred to as COLTAN), wolframite, cassiterite and gold are important in electronics manufacturing and have a wide variety of other usages. Mining practices are frequently unsustainable and have significant impacts on the environment; moreover, in many locations, such as the Democratic Republic of the Congo—the epicenter of the conflict mineral trade—major human rights violations are associated with the extraction and production of these minerals. Because conflict minerals represent a relatively new issue, students in geology classes are frequently unfamiliar with the topic and commonly have little understanding of the concerns. In some cases they are completely unaware of the issues. In an introductory mineralogy class at the University of California, San Diego I have introduced a content module into my otherwise traditional curriculum that introduces students to conflict minerals, explains the issues, and delineates the problems our society will face with the continued uses of these natural resources. Most significantly, an assignment has been created and implemented in class that is paired with the content module and is designed to enhance and reinforce student learning. Its goal is to increase awareness of the societal and environmental issues surrounding conflict minerals. Initial results suggest (based on pre and post-tests) that our students have learned significantly from the combination of content, exercise, and assessment and that they are much better informed on the issues of conflict minerals. This model, including the exercise, can be modified and adapted for other introductory classes and learning settings.
An Instrument for Assessing Primary Students' Knowledge of Information Graphics in Mathematics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Diezmann, Carmel M.; Lowrie, Tom J.
2009-01-01
Information graphics have become increasingly important in representing, organising and analysing information in a technological age. In classroom contexts, information graphics are typically associated with graphs, maps and number lines. However, all students need to become competent with the broad range of graphics that they will encounter in…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Johnston-Wilder, Sue; Lee, Clare
2010-01-01
The term "mathematical resilience" is used to describe a learner's stance towards mathematics that enables pupils to continue learning despite finding setbacks and challenges in their mathematical learning journey. There are ways of working in mathematics that increase mathematical resilience and conversely there are ways of working that decrease…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gharari, S.; Hrachowitz, M.; Fenicia, F.; Gao, H.; Savenije, H. H. G.
2013-12-01
Conceptual environmental systems models, such as rainfall runoff models, generally rely on calibration for parameter identification. Increasing complexity of this type of model for better representation of hydrological process heterogeneity typically makes parameter identification more difficult. Although various, potentially valuable, strategies for better parameter identification were developed in the past, strategies to impose general conceptual understanding regarding how a catchment works into the process of parameterizing a conceptual model has still not been fully explored. In this study we assess the effect of imposing semi-quantitative, relational expert knowledge into the model development and parameter selection, efficiently exploiting the complexity of a semi-distributed model formulation. Making use of a topography driven rainfall-runoff modeling (FLEX-TOPO) approach, a catchment was delineated into three functional units, i.e. wetland, hillslope and plateau. Ranging from simplicity to complexity, three model set-ups, FLEXA, FLEXB and FLEXC have been developed based on these functional units. While FLEXA is a lumped representation of the study catchment, the semi-distributed formulations FLEXB and FLEXC introduce increasingly more complexity by distinguishing 2 and 3 functional units, respectively. In spite of increased complexity, FLEXB and FLEXC allow modelers to compare parameters as well as states and fluxes of their different functional units to each other. Based on these comparisons, expert knowledge based, semi-quantitative relational constraints have been imposed on three models structures. More complexity of models allows more imposed constraints. It was shown that a constrained but uncalibrated semi-distributed model, FLEXC, can predict runoff with similar performance than a calibrated lumped model, FLEXA. In addition, when constrained and calibrated, the semi-distributed model FLEXC exhibits not only higher performance but also reduced uncertainty for prediction, compared to the calibrated, lumped FLEXA model.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
White, Diana; Donaldson, Brianna; Hodge, Angie; Ruff, Adam
2013-01-01
Math Teachers' Circles have been spreading since their emergence in 2006. These professional development programs, aimed primarily at middle-level mathematics teachers (grades 5-9), focus on developing teachers' mathematical problem solving skills, in line with the Common Core State Standards-Standards of Mathematical Practice. Yet, to…
Hirsch, Ariel E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Boston University Medical Center, Boston, MA (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)], E-mail: Ariel.hirsch@bmc.org; Mulleady Bishop, Pauline [Department of Radiology, Boston University Medical Center, and Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States); Dad, Luqman [Department of Radiation Oncology, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY (United States); Singh, Deeptej [Department of Medicine, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States); Slanetz, Priscilla J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Department of Radiology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA (Israel)
2009-03-15
Purpose: The Oncology Education Initiative was created to advance oncology and radiation oncology education by integrating structured didactics into the existing core radiology clerkship. We set out to determine whether the addition of structured didactics could lead to a significant increase in overall medical student knowledge about radiation oncology. Methods and Materials: We conducted a pre- and posttest examining concepts in general radiation oncology, breast cancer, and prostate cancer. The 15-question, multiple-choice exam was administered before and after a 1.5-hour didactic lecture by an attending physician in radiation oncology. Individual question changes, overall student changes, and overall categorical changes were analyzed. All hypothesis tests were two-tailed (significance level 0.05). Results: Of the 153 fourth-year students, 137 (90%) took the pre- and posttest and were present for the didactic lecture. The average test grade improved from 59% to 70% (p = 0.011). Improvement was seen in all questions except clinical vignettes involving correct identification of TNM staging. Statistically significant improvement (p {<=} 0.03) was seen in the questions regarding acute and late side effects of radiation, brachytherapy for prostate cancer, delivery of radiation treatment, and management of early-stage breast cancer. Conclusions: Addition of didactics in radiation oncology significantly improves medical students' knowledge of the topic. Despite perceived difficulty in teaching radiation oncology and the assumption that it is beyond the scope of reasonable knowledge for medical students, we have shown that even with one dedicated lecture, students can learn and absorb general principles regarding radiation oncology.
Van Stan, Stefanie; Dupont Phillips, Kate
2013-01-01
Abstract Background Childhood obesity has been recognized as a national problem of epidemic proportions. Child care represents an ideal venue in which to address this problem, as many young children spend a significant amount of time and consume the majority of their meals in this setting. Recognizing this opportunity, Delaware recently enacted reforms to statewide licensing regulations designed to improve the quality of the nutrition-, physical activity-, and screen viewing–related environments in child care settings. Methods To facilitate the translation of these regulations into practices, a series of broad-scale trainings was held throughout the state. Attendance was required for all Child & Adult Care Food Program (CACFP)-participating facilities, although child care providers from non-CACFP facilities also attended. Pre- and posttraining surveys were used to assess changes in providers' knowledge of the regulations and satisfaction with the training. Results In total 1094 presurveys and 1076 postsurveys were received. Participants were highly satisfied with the training format and content, including the instructors, materials, and schedule. Data analysis demonstrates improved knowledge of all 26 regulation components from presurvey to postsurvey. Family child care providers, providers with more years of experience, CACFP-participating facilities, and facilities with food service personnel scored significantly higher than their center staff, less experienced and non-CACFP counterparts, as well as those without food service personnel. Conclusions Broad-scale, in-person training can effectively increase child care providers' knowledge of the regulations and is well received by this audience. Other states and jurisdictions seeking to improve nutrition, physical activity, and screen-viewing practices in child care settings should consider this model of quality improvement. PMID:23327747
Denizhan, Yagmur; Hester, Robert
2013-01-01
It is well known that renal nerves directly affect renal vascular resistance, tubular sodium reabsorption, and renin secretion. Inhibition of renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) decreases renal vascular resistance, tubular sodium reabsorption, and renin secretion, leading to an increase in sodium excretion. Although several studies show that inhibition of RSNA promotes sodium excretion during an acute blood volume expansion, there is limited research relating to the importance of RSNA inhibition that contributes to sodium homeostasis during a long-term increase in sodium intake. Therefore, to dissect the underlying mechanisms of sodium excretion, a mathematical model of a cardiovascular system consisting of two kidneys, each with an independent RSNA, was developed. Simulations were performed to determine the responses of RSNA and sodium excretion to an increased sodium intake. In these simulations, RSNA in the left kidney was fixed at its normal steady-state value, while RSNA in the contralateral kidney was allowed to change normally in response to the increased sodium intake. The results demonstrate that the fixed-RSNA kidney excretes less sodium than the intact-RSNA collateral kidney. Because each kidney is exposed to the same arterial pressure and circulatory hormones, the impaired sodium excretion in the absence of RSNA inhibition supports the hypothesis that RSNA inhibition contributes to natriuresis in response to a long-term increase in sodium intake. PMID:24285363
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gharari, S.; Hrachowitz, M.; Fenicia, F.; Gao, H.; Savenije, H. H. G.
2014-12-01
Conceptual environmental system models, such as rainfall runoff models, generally rely on calibration for parameter identification. Increasing complexity of this type of models for better representation of hydrological process heterogeneity, typically makes parameter identification more difficult. Although various, potentially valuable, approaches for better parameter estimation have been developed, strategies to impose general conceptual understanding of how a catchment works into the process of parameter estimation has not been fully explored. In this study we assess the effects of imposing semi-quantitative, relational inequality constraints, based on expert-knowledge, for model development and parameter specification, efficiently exploiting the complexity of a semi-distributed model formulation. Making use of a topography driven rainfall-runoff modeling (FLEX-TOPO) approach, a catchment was delineated into three functional units, i.e., wetland, hillslope and plateau. Ranging from simple to complex, three model setups, FLEXA, FLEXB and FLEXC were developed based on these functional units, where FLEXA is a lumped representation of the study catchment, and the semi-distributed formulations FLEXB and FLEXC progressively introduce more complexity. In spite of increased complexity, FLEXB and FLEXC allow modelers to compare parameters, as well as states and fluxes, of their different functional units to each other, allowing the formulation of constraints that limit the feasible parameter space. We show that by allowing for more landscape-related process heterogeneity in a model, e.g., FLEXC, the performance increases even without traditional calibration. The additional introduction of relational constraints further improved the performance of these models.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
McKenzie, Karen
2013-01-01
The present study compared the impact of face to face teaching with a short online game informed learning activity on health participants' knowledge about, and confidence in, managing aggressive situations. Both forms of teaching resulted in a significant increase in participants' knowledge and confidence. Face to face training led to…
Remedial Mathematics for Quantum Chemistry
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Koopman, Lodewijk; Brouwer, Natasa; Heck, Andre; Buma, Wybren Jan
2008-01-01
Proper mathematical skills are important for every science course and mathematics-intensive chemistry courses rely on a sound mathematical pre-knowledge. In the first-year quantum chemistry course at this university, it was noticed that many students lack basic mathematical knowledge. To tackle the mathematics problem, a remedial mathematics…
Teulier, Marion; Fiamma, Marie-Noëlle; Straus, Christian; Similowski, Thomas
2013-01-15
Human tidal breathing features mathematical complexity and breath-by-breath variability. Fluctuations in these descriptors from one state to another are related to the load imposed on the respiratory system. We hypothetized that bronchodilators would increase ventilatory complexity and variability in patients suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Eleven patients with stable COPD (9 men; age 48-79; FEV1 42-80%; FRC above 120%) were studied before and after 400 ?g salbutamol. Breath-by-breath variability (coefficient of variation of tidal volume and breathing frequency -f) and ventilatory complexity (noise limit - NL, a quantifier of nonlinearity and complexity; largest Lyapunov exponent - LLE, an indicator of the sensitivity of the system to initial conditions) were described. Acute bronchodilation revealed or increased nonlinearity (NL 31% [20-38] to 43% [35-58], P=0.0051). Little changes in variability were observed (increased coefficient of variation of f). These observations might open new avenues toward resting breathing pulmonary function testing and novel respiratory biomarkers suitable for home-based lung disease monitoring. PMID:22999916
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Engel, Mimi; Claessens, Amy; Finch, Maida A.
2013-01-01
Kindergarten mathematics skills are important for subsequent achievement, yet mathematics is underemphasized in kindergarten classrooms. Using nationally representative data, this study explored the relationship between students' school-entry math skills, classroom content coverage, and end-of-kindergarten math achievement. Although the vast…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mitchell, Rebecca Noelle
2009-01-01
This paper reports on findings from a five-teacher, exploratory case study, critically observing their implementation of a technology-intensive, augmented reality (AR) mathematics curriculum unit, along with its paper-based control. The unit itself was intended to promote multiple proportional reasoning strategies to urban, public middle school…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Trinter, Christine P.
2011-01-01
The results from the 2007 Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) revealed that the scores of fourth grade students in the 90th percentile showed no measurable change from the results of the first TIMSS assessment in 1995. Contrarily, the scores of the lowest performing fourth graders showed statistically significant…
Davis, Jonathon M; Searles, Veronica B; Anderson, Nathan; Keeney, Jonathon; Raznahan, Armin; Horwood, L John; Fergusson, David M; Kennedy, Martin A; Giedd, Jay; Sikela, James M
2015-01-01
DUF1220 protein domains exhibit the greatest human lineage-specific copy number expansion of any protein-coding sequence in the genome, and variation in DUF1220 copy number has been linked to both brain size in humans and brain evolution among primates. Given these findings, we examined associations between DUF1220 subtypes CON1 and CON2 and cognitive aptitude. We identified a linear association between CON2 copy number and cognitive function in two independent populations of European descent. In North American males, an increase in CON2 copy number corresponded with an increase in WISC IQ (R (2) = 0.13, p = 0.02), which may be driven by males aged 6-11 (R (2) = 0.42, p = 0.003). We utilized ddPCR in a subset as a confirmatory measurement. This group had 26-33 copies of CON2 with a mean of 29, and each copy increase of CON2 was associated with a 3.3-point increase in WISC IQ (R (2) = 0.22, p = 0.045). In individuals from New Zealand, an increase in CON2 copy number was associated with an increase in math aptitude ability (R (2) = 0.10 p = 0.018). These were not confounded by brain size. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report a replicated association between copy number of a gene coding sequence and cognitive aptitude. Remarkably, dosage variations involving DUF1220 sequences have now been linked to human brain expansion, autism severity and cognitive aptitude, suggesting that such processes may be genetically and mechanistically inter-related. The findings presented here warrant expanded investigations in larger, well-characterized cohorts. PMID:25287832
Alshehri, Khaled Abdullah
2012-12-31
they are as teachers. More recent research (Lyublinskaya & Tournaki, 2012; Polly, 2011) suggests that teachers' ability to integrate technology into their teaching is also critical to their mathematics teaching effectiveness. This study investigated the validity...
Students as Mathematics Consultants
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jensen, Jennifer L.
2013-01-01
If students are going to develop reasoning and thinking skills, use their mathematical knowledge, and recognize the relevance of mathematics in their lives, they need to experience mathematics in meaningful ways. Only then will their mathematical skills be transferrable to all other parts of their lives. To promote such flexible mathematical…
Klas, Karla S; Vlahos, Peter G; McCully, Michael J; Piche, David R; Wang, Stewart C
2015-01-01
Validation of program effectiveness is essential in justifying school-based injury prevention education. Although Risk Watch (RW) targets burn, fire, and life safety, its effectiveness has not been previously evaluated in the medical literature. Between 2007 and 2012, a trained fire service public educator (FSPE) taught RW to all second grade students in one public school district. The curriculum was delivered in 30-minute segments for 9 consecutive weeks via presentations, a safety smoke house trailer, a model-sized hazard house, a student workbook, and parent letters. A written pre-test (PT) was given before RW started, a post-test (PT#1) was given immediately after RW, and a second post-test (PT#2) was administered to the same students the following school year (ranging from 12 to 13 months after PT). Students who did not complete the PT or at least one post-test were excluded. Comparisons were made by paired t-test, analysis of variance, and regression analysis. After 183 (8.7%) were excluded for missing tests, 1,926 remaining students scored significantly higher (P = .0001) on PT#1 (mean 14.8) and PT#2 (mean 14.7) than the PT (mean 12.1). There was 1 FSPE and 36 school teachers with class size ranging from 10 to 27 (mean 21.4). Class size was not predictive of test score improvement (R = 0%), while analysis of variance showed that individual teachers trended toward some influence. This 6-year prospective study demonstrated that the RW program delivered by an FSPE effectively increased short-term knowledge and long-term retention of fire/life safety in early elementary students. Collaborative partnerships are critical to preserving community injury prevention education programs. PMID:25159554
Understanding Mathematics and Science Matters. Studies in Mathematical Thinking and Learning Series
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Romberg, Thomas A., Ed.; Carpenter, Thomas P., Ed.; Dremock, Fae, Ed.
2005-01-01
The research reported in this book provides reliable evidence on and knowledge about mathematics and science instruction that emphasizes student understanding--instruction consistent with the needs of students who will be citizens in an increasingly demanding technological world. The National Center for Improving Student Learning in Mathematics…
Alio, Amina P.; Fields, Sheldon D.; Humes, Damon L.; Bunce, Catherine A.; Wallace, Stephaun E.; Lewis, Cindi; Elder, Heather; Wakefield, Steven; Keefer, Michael C.
2014-01-01
Men who sleep with men (MSM) and transgender individuals of color, the largest demographic in the House Ball community (HBC) are amongst the group at highest risk for HIV infection in the United States. The HBC have limited access to culturally appropriate HIV education. This study aimed to develop a partnership with HBC leaders to uncover strategies for increasing HIV prevention knowledge, including participation in HIV vaccine trials. To this end a research institution-community-HBC partnership was established. In-depth qualitative and quantitative data were collected from the 14 HBC leaders in western New York, revealing that knowledge of HIV and related vaccine trials was limited. Barriers to increasing HIV knowledge included fear of peer judgment, having inaccurate information about HIV, and lack of education. Among the HBC, community partnerships will further aid in the development of future HIV prevention programs and increase individuals’ willingness to participate in future HIV vaccine trials. PMID:25642120
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gaboardi, M.; Parker, W.; Rodriguez, D.
2010-12-01
Short-term field research projects were embedded into a two-week, Mathematics and Science Partnership-funded, teacher institute devoted to increasing content knowledge about the physical basis of climate change. Teams of four teachers were encouraged to ask any research question related to weather or climate, and create a data collection method that they thought might help answer their question. They were provided with a range of measurement devices, from simple immersible thermometers to light sensors, probeware, and carbon dioxide concentration sensors. Teams were expected to design data collection sites in a middle-school setting, present site designs to their peers, collect data, present initial results, and participate in peer-review about site design and data collected. Teachers were encouraged to generate research questions that could be replicated with their students at their schools. Design complexity ranged widely with some teachers deliberately choosing to model sites their students might design and others making full use of more sophisticated technology. On the third day of the institute, each group presented their research question and setup for data collection in poster format. Large gaps in understanding about testable questions and effective data collection methods were apparent. Instead of addressing errors as groups presented, facilitators encouraged participants to explore each groups’ presentation and make comments using post-it notes. Participants were then encouraged to respond to the comments and consider modifying their questions, site designs, or data collection methods. Teams gathered data up to three times daily and were fully responsible for choosing means of data organization; by the second week most were using and becoming familiar with Microsoft Excel. Final presentations were in Microsoft PowerPoint. Teams were expected to graphically report data, present possible interpretations, and discuss any problems related to their initial questions or methods. All teams reported problems with their work and identified improvements for future research. Teachers reported that the field component was very helpful to their understanding of the process of science and to deepening their content knowledge about climate change research. Additionally they reported that they were much more likely to include short-term research projects in their own classrooms as a result of this experience. Short-term data collection experiences such as these can serve to: - Encourage teachers to provide students with the opportunity to develop their own questions, and design methods to answer those questions; - Expose teachers to common pitfalls in data collection methods so that teachers can later guide students as students encounter similar problems; - Familiarize teachers with widely available technology used to record and present data; - Refine teacher understanding of research and improve likelihood of success on longer research projects; - Enable teachers to look at data sets more critically and in more depth; - Better understand how to construct, read, and interpret data tables and graphs; and - Increase depth of understanding of science content.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Roth, Wolff-Michael
2014-01-01
Traditional (e.g., constructivist) accounts of knowledge ground its origin in the "intentional construction" on the part of the learner. Such accounts are blind to the fact that learners, by the fact that they do not know the knowledge to be learned, cannot orient toward it as an object to be constructed. In this study, I provide a…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Stark, Christina M.; Graham-Kiefer, Meredith L.; Devine, Carol M.; Dollahite, Jamie S.; Olson, Christine M.
2011-01-01
Objective: To assess the impact of an online continuing education course on the knowledge, skills, and self-efficacy of nutrition professionals to use an ecological approach to prevent childhood obesity. Design: Quasi-experimental design using intervention and delayed intervention comparison groups with pre/post-course assessments. Setting: Online…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hobden, Karen L.
This paper discusses two techniques for improving the predictive validity of personality measures: (1) measuring dispositional levels of private self-consciousness, that is, one's tendency to habitually reflect on covert aspects of the self such as thoughts, feelings, perceptions, and motives; and (2) priming trait-relevant knowledge (temporarily…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
King, Keith A.; Smith, Judie
2000-01-01
Assessed school counselors' knowledge of suicidal risk factors and perceived ability to initiate appropriate steps when confronted with suicidal students. Surveys of counselors participating in Project SOAR (Suicide, Options, Awareness, and Relief) indicated that most felt they could recognize suicidal warning signs, assess student risk, offer…
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Horner, Michelle S.; Miller, Susan Milam; Rettew, David C.; Althoff, Robert; Ehmann, Mary; Hudziak, James J.; Martin, Andres
2008-01-01
Objective: The authors assess changes in knowledge and feeling connected to the field of child and adolescent psychiatry (CAP) after participation in a brief mentoring program held at two CAP conferences. Methods: Similar mentorship programs were implemented at two CAP conferences, one national (N=119 participants), one international (N=53). The…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Thorson, Annette, Ed.
2001-01-01
The Eisenhower National Clearinghouse for Mathematics and Science Education (ENC) helps teachers by offering a broad assortment of services to enable them to quickly locate educational resources. This theme issue of the serial "ENC Focus" is designed to give educators information on curriculum resources available for teaching math and science in…
Capogna, Luca
Pulley Me Up Andy's Force Force on Machine Physics and Mathematics have opened the flood gates = 4000 ft.lb. Mechanical advantage of Pulleys... Now pulleys are considered unique and powerful simple machines if used properly. This is the meat of this discussion: demonstrate the mechanical advantage
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Rosales, Javier; Vicente, Santiago; Chamoso, Jose M.; Munez, David; Orrantia, Josetxu
2012-01-01
Word problem solving involves the construction of two different mental representations, namely, mathematical and situational. Although educational research in word problem solving has documented different kinds of instruction at these levels, less is known about how both representational levels are evoked during word problem solving in day-to-day…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Paddack, Megan
2009-01-01
The purpose of this study was to investigate and describe how middle school mathematics teachers "make meaning" of proofs and the process of proving in the context of their classroom practices. A framework of "making meaning," created by the researcher, guided the data collection and analysis phases of the study. This framework describes the five…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chen, Ho-Yuan; Jang, Syh-Jong
2013-01-01
This study highlights trends and features of E-books and their versatility of this tool in elementary educational settings. There has been little quantitative research employed to examine teachers' reasons for using or not using E-books. The purpose of this study was to examine elementary school mathematics and science teachers' reasons…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bannister, Vanessa R. Pitts
2014-01-01
The concept of multiple representations of functions and the ability to make translations among representations are important topics in secondary school mathematics curricula (Moschkovich, Schoenfeld, & Arcavi, 1993; NCTM, 2000). Research related to students in this domain is fruitful, while research related to teachers is underdeveloped. This…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fernandez, Clea
2005-01-01
In recent years, a growing interest has developed in lesson study, a Japanese form of professional development that centers on teachers coming together to examine their practice by planning and trying out lessons. This article examines the lesson study work of a group of elementary mathematics teachers to speculate about the educative value of…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Steele, Michael D.
2013-01-01
While recent national and international assessments have shown mathematical progress being made by US students, little to no gains are evident in the areas of geometry and measurement. These reports also suggest that practicing teachers have traditionally had few opportunities to engage in content learning around topics in geometry and…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Boakes, Norma J.
2009-01-01
Within the study of geometry in the middle school curriculum is the natural development of students' spatial visualization, the ability to visualize two- and three-dimensional objects. The national mathematics standards call specifically for the development of such skills through hands-on experiences. A commonly accepted method is through the…
McKenzie, Karen
2013-12-01
The present study compared the impact of face to face teaching with a short online game informed learning activity on health participants' knowledge about, and confidence in, managing aggressive situations. Both forms of teaching resulted in a significant increase in participants' knowledge and confidence. Face to face training led to significantly greater increases in knowledge but was equivalent in terms of confidence. Both forms of teaching were rated positively, but face to face teaching received significantly higher ratings than the online activity. The study suggests that short online game informed learning activities may offer an effective alternative for health professional training where face to face training is not possible. Further research is needed on the longer term impact of both types of training on practice. PMID:23184436
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Metabolic reconstructions (MRs) are common denominators in systems biology and represent biochemical, genetic, and genomic (BiGG) knowledge-bases for target organisms by capturing currently available information in a consistent, structured manner. Salmonella enterica subspecies I serovar Typhimurium...
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Meunier, Ryan A.; Talbert, B. Allen; Latour, Mickey A.
2002-01-01
In seven Indiana schools, fourth graders received hands-on instruction with incubators; seven schools were controls, with a total of 736 students and 39 teachers participating. The treatment group increased agriculture-related science knowledge. Students from communities smaller than 5,000 scored better than those in larger communities. (Contains…
van der Elst, Elise M; Smith, Adrian D; Gichuru, Evanson; Wahome, Elizabeth; Musyoki, Helgar; Muraguri, Nicolas; Fegan, Greg; Duby, Zoe; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Bender, Bonnie; Graham, Susan M; Operario, Don; Sanders, Eduard J
2013-01-01
Introduction Healthcare workers (HCWs) in Africa typically receive little or no training in the healthcare needs of men who have sex with men (MSM), limiting the effectiveness and reach of population-based HIV control measures among this group. We assessed the effect of a web-based, self-directed sensitivity training on MSM for HCWs (www.marps-africa.org), combined with facilitated group discussions on knowledge and homophobic attitudes among HCWs in four districts of coastal Kenya. Methods We trained four district “AIDS coordinators” to provide a two-day training to local HCWs working at antiretroviral therapy-providing facilities in coastal Kenya. Self-directed learning supported by group discussions focused on MSM sexual risk practices, HIV prevention and healthcare needs. Knowledge was assessed prior to training, immediately after training and three months after training. The Homophobia Scale assessed homophobic attitudes and was measured before and three months after training. Results Seventy-four HCWs (68% female; 74% clinical officers or nurses; 84% working in government facilities) from 49 health facilities were trained, of whom 71 (96%) completed all measures. At baseline, few HCWs reported any prior training on MSM anal sexual practices, and most HCWs had limited knowledge of MSM sexual health needs. Homophobic attitudes were most pronounced among HCWs who were male, under 30 years of age, and working in clinical roles or government facilities. Three months after training, more HCWs had adequate knowledge compared to baseline (49% vs. 13%, McNemar's test p<0.001); this was most pronounced in those with clinical or administrative roles and in those from governmental health providers. Compared to baseline, homophobic attitudes had decreased significantly three months after training, particularly among HCWs with high homophobia scores at baseline, and there was some evidence of correlation between improvements in knowledge and reduction in homophobic sentiment. Conclusions Scaling up MSM sensitivity training for African HCWs is likely to be a timely, effective and practical means to improve relevant sexual health knowledge and reduce personal homophobic sentiment among HCWs involved in HIV prevention, testing and care in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:24321111
A Mathematics Education Researcher's Travels
Belding, Juliana
Perspectives Q&A #12;My Personal History BS in Mathematics from Spelman College Started PhD in Mathematics in undergraduate mathematics education as it relates to the Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching (MKT) and how it develops #12;Job History Teacher Education and Mathematics departments at San Diego State Mathematics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Doukakis, Spyros; Koilias, Christos; Chionidou-Moskofoglou, Maria
During the 2008-2009 spring semester, 25 fourth-year undergraduate primary teachers attended the compulsory course "Teaching Mathematics-Practicum Phase". The course was organised so as to incorporate ICT and special mathematical scenarios in the teaching approaches of undergraduate primary teachers. This article presents course satisfaction of participants as found in the research study. A set of powerful ordinal regression methods has been applied on a survey database. The most important results focus on the determination of the course's weak and strong points, according to the MUSA methodology. The results show a high satisfaction level from the course. The global satisfaction level reaches 98% whereas partial (per criterion) satisfaction levels range from 90% to 97%, the lowest rate corresponding to the theoretical component of the course. The findings raise a number of research questions regarding ICT integration in undergraduate primary teachers' teaching practice.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nehm, Ross H.; Schonfeld, Irvin Sam
2007-10-01
This study investigated whether or not an increase in secondary science teacher knowledge about evolution and the nature of science gained from completing a graduate-level evolution course was associated with greater preference for the teaching of evolution in schools. Forty-four precertified secondary biology teachers participated in a 14-week intervention designed to address documented misconceptions identified by a precourse instrument. The course produced statistically significant gains in teacher knowledge of evolution and the nature of science and a significant decrease in misconceptions about evolution and natural selection. Nevertheless, teachers’ postcourse preference positions remained unchanged; the majority of science teachers still preferred that antievolutionary ideas be taught in school.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kapperman, Gaylen; Sticken, Jodi
2003-01-01
This article discusses the lack of preparation teachers of students with visual impairments have in the Nemeth Code (the Braille code for mathematics). It then describes a Windows-based tutorial for sighted persons to learn the Nemeth Code, a tutorial for teachers with blindness, and how to access the tutorials. (Contains 10 references.) (CR)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Noland, Ramona M.; Bass, Martha A.; Keathley, Rosanne S.; Miller, Rowland
2009-01-01
The gains in knowledge and changes of attitudes of students in undergraduate sexuality courses in two different academic disciplines were compared to those of their peers without college sexuality education in a variety of other psychology courses. All students had similar scores on tests of sexual anatomy, behavior, and health at the start of the…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wagner, Brandon Joel
Writing-to-learn strategies have been administered in the past to enrich student learning. The purpose of this study was to see if K-W-L prompts in science journal writing could benefit student content knowledge within biology. Two high school biology classes were provided with learning journals. The journals given to the students during the treatment unit were provided with K-W-L question prompts to guide student learning while during the comparison unit students were given an open ended writing assignment. Pre and posttests were administered to determine student-learning gains. Student motivations and opinions of the treatment were collected through student interviews. The combined results were used to determine to what extent could K-W-L prompts in science journal writing influence comprehension of content knowledge. This study found there to be no difference in student learning gains when utilizing the K-W-L literacy strategy versus another free-writing activity. When scored, student K-W-Ls total scores did correlate to student success on unit tests. This opens up the potential for K-W-Ls to serve as an adequate tool for formative assessment. Here the K-W-L could be expanded to enrich student question asking, potentially aid students learning English, and potentially be used by students without teacher scaffolding.
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Yilmaz, Ismail
2012-01-01
The purpose of this case study is to reveal prospective science teachers' knowledge and achievement levels in electricity-related subjects. The data for the study were collected from 44 prospective teachers using three measurement tools. The data were then analyzed using software developed for the Probability and Possibility Calculation Statistics…
Lee, Carl
of instructional materials available in relation to these programs, and the set of characteristics that serve in particular circumstances." Example: Knowing what instructional materials are available for teaching a math- ematical knowledge of the design of instruction." Example: Knowing what teaching strategies
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Kildan, Abdullah Oguzhan; Incikabi, Lutfi
2015-01-01
This study aimed to present early childhood teacher candidates' experiences preparing digital stories and to reveal the resulting changes, if any, in self-reported technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK). This study was quasi-experimental and indicated that teacher candidates' evaluations of digital storytelling were affected by their…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Muir, Tracey; Livy, Sharyn
2012-01-01
The main aim of this paper is to report on an investigation into primary pre-service and inservice teachers' content knowledge of decimals. The participants were asked to complete four decimal tasks including the ordering of decimals, operating with decimals and converting a fraction to a decimal. The results from both sets of participants are…
Blair, Clancy; Ursache, Alexandra; Greenberg, Mark; Vernon-Feagans, Lynne
2015-04-01
The relation of self-regulation measured prior to school entry to developing math and reading ability in prekindergarten through the second grade was examined in a prospective longitudinal sample of 1,292 children and families in predominantly rural and low-income communities in 2 regions of high poverty in the United States. Direct assessments of executive function, effortful control, and stress response physiology (indexed by resting levels of cortisol and alpha amylase obtained from saliva) were measured at child age 48 months and parents and teachers reported on children's effortful control using temperament rating scales at child age approximately 60 months. Math and reading ability, as measured by the Woodcock-Johnson III applied problems and letter-word subtests, respectively, were measured at prekindergarten through the second grade. Effects for self-regulation measures were seen primarily for initial level and to some extent growth in both mathematics and reading, even when controlling for family demographic characteristics that represent relevant selection factors into higher levels of both self-regulation and academic achievement. These effects persisted for mathematics but not for reading with the inclusion of child cognitive abilities, vocabulary, and speed of processing measured in prekindergarten, concurrent with the first time point for the academic measures. Results are interpreted as indicating a role for self-regulation in learning ability generally, likely through support for attention and reasoning abilities that are most specific to the assessment of mathematics in this analysis. Implications for instruction and for assessment and the best ways to support the development of early math and reading ability for children at risk for school failure are discussed. PMID:25688999
Jill R. D. Whittingham; Robert A. C. Ruiter; Diana Castermans; Annemarie Huiberts; Gerjo Kok
2008-01-01
The aim of this study is to demonstrate the use- fulness of developing health education materi- als with a theoretical and empirical research basis. With a specific focus on increasing knowl- edge, the authors utilized well-researched prin- ciples in cognitive psychology to increase the message comprehension of an existing health education brochure. The brochure used was produced by a Dutch
Maton, Kenneth I; Pollard, Shauna A; McDougall Weise, Tatiana V; Hrabowski, Freeman A
2012-01-01
The Meyerhoff Scholars Program at the University of Maryland, Baltimore County is widely viewed as a national model of a program that enhances the number of underrepresented minority students who pursue science, technology, engineering, and mathematics PhDs. The current article provides an overview of the program and the institution-wide change process that led to its development, as well as a summary of key outcome and process evaluation research findings. African American Meyerhoff students are 5× more likely than comparison students to pursue a science, technology, engineering, and mathematics PhD. Program components viewed by the students as most beneficial include financial scholarship, being a part of the Meyerhoff Program community, the Summer Bridge program, study groups, and summer research. Qualitative findings from interviews and focus groups demonstrate the importance of the Meyerhoff Program in creating a sense of belonging and a shared identity, encouraging professional development, and emphasizing the importance of academic skills. Among Meyerhoff students, several precollege and college factors have emerged as predictors of successful entrance into a PhD program in the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics fields, including precollege research excitement, precollege intrinsic math/science motivation, number of summer research experiences during college, and college grade point average. Limitations of the research to date are noted, and directions for future research are proposed. PMID:22976367
Abstract We examine preservice mathematics teachers' conceptions ...
Rachael Kenney
2013-08-09
basic mathematical concepts for the first time, examining the mathematics that they “know” in new ways is crucial to ... knowledge of mathematics (Burns, 2004; Miller, 1991; 1992). ... equivalent of an undergraduate degree in mathematics).
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Taintor, Spence
2008-01-01
Every year, teachers leave the profession and take valuable experience and knowledge with them. An increasing retirement rate makes schools vulnerable to a significant loss of knowledge. This article describes how implementing a knowledge management process will ensure that valuable assets are captured and shared. (Contains 3 online resources.)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Juttner, Melanie; Boone, Williame; Park, Soonhye; Neuhaus, Birgit J.
2013-01-01
Research on teachers' professionalism and professional development has increased in the last two decades. A main focus of this line of research has been the cognitive component of teacher professionalism, i.e., professional knowledge. Most of the previous studies on teacher knowledge--such as the Learning Mathematics for Teaching (LMT) (Hill et…
Onwujekwe, Obinna; Uzochukwu, Benjamin; Ezumah, Nkoli; Shu, Elvis
2005-01-01
Background The coverage of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) remains low despite existing distribution strategies, hence, it was important to assess consumers' preferences for distribution of ITNs, as well as their perceptions and expenditures for malaria prevention and to examine the implications for scaling-up ITNs in rural Nigeria. Methods Nine focus group discussions (FGDs) and questionnaires to 798 respondents from three malaria hyper-endemic villages from Enugu state, south-east Nigeria were the study tools. Results There was a broad spectrum of malaria preventive tools being used by people. The average monthly expenditure on malaria prevention per household was 55.55 Naira ($0.4). More than 80% of the respondent had never purchased any form of untreated mosquito net. People mostly preferred centralized community-based sales of the ITNS, with instalment payments. Conclusion People were knowledgeable about malaria and the beneficial effects of using nets to protect themselves from the disease. The mostly preferred community-based distribution of ITNs implies that the strategy is a potential untapped additional channel for scaling-up ITNs in Nigeria and possibly other parts of sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:16026623
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Einbecker, Pauline Godwin
The purpose of this practicum was to determine if the teaching of Latin root words would result in an increase in English vocabulary for college students. The subjects in this study were 86 junior college business education freshmen. The subjects were divided into three groups, each of which was assigned a different method of study: group A was…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
DelCampo, Diana; Baca, Jacqueline S.; Jimenez, Desaree; Sanchez, Paula Roybal; DelCampo, Robert
2011-01-01
Just Be It! Healthy and Fit reduces the risk factors for childhood obesity for fifth graders using hands-on field trips, in-class lessons, and parent outreach efforts. Pre-test and post-test scores from the year-long classroom instruction showed a statistically significant increase in fruit and vegetable intake, physical activity, and nutrition…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bettencourt, Connie Lynn
2009-01-01
Studies report that U.S. students rank among the lowest in the area of mathematical knowledge of all industrialized countries. Schools in the United States are producing graduates ill-prepared to be successful at jobs which require mathematical competency. To increase mathematical understanding, this study examined the inclusion of writing in…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House.
This hearing was held to examine the current state of mathematics, science, and engineering education at the undergraduate level by focusing on the demands of a knowledge-based economy. Contents include opening statements by Representative Nick Smith, Chairman, Subcommittee on Research, Committee in Science, U.S. House of Representatives;…
Linn, Shai; Rafaeli, Sheizaf
2015-01-01
Background Among Arab citizens in Israel, cigarette and nargila (hookah, waterpipe) smoking is a serious public health problem, particularly among the young adult population. With the dramatic increase of Internet and computer use among Arab college and university students, a Web-based program may provide an easy, accessible tool to reduce smoking rates without heavy resource demands required by traditional methods. Objective The purpose of this research was to examine the acceptability and feasibility of a pilot Web-based program that provides tailored feedback to increase smoking knowledge and reduce cigarette and nargila smoking behaviors among Arab college/university students in Israel. Methods A pilot Web-based program was developed, consisting of a self-administered questionnaire and feedback system on cigarette and nargila smoking. Arab university students were recruited to participate in a mixed-methods study, using both quantitative (pre-/posttest study design) and qualitative tools. A posttest was implemented at 1 month following participation in the intervention to assess any changes in smoking knowledge and behaviors. Focus group sessions were implemented to assess acceptability and preferences related to the Web-based program. Results A total of 225 participants—response rate of 63.2% (225/356)—completed the intervention at baseline and at 1-month poststudy, and were used for the comparative analysis. Statistically significant reductions in nargila smoking among participants (P=.001) were found. The intervention did not result in reductions in cigarette smoking. However, the tailored Web intervention resulted in statistically significant increases in the intention to quit smoking (P=.021). No statistically significant increases in knowledge were seen at 1-month poststudy. Participants expressed high satisfaction with the intervention and 93.8% (211/225) of those who completed the intervention at both time intervals reported that they would recommend the program to their friends, indicating excellent acceptability and feasibility of the intervention. This was further emphasized in the focus group sessions. Conclusions A tailored Web-based program may be a promising tool to reduce nargila smoking among Arab university students in Israel. The tailored Web intervention was not successful at significantly reducing cigarette smoking or increasing knowledge. However, the intervention did increase participants’ intention to quit smoking. Participants considered the Web-based tool to be an interesting, feasible, and highly acceptable strategy. Trial Registration Trial Registration: ISRCTN registry ISRCTN59207794; http://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN59207794 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6VkYOBNOJ). PMID:25707034
2014-01-01
Background A shortage of transplantable organs is a global problem. There are two types of organ donation: living and deceased. Deceased organ donation can occur following neurological determination of death (NDD) or cardiocirculatory death. Donation after cardiocirculatory death (DCD) accounts for the largest increments in deceased organ donation worldwide. Variations in the use of DCD exist, however, within Canada and worldwide. Reasons for these discrepancies are largely unknown. The purpose of this study is to develop, implement, and evaluate a theory-based knowledge translation intervention to provide practical guidance about how to increase the numbers of DCD organ donors without reducing the numbers of standard NDD donors. Methods We will use a mixed method three-step approach. In step one, we will conduct semi-structured interviews, informed by the Theoretical Domains Framework, to identify and describe stakeholders’ beliefs and attitudes about DCD and their perceptions of the multi-level factors that influence DCD. We will identify: determinants of the evidence-practice gap; specific behavioural changes and/or process changes needed to increase DCD; specific group(s) of clinicians or organizations (e.g., provincial donor organizations) in need of behaviour change; and specific targets for interventions. In step two, using the principles of intervention mapping, we will develop a theory-based knowledge translation intervention that encompasses behavior change techniques to overcome the identified barriers and enhance the enablers to DCD. In step three, we will roll out the intervention in hospitals across the 10 Canadian provinces and evaluate its effectiveness using a multiple interrupted time series design. Discussion We will adopt a behavioural approach to define and test novel, theory-based, and ethically-acceptable knowledge translation strategies to increase the numbers of available DCD organ donors in Canada. If successful, this study will ultimately lead to more transplantations, reducing patient morbidity and mortality at a population-level. PMID:24950719
Raupach, T; Münscher, C; Pukrop, T; Anders, S; Harendza, S
2010-08-01
In recent years, increasing attention has been paid to web-based learning although the advantages of computer-aided instruction over traditional teaching formats still need to be confirmed. This study examined whether participation in an online module on the differential diagnosis of dyspnoea impacts on student performance in a multiple choice examination of factual knowledge in cardiology and pneumology. A virtual problem-based learning environment for medical students supervised by postgraduate teachers was created. Seventy-four out of 183 fourth-year medical students volunteered to use the online module while attending a 6-week cardio-respiratory curriculum in summer 2007. Of these, 40 were randomly selected to be included (intervention group); the remaining 34 served as an internal control group. Analysis of all written exams taken during the preceding term showed that both groups were comparable (86.4 ± 1.1 vs. 85.9 ± 1.1%; p = 0.751). Students in the intervention group scored significantly higher in the final course assessment than students allocated to the control group (84.8 ± 1.3 vs. 79.5 ± 1.4%; p = 0.006; effect size 0.67). Thus, additional problem-based learning with an online module as part of an undergraduate cardio-respiratory curriculum lead to higher students' scores in an exam testing factual knowledge. Whether using this teaching format increases overall student motivation to engage in the learning process needs to be further investigated. PMID:19774475
Vertes, Akos
1 Mathematics MATHEMATICS The undergraduate mathematics major has three tracks: pure, applied mathematics. UNDERGRADUATE Bachelor's programs · Bachelor of Science with a major in mathematics (http:// bulletin.gwu.edu/arts-sciences/mathematics/bs) · Bachelor of Arts with a major in mathematics (http
What Math Knowledge Does Teaching Require?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Thames, Mark Hoover; Ball, Deborah Loewenberg
2010-01-01
No one would argue with the claim that teaching mathematics requires mathematics knowledge. However, a clear description of such knowledge needed for teaching has been surprisingly elusive. To differentiate teachers' levels of mathematical knowledge, numerous studies have examined whether a teacher has a certification in math or a degree as well…
What Makes a Sign a "Mathematical Sign?"--An Epistemological Perspective on Mathematical Interaction
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Steinbring, Heinz
2006-01-01
Mathematical signs and symbols have a decisive role for coding, constructing and communicating mathematical knowledge. Nevertheless these mathematical signs do not already contain mathematical meaning and conceptual ideas themselves. The contribution will present basic elements of an epistemology of mathematical knowledge and then apply these…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bleicher, R. E.
2013-12-01
Purpose of Presentation This paper will highlight how the results of this initial study foreshadow possibilities of NGSS (NGSS, 2013) playing out in high school classrooms in the near future. Research findings from a three-year NASA-funded project, Promoting Educational Leadership in Climate Science (PEL) will be presented. Objectives and Research Questions PEL aims to increase climate science literacy in high school teachers and students through scientific argumentation using authentic NASA data. This initial study focuses on the following questions: 1. Are teachers increasing their climate science knowledge? 2. Are there changes in teachers' views about climate change? 3. What resources and are provided to assist teachers to develop their students' scientific argumentation skills? Theoretical Framework Because of the changing nature of climate science knowledge and its relevance to societal issues, teachers must be able to understand the basic concepts and remain up-to-date on scientific issues. The need for a more thorough understanding of the concepts of climate change are highlighted by recent studies on the public perceptions and attitudes on the subject (Leiserowitz et al., 2013). Teachers need to understand the difference between skepticism as a characteristic of the nature of science and denial of climate change (Sommervillle & Hasol, 2011). Teachers need to understand the natural and human-induced factors affecting climate, and the potential consequences, and ways to mitigate and adapt to climate change. Generally, when teachers learn about a subject, they demonstrate more self-efficacy to teach about it (Bleicher & Lindgren, 2005). Analytic Strategy Data were analyzed using paired-samples t-tests, independent t -tests, and ANOVA. Latent class analysis was employed to analyze the Six America's Survey data. Correlational studies were conducted to examine possible relationships among variables. Findings in Brief Teachers' content knowledge increased significantly and teachers were more concerned about climate change after participation in PEL. Teachers with higher self-efficacy demonstrated higher climate change science knowledge. Teachers indicated that they felt more confident and were motivated to implement classroom lessons with their students that employed resources rich in NASA climate data and focused on scientific argumentation. References Bleicher, R.E., & Lindgren, J. (2005). Success in learning science and preservice science teaching self-efficacy. Journal of Science Teacher Education. 16, 205-225. Leiserowitz, A., Maibach, E., Roser-Renouf, C., Feinberg, G., & Howe, P.(2013) Climate change in the American mind: Americans' global warming beliefs and attitudes in April, 2013 Yale University and George Mason University. New Haven, CT: Yale Project on Climate Change Communication. Retrieved 7/26/13 from: http://climatechangecommunication.org/sites/default/files/reports/Climate-Beliefs-April-2013.pdf Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS). (2013). Available at http://www.nextgenscience.org/print/121. Somerville, R. C. J. & Hassol, S. J. (2011). Communicating the science of climate change. Physics Today, 64(10), 48-53.
Roza Leikin; Anat Levav-Waynberg
2007-01-01
This study is grounded in the theoretical position that solving problems in different ways creates mathematical connections\\u000a when learning and teaching mathematics. It acknowledges the central role teachers play in providing students with learning\\u000a opportunities, and it is based on the empirical finding that mathematics teachers are reluctant to solve problems in different\\u000a ways in the classroom. In this paper
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Whitfield, Frank Albert
The lack of an adequate supply of human resources in science and engineering has been well documented. Efforts from a number of agencies, such as the National Science Foundation, have been implemented to alleviate this national problem. However, it is unclear what concerted efforts state agencies are taking to increase the number of African American students' scientific literacy, and career choices in science and engineering. The purpose of this study was to select a talent pool of African American students who are academically able to pursue a career in a math-based major. The selection of this talent pool lead to the recommendation of an encouragement process model to be used by the Tennessee Board of Regents (TBR) system to encourage the selectees of this talent pool to enter math-based programs at TBR universities. An integrated literature review was conducted. This review includes perspectives on national, state, and local educational policy decisions which affect educational purposes, institutional governance and secondary-postsecondary linkages. Existing TBR system data were analyzed and tabulated. This tabulated data along with the recommended model will be offered to the TBR system for possible adoption. The results of these data support the methodological notion that there are an appreciable number of potential TBR system African American students academically able to enter math related majors who, however, may be reluctant to choose a career direction in a math-based career field. Implications of this study and suggestions for further research are discussed. On an applied level, the study might suggest to other states ways in which to deal with similar problems.
Technology Focus: Enhancing Conceptual Knowledge of Linear Programming with a Flash Tool
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Garofalo, Joe; Cory, Beth
2007-01-01
Mathematical knowledge can be categorized in different ways. One commonly used way is to distinguish between procedural mathematical knowledge and conceptual mathematical knowledge. Procedural knowledge of mathematics refers to formal language, symbols, algorithms, and rules. Conceptual knowledge is essential for meaningful understanding of…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Clark, Kathleen Michelle
2012-01-01
The use of the history of mathematics in teaching has long been considered a tool for enriching students' mathematical learning. However, in the USA few, if any, research efforts have investigated how the study of history of mathematics contributes to a person's mathematical knowledge for teaching. In this article, I present the results of…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wragg, Amanda; McEwen, Lindsey; Harries, Tim
2015-04-01
The focus of this paper is on the use of an innovative co-production process that engages small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) and other stakeholders in the development of an e-learning tool that has appeal for business owners as well as being a resource for agents working directly with businesses. It outlines t priorities identified by businesses in relation to the support, advice, and, usefulness of sharing experiences which will be reflected in the 'tool'. The researchers suggest that business adaptation to flood risk is a neglected area and that an information 'hub' for businesses will enable sign-posting to advisory sources, 'science communication', and support for those suffering the trauma of damage to their premises and livelihoods. The flooding of communities is becoming a repeated, widespread issue within the UK, and elsewhere. Significant impacts of extreme floods in 2007 were: loss of life, 48,000 houses and 7,000 businesses flooded, community disruption, and, monetary loss to local economies. The winter floods of 2013/2014 also had devastating impacts. This paper reports on research from a three year multi-disciplinary project funded by the UK Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC). In early 2014, SMEs accounted for 99.3% of all private sector businesses in the UK and 47.8% of private sector employment (FSB, 2014), thus they are a crucial part of the UK economy. Whilst some research focuses on 'community resilience', less is focused on the resilience of SMEs. Although SMEs may be vulnerable to fluctuations in turnover and housed in vulnerable premises, they often have the ability to make quick decisions and be innovative in the face of adversity owing to smaller, less complex systems. One key research aim has been to determine attitudes of business owners towards flood resilience and business continuity and barriers and motivators relating to adaptation. The resources SMEs draw on, their understanding of flood risk, and, the part that their knowledges and learning play in decision-making have been explored. The co-production process engages regional/national stakeholders who form a Stakeholder Competency Group (from policy and practice), and, a Business Research Partnership Group comprising local business participants. The two groups have opportunities to liaise and network in discussing the prototype for the learning tool. Whatmore et al (2008) and McEwen et al (2014) show that stakeholder views, experience and expertise can strengthen research outputs. The approach reflects current ethics and practices of stakeholder participation in that alongside an academic approach to the research, other equally valid forms of knowledge are recognised: 'a lot can be learned from exploring parallels, controversies and frictions between different forms of competency and knowledge (McEwen et al, 2014), for example, scientific, local, tacit and embedded. This paper presents concerns identified by businesses and wider stakeholders in relation to how the tool is framed and its key design premises. The tool is planned as a living resource that can support a community of learning practice among SMEs to increase flood resilience in the face of increased risk. References Federation of Small Businesses (2014) http://www.fsb.org.uk/stats Whatmore, Lane and Ward et al (2007-2010) Understanding Environmental Knowledge Controversies ESRC/NERC funded interdisciplinary research project (2007-2010) McEwen et al (2014) https://floodmemories.wordpress.com/2011/04/06/advice-from-competent-stakeholders/.
The NIST Digital Library of Mathematical Functions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Clark, Charles W.
1998-05-01
Not updated since its 1964 publication, the Handbook of Mathematical Functions (Handbook of Mathematical Functions with Formulas, Graphs, and Mathematical Tables), ed. M. Abramowitz and I. A. Stegun, National Bureau of Standards Applied Mathematics Series v. 55 (U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington DC, 1964) presents the state of applied mathematics 40 years ago, in a form suited for computation in an age of numerical tables and mechanical calculators. Yet it remains a workhorse reference of AMO physics and of other scientific fields, having been cited in archival literature over 26,000 times since 1974 (at a still-increasing rate). To incorporate subsequent advances in basic mathematical knowledge, in computational power and technique, and in dissemination of information, the National Institute of Standards and Technology has begun a project to provide a modern source of evaluated mathematical reference data: the NIST Digital Library of Mathematical Functions. The Digital Library is designed to serve the needs of users of applied mathematics via the World Wide Web. We shall demonstrate the operation of a prototype, and hope to elicit expressed needs of the AMO community.
The Methodological Relevance of the History of Mathematics for Mathematics Education
Albrecht Heeffer
Mathematics education benefits from an integration of the history of mathematics within the mathematics curriculum. We provide three basic arguments for such integration. The first is epistemological and addresses a contextual view on mathematical knowledge. The second concerns the phylogenic aspects of the development of mathematics. Conceptual difficulties with teaching children mathematics often correspond with historical periods of conceptual crisis
Early Predictors of High School Mathematics Achievement
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Siegler, Robert S.; Duncan, Greg J.; Davis-Kean, Pamela E.; Duckworth, Kathryn; Claessens, Amy; Engel, Mimi; Susperreguy, Maria Ines; Meichu, Chen
2012-01-01
Identifying the types of mathematics content knowledge that are most predictive of students' long-term learning is essential for improving both theories of mathematical development and mathematics education. To identify these types of knowledge, we examined long-term predictors of high school students' knowledge of algebra and overall…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Starling, Tina T.
2011-01-01
This comparative study examined discourse and opportunities for interaction in two mathematics education methods classes, one face-to-face and one synchronous, online. Due to the content taught in the course, this study also sought to determine prospective mathematics teachers' understanding of variability and the role of discourse in each…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lindenskov, Lena; Hansen, Eigil Peter
This study explores how adults' perspectives, intentions, blockages, resistance, and fascinations are reconstructed during a mathematics course in adult basic education. These aspects are discussed as important building blocks for developing theory in adult educational research. Adult mathematics education was compared in different institutional…
SMB: Society for Mathematical Biology
NSDL National Science Digital Library
The Society for Mathematical Biology (SMB) is an international society devoted to increasing communication between the mathematical and biological communities through holding conferences and publishing journals.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yue, Ning; Chen, Zhe; Nath, Ravinder
2002-04-01
Edema caused by the surgical procedure of prostate seed implantation expands the source-to-point distances within the prostate and hence decreases the dose coverage. The decrease of dose coverage results in an increase in tumour cell survival. To investigate the effects of edema on tumour cell survival, a bio-mathematical model of edema and the corresponding cell killing by continuous low dose rate irradiation (CLDRI) was developed so that tumour cell surviving fractions can be estimated in an edematous prostate for both 125I and 103Pd seed implants. The dynamic nature of edema and its resolution were modelled with an exponential function V(T) = Vp (1 + M exp(-0.693T/Te)) where Vp is the prostate volume before implantation, M is the edema magnitude and Te is edema half-life (EHL). The dose rate of a radioactive seed was calculated according to AAPM TG43, i.e. ?g(r) ?BED), where ? is the linear coefficient of the survival curve. The tumour cell survival was calculated for both 125I and 103Pd seed implants and for different tumour potential doubling time (TPDT) (from 5 days to 30 days) and for edemas of different magnitudes (from 0% to 95%) and edema half-lives (from 4 days to 30 days). Tumour cell survival increased with the increase of edema magnitude and EHL. For a typical edema of a half-life of 10 days and a magnitude of 50%, the edema increased tumour cell survival by about 1 and 2 orders of magnitude for 125I and 103Pd seed implants respectively. At the extreme (95% edema magnitude and an edema half-life of 30 days), the increase was more than 3 and 5 orders of magnitude for 125I and 103Pd seed implants respectively. The absolute increases were almost independent of TPDT and the prostate edema did not significantly change the effective treatment time. Tumour cell survival for prostate undergoing CLDRI using 125I or 103Pd seeds may be increased substantially due to the presence of edema caused by surgical trauma. This effect appears to be more pronounced for 103Pd than 125I because of the shorter half-life of 103Pd. If significant edema is observed post implantation, then a boost to the prostate using external beam radiotherapy may be considered as a part of the treatment strategy.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Yordanova, Juliana; Kolev, Vasil; Wagner, Ullrich; Born, Jan; Verleger, Rolf
2012-01-01
The number reduction task (NRT) allows us to study the transition from implicit knowledge of hidden task regularities to explicit insight into these regularities. To identify sleep-associated neurophysiological indicators of this restructuring of knowledge representations, we measured frequency-specific power of EEG while participants slept during…
Blumenthal, Jill; Jain, Sonia; Krakower, Douglas; Sun, Xiaoying; Young, Jason; Mayer, Kenneth; Haubrich, Richard
2015-05-01
The FDA approval of emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate for pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in 2012 has raised questions about the delivery of PrEP in a real-world setting. iPad-based questionnaires were given to providers at conferences in California and New York to assess knowledge, experience and attitudes regarding PrEP in HIV and non-HIV providers. HIV provider status was defined either by self-identification or by having greater than 5 years of HIV care experience. Knowledge scores were the sum of correct answers from five PrEP knowledge questions. Univariate analyses used t-test to compare knowledge scores and Fisher's exact test for past or future PrEP prescription between HIV and non-HIV providers. Multivariable linear or logistic regression models were used to assess factors associated with the outcomes. Of 233 respondents, the mean age was 40 years, 59 % were White, 59 % were physicians and 52 % were HIV providers. In univariate analysis, mean PrEP knowledge scores (max 5) were significantly higher for HIV providers (2.8 versus 2.2; p < 0.001), age > 41 (mean 2.8 versus 2.3; p = 0.004), White race (2.7 versus 2.2; p = 0.026) and participants in the New York region (3.0 versus 2.3; p < 0.001). In a multivariable model of knowledge scores, all but age remained significant. Among 201 potential prescribers, the rate of prior PrEP prescription was higher among HIV providers than non-HIV providers (34 versus 9 %; p < 0.001) and by knowledge score, but the association with provider status was no longer significant in multivariable analysis that controlled for knowledge. Intent to prescribe PrEP in the future was high for all provider types (64 %) and was associated with knowledge scores in multivariable analysis. The most common concerns about PrEP (>40 % of providers) were drug toxicities, development of resistance and patient adherence to follow-up; 32 % identified risk compensation as a concern. HIV providers had significantly greater PrEP knowledge than non-HIV providers, but differences by provider type in past PrEP prescription were largely dependent on knowledge. Future PrEP prescription was also associated with knowledge, though all providers expressed greater future use. Education of potential PrEP providers will be a key component of successful PrEP implementation. PMID:25616837
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cetorelli, Nancy; And Others
The purpose of this project is to help teachers of mathematics use the computer to aid the teaching and learning of many mathematical concepts in a meaningful way. To this end, commercially available software packages are described which are versatile, cost effective, and easy to use. A review and several lessons, each including homework…
Croicu, Ana-Maria
is awarding 160 scholarships over a four-year period to undergraduates in mathematics, biology, biotechnology of the STEM disciplines. Through the Scholarship Program in Science and Mathematics at Kennesaw State a minimum 3.0 GPA) will receive annual scholarships up to $3,000, depending upon financial need
Foundational Mathematics: A Neglected Opportunity
Jennifer S. McCray; Jie-Qi Chen
\\u000a The importance of preschool-level mathematics education has not been adequately understood or emphasized by either the early\\u000a childhood or mathematics education communities. While early childhood educators are held back by a lack of mathematical knowledge\\u000a and confidence, mathematics educators tend to miss the importance of the mathematical learning that takes place prior to the\\u000a use of symbols. This chapter describes
Toward Improving the Mathematics Preparation of Elementary Preservice Teachers
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cardetti, Fabiana; Truxaw, Mary P.
2014-01-01
Research suggests the importance of mathematics knowledge for teaching (MKT) for enabling elementary school teachers to effectively teach mathematics. MKT involves both mathematical content knowledge (M-CK) and mathematical pedagogical content knowledge (M-PCK). However, there is no consensus on how best to prepare elementary preservice teachers…
Valla, Jeffrey M.; Williams, Wendy M.
2012-01-01
The under-representation of women and ethnic minorities in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) education and professions has resulted in a loss of human capital for the US scientific workforce and spurred the development of myriad STEM educational intervention programs. Increased allocation of resources to such programs begs for a critical, prescriptive, evidence-based review that will enable researchers to develop optimal interventions and administrators to maximize investments. We begin by providing a theoretical backdrop for K-12 STEM programs by reviewing current data on under-representation and developmental research describing individual-level social factors undergirding these data. Next, we review prototypical designs of these programs, highlighting specific programs in the literature as examples of program structures and components currently in use. We then evaluate these interventions in terms of overall effectiveness, as a function of how well they address age-, ethnicity-, or gender-specific factors, suggesting improvements in program design based on these critiques. Finally, program evaluation methods are briefly reviewed and discussed in terms of how their empirical soundness can either enable or limit our ability to delineate effective program components. “Now more than ever, the nation’s changing demographics demand that we include all of our citizens in science and engineering education and careers. For the U.S. to benefit from the diverse talents of all its citizens, we must grow the pipeline of qualified, underrepresented minority engineers and scientists to fill positions in industry and academia.”—Irving P. McPhail.. PMID:22942637
Strengthen Your Mathematical Muscles
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wohlhuter, Kay A.; Breyfogle, M. Lynn; McDuffie, Amy Roth
2010-01-01
Developing deep knowledge and understanding of mathematics is a lifelong process, and building the foundation for teachers' development must begin in preservice preparation and continue throughout one's professional life. While teaching mathematics content courses and methods courses, the authors have found that preservice elementary school…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wilkie, Karina J.
2011-01-01
Recent applications of technology to mathematics education have been designed with cognitive and constructivist theoretical perspectives in mind, viewing mathematical learning as the acquisition of knowledge through the construction of meanings and connections between concepts. With the advent of increasingly flexible communication technologies,…
Facilitating Collaborative Knowledge Building
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hmelo-Silver, Cindy E.; Barrows, Howard S.
2008-01-01
This article describes a detailed analysis of knowledge building in a problem-based learning group. Knowledge building involves increasing the collective knowledge of a group through social discourse. For knowledge building to occur in the classroom, the teacher needs to create opportunities for constructive discourse in order to support student…
Mathematics for Physicists and Engineers.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).
The text is a report of the OEEC Seminar on "The Mathematical Knowledge Required by the Physicist and Engineer" held in Paris, 1961. There are twelve major papers presented: (1) An American Parallel (describes the work of the Panel on Physical Sciences and Engineering of the Committee on the Undergraduate Program in Mathematics of the Mathematical…
Mathematics in the Early Years.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Copley, Juanita V., Ed.
Noting that young children are capable of surprisingly complex forms of mathematical thinking and learning, this book presents a collection of articles depicting children discovering mathematical ideas, teachers fostering students' informal mathematical knowledge, adults asking questions and listening to answers, and researchers examining…
Anderson, Charles W.
of mathematics, science, and engineering (b) an ability to design and conduct experiments, as well as to analyze to identify, formulate, and solve engineering problems (f) an understanding of professional and ethical the impact of engineering solutions in a global, economic, environmental, and societal context (i
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pagar, Dana
2013-01-01
Manipulatives have the potential to be powerful tools in helping children improve their number sense, develop advanced mathematical strategies, and build an understanding of the base ten number system. Physical manipulatives used in classrooms, however, are often not designed to promote efficient strategy use, such as counting on, and typically do…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gierl, Mark J.; Alves, Cecilia; Majeau, Renate Taylor
2010-01-01
The purpose of this study is to apply the attribute hierarchy method in an operational diagnostic mathematics program at Grades 3 and 6 to promote cognitive inferences about students' problem-solving skills. The attribute hierarchy method is a psychometric procedure for classifying examinees' test item responses into a set of structured attribute…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
McCoy, Wanda Linnette
2012-01-01
Over the past three decades, there has been growing interest in teaching mathematics in ways that encourage action for social justice. Social Justice Education (SJE) seeks to enable students to study existing forms of social injustices in their lives and to create a sense of social agency in the students. This study sought to understand the…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bunch, James Charles
2012-01-01
The purpose of this study was twofold: 1) to compare the effectiveness of two teaching methods (i.e., lecture/discussion and digital game-based learning) on student achievement in agriculture and mathematics regarding a unit on swine diseases in animal science courses offered through secondary agricultural education programs in Oklahoma; 2) to…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Zacharos, Konstantinos; Koustourakis, Gerassimos
2011-01-01
The reference contexts that accompany the "realistic" problems chosen for teaching mathematical concepts in the first school grades play a major educational role. However, choosing "realistic" problems in teaching is a complex process that must take into account various pedagogical, sociological and psychological parameters.…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Materia, Valentina Cristiana; Giarè, Francesca; Klerkx, Laurens
2015-01-01
Purpose: The aim of the paper is to analyse the use of Communities of Practice and Information and Communication Technology (ICT) to enhance knowledge sharing between researchers and advisors. The associated research question is to what extent ICT supported a virtual Community of Practice and has been effective in counteracting fragmentation…
Characteristics of Effective Teaching of Mathematics: An Evidential Synthesis
Glenda Anthony; Margaret Walshaw
Worldwide, policy makers are placing increasing demands on schools to use effective, research-based practices. In New Zealand a collaborative knowledge building strategy The Iterative Best Evidence Synthesis Programme has been implemented at policy level. This paper outlines the findings from the mathematics Best Evidence Synthesis focused on identifying characteristics of pedagogical approaches that facilitate learning for diverse learners in the
Learning Mathematics--Letting the Pupils Have Their Say
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lee, Clare; Johnston-Wilder, Sue
2013-01-01
Pupil voice is an emerging force for change and improvement in many UK schools, but what is not fully understood is how best to access pupil voice within the specific context of secondary mathematics departments. This paper presents a research project designed to use pupils as co-researchers in increasing knowledge about how to improve learning in…
Freedom Quilts: Mathematics on the Underground Railroad
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Neumann, Maureen D.
2005-01-01
A mathematics activity is presented which is a lesson frequently taught to upper elementary school students. It helps the students to see the connection of mathematics with a real-world activity, appreciate the mathematical knowledge required of quilt makers, reinforce their knowledge of the geometrical properties of different shapes and bring…
Knowledge Convergence and Collaborative Learning
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jeong, Heisawn; Chi, Michelene T. H.
2007-01-01
This paper operationalized the notion of knowledge convergence and assessed quantitatively how much knowledge convergence occurred during collaborative learning. Knowledge convergence was defined as an increase in common knowledge where common knowledge referred to the knowledge that all collaborating partners had. Twenty pairs of college students…
Zhou, Xianghong Jasmine
399Mathematics Mathematics Kaprielian Hall 108 (213) 740-2400 FAX: (213) 740-2424 Email: mathinfo and Erna Viterbi Chair in Communications: Solomb Golomb, Ph.D. (Electrical Engineering) Dean's Professor of Mathematics: Eric M. Friedlander, Ph.D. Professors: Kenneth Alexander, Ph.D.; Richard Arratia, Ph.D.; Peter
Research in Mathematics Education: Looking Back and
Belding, Juliana
of Mathematics Education Research Community Â Some History Â· Role of Mathematics Â· Research Themes and Questions research in curriculum Â· Robert Davis Â needed research in the teaching of mathematics #12;Organizing Â· Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching Â· Standards and Assessment of Learning Â· Role of curriculum Â· Role
Cognitive Correlates of Performance in Advanced Mathematics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wei, Wei; Yuan, Hongbo; Chen, Chuansheng; Zhou, Xinlin
2012-01-01
Background: Much research has been devoted to understanding cognitive correlates of elementary mathematics performance, but little such research has been done for advanced mathematics (e.g., modern algebra, statistics, and mathematical logic).Aims: To promote mathematical knowledge among college students, it is necessary to understand what factors…
Modularizing Remedial Mathematics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wong, Aaron
2013-01-01
As remedial mathematics education has become an increasingly important topic of conversation in higher education. Mathematics departments have been put under increased pressure to change their programs to increase the student success rate. A number of models have been introduced over the last decade that represent a wide range of new ideas and…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Carter, Carolyn S.; Keyes, Marian; Kusimo, Patricia S.; Lunsford, Crystal
This guide contains hands-on science activities to connect middle-school students to the traditional knowledge of their grandparents and elders. Because girls often lose interest in science at the middle-school level, and because women in some communities (especially in rural areas) are seldom involved in work with an obvious science basis, the…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feria, Erlan H.
2009-05-01
In this first part of the latest latency-information theory (LIT) and applications paper series powerful and fast 'knowledge-unaided' power-centroid (F-KUPC) radar is revealed. More specifically, it is found that for real-world airborne moving target indicator radar subjected to severely taxing environmental conditions F-KUPC radar approximates the signal to interference plus noise ratio (SINR) radar performance derived with more complex knowledge-aided power-centroid (KAPC) radar. KAPC radar was discovered earlier as part of DARPA's 2001-2005 knowledge-aided sensor signal processing expert reasoning (KASSPER) Program and outperforms standard priorknowledge radar schemes by several orders of magnitude in both the compression of sourced intelligence-space of priorknowledge, in the form of SAR imagery, and the compression of processing intelligence-time of the associated clutter covariance processor, while also yielding an average SINR radar performance that is approximately 1dB away from the optimum. In this paper, it is shown that the average SINR performance of significantly simpler F-KUPC radar emulates that of KAPC radar and, like KAPC radar, outperforms a conventional knowledge-unaided sample covariance matrix inverse radar algorithm by several dBs. The matlab simulation programs that were used to derive these results will become available in the author's Web site.
An interdisciplinary programme jointly o ered by Department of Mathematics and
Huang, Jianwei
of Information Engineering BSc in Mathematics and Information Engineering Mathematical and Engineering Knowledge Communication Systems Software Engineering Cyber Security Mathematical Analysis Algebra & Geometry Di erential Equations Stochastic Processes Probability #12;Mathematics and Information Engineering Curriculum Admission
Mario Bunge's Philosophy of Mathematics: An Appraisal
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Marquis, Jean-Pierre
2012-01-01
In this paper, I present and discuss critically the main elements of Mario Bunge's philosophy of mathematics. In particular, I explore how mathematical knowledge is accounted for in Bunge's systemic emergent materialism.
Results of a Comprehension Test in Mathematics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Debrenti, Edith
2013-01-01
In higher education the main subjects build on the knowledge acquired in high school. Research shows that students entering universities have acquired basic knowledge to different extents. It is very important to be able to apply mathematical knowledge directly. Students often treat practical knowledge separately from theoretical knowledge. They…
Early Predictors of Middle School Fraction Knowledge
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bailey, Drew H.; Siegler, Robert S.; Geary, David C.
2014-01-01
Recent findings that earlier fraction knowledge predicts later mathematics achievement raise the question of what predicts later fraction knowledge. Analyses of longitudinal data indicated that whole number magnitude knowledge in first grade predicted knowledge of fraction magnitudes in middle school, controlling for whole number arithmetic…
2013-01-01
Background The best treatment option for end-stage renal disease is usually a transplant, preferably a live donor kidney transplant (LDKT). The most effective ways to educate kidney transplant candidates about the risks, benefits, and process of LDKT remain unknown. Methods/design We report the protocol of the Enhancing Living Donor Kidney Transplant Education (ELITE) Study, a cluster randomized trial of an educational intervention to be implemented during initial transplant evaluation at a large, suburban U.S. transplant center. Five hundred potential transplant candidates are cluster randomized (by date of visit) to receive either: (1) standard-of-care (“usual”) transplant education, or (2) intensive education that is based upon the Explore Transplant series of educational materials. Intensive transplant education includes viewing an educational video about LDKT, receiving print education, and meeting with a transplant educator. The primary outcome consists of knowledge of the benefits, risks, and process of LDKT, assessed one week after the transplant evaluation. As a secondary outcome, knowledge and understanding of LDKT are assessed 3 months after the evaluation. Additional secondary outcomes, assessed one week and 3 months after the evaluation, include readiness, self-efficacy, and decisional balance regarding transplant and LDKT, with differences assessed by race. Although the unit of randomization is the date of the transplant evaluation visit, the unit of analysis will be the individual potential transplant candidate. Discussion The ELITE Study will help to determine how education in a transplant center can best be designed to help Black and non-Black patients learn about the option of LDKT. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov number NCT01261910 PMID:24245948
Pletser, Vladimir
2012-01-01
In the early fifties, the Belgian Prof. J. de Heinzelin discovered a bone in the region of a fishermen village called Ishango, at one of the farthest sources of the Nile, on the border of Congo and Uganda. The Heinzelin's Ishango bone has notches that seem to form patterns, making it the first tool on which some logic reasoning seems to have been done. In this paper a new interpretation is proposed for these patterned notches, based on a detailed observation of their structure. It can be called the "slide rule"-reading, in contrast to former "arithmetic game" and "calendar" explanations. Additional circumstantial evidences are given to support the hypothesis that the Ishango bone is a primitive mathematical tool using the base 12 and sub-bases 3 and 4.
Mary Hare; Michael Jones; Caroline Thomson; Sarah Kelly; Ken McRae
2009-01-01
An increasing number of results in sentence and discourse processing demonstrate that comprehension relies on rich pragmatic knowledge about real-world events, and that incoming words incrementally activate such knowledge. If so, then even outside of any larger context, nouns should activate knowledge of the generalized events that they denote or typically play a role in. We used short stimulus onset
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hare, Mary; Jones, Michael; Thomson, Caroline; Kelly, Sarah; McRae, Ken
2009-01-01
An increasing number of results in sentence and discourse processing demonstrate that comprehension relies on rich pragmatic knowledge about real-world events, and that incoming words incrementally activate such knowledge. If so, then even outside of any larger context, nouns should activate knowledge of the generalized events that they denote or…
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Peuquet, Donna J.
1987-01-01
A new approach to building geographic data models that is based on the fundamental characteristics of the data is presented. An overall theoretical framework for representing geographic data is proposed. An example of utilizing this framework in a Geographic Information System (GIS) context by combining artificial intelligence techniques with recent developments in spatial data processing techniques is given. Elements of data representation discussed include hierarchical structure, separation of locational and conceptual views, and the ability to store knowledge at variable levels of completeness and precision.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Givvin, Karen B.; Stigler, James W.; Thompson, Belinda J.
2011-01-01
In a prior issue of "MathAMATYC Educator," we reported on our efforts to find out what community college developmental mathematics students understand about mathematics (Stigler, Givvin, & Thompson, 2010). Our work painted a distressing picture of students' mathematical knowledge. No matter what kind of mathematical question we asked, students…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Raupach, T.; Munscher, C.; Pukrop, T.; Anders, S.; Harendza, S.
2010-01-01
In recent years, increasing attention has been paid to web-based learning although the advantages of computer-aided instruction over traditional teaching formats still need to be confirmed. This study examined whether participation in an online module on the differential diagnosis of dyspnoea impacts on student performance in a multiple choice…
Doug Clements: Early Mathematics
NSDL National Science Digital Library
2012-09-14
This collection of 5 video "snap shots" features Dr. Doug Clements speaking on mathematics in early childhood. Topics include Learning Trajectories, Intentional Play-Based Learning, Intentional Instruction, Integrated Concrete Concepts, and Early Math Learning. He addresses content knowledge necessary for teaching and the development of children's mathematical understanding. Each video is between 2 and 9 minutes long and may be viewed online or downloaded.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cardella, Monica E.
2008-01-01
While many engineering educators have proposed changes to the way that mathematics is taught to engineers, the focus has often been on mathematical content knowledge. Work from the mathematics education community suggests that it may be beneficial to consider a broader notion of mathematics: mathematical thinking. Schoenfeld identifies five…
Defining as a Vehicle for Professional Development of Secondary School Mathematics Teachers
Roza Leikin; Greisy Winicki-Landman
This paper describes a professional development program for secondary school mathematics teachers. The issue of mathematical definition is the focus of the program. The program aimed to develop teachers' subject matter knowledge including knowledge of substance of mathematics and knowledge about the nature and discourse of mathematics . The rationale of the course is described as well as some outcomes
Knowing and Learning Mathematics for Teaching: Proceedings of a Workshop (March 19-21, 1999).
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Mathematical Sciences Education Board.
The Mathematics Teacher Preparation Content Workshop, held March 19-21, 1999, focused on two questions: (1) What is the mathematical knowledge teachers need to know in order to teach well? and (2) How can teachers develop the mathematical knowledge they need to teach well? Chapters include: (1) "Knowledge of Fundamental Mathematics for Teaching"…
From Architectural Knowledge to Requirements Knowledge Management
Peng Liang
Knowledge management has been playing an increasingly prominent role in soft- ware engineering in both academic and industrial perspectives. Meanwhile, the software architecture community has recently witnessed a paradigm shift towards managing architectural knowledge (AK), and consolidated research results have been achieved. Within the software development lifecycle, requirements engineer- ing (RE) and architecting are two closely related activities, and so
Narrative assessment: making mathematics learning visible in early childhood settings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anthony, Glenda; McLachlan, Claire; Lim Fock Poh, Rachel
2015-04-01
Narratives that capture children's learning as they go about their day-to-day activities are promoted as a powerful assessment tool within early childhood settings. However, in the New Zealand context, there is increasing concern that learning stories—the preferred form of narrative assessment—currently downplay domain knowledge. In this paper, we draw on data from 13 teacher interviews and samples of 18 children's learning stories to examine how mathematics is made visible within learning stories. Despite appreciating that mathematics is embedded in a range of everyday activities within the centres, we found that the nature of a particular activity appeared to influence `how' and `what' the teachers chose to document as mathematics learning. Many of the teachers expressed a preference to document and analyse mathematics learning that occurred within explicit mathematics activities rather than within play that involves mathematics. Our concern is that this restricted documentation of mathematical activity could potentially limit opportunities for mathematics learning both in the centre and home settings.
Narrative assessment: making mathematics learning visible in early childhood settings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anthony, Glenda; McLachlan, Claire; Lim Fock Poh, Rachel
2015-09-01
Narratives that capture children's learning as they go about their day-to-day activities are promoted as a powerful assessment tool within early childhood settings. However, in the New Zealand context, there is increasing concern that learning stories—the preferred form of narrative assessment—currently downplay domain knowledge. In this paper, we draw on data from 13 teacher interviews and samples of 18 children's learning stories to examine how mathematics is made visible within learning stories. Despite appreciating that mathematics is embedded in a range of everyday activities within the centres, we found that the nature of a particular activity appeared to influence `how' and `what' the teachers chose to document as mathematics learning. Many of the teachers expressed a preference to document and analyse mathematics learning that occurred within explicit mathematics activities rather than within play that involves mathematics. Our concern is that this restricted documentation of mathematical activity could potentially limit opportunities for mathematics learning both in the centre and home settings.
Teresi, Jeanne A.; Ramirez, Mildred; Ellis, Julie; Silver, Stephanie; Boratgis, Gabriel; Kong, Jian; Eimicke, Joseph P.; Pillemer, Karl A.; Lachs, Mark S.
2013-01-01
Background Elder abuse in long term care has received considerable attention; however, resident-to-resident elder mistreatment (R-REM) has not been well researched. Preliminary findings from studies of R-REM suggest that it is sufficiently widespread to merit concern, and is likely to have serious detrimental outcomes for residents. However, no evidence-based training, intervention and implementation strategies exist that address this issue. Objectives The objective was to evaluate the impact of a newly developed R-REM training intervention for nursing staff on knowledge, recognition and reporting of R-REM. Design The design was a prospective cluster randomized trial with randomization at the unit level. Methods A sample of 1405 residents (685 in the control and 720 in the intervention group) from 47 New York City nursing home units (23 experimental and 24 control) in 5 nursing homes was assessed. Data were collected at three waves: baseline, 6 and 12 months. Staff on the experimental units received the training and implementation protocols, while those on the comparison units did not. Evaluation of outcomes was conducted on an intent-to-treat basis using mixed (random and fixed effects) models for continuous knowledge variables and Poisson regressions for longitudinal count data measuring recognition and reporting. Results There was a significant increase in knowledge post-training, controlling for pre-training levels for the intervention group (p<0.001), significantly increased recognition of R-REM (p<0.001), and longitudinal reporting in the intervention as contrasted with the control group (p=0.0058). Conclusions A longitudinal evaluation demonstrated that the training intervention was effective in enhancing knowledge, recognition and reporting of R-REM. It is recommended that this training program be implemented in long term care facilities. PMID:23159018
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fussi, Fabio; Alvino, Roberta; Caruba, Massimo; Galimberti, Luca; Marzan, Ignacio; Tarrason y Cerda', David; Sabatini, Daniela
2013-04-01
In several African countries water supply is still largely a huge problem. In order to achieve MDG for water supply, UNICEF is promoting manual drilling in Africa. Manual drilling refers to those techniques of drilling boreholes for groundwater exploitation using human or animal power (not mechanized equipment). These techniques are well known in countries with large alluvial deposits (India, Nepal, Bangladesh, etc). They are cheaper than mechanized boreholes, easy to implement as the equipment is locally done, able to provide clean water if correctly applied. But manual drilling is feasible only where suitable hydrogeological conditions are met: - the shallow geological layers are not too hard (soft sediments or rocks having limited resistance) and have good permeability; - the depth where it is possible to find exploitable water is limited (in this study we assumed no deeper than 25 m). For this reason mapping of suitable zone for manual drilling has been the first step in UNICEF program already completed in 15 countries. this paper explains the general methodology for the identification of suitable zones at country level The methodology is based in the integration of different information (maps, reports, database) already existing in each country, together with interview of local technicians with direct experience in various regions and limited direct field data collection. General suitability for manual drilling (although adapted to specific condition in each country) is based on the combination of three main parameters: the geological suitability, the suitability according to water depth and the morphological suitability: - Geological suitability is related to the hardness and permeability of the shallow layers of rock formations. It has been obtained through a GIS procedure of simplification and reclassification of geological maps, estimating hardness and permeability of main rock and overlaying weathered layer on the basis of stratigraphic borehole logs, presence of hand dug well and perception of local geologists; - Suitability according to water depth is related to the depth where exploitable water strikes can be found. it has been estimated through analysis of the spa tial distribution of water level obtained by national inventories of water points and direct experience of drillers; - Geomorphological suitability refers to the existence of a surface morphology that facilitates the accumulation of unconsolidated materials. It has been obtained from SRTM digital elevation model, estimating slope and topographic position index The general suitability has been obtained through the combination of geological and water depth suitability using 2-dimensional tables for the whole country. Morphological suitability has been finally integrated for a more detailed analysis in those areas with hilly topography. The final results provide an important support for the definition of those areas where promotion of manual drilling is a suitable strategy and the choice of specific techniques to apply. Furthermore this study has put in evidence the high value of keeping well organized geographic database for the implementation of correct development strategy in Africa, and in the mean time has given an example of integration of systematized data and traditional knowledge
No. 418 October 2012 MATHEMATICAL
Abrahams, I. David
at the forefront of developing several high profile organisations. The LMS is confident that his wide knowledge, expertise and leadership skills will help the LMS to grow and continue to benefit the mathematics community
Bristol, University of
Mathematics and Computer Science, three years GG14 MEng Mathematics and Computer Science, four years GG1K BSc theory, probability and statistics, mechanics, and computational mathematics. The first-year syllabuUndergraduate Mathematics Faculty of Science #12;bristol.ac.uk/study Mathematics is the key
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Luther, Kenneth H.
2012-01-01
Mathematical modeling of groundwater flow is a topic at the intersection of mathematics and geohydrology and is rarely encountered in undergraduate mathematics. However, this subject is full of interesting and meaningful examples of truly "applied" mathematics accessible to undergraduates, from the pre-calculus to advanced mathematics levels. This…
Almor, Amit
Mathematics Scholarships Complete Scholarship Name Application Deadline Date Contact Name Contact of Mathematics to an outstanding undergraduate mathematics major who has demonstrated excellence in mathematics is selected by the Undergraduate Advisory Council in the Department of Mathematics. No N/A Douglas B. Meade
Advancing Knowledge and the Knowledge Economy
NSDL National Science Digital Library
The attention paid to the burgeoning "knowledge economy" continues to grow, particularly within the halls of higher education, the federal government, and in the private sector. This past January, the National Science Foundation (in collaboration with other institutions) convened a conference designed "to broaden and deepen common understanding of how difficult-to-measure knowledge resources drive an increasing virtualized economy and to assess prospects for advancing and regenerating knowledge infrastructure, institutions, and policies." While the conference itself is finished, users interested in these themes will appreciate this site, which offers some material about these various issues, along with material on the program itself and the work presented there. After examining these background materials, visitors will want to peruse the draft papers presented at the conference, which deal with networks of knowledge, measuring knowledge, and knowledge clusters.
The Generative Adolescent Mathematical Learner
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lawler, Brian R.
2010-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to consider the personal epistemologies of generative adolescent mathematical learners. A generative disposition defined a learner who operated mathematically in ways that reflect an internalized authority for knowing and a constructive orientation to knowledge. Drawing upon the radical constructivist teaching…
Babylonian Mathematics1 1 Introduction
Spalsbury, Angela
not speak the Sumerian language. These people now are called Ubaidians, for the village Al-Ubaid, where, metalwork, masonry, and pottery. The people called Sumerians, whose language prevailed in the territoryBabylonian Mathematics1 1 Introduction Our first knowledge of mankind's use of mathematics comes
Radical Constructivism in Mathematics Education.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
von Glasersfeld, Ernst, Ed.
This book is a collection of essays forming a mosaic of theory, research, and practice directed at the task of spreading mathematical knowledge based on the learning theory of constructivism. The authors collectively address questions raised by the observation that current practice frequently generate in the student an aversion to mathematics.…
Raising Achievement in Secondary Mathematics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Watson, Anne
2006-01-01
This book brings together research and professional knowledge to enhance the teaching of lower attaining students in secondary mathematics. Attainment in mathematics is an important social issue, since underachievement can make a difference to future life choices, particularly amongst certain groups of students. This book shows how well-meant…
Mathematics for Teaching: An Anthropological Approach and Its Use in Teaching Training
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Huillet, Danielle
2009-01-01
This paper analyses how the mathematical knowledge needed by a teacher has been described by several mathematics educators, all based on Shulman's notions of Subject Matter Knowledge and Pedagogical Content Knowledge. In particular, it looks at the notion of Mathematics Knowledge for Teaching, as elaborated by Ball and her research group. It then…
Peter Reimann
Computer-based learning environments for science and mathematics education support predominantly individual learning; from first generation drill and practice programs to today's advanced, knowledge-based tutorial systems, one learner interacting with one computer has been the typical setting. Mathematics educators, however, increasingly appreciate the value of collaborative learning and include team-learning activities in their lessons. In this presentation, drawing on our research
NSDL National Science Digital Library
The Mathematics Survey Project, initiated by Professor Jim Pitman of the Departments of Mathematics and Statistics at the University of California, Berkeley, aims to construct new ways to organize, communicate and archive mathematical knowledge online. The project is "a bold proposal which attempts to solve the problems of fragmentation and compartmentalization, and indirectly to reduce the cost of commercial journals, by promoting the value of openly accessible content." The proposal, which is described on this website, includes the formation of a large collection of open access journals in mathematics to be indexed by subject. Starting with a survey of the field of probability and stochastic processes, project supporters hope to develop a model for a system of surveys to cover every major branch of mathematics. Anyone who supports this project in principle is invited to add their name to the List of Supporters posted online. Also available from this website are links to Some Free Electronic Mathematics Journals, The Electronic Library of Mathematics, as well as Free and Gated Electronic Mathematics Journals. Links to related materials in support of the proposal are also available. Note that the links to the Committee on Electronic Information Communication (CEIC) were not working at the time of this report, but the link to its article on Best Practices from 2002 was working.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tilly, Charles
2003-01-01
Discusses how the persistence of knowledge inequalities influences higher education. Explores how the control of and access to knowledge affects human well being (i.e., control over production of knowledge, control over its distribution, and access to knowledge by people whose well being it will or could affect). (EV)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
1999
The first of the four papers in this symposium, "Knowledge Management and Knowledge Dissemination" (Wim J. Nijhof), presents two case studies exploring the strategies companies use in sharing and disseminating knowledge and expertise among employees. "A Theory of Knowledge Management" (Richard J. Torraco), develops a conceptual framework for…
Gerami, Mohsen
2010-01-01
This paper discusses the important process of knowledge and its management, and differences between tacit and explicit knowledge and understanding the culture as a key issue for the successful implementation of knowledge management, in addition to, this paper is concerned with the four-stage model for the evolution of information technology (IT) support for knowledge management in law firms.
Measuring the Knowledge Base: A Program of Innovation Studies
Leydesdorff, Loet
2009-01-01
Organized knowledge production can then be considered as the codification of communication. Communications leave traces that can be studied as indicators. Institutions can be considered as retention mechanisms functional for the reproduction of ever more complex, that is, scientific and knowledge-based, communications. The focus on communication enables us to operationalize the research questions in terms of indicators by using the mathematical theory of communication. The combination of two theories with a very different status--i.e., a combination of theory and methods--enables us to update and inform empirical hypotheses about how the knowledge base transforms the institutional relations of an increasingly knowledge-based society. Policy implications are specified.
Mathematics and Engineering at Queen's University
Wehlau, David
Mathematics and Engineering at Queen's University In response to the need in industrial research and development for engineers with a greater knowledge of applied mathematics and modelling techniques, Queen's Univer- sity offers a unique program in Mathematics and Engineering. This program, the only one of its
Department of Mathematics Lies, damn lies
Banaji,. Murad
Department of Mathematics Lies, damn lies and statistics What will the seminar provide of simple, uncomplicated examples. Is it for you? A mathematical background or prior knowledge of probability and statistics is not required, and no advanced or difficult mathematical concepts will be used
Clinical Assessment in Mathematics: Learning the Craft.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hunting, Robert P.; Doig, Brian A.
1997-01-01
Discusses a professional development program called Clinical Approaches to Mathematics Assessment. Argues for the advanced training of mathematics teachers who understand knowledge construction processes of students; can use clinical tools for evaluating a student's unique mathematical "fingerprint"; and can create or adapt problems, tasks, or…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Leutzinger, Larry, Ed.
This book contains articles that help to further the process of reform in the middle grades, recognizing that the knowledge acquired during these years greatly affects how well the secondary school curriculum will attain its goals. Critical issues facing middle grade classes in particular and all mathematics classrooms in general are discussed.…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fennema, Elizabeth, Ed.; Leder, Gilah C., Ed.
This book reports on various studies that have increased our understanding of why females and males learn different kinds and amounts of mathematics. In particular, this book explicates the Autonomous Learning Behavior model, proposed by Fennema and Peterson, which is a possible explanation of the development of gender differences in mathematics.…
Methods of Conceptual Knowledge Processing
Rudolf Wille; Fachbereich Mathematik
2006-01-01
\\u000a The offered methods of Conceptual Knowledge Processing are procedures which are well-planed to mean and purpose and therewith lead to skills for solving practical tasks. The used\\u000a means and skills have been mainly created as translations of mathematical means and skills of Formal Concept Analysis. Those transdisciplinary translations may be understood as transformations from mathematical thinking, dealing with potential\\u000a realities,
[Mathematics - astronomy - astrology special library].
Gluch, Sibylle
2011-01-01
About 1560 Elector August of Saxony created an unusual library--one distinguished within its period by both its specialization and location. Situated within the Kunstkammer this library was mostly dedicated to the mathematical sciences and related disciplines. It contained works by the most important authors on mathematics, astronomy, and astrology from the classical, medieval, and early modern periods. This essay traces the formation and composition of August's library, and examines its function: What kind of relationship existed between the library and the Kunstkammer? In what way did the library mirror the interests of the Elector, and to what extend does it permit inferences regarding the Elector's knowledge of mathematics? From the analysis August emerges not as a specialist with a deep understanding of mathematics, but as a particular aficionado of mathematical applications. As a practitioner and general follower of the mathematical arts he took part in a far-reaching intellectual network the center of which lay in the University of Wittenberg. Here, Melanchthon had effectively strengthened the importance of the mathematical disciplines within the university curriculum. He regarded mathematics as the foremost science, arguing that before all other disciplines its method enabled man to recognize the harmonic order of the world, and to discern divine providence. Thus, mathematics offered consoling stability and support in an often seemingly chaotic world torn by religious controversies. This kind of esteem for the mathematical sciences did not presuppose expert knowledge. Hence, the fact that August does not appear to have read the mathematical books he collected does not come as a contradiction. On the contrary, for August it sufficed to recognize the potential of the mathematical sciences, which he brought into life through the creation of a specialized library that developed a rhetoric of its own. The collection of his Kunstkammer library spoke of a harmonically ordered world while at the same time memorializing August as a lover of mathematics and an important figure within the group of mathematical experts and enthusiasts. PMID:21898978
Knowledge Creation in Constructivist Learning
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jaleel, Sajna; Verghis, Alie Molly
2015-01-01
In today's competitive global economy characterized by knowledge acquisition, the concept of knowledge management has become increasingly prevalent in academic and business practices. Knowledge creation is an important factor and remains a source of competitive advantage over knowledge management. Constructivism holds that learners learn actively…
Google, Mathletics and Khan Academy: Students' Self-Initiated Use of Online Mathematical Resources
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Muir, Tracey
2014-01-01
Today's students increasingly engage in online environments, with ready access to digital resources and mobile technologies. While much of this activity is socially motivated, the internet is also a source of knowledge for students and frequently accessed for school assignments, projects and assessment purposes. As mathematics continues to be…
SEFI Conference, 16-20 September 2013, Leuven, Belgium The mathematics in your ears
.1 The problem The increasing knowledge-economy, Flanders aims for, craves for more and more high educated: Mathematics and Engineering Education, Attract Youngsters to Engineering Education, New Learning Concepts for Engineering Education Keywords: STEM, course material, Fourier analysis, Cochlear Implants INTRODUCTION
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Petersen, Richard H.
1997-01-01
The objectives of the Institute were: (a) increase participants' content knowledge about aeronautics, science, mathematics, and technology, (b) model and promote the use of scientific inquiry through problem-based learning, (c) investigate the use of instructional technologies and their applications to curricula, and (d) encourage the dissemination of TEI experiences to colleagues, students, and parents.
Caro-Vega, Yanink; del Rio, Carlos; Dias Lima, Viviane; Lopez-Cervantes, Malaquias; Crabtree-Ramirez, Brenda; Bautista-Arredondo, Sergio; Colchero, M. Arantxa; Sierra-Madero, Juan
2015-01-01
Objective To estimate the impact of late ART initiation on HIV transmission among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Mexico. Methods An HIV transmission model was built to estimate the number of infections transmitted by HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM-HIV+) MSM-HIV+ in the short and long term. Sexual risk behavior data were estimated from a nationwide study of MSM. CD4+ counts at ART initiation from a representative national cohort were used to estimate time since infection. Number of MSM-HIV+ on treatment and suppressed were estimated from surveillance and government reports. Status quo scenario (SQ), and scenarios of early ART initiation and increased HIV testing were modeled. Results We estimated 14239 new HIV infections per year from MSM-HIV+ in Mexico. In SQ, MSM take an average 7.4 years since infection to initiate treatment with a median CD4+ count of 148 cells/mm3(25th-75th percentiles 52–266). In SQ, 68% of MSM-HIV+ are not aware of their HIV status and transmit 78% of new infections. Increasing the CD4+ count at ART initiation to 350 cells/mm3 shortened the time since infection to 2.8 years. Increasing HIV testing to cover 80% of undiagnosed MSM resulted in a reduction of 70% in new infections in 20 years. Initiating ART at 500 cells/mm3 and increasing HIV testing the reduction would be of 75% in 20 years. Conclusion A substantial number of new HIV infections in Mexico are transmitted by undiagnosed and untreated MSM-HIV+. An aggressive increase in HIV testing coverage and initiating ART at a CD4 count of 500 cells/mm3 in this population would significantly benefit individuals and decrease the number of new HIV infections in Mexico. PMID:26302044
Assessing Understanding through Reading and Writing in Mathematics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Adu-Gyamfi, Kwaku; Bosse, Michael J.; Faulconer, Johna
2010-01-01
The mathematics education community recognizes the integrality of reading and writing in learning and communicating mathematics knowledge. Unfortunately, many students have yet to significantly experience this integrality in their mathematics classrooms despite the power these tools offer teachers for assessing student knowledge. This paper…
Provocative Mathematics Questions: Drawing Attention to a Lack of Attention
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Klymchuk, Sergiy
2015-01-01
The article investigates the role of attention in the reflective thinking of school mathematics teachers. It analyses teachers' ability to pay attention to detail and "use" their mathematical knowledge. The vast majority of teachers can be expected to have an excellent knowledge of mathematical techniques. The question examined here is…
The Effects of Teacher Collaboration in Grade 9 Applied Mathematics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Egodawatte, Gunawardena; McDougall, Douglas; Stoilescu, Dorian
2011-01-01
The current emphasis of many mathematics education reform documents is on the need to change the environment of mathematics classrooms from the transmission of knowledge by the teacher to the transaction of knowledge between the teacher and the students which promotes mathematical investigation and exploration. In this article, we discuss the…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chval, Kathryn B.; Pinnow, Rachel J.; Thomas, Amanda
2015-03-01
Research in mathematics education increasingly recognizes the role of language in the education of English language learners. However, research examining the professional growth of mathematics teachers as they learn to teach English language learners is sparse. This case study addresses this issue by examining one third grade teacher as she learned how to focus on language as she designed and taught mathematics lessons to facilitate the participation of English language learners. Data sources consist of audio recordings of interviews, lesson planning sessions, and lesson debrief sessions as well as video recordings of mathematics lessons. The results from this study demonstrate the importance of professional development that emphasizes language in the teaching of mathematics. As the teacher began to learn about the components of the intervention, she developed specialized knowledge and competencies so that she was able to address language planning and development that was necessary to successfully teach mathematics to English language learners.
Early Predictors of Middle School Fraction Knowledge
Bailey, Drew H.; Siegler, Robert S.; Geary, David C.
2014-01-01
Recent findings that earlier fraction knowledge predicts later mathematics achievement raise the question of what predicts later fraction knowledge. Analyses of longitudinal data indicated that whole number magnitude knowledge in first grade predicted knowledge of fraction magnitudes in middle school, controlling for whole number arithmetic proficiency, domain general cognitive abilities, parental income and education, race, and gender. Similarly, knowledge of whole number arithmetic in first grade predicted knowledge of fraction arithmetic in middle school, controlling for whole number magnitude knowledge in first grade and the other control variables. In contrast, neither type of early whole number knowledge uniquely predicted middle school reading achievement. We discuss the implications of these findings for theories of numerical development and for improving mathematics learning. PMID:24576209
Connecting with the Horizon: Developing Teachers' Appreciation of Mathematical Structure
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Vale, Colleen; McAndrew, Alasdair; Krishnan, Siva
2011-01-01
A professional learning program for teachers of junior secondary mathematics regarding the content and pedagogy of senior secondary mathematics is the context for this study of teachers' mathematical and pedagogical knowledge. The analysis of teachers' reflections on their learning explored teachers' understanding of mathematical connections and…
Mathematical Extension of Full Text Search Engine Indexer
Jozef Misutka; L. Galambos
2008-01-01
The world of mathematical knowledge on the WWW has grown enormously. Despite the clear importance of a mathematical search engine this research field had been abandoned until very recently. Although, currently available full text search engines can be used on these documents too, they are deficient in almost all cases. They cannot handle structured mathematical text and mathematical operations. Many
Pre-K Mathematics. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
What Works Clearinghouse, 2007
2007-01-01
"Pre-K Mathematics" is a supplemental curriculum designed to develop informal mathematical knowledge and skills in preschool children. Mathematical content is organized into seven units. Specific mathematical concepts and skills from each unit are taught in the classroom through teacher-guided, small-group activities with concrete manipulatives.…
Evaluating the levels of problem solving abilities in mathematics
NOOR AZLAN AHMAD
Currently, there is a general agreement among mathematics educators that students need to acquire problem solving skill, learn to communicate using mathematical knowledge and skills, develop mathematical thinking and reasoning, to see the interconnectedness between mathematics and other disciplines. Based on this perspective, this research looked into the levels of problem solving ability amongst selected Malaysian secondary school students. A
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shariq, Syed Z.; Kutler, Paul (Technical Monitor)
1997-01-01
The emergence of rapidly expanding technologies for distribution and dissemination of information and knowledge has brought to focus the opportunities for development of knowledge-based networks, knowledge dissemination and knowledge management technologies and their potential applications for enhancing productivity of knowledge work. The challenging and complex problems of the future can be best addressed by developing the knowledge management as a new discipline based on an integrative synthesis of hard and soft sciences. A knowledge management professional society can provide a framework for catalyzing the development of proposed synthesis as well as serve as a focal point for coordination of professional activities in the strategic areas of education, research and technology development. Preliminary concepts for the development of the knowledge management discipline and the professional society are explored. Within this context of knowledge management discipline and the professional society, potential opportunities for application of information technologies for more effectively delivering or transferring information and knowledge (i.e., resulting from the NASA's Mission to Planet Earth) for the development of policy options in critical areas of national and global importance (i.e., policy decisions in economic and environmental areas) can be explored, particularly for those policy areas where a global collaborative knowledge network is likely to be critical to the acceptance of the policies.
Conceptions and Images of Mathematics Professors on Teaching Mathematics in School.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pehkonen, Erkki
1999-01-01
Clarifies what kind of mathematical beliefs are conveyed to student teachers during their studies. Interviews mathematics professors (n=7) from five Finnish universities who were responsible for mathematics teacher education. Professors estimated that teachers' basic knowledge was poor and old-fashioned, requiring improvement, and they emphasized…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bailey, Judy
2014-01-01
Preparing to become an effective primary school mathematics teacher is a challenging and complex task; and is influenced by one's past experiences, personal knowledge of, and beliefs and attitudes towards mathematics. This paper examines the experiences of a small group of pre-service teachers who did not pass their first year mathematics…
Patterns of periodic holes created by increased cell motility
2012-01-01
cells into preferred patterns. Our mathematical model hasmathematical modelling demonstrate that increased motility alters the multicellular patternaffects pattern con?guration. 3.4. Mathematical modelling
Conditional inequalities : American pure and applied mathematics, 1940-1975
Steingart, Alma
2011-01-01
This study investigates the status of mathematical knowledge in mid-century America. It is motivated by questions such as: when did mathematical theories become applicable to a wide range of fields from medicine to the ...
Strengthening Connections between Elementary Classroom Mathematics and Literacy
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Altieri, Jennifer L.
2009-01-01
Enjoyable literacy strategies help elementary teachers reinforce students' mathematics knowledge. This article shares a number of literacy strategies that can easily connect with mathematics. These strategies include word associations, multimeaning word cards, and games. (Contains 7 figures.)
School Of Mathematics and Statistics Single Honours Mathematics
School Of Mathematics and Statistics Single Honours Mathematics BSc Mathematics MMath Mathematics BSc Financial Mathematics BSc Mathematics with French Language MMath Mathematics with French Language BSc Mathematics with German Language MMath Mathematics with German Language BSc Mathematics
The Academic Merits of Modelling in Higher Mathematics Education: A Case Study
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Perrenet, Jacob; Adan, Ivo
2010-01-01
Modelling is an important subject in the Bachelor curriculum of Applied Mathematics at Eindhoven University of Technology in the Netherlands. Students not only learn how to apply their knowledge to solve mathematical problems posed in non-mathematical language, but also they learn to look actively for, or even construct, mathematical knowledge…
Mathematics and Statistics College of Engineering
Hickman, Mark
Mathematics and Statistics 10 College of Engineering #12;#12;1 WhatisMathematics? What is Statistics? Why should I study those subjects? Mathematics and Statistics are living subjects with new of computers in a wide range of academic areas has led to an increasing demand for statistical and mathematical
Virginia Tech Department of Mathematics Instructor Positions
Virginia Tech Department of Mathematics Instructor Positions The Virginia Tech Mathematics. A masters degree in mathematics or a masters degree in a related field with a concentration in mathematics Transformation Award to increase the participation of women in academic science and engineering careers. #12;
Mathematics disorder is a condition in which a child's math ability is far below normal for their age, ... Children who have mathematics disorder have trouble with simple ... disorder may appear with: Developmental coordination ...
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Abad, Ernesto A.
1994-01-01
Poses solutions for our failure to show students how well mathematics interlocks with the physical structures of the Universe. Some examples are provided to illustrate the natural integration of mathematics and science. (ZWH)
Mathematics disorder is a condition in which a child's math ability is far below normal for their ... Children who have mathematics disorder have trouble with simple ... disorder may appear with: Developmental coordination ...
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tapson, Frank
1997-01-01
Discusses the use of educational games in the mathematics classroom. Emphasizes the reasons for the need for games, organizing games, and the analyses of games. Presents 10 examples of these mathematical games. (ASK)
Common Mathematical Errors of Pre-Service Elementary School Teachers in an Undergraduate Course
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Matthews, Michael; Ding, Meixia
2011-01-01
A steady stream of research has shown that many elementary school teachers have weak mathematical knowledge in some areas, including place value and fractions. Since a teacher's mathematical knowledge affects their students' performance, improving elementary school teachers' knowledge is critical. A better understanding of the mathematical…
Parents' reading-related knowledge and children's reading acquisition.
Ladd, Megan; Martin-Chang, Sandra; Levesque, Kyle
2011-12-01
Teacher reading-related knowledge (phonological awareness and phonics knowledge) predicts student reading, however little is known about the reading-related knowledge of parents. Participants comprised 70 dyads (children from kindergarten and grade 1 and their parents). Parents were administered a questionnaire tapping into reading-related knowledge, print exposure, storybook reading, and general cultural knowledge. Children were tested on measures of letter-word knowledge, sound awareness, receptive vocabulary, oral expression, and mathematical skill. Parent reading-related knowledge showed significant positive links with child letter-word knowledge and sound awareness, but showed no correlations with child measures of mathematical skill or vocabulary. Furthermore, parent reading-related knowledge was not associated with parents' own print exposure or cultural knowledge, indicating that knowledge about English word structure may be separate from other cognitive skills. Implications are discussed in terms of improving parent reading-related knowledge to promote child literacy. PMID:21678121
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Williamson, Paul M., Comp.
This program description contains goals and objectives for five mathematics curriculum levels: three- and four-year-olds, five-year-olds, six- and seven-year-olds, eight- and nine-year-olds, and ten- and eleven-year-olds. A mathematics program overview for Smith College Campus School and a discussion of considerations for mathematics curriculum…
Emshwiller, Eve
II 3 IV Spring VIII Spring Liberal Studies 3 MSE 470 Capstone Project I 1 Mathematics Foundations are needed 2 #12;Underpinning Mathematics/Science: (min 40 cr) Mathematics (16 cr) Math 221 Calculus Physics Phys 244 Intro to Modern Physics Biology 101 Animal Biology Biology 151 Introductory Biology