Mathematics Knowledge for Teaching
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mohr, Margaret
2006-01-01
Research indicates that U. S. teachers' mathematical knowledge continues to be weak, and there is an inherent difference between the mathematical knowledge needed to be an effective teacher and that needed by a mathematician. In this article, the author discusses pedagogical content knowledge. According to Schulman (1987), pedagogical content…
Reconceptualizing Knowledge at the Mathematical Horizon
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Zazkis, Rina; Mamolo, Ami
2011-01-01
This article extends the notion of "knowledge at the mathematical horizon" or "horizon knowledge" introduced by Ball and colleagues as a part of teachers' subject matter knowledge. Our focus is on teachers' mathematical knowledge beyond the school curriculum, that is, on mathematics learnt during undergraduate college or university studies. We…
Pedagogical Content Knowledge and Content Knowledge of Secondary Mathematics Teachers
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Krauss, Stefan; Brunner, Martin; Kunter, Mareike; Baumert, Jurgen; Neubrand, Michael; Blum, Werner; Jordan, Alexander
2008-01-01
Drawing on the work of L. S. Shulman (1986), the authors present a conceptualization of the pedagogical content knowledge and content knowledge of secondary-level mathematics teachers. They describe the theory-based construction of tests to assess these knowledge categories and the implementation of these tests in a sample of German mathematics…
Mathematics Teachers' Knowledge Base: Preliminary Results
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Harel, Guershon; Lim, Kien H.
2004-01-01
Student learning depends on the teacher's actions, which are, in turn, dependent on the teacher's knowledge base--defined here by three components: knowledge of mathematics content, knowledge of student epistemology, and knowledge of pedagogy. The purpose of this study is to construct models for teachers' knowledge base and for their development…
Depth of Teachers' Knowledge: Frameworks for Teachers' Knowledge of Mathematics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Holmes, Vicki-Lynn
2012-01-01
This article describes seven teacher knowledge frameworks and relates these frameworks to the teaching and assessment of elementary teacher's mathematics knowledge. The frameworks classify teachers' knowledge and provide a vocabulary and common language through which knowledge can be discussed and assessed. These frameworks are categorized into…
Developing Mathematical Content Knowledge for Teaching Elementary School Mathematics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Thanheiser, Eva; Browning, Christine A.; Moss, Meg; Watanabe, Tad; Garza-Kling, Gina
2010-01-01
In this paper the authors present three design principles they use to develop preservice teachers' mathematical content knowledge for teaching in their mathematics content and/or methods courses: (1) building on currently held conceptions, (2) modeling teaching for understanding, (3) focusing on connections between content knowledge and other…
Prospective Secondary Mathematics Teachers' Perspectives and Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Karagöz-Akar, Gülseren
2016-01-01
This study investigated the relationship between prospective secondary mathematics teachers' perspectives and their mathematical knowledge for teaching in action. Data from two prospective teachers' practice-teachings, one in geometry and one in algebra, their lesson plans and self-reflections were analyzed with Teacher Perspectives and Knowledge…
Connected Knowledge in Science and Mathematics Education
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Zohar, Anat
2006-01-01
While the traditional meaning of connected knowledge is valuable in some school subjects, it does not address the main activities of knowledge acquisition in subjects such as physics and mathematics. The goal of this article is to analyze the relationships between the concepts "learning for understanding" and "connected knowledge", a central theme…
Didactics and History of Mathematics: Knowledge and Self-Knowledge
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fried, Michael N.
2007-01-01
The basic assumption of this paper is that mathematics and history of mathematics are both forms of knowledge and, therefore, represent different ways of knowing. This was also the basic assumption of Fried (2001) who maintained that these ways of knowing imply different conceptual and methodological commitments, which, in turn, lead to a conflict…
Considering Indigenous Knowledges and Mathematics Curriculum
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sterenberg, Gladys
2013-01-01
Across Canada, significant program changes in school mathematics have been made that encourage teachers to consider Aboriginal perspectives. In this article, I investigate one Aboriginal teacher's approaches to integrating Indigenous knowledges and the mandated mathematics curriculum in a Blackfoot First Nation school. Using a framework that…
Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching Fraction Multiplication
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Izsak, Andrew
2008-01-01
The present study contrasts mathematical knowledge that two sixth-grade teachers apparently used when teaching fraction multiplication with the Connected Mathematics Project materials. The analysis concentrated on those tasks from the materials that use drawings to represent fractions as length or area quantities. Examining the two teachers'…
Analogies and Reconstruction of Mathematical Knowledge.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fast, Gerald R.
An investigation was conducted to determine the effectiveness of utilizing analogies to effect conceptual change in mathematics. Forty-one high school seniors participated in a knowledge reconstruction process regarding their beliefs about everyday probability situations such as sports events or lotteries. These mathematics students were given…
Elementary Teachers' Pedagogical Content Knowledge of Mathematics.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fuller, Roberta A.
1997-01-01
Twelve open-ended questions, administered to 28 experienced elementary teachers and 26 education majors, examined mathematical content knowledge and related pedagogical knowledge by focusing on instructional decisions made in specific classroom situations involving whole number operations, fractions, and geometry. Results suggest that pedagogical…
Connected Knowledge in Science and Mathematics Education
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zohar, Anat
2006-10-01
While the traditional meaning of connected knowledge is valuable in some school subjects, it does not address the main activities of knowledge acquisition in subjects such as physics and mathematics. The goal of this article is to analyze the relationships between the concepts “learning for understanding” and “connected knowledge”, a central theme in feminist epistemology. In learning for understanding, the learner forms multiple, intricate connections among the concepts she is studying in school, between school concepts and her everyday concepts, and between school concepts and their wider context. Viewing connected knowledge as tightly related to understanding has several important implications. It brings connected knowledge into the central learning activities that take place in school science and mathematics, and gives it a high status. It contributes to our understanding of gender-related patterns in thinking; and it may form a unifying theoretical framework for many studies and projects in the field of gender fair education.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Huntley, Mary Ann; Flores, Alfinio
2010-01-01
The authors describe ways in which a history of mathematics course can help prospective teachers of mathematics develop knowledge they will need for teaching. The types of knowledge include content knowledge of mathematics, knowledge of mathematics for teaching, and pedagogical knowledge.
Validating Measures of Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kane, Michael
2007-01-01
According to Schilling, Blunk, and Hill, the set of papers presented in this journal issue had two main purposes: (1) to use an argument-based approach to evaluate the validity of the tests of mathematical knowledge for teaching (MKT), and (2) to critically assess the author's version of an argument-based approach to validation (Kane, 2001, 2004).…
Teachers' Beliefs about Mathematical Horizon Content Knowledge
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mosvold, Reidar; Fauskanger, Janne
2014-01-01
In this article, we present and discuss an example of how teachers' discussions of mathematical knowledge for teaching (MKT) items elicited their beliefs about the knowledge needed to teach mathematics. One category of MKT is "horizon content knowledge," and this can be described as mathematical knowledge not directly deployed in…
Knowledge Concerning the Mathematical Horizon: A Close View
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Guberman, Raisa; Gorev, Dvora
2015-01-01
The main objective of this study is to identify components of teachers' mathematical knowledge for teaching, associated with the knowledge of mathematical horizon (KMH) in order to describe this type of knowledge from the viewpoint of elementary school mathematics teachers. The research population of this study consisted of 118 elementary school…
Developing Measures of Teachers' Mathematics Knowledge for Teaching
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hill, Heather C.; Schilling, Stephen G.; Ball, Deborah Loewenberg
2004-01-01
In this article we discuss efforts to design and empirically test measures of teachers' content knowledge for teaching elementary mathematics. We begin by reviewing the literature on teacher knowledge, noting how scholars have organized such knowledge. Next we describe survey items we wrote to represent knowledge for teaching mathematics and…
Knowledge concerning the mathematical horizon: a close view
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guberman, Raisa; Gorev, Dvora
2015-06-01
The main objective of this study is to identify components of teachers' mathematical knowledge for teaching, associated with the knowledge of mathematical horizon (KMH) in order to describe this type of knowledge from the viewpoint of elementary school mathematics teachers. The research population of this study consisted of 118 elementary school mathematics teachers who responded to an open-ended questionnaire. Findings of this study illustrate that KMH can be considered as a separate category according to teachers' voice. An analysis of teachers' utterances resulted in three KMH characteristics: insight of subject matter, mathematical connections, and understanding of meta-mathematics.
Measuring Teachers' Mathematical Knowledge. CSE Technical Report 696
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Heritage, Margaret; Vendlinski, Terry
2006-01-01
Teachers' knowledge of mathematics is pivotal to their capacity to provide effective mathematics instruction and to their ability to assess student learning (Ball, Hill, & Bass, 2005; Ma, 1999; Schifter, 1999). The National Council for the Teaching of Mathematics (NCTM, 2000) makes it clear that teachers need knowledge of the whole domain as well…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Burke, Margaret Meg Kathleen
2013-01-01
The research indicated effective mathematics teaching to be more complex than assuming the best predictor of student achievement in mathematics is the mathematical content knowledge of a teacher. This dissertation took a novel approach to addressing the idea of what it means to examine how a teacher's knowledge of mathematics impacts student…
SWiM -- A Semantic Wiki for Mathematical Knowledge Management
Lange, Christoph
2010-01-01
SWiM is a semantic wiki for collaboratively building, editing and browsing mathematical knowledge represented in the domain-specific structural semantic markup language OMDoc. It motivates users to contribute to collections of mathematical knowledge by instantly sharing the benefits of knowledge-powered services with them. SWiM is currently being used for authoring content dictionaries, i. e. collections of uniquely identified mathematical symbols, and prepared for managing a large-scale proof formalisation effort.
ONTIC: A Knowledge Representation System for Mathematics
McAllester, David Allen
1987-07-01
Ontic is an interactive system for developing and verifying mathematics. Ontic's verification mechanism is capable of automatically finding and applying information from a library containing hundreds of mathematical ...
Relationships between Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching and Teaching Practice: The Case of Proof
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Steele, Michael D.; Cervello Rogers, Kimberly
2012-01-01
Teachers of mathematics orchestrate opportunities for interactions between learners and subject matter. Therefore, mathematics teachers need rich, multidimensional content knowledge for teaching mathematics, which incorporates knowledge of the subject matter, students, and teaching. Studying this mathematical knowledge for teaching (MKT)…
Building Mathematical Knowledge in an Authentic Mobile Phone Environment
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Daher, Wajeeh
2010-01-01
Although many researchers have examined knowledge building in traditional settings and distance learning, few have examined middle school students' building of mathematical knowledge using mobile phones. The present study uses two well-known models of knowledge building to carry out the examination: the interactive analysis model of knowledge…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Asikainen, Mervi A.; Pehkonen, Erkki; Hirvonen, Pekka E.
2013-01-01
Seven Finnish mentor mathematics teachers were interviewed about their views regarding the teacher knowledge required for teaching mathematics. The results of the interviews revealed not only the teachers' spontaneous views of the knowledge base needed for effective mathematics teaching but also their views of the particular types of teacher…
Elementary Teachers' Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching Prerequisite Algebra Concepts
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Welder, Rachael M.; Simonsen, Linda M.
2011-01-01
The current study investigated the effects of an undergraduate mathematics content course for pre-service elementary teachers. The participants' content knowledge was quantitatively measured using an instrument comprised of items from the Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching Measures (Hill, Schilling, & Ball, 2004). Using a one-group…
Sean vs. Cantor: Using Mathematical Knowledge in "Experience of Disturbance"
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Zazkis, Rina; Mamolo, Ami
2009-01-01
Mathematical knowledge used in teaching has attracted the interest of many researchers, but was mainly explored considering teaching at the elementary school level. This paper attends to mathematical knowledge used in teaching at the University level. We present a story about a student suggesting reconsideration of Cantor's diagonal method and the…
Realms: A Structure for Consolidating Knowledge about Mathematical Theories
Farmer, William M.
Realms: A Structure for Consolidating Knowledge about Mathematical Theories Jacques Carette1 theory, knowledge about a such a theory may reside in many places and in many forms within a library a mathematical theory. A realm contains several axiom- atizations of a theory that are separately developed
The Framing Discussion: Connecting Student Experience with Mathematical Knowledge
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Henning, John E.; Balong, Megan
2011-01-01
This article introduces the framing discussion, an informal discussion of a mathematical problem that takes place at the beginning of a lesson or unit. The purpose of the framing discussion is to assess student knowledge, motivate student interest, and to serve as a basis for guiding students to more formal mathematical knowledge. The article…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kwiatkowski-Egizio, Erica
2013-01-01
The two research questions that guided this study were: (1) How do preservice teachers develop mathematical knowledge for teaching during a coordinated math methods course and field experience? and (2) What types of portfolio tasks lend themselves to documenting mathematical knowledge in teaching? Six, female, elementary (K-8) teacher candidates…
Contrasting Knowledge for Elementary and Secondary Mathematics Teaching
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rowland, Tim
2012-01-01
This paper describes and analyses two mathematics lessons, one with very young pupils, about subtraction, the other for lower secondary school pupils, about gradients [slopes] and graphs. The focus of the analysis is on teacher knowledge, and on the fundamental mathematical and mathematics-pedagogical prerequisites that underpin teaching these…
Examining Mathematics Teacher Content Knowledge: Policy and Practice
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Esprivalo Harrell, Pamela; Eddy, Colleen McLean
2012-01-01
This study examines mathematics teacher content knowledge in terms of state and national policymaker recommendations, college coursework and the Mathematics Texas Examination of Educator Standards (TExES) score. Results indicate differences between state and national policy recommendations and college degrees in mathematics. A statistically…
Mathematical Knowledge: Its Growth through Teaching. Mathematics Education Library, Volume 10.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bishop, Alan J., Ed.; And Others
This book presents issues concerning relationships between mathematical knowledge and the teaching and learning processes, focusing especially on the genesis of mathematical knowledge in the classroom. The chapter titles are: (1) The Fragility of Knowledge (Guy Brousseau and Michael Otte); (2) The Double Bind as a Didactical Trap (Stieg…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Löfström, Erika; Pursiainen, Tuomas
2015-01-01
This study focuses on mathematics student teachers' epistemological beliefs in mathematics and education. The study aimed at gaining insight into the challenges that students experience in the consolidation of knowledge in the two disciplines. The case study with three mathematics pre-service teachers utilised mathematical and pedagogical…
How Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching May Profit from the Study of History of Mathematics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mosvold, Reidar; Jakobsen, Arne; Jankvist, Uffe Thomas
2014-01-01
In this theoretical article, we aim at theorizing the old statement that mathematics teachers might profit from studying the history of mathematics. We do this by drawing upon the theoretical framework of mathematical knowledge for teaching (MKT). A selection of international studies on the history and pedagogy of mathematics is used as starting…
Selecting and Sequencing Mathematics Tasks: Seeking Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Galant, Jaamia
2013-01-01
In this article, I present an initial analysis of an empirical study that was undertaken in an attempt to elicit what subject-matter knowledge, pedagogic content knowledge and curriculum knowledge teachers bring to bear on decisions for teaching. The analysis is based on interview data with 46 Grade 3 teachers, who were presented with two…
Mathematical Ability Relies on Knowledge, Too
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sweller, John; Clark, Richard E.; Kirschner, Paul A.
2011-01-01
Recent "reform" curricula both ignore the absence of supporting data and completely misunderstand the role of problem solving in cognition. If, the argument goes, teachers are not really teaching people mathematics but rather are teaching them some form of general problem solving, then mathematical content can be reduced in importance. According…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Basitere, Moses; Ivala, Eunice
2015-01-01
This paper reports on a study carried out at a University of Technology, South Africa, aimed at identifying the existence of the mathematical knowledge gap and evaluating the intervention designed to bridge the knowledge gap amongst students studying first year mathematics at the Chemical Engineering Extended Curriculum Program (ECP). In this…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Van Harpen, Xianwei Y.; Presmeg, Norma C.
2013-01-01
The importance of students' problem-posing abilities in mathematics has been emphasized in the K-12 curricula in the USA and China. There are claims that problem-posing activities are helpful in developing creative approaches to mathematics. At the same time, there are also claims that students' mathematical content knowledge could be highly…
Changes in School Mathematics Knowledge in Greece: A Bernsteinian Analysis
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Koustourakis, Gerasimos; Zacharos, Konstantinos
2011-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to critically examine the changes that took place in school mathematics knowledge for pupils aged six and seven (first grade of Greek elementary school) and its pedagogical approach, which took shape following the reforms of the mathematics curricula in 1982 and 2003. Our analysis is based on Bernstein's theoretical…
Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge of Secondary Mathematics Teachers
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Handal, Boris; Campbell, Chris; Cavanagh, Michael; Petocz, Peter; Kelly, Nick
2013-01-01
The integration of technology, pedagogy, and content in the teaching of secondary mathematics was explored among 280 secondary mathematics teachers in the State of New South Wales, Australia. The study adopted the technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPCK) model through the administration of a 30-item instrument called TPCK-M. The…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Leong, Kwan Eu; Meng, Chew Cheng; Rahim, Suzieleez Syrene Abdul
2015-01-01
This article seeks to present findings from the analysis of the TEDS-M reports on the mathematical content knowledge (MCK) and pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) of the pre-service teachers in Malaysia. The main objective of this study was to investigate the level of teaching knowledge attained by the Malaysian pre-service primary and secondary…
Exploring the Mathematical Knowledge Needed for Teaching Teachers
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Castro Superfine, Alison; Li, Wenjuan
2014-01-01
The purpose of this study is to explore the knowledge demands of teacher educators as they teach disciplinary content to preservice elementary teachers, specifically in mathematics, and to understand how such knowledge is different from that used by K-12 teachers. Drawing from a database including teaching and learning artifacts from five…
Constructing Pedagogical Knowledge of Problem Solving: Preservice Mathematics Teachers
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chapman, Olive
2005-01-01
The paper reports a study of the knowledge preservice secondary school mathematics teachers [PSSMT] hold of problem solving and the role of a reflective-inquiry approach in creating self-awareness of, and in enhancing, this knowledge. The approach included solving problems, narratives, flow charts and observations. The finding shows that the…
"Concreteness Fading" Promotes Transfer of Mathematical Knowledge
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
McNeil, Nicole M.; Fyfe, Emily R.
2012-01-01
Recent studies have suggested that educators should avoid concrete instantiations when the goal is to promote transfer. However, concrete instantiations may benefit transfer in the long run, particularly if they are "faded" into more abstract instantiations. Undergraduates were randomly assigned to learn a mathematical concept in one of three…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Alpaslan, Mustafa; Isiksal, Mine; Haser, Çigdem
2014-01-01
This study examined pre-service mathematics teachers' knowledge of history of mathematics and their attitudes and beliefs towards using history of mathematics in mathematics education based on year level in teacher education program and gender. The sample included 1,593 freshman, sophomore, junior, and senior pre-service middle school (grades…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Stiegelmeyer, Cindy
2012-01-01
This study surveyed 82 preservice elementary teachers using items from an instrument designed to predict student achievement based on a teacher's mathematics knowledge for teaching (MKT) in numbers and operations concepts. Additional mathematics beliefs items asked participants to rate their level of agreement with math myths and math anxiety…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Livy, Sharyn
2010-01-01
This paper draws on observation of a primary mathematics lesson prepared and taught by a second-year pre-service teacher who lacked mathematical content knowledge. A "knowledge quartet" (Rowland, Turner, Thwaites, & Huckstep, 2009) was used to investigate when and how a pre-service teacher drew on their knowledge of mathematics during primary…
The Cognitive Blending of Mathematics and Physics Knowledge
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bing, Thomas J.; Redish, Edward F.
2007-01-01
Numbers, variables, and equations are used differently in a physics class than in a pure mathematics class. In physics, these symbols not only obey formal mathematical rules but also carry physical ideas and relations. This paper focuses on modeling how this combination of physical and mathematical knowledge is constructed. The cognitive blending framework highlights both the different ways this combination can occur and the emergence of new insights and meaning that follows such a combination. After an introduction to the blending framework itself, several examples from undergraduate physics students' work are analyzed.
What Knowledge Is Shaping Teacher Preparation in Early Childhood Mathematics?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Parks, Amy Noelle; Wager, Anita A.
2015-01-01
This article examines the bodies of knowledge that influence and inform the teaching of mathematics methods courses for preservice early childhood teachers, focusing on the U.S. context. In particular, the article reports on an analysis of scholarship published over the last 20 years in four journals (two focused on early childhood education and…
The Mathematical Content Knowledge of Prospective Teachers in Iceland
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Johannsdottir, Bjorg
2013-01-01
This study focused on the mathematical content knowledge of prospective teachers in Iceland. The sample was 38 students in the School of Education at the University of Iceland, both graduate and undergraduate students. All of the participants in the study completed a questionnaire survey and 10 were interviewed. The choice of ways to measure the…
Measuring Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching Fractions with Drawn Quantities
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Izsak, Andrew; Jacobson, Erik; de Araujo, Zandra; Orrill, Chandra Hawley
2012-01-01
Researchers have recently used traditional item response theory (IRT) models to measure mathematical knowledge for teaching (MKT). Some studies (e.g., Hill, 2007; Izsak, Orrill, Cohen, & Brown, 2010), however, have reported subgroups when measuring middle-grades teachers' MKT, and such groups violate a key assumption of IRT models. This study…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hourigan, Mairéad; O'Donoghue, John
2015-01-01
There is international dissatisfaction regarding the standard of mathematics subject matter knowledge (MSMK) evident among both qualified and prospective elementary teachers. Ireland is no exception. Following increasing anecdotal evidence of prospective elementary teachers in one Irish College of Education (provider of initial teacher education…
The Effective Mathematics Department: Adding Value and Increasing Participation?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Noyes, Andrew
2013-01-01
Given the commonly accepted view that having a mathematically well-educated populace is strategically important, there is considerable international interest in raising attainment, and increasing participation, in post-compulsory mathematics education. In this article, multilevel models are developed with the use of datasets from the UK Department…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ernest, Paul, Ed.
This book illustrates the breadth of theoretical and philosophical perspectives that can be brought to bear on mathematics and education. Part 1, "Constructivism and the Learning of Mathematics," contains the following chapters: (1) "A Radical Constructivist View of Basic Mathematical Concepts" (E. von Glasersfeld); (2) "Interaction and Children's…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Speer, Natasha M.; King, Karen D.; Howell, Heather
2015-01-01
The construct "mathematical knowledge for teaching" (MKT) has received considerable attention in the mathematics education community in recent years. The development and refinement of the MKT construct, including the components of common content knowledge (CCK) and specialized content knowledge (SCK), came from research into elementary…
A brief educational intervention increases providers' human papillomavirus vaccine knowledge.
Berenson, Abbey B; Rahman, Mahbubur; Hirth, Jacqueline M; Rupp, Richard E; Sarpong, Kwabena O
2015-01-01
Recommendation by a healthcare provider is critical to increase human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine uptake in the US. However, current deficits in providers' knowledge of HPV and its vaccine are not fully understood and interventions to amend knowledge gaps are untested. To determine whether attending a structured presentation could increase provider knowledge of the HPV vaccine, we assessed knowledge levels of physicians, non-physician healthcare workers, and medical students before and after attending a 30-minute lecture held between October 2012 and June 2014. Paired t-test and McNemar's test were used to compare knowledge scores and the proportion of correct responses for each question, respectively. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed to examine correlates of baseline knowledge and change in knowledge scores post-intervention. A total of 427 participants, including 75 physicians, 208 medical students, and 144 nurses or other healthcare workers, attended one of 16 presentations and responded to both pre-test and post-test surveys. Baseline knowledge was low among all groups, with scores higher among older participants and physicians/medical students. On average, knowledge scores significantly improved from 8 to 15 after the presentation (maximum possible score 16) (P < .001), irrespective of specialty, race/ethnicity, gender, and age. Although lower at baseline, knowledge scores of younger participants and non-physician healthcare workers (e.g., nurses, physician assistants (PAs), nursing students) improved the most of all groups. We conclude that a brief, structured presentation increased HPV knowledge among a variety of healthcare workers, even when their baseline knowledge was low. PMID:25945895
The Use of Video Analysis and the Knowledge Quartet in Mathematics Teacher Education Programmes
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Liston, Miriam
2015-01-01
This study investigates the potential of video analysis and a mathematical knowledge for teaching framework, the Knowledge Quartet (KQ), in mathematics teacher education programmes. It reports on the effectiveness of these tools in analysing and supporting secondary level pre-service mathematics teachers' subject matter knowledge and…
Increasing Knowledge -- How to Read a Research Paper
... Donate Increasing Knowledge - How to Read a Research Paper Click here to download a pdf of this ... they are to the disease. Organization of a paper In most scientific journals, scientific papers follow a ...
What's Past Is Prologue: Relations between Early Mathematics Knowledge and High School Achievement
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Watts, Tyler W.; Duncan, Greg J.; Siegler, Robert S.; Davis-Kean, Pamela E.
2014-01-01
Although previous research has established the association between early-grade mathematics knowledge and later mathematics achievement, few studies have measured mathematical skills prior to school entry, and few have investigated the predictive power of early gains in mathematics ability. The current paper relates mathematical skills measured at…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wilkie, Karina J.
2015-08-01
A key aspect of learning algebra in the middle years of schooling is exploring the functional relationship between two variables: noticing and generalising the relationship, and expressing it mathematically. This article describes research on the professional learning of upper primary school teachers for developing their students' functional thinking through pattern generalisation. This aspect of algebra learning has been explicitly brought to the attention of upper primary teachers in the recently introduced Australian curriculum. Ten practising teachers participated over 1 year in a design-based research project involving a sequence of geometric pattern generalisation lessons with their classes. Initial and final survey responses and teachers' interactions in regular meetings and lessons were analysed from cognitive and situated perspectives on professional learning, using a theoretical model for the different types of knowledge needed for teaching mathematics. The teachers demonstrated an increase in certain aspects of their mathematical knowledge for teaching algebra as well as some residual issues. Implications for the professional learning of practising and pre-service teachers to develop their mathematics knowledge for teaching functional thinking, and challenges with operationalising knowledge categories for field-based research are presented.
Flake, Mari Wheeler
2014-05-31
for preservice teachers to develop a strong content and pedagogical-content knowledge of mathematics. This combination of knowledge is referred to as Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching (Ball & Hill, 2009). The ability to professionally notice a child...
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Zulnaidi, Hutkemri; Zakaria, Effandi
2010-01-01
The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of information mapping strategy on mathematics conceptual knowledge of junior high school students in Rokan Hulu Riau, Indonesia. The study also examined the relationship between mathematics conceptual knowledge and mathematics achievement. Using a quasi-experimental method, the study was…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Novikasari, Ifada; Darhim, Didi Suryadi
2015-01-01
This study explored the characteristics of pre-service primary teachers (PSTs) influenced by mathematical belief and mathematical knowledge for teaching (MKT) PSTs'. A qualitative approach was used to investigate the levels of PSTs on mathematical belief and MKT. The two research instruments used in this study were an interview-based task and a…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Turner, Erin E.; Drake, Corey; McDuffie, Amy Roth; Aguirre, Julia; Bartell, Tonya Gau; Foote, Mary Q.
2012-01-01
Research repeatedly documents that teachers are underprepared to teach mathematics effectively in diverse classrooms. A critical aspect of learning to be an effective mathematics teacher for diverse learners is developing knowledge, dispositions, and practices that support building on children's mathematical thinking, as well as their cultural,…
Mohaghegh, Shahab
Outcome CS-k. Have knowledge of mathematics through differential and integral calculus, discrete mathematics and probability and statistics. The assessment is performed with respect to the key abilities. Course Performance indicators CS 220 Understand Mathematical Logic, especially First Order Logic. CS 220
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bair, Sherry L.; Rich, Beverly S.
2011-01-01
This article characterizes the development of a deep and connected body of mathematical knowledge categorized by Ball and Bass' (2003b) model of Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching (MKT), as Specialized Content Knowledge for Teaching (SCK) in algebraic reasoning and number sense. The research employed multiple cases across three years from two…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Davis, Brent; Renert, Moshe
2013-01-01
We discuss the teachers' disciplinary knowledge of mathematics in this article, arguing two main points as we report on a 2-year study involving 22 practicing teachers. First we argue that teachers' knowledge of mathematics might be productively construed as a complex evolving form, a significant dimension of which is tacit knowledge. Second,…
Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching Teachers: The Case of Multiplication and Division of Fractions
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Olanoff, Dana E.
2011-01-01
This study attempts to answer the question, "What is the mathematical knowledge required by teachers of elementary mathematics content courses in the area of multiplication and division of fractions?" Beginning in the mid-1980s, when Shulman (1986) introduced the idea of pedagogical content knowledge, researchers have been looking at the knowledge…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chapman, Olive
2007-01-01
Mathematical tasks, centered on arithmetic word problems, are discussed as the basis of an approach to facilitate preservice elementary teachers' development of mathematical knowledge for teaching arithmetic operations. The approach consists of three groups of tasks that allow students to reflect on their initial knowledge, explore arithmetic word…
Bridging Funds of Distributed Knowledge: Creating Zones of Practices in Mathematics.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gonzalez, Norma; Andrade, Rosi; Civil, Marta; Moll, Luis
2001-01-01
Describes longitudinal research on the funds of knowledge of diverse populations, illustrating how community knowledge can be tapped to strengthen the academic experiences of Hispanic youth. Investigates the mathematics potential of Hispanic households, describing how women participating in a sewing circle use and model sophisticated mathematical…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Livy, Sharyn; Vale, Colleen
2011-01-01
In this article, pre-service teachers' mathematics content knowledge is explored through the analysis of two items about ratio from a Mathematical Competency, Skills and Knowledge Test. Pre-service teachers' thinking strategies, common errors and misconceptions in their responses are presented and discussed. Of particular interest was the range…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Adamu, L. E.
2015-01-01
The purpose of the study was to determine the relationship between scores in mathematics knowledge and teaching practice of Diploma mathematics students. A sample of 39 students was used. Two research questions and two hypotheses were asked and formulated respectively. An ex-post facto correlation design was used. The data were analyzed using…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Luitel, Bal Chandra
2013-01-01
The problem of culturally decontextualised mathematics education faced by Nepali students, teachers and teacher educators has often been oriented by the view of the nature of "mathematics as a body of pure knowledge," which gives rise to an exclusive emphasis on an ideology of singularity, epistemology of objectivism, language of universality and…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Basaran, Mehmet; Özalp, Gülümser; Kalender, Ilker; Alacaci, Cengiz
2015-01-01
One important function of school mathematics curriculum is to prepare high school students with the knowledge and skills needed for university education. Identifying them empirically will help making sound decisions about the contents of high school mathematics curriculum. It will also help students to make informed choices in course selection at…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Curcio, Frances R.
This study was designed to extend the schema-theoretic perspective of understanding general discourse to include graph comprehension. The sample included 204 fourth-grade and 185 seventh-grade pupils. Data were collected on achievement in reading and mathematics, sex, prior knowledge of topic, mathematical content, graphical form, and graph…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wagner, Joseph F.; Speer, Natasha M.; Rossa, Bernd
2007-01-01
In this research report we examine knowledge other than content knowledge needed by a mathematician in his first use of an inquiry-oriented curriculum for teaching an undergraduate course in differential equations. Collaboratively, the mathematician and two mathematics education researchers identified the challenges faced by the mathematician as…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Yüksel, Ismail
2014-01-01
The aim of this paper is to examine the impact of activity-based mathematics instruction on mathematics performance and investigate those factors, which contribute to the mathematics performance of a sample of children aged between 10 and 12 years. The study was designed to consider the impact of prior knowledge, self-regulation, prior attitude,…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rayner, Vanessa; Pitsolantis, Nicole; Osana, Helena
2009-01-01
The objective of the present study was to examine the relationship between mathematics anxiety and the procedural and conceptual knowledge of fractions in prospective teachers. Thirty-two preservice teachers enrolled in an elementary mathematics methods course were administered the Revised Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale (RMARS, Baloglu, 2002).…
Orienteering in Knowledge Spaces: The Hyperbolic Geometry of Wikipedia Mathematics
Leibon, Gregory; Rockmore, Daniel N.
2013-01-01
In this paper we show how the coupling of the notion of a network with directions with the adaptation of the four-point probe from materials testing gives rise to a natural geometry on such networks. This four-point probe geometry shares many of the properties of hyperbolic geometry wherein the network directions take the place of the sphere at infinity, enabling a navigation of the network in terms of pairs of directions: the geodesic through a pair of points is oriented from one direction to another direction, the pair of which are uniquely determined. We illustrate this in the interesting example of the pages of Wikipedia devoted to Mathematics, or “The MathWiki.” The applicability of these ideas extends beyond Wikipedia to provide a natural framework for visual search and to prescribe a natural mode of navigation for any kind of “knowledge space” in which higher order concepts aggregate various instances of information. Other examples would include genre or author organization of cultural objects such as books, movies, documents or even merchandise in an online store. PMID:23844017
Characterizing Mathematical Knowledge for Secondary Teaching: A Case from High School Algebra
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Howell, Heather
2012-01-01
This dissertation study describes the nature of the mathematical knowledge required to teach a unit on exponents at the secondary school level, and further explores the adequacy of extant theoretical models for characterizing that knowledge. Researchers agree that teacher content knowledge contributes to teaching quality, which in turn contributes…
Mathematics Funds of Knowledge: "Sotmaute" and "Sermaute" Fish in a Torres Strait Islander Community
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ewing, Bronwyn
2012-01-01
The purpose of this article is to describe a project with one Torres Strait Islander Community. It provides some insights into parents' funds of knowledge that are mathematical in nature, such as sorting shells and giving fish. The idea of funds of knowledge is based on the premise that people are competent and have knowledge that has been…
Using Problem Solving to Assess Young Children's Mathematics Knowledge
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Charlesworth, Rosalind; Leali, Shirley A.
2012-01-01
Mathematics problem solving provides a means for obtaining a view of young children's understanding of mathematics as they move through the early childhood concept development sequence. Assessment information can be obtained through observations and interviews as children develop problem solutions. Examples of preschool, kindergarten, and primary…
Construction of Mathematical Knowledge Using Graphic Calculators (CAS) in the Mathematics Classroom
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hitt, Fernando
2011-01-01
Mathematics education researchers are asking themselves about why technology has impacted heavily on the social environment and not in the mathematics classroom. The use of technology in the mathematics classroom has not had the expected impact, as it has been its use in everyday life (i.e. cell phone). What about teachers' opinions? Mathematics…
Mathematical learning models that depend on prior knowledge and instructional strategies
Pritchard, David E.; Lee, Young-Jin; Bao, Lei
2008-05-01
We present mathematical learning models—predictions of student’s knowledge vs amount of instruction—that are based on assumptions motivated by various theories of learning: tabula rasa, constructivist, and tutoring. These ...
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Siegfried, John Zig Michael
2012-01-01
Teachers' mathematical content knowledge is one of the most important constructs considered by researchers studying elementary mathematics education (Fennema & Franke, 1992). One component of mathematical content knowledge that is complicated, ill-defined, and oft-ignored is "productive disposition," defined as the…
Investigating First Year Elementary Mathematics Teacher Education Students' Knowledge of Prism
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bozkurt, Ali; Koc, Yusuf
2012-01-01
The purpose of this study was to investigate first year elementary mathematics teacher education students' knowledge of prism. For this goal, the participants were asked to define the geometric concept of prism. The participants were 158 first year elementary mathematics teacher education students from a public university in Southern Turkey. The…
Sociological Tools in the Study of Knowledge and Practice in Mathematics Teacher Education
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Parker, Diane; Adler, Jill
2014-01-01
In this paper, we put Basil Bernstein's theory of pedagogic discourse to work together with additional theoretical resources to interrogate knowledge and practice in mathematics teacher education. We illustrate this methodology through analysis of an instance of mathematics teacher education pedagogic practice. While the methodology itself is…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hsieh, Feng-Jui
2013-01-01
This paper discusses different conceptual frameworks for measuring mathematics pedagogical content knowledge (MPCK) in international comparison studies. Two large-scale international comparative studies, "Mathematics Teaching in the Twenty-First Century" (MT21; Schmidt et al., 2011) and the "Teacher Education and Development Study…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Zhang, Danhui; Orrill, Chandra; Campbell, Todd
2015-01-01
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether mixture Rasch models followed by qualitative item-by-item analysis of selected Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) mathematics and science items offered insight into knowledge students invoke in mathematics and science separately and combined. The researchers administered an…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Levenson, Esther; Tsamir, Pessia; Tirosh, Dina; Dreyfus, Tommy; Barkai, Ruthi; Tabach, Michal
2012-01-01
This paper focuses on the first session of a professional development course revolving around the topic of mathematical statements and their appropriate proving methods. It analyzes the interactive development of the teachers' knowledge by focusing on the relation between the mathematical statements, the instructor, and the teachers. Different…
The Devalued Student: Misalignment of Current Mathematics Knowledge and Level of Instruction
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
LeMire, Steven D.; Melby, Marcella L.; Haskins, Anne M.; Williams, Tony
2012-01-01
Within this study, we investigated the association between 10th-grade students' mathematics performance and their feelings of instructional misalignment between their current mathematics knowledge and educator support. Data from the 2002 Education Longitudinal Study, which included a national sample of 750 public and private high schools in the…
Investigating Level of Mathematics Knowledge for Students Attending Vocational Schools in Turkey
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Colakoglu, Nurdan
2013-01-01
Students attend mathematics courses in Turkey for totally 11 years, throughout education life ranging from primary school to university, including eight years in primary education and three years in secondary education (four years based on new arrangement); however, level of mathematic knowledge of students is upsetting when they reach university…
The Mathematical Content Knowledge and Attitudes of New Zealand Pre-Service Primary Teachers
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Young-Loveridge, Jenny; Bicknell, Brenda; Mills, Judith
2012-01-01
This paper presents data on the mathematical content knowledge and attitudes of pre-service primary teacher education students. The assessment consisted of nine tasks, including 2-digit computations and proportional reasoning. Students rated their liking for mathematics at three time points: primary, secondary, .and when assessed. Fewer than half…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Roche, Anne; Clarke, Doug M.
2013-01-01
This article reports on a study that was conducted with 378 primary teachers from Catholic schools in Victoria who participated in the first year of a 2-year research and professional learning program in mathematics. One aim of the program was to enhance teacher knowledge in mathematics in its many forms. As part of the larger study, the teachers…
Multilingualism in an EFL Practicum: Increasing Student Teachers' Pedagogical Knowledge
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Olivero, María Matilde
2015-01-01
Research in second language teacher education has demonstrated that novice teachers have difficulty in using their pedagogical knowledge, which partly results from a heavy focus on theory offered in teacher training programs (e.g., Bartels, 2005, 2009; Tarone & Allwright, 2005). In order to better equip student teachers with the knowledge…
Increasing mathematical problem-solving performance through relaxation training
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sharp, Conni; Coltharp, Hazel; Hurford, David; Cole, Amykay
2000-04-01
Two intact classes of 30 undergraduate students enrolled in the same general education mathematics course were each administered the IPSP Mathematics Problem Solving Test and the Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale at the beginning and end of the semester. Both groups experienced the same syllabus, lectures, course requirements, and assessment techniques; however, one group received relaxation training during an initial class meeting and during the first 5 to 7 minutes of each subsequent class. The group which had received relaxation training had significantly lower mathematics anxiety and significantly higher mathematics performance at the end of the course. The results suggest that relaxation training may be a useful tool for treating anxiety in undergraduate general education mathematics students.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sophian, Catherine
2013-01-01
Hachey's (2013) article celebrates a revolution that is taking place in early childhood mathematics education, fueled in part by developmental research demonstrating the mathematical capabilities of young children. At the same time, Hachey notes that the mathematics revolution she describes is not yet complete. In this commentary, the author…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Asquith, Pamela; Stephens, Ana C.; Knuth, Eric J.; Alibali, Martha W.
2007-01-01
This article reports results from a study focused on teachers' knowledge of students' understanding of core algebraic concepts. In particular, the study examined middle school mathematics teachers' knowledge of students' understanding of the equal sign and variable, and students' success applying their understanding of these concepts. Interview…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Nezhnov, Peter; Kardanova, Elena; Vasilyeva, Marina; Ludlow, Larry
2015-01-01
The present study tested the possibility of operationalizing levels of knowledge acquisition based on Vygotsky's theory of cognitive growth. An assessment tool (SAM-Math) was developed to capture a hypothesized hierarchical structure of mathematical knowledge consisting of procedural, conceptual, and functional levels. In Study 1, SAM-Math was…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
McCartney, Kathleen Perry
2013-01-01
This study examined the effects of a short-term professional development on the mathematical knowledge, anxiety, and attitudes of intermediate teachers. Participants in the control and experimental groups were pre-tested for knowledge using the eighth grade TCAP Item Sampler. Anxiety was measured through the use of Suinn and Winston's (2003)…
The Use of Microcomputers in the Analysis of Mathematical Knowledge Schemas.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chinnappan, Mohan; Lawson, Michael J.; Gardner, Dane
1998-01-01
Reports on the design and trialing of a Hypercard testing procedure known as the Recognition and Testing System (RATS) that will enable mathematics teachers and researchers to generate data relating to domain knowledge representation and its access by focusing on students' knowledge of plane geometry and trigonometry. Contains 11 references.…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Akkas, Elif Nur; Türnüklü, Elif
2014-01-01
Pedagogical content knowledge is consisted of two components: student knowledge and teaching strategies. Teaching strategies was defined under two sub-headings as strategies for specific topics and specific strategies for any topic. The purpose of this study was to examine the method with which quadrilaterals were taught by mathematics teachers…
The Effects of Teacher Mathematics Knowledge and Pedagogy on Student Achievement in Rural Guatemala
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Marshall, Jeffery H.; Sorto, M. Alejandra
2012-01-01
Why are some teachers more effective than others? The importance of understanding the interplay between teacher preparation, pedagogy and student achievement has motivated a new line of research focusing on teacher knowledge. This study analyses the effects of teacher mathematics knowledge on student achievement using longitudinal data from rural…
Increasing levels of assistance in refinement of knowledge-based retrieval systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baudin, Catherine; Kedar, Smadar; Pell, Barney
1994-01-01
The task of incrementally acquiring and refining the knowledge and algorithms of a knowledge-based system in order to improve its performance over time is discussed. In particular, the design of DE-KART, a tool whose goal is to provide increasing levels of assistance in acquiring and refining indexing and retrieval knowledge for a knowledge-based retrieval system, is presented. DE-KART starts with knowledge that was entered manually, and increases its level of assistance in acquiring and refining that knowledge, both in terms of the increased level of automation in interacting with users, and in terms of the increased generality of the knowledge. DE-KART is at the intersection of machine learning and knowledge acquisition: it is a first step towards a system which moves along a continuum from interactive knowledge acquisition to increasingly automated machine learning as it acquires more knowledge and experience.
Identity, Knowledge and Departmental Practices: Mathematics of Engineers and Mathematicians
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bingolbali, Erhan; Monaghan, John
2004-01-01
This report explores first year undergraduate mechanical engineering and mathematics students' conceptions of the derivative and the contribution that membership of different departments may have on these conceptions. Quantitative results suggest that mechanical engineering students develop a proclivity for rate of change aspects of the derivative…
Educators' Expectations and Aspirations around Young Children's Mathematical Knowledge
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Perry, Bob; MacDonald, Amy
2015-01-01
Let's Count is a mathematics professional learning programme for preschool educators in Australia, managed by a prominent non-government organisation and sponsored by industry. It has been implemented in both face-to-face and online modes over 2013/14. Let's Count is based on the constructs that all young children are powerful mathematicians and…
Pre-Service Teachers' Beliefs about Knowledge, Mathematics, and Science
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cady, Jo Ann; Rearden, Kristin
2007-01-01
This study examines the beliefs of K-8 preservice teachers during a content methods course. The goals of this course included exposing the preservice teachers to student-centered instructional methods for math and science and encouraging the development of lessons that would integrate mathematics and science. Prior research suggested that one must…
Active learning increases student performance in science, engineering, and mathematics
Freeman, Scott; Eddy, Sarah L.; McDonough, Miles; Smith, Michelle K.; Okoroafor, Nnadozie; Jordt, Hannah; Wenderoth, Mary Pat
2014-01-01
To test the hypothesis that lecturing maximizes learning and course performance, we metaanalyzed 225 studies that reported data on examination scores or failure rates when comparing student performance in undergraduate science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) courses under traditional lecturing versus active learning. The effect sizes indicate that on average, student performance on examinations and concept inventories increased by 0.47 SDs under active learning (n = 158 studies), and that the odds ratio for failing was 1.95 under traditional lecturing (n = 67 studies). These results indicate that average examination scores improved by about 6% in active learning sections, and that students in classes with traditional lecturing were 1.5 times more likely to fail than were students in classes with active learning. Heterogeneity analyses indicated that both results hold across the STEM disciplines, that active learning increases scores on concept inventories more than on course examinations, and that active learning appears effective across all class sizes—although the greatest effects are in small (n ? 50) classes. Trim and fill analyses and fail-safe n calculations suggest that the results are not due to publication bias. The results also appear robust to variation in the methodological rigor of the included studies, based on the quality of controls over student quality and instructor identity. This is the largest and most comprehensive metaanalysis of undergraduate STEM education published to date. The results raise questions about the continued use of traditional lecturing as a control in research studies, and support active learning as the preferred, empirically validated teaching practice in regular classrooms. PMID:24821756
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Flynn, Natalie P.
This study developed a survey from the existing literature in an attempt to illuminate the processes, tools, insights, and events that allow university science and mathematics content experts (Ph.D.'s) unpack their expertise in order to teach develop and teach undergraduate students. A pilot study was conducted at an urban university in order to refine the survey. The study consisted of 72 science or mathematics Ph.D. faculty members that teach at a research-based urban university. Follow-up interviews were conducted with 21 volunteer faculty to further explore their methods and tools for developing and implementing teaching within their discipline. Statistical analysis of the data revealed: faculty that taught while obtaining their Ph.D. were less confident in their ability to teach successful and faculty that received training in teaching believed that students have difficult to change misconceptions and do not commit enough time to their course. Student centered textbooks ranked the highest among tools used to gain teaching strategies followed by grading of exams and assignments for gaining insights into student knowledge and difficulties. Science and mathematics education literature and university provided education session ranked the lowest in rating scale for providing strategies for teaching. The open-ended survey questions were sub-divided and analyzed by the number of years of experience to identify the development of teaching knowledge over time and revealed that teaching became more interactive, less lecture based, and more engaging. As faculty matured and gained experience they became more aware of student misconceptions and difficulties often changing their teaching to eliminate such issues. As confidence levels increase their teaching included more technology-based tools, became more interactive, incorporated problem based activities, and became more flexible. This change occurred when and if faculty members altered their thinking about their knowledge from an expert centered perspective to a student centric view. Follow-up interviews of twenty faculty yielded a wide variety of insights into the complicated method of deconstructing expert science and mathematics content. The interviews revealed a major disconnect between education research and researchers and the science and mathematics content experts who teach. There is a pervasive disregard for science and mathematics education and training. Faculty members find little to no support for teaching. Though 81% obtained their Ph.D. with the intent to enter an academic setting, pedagogical training was non-existent or limited, both prior to and after obtaining faculty positions. Experience alone did not account for confidence or ability to successfully teach. Faculty that were able to 'think like a student' and view their material from a student's perspective' seemed to be the most confident and flexible in their teaching methods. Grading and having an open and interactive teaching style, being on the 'side of the students' also seemed to allow faculty to connect more deeply with the students and learn about common misconceptions and difficulties. Though most faculty claimed to not teach as they were taught and not recall having specific content difficulties, this essential interaction with many students facilitated a shift in thinking about their content. This shift allowed for a reversal from teacher centered classrooms to student centered. Multiple issues arise when teaching at a traditional larger lecture style found in the majority of universities science and mathematics courses that constrain and provide unique teaching challenges. Many faculty have developed unique tools to incorporate successful teaching strategies, such as daily pre-quizzes and smart-phone questioning as well as small group work, computer posted guides, strategic class breaks, and limiting lecture style in favor of a more active engaged classroom. (Abstract shortened by UMI.).
Food-based Science Curriculum Increases 4th Graders Multidisciplinary Science Knowledge
Hovland, Jana A.; Carraway-Stage, Virginia G.; Cela, Artenida; Collins, Caitlin; Díaz, Sebastián R.; Collins, Angelo; Duffrin, Melani W.
2013-01-01
Health professionals and policymakers are asking educators to place more emphasis on food and nutrition education. Integrating these topics into science curricula using hand-on, food-based activities may strengthen students’ understanding of science concepts. The Food, Math, and Science Teaching Enhancement Resource (FoodMASTER) Initiative is a compilation of programs aimed at using food as a tool to teach mathematics and science. Previous studies have shown that students experiencing the FoodMASTER curriculum were very excited about the activities, became increasingly interested in the subject matter of food, and were able to conduct scientific observations. The purpose of this study was to: 1) assess 4th graders food-related multidisciplinary science knowledge, and 2) compare gains in food-related science knowledge after implementation of an integrated, food-based curriculum. During the 2009–2010 school year, FoodMASTER researchers implemented a hands-on, food-based intermediate curriculum in eighteen 4th grade classrooms in Ohio (n=9) and North Carolina (n=9). Sixteen classrooms in Ohio (n=8) and North Carolina (n=8), following their standard science curricula, served as comparison classrooms. Students completed a researcher-developed science knowledge exam, consisting of 13 multiple-choice questions administered pre- and post-test. Only subjects with pre- and post-test scores were entered into the sample (Intervention n=343; Control n=237). No significant differences were observed between groups at pre-test. At post-test, the intervention group scored (9.95±2.00) significantly higher (p=.000) than the control group (8.84±2.37) on a 13-point scale. These findings suggest the FoodMASTER intermediate curriculum is more effective than a standard science curriculum in increasing students’ multidisciplinary science knowledge related to food. PMID:25152539
Diabetes: increasing the knowledge base of mental health nurses.
Hemingway, Steve; Trotter, Fiona; Stephenson, John; Holdich, Phillip
Physical health assessment for people with a serious mental illness (SMI) has been a neglected issue, with all the evidence showing that mental health nurses (MHNs) and associated practitioners need to develop such skills. The University of Huddersfield and South West Yorkshire Partnership Foundation Trust collaborated in a Physical Skills Project with the aim of facilitating knowledge and skills for MHNs. The development of the education and training workshop is presented. The results of a pre- and post-test evaluation of diabetes, evaluation of the workshop and, finally, implications for practice with regard to transferable knowledge and skill, are discussed. PMID:24067307
Increasing the Knowledge of Stratification in Shallow Coastal Environments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ojo, T.; Bonner, J.; Hodges, B.; Maidment, D.; Montagna, P.; Minsker, B.
2006-12-01
A testbed has been established using Corpus Christi Bay as an environmental field facility to study the phenomenon of hypoxia that has been observed to develop at certain periods during the year. Stratification affects vertical turbulent mixing of heat, momentum and mass (or constituents) within the water column, in turn influencing the transport of material. The mixing threshold is dependent on the value of the Richardson Number, Ri with inhibition due to stratification occurring at low values (< 0.25) and complete vertical mixing occurring at high values (> 0.25) of Ri. Corpus Christi Bay with average depth of ~3 m is the largest among a system of five bays has been known to stratify due to inflows of hypersaline water (up to 50 psu) from adjoining bays, the Laguna Madre and Oso Bay. Laguna Madre is separated from the Gulf of Mexico by a barrier island and becomes hypersaline because of the imbalance between inflow of freshwater and bay evaporation. Hypersalinity also occurs in Oso Bay due to anthropogenic forcing from a power plant that draws 400 MGD of cooling water from the upper Laguna Madre, discharging waste water into Oso Bay. Several wastewater treatment plants also discharge directly into Oso Bay or its tributary streams. The objective of this study is to develop a methodology for prescribing a set of parameters required for modeling and characterization of hypoxia in this shallow wind-driven bay. The extent to which Ri is dependent on external forcing at the surface boundary was measured using our fully instrumented sensor platforms. Each sensor platform includes sensors for synchronic near-surface meteorological (wind velocity, barometric pressure, air temperature) and water column oceanographic (current, water temperature, conductivity, particle size distribution, particulate concentration, dissolved oxygen, nutrient) variables. These were measured using fixed and mobile vertical profiling sensor platforms. A 2D hydrodynamic model was initially developed for the bay and results indicate that water mass is conserved through a strong vortex spawning from the ~ 20 m deep ship channel that runs east-west along the northernmost portion of the bay. HF radar "observations" however does not indicate this vortical structure suggesting that water conservation is maintained through vertical eddies, captured by 3D current measurements using Acoustic Doppler profilers. This is an example of where advanced sensors indicate needs for more advanced modeling, leading us toward the development of 3D hydrodynamic model for the bay. The geomorphology of the bay (shallow with respect to the deep ship channel) poses a challenge in this model development. Knowledge of stratification in this system of bays has been increased through this study. Measurements taken using the instrument suite deployed by our research facility was coupled with (observed and predicted) hydrodynamic and meteorological data, providing new insight into stratification in Corpus Christi Bay. The bay was observed as cycling through quiescent and well-mixed periods under strong wind influence with the onset of hypoxia during the summer months (June through August). Quiescent periods, when combined with tidal cycling and inland horizontal gradient propagation (from adjoining water bodies as described) lead to conditions favorable to stratification.
Bao, Lei
Mathematical learning models that depend on prior knowledge and instructional strategies David E. Pritchard and Young-Jin Lee Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge Received 27 March 2007; published 20 May 2008 We present mathematical learning models
Increasing Fourth-Grade Students' Proficiency at Solving Mathematical Word Problems
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Norford, Jennifer A.
2012-01-01
The purpose of the study was to identify effective pedagogical strategies to increase 4th grade students' mathematics problem-solving skills. Numerous researchers have looked at mathematics problem solving; however, there is a scarcity of data relating to 4th grade mathematics problem solving proficiency. Fourth grade students at the…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Brese, Falk, Ed.
2012-01-01
The goal for selecting the released set of test items was to have approximately 25% of each of the full item sets for mathematics content knowledge (MCK) and mathematics pedagogical content knowledge (MPCK) that would represent the full range of difficulty, content, and item format used in the TEDS-M study. The initial step in the selection was to…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Thanheiser, Eva; Browning, Christine; Edson, Alden J.; Kastberg, Signe; Lo, Jane-Jane
2013-01-01
This survey of the literature summarizes and reflects on research findings regarding elementary preservice teachers' (PSTs') mathematics conceptions and the development thereof. Despite the current focus on teacher education, peer-reviewed journals offer a surprisingly sparse insight in these areas. The limited research that exists…
Technological pedagogical content knowledge and teaching practice of mathematics trainee teachers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tajudin, Nor'ain Mohd.; Kadir, Noor Zarinawaty Abd.
2014-07-01
This study aims to identify the level of technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPCK) of mathematics trainee teachers at Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris (UPSI) and explore their teaching practices during practical training at school. The study was conducted in two phases using a mix-method research. In the first phase, a survey method using a questionnaire was carried out on 156 trainee teachers of Bachelor of Mathematics Education (AT14) and Bachelor of Science (Mathematics) with Education (AT48). The instrument used was a questionnaire that measures the level of content knowledge, pedagogy, technology and TPCK of mathematics. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, namely the mean. While in the second phase, the interview method involved four trainee teachers were performed. The instrument used was the semi-structured interview protocol to assess the trainee teacher's TPCK integration in their teaching practice. Data were analyzed using the content analysis. The findings showed that the level of knowledge of TPCK among trainee teachers was moderate with overall mean score of 3.60. This level did not show significant differences between the two programs with mean scores of 3.601 for the AT14 group and 3.603 for the AT48 group. However, there was a difference for gender classification such that the female trainees had mean score of 3.58 and male trainees with mean score of 3.72. Although students' TPCK level was moderate, the level of content knowledge (CK), technological knowledge (TK) and pedagogical knowledge (PK), showed a higher level with overall mean scores of 3.75, 3.87 and 3.84 respectively. The findings also showed that in terms of content knowledge, trainee teacher's learning mathematics background was good, but the knowledge of mathematics was limited in the curriculum, philosophy and application aspect. In terms of pedagogical content knowledge, all respondents tend to use lecture and discussion methods in teaching Trigonometry topic in almost the entire teaching and learning sessions. In terms of using technology in teaching and learning process, all respondents were more likely to use PowerPoint presentation as well as assisted by the use of a scientific calculator. The use of PowerPoint was limited in explaining the title and its content and the calculators were used during practice sessions. The four trainee teachers were still at the recognizing and acceptance levels of TPCK integration during their teaching practice. This study indicates that UPSI trainee teachers should be given exposure in the use of information and communication technology and trained to provide alternative teaching strategies in more creative ways if there are obstacles when integrating technology in teaching and learning process.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Stoilescu, Dorian
2014-01-01
This paper describes challenges encountered by two secondary mathematics teachers when they try to integrate ICT devices in their classes. These findings are based on using the Technological Pedagogical and Content Knowledge (TPACK) context, the four dimension framework developed by Niess: 1) overarching conceptions of integrating ICT, 2)…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cagirgan Gulten, Dilek
2013-01-01
This research aims to investigate primary preservice mathematics teachers' views on distance education and web pedagogical content knowledge in terms of the subscales of general web, communicative web, pedagogical web, web pedagogical content and attitude towards web based instruction. The research was conducted with 46 senior students in the…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Henning, Elizabeth
2013-01-01
This article about the discourse of pedagogy as related to child cognition in mathematics addresses the issue of what constitutes the main disciplinary content and the pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) of foundation-phase teachers. I argue that, unless child cognition itself is the primary disciplinary content of foundation-phase teacher's…
Vamos a Jugar Counters! Learning Mathematics through Funds of Knowledge, Play, and the Third Space
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Razfar, Aria
2012-01-01
Drawing on Cultural Historical Activity Theory (CHAT), funds of knowledge, and third space, this article presents a model for practitioners and researchers to think about how Latina/o, bilingual children develop explicit mathematics strategies through multilingual and multigenerational interactions. Using data collected through fieldwork in an…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Walker, Jessica M.
2011-01-01
Traditional mathematics education focuses on teaching rote procedures to solve problems, though these procedures are not usually motivated by goals. As a result, students have trouble flexibly using procedures and generalizing their knowledge to solve novel problems that differ from the problems they practice during instruction. In the following…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Santos-Trigo, Manuel; Barrera-Mora, Fernando
2011-01-01
The study documents the extent to which high school teachers reflect on their need to revise and extend their mathematical and practicing knowledge. In this context, teachers worked on a set of tasks as a part of an inquiring community that promoted the use of different computational tools in problem solving approaches. Results indicated that the…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ozmantar, Mehmet Fatih
2011-01-01
This study reconsiders the notion of pedagogy for pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) in the context of teaching mathematics. The perspectives of critical pedagogy are employed for this reconsideration, stressing the operation of historical, social, ideological, political, institutional and cultural forces in the production of pedagogical…
A Collaborative Inquiry to Promote Pedagogical Knowledge of Mathematics in Practice
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Moghaddam, Alireza; Sarkar Arani, Mohammad Reza; Kuno, Hiroyuki
2015-01-01
The present study attempts to report a collaborative cycle of professional development in teaching elementary school mathematics through lesson study. It explores a practice of lesson study conducted by teachers aiming to improve their knowledge of pedagogy. The study adopts an ethnographic approach to examine how collaborative teaching within an…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
McKnight, Curtis C.; Fisher, Mark A.
Knowledge representations and mental models from graphically presented information were investigated for 98 college students with different levels of mathematics experience. The subjects were drawn from a remedial algebra course (n=35), a second semester calculus course (n=35), and a calculus-based statistics course (n=28); they were all exposed…
Does Strategy Knowledge Influence Working Memory in Children with Mathematical Disabilities?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Keeler, Marsha L.; Swanson, H. Lee
2001-01-01
A study investigated the relationship between working memory (WM), declarative strategy knowledge, and math achievement in 111 children with and without mathematical disabilities (MD). Results found verbal and visual-spatial WM, stable verbal strategy choices, and expert strategy choices related to visual-spatial processing all contributed…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
DeFlorio, Lydia; Beliakoff, Amber
2015-01-01
Research Findings: Children from families of lower socioeconomic status (SES) enter kindergarten with less developed mathematical knowledge compared to children from middle SES families. This discrepancy is present at age 3 years and likely stems from differences in the home learning environment. This study reports SES-related differences both in…
Developing Teachers' Knowledge of Students as Learners of Mathematics through Structured Interviews
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jenkins, Oliver F.
2010-01-01
A structured interview process is proffered as an effective means to advance prospective teachers' understandings of students as learners of mathematics, a key component of pedagogical content knowledge. The interview process is carried out in three phases with the primary objective of developing listening skills for accessing students'…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
van Klinken, Eduarda
2010-01-01
Poor results in Queensland Year Three NAPLAN Numeracy tests have provided a focus to critically review the classroom practices of lower primary mathematics teachers. This paper outlines how pedagogical content knowledge can be strengthened by emphasising conceptual understanding, by utilising dynamic classroom discourse, by an awareness of…
Outcome CpE-4. Knowledge of discrete mathematics. Course Performance indicators
Mohaghegh, Shahab
outcome maps into. ** For example "exam 1, problem 1" *** For Grade give the class average on an "A=4.0, BOutcome CpE-4. Knowledge of discrete mathematics. Course Performance indicators CpE 271 Boolean Algebra. CpE 271 Minimization using Boolean Algebra. Tools used: Undergraduate In-Course Program Outcomes
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Agyei, Douglas D.; Voogt, Joke
2012-01-01
Although many studies have shown the need to pay attention to teachers' preparation for the integration of technology in classroom practice, most teachers in Ghana have not had any preparation that develops their technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPCK). This paper presents a case study of four pre-service mathematics teachers from the…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bidaibekov, Yessen Y.; Kornilov, Viktor S.; Kamalova, Guldina B.; Akimzhan, Nagima Sh.
2015-09-01
Methodical aspects of teaching students of higher educational institutions of natural science orientations of training of inverse problems for differential equations are considered in the article. A fact that an academic knowledge and competence in the field of applied mathematics is formed during such training is taken into consideration.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Venville, Grady; Rennie, Leonie; Wallace, John
2004-01-01
This article reports on students' decision making processes and sources of knowledge in an integrated teaching and learning setting. The study was conducted in a Year 9 classroom as students undertook a 10-week solar-powered boat project and were exposed to related concepts from science, technology and mathematics. Data collection involved…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Engelhard, George, Jr.; Sullivan, Rubye K.
2007-01-01
In this journal issue, the authors of the focus articles have provided a suite of very stimulating and thoughtful articles. The overarching purpose of this research is to explore the application of principles derived from the view of validity proposed by Kane (2004) to their research on issues related to the measurement of mathematical knowledge…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Moss, Joan; Beatty, Ruth
2010-01-01
Three classrooms of Grade 4 students from different schools and diverse backgrounds collaborated in early algebra research to solve a series of linear and quadratic generalizing problems. Results revealed that high- and low-achieving students were able to solve problems of recognized difficulty. We discuss Knowledge Building principles and…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Campbell, Patricia F.; Nishio, Masako; Smith, Toni M.; Clark, Lawrence M.; Conant, Darcy L.; Rust, Amber H.; DePiper, Jill Neumayer; Frank, Toya Jones; Griffin, Matthew J.; Choi, Youyoung
2014-01-01
This study of early-career teachers identified a significant relationship between upper-elementary teachers' mathematical content knowledge and their students' mathematics achievement, after controlling for student- and teacher-level characteristics. Findings provide evidence of the relevance of teacher knowledge and perceptions for…
Mohaghegh, Shahab
. "Graduates will have an ability to apply knowledge of mathematics, science and engineering" Poor Fair Good used. - Fair. This rubric is used when some marginal reference of a concept of science is madeOutcome A. Graduates will have an ability to apply knowledge of mathematics, science
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Toh, Tin Lam; Kaur, Berinderjeet; Koay, Phong Lee
2013-01-01
In this article, we explore the mathematical content knowledge of one entire cohort of pre-service teachers (N = 107) through analysing their performance in a Secondary Mathematics Audit that was developed for the International Comparative Studies in Mathematics Teacher Training that was initiated by the University of Plymouth. We study how their…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chichekian, Tanya; Shore, Bruce M.
2013-01-01
This collaborative concept-mapping exercise was conducted in a second-year mathematics methods course. Teachers' visual representations of their mathematical content and pedagogical knowledge provided insight into their understanding of how students learn mathematics. We collected 28 preservice student teachers' concept maps and analyzed them by…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Young, Charlotte F.; Witter, John A.
1994-01-01
This study evaluated the effectiveness of educational brochures in increasing participants' knowledge about the environmental problem of gypsy moth infestations and associated action strategies. Results suggest that brochures rated high in communication effectiveness were most useful in increasing knowledge. (Contains 28 references.) (Author/MDH)
Increasing Cognitive Inhibition with a Difficult Prior Task: Implications for Mathematical Thinking
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Attridge, Nina; Inglis, Matthew
2015-01-01
Dual-process theories posit two distinct types of cognitive processing: Type 1, which does not use working memory making it fast and automatic, and Type 2, which does use working memory making it slow and effortful. Mathematics often relies on the inhibition of pervasive Type 1 processing to apply new skills or knowledge that require Type 2…
Widening and Increasing Post-16 Mathematics Participation: Pathways, Pedagogies and Politics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Noyes, Andrew; Wake, Geoff; Drake, Pat
2011-01-01
This paper explores the potential impact of a national pilot initiative in England aimed at increasing and widening participation in advanced mathematical study through the creation of a new qualification for 16- to 18-year-olds. This proposed qualification pathway--"Use of Mathematics"--sits in parallel with long-established, traditional advanced…
A Guide to Mathematics Coaching: Processes for Increasing Student Achievement
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hull, Ted H.; Balka, Don S.; Miles, Ruth Harbin
2010-01-01
Math coaches play a vital role in strengthening math instruction and learning in schools. However, without a collegial relationship with the teachers they are trying to help, it is difficult to foster productive collaborations that lead to better teaching practice and increased student achievement. This resource helps coaches confidently clarify,…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ruthven, Kenneth
2014-01-01
Reports from 13 Further Mathematics Knowledge Networks supported by the National Centre for Excellence in the Teaching of Mathematics [NCETM] are analysed. After summarizing basic characteristics of the networks regarding leadership, composition and pattern of activity, each of the following aspects is examined in greater depth: Developmental aims…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Niemeier, Brandi S.; Tande, Desiree L.; Hwang, Joyce; Stastny, Sherri; Hektner, Joel M.
2010-01-01
Because children's eating habits predict their adult eating habits, educating children about healthy foods is essential (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2000). A Midwest Extension Service created and delivered an educational experience for preschool children to increase knowledge of fruits and vegetables. The knowledge assessment…
Ethnic Differences in Knowledge and Attitudes about BRCA1 Testing in Women at Increased Risk.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hughes, Chanita; Gomez-Caminero, Andres; Benkendorf, Judith; Kerner, Jon; Isaacs, Claudine; Barter, James; Lerman, Caryn
1997-01-01
Knowledge about the inheritance of breast cancer and attitudes about genetic testing for breast-ovarian cancer susceptibility in women at increased risk were studied in Caucasian and African-American women (N=407). Participants had at least one first-degree relative with cancer. Differences in knowledge and attitudes toward risk may be attributed…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roche, Anne; Clarke, Doug M.
2013-06-01
This article reports on a study that was conducted with 378 primary teachers from Catholic schools in Victoria who participated in the first year of a 2-year research and professional learning program in mathematics. One aim of the program was to enhance teacher knowledge in mathematics in its many forms. As part of the larger study, the teachers were assessed at the beginning and the end of school year (February and October, respectively) on their Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching (MKT), through the use of a questionnaire involving teachers' responses to hypothetical teaching, planning, or assessment scenarios. We report here the results from one item that assessed teachers' MKT in relation to representations of division. Results indicated that teachers were more familiar with partitive than quotitive division, and found connecting appropriate story problems with a given form of division difficult. Teachers' relating their understanding of the forms of division to the context of division by a decimal number was also challenging. There were interesting variations in the data across primary grade levels, particularly in relation to change over time. Professional learning on these topics and other support within the project appeared to improve teachers' MKT in this area.
Hands-On Mathematics: Two Cases from Ancient Chinese Mathematics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wang, Youjun
2009-01-01
In modern mathematical teaching, it has become increasingly emphasized that mathematical knowledge should be taught by problem-solving, hands-on activities, and interactive learning experiences. Comparing the ideas of modern mathematical education with the development of ancient Chinese mathematics, we find that the history of mathematics in…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bleiler, Sarah K.
2015-01-01
Collaborations between mathematicians and mathematics teacher educators are increasingly being expected, and realized, within the context of mathematics teacher education. Most research related to collaborative efforts between members of the mathematics and mathematics education communities has focused on the products, rather than the process of…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Alsaeed, Maha Saad
2012-01-01
Teachers in Saudi Arabia are attempting to advance their teaching in mathematics to address specific reforms by the Ministry of Education. Saudi teachers must improve their students' thinking through engagement in problem solving. This qualitative study investigated how teachers use knowledge of student mathematical learning and how they…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Roth McDuffie, Amy; Foote, Mary Q.; Bolson, Catherine; Turner, Erin E.; Aguirre, Julia M.; Bartell, Tonya Gau; Drake, Corey; Land, Tonia
2014-01-01
As part of a larger research project aimed at transforming preK-8 mathematics teacher preparation, the purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which prospective teachers notice children's competencies related to children's mathematical thinking, and children's community, cultural, and linguistic funds of knowledge or what…
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mahon, Lee
1997-01-01
The purpose of this proposal was to field test and evaluate a Teacher Training program that would prepare teachers to increase the motivation and achievement of culturally diverse students in the areas of science and mathematics. Designed as a three year program, this report covers the first two years of the training program at the Ronald McNair School in the Ravenswood School district, using the resources of the NASA Ames Research Center and the California Framework for Mathematics and Science.
Buring, Shauna M.; Papas, Elizabeth
2013-01-01
Objective. To assess doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students’ mathematics ability by content area before and after completing a required pharmaceutical calculations course and to analyze changes in scores. Methods. A mathematics skills assessment was administered to 2 cohorts of pharmacy students (class of 2013 and 2014) before and after completing a pharmaceutical calculations course. The posttest was administered to the second cohort 6 months after completing the course to assess knowledge retention. Results. Both cohorts performed significantly better on the posttest (cohort 1, 13% higher scores; cohort 2, 15.9% higher scores). Significant improvement on posttest scores was observed in 6 of the 10 content areas for cohorts 1 and 2. Both cohorts scored lower in percentage calculations on the posttest than on the pretest. Conclusions. A required, 1-credit-hour pharmaceutical calculations course improved PharmD students’ overall ability to perform fundamental and application-based calculations. PMID:23966727
Morgan, Paul L.; Farkas, George; Wu, Qiong
2015-01-01
We used a large sample of children (N ? 7,400) participating in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study – Kindergarten Cohort to estimate kindergarten children’s academic achievement growth trajectories in reading and mathematics. We were particularly interested in whether the growth trajectories of children with learning disabilities (LD) or speech language impairments (SLI)—as well as those of other groups of children—were consistent with a cumulative or compensatory developmental cycle. Both LD and SLI children displayed significantly lower levels of kindergarten reading achievement than non-disabled children. However, and over the subsequent five years of elementary school, only children with SLI lagged increasingly behind non-disabled peers in their reading skills growth. We observed a different pattern for mathematics achievement. Children with LD, but not SLI, lagged increasingly behind non-disabled children in their mathematics skills growth. We also observed some consistency in “poor-get-poorer” effects across reading and mathematic achievement for additional population subgroups. Those kindergarten children who were from lower socio-economic status (SES) families, who were African-American, and who more frequently displayed learning-related behaviors problems initially had lower levels of reading and mathematics achievement and also lagged increasingly behind in their acquisition of these skills over time. Some groups of children, including those with SLI, experience a cumulative rather than compensatory cycle of achievement growth. PMID:21856991
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gobithaasan, R. U.; Miura, Kenjiro T.; Hassan, Mohamad Nor
2014-07-01
Computer Aided Geometric Design (CAGD) which surpasses the underlying theories of Computer Aided Design (CAD) and Computer Graphics (CG) has been taught in a number of Malaysian universities under the umbrella of Mathematical Sciences' faculty/department. On the other hand, CAD/CG is taught either under the Engineering or Computer Science Faculty. Even though CAGD researchers/educators/students (denoted as contributors) have been enriching this field of study by means of article/journal publication, many fail to convert the idea into constructive innovation due to the gap that occurs between CAGD contributors and practitioners (engineers/product/designers/architects/artists). This paper addresses this issue by advocating a number of technologies that can be used to transform CAGD contributors into innovators where immediate impact in terms of practical application can be experienced by the CAD/CG practitioners. The underlying principle of solving this issue is twofold. First would be to expose the CAGD contributors on ways to turn mathematical ideas into plug-ins and second is to impart relevant CAGD theories to CAD/CG to practitioners. Both cases are discussed in detail and the final section shows examples to illustrate the importance of turning mathematical knowledge into innovations.
Can easy-to-read immunization information increase knowledge in urban low-income mothers?
Wilson, Feleta L; Brown, Dora L; Stephens-Ferris, Mary
2006-02-01
This article describes a pilot study that (1) assessed the self-report of highest grade completed in school and the actual reading and comprehension skills of low-income mothers whose children receive immunizations in urban public clinics and (2) tested the effectiveness of a nursing intervention on immunization knowledge using revised easy-to-read written education materials. Thirty-seven mothers were randomized either to a control group (asked to read the standard vaccine information sheets) or to an experimental group (asked to read the revised immunization pamphlets). Although there was a modest increase in immunization knowledge for both groups, it was not significant. Thus, simplifying information alone may not increase parental knowledge. PMID:16428009
Vuik, Kees
Physics/Mathematics double degree BSc project: Adhesive Force of Droplets with Increasingly Realistic Shape Supervision: M. Musterd, V. van Steijn, C.R. Kleijn, M.T. Kreutzer and C. Vuik Water to predict how the adhesive force depends on the droplet properties. What is this project about
"An Inconvenient Truth" Increases Knowledge, Concern, and Willingness to Reduce Greenhouse Gases
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Nolan, Jessica M.
2010-01-01
Since May 24, 2006 millions of people have seen the movie "An Inconvenient Truth." Several countries have even proposed using the film as an educational tool in school classrooms. However, it is not yet clear that the movie accomplishes its apparent goals of increasing knowledge and concern, and motivating people to reduce their greenhouse gas…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Watson, Bernardine H.; Leibbrand, Jane A.
2010-01-01
This brief is a summary of "Increasing the Application of Developmental Sciences Knowledge in Educator Preparation: Policy Issues and Recommendations" by Robert C. Pianta, Randy Hitz and Blake West. It includes highlights and policy recommendations contained in that paper. This brief argues that teachers and education administrators need…
Increasing Access to Evidence-Based Practices and Knowledge and Attitudes: A Pilot Study
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Leathers, Sonya J.; Strand, Tonya C.
2013-01-01
Objective: This pilot study examined the effect of increasing field instructors access to information about evidence-based practices (EBPs) on their level of knowledge and attitudes about EBPs. Method: Eighteen field instructors received training and access to a library with extensive online journals. Half were randomly selected to also receive a…
Student Content Knowledge Increases after Participation in a Hands-on Biotechnology Intervention
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bigler, Amber M.; Hanegan, Nikki L.
2011-01-01
Implementing biotechnology education through hands-on teaching methods should be considered by secondary biology teachers. This study is an experimental research design to examine increased student content knowledge in biotechnology after a hands-on biotechnology intervention. The teachers from both school groups participated in, Project Crawfish,…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Taylor, Cynthia E.
2011-01-01
Prospective mathematics teachers (PTs) need to develop pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) to improve the teaching and learning of mathematics. Therefore, faculty who prepare teachers of mathematics (i.e., mathematics teacher educators [MTEs]), need to help PTs develop PCK in their courses (Marks, 1990; Mason, 2008). Yet, we know very little about…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Zhao, Yan-jun
2011-01-01
Ethnic students will face the problem of "cultural discontinuities" when they learn school mathematics. "Cultural discontinuity" is the main obstacle when they learn school mathematics. Teachers should put up the bridge for introducing ethnic mathematical knowledge into school mathematics teaching. The concrete tactics are: widening ethnic…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ottmar, Erin R.; Rimm-Kaufman, Sara E.; Larsen, Ross; Merritt, Eileen G.
2011-01-01
Despite over thirty years of theoretically based research investigating "how" teacher mathematical knowledge and instructional practice relate to student learning, it is still largely unclear how these constructs are related, and policy makers and practitioners are still situated in a context with insufficient data to make decisions. Thus, there…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Calhoun, James M., Jr.
2011-01-01
Student achievement is not progressing on mathematics as measured by state, national, and international assessments. Much of the research points to mathematics curriculum and instruction as the root cause of student failure to achieve at levels comparable to other nations. Since mathematics is regarded as a gate keeper to many educational…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
American Univ., Washington, DC. Mid-Atlantic Equity Center.
This publication is a practical guide to implementing the Mathematics, Science, and Minorities: K-6 (MSM: K-6) Project, a program to increase minority student participation in mathematics and sciences in the kindergarten through sixth grade levels. The guide is organized into five parts. Part 1 is an introduction that explains why minority…
An intervention study to increase colorectal cancer knowledge and screening among community elders.
Powe, Barbara D; Ntekop, Emmanuel; Barron, Mia
2004-01-01
This study evaluates the effectiveness of a culturally relevant intervention, delivered over 12 months on knowledge of colorectal cancer and participation in fecal occult blood testing. An experimental, repeated measures design was used. Free fecal occult blood testing was offered to the participants. Fifteen senior centers were randomly selected and assigned to the Cultural and Self-Empowerment Group, the Modified Cultural Group, or the Traditional Group. Their mean age was 73.83 years, and their average educational level was 8.8 years. The majority was African American, female, and reported annual incomes < or = 10,000 dollars. Data were collected at baseline, at 6 months, and at 12 months. Participants in the Cultural and Self-Empowerment Group had a significantly greater increase in their knowledge of colorectal cancer over time. Group membership and knowledge of colorectal cancer were significant predictors of participation in colorectal cancer screening. Participants in the Cultural and Self-Empowerment Group and those with greater knowledge of colorectal cancer were more likely to participate in fecal occult blood testing at the end of the 12-month period. Similar strategies may be implemented in community settings and health care agencies to inform elders about colorectal cancer. PMID:15363024
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gann, Linda
2013-01-01
The research centered on secondary mathematics teachers' beliefs, attitudes, knowledge base, and practices in meeting the academic and language needs of English language learners. Using socio-cultural theory and social practice theory to frame the study, the research design employed a mixed methods approach incorporating self-reported…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cheriani, Cheriani; Mahmud, Alimuddin; Tahmir, Suradi; Manda, Darman; Dirawan, Gufran Darma
2015-01-01
This study aims to determine the differences in learning output by using Problem Based Model combines with the "Buginese" Local Cultural Knowledge (PBL-Culture). It is also explores the students activities in learning mathematics subject by using PBL-Culture Models. This research is using Mixed Methods approach that combined quantitative…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pape, Stephen J.; Prosser, Sherri K.; Griffin, Cynthia C.; Dana, Nancy Fichtman; Algina, James; Bae, Jungah
2015-01-01
This study sought to identify components of an asynchronous online teacher professional development program, "Prime Online," that potentially affected participants' mathematical knowledge for teaching (MKT). Twenty-three third- through fifth-grade general education and special education teachers completed a yearlong online teacher…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jacobson, Erik; Izsák, Andrew
2015-01-01
Past studies have suggested that in light of recent curriculum standards, many US teachers make limited use of drawn models in their mathematics instruction. To gain insight into this phenomenon, we investigated relationships between US teachers' opportunities to learn about, knowledge of, motivation for, and instructional use of drawn models for…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wilhelm, Anne Garrison
2014-01-01
This study sought to understand how aspects of middle school mathematics teachers' knowledge and conceptions are related to their enactment of cognitively demanding tasks. I defined the enactment of cognitively demanding tasks to involve task selection and maintenance of the cognitive demand of high-level tasks and examined those two…
Mohaghegh, Shahab
. 2. 3. 4. * Indicate which program outcome each course outcome maps into. ** For example "exam 1Outcome CpE-2. Knowledge of mathematics to analyze and design complex hardware, software-Course Program Outcomes Assessment form. Data Collection: The data are collected every semester based
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Beach, Dennis; Player-Koro, Catarina
2012-01-01
Two related ethnographic research projects on mathematics teacher education in Sweden are presented in this paper. They represent a response to recent policy developments that reaffirm the value of authoritative subject studies content as the central and most important component in the professional knowledge base of would-be teachers and…
Mohaghegh, Shahab
, science and engineering" Poor Fair Good Very Good Excellent PI1 Use of concepts of physics or chemistryOutcome A. Graduates will have an ability to apply knowledge of mathematics, science require students to use and apply science concepts when they formulate problems. The following rubrics
Zacharias, Tresa; Wang, Winnie; Dao, Doan; Wojciechowski, Helena; Lee, William M; Do, Son; Singal, Amit G
2015-08-01
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) testing and vaccination rates remain low among Asian-American/Pacific Islanders (APIs) despite high rates of HBV infection. The aim of our study was to assess the effectiveness of an outreach campaign to increase HBV knowledge, testing, and vaccination among a cohort of APIs. Vietnamese Americans were invited to participate in a free HBV screening and vaccination outreach program though pubic service announcements. Attendees completed a survey to assess barriers to vaccination and HBV-related knowledge before and after a 30-min education session by a bilingual board-certified gastroenterologist. Among 98 participants, 100% (22/22) of HBV naïve patients were provided a HBV vaccination series at no cost and over 75% (14/18) of HBV-infected patients were connected to further medical care. Notable reported barriers to prior testing and/or vaccination were cost of the vaccine, concern about missing work for evaluation, and lack of provider recommendation. Knowledge levels about HBV risk factors, potential consequences, and treatment options were poor at baseline but significantly increased after the education session (49 vs. 64%, p < 0.001). Outreach campaigns linked with education can successfully address several barriers to HBV testing and offer an approach to improve HBV awareness and prevention among difficult-to-reach populations. PMID:25476035
Drummond, Peter D; Mizan, Ayse; Brocx, Katie; Wright, Bernadette
2011-03-01
Ten bilingual West African peer educators conducted a 3-hour workshop on sexual health for small groups of West African refugees (N = 58) who recently had settled in Perth, Western Australia. There were significant increases in the participants' knowledge of sexually transmitted infections and HIV, how these infections are spread, and how to protect against infection. In addition, attitudes toward condom use became more positive. We conclude that the peer-education approach was successful in assisting a new and emerging community to work effectively on sexual health topics generally considered "taboo" or too sensitive to discuss. PMID:21337242
Assessing EC-4 preservice teachers' mathematics knowledge for teaching fractions concepts
Wright, Kimberly Boddie
2008-10-10
Recognizing the need for U.S. students' mathematics learning to be built on a solid foundation of conceptual understanding, professional organizations such as the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (2000) and ...
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Superfine, Alison Castro; Li, Wenjuan
2014-01-01
What is needed to prepare teachers to effectively teach mathematics has been the subject of considerable debate for at least two decades, with the focus shifting back and forth between the number of mathematics courses that teachers need to the mathematics content that teachers need to know. Building upon previous work related to teacher…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Norton, Anderson; McCloskey, Andrea; Hudson, Rick A.
2011-01-01
In order to evaluate the effectiveness of an experimental elementary mathematics field experience course, we have designed a new assessment instrument. These video-based prediction assessments engage prospective teachers in a video analysis of a child solving mathematical tasks. The prospective teachers build a model of that child's mathematics…
Discrete Mathematics in Deaf Education: A Survey of Teachers' Knowledge and Use
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pagliaro, C.; Kritzer, K. L.
2005-01-01
The study documents what deaf education teachers know about discrete mathematics topics and determines if these topics are present in the mathematics curriculum. Survey data were collected from 290 mathematics teachers at center and public school programs serving a minimum of 120 students with hearing loss, grades K-8 or K-12, in the United…
Minimalism as a Guiding Principle: Linking Mathematical Learning to Everyday Knowledge
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Inoue, Noriyuki
2008-01-01
Studies report that students often fail to consider familiar aspects of reality in solving mathematical word problems. This study explored how different features of mathematical problems influence the way that undergraduate students employ realistic considerations in mathematical problem solving. Incorporating familiar contents in the word…
A School-Hospital Partnership Increases Knowledge of Pedestrian and Motor Vehicle Safety.
Bachman, Shelby L; Arbogast, Helen; Ruiz, Pearl; Farag, Mina; Demeter, Natalie E; Upperman, Jeffrey S; Burke, Rita V
2015-12-01
Pedestrian and motor vehicle-related injuries are leading causes of morbidity and mortality in children. Trauma centers have specialized resources to conduct interventions that improve the safety of whole communities. In the present study, we evaluated the effectiveness of a school-hospital partnership in increasing knowledge of pedestrian and motor vehicle safety among students and parents in a large, urban community. Staff from a Level I pediatric trauma center conducted educational interventions in an urban public school district. Elementary school students participated in a pedestrian safety program, middle school students completed a community safety program, and high school students learned about the dangers of drunk and distracted driving. Students completed pre- and post-tests. Parents in the neighboring community received child passenger safety education at two child restraint (CR) inspection events. A total of 2203 students participated at a total of nine schools. Post-test scores were significantly higher than pre-test scores for students in all three age groups and within each grade level. At CR inspection events, 67 CRs were inspected, 49 (73 %) of which were replaced with new age- and weight- appropriate CRs. The most common instance of improper CR use was loose CR fit in vehicle seat (33 %). All 120 observed instances of misuse were corrected by a certified Child Passenger Safety Technician. Educational interventions effectively increased knowledge of pedestrian and motor vehicle safety among students and parents. We have demonstrated the utility of a school-hospital partnership for furthering knowledge of safety in an urban community. PMID:25925719
Seewooruttun, Leila; Scior, Katrina
2014-12-01
Despite policies aimed at ensuring equal rights and maximising respect and social inclusion for people with intellectual disabilities, in their daily lives many continue to face negative attitudes and discrimination within society. Misconceptions about what it means to have an intellectual disability and about the capabilities of people with intellectual disabilities appear widespread, and may contribute to prejudice and discrimination. This review provides a summary and evaluation of empirical interventions aimed at increasing knowledge and targeting negative attitudes towards this population among lay people of working age. An electronic search using PsycINFO, Web of Science and PubMed identified 22 English language studies published between 1990 and early 2014 that reported a specific intervention with a lay population sample. The majority of studies reported promising outcomes, particularly those aimed at increasing knowledge of intellectual disability through education. Support for the positive influence of contact with people with intellectual disabilities was demonstrated across several interventions. Interventions delivered at least partly by individuals with intellectual disabilities, and educational interventions appear to hold the most promise. The evidence is limited though by the weaknesses of measurement tools employed. PMID:25213473
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Clark, Rebecca
2013-01-01
This study approaches the problem of African American mathematics achievement from a strength-based perspective, identifying practices implemented by middle school principals successful in increasing and sustaining the mathematics achievement of African American students. The study was designed to answer questions regarding both school-wide…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Banda, Devender R.; Kubina, Richard M., Jr.
2009-01-01
The authors investigated the effectiveness of using high-preference (high-p) mathematics tasks for increasing task initiation of low-preference (low-p) mathematics tasks with a 13-year-old middle school student with autism. They used an ABAB design to determine the effectiveness of high-p tasks with to comply with low-p tasks. Results indicated…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Graham, Suzanne E.; Provost, Lauren E.
2012-01-01
In this brief, authors Suzanne Graham and Lauren Provost examine whether attending a school in a rural, urban, or suburban community is related to children's mathematics achievement in kindergarten, and whether increases in mathematics achievement between kindergarten and eighth grade differ for children in rural, urban, and suburban schools. They…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hiebert, James; Morris, Anne K.
2009-01-01
Consistent with the theme of this issue, we describe the details of one continuing effort to build knowledge for teacher education. We argue that building a useful knowledge base requires attention to the processes used to generate, record, and vet knowledge. By using 4 features of knowledge-building systems we identified in the introductory…
The Role of Learning Goals in Building a Knowledge Base for Elementary Mathematics Teacher Education
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jansen, Amanda; Bartell, Tonya; Berk, Dawn
2009-01-01
In this article, we describe features of learning goals that enable indexing knowledge for teacher education. Learning goals are the key enabler for building a knowledge base for teacher education; they define what counts as essential knowledge for prospective teachers. We argue that 2 characteristics of learning goals support knowledge-building…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wan Salleh, Masturah; Sulaiman, Hajar
2013-04-01
The use of technology in the teaching of mathematics at the university level has long been introduced; but many among the lecturers, especially those that have taught for many years, still opt for a traditional teaching method, that is, by lecture talk. One reason is that lecturers themselves were not exposed to the technologies available and how it can assist in the teaching and learning procedures (T&L) in mathematics. GeoGebra is a mathematical software which is open and free and has just recently been introduced in Malaysia. Compared with the software Cabri Geometry and Geometer's Sketchpad (GSP), which only focus on geometry, GeoGebra is able to connect geometry, algebra and numerical representation. Realizing this, the researchers have conducted a study to expose the university lecturers on the use of GeoGebra in T&L. The researchers chose to do the research on mathematics lecturers at the Department of Computer Science and Mathematics (JSKM), Universiti Teknologi Mara (UiTM), Penang. The objective of this study is to determine whether an exposure to GeoGebra software can affect the conceptual knowledge and procedural teaching of mathematics at the university level. This study is a combination of descriptive and qualitative. One session was conducted in an open workshop for all the 45 lecturers. From that total, four people were selected as a sample. The sample was selected by using a simple random sampling method. This study used materials in the form of modules during the workshop. In terms of conceptual knowledge, the results showed that the GeoGebra software is appropriate, relevant and highly effective for in-depth understanding of the selected topics. While the procedural aspects of teaching, it can be one of the teaching aids and considerably facilitate the lecturers.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barham, Peter J.
2012-03-01
New undergraduate students arriving to study physics at the University of Bristol from 1975 onwards have all taken the same test of their knowledge and understanding of physics and mathematics. Many of the questions test knowledge of material that has been in the A-level syllabus for maths or physics throughout this period. The ability of incoming students to answer these questions declined significantly in the 1990s with average scores falling from around 75% up to 1990 to below 50% after 2000 against a background of increasing A-level grades of the entrants to the programme. It is suggested that changes in teaching and examination methods have caused students to be less able to carry out multi-stage calculations and that the introduction of modular examinations may have encouraged a culture where students tend to forget material learnt in previous modules.
The Influence of Attention on Mathematical Knowledge of Teachers and Lecturers: A Comparison
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Klymchuk, Sergiy; Thomas, Michael O. J.
2011-01-01
This article reports on some findings from the project "Analysing the Transition from Secondary to Tertiary Education in Mathematics". One of the key variables in the school to university transition is the teacher/lecturer, and here, we deal with the data analysing secondary teachers' and tertiary lecturers' responses to four mathematics…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Westbrook, Amy Franks
2014-01-01
This study addresses the problem of mathematics teachers' resistance to problem-solving models that align with constructivist perspectives because they feel pressure to utilize more teaching approaches that focus on preparing students for high-stakes tests. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explain how ninth grade mathematics students…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Walker-Glenn, Michelle Lynn
2010-01-01
Although most high schools espouse school-wide literacy initiatives, few schools place equal emphasis on numeracy, or quantitative literacy. This lack of attention to quantitative skills is ironic in light of documented deficiencies in student mathematics achievement. While significant research exists regarding best practices for mathematics…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chinnappan, Mohan; Desplat, Bethany
2012-01-01
The teaching of mathematics for the development of numeracy is emerging to be an important goal of recent reforms. In broad terms, numeracy involves the application of mathematical concepts and procedures in the understanding and solution of a range of problems including real-life problems. Teaching for numeracy, thus calls for skills in…
Teachers' Mathematical Knowledge, Cognitive Activation in the Classroom, and Student Progress
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Baumert, Jurgen; Kunter, Mareike; Blum, Werner; Brunner, Martin; Voss, Thamar; Jordan, Alexander; Klusmann, Uta; Krauss, Stefan; Neubrand, Michael; Tsai, Yi-Miau
2010-01-01
In both the United States and Europe, concerns have been raised about whether preservice and in-service training succeeds in equipping teachers with the professional knowledge they need to deliver consistently high-quality instruction. This article investigates the significance of teachers' content knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge for…
Cernusak, Lucas; Winter, Klaus; Dalling, James; Holtum, Joseph; Jaramillo, Carlos; Korner, Christian; Leakey, Andrew D.B.; Norby, Richard J; Poulter, Benjamin; Turner, Benjamin; Wright, S. Joseph
2013-01-01
Elevated atmospheric [CO2] (ca) will undoubtedly affect the metabolism of tropical forests worldwide; however, critical aspects of how tropical forests will respond remain largely unknown. Here we review the current state of knowledge about physiological and ecological responses, with the aim of providing a framework that can help to guide future experimental research. Modelling studies have indicated that elevated ca can potentially stimulate photosynthesis more in the tropics than at higher latitudes, because suppression of photorespiration by elevated ca increases with temperature. However, canopy leaves in tropical forests could also potentially reach a high temperature threshold under elevated ca that will moderate the rise in photosynthesis. Belowground responses, including fine root production, nutrient foraging, and soil organic matter processing, will be especially important to the integrated ecosystem response to elevated CO2. Water-use efficiency will increase as ca rises, potentially impacting upon soil moisture status and nutrient availability. Recruitment may be differentially altered for some functional groups, potentially decreasing ecosystem carbon storage. Whole-forest CO2 enrichment experiments are urgently needed to test predictions of tropical forest functioning under elevated ca. Smaller scale experiments in the understory and in gaps would also be informative, and could provide stepping stones toward stand-scale manipulations.
James, Susanne Marie
2011-07-21
). In order to reach an outcome, it is necessary to produce certain objects (e.g., experiences, knowledge, and physical products). These objects are visible forms of mental processes teachers undertake as they try to make sense of a literacy concept like.... Engeström’s Activity Theory Model .....................................................................11 Figure 3. Concept Map Scoring Procedures..........................................................................49 Figure 4. Explanatory design...
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dunekacke, Simone; Jenßen, Lars; Blömeke, Sigrid
2015-01-01
This study addresses the relation of pre-school teachers' mathematics content knowledge and their performance--how they perceive mathematical learning situations and whether they are able to plan adequate actions that foster children's learning--in the informal settings of pre-schools. It thus addresses a serious gap in teacher research that has…
Mathematics, Innate Knowledge and Neuroscience A talk presented on September 27, 2012, by
Fokas, A. S.
reviewing the position of Plato for the existence of innate knowledge, tabula inscripta, and the opposing and the Phoenicians, influenced Pythagoras and Plato. However, Plato himself states that whatever the Greeks learned). Already in Theaetetus () Plato attempts to answer the question "what is knowledge?" He suggests
The Interplay between the Beliefs and the Knowledge of Mathematics Teachers
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Drageset, Ove Gunnar
2010-01-01
There is considerable research on teachers' beliefs and teachers' knowledge, but little empirical evidence exists as to the interplay between them. This article reports a study of 356 Norwegian teachers who answered a questionnaire and a multiple-choice test. Based on this study, the connections between two knowledge constructs and two beliefs…
Chen, Xi
2011-08-08
are triangulated with the tests, surveys, concept mapping and the writing assignment. There are two steps in this time period. First, I focus on a total of 27 prospective teachers' subject matter knowledge (SMK), including common content knowledge (CCK) and special...
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Klymchuk, Sergiy; Zverkova, Tatyana; Gruenwald, Norbert; Sauerbier, Gabriele
2008-01-01
This article presents the results of two studies on using an innovative pedagogical strategy in teaching mathematical modelling and applications to engineering students. Both studies are dealing with introducing non-traditional contexts for engineering students in teaching/learning of mathematical modelling and applications: environment and…
Measuring Technological and Content Knowledge of Undergraduate Primary Teachers in Mathematics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Doukakis, Spyros; Chionidou-Moskofoglou, Maria; Mangina-Phelan, Eleni; Roussos, Petros
Twenty-five final-year undergraduate students of primary education who were attending a course on mathematics education participated in a research project during the 2009 spring semester. A repeated measures experimental design was used. Quantitative data on students' computer attitudes, self-efficacy in ICT, attitudes toward educational software, and self-efficacy in maths were collected. Data analysis showed a statistically non-significant improvement on participants' computer attitudes and self-efficacy in ICT and ES, but a significant improvement of self-efficacy in mathematics.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kiss, Gabor
2012-01-01
An analysis of Information Technology knowledge of Hungarian and Romanian students was made with the help of a self developed web based Informatics Test. The goal of this research is an analysis of the Computer Science knowledge level of Hungarian and Romanian students attending a Science course or a Mathematics-Informatics course. Analysed was…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Suharwoto, Gogot; Lee, Kwang Ho
2005-01-01
The integration of knowledge of technology, content, and pedagogy is a model to prepare preservice teachers to integrate technology in teaching mathematics, known as Technology Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPCK) (Pierson, 1999; Niess, 2005). The question in the study is "What components in program that integrate technology throughout the program…
Usable AI Requires Commonsense Knowledge Artificial Intelligence techniques are increasingly being
Lieberman, Henry
facts a second, and that most of this knowledge is acquired by the teens, these databases represent-user programming; personal information management such as calendars; search; managing photo libraries; storytelling
Gonsalves, Gregg S.; Kaplan, Edward H.; Paltiel, A. David
2015-01-01
Background Sexual violence is a major public health issue, affecting 35% of women worldwide. Major risk factors for sexual assault include inadequate indoor sanitation and the need to travel to outdoor toilet facilities. We estimated how increasing the number of toilets in an urban township (Khayelitsha, South Africa) might reduce both economic costs and the incidence and social burden of sexual assault. Methods We developed a mathematical model that links risk of sexual assault to the number of sanitation facilities and the time a woman must spend walking to a toilet. We defined a composite societal cost function, comprising both the burden of sexual assault and the costs of installing and maintaining public chemical toilets. By expressing total social costs as a function of the number of available toilets, we were able to identify an optimal (i.e., cost-minimizing) social investment in toilet facilities. Findings There are currently an estimated 5600 toilets in Khayelitsha. This results in 635 sexual assaults and US$40 million in combined social costs each year. Increasing the number of toilets to 11300 would minimize total costs ($35 million) and reduce sexual assaults to 446. Higher toilet installation and maintenance costs would be more than offset by lower sexual assault costs. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis shows that the optimal number of toilets exceeds the original allocation of toilets in the township in over 80% of the 5000 iterations of the model. Interpretation Improving access to sanitation facilities in urban settlements will simultaneously reduce the incidence of sexual assaults and overall cost to society. Since our analysis ignores the many additional health benefits of improving sanitation in resource-constrained urban areas (e.g., potential reductions in waterborne infectious diseases), the optimal number of toilets identified here should be interpreted as conservative. PMID:25923105
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bannister, Vanessa R. Pitts
2014-01-01
The concept of multiple representations of functions and the ability to make translations among representations are important topics in secondary school mathematics curricula (Moschkovich, Schoenfeld, & Arcavi, 1993; NCTM, 2000). Research related to students in this domain is fruitful, while research related to teachers is underdeveloped. This…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
McGuire, Patrick
2013-01-01
This article describes how a free, web-based intelligent tutoring system, (ASSISTment), was used to create online error analysis items for preservice elementary and secondary mathematics teachers. The online error analysis items challenged preservice teachers to analyze, diagnose, and provide targeted instructional remediation intended to help…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Oonk, Wil; Verloop, Nico; Gravemeijer, Koeno P. E.
2015-01-01
This study concentrated on the theory-practice problem in mathematics teacher education. We examined 13 student teachers' use of theory when they reflected on teaching practice in a class specifically designed to optimize the chance for theory use. We developed a Reflection Analysis Instrument with which the student teachers' use of theory could…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
McLeod, Julie; Vasinda, Sheri; Dondlinger, Mary Jo
2012-01-01
This article adds to the growing body of research surrounding the use of virtual manipulatives for mathematics learning. The study reported herein used five different virtual manipulatives from four different websites, all within a sixth grade unit on proportional thinking. While many studies have reported on student achievement when using virtual…
What Is First-Year Mathematics Students' Actual Knowledge about Improper Integrals?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gonzalez-Martin, Alejandro S.; Camacho, Matias
2004-01-01
This paper analyses the answers of a group of first-year university Mathematics students to a questionnaire, with the aim of determining the difficulties they have when carrying out non-routine tasks related to improper integrals. The questionnaire consisted of nine questions including not only calculus tasks and determining the convergence of…
Hoskinson, Anne-Marie
2010-01-01
Biological problems in the twenty-first century are complex and require mathematical insight, often resulting in mathematical models of biological systems. Building mathematical-biological models requires cooperation among biologists and mathematicians, and mastery of building models. A new course in mathematical modeling presented the opportunity to build both content and process learning of mathematical models, the modeling process, and the cooperative process. There was little guidance from the literature on how to build such a course. Here, I describe the iterative process of developing such a course, beginning with objectives and choosing content and process competencies to fulfill the objectives. I include some inductive heuristics for instructors seeking guidance in planning and developing their own courses, and I illustrate with a description of one instructional model cycle. Students completing this class reported gains in learning of modeling content, the modeling process, and cooperative skills. Student content and process mastery increased, as assessed on several objective-driven metrics in many types of assessments. PMID:20810966
Knowledge brokerage - potential for increased capacities and shared power in impact assessment
Rosario Partidario, Maria; Sheate, William R.
2013-02-15
Constructive and collaborative planning theory has exposed the perceived limitations of public participation in impact assessment. At strategic levels of assessment the established norm can be misleading and practice is illusive. For example, debates on SEA effectiveness recognize insufficiencies, but are often based on questionable premises. The authors of this paper argue that public participation in strategic assessment requires new forms of information and engagement, consistent with the complexity of the issues at these levels and that strategic assessments can act as knowledge brokerage instruments with the potential to generate more participative environments and attitudes. The paper explores barriers and limitations, as well as the role of knowledge brokerage in stimulating the engagement of the public, through learning-oriented processes and responsibility sharing in more participative models of governance. The paper concludes with a discussion on building and inter-change of knowledge, towards creative solutions to identified problems, stimulating learning processes, largely beyond simple information transfer mechanisms through consultative processes. The paper argues fundamentally for the need to conceive strategic assessments as learning platforms and design knowledge brokerage opportunities explicitly as a means to enhance learning processes and power sharing in IA. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Debates on SEA recognize insufficiencies on public participation Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We propose new forms of engagement consistent with complex situations at strategic levels of decision-making Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Constructive and collaborative planning theories help explain how different actors acquire knowledge and the value of knowledge exchange Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Strategic assessments can act as knowledge brokerage instruments Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The paper argues for strategic assessments as learning platforms as a means to enhance learning processes and power sharing in IA.
Liu, Bo; Wu, Huayi; Wang, Yandong; Liu, Wenming
2015-01-01
Main road features extracted from remotely sensed imagery play an important role in many civilian and military applications, such as updating Geographic Information System (GIS) databases, urban structure analysis, spatial data matching and road navigation. Current methods for road feature extraction from high-resolution imagery are typically based on threshold value segmentation. It is difficult however, to completely separate road features from the background. We present a new method for extracting main roads from high-resolution grayscale imagery based on directional mathematical morphology and prior knowledge obtained from the Volunteered Geographic Information found in the OpenStreetMap. The two salient steps in this strategy are: (1) using directional mathematical morphology to enhance the contrast between roads and non-roads; (2) using OpenStreetMap roads as prior knowledge to segment the remotely sensed imagery. Experiments were conducted on two ZiYuan-3 images and one QuickBird high-resolution grayscale image to compare our proposed method to other commonly used techniques for road feature extraction. The results demonstrated the validity and better performance of the proposed method for urban main road feature extraction. PMID:26397832
Alpert, Anna Pat
2013-08-09
developmental class during their college career (Bailey et al., 2010; Calcagno, Crosta, Bailey, & Jenkins, 2007). Students placing into developmental education, particularly the lower levels have diminished odds of eventually moving on to credit coursework... into the honors program was initiated at the conclusion of fifth grade. Students in the regular sections were juniors or seniors and had completed Algebra I in the 9th grade. Sophomores and juniors would have the opportunity to take dual credit mathematics...
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Williams, Joshua
2011-01-01
The pressure to meet the demands of "No Child Left Behind" (NCLB) Act coupled with poor results by secondary students on national assessments in mathematics have forced school principals to develop skill sets in the use of data in efforts to increase student performance on standardized assessments. The effective use of data by school principals…
Effects of Increased Parental Knowledge of Development of Children with Disabilities
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Susman, Louisa
2012-01-01
This research addresses the link between parental competence, specifically the characteristic of parental knowledge, and its influence on their child with a disability's participation in age-appropriate activities through their influence on the physical and social home environment. This study examined pathways through which parents mediate…
Increasing Knowledge of Sexual Abuse: A Study with Elementary School Children in Hawai'i
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Baker, Charlene K.; Gleason, Kristen; Naai, Rachel; Mitchell, Jennifer; Trecker, Christine
2013-01-01
Objective: Child sexual abuse is a significant health problem with potential long-term consequences for victims. Therefore, prevention and education programs are critical. This preliminary study evaluates changes in children’s knowledge of sexual abuse using a school-based train-the-trainer curriculum. Emphasis was placed on developing a…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pianta, Robert C.; Hitz, Randy; West, Blake
2010-01-01
This is the second of two reports commissioned by the National Council for the Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE) intended to address the dire need for teacher preparation policy and programs to reflect recent advances in scientific knowledge of child and adolescent development. In the first report, "Principles and Exemplars for…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gillespie-Lynch, Kristen; Brooks, Patricia J.; Someki, Fumio; Obeid, Rita; Shane-Simpson, Christina; Kapp, Steven K.; Daou, Nidal; Smith, David Shane
2015-01-01
College students with autism may be negatively impacted by lack of understanding about autism on college campuses. Thus, we developed an online training to improve knowledge and decrease stigma associated with autism among college students. Participants (N = 365) completed a pre-test, online training, and post-test. Women reported lower stigma…
Importance of Health-Related Fitness Knowledge to Increasing Physical Activity and Physical Fitness
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ferkel, Rick C.; Judge, Lawrence W.; Stodden, David F.; Griffin, Kent
2014-01-01
Physical inactivity is expanding across all ages in the United States. Research has documented a deficiency in health-related fitness knowledge (HRFK) among elementary- through college-aged students. The need for a credible and reliable resource that provides research-based information regarding the importance of HRFK is significant. The purpose…
Links between Content Knowledge and Practice in a Mathematics Teacher Education Course: A Case Study
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Brijlall, D.; Isaac, V.
2011-01-01
This qualitative study examined the link between content knowledge and classroom practice from the perceptions of two university lecturers. The study was contextualized at a higher education institution in South Africa where the two university lecturers were lecturing to a second year undergraduate teacher trainee class (n = 78). The research was…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fyfe, Emily R.; DeCaro, Marci S.; Rittle-Johnson, Bethany
2014-01-01
Background: The sequencing of learning materials greatly influences the knowledge that learners construct. Recently, learning theorists have focused on the sequencing of instruction in relation to solving related problems. The general consensus suggests explicit instruction should be provided; however, when to provide instruction remains unclear.…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ferrara, Margaret M.
2009-01-01
This study describes various strategies used by a university educator to integrate parent involvement curriculum into pre-existing teacher preparation courses. This curriculum infusion was not only effective in increasing preservice teacher knowledge but also in raising course instructors' level of awareness about the importance and necessity of…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Krawczyk, Andrea; Lau, Elsa; Perez, Samara; Delisle, Vanessa; Amsel, Rhonda; Rosberger, Zeev
2012-01-01
Objective: To compare the efficacy of 2 human papillomavirus (HPV) educational interventions on increasing HPV knowledge and vaccination intentions in college students. Participants: Male (n = 60) and female (n = 140) undergraduates (M[subscript age] = 20.4, SD = 2.3) recruited from a university in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, from October 2009 to…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pearson, Elissa; Dorrian, Jillian; Litchfield, Carla
2011-01-01
Many animals are currently facing extinction. Conservation education which highlights the impacts of our behaviour on other species survival is crucial. This study provides evidence for the use of visual media to increase knowledge, attitudes and conservation behaviours regarding the highly endangered orangutan. University students (n = 126) were…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Meunier, Ryan A.; Talbert, B. Allen; Latour, Mickey A.
2003-01-01
Agricultural literacy materials on incubators in the classroom were used by 373 Indiana fourth graders and 19 teachers. Comparison of the treatment group's pretest/postest results with those of controls (363 students, 20 teachers) showed the materials increased student and teacher knowledge of agricultural professions; students were significantly…
Lane, S M
1980-07-01
Current research in mathematics involves a wide variety of interlocking ideas, old and new. For example, results about the curves and surfaces defined by polynomial equations, as in algebraic geometry, appear in the study of solitary waves and also in the gauge theories in physics. Centuries-old problems in number theory have been solved, while others have been revealed as insoluble. The classification of all finite simple groups is nearly achieved (and the full treatment will be voluminous); the representation of groups aids in their application to the study of symmetry. These developments, and many others, attest to the vitality of mathematics. PMID:17836564
Use of a web site to increase knowledge and awareness of hunger-related issues.
Jennings, Sharla; Cotugna, Nancy; Vickery, Connie E.
2003-01-01
The purpose of this study was to determine the current level of knowledge and awareness of hunger-related issues among a convenience sample of Delawareans. We also assessed whether raising knowledge and awareness of the hunger problem through the FBD's newly designed web site would encourage participation in antihunger activities. Via e-mail, 1,719 individuals were invited to participate in a three-phase, online survey, and 392 agreed. Phase-I questions were answered prior to viewing the web site, phase II (n=217) immediately afterward, and phase III (n=61) six weeks later. Responses indicated a high level of awareness about general hunger issues but specific knowledge proved to be at a lower level. No statistically significant differences were noted when data were collapsed across gender, age, educational level, or work setting. In a six-week post-survey, 41% of subjects were motivated by the web site to engage in an antihunger activity; 34% had told others about the web site and indicated it may be a useful tool in antihunger outreach efforts for the FBD. PMID:14651376
Salazar, A; Howells, J
2000-01-01
This paper explores the specific trend and challenges facing the pharmaceutical industry regarding the exploitation of Internet e-commerce technology and virtual organisation to develop and maintain competitive advantage. There are two important facets of the current trend. One is the rapid development of a complex network of alliances between the established pharmaceutical companies and the specialised biotechnology company start-ups. The other is the rapid growth of internet e-commerce companies dedicated to developing specialised technological platforms for acquiring and selling genetic and biochemical knowledge. The underlying challenge is how big pharmaceutical companies can emulate some of the innovation processes of smaller biotechnology company start-ups, and how they can appropriate and applied new technological knowledge on the development of new drugs. Pharmaceutical companies in order to retain competitive advantage need to continuously monitor all aspects of knowledge management with regard to the R&D and manufacturing process (as well as customer management and marketing). Technological change and organisational restructuring should be aimed at boosting the capacity of large firms to innovate rapidly. PMID:11214458
Forecast: Changing Mathematics Curriculum and Increasing Pressure for Higher-Level Thinking Skills.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Niess, Margaret L.
1993-01-01
Presents a unit developed by the 1991 Oregon Mathematics Teachers of Middle School project in which students investigate the average temperature, precipitation, and snowfall in their town using spreadsheets and graphing packages. Students compare the averages over a period of 30 years to a particular year. (MDH)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rich, Peter J.; Bly, Neil; Leatham, Keith R.
2014-01-01
This study aimed to provide first-hand accounts of the perceived long-term effects of learning computer programming on a learner's approach to mathematics. These phenomenological accounts, garnered from individual interviews of seven different programmers, illustrate four specific areas of interest: (1) programming provides context for many…
Increasing Equity and Achievement in Fifth Grade Mathematics: The Contribution of Content Exposure
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ottmar, Erin R.; Konold, Timothy R.; Berry, Robert Q.; Grissmer, David W.; Cameron, Claire E.
2013-01-01
This study uses a large nationally representative data set (ECLS-K) of 5,181 students to examine the extent to which exposure to content and instructional practice contributes to mathematics achievement in fifth grade. Using hierarchical linear modeling, results suggest that more exposure to content beyond numbers and operations (i.e., geometry,…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Costellano, Janet; Scaffa, Matthew
The product of a Special Studies Institute, this teacher developed resource guide for the emotionally handicapped (K-6) presents 37 activities designed to develop mathematics concepts and skills utilizing the urban out-of-doors. Focus is on experiencing math models, patterns, problems, and relationships found in an urban environment. Activities…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mac Lane, Saunders
1980-01-01
This is a review of the current research in mathematics involving breadth of ideas. Research includes topics in number theory, classification of all finite simple groups, the representation of group aids in their application to the study of symmetry. (Author/SA)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Keller, Stacy Kathryn
This study examined how intermediate elementary students' mathematics and science background knowledge affected their interpretation of line graphs and how their interpretations were affected by graph question levels. A purposive sample of 14 6th-grade students engaged in think aloud interviews (Ericsson & Simon, 1993) while completing an excerpted Test of Graphing in Science (TOGS) (McKenzie & Padilla, 1986). Hand gestures were video recorded. Student performance on the TOGS was assessed using an assessment rubric created from previously cited factors affecting students' graphing ability. Factors were categorized using Bertin's (1983) three graph question levels. The assessment rubric was validated by Padilla and a veteran mathematics and science teacher. Observational notes were also collected. Data were analyzed using Roth and Bowen's semiotic process of reading graphs (2001). Key findings from this analysis included differences in the use of heuristics, self-generated questions, science knowledge, and self-motivation. Students with higher prior achievement used a greater number and variety of heuristics and more often chose appropriate heuristics. They also monitored their understanding of the question and the adequacy of their strategy and answer by asking themselves questions. Most used their science knowledge spontaneously to check their understanding of the question and the adequacy of their answers. Students with lower and moderate prior achievement favored one heuristic even when it was not useful for answering the question and rarely asked their own questions. In some cases, if students with lower prior achievement had thought about their answers in the context of their science knowledge, they would have been able to recognize their errors. One student with lower prior achievement motivated herself when she thought the questions were too difficult. In addition, students answered the TOGS in one of three ways: as if they were mathematics word problems, science data to be analyzed, or they were confused and had to guess. A second set of findings corroborated how science background knowledge affected graph interpretation: correct science knowledge supported students' reasoning, but it was not necessary to answer any question correctly; correct science knowledge could not compensate for incomplete mathematics knowledge; and incorrect science knowledge often distracted students when they tried to use it while answering a question. Finally, using Roth and Bowen's (2001) two-stage semiotic model of reading graphs, representative vignettes showed emerging patterns from the study. This study added to our understanding of the role of science content knowledge during line graph interpretation, highlighted the importance of heuristics and mathematics procedural knowledge, and documented the importance of perception attentions, motivation, and students' self-generated questions. Recommendations were made for future research in line graph interpretation in mathematics and science education and for improving instruction in this area.
Chen, Deming
The economy of the United States is increasingly globalized and knowledge driven, resulting for the nation to compete in the knowledge-based, global economy; from a sociocultural perspective, an educated
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Houser, Chris; Garcia, Sonia; Torres, Janet
2015-01-01
Summer research experiences are an increasingly popular means of increasing awareness of, and developing interest in, the geosciences and other science, technology, engineering, and math programs. We describe and report the preliminary results of a 1-wk Geosciences Exploration Summer Program in the College of Geosciences at Texas A&M…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Reys, Robert; Reys, Rustin
2011-01-01
In their dual roles as mathematics teachers and tennis coaches, the authors have worked with tennis players who have never thought about how a knowledge of mathematics might help them become "better" tennis players. They have also worked with many mathematics students who have never considered how much mathematics is associated with tennis. This…
Leifer, M S
2015-01-01
In this essay, I argue that mathematics is a natural science---just like physics, chemistry, or biology---and that this can explain the alleged "unreasonable" effectiveness of mathematics in the physical sciences. The main challenge for this view is to explain how mathematical theories can become increasingly abstract and develop their own internal structure, whilst still maintaining an appropriate empirical tether that can explain their later use in physics. In order to address this, I offer a theory of mathematical theory-building based on the idea that human knowledge has the structure of a scale-free network and that abstract mathematical theories arise from a repeated process of replacing strong analogies with new hubs in this network. This allows mathematics to be seen as the study of regularities, within regularities, within ..., within regularities of the natural world. Since mathematical theories are derived from the natural world, albeit at a much higher level of abstraction than most other scientif...
Assessing Mathematical Problem Solving Using Comparative Judgement
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jones, Ian; Swan, Malcolm; Pollitt, Alastair
2015-01-01
There is an increasing demand from employers and universities for school leavers to be able to apply their mathematical knowledge to problem solving in varied and unfamiliar contexts. These aspects are however neglected in most examinations of mathematics and, consequentially, in classroom teaching. One barrier to the inclusion of mathematical…
Anegada Workshop Problem and Objective Trees v4 Nov 05 Knowledge is increased of
Exeter, University of
that ecotourism can bring 91a Mitigate for potential loss of reefs by building resiliency in MPA design and area activities in BVI are widened to include ecotourism activities Increased choices available to Anegardians
Mohaghegh, Shahab
Score % Class Avg % Grade *** 1. 2. 3. 4. * Indicate which program outcome each course outcome maps intoOutcome CS-c. Have knowledge of the basic principles of data structures, discrete mathematics in specific courses that have been identified with respect to this outcome. Course Performance indicators CS
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mousavi, Shima; Radmehr, Farzad; Alamolhodaei, Hasan
2012-01-01
Introduction: The main objective of this study is (a) to investigate whether cognitive styles and working memory capacity could predict mathematical performance and which variable is relatively most important in predicting mathematical performance and b) to explore whether cognitive styles and working memory capacity could predict mathematical…
All Kidding Aside: Humor Increases Learning at Knowledge and Comprehension Levels
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hackathorn, Jana; Garczynski, Amy M.; Blankmeyer, Katheryn; Tennial, Rachel D.; Solomon, Erin D.
2011-01-01
It has been argued that humor is beneficial in the classroom because it increases social bonding between instructor and student, salience of information, and ultimately recall and retention. The current study sought to add to the literature by empirically testing some assumptions about humor as a pedagogical tool. Specifically, we predicted that…
An Instrument for Assessing Primary Students' Knowledge of Information Graphics in Mathematics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Diezmann, Carmel M.; Lowrie, Tom J.
2009-01-01
Information graphics have become increasingly important in representing, organising and analysing information in a technological age. In classroom contexts, information graphics are typically associated with graphs, maps and number lines. However, all students need to become competent with the broad range of graphics that they will encounter in…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hoskinson, Anne-Marie
2010-01-01
Biological problems in the twenty-first century are complex and require mathematical insight, often resulting in mathematical models of biological systems. Building mathematical-biological models requires cooperation among biologists and mathematicians, and mastery of building models. A new course in mathematical modeling presented the opportunity…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tucker, Tommy Howard
2009-01-01
The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between using computer-assisted instruction (CAI) size and success on the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) mathematics exam with fifth-grade students in Texas compared to the effect of alternative improvement approaches used by a control group. Research explored the use of…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Robinson, Michael; Tibanyendera, Basil; Seltzer-Kelly, Debbie
2007-01-01
This article reports the effects of a science, technology, and society (STS) teaching approach on the knowledge and attitudes of preservice science and mathematics teachers in Uganda toward global science and technology-based problems and/or threats. The responses of a baseline or control group (N = 50) and an experimental group (N = 50) to five…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cankoy, Osman
2010-01-01
The aim of this study is to explore high-school school mathematics teachers' topic-specific pedagogical content knowledge. First, 639 high-school students were asked to give explanations about "a[superscript 0] = 1, 0! = 1" and "a [division] 0" where a [not equal to] 0. Weak explanations by the students led to a detailed research on teachers.…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Laschke, Christin
2013-01-01
How individual characteristics affect the acquisition of knowledge in teacher education has been widely unexplored thus far. The "Teacher Education and Development Study--Learning to Teach Mathematics (TEDS-M)" provides a database for examining this research question across countries. Based on the Taiwanese and German sample of TEDS-M,…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Carter, Carolyn S.; Cohen, Sara; Keyes, Marian; Kusimo, Patricia S.; Lunsford, Crystal
This guide contains hands-on mathematics activities to connect middle-school students to the traditional knowledge of their grandparents and elders. Because girls often lose interest in math at the middle-school level, and because women in some communities (especially in rural areas) are seldom involved in work with an obvious math basis, the…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Shechtman, Nicole; Roschelle, Jeremy; Haertel, Geneva; Knudsen, Jennifer
2010-01-01
Using data collected in 125 seventh-grade and 56 eighth-grade Texas classrooms in the context of the "Scaling Up SimCalc" research project in 2005-07, we examined relationships between teachers' mathematics knowledge, teachers' classroom decision making, and student achievement outcomes on topics of rate, proportionality, and linear…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Johnson, Tracy L.
2011-01-01
This study examined pre-service teachers' development of mathematical knowledge for teaching (MKT) over their final year in a university based teacher education program. This was done through analyzing written reflections, focus group interviews, individual interviews, teaching observations, and post-observation interviews as well as through the…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ekawati, Rooselyna; Lin, Fou-Lai; Yang, Kai-Lin
2015-01-01
In this study, we developed an instrument for assessing teachers' mathematics content knowledge (MCK) on ratio and proportion and examined the profile of Indonesian primary teacher's MCK on this topic. The MCK items were administered to 271 Indonesian in-service primary teachers with a variety of educational backgrounds and teaching…
Jordan, Scott A.; Cunningham, David G.; Marles, Robin J.
2010-03-01
Although herbal medicinal products (HMP) have been perceived by the public as relatively low risk, there has been more recognition of the potential risks associated with this type of product as the use of HMPs increases. Potential harm can occur via inherent toxicity of herbs, as well as from contamination, adulteration, plant misidentification, and interactions with other herbal products or pharmaceutical drugs. Regulatory safety assessment for HMPs relies on both the assessment of cases of adverse reactions and the review of published toxicity information. However, the conduct of such an integrated investigation has many challenges in terms of the quantity and quality of information. Adverse reactions are under-reported, product quality may be less than ideal, herbs have a complex composition and there is lack of information on the toxicity of medicinal herbs or their constituents. Nevertheless, opportunities exist to capitalise on newer information to increase the current body of scientific evidence. Novel sources of information are reviewed, such as the use of poison control data to augment adverse reaction information from national pharmacovigilance databases, and the use of more recent toxicological assessment techniques such as predictive toxicology and omics. The integration of all available information can reduce the uncertainty in decision making with respect to herbal medicinal products. The example of Aristolochia and aristolochic acids is used to highlight the challenges related to safety assessment, and the opportunities that exist to more accurately elucidate the toxicity of herbal medicines.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cook, G. W.
2014-12-01
Conflict minerals, including their uses and methods of extraction, are associated with significant societal and environmental issues in today's world. Minerals such as columbite-tantalite (also referred to as COLTAN), wolframite, cassiterite and gold are important in electronics manufacturing and have a wide variety of other usages. Mining practices are frequently unsustainable and have significant impacts on the environment; moreover, in many locations, such as the Democratic Republic of the Congo—the epicenter of the conflict mineral trade—major human rights violations are associated with the extraction and production of these minerals. Because conflict minerals represent a relatively new issue, students in geology classes are frequently unfamiliar with the topic and commonly have little understanding of the concerns. In some cases they are completely unaware of the issues. In an introductory mineralogy class at the University of California, San Diego I have introduced a content module into my otherwise traditional curriculum that introduces students to conflict minerals, explains the issues, and delineates the problems our society will face with the continued uses of these natural resources. Most significantly, an assignment has been created and implemented in class that is paired with the content module and is designed to enhance and reinforce student learning. Its goal is to increase awareness of the societal and environmental issues surrounding conflict minerals. Initial results suggest (based on pre and post-tests) that our students have learned significantly from the combination of content, exercise, and assessment and that they are much better informed on the issues of conflict minerals. This model, including the exercise, can be modified and adapted for other introductory classes and learning settings.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Johnston-Wilder, Sue; Lee, Clare
2010-01-01
The term "mathematical resilience" is used to describe a learner's stance towards mathematics that enables pupils to continue learning despite finding setbacks and challenges in their mathematical learning journey. There are ways of working in mathematics that increase mathematical resilience and conversely there are ways of working that decrease…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
White, Diana; Donaldson, Brianna; Hodge, Angie; Ruff, Adam
2013-01-01
Math Teachers' Circles have been spreading since their emergence in 2006. These professional development programs, aimed primarily at middle-level mathematics teachers (grades 5-9), focus on developing teachers' mathematical problem solving skills, in line with the Common Core State Standards-Standards of Mathematical Practice. Yet, to…
Thiele, Ines; Hyduke, Daniel R.; Steeb, Benjamin; Fankam, Guy; Allen, Douglas K.; Bazzani, Susanna; Charusanti, Pep; Chen, Feng-Chi; Fleming, Ronan M.; Hsiung, Chao A.; De Keersmaecker, Sigrid C.; Liao, Yu-Chieh; Marchal, Kathleen; Mo, Monica L.; Ozdemir, Emre; Raghunathan, Anu; Reed, Jennifer L.; Shin, Sook Il; Sigurbjornsdottir, Sara; Steinmann, Jonas; Sudarsan, Suresh; Swainston, Neil; Thijs, Inge M.; Zengler, Karsten; Palsson, Bernhard O.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Bumann, Dirk
2011-01-18
BACKGROUND: Metabolic reconstructions (MRs) are common denominators in systems biology and represent biochemical, genetic, and genomic (BiGG) knowledge-?bases for target organisms by capturing currently available information in a consistent, structured manner. Salmonella enterica subspecies I serovar Typhimurium is a human pathogen, causes various diseases and its increasing antibiotic resistance poses a public health problem. RESULTS: Here, we describe a community-?driven effort, in which more than 20 experts in S. Typhimurium biology and systems biology collaborated to reconcile and expand the S. Typhimurium BiGG knowledge-?base. The consensus MR was obtained starting from two independently developed MRs for S. Typhimurium. Key results of this reconstruction jamboree include i) development and implementation of a community-?based workflow for MR annotation and reconciliation; ii) incorporation of thermodynamic information; and iii) use of the consensus MR to identify potential multi-?target drug therapy approaches. CONCLUSION: Taken together, with the growing number of parallel MRs a structured, community-?driven approach will be necessary to maximize quality while increasing adoption of MRs in experimental design and interpretation.
Hirsch, Ariel E. Mulleady Bishop, Pauline; Dad, Luqman; Singh, Deeptej; Slanetz, Priscilla J.
2009-03-15
Purpose: The Oncology Education Initiative was created to advance oncology and radiation oncology education by integrating structured didactics into the existing core radiology clerkship. We set out to determine whether the addition of structured didactics could lead to a significant increase in overall medical student knowledge about radiation oncology. Methods and Materials: We conducted a pre- and posttest examining concepts in general radiation oncology, breast cancer, and prostate cancer. The 15-question, multiple-choice exam was administered before and after a 1.5-hour didactic lecture by an attending physician in radiation oncology. Individual question changes, overall student changes, and overall categorical changes were analyzed. All hypothesis tests were two-tailed (significance level 0.05). Results: Of the 153 fourth-year students, 137 (90%) took the pre- and posttest and were present for the didactic lecture. The average test grade improved from 59% to 70% (p = 0.011). Improvement was seen in all questions except clinical vignettes involving correct identification of TNM staging. Statistically significant improvement (p {<=} 0.03) was seen in the questions regarding acute and late side effects of radiation, brachytherapy for prostate cancer, delivery of radiation treatment, and management of early-stage breast cancer. Conclusions: Addition of didactics in radiation oncology significantly improves medical students' knowledge of the topic. Despite perceived difficulty in teaching radiation oncology and the assumption that it is beyond the scope of reasonable knowledge for medical students, we have shown that even with one dedicated lecture, students can learn and absorb general principles regarding radiation oncology.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
McKenzie, Karen
2013-01-01
The present study compared the impact of face to face teaching with a short online game informed learning activity on health participants' knowledge about, and confidence in, managing aggressive situations. Both forms of teaching resulted in a significant increase in participants' knowledge and confidence. Face to face training led to…
Remedial Mathematics for Quantum Chemistry
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Koopman, Lodewijk; Brouwer, Natasa; Heck, Andre; Buma, Wybren Jan
2008-01-01
Proper mathematical skills are important for every science course and mathematics-intensive chemistry courses rely on a sound mathematical pre-knowledge. In the first-year quantum chemistry course at this university, it was noticed that many students lack basic mathematical knowledge. To tackle the mathematics problem, a remedial mathematics…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mitchell, Rebecca Noelle
2009-01-01
This paper reports on findings from a five-teacher, exploratory case study, critically observing their implementation of a technology-intensive, augmented reality (AR) mathematics curriculum unit, along with its paper-based control. The unit itself was intended to promote multiple proportional reasoning strategies to urban, public middle school…
Alshehri, Khaled Abdullah
2012-12-31
they are as teachers. More recent research (Lyublinskaya & Tournaki, 2012; Polly, 2011) suggests that teachers' ability to integrate technology into their teaching is also critical to their mathematics teaching effectiveness. This study investigated the validity...
Davis, Jonathon M; Searles, Veronica B; Anderson, Nathan; Keeney, Jonathon; Raznahan, Armin; Horwood, L John; Fergusson, David M; Kennedy, Martin A; Giedd, Jay; Sikela, James M
2015-01-01
DUF1220 protein domains exhibit the greatest human lineage-specific copy number expansion of any protein-coding sequence in the genome, and variation in DUF1220 copy number has been linked to both brain size in humans and brain evolution among primates. Given these findings, we examined associations between DUF1220 subtypes CON1 and CON2 and cognitive aptitude. We identified a linear association between CON2 copy number and cognitive function in two independent populations of European descent. In North American males, an increase in CON2 copy number corresponded with an increase in WISC IQ (R (2) = 0.13, p = 0.02), which may be driven by males aged 6-11 (R (2) = 0.42, p = 0.003). We utilized ddPCR in a subset as a confirmatory measurement. This group had 26-33 copies of CON2 with a mean of 29, and each copy increase of CON2 was associated with a 3.3-point increase in WISC IQ (R (2) = 0.22, p = 0.045). In individuals from New Zealand, an increase in CON2 copy number was associated with an increase in math aptitude ability (R (2) = 0.10 p = 0.018). These were not confounded by brain size. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report a replicated association between copy number of a gene coding sequence and cognitive aptitude. Remarkably, dosage variations involving DUF1220 sequences have now been linked to human brain expansion, autism severity and cognitive aptitude, suggesting that such processes may be genetically and mechanistically inter-related. The findings presented here warrant expanded investigations in larger, well-characterized cohorts. PMID:25287832
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Griffin, Sharon
2009-01-01
Using Central Conceptual Structure theory as an heuristic, learning sequences in the acquisition of number knowledge are described in three forms that bridge theory and practice: as a four-stage theoretical progression, as items on a developmental test created to test the theoretical progression, and as learning objectives in a curriculum designed…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Roth, Wolff-Michael
2014-01-01
Traditional (e.g., constructivist) accounts of knowledge ground its origin in the "intentional construction" on the part of the learner. Such accounts are blind to the fact that learners, by the fact that they do not know the knowledge to be learned, cannot orient toward it as an object to be constructed. In this study, I provide a…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tchoshanov, Mourat A.
2011-01-01
The mixed method sequential nested study examines whether and how the cognitive type of teachers' content knowledge is associated with student achievement, and correlated with teaching practice. In the context of this study, the "cognitive type" refers to the kind of teacher content knowledge and thinking processes required to accomplish a task…
Students as Mathematics Consultants
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jensen, Jennifer L.
2013-01-01
If students are going to develop reasoning and thinking skills, use their mathematical knowledge, and recognize the relevance of mathematics in their lives, they need to experience mathematics in meaningful ways. Only then will their mathematical skills be transferrable to all other parts of their lives. To promote such flexible mathematical…
Klas, Karla S; Vlahos, Peter G; McCully, Michael J; Piche, David R; Wang, Stewart C
2015-01-01
Validation of program effectiveness is essential in justifying school-based injury prevention education. Although Risk Watch (RW) targets burn, fire, and life safety, its effectiveness has not been previously evaluated in the medical literature. Between 2007 and 2012, a trained fire service public educator (FSPE) taught RW to all second grade students in one public school district. The curriculum was delivered in 30-minute segments for 9 consecutive weeks via presentations, a safety smoke house trailer, a model-sized hazard house, a student workbook, and parent letters. A written pre-test (PT) was given before RW started, a post-test (PT#1) was given immediately after RW, and a second post-test (PT#2) was administered to the same students the following school year (ranging from 12 to 13 months after PT). Students who did not complete the PT or at least one post-test were excluded. Comparisons were made by paired t-test, analysis of variance, and regression analysis. After 183 (8.7%) were excluded for missing tests, 1,926 remaining students scored significantly higher (P = .0001) on PT#1 (mean 14.8) and PT#2 (mean 14.7) than the PT (mean 12.1). There was 1 FSPE and 36 school teachers with class size ranging from 10 to 27 (mean 21.4). Class size was not predictive of test score improvement (R = 0%), while analysis of variance showed that individual teachers trended toward some influence. This 6-year prospective study demonstrated that the RW program delivered by an FSPE effectively increased short-term knowledge and long-term retention of fire/life safety in early elementary students. Collaborative partnerships are critical to preserving community injury prevention education programs. PMID:25159554
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Metabolic reconstructions (MRs) are common denominators in systems biology and represent biochemical, genetic, and genomic (BiGG) knowledge-bases for target organisms by capturing currently available information in a consistent, structured manner. Salmonella enterica subspecies I serovar Typhimurium...
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bannister, Vanessa R. Pitts
2014-01-01
The concept of multiple representations of functions and the ability to make translations among representations are important topics in secondary school mathematics curricula (Moschkovich, Schoenfeld, & Arcavi, 1993; NCTM, 2000). Research related to students in this domain is fruitful, while research related to teachers is underdeveloped. This…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chen, Ho-Yuan; Jang, Syh-Jong
2013-01-01
This study highlights trends and features of E-books and their versatility of this tool in elementary educational settings. There has been little quantitative research employed to examine teachers' reasons for using or not using E-books. The purpose of this study was to examine elementary school mathematics and science teachers' reasons…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Boakes, Norma J.
2009-01-01
Within the study of geometry in the middle school curriculum is the natural development of students' spatial visualization, the ability to visualize two- and three-dimensional objects. The national mathematics standards call specifically for the development of such skills through hands-on experiences. A commonly accepted method is through the…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Thorson, Annette, Ed.
2001-01-01
The Eisenhower National Clearinghouse for Mathematics and Science Education (ENC) helps teachers by offering a broad assortment of services to enable them to quickly locate educational resources. This theme issue of the serial "ENC Focus" is designed to give educators information on curriculum resources available for teaching math and science in…
Alio, Amina P.; Fields, Sheldon D.; Humes, Damon L.; Bunce, Catherine A.; Wallace, Stephaun E.; Lewis, Cindi; Elder, Heather; Wakefield, Steven; Keefer, Michael C.
2014-01-01
Men who sleep with men (MSM) and transgender individuals of color, the largest demographic in the House Ball community (HBC) are amongst the group at highest risk for HIV infection in the United States. The HBC have limited access to culturally appropriate HIV education. This study aimed to develop a partnership with HBC leaders to uncover strategies for increasing HIV prevention knowledge, including participation in HIV vaccine trials. To this end a research institution-community-HBC partnership was established. In-depth qualitative and quantitative data were collected from the 14 HBC leaders in western New York, revealing that knowledge of HIV and related vaccine trials was limited. Barriers to increasing HIV knowledge included fear of peer judgment, having inaccurate information about HIV, and lack of education. Among the HBC, community partnerships will further aid in the development of future HIV prevention programs and increase individuals’ willingness to participate in future HIV vaccine trials. PMID:25642120
Understanding Mathematics and Science Matters. Studies in Mathematical Thinking and Learning Series
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Romberg, Thomas A., Ed.; Carpenter, Thomas P., Ed.; Dremock, Fae, Ed.
2005-01-01
The research reported in this book provides reliable evidence on and knowledge about mathematics and science instruction that emphasizes student understanding--instruction consistent with the needs of students who will be citizens in an increasingly demanding technological world. The National Center for Improving Student Learning in Mathematics…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gaboardi, M.; Parker, W.; Rodriguez, D.
2010-12-01
Short-term field research projects were embedded into a two-week, Mathematics and Science Partnership-funded, teacher institute devoted to increasing content knowledge about the physical basis of climate change. Teams of four teachers were encouraged to ask any research question related to weather or climate, and create a data collection method that they thought might help answer their question. They were provided with a range of measurement devices, from simple immersible thermometers to light sensors, probeware, and carbon dioxide concentration sensors. Teams were expected to design data collection sites in a middle-school setting, present site designs to their peers, collect data, present initial results, and participate in peer-review about site design and data collected. Teachers were encouraged to generate research questions that could be replicated with their students at their schools. Design complexity ranged widely with some teachers deliberately choosing to model sites their students might design and others making full use of more sophisticated technology. On the third day of the institute, each group presented their research question and setup for data collection in poster format. Large gaps in understanding about testable questions and effective data collection methods were apparent. Instead of addressing errors as groups presented, facilitators encouraged participants to explore each groups’ presentation and make comments using post-it notes. Participants were then encouraged to respond to the comments and consider modifying their questions, site designs, or data collection methods. Teams gathered data up to three times daily and were fully responsible for choosing means of data organization; by the second week most were using and becoming familiar with Microsoft Excel. Final presentations were in Microsoft PowerPoint. Teams were expected to graphically report data, present possible interpretations, and discuss any problems related to their initial questions or methods. All teams reported problems with their work and identified improvements for future research. Teachers reported that the field component was very helpful to their understanding of the process of science and to deepening their content knowledge about climate change research. Additionally they reported that they were much more likely to include short-term research projects in their own classrooms as a result of this experience. Short-term data collection experiences such as these can serve to: - Encourage teachers to provide students with the opportunity to develop their own questions, and design methods to answer those questions; - Expose teachers to common pitfalls in data collection methods so that teachers can later guide students as students encounter similar problems; - Familiarize teachers with widely available technology used to record and present data; - Refine teacher understanding of research and improve likelihood of success on longer research projects; - Enable teachers to look at data sets more critically and in more depth; - Better understand how to construct, read, and interpret data tables and graphs; and - Increase depth of understanding of science content.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
King, Keith A.; Smith, Judie
2000-01-01
Assessed school counselors' knowledge of suicidal risk factors and perceived ability to initiate appropriate steps when confronted with suicidal students. Surveys of counselors participating in Project SOAR (Suicide, Options, Awareness, and Relief) indicated that most felt they could recognize suicidal warning signs, assess student risk, offer…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Stark, Christina M.; Graham-Kiefer, Meredith L.; Devine, Carol M.; Dollahite, Jamie S.; Olson, Christine M.
2011-01-01
Objective: To assess the impact of an online continuing education course on the knowledge, skills, and self-efficacy of nutrition professionals to use an ecological approach to prevent childhood obesity. Design: Quasi-experimental design using intervention and delayed intervention comparison groups with pre/post-course assessments. Setting: Online…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Yilmaz, Ismail
2012-01-01
The purpose of this case study is to reveal prospective science teachers' knowledge and achievement levels in electricity-related subjects. The data for the study were collected from 44 prospective teachers using three measurement tools. The data were then analyzed using software developed for the Probability and Possibility Calculation Statistics…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kildan, Abdullah Oguzhan; Incikabi, Lutfi
2015-01-01
This study aimed to present early childhood teacher candidates' experiences preparing digital stories and to reveal the resulting changes, if any, in self-reported technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK). This study was quasi-experimental and indicated that teacher candidates' evaluations of digital storytelling were affected by their…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Vos, Pauline
2009-01-01
When studying correlations, how do the three bivariate correlation coefficients between three variables relate? After transforming Pearson's correlation coefficient r into a Euclidean distance, undergraduate students can tackle this problem using their secondary school knowledge of geometry (Pythagoras' theorem and similarity of triangles).…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Muir, Tracey; Livy, Sharyn
2012-01-01
The main aim of this paper is to report on an investigation into primary pre-service and inservice teachers' content knowledge of decimals. The participants were asked to complete four decimal tasks including the ordering of decimals, operating with decimals and converting a fraction to a decimal. The results from both sets of participants are…
McKenzie, Karen
2013-12-01
The present study compared the impact of face to face teaching with a short online game informed learning activity on health participants' knowledge about, and confidence in, managing aggressive situations. Both forms of teaching resulted in a significant increase in participants' knowledge and confidence. Face to face training led to significantly greater increases in knowledge but was equivalent in terms of confidence. Both forms of teaching were rated positively, but face to face teaching received significantly higher ratings than the online activity. The study suggests that short online game informed learning activities may offer an effective alternative for health professional training where face to face training is not possible. Further research is needed on the longer term impact of both types of training on practice. PMID:23184436
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Nehm, Ross H.; Schonfeld, Irvin Sam
2007-01-01
This study investigated whether or not an increase in secondary science teacher knowledge about evolution and the nature of science gained from completing a graduate-level evolution course was associated with greater preference for the teaching of evolution in schools. Forty-four precertified secondary biology teachers participated in a 14-week…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Meunier, Ryan A.; Talbert, B. Allen; Latour, Mickey A.
2002-01-01
In seven Indiana schools, fourth graders received hands-on instruction with incubators; seven schools were controls, with a total of 736 students and 39 teachers participating. The treatment group increased agriculture-related science knowledge. Students from communities smaller than 5,000 scored better than those in larger communities. (Contains…
Blair, Clancy; Ursache, Alexandra; Greenberg, Mark; Vernon-Feagans, Lynne
2015-04-01
The relation of self-regulation measured prior to school entry to developing math and reading ability in prekindergarten through the second grade was examined in a prospective longitudinal sample of 1,292 children and families in predominantly rural and low-income communities in 2 regions of high poverty in the United States. Direct assessments of executive function, effortful control, and stress response physiology (indexed by resting levels of cortisol and alpha amylase obtained from saliva) were measured at child age 48 months and parents and teachers reported on children's effortful control using temperament rating scales at child age approximately 60 months. Math and reading ability, as measured by the Woodcock-Johnson III applied problems and letter-word subtests, respectively, were measured at prekindergarten through the second grade. Effects for self-regulation measures were seen primarily for initial level and to some extent growth in both mathematics and reading, even when controlling for family demographic characteristics that represent relevant selection factors into higher levels of both self-regulation and academic achievement. These effects persisted for mathematics but not for reading with the inclusion of child cognitive abilities, vocabulary, and speed of processing measured in prekindergarten, concurrent with the first time point for the academic measures. Results are interpreted as indicating a role for self-regulation in learning ability generally, likely through support for attention and reasoning abilities that are most specific to the assessment of mathematics in this analysis. Implications for instruction and for assessment and the best ways to support the development of early math and reading ability for children at risk for school failure are discussed. PMID:25688999
van der Elst, Elise M; Smith, Adrian D; Gichuru, Evanson; Wahome, Elizabeth; Musyoki, Helgar; Muraguri, Nicolas; Fegan, Greg; Duby, Zoe; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Bender, Bonnie; Graham, Susan M; Operario, Don; Sanders, Eduard J
2013-01-01
Introduction Healthcare workers (HCWs) in Africa typically receive little or no training in the healthcare needs of men who have sex with men (MSM), limiting the effectiveness and reach of population-based HIV control measures among this group. We assessed the effect of a web-based, self-directed sensitivity training on MSM for HCWs (www.marps-africa.org), combined with facilitated group discussions on knowledge and homophobic attitudes among HCWs in four districts of coastal Kenya. Methods We trained four district “AIDS coordinators” to provide a two-day training to local HCWs working at antiretroviral therapy-providing facilities in coastal Kenya. Self-directed learning supported by group discussions focused on MSM sexual risk practices, HIV prevention and healthcare needs. Knowledge was assessed prior to training, immediately after training and three months after training. The Homophobia Scale assessed homophobic attitudes and was measured before and three months after training. Results Seventy-four HCWs (68% female; 74% clinical officers or nurses; 84% working in government facilities) from 49 health facilities were trained, of whom 71 (96%) completed all measures. At baseline, few HCWs reported any prior training on MSM anal sexual practices, and most HCWs had limited knowledge of MSM sexual health needs. Homophobic attitudes were most pronounced among HCWs who were male, under 30 years of age, and working in clinical roles or government facilities. Three months after training, more HCWs had adequate knowledge compared to baseline (49% vs. 13%, McNemar's test p<0.001); this was most pronounced in those with clinical or administrative roles and in those from governmental health providers. Compared to baseline, homophobic attitudes had decreased significantly three months after training, particularly among HCWs with high homophobia scores at baseline, and there was some evidence of correlation between improvements in knowledge and reduction in homophobic sentiment. Conclusions Scaling up MSM sensitivity training for African HCWs is likely to be a timely, effective and practical means to improve relevant sexual health knowledge and reduce personal homophobic sentiment among HCWs involved in HIV prevention, testing and care in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:24321111
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Moyer, Patricia S.; Dockery, Kim; Jamieson, Spencer; Ross, Julie
2007-01-01
This study examined a focused remediation and enrichment effort among school and university faculty to affect the mathematics achievement of a group of third-grade students in a Title I elementary school. A total of 87 students participated in the Code RED (Remediation and Enrichment Days) Project. During the Code RED Project, student assessment…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kapperman, Gaylen; Sticken, Jodi
2003-01-01
This article discusses the lack of preparation teachers of students with visual impairments have in the Nemeth Code (the Braille code for mathematics). It then describes a Windows-based tutorial for sighted persons to learn the Nemeth Code, a tutorial for teachers with blindness, and how to access the tutorials. (Contains 10 references.) (CR)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nehm, Ross H.; Schonfeld, Irvin Sam
2007-10-01
This study investigated whether or not an increase in secondary science teacher knowledge about evolution and the nature of science gained from completing a graduate-level evolution course was associated with greater preference for the teaching of evolution in schools. Forty-four precertified secondary biology teachers participated in a 14-week intervention designed to address documented misconceptions identified by a precourse instrument. The course produced statistically significant gains in teacher knowledge of evolution and the nature of science and a significant decrease in misconceptions about evolution and natural selection. Nevertheless, teachers’ postcourse preference positions remained unchanged; the majority of science teachers still preferred that antievolutionary ideas be taught in school.
Klevens, Joanne; Sadowski, Laura S.; Kee, Romina; Garcia, Diana
2015-01-01
Background Screening for IPV in health care settings might increase women's knowledge or awareness around its frequency and its impact on health. When IPV is disclosed, assuring women it is not their fault should improve their knowledge that IPV is the perpetrator's responsibility. Providing information about IPV resources may also increase women's knowledge about the availability of solutions. Methods Women (n=2708) were randomly assigned to one of three groups: (1) partner violence screen plus video referral and list of local partner violence resources if screening was positive (n=909); (2) partner violence resource list only without screen (n=893); and (3) a no-screen, no-partner violence resource list control group (n=898). One year later, 2364 women (87%) were re-contacted and asked questions assessing their knowledge of the frequency of partner violence, its impact on physical and mental health, the availability of resources to help women experiencing partner violence, and that it is the perpetrator's fault. Results There were no differences between women screened and provided with a partner violence resource list compared to a control group as to women's knowledge of the frequency of IPV, its impact on physical or mental health, or the availability of IPV services in their community. However, among women who experienced IPV in the year before or year after enrolling in the trial, those who were provided a list of IPV resources without screening were significantly less likely to know that IPV is not the victim's fault than those in the control or list plus screening conditions. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that providing information on partner violence resources, with or without asking questions about partner violence, did not result in improved knowledge.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wagner, Brandon Joel
Writing-to-learn strategies have been administered in the past to enrich student learning. The purpose of this study was to see if K-W-L prompts in science journal writing could benefit student content knowledge within biology. Two high school biology classes were provided with learning journals. The journals given to the students during the treatment unit were provided with K-W-L question prompts to guide student learning while during the comparison unit students were given an open ended writing assignment. Pre and posttests were administered to determine student-learning gains. Student motivations and opinions of the treatment were collected through student interviews. The combined results were used to determine to what extent could K-W-L prompts in science journal writing influence comprehension of content knowledge. This study found there to be no difference in student learning gains when utilizing the K-W-L literacy strategy versus another free-writing activity. When scored, student K-W-Ls total scores did correlate to student success on unit tests. This opens up the potential for K-W-Ls to serve as an adequate tool for formative assessment. Here the K-W-L could be expanded to enrich student question asking, potentially aid students learning English, and potentially be used by students without teacher scaffolding.
Mathematical Cryptography Joshua Holden
Holden, Joshua Brandon
Mathematical Cryptography Joshua Holden http://www.rose-hulman.edu/~holden Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology Mathematical Cryptography p.1/10 #12;Goals "Cool" way of introducing mathematics and CS theory Practical knowledge Societal impact Coordinate the goals! Mathematical Cryptography p.2/10 #12;MA/CSSE 479
Yordanova, Juliana; Kolev, Vasil; Wagner, Ullrich; Born, Jan; Verleger, Rolf
2012-01-01
The number reduction task (NRT) allows us to study the transition from implicit knowledge of hidden task regularities to explicit insight into these regularities. To identify sleep-associated neurophysiological indicators of this restructuring of knowledge representations, we measured frequency-specific power of EEG while participants slept during the night between two sessions of the NRT. Alpha (8-12 Hz) EEG power during slow wave sleep (SWS) emerged as a specific marker of the transformation of presleep implicit knowledge to postsleep explicit knowledge (ExK). Beta power during SWS was increased whenever ExK was attained after sleep, irrespective of presleep knowledge. No such EEG predictors of insight were found during Sleep Stage 2 and rapid eye movement sleep. These results support the view that it is neuronal memory reprocessing during sleep, in particular during SWS, that lays the foundations for restructuring those task-related representations in the brain that are necessary for promoting the gain of ExK. PMID:21812555
2013-01-01
Background Adolescent girls are at an age to be involved in the decision about HPV vaccination uptake and therefore need adequate information about the vaccination. This study assesses to what extent reading an official information leaflet about HPV contributes to girls’ knowledge levels, and to what extent an increase in knowledge is boosted by a pre-test measurement. Methods Participants (girls aged 11–14 years) were systematically allocated to group A that completed a pre-test measurement (12 true/false statements) or to group B that did not complete it. Subsequently, both groups read the HPV leaflet and completed the post-test measurement. Results The response rate was 237/287 (83%). Pre-test scores in group A (M?=?3.6, SD?=?1.81, p?knowledge scores (0–10) in group B (M?=?4.6, SD?=?2.05). Post-test knowledge scores in group A were higher than those in group B [6.2 (SD?=?2.06) versus 4.6 (SD?=?2.05), p?knowledge, even more so when boosted by a pre-test measurement. However, knowledge on the degree and duration of protection against cervical cancer remained limited. Focusing girls’ attention on important aspects before they start reading the leaflet (e.g. by including a quiz on the first page) may serve to raise their awareness of these aspects. PMID:23802703
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
DelCampo, Diana; Baca, Jacqueline S.; Jimenez, Desaree; Sanchez, Paula Roybal; DelCampo, Robert
2011-01-01
Just Be It! Healthy and Fit reduces the risk factors for childhood obesity for fifth graders using hands-on field trips, in-class lessons, and parent outreach efforts. Pre-test and post-test scores from the year-long classroom instruction showed a statistically significant increase in fruit and vegetable intake, physical activity, and nutrition…
Linn, Shai; Rafaeli, Sheizaf
2015-01-01
Background Among Arab citizens in Israel, cigarette and nargila (hookah, waterpipe) smoking is a serious public health problem, particularly among the young adult population. With the dramatic increase of Internet and computer use among Arab college and university students, a Web-based program may provide an easy, accessible tool to reduce smoking rates without heavy resource demands required by traditional methods. Objective The purpose of this research was to examine the acceptability and feasibility of a pilot Web-based program that provides tailored feedback to increase smoking knowledge and reduce cigarette and nargila smoking behaviors among Arab college/university students in Israel. Methods A pilot Web-based program was developed, consisting of a self-administered questionnaire and feedback system on cigarette and nargila smoking. Arab university students were recruited to participate in a mixed-methods study, using both quantitative (pre-/posttest study design) and qualitative tools. A posttest was implemented at 1 month following participation in the intervention to assess any changes in smoking knowledge and behaviors. Focus group sessions were implemented to assess acceptability and preferences related to the Web-based program. Results A total of 225 participants—response rate of 63.2% (225/356)—completed the intervention at baseline and at 1-month poststudy, and were used for the comparative analysis. Statistically significant reductions in nargila smoking among participants (P=.001) were found. The intervention did not result in reductions in cigarette smoking. However, the tailored Web intervention resulted in statistically significant increases in the intention to quit smoking (P=.021). No statistically significant increases in knowledge were seen at 1-month poststudy. Participants expressed high satisfaction with the intervention and 93.8% (211/225) of those who completed the intervention at both time intervals reported that they would recommend the program to their friends, indicating excellent acceptability and feasibility of the intervention. This was further emphasized in the focus group sessions. Conclusions A tailored Web-based program may be a promising tool to reduce nargila smoking among Arab university students in Israel. The tailored Web intervention was not successful at significantly reducing cigarette smoking or increasing knowledge. However, the intervention did increase participants’ intention to quit smoking. Participants considered the Web-based tool to be an interesting, feasible, and highly acceptable strategy. Trial Registration Trial Registration: ISRCTN registry ISRCTN59207794; http://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN59207794 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6VkYOBNOJ). PMID:25707034
Frisch, Noreen C.; Borycki, Elizabeth M.; Mickelson, Grace; Atherton, Pat; Novak-Lauscher, Helen; Hooker, Daniel; Ho, Kendall
2012-01-01
Health professionals’ use of social media and Web 2.0 technologies are emerging as a new area of research. We present the experiences of a province-wide network in Canada that was developed using such technologies as a means to increase nurses’ capacity in nursing health services research. Our network is based on a model of electronic communities of practice (eCoPs). Network evaluation affirms that nurses do respond to social media, as membership has grown to over 1,400 members in two years. Approaches used for network development and implementation are discussed, and the network’s eHealth eCoP is presented as a case of network activities and directions. PMID:24199067
Frisch, Noreen C; Borycki, Elizabeth M; Mickelson, Grace; Atherton, Pat; Novak-Lauscher, Helen; Hooker, Daniel; Ho, Kendall
2012-01-01
Health professionals' use of social media and Web 2.0 technologies are emerging as a new area of research. We present the experiences of a province-wide network in Canada that was developed using such technologies as a means to increase nurses' capacity in nursing health services research. Our network is based on a model of electronic communities of practice (eCoPs). Network evaluation affirms that nurses do respond to social media, as membership has grown to over 1,400 members in two years. Approaches used for network development and implementation are discussed, and the network's eHealth eCoP is presented as a case of network activities and directions. PMID:24199067
Translations toward Connected Mathematics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Applebaum, Mark; Leikin, Roza
2010-01-01
The translation principle allows students to solve problems in different branches of mathematics and thus to develop connectedness in their mathematical knowledge. Successful application of the translation principle depends on the classroom mathematical norms for the development of discussions and the comparison of different solutions to one…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Utah State Office of Education, 2011
2011-01-01
Utah has adopted more rigorous mathematics standards known as the Utah Mathematics Core Standards. They are the foundation of the mathematics curriculum for the State of Utah. The standards include the skills and understanding students need to succeed in college and careers. They include rigorous content and application of knowledge and reflect…
Mathematics in Masons' Workplace
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Moreira, Darlinda; Pardal, Eugénia
2012-01-01
This paper presents masons' professional practices, which are related to mathematics. It aims to contribute to the area of adult mathematics education and to enlarge knowledge about how mathematics is used at the workplace. Methodologically it was followed an ethnographic approach. The key informants of the study were four masons aged between 40…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roberts, Simon J.
2014-01-01
The Faculty of Engineering at The University of Nottingham, UK, has developed interdisciplinary, hands-on workshops for primary schools that introduce space technology, its relevance to everyday life and the importance of science, technology, engineering and maths. The workshop activities for 7-11 year olds highlight the roles that space and satellite technology play in observing and monitoring the Earth's biosphere as well as being vital to communications in the modern digital world. The programme also provides links to 'how science works', the environment and citizenship and uses pixel art through the medium of digital photography to demonstrate the importance of maths in a novel and unconventional manner. The interactive programme of activities provides learners with an opportunity to meet 'real' scientists and engineers, with one of the key messages from the day being that anyone can become involved in science and engineering whatever their ability or subject of interest. The methodology introduces the role of scientists and engineers using space technology themes, but it could easily be adapted for use with any inspirational topic. Analysis of learners' perceptions of science, technology, engineering and maths before and after participating in ENGage showed very positive and significant changes in their attitudes to these subjects and an increase in the number of children thinking they would be interested and capable in pursuing a career in science and engineering. This paper provides an overview of the activities, the methodology, the evaluation process and results.
Vertes, Akos
and Young and of Arrow. The electoral college. The prisoner's dilemma. MATH 1008. History of Mathematics. 3 Credits. The history of mathematics, with emphasis on its importance in the evolution of human thought1 Mathematics MATHEMATICS The undergraduate mathematics major has three tracks: pure, applied
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bleicher, R. E.
2013-12-01
Purpose of Presentation This paper will highlight how the results of this initial study foreshadow possibilities of NGSS (NGSS, 2013) playing out in high school classrooms in the near future. Research findings from a three-year NASA-funded project, Promoting Educational Leadership in Climate Science (PEL) will be presented. Objectives and Research Questions PEL aims to increase climate science literacy in high school teachers and students through scientific argumentation using authentic NASA data. This initial study focuses on the following questions: 1. Are teachers increasing their climate science knowledge? 2. Are there changes in teachers' views about climate change? 3. What resources and are provided to assist teachers to develop their students' scientific argumentation skills? Theoretical Framework Because of the changing nature of climate science knowledge and its relevance to societal issues, teachers must be able to understand the basic concepts and remain up-to-date on scientific issues. The need for a more thorough understanding of the concepts of climate change are highlighted by recent studies on the public perceptions and attitudes on the subject (Leiserowitz et al., 2013). Teachers need to understand the difference between skepticism as a characteristic of the nature of science and denial of climate change (Sommervillle & Hasol, 2011). Teachers need to understand the natural and human-induced factors affecting climate, and the potential consequences, and ways to mitigate and adapt to climate change. Generally, when teachers learn about a subject, they demonstrate more self-efficacy to teach about it (Bleicher & Lindgren, 2005). Analytic Strategy Data were analyzed using paired-samples t-tests, independent t -tests, and ANOVA. Latent class analysis was employed to analyze the Six America's Survey data. Correlational studies were conducted to examine possible relationships among variables. Findings in Brief Teachers' content knowledge increased significantly and teachers were more concerned about climate change after participation in PEL. Teachers with higher self-efficacy demonstrated higher climate change science knowledge. Teachers indicated that they felt more confident and were motivated to implement classroom lessons with their students that employed resources rich in NASA climate data and focused on scientific argumentation. References Bleicher, R.E., & Lindgren, J. (2005). Success in learning science and preservice science teaching self-efficacy. Journal of Science Teacher Education. 16, 205-225. Leiserowitz, A., Maibach, E., Roser-Renouf, C., Feinberg, G., & Howe, P.(2013) Climate change in the American mind: Americans' global warming beliefs and attitudes in April, 2013 Yale University and George Mason University. New Haven, CT: Yale Project on Climate Change Communication. Retrieved 7/26/13 from: http://climatechangecommunication.org/sites/default/files/reports/Climate-Beliefs-April-2013.pdf Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS). (2013). Available at http://www.nextgenscience.org/print/121. Somerville, R. C. J. & Hassol, S. J. (2011). Communicating the science of climate change. Physics Today, 64(10), 48-53.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Clark, Kathleen Michelle
2012-01-01
The use of the history of mathematics in teaching has long been considered a tool for enriching students' mathematical learning. However, in the USA few, if any, research efforts have investigated how the study of history of mathematics contributes to a person's mathematical knowledge for teaching. In this article, I present the results of…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wragg, Amanda; McEwen, Lindsey; Harries, Tim
2015-04-01
The focus of this paper is on the use of an innovative co-production process that engages small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) and other stakeholders in the development of an e-learning tool that has appeal for business owners as well as being a resource for agents working directly with businesses. It outlines t priorities identified by businesses in relation to the support, advice, and, usefulness of sharing experiences which will be reflected in the 'tool'. The researchers suggest that business adaptation to flood risk is a neglected area and that an information 'hub' for businesses will enable sign-posting to advisory sources, 'science communication', and support for those suffering the trauma of damage to their premises and livelihoods. The flooding of communities is becoming a repeated, widespread issue within the UK, and elsewhere. Significant impacts of extreme floods in 2007 were: loss of life, 48,000 houses and 7,000 businesses flooded, community disruption, and, monetary loss to local economies. The winter floods of 2013/2014 also had devastating impacts. This paper reports on research from a three year multi-disciplinary project funded by the UK Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC). In early 2014, SMEs accounted for 99.3% of all private sector businesses in the UK and 47.8% of private sector employment (FSB, 2014), thus they are a crucial part of the UK economy. Whilst some research focuses on 'community resilience', less is focused on the resilience of SMEs. Although SMEs may be vulnerable to fluctuations in turnover and housed in vulnerable premises, they often have the ability to make quick decisions and be innovative in the face of adversity owing to smaller, less complex systems. One key research aim has been to determine attitudes of business owners towards flood resilience and business continuity and barriers and motivators relating to adaptation. The resources SMEs draw on, their understanding of flood risk, and, the part that their knowledges and learning play in decision-making have been explored. The co-production process engages regional/national stakeholders who form a Stakeholder Competency Group (from policy and practice), and, a Business Research Partnership Group comprising local business participants. The two groups have opportunities to liaise and network in discussing the prototype for the learning tool. Whatmore et al (2008) and McEwen et al (2014) show that stakeholder views, experience and expertise can strengthen research outputs. The approach reflects current ethics and practices of stakeholder participation in that alongside an academic approach to the research, other equally valid forms of knowledge are recognised: 'a lot can be learned from exploring parallels, controversies and frictions between different forms of competency and knowledge (McEwen et al, 2014), for example, scientific, local, tacit and embedded. This paper presents concerns identified by businesses and wider stakeholders in relation to how the tool is framed and its key design premises. The tool is planned as a living resource that can support a community of learning practice among SMEs to increase flood resilience in the face of increased risk. References Federation of Small Businesses (2014) http://www.fsb.org.uk/stats Whatmore, Lane and Ward et al (2007-2010) Understanding Environmental Knowledge Controversies ESRC/NERC funded interdisciplinary research project (2007-2010) McEwen et al (2014) https://floodmemories.wordpress.com/2011/04/06/advice-from-competent-stakeholders/.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tin, Huynh Q.; Struik, Paul C.; Price, Lisa L.; Tuyen, Nguyen P.; Hoan, Nguyen P.; Bos, Heleen
2010-01-01
The study was designed to assess changes in farmers' knowledge of farmer seed production through schools (FSPSs) in Vietnam. A set of 25 questions covering five technical areas of the seed production process was used for pre and post knowledge testing at 12 FSPSs in the provinces Binh Dinh, Nam Dinh, Nghe An and Dong Thap. The main findings show…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Yordanova, Juliana; Kolev, Vasil; Wagner, Ullrich; Born, Jan; Verleger, Rolf
2012-01-01
The number reduction task (NRT) allows us to study the transition from implicit knowledge of hidden task regularities to explicit insight into these regularities. To identify sleep-associated neurophysiological indicators of this restructuring of knowledge representations, we measured frequency-specific power of EEG while participants slept during…
Valla, Jeffrey M.; Williams, Wendy M.
2012-01-01
The under-representation of women and ethnic minorities in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) education and professions has resulted in a loss of human capital for the US scientific workforce and spurred the development of myriad STEM educational intervention programs. Increased allocation of resources to such programs begs for a critical, prescriptive, evidence-based review that will enable researchers to develop optimal interventions and administrators to maximize investments. We begin by providing a theoretical backdrop for K-12 STEM programs by reviewing current data on under-representation and developmental research describing individual-level social factors undergirding these data. Next, we review prototypical designs of these programs, highlighting specific programs in the literature as examples of program structures and components currently in use. We then evaluate these interventions in terms of overall effectiveness, as a function of how well they address age-, ethnicity-, or gender-specific factors, suggesting improvements in program design based on these critiques. Finally, program evaluation methods are briefly reviewed and discussed in terms of how their empirical soundness can either enable or limit our ability to delineate effective program components. “Now more than ever, the nation’s changing demographics demand that we include all of our citizens in science and engineering education and careers. For the U.S. to benefit from the diverse talents of all its citizens, we must grow the pipeline of qualified, underrepresented minority engineers and scientists to fill positions in industry and academia.”—Irving P. McPhail.. PMID:22942637
Mathematics: Content and Pedagogy
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ediger, Marlow
2009-01-01
The debate has gone on for some time in terms of which is more salient for the teacher to be well versed in, mathematical content versus methods and approaches in teaching. Both are salient. They cannot be separated from each other. The mathematics teacher must indeed have broad, in-depth knowledge of subject matter as well as in teaching and…
Strengthen Your Mathematical Muscles
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wohlhuter, Kay A.; Breyfogle, M. Lynn; McDuffie, Amy Roth
2010-01-01
Developing deep knowledge and understanding of mathematics is a lifelong process, and building the foundation for teachers' development must begin in preservice preparation and continue throughout one's professional life. While teaching mathematics content courses and methods courses, the authors have found that preservice elementary school…
The Predominance of Procedural Knowledge in Fractions
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Forrester, Tricia; Chinnappan, Mohan
2010-01-01
Teachers play a crucial role in the mathematical learning outcomes of their students. The quality of teachers' mathematical knowledge has been of interest to key stakeholders and several lines of inquiry have been running in an effort to better understand the kinds of knowledge that mathematics teachers need to acquire and use to drive their…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kafyulilo, Ayoub C.
2010-01-01
This study investigated the ways through which pre-service science and mathematics teachers at Dar es Salaam University College of Education (DUCE) can acquire competencies for integrating technology pedagogy and content in teaching. Specifically the study investigated the preservice teachers' ICT integration competencies; practices that can be…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Waters, William Meade, Jr.
The objective of the study was to determine the effect which a unit dealing with recursive definitions would have on students' achievement in applying the principle of mathematical induction (PMI). Twenty-four secondary school students were randomly assigned to control and experimental groups. Students in the control group studied programmed units…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pagar, Dana
2013-01-01
Manipulatives have the potential to be powerful tools in helping children improve their number sense, develop advanced mathematical strategies, and build an understanding of the base ten number system. Physical manipulatives used in classrooms, however, are often not designed to promote efficient strategy use, such as counting on, and typically do…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bunch, James Charles
2012-01-01
The purpose of this study was twofold: 1) to compare the effectiveness of two teaching methods (i.e., lecture/discussion and digital game-based learning) on student achievement in agriculture and mathematics regarding a unit on swine diseases in animal science courses offered through secondary agricultural education programs in Oklahoma; 2) to…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Reimann, Peter
2005-01-01
Computer-based learning environments for science and mathematics education support predominantly individual learning; from first generation drill and practice programs to today's advanced, knowledge-based tutorial systems, one learner interacting with one computer has been the typical setting. Mathematics educators, however, increasingly…
Using Mathematics in Science: Working with Your Mathematics Department
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lyon, Steve
2014-01-01
Changes to the mathematics and science curriculums are designed to increase rigour in mathematics, and place greater emphasis on mathematical content in science subjects at key stages 3, 4 and 5 (ages 11-18). One way to meet the growing challenge of providing increased emphasis on mathematics in the science curriculum is greater collaboration…
Challenges in Measuring Teachers' Knowledge
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fauskanger, Janne
2015-01-01
Mathematical knowledge for teaching (MKT) measures have been widely adopted by researchers. Critics have debated the value of such measures and questioned the type of knowledge that these access. This article reports on a study where the challenges in measuring teachers' knowledge were illuminated through investigating relationships between the…
Mathematics for Physicists and Engineers.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).
The text is a report of the OEEC Seminar on "The Mathematical Knowledge Required by the Physicist and Engineer" held in Paris, 1961. There are twelve major papers presented: (1) An American Parallel (describes the work of the Panel on Physical Sciences and Engineering of the Committee on the Undergraduate Program in Mathematics of the Mathematical…
Mathematics in the Early Years.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Copley, Juanita V., Ed.
Noting that young children are capable of surprisingly complex forms of mathematical thinking and learning, this book presents a collection of articles depicting children discovering mathematical ideas, teachers fostering students' informal mathematical knowledge, adults asking questions and listening to answers, and researchers examining…
Teachers' Knowledge of the Concept of a Function: A Theoretical Framework
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Nyikahadzoyi, Maroni Runesu
2015-01-01
In order to teach mathematics effectively, mathematics teachers need to have a sound mathematical knowledge, but what constitutes sound mathematical knowledge for teaching is subject to debate. This paper is an attempt to unpack what constitutes teacher knowledge of the concept of a function which is a unifying idea in the mathematics curriculum.…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wilkie, Karina J.
2011-01-01
Recent applications of technology to mathematics education have been designed with cognitive and constructivist theoretical perspectives in mind, viewing mathematical learning as the acquisition of knowledge through the construction of meanings and connections between concepts. With the advent of increasingly flexible communication technologies,…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Materia, Valentina Cristiana; Giarè, Francesca; Klerkx, Laurens
2015-01-01
Purpose: The aim of the paper is to analyse the use of Communities of Practice and Information and Communication Technology (ICT) to enhance knowledge sharing between researchers and advisors. The associated research question is to what extent ICT supported a virtual Community of Practice and has been effective in counteracting fragmentation…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Parmer, Sondra M.; Salisbury-Glennon, Jill; Shannon, David; Struempler, Barbara
2009-01-01
Objective: To examine the effects of a school garden on children's fruit and vegetable knowledge, preference, and consumption. Design: Self-report questionnaires, interview-style taste and rate items, lunchroom observations. Setting: An elementary school. Participants: Second-grade students (n = 115). Intervention: Participants were assigned to…
Knowledge Convergence and Collaborative Learning
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jeong, Heisawn; Chi, Michelene T. H.
2007-01-01
This paper operationalized the notion of knowledge convergence and assessed quantitatively how much knowledge convergence occurred during collaborative learning. Knowledge convergence was defined as an increase in common knowledge where common knowledge referred to the knowledge that all collaborating partners had. Twenty pairs of college students…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Carter, Carolyn S.; Keyes, Marian; Kusimo, Patricia S.; Lunsford, Crystal
This guide contains hands-on science activities to connect middle-school students to the traditional knowledge of their grandparents and elders. Because girls often lose interest in science at the middle-school level, and because women in some communities (especially in rural areas) are seldom involved in work with an obvious science basis, the…
Ma, Tingting
2012-11-28
Knowledge of curriculum is a significant component of mathematical knowledge for teaching. However, clearly understanding knowledge of curriculum requires further refinement and substantial research. This study consists ...
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bloom, W. R.; And Others
1975-01-01
Reports a survey concerned with the future of mathematics in Australia which identified the number of "experts" in particular areas of mathematics who are working in Australia. Findings show increased research work in the past five years but conclusions indicate that many mathematical areas continue to be neglected. (JT)
Freedom Quilts: Mathematics on the Underground Railroad
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Neumann, Maureen D.
2005-01-01
A mathematics activity is presented which is a lesson frequently taught to upper elementary school students. It helps the students to see the connection of mathematics with a real-world activity, appreciate the mathematical knowledge required of quilt makers, reinforce their knowledge of the geometrical properties of different shapes and bring…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gichobi, Mary N.
2013-01-01
The need to design teacher preparation programs to ensure that pre-service teachers (PSTs) are prepared and equipped with knowledge, skills and practices to increase the chances that they will become effective novice mathematics teachers is of prime importance. Teacher educators are facing lingering challenges, since teacher education is…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Missall, Kristen; Hojnoski, Robin L.; Caskie, Grace I. L.; Repasky, Patrick
2015-01-01
Research Findings: Early mathematical skills and knowledge are strongly related to long-term achievement, and yet the knowledge base regarding the mechanisms through which young children develop these skills and knowledge is limited. Although research has examined the relation of the home numeracy environment and children's early mathematics…
Johnson, Brody Dylan
A Mathematical Glance at Zombie Infestation Brody Dylan Johnson Introduction A Simple Mathematical Model A Reality Check Zombie Infestation with Resistance Simulations Conclusion A Mathematical Glance at Zombie Infestation Brody Dylan Johnson April 21, 2010 Reference: "When Zombies Attack!: Mathematical
Cognitive Correlates of Performance in Advanced Mathematics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wei, Wei; Yuan, Hongbo; Chen, Chuansheng; Zhou, Xinlin
2012-01-01
Background: Much research has been devoted to understanding cognitive correlates of elementary mathematics performance, but little such research has been done for advanced mathematics (e.g., modern algebra, statistics, and mathematical logic).Aims: To promote mathematical knowledge among college students, it is necessary to understand what factors…
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Peuquet, Donna J.
1987-01-01
A new approach to building geographic data models that is based on the fundamental characteristics of the data is presented. An overall theoretical framework for representing geographic data is proposed. An example of utilizing this framework in a Geographic Information System (GIS) context by combining artificial intelligence techniques with recent developments in spatial data processing techniques is given. Elements of data representation discussed include hierarchical structure, separation of locational and conceptual views, and the ability to store knowledge at variable levels of completeness and precision.
Mario Bunge's Philosophy of Mathematics: An Appraisal
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Marquis, Jean-Pierre
2012-01-01
In this paper, I present and discuss critically the main elements of Mario Bunge's philosophy of mathematics. In particular, I explore how mathematical knowledge is accounted for in Bunge's systemic emergent materialism.
Mario Bunge's Philosophy of Mathematics: An Appraisal
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marquis, Jean-Pierre
2012-10-01
In this paper, I present and discuss critically the main elements of Mario Bunge's philosophy of mathematics. In particular, I explore how mathematical knowledge is accounted for in Bunge's systemic emergent materialism. To Mario, with gratitude.
Early Predictors of Middle School Fraction Knowledge
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bailey, Drew H.; Siegler, Robert S.; Geary, David C.
2014-01-01
Recent findings that earlier fraction knowledge predicts later mathematics achievement raise the question of what predicts later fraction knowledge. Analyses of longitudinal data indicated that whole number magnitude knowledge in first grade predicted knowledge of fraction magnitudes in middle school, controlling for whole number arithmetic…
On Duplication in Mathematical Repositories
Grabowski, Adam
2010-01-01
Building a repository of proof-checked mathematical knowledge is without any doubt a lot of work, and besides the actual formalization process there also is the task of maintaining the repository. Thus it seems obvious to keep a repsoitory as small as possible, in particular each piece of mathematical knowledge should be formalized only once. In this paper, however, we claim that it might be reasonable or even necessary to duplicate knowledge in a mathematical repository. We analyze different situations and reasons for doing so and provide a number of examples supporting our thesis.
Harr, Nora; Eichler, Andreas; Renkl, Alexander
2015-01-01
In teacher education, general pedagogical and psychological knowledge (PPK) is often taught separately from the teaching subject itself, potentially leading to inert knowledge. In an experimental study with 69 mathematics student teachers, we tested the benefits of fostering the integration of pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) and general PPK with respect to knowledge application. Integration was fostered either by integrating the contents or by prompting the learners to integrate separately taught knowledge. Fostering integration, as compared to a separate presentation without integration help, led to more applicable PPK and greater simultaneous application of PPK and PCK. The advantages of fostering knowledge integration were not moderated by the student teachers’ prior knowledge or working memory capacity. A disadvantage of integrating different knowledge types referred to increased learning times. PMID:26082740
Extracting Knowledge for Cultural Heritage Knowledge Base Population
Extracting Knowledge for Cultural Heritage Knowledge Base Population Naimdjon Takhirov (this page Department of Computer and Information Science Faculty of Information Technology, Mathematics and Electrical Engineering Norwegian University of Science and Technology July 1, 2013 #12;(This page will also be removed
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
van Garderen, Delinda; Scheuermann, Amy; Jackson, Christa; Hampton, David
2009-01-01
Special education and mathematics teachers are under pressure to respond to the needs of an increasingly diverse range of students in mathematics. One way for them to meet the instructional needs of struggling learners is through collaboration where, ideally, the knowledge one teacher brings can address the gaps of the other. However, the…
Bristol, University of
Mathematics and Computer Science, three years GG14 MEng Mathematics and Computer Science, four years GG1K BScUndergraduate Mathematics Faculty of Science #12;bristol.ac.uk/study Mathematics is the key to the sciences. Now is an exciting time to be studying mathematics, with new connections within the subject
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Luther, Kenneth H.
2012-01-01
Mathematical modeling of groundwater flow is a topic at the intersection of mathematics and geohydrology and is rarely encountered in undergraduate mathematics. However, this subject is full of interesting and meaningful examples of truly "applied" mathematics accessible to undergraduates, from the pre-calculus to advanced mathematics levels. This…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Raupach, T.; Munscher, C.; Pukrop, T.; Anders, S.; Harendza, S.
2010-01-01
In recent years, increasing attention has been paid to web-based learning although the advantages of computer-aided instruction over traditional teaching formats still need to be confirmed. This study examined whether participation in an online module on the differential diagnosis of dyspnoea impacts on student performance in a multiple choice…
Teachers' Specialized Content Knowledge: Preparing Future
Belding, Juliana
Teachers' Specialized Content Knowledge: Preparing Future Elementary School Teachers to Teach Mathematics Elementary Pre-Service Teachers Mathematics Project Suzanne Chapin schapin@bu.edu Boston University #12;Why Focus on Teachers' Knowledge? 2 · Pre-service and in-service elementary teachers do
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Edwards, J. D.
1977-01-01
A Keller-plan, mathematics laboratory-based review program initiated in response to the problem of forgotten relevant mathematical skills, new and different terminology and gaps in mathematics backgrounds, is described. (MN)
International Conference on The Humanistic Renaissance in Mathematics Education
Spagnolo, Filippo
'esprit scientifique, 5th ed. Paris, 1967, p. 14. Undoubtedly, the intersection of mathematics teaching and the history way may the history of mathematics influence mathematics education? If it is true that most knowledge is a response to a question, it is as true that the history of mathematics shows that mathematical concepts
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cardella, Monica E.
2008-01-01
While many engineering educators have proposed changes to the way that mathematics is taught to engineers, the focus has often been on mathematical content knowledge. Work from the mathematics education community suggests that it may be beneficial to consider a broader notion of mathematics: mathematical thinking. Schoenfeld identifies five…
Maton, Kenneth I.; Pollard, Shauna A.; McDougall Weise, Tatiana V.; Hrabowski, Freeman A.
2012-01-01
The Meyerhoff Scholars Program at the University of Maryland, Baltimore County is widely viewed as a national model of a program that enhances the number of underrepresented minority students who pursue science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) PhDs. The current article provides an overview of the program and the institution-wide change process that led to its development, as well as a summary of key outcome and process evaluation research findings. African American Meyerhoff students are five times more likely than comparison students to pursue a STEM PhD. Program components viewed by the students as most beneficial include financial scholarship, being a part of the Meyerhoff Program community, the Summer Bridge program, study groups, and summer research. Qualitative findings from interviews and focus groups demonstrate the importance of the Meyerhoff Program in creating a sense of belonging and a shared identity, encouraging professional development and emphasizing the importance of academic skills. Among Meyerhoff students, several pre-college and college factors have emerged as predictors of successful entrance into a PhD program in the STEM fields, including pre-college research excitement, pre-college intrinsic math/science motivation, number of summer research experiences during college, and college GPA. Limitations of the research to date are noted, and directions for future research are proposed. PMID:22976367
Narrative assessment: making mathematics learning visible in early childhood settings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anthony, Glenda; McLachlan, Claire; Lim Fock Poh, Rachel
2015-09-01
Narratives that capture children's learning as they go about their day-to-day activities are promoted as a powerful assessment tool within early childhood settings. However, in the New Zealand context, there is increasing concern that learning stories—the preferred form of narrative assessment—currently downplay domain knowledge. In this paper, we draw on data from 13 teacher interviews and samples of 18 children's learning stories to examine how mathematics is made visible within learning stories. Despite appreciating that mathematics is embedded in a range of everyday activities within the centres, we found that the nature of a particular activity appeared to influence `how' and `what' the teachers chose to document as mathematics learning. Many of the teachers expressed a preference to document and analyse mathematics learning that occurred within explicit mathematics activities rather than within play that involves mathematics. Our concern is that this restricted documentation of mathematical activity could potentially limit opportunities for mathematics learning both in the centre and home settings.
Knowing and Learning Mathematics for Teaching: Proceedings of a Workshop (March 19-21, 1999).
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Mathematical Sciences Education Board.
The Mathematics Teacher Preparation Content Workshop, held March 19-21, 1999, focused on two questions: (1) What is the mathematical knowledge teachers need to know in order to teach well? and (2) How can teachers develop the mathematical knowledge they need to teach well? Chapters include: (1) "Knowledge of Fundamental Mathematics for Teaching"…
Gerami, Mohsen
2010-01-01
This paper discusses the important process of knowledge and its management, and differences between tacit and explicit knowledge and understanding the culture as a key issue for the successful implementation of knowledge management, in addition to, this paper is concerned with the four-stage model for the evolution of information technology (IT) support for knowledge management in law firms.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
1999
The first of the four papers in this symposium, "Knowledge Management and Knowledge Dissemination" (Wim J. Nijhof), presents two case studies exploring the strategies companies use in sharing and disseminating knowledge and expertise among employees. "A Theory of Knowledge Management" (Richard J. Torraco), develops a conceptual framework for…
Elementary School Mathematics Priorities
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wilson, W. Stephen
2009-01-01
This article first describes some of the basic skills and knowledge that a solid elementary school mathematics foundation requires. It then elaborates on several points germane to these practices. These are then followed with a discussion and conclude with final comments and suggestions for future research. The article sets out the five…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Leutzinger, Larry, Ed.
This book contains articles that help to further the process of reform in the middle grades, recognizing that the knowledge acquired during these years greatly affects how well the secondary school curriculum will attain its goals. Critical issues facing middle grade classes in particular and all mathematics classrooms in general are discussed.…
Briones, Kristi; Lustik, Faith; LaLone, Joel
2010-11-01
Many parents and caregivers do not recognize the symptoms of asthma in children, and consequently children may not receive the appropriate diagnosis and treatment for this potentially fatal disease. This article describes how Steps to a HealthierNY used social marketing strategies to design a media campaign called "Could It Be Asthma?" to educate parents and caregivers about the symptoms of asthma. The campaign used television advertising, brochures, and posters to educate parents and caregivers in rural Jefferson County, New York, about asthma symptoms. The campaign ran in March and April 2005. A follow-up survey was conducted among 756 parents and caregivers in collaboration with four local pediatricians' offices. Results showed that approximately 60% of participants were familiar with "Could It Be Asthma?" Of those participants, approximately 68% indicated that the ads had a positive impact and 46% indicated that they had learned the symptoms of asthma. The campaign and survey were repeated in the fall of 2005. Results were consistent, with a significant increase in the percentage of people who were familiar with the campaign. This social marketing campaign was successful in reaching parents in a rural community with important educational messages; similar strategies should be considered in educating the public about asthma and other health issues. PMID:19864498
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jones, Alexander
Mathematics was employed in Greek astronomy as the basis of modeling the heavens and the apparent paths of the heavenly bodies, employing spheres and circles as the elements of the models. Although fundamentally geometrical in conception, Greek mathematical astronomy became increasingly quantitative and numerical, partly in response to Babylonian astronomy.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ngo, Federick J.
2013-01-01
Increasing teacher quality is a major objective of recent Cambodian education policy. In mathematics education literature, pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) has emerged as a critical component of teacher quality that is strongly linked to student achievement. In this study I use data from a large survey of Cambodian schools to investigate the…
Knowledge Building: Reinventing Education for the Knowledge Age
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Philip, Donald N.
2011-01-01
This paper examines the Knowledge Age and how economic factors are causing educators to rethink and reinvent education. Two key factors in education in the Knowledge Age will be education for an economy of innovation, and the increasing virtualization of education. We present knowledge building pedagogy as a model for education in the Knowledge…
Caro-Vega, Yanink; del Rio, Carlos; Dias Lima, Viviane; Lopez-Cervantes, Malaquias; Crabtree-Ramirez, Brenda; Bautista-Arredondo, Sergio; Colchero, M. Arantxa; Sierra-Madero, Juan
2015-01-01
Objective To estimate the impact of late ART initiation on HIV transmission among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Mexico. Methods An HIV transmission model was built to estimate the number of infections transmitted by HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM-HIV+) MSM-HIV+ in the short and long term. Sexual risk behavior data were estimated from a nationwide study of MSM. CD4+ counts at ART initiation from a representative national cohort were used to estimate time since infection. Number of MSM-HIV+ on treatment and suppressed were estimated from surveillance and government reports. Status quo scenario (SQ), and scenarios of early ART initiation and increased HIV testing were modeled. Results We estimated 14239 new HIV infections per year from MSM-HIV+ in Mexico. In SQ, MSM take an average 7.4 years since infection to initiate treatment with a median CD4+ count of 148 cells/mm3(25th-75th percentiles 52–266). In SQ, 68% of MSM-HIV+ are not aware of their HIV status and transmit 78% of new infections. Increasing the CD4+ count at ART initiation to 350 cells/mm3 shortened the time since infection to 2.8 years. Increasing HIV testing to cover 80% of undiagnosed MSM resulted in a reduction of 70% in new infections in 20 years. Initiating ART at 500 cells/mm3 and increasing HIV testing the reduction would be of 75% in 20 years. Conclusion A substantial number of new HIV infections in Mexico are transmitted by undiagnosed and untreated MSM-HIV+. An aggressive increase in HIV testing coverage and initiating ART at a CD4 count of 500 cells/mm3 in this population would significantly benefit individuals and decrease the number of new HIV infections in Mexico. PMID:26302044
Milton, Nick
2008-01-01
Several technologies are emerging that provide new ways to capture, store, present and use knowledge. This book is the first to provide a comprehensive introduction to five of the most important of these technologies: Knowledge Engineering, Knowledge Based Engineering, Knowledge Webs, Ontologies and Semantic Webs. For each of these, answers are given to a number of key questions (What is it? How does it operate? How is a system developed? What can it be used for? What tools are available? What are the main issues?). The book is aimed at students, researchers and practitioners interested in Knowledge Management, Artificial Intelligence, Design Engineering and Web Technologies. During the 1990s, Nick worked at the University of Nottingham on the application of AI techniques to knowledge management and on various knowledge acquisition projects to develop expert systems for military applications. In 1999, he joined Epistemics where he worked on numerous knowledge projects and helped establish knowledge management...
Multiple Proof Approaches and Mathematical Connections
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jiang, Zhonghong; O'Brien, George E.
2012-01-01
One of the most rewarding accomplishments of working with preservice secondary school mathematics teachers is helping them develop conceptually connected knowledge and see mathematics as an integrated whole rather than isolated pieces. To help students see and use the connections among various mathematical topics, the authors have paid close…
Clinical Assessment in Mathematics: Learning the Craft.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hunting, Robert P.; Doig, Brian A.
1997-01-01
Discusses a professional development program called Clinical Approaches to Mathematics Assessment. Argues for the advanced training of mathematics teachers who understand knowledge construction processes of students; can use clinical tools for evaluating a student's unique mathematical "fingerprint"; and can create or adapt problems, tasks, or…
Knowledge Creation in Constructivist Learning
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jaleel, Sajna; Verghis, Alie Molly
2015-01-01
In today's competitive global economy characterized by knowledge acquisition, the concept of knowledge management has become increasingly prevalent in academic and business practices. Knowledge creation is an important factor and remains a source of competitive advantage over knowledge management. Constructivism holds that learners learn actively…
[Mathematics - astronomy - astrology special library].
Gluch, Sibylle
2011-01-01
About 1560 Elector August of Saxony created an unusual library--one distinguished within its period by both its specialization and location. Situated within the Kunstkammer this library was mostly dedicated to the mathematical sciences and related disciplines. It contained works by the most important authors on mathematics, astronomy, and astrology from the classical, medieval, and early modern periods. This essay traces the formation and composition of August's library, and examines its function: What kind of relationship existed between the library and the Kunstkammer? In what way did the library mirror the interests of the Elector, and to what extend does it permit inferences regarding the Elector's knowledge of mathematics? From the analysis August emerges not as a specialist with a deep understanding of mathematics, but as a particular aficionado of mathematical applications. As a practitioner and general follower of the mathematical arts he took part in a far-reaching intellectual network the center of which lay in the University of Wittenberg. Here, Melanchthon had effectively strengthened the importance of the mathematical disciplines within the university curriculum. He regarded mathematics as the foremost science, arguing that before all other disciplines its method enabled man to recognize the harmonic order of the world, and to discern divine providence. Thus, mathematics offered consoling stability and support in an often seemingly chaotic world torn by religious controversies. This kind of esteem for the mathematical sciences did not presuppose expert knowledge. Hence, the fact that August does not appear to have read the mathematical books he collected does not come as a contradiction. On the contrary, for August it sufficed to recognize the potential of the mathematical sciences, which he brought into life through the creation of a specialized library that developed a rhetoric of its own. The collection of his Kunstkammer library spoke of a harmonically ordered world while at the same time memorializing August as a lover of mathematics and an important figure within the group of mathematical experts and enthusiasts. PMID:21898978
Resisting Reductionism in Mathematics Pedagogy
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Foster, Colin
2013-01-01
Although breaking down a mathematical problem into smaller parts can often be an effective solution strategy, when the same reductionist approach is applied to mathematics pedagogy the effects are far from beneficial for students. Mathematics pedagogy in UK schools is gaining an increasingly reductionist flavour, as seen in an excessive focus on…
[Health anxiety - increased knowledge and treatment options].
Davidsdottir, Soley Drofn; Sveinsson, Olafur Arni
2010-12-01
Patients with hypochondriasis are preoccupied with the fear or belief that they have a serious, undiagnosed disease. This concern derives from misinterpretations of benign physical sensations, and persists despite appropriate reassurance to the contrary. They have, on average, disproportionately high rates of visits to physicians, specialty consultations, laboratory tests, and surgical procedures, as well as high health care costs. Despite this extensive medical attention, they find their care unsatisfactory, which is understandable, as convincing alternative explanations to their ailments are repeatedly delayed. Physicians, in turn, may feel discouraged and frustrated in relation to these individuals where their best efforts to help often prove ineffective or are even rejected. Recent scientific studies have shown that cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) are effective treatment options for health anxiety as demonstrated in clinical trials. PMID:21149871
On the Representation of Mathematical Knowledge in
Kerber, Manfred
Published as: In Michel De Glas and Dov Gabbay, eds., WOC- FAI '91 Proceedings of the First World Confer- matedtheoremproverfor instance, a res- olution based one, one has to give to the 293 #12;De nition: associative property for the proof. One can enter them for each proof anew, but aside the fact that this is very boring, each time
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Petersen, Richard H.
1997-01-01
The objectives of the Institute were: (a) increase participants' content knowledge about aeronautics, science, mathematics, and technology, (b) model and promote the use of scientific inquiry through problem-based learning, (c) investigate the use of instructional technologies and their applications to curricula, and (d) encourage the dissemination of TEI experiences to colleagues, students, and parents.
Reflective Awareness in Mathematics Teachers' Learning and Teaching
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chapman, Olive
2015-01-01
The nature of mathematics teachers' knowledge specific to teaching mathematics [MTK] is of ongoing concern in mathematics education research. This article contributes to our under-standing of this knowledge with particular focus on reflective awareness. It discusses MTK based on ways it has been used in research. It highlights reflective awareness…
Provocative Mathematics Questions: Drawing Attention to a Lack of Attention
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Klymchuk, Sergiy
2015-01-01
The article investigates the role of attention in the reflective thinking of school mathematics teachers. It analyses teachers' ability to pay attention to detail and "use" their mathematical knowledge. The vast majority of teachers can be expected to have an excellent knowledge of mathematical techniques. The question examined here is…
Understanding Understanding Mathematics. Artificial Intelligence Memo No. 488.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Michener, Edwina Rissland
This document is concerned with the important extra-logical knowledge that is often outside of traditional discussions in mathematics, and looks at some of the ingredients and processes involved in the understanding of mathematics. The goal is to develop a conceptual framework in which to talk about mathematical knowledge and to understand the…
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shariq, Syed Z.; Kutler, Paul (Technical Monitor)
1997-01-01
The emergence of rapidly expanding technologies for distribution and dissemination of information and knowledge has brought to focus the opportunities for development of knowledge-based networks, knowledge dissemination and knowledge management technologies and their potential applications for enhancing productivity of knowledge work. The challenging and complex problems of the future can be best addressed by developing the knowledge management as a new discipline based on an integrative synthesis of hard and soft sciences. A knowledge management professional society can provide a framework for catalyzing the development of proposed synthesis as well as serve as a focal point for coordination of professional activities in the strategic areas of education, research and technology development. Preliminary concepts for the development of the knowledge management discipline and the professional society are explored. Within this context of knowledge management discipline and the professional society, potential opportunities for application of information technologies for more effectively delivering or transferring information and knowledge (i.e., resulting from the NASA's Mission to Planet Earth) for the development of policy options in critical areas of national and global importance (i.e., policy decisions in economic and environmental areas) can be explored, particularly for those policy areas where a global collaborative knowledge network is likely to be critical to the acceptance of the policies.
What do Mathematics Teachers and Teacher Trainees Know about the History of Mathematics?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gazit, Avikam
2013-01-01
The aim of this study is to present the findings of a study that examined the knowledge of mathematics teachers and teacher trainees, in different tracks, about the concepts, topics and characters from the history of mathematics. The findings indicate a lack of knowledge concerning most of the topics examined. Only about 40% of the participants…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chval, Kathryn B.; Pinnow, Rachel J.; Thomas, Amanda
2015-03-01
Research in mathematics education increasingly recognizes the role of language in the education of English language learners. However, research examining the professional growth of mathematics teachers as they learn to teach English language learners is sparse. This case study addresses this issue by examining one third grade teacher as she learned how to focus on language as she designed and taught mathematics lessons to facilitate the participation of English language learners. Data sources consist of audio recordings of interviews, lesson planning sessions, and lesson debrief sessions as well as video recordings of mathematics lessons. The results from this study demonstrate the importance of professional development that emphasizes language in the teaching of mathematics. As the teacher began to learn about the components of the intervention, she developed specialized knowledge and competencies so that she was able to address language planning and development that was necessary to successfully teach mathematics to English language learners.
Epple, Moritz; Karachalios, Andreas; Remmert, Volker R
2005-01-01
The article is concerned with the mathematical sciences in National Socialist Germany and Fascist Italy, with special attention to research important to the war effort. It focuses on three institutional developments: the expansion of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Fluid Dynamics in Göttingen, the foundation of the Reich Institute for Mathematics in Oberwolfach (Black Forest), and the work of the Istituto Nazionale per le Applicazioni del Calcolo in Rome. All three developments are embedded in the general political background, thus providing a basis for comparative conclusions about the conditions of the mathematical sciences and military-related research in Germany and Italy. It turns out that in both countries, the increasing demand for mathematical knowledge in modern warfare led to the establishment of "extra-university" national institutions specifically devoted to mathematical research. PMID:20503761
Need for Equipping Student Teachers with Language of Mathematics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gafoor, K. Abdul; Sarabi, M. K.
2015-01-01
The significance of curriculum in building up language of mathematics which enables learners to construct and communicate knowledge of mathematics has not received due attention even as the pedagogical challenges faced by the students in learning mathematics have been discussed for years. Learning language of mathematics is not only valuable in…
Arnold, Elizabeth A.
Department of Mathematics and Statistics Colloquium An Examination of One Teacher's Perceptions that knowledge of children's mathematical thinking influences the work of teachers. To share knowledge of students' thinking with teachers, many researchers have developed and shared frameworks and tools
Mathematical Modeling and Pure Mathematics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Usiskin, Zalman
2015-01-01
Common situations, like planning air travel, can become grist for mathematical modeling and can promote the mathematical ideas of variables, formulas, algebraic expressions, functions, and statistics. The purpose of this article is to illustrate how the mathematical modeling that is present in everyday situations can be naturally embedded in…
Conceptions and Images of Mathematics Professors on Teaching Mathematics in School.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pehkonen, Erkki
1999-01-01
Clarifies what kind of mathematical beliefs are conveyed to student teachers during their studies. Interviews mathematics professors (n=7) from five Finnish universities who were responsible for mathematics teacher education. Professors estimated that teachers' basic knowledge was poor and old-fashioned, requiring improvement, and they emphasized…
An interdisciplinary programme jointly o ered by Department of Mathematics and
Huang, Jianwei
Mathematical Modeling Networks: Technology, Economics, & Social Interactions Final Year Project I Final Year Project II plus Major Elective Courses Computer Networks Information Engineering Lab Information of Information Engineering BSc in Mathematics and Information Engineering Mathematical and Engineering Knowledge
Conditional inequalities : American pure and applied mathematics, 1940-1975
Steingart, Alma
2011-01-01
This study investigates the status of mathematical knowledge in mid-century America. It is motivated by questions such as: when did mathematical theories become applicable to a wide range of fields from medicine to the ...
Mathematical, Information and Computational Sciences Mathematical, Information
1 Mathematical, Information and Computational Sciences Mathematical, Information and Computational Director Mathematical, Information and Computational Sciences Division #12;2 Mathematical, Information;3 Mathematical, Information and Computational Sciences Mission and Priorities for the Department · Guaranteeing
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Deepak
2005-01-01
Knowledge Management (KM) is the process through which organizations generate value from their intellectual and knowledge-based assets. Frequently generating value from such assets means sharing them among employees, divisions and even with other companies in order to develop best practices. This article discusses three basic aspects of…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Vinson, Beth McCulloch
2001-01-01
Investigated changes in mathematics anxiety among future teachers in two mathematics materials and methods classes incorporating Bruner's framework of developing conceptual knowledge before procedural knowledge and the use of mathematics manipulatives. Pretest-posttest comparisons showed significant reductions in overall mathematical anxiety,…
Common Mathematical Errors of Pre-Service Elementary School Teachers in an Undergraduate Course
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Matthews, Michael; Ding, Meixia
2011-01-01
A steady stream of research has shown that many elementary school teachers have weak mathematical knowledge in some areas, including place value and fractions. Since a teacher's mathematical knowledge affects their students' performance, improving elementary school teachers' knowledge is critical. A better understanding of the mathematical…
Intensional reasoning about knowledge
Popov, O.B.
1987-01-01
As demands and ambitions increase in Artificial Intelligence, the need for formal systems that facilitate a study and a simulation of a machine cognition has become an inevitability. This paper explores and develops the foundations of a formal system for propositional reasoning about knowledge. The semantics of every meaningful expression in the system is fully determined by its intension, the set of complexes in which the expression is confirmed. The knowledge system is based on three zeroth-order theories of epistemic reasoning for consciousness, knowledge, and entailed knowledge. The results presented determine the soundness and the completeness of the knowledge system. The modes of reasoning and the relations among the various epistemic notions emphasize the expressive power of the intensional paradigm.
Gaber, David; Schlimm, Dirk
2015-01-01
Mathematics is a powerful tool for describing and developing our knowledge of the physical world. It informs our understanding of subjects as diverse as music, games, science, economics, communications protocols, and visual arts. Mathematical thinking has its roots in the adaptive behavior of living creatures: animals must employ judgments about quantities and magnitudes in the assessment of both threats (how many foes) and opportunities (how much food) in order to make effective decisions, and use geometric information in the environment for recognizing landmarks and navigating environments. Correspondingly, cognitive systems that are dedicated to the processing of distinctly mathematical information have developed. In particular, there is evidence that certain core systems for understanding different aspects of arithmetic as well as geometry are employed by humans and many other animals. They become active early in life and, particularly in the case of humans, develop through maturation. Although these core systems individually appear to be quite limited in application, in combination they allow for the recognition of mathematical properties and the formation of appropriate inferences based upon those properties. In this overview, the core systems, their roles, their limitations, and their interaction with external representations are discussed, as well as possibilities for how they can be employed together to allow us to reason about more complex mathematical domains. PMID:26263425
Experimental Mathematics and Mathematical Physics
Bailey, David H.; Borwein, Jonathan M.; Broadhurst, David; Zudilin, Wadim
2009-06-26
One of the most effective techniques of experimental mathematics is to compute mathematical entities such as integrals, series or limits to high precision, then attempt to recognize the resulting numerical values. Recently these techniques have been applied with great success to problems in mathematical physics. Notable among these applications are the identification of some key multi-dimensional integrals that arise in Ising theory, quantum field theory and in magnetic spin theory.
Increased Awareness, Increased Appreciation
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Nightingale, Barbra
2015-01-01
This article provides a student's viewpoint in response to Larry Andrews' article, "The Humanities Are Dead! Long Live the Humanities!," which addresses and solidifies the notion that, at least from the standpoint of academicians, the humanities are alive and well. The author believes that a broader base of learning, an increased…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Flannery, Carol A.
This manuscript provides information and problems for teaching mathematics to vocational education students. Problems reflect applications of mathematical concepts to specific technical areas. The materials are organized into six chapters. Chapter 1 covers basic arithmetic, including fractions, decimals, ratio and proportions, percentages, and…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Langbort, Carol, Ed.; Curtis, Deborah, Ed.
2000-01-01
The focus of this special issue is mathematics education. All articles were written by graduates of the new masters Degree program in which students earn a Master of Arts degree in Education with a concentration in Mathematics Education at San Francisco State University. Articles include: (1) "Developing Teacher-Leaders in a Masters Degree Program…
Meade, Douglas B.
Vaccination Strategies for Epidemic Models Douglas B. Meade Department of Mathematics University://www.math.sc.edu/~meade/ 27 May 1999 #12; May 1999 IMA Mathematical Biology Seminar 0 Vaccination Strategies for Epidemic and natural death -- no death from infection -- no vaccination Ref: Shulgin, Stone, and Agur, Bull Math Bio
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
McClellan, Kathryn T.
Why mathematics should be learned is discussed. Its role as an important active force in the development of our civilization, and as the most useful subject taught in our schools, next to English, is noted. The primary objective of all mathematics work is to help man study nature, and some practical achievements of this connection are noted.…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Martin, Hope
2007-01-01
"Mathematical literacy" implies that a person is able to reason, analyze, formulate, and solve problems in a real-world setting. Mathematically literate individuals are informed citizens and intelligent consumers. They have the ability to interpret and analyze the vast amount of information they are inundated with daily in newspapers, on…
Lack of Set Theory Relevant Prerequisite Knowledge
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dogan-Dunlap, Hamide
2006-01-01
Many students struggle with college mathematics topics due to a lack of mastery of prerequisite knowledge. Set theory language is one such prerequisite for linear algebra courses. Many students' mistakes on linear algebra questions reveal a lack of mastery of set theory knowledge. This paper reports the findings of a qualitative analysis of a…
WIKIPEDIA AS DOMAIN KNOWLEDGE NETWORKS: Domain Extraction and Statistical Measurement
Liu, Benyuan
networks on, respectively, mathematics, physics, biology, and chemistry. We compare the mathematics domain, has developed and evolved rapidly into the most comprehensive online encyclopedia. While people enjoy of the target knowledge network with a trusted knowledge source, such as paper-based encyclopedia. Restricted
Patterns of Strengths and Weaknesses in Children's Knowledge about Fractions
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hecht, Steven A.; Vagi, Kevin J.
2012-01-01
The purpose of this study was to explore individual patterns of strengths and weaknesses in children's mathematical knowledge about common fractions. Tasks that primarily measure either conceptual or procedural aspects of mathematical knowledge were assessed with the same children in their fourth- and fifth-grade years (N = 181, 56% female and 44%…
April 2015 Financial Mathematics Exam Syllabus
Society of Actuaries
2014-12-18
valuation, pricing, asset/liability management, investment income, capital budgeting, ... The Financial Mathematics Exam assumes a basic knowledge of calculus and an introductory .... through working out problems based on those concepts.
Summative and Formative Assessments in Mathematics Supporting the Goals of the Common Core Standards
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Schoenfeld, Alan H.
2015-01-01
Being proficient in mathematics involves having rich and connected mathematical knowledge, being a strategic and reflective thinker and problem solver, and having productive mathematical beliefs and dispositions. This broad set of mathematics goals is central to the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics. High-stakes testing often drives…
The Order and Integration of Knowledge
Alexanian, Moorad
2015-01-01
William Oliver Martin published "The Order and Integration of Knowledge" in 1957 to address the problem of the nature and the order of various kinds of knowledge; in particular, the theoretical problem of how one kind of knowledge is related to another kind. Martin characterizes kinds of knowledge as being either autonomous or synthetic. The latter are reducible to two or more of the autonomous (or irreducible) kinds of knowledge, viz., history (H), metaphysics (Meta), theology (T), formal logic (FL), mathematics (Math), and generalizations of experimental science (G). Metaphysics and theology constitute the two domains of the ontological context while history and experimental science are the two domains of the phenomenological context. The relation of one kind of knowledge to another may be instrumental, constitutive, and/or regulative. For instance, historical propositions are constitutive of G, metaphysical propositions are regulative of G, and propositions in formal logic and mathematics are instrumental ...
Early mathematics development and later achievement: Further evidence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aubrey, Carol; Godfrey, Ray; Dahl, Sarah
2006-05-01
There is a growing international recognition of the importance of the early years of schooling as well as an interest being shown in the relationship of early education to later achievement. This article focuses on a cohort of English pupils who have been tracked through primary school during the first five years of the new National Numeracy Strategy. It reports a limited longitudinal study of young children's early mathematical development, initially within three testing cycles: at the mid-point and towards the end of their reception year (at five years-of-age) and again at the mid-point of Year 1 (at six years-ofage). These cycles were located within the broader context of progress through to the end of Key Stage 1 (at seven years) and Key Stage 2 (at eleven years) on the basis of national standardised assessment tests (SATs). Results showed that children who bring into school early mathematical knowledge do appear to be advantaged in terms of their mathematical progress through primary school. Numerical attainment increases in importance across the primary years and practical problem solving remains an important element of this. This finding is significant given the current emphasis on numerical calculation in the English curriculum. It is concluded that without active intervention, it is likely that children with little mathematical knowledge at the beginning of formal schooling will remain low achievers throughout their primary years and, probably, beyond.
Knowledge Warehouse Page 1 The Knowledge Warehouse
Yacci, Michael
Knowledge Warehouse Page 1 The Knowledge Warehouse: Reusing Knowledge Components Michael Yacci-5416 email: may@it.rit.edu #12;Knowledge Warehouse Page 2 The Knowledge Warehouse: Reusing Knowledge. This article discusses the Knowledge Warehouse, a conceptual solution to this problem. It sketches the benefits
Georgeff, M.P.; Lansky, A.L.
1986-10-01
Much of commonsense knowledge about the real world is in the form of procedures or sequences of actions for achieving particular goals. In this paper, a formalism is presented for representing such knowledge using the notion of process. A declarative semantics for the representation is given, which allows a user to state facts about the effects of doing things in the problem domain of interest. An operational semantics is also provided, which shows how this knowledge can be used to achieve particular goals or to form intentions regarding their achievement. Given both semantics, our formalism additionally serves as an executable specification language suitable for constructing complex systems. A system based on this formalism is described, and examples involving control of an autonomous robot and fault diagnosis for NASA's space shuttle are provided.
Mathematical Situations of Play and Exploration
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Vogel, Rose
2013-01-01
The mathematical situations of play and exploration introduced here have been developed as an empirical research instrument for the longitudinal study "erStMaL" (early Steps in Mathematics Learning). They are designed as situations that allow children and a guiding adult to construct situation-related knowledge in common dialogue…
The Early Childhood Mathematics Education Revolution
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hachey, Alyse C.
2013-01-01
Research Findings: We are in the midst of a revolution. Prior to the onset of the 21st century, mathematics education in the United States was deemphasized (Geary, 1996), and mathematics as an instructional subject has traditionally been considered above the preschool and kindergarten levels. However, the old regime--the knowledge and philosophies…
Mathematical Modelling in the Early School Years
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
English, Lyn D.; Watters, James J.
2005-01-01
In this article we explore young children's development of mathematical knowledge and reasoning processes as they worked two modelling problems (the "Butter Beans Problem" and the "Airplane Problem"). The problems involve authentic situations that need to be interpreted and described in mathematical ways. Both problems include tables of data,…
Mathematics Program for Grades K-12
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Montgomery County Public Schools, 2013
2013-01-01
In the 21st century, a deep understanding of mathematics, and the ability to apply that understanding, is more important than it has ever been. In Montgomery County (Maryland) Public Schools (MCPS), and across the country, mathematics instruction is changing to provide students with the skills and knowledge they need for success in college and the…
Toward objectivity in mathematics Stephen G. Simpson
") and consciousness (a volitional process that takes place within the human mind). 1. According to Objectivism for closer integration of mathematics with the rest of human knowledge. We note some insights which can Objectivity and Objectivism 2 2 Mathematics as part of human
MATHEMATICS K-6--A PROPOSED PROGRAM.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
CREWSON, WALTER; AND OTHERS
OBJECTIVES OF A PROPOSED MATHEMATICS PROGRAM FOR KINDERGARTEN THROUGH SIXTH GRADE ARE THE ACQUISITION OF A THOROUGH KNOWLEDGE OF THE NUMBER SYSTEM, OF INFORMATION ABOUT AND UNDERSTANDING OF MATHEMATICAL OPERATIONS, OF AUTOMATIC RECALL OF BASIC NUMBER FACTS SO THAT THE CONCEPTS LEARNED CAN BE TRANSFERRED TO OTHER SITUATIONS, AND OF THE ABILITY TO…
Knowledge repositories for multiple uses
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Williamson, Keith; Riddle, Patricia
1991-01-01
In the life cycle of a complex physical device or part, for example, the docking bay door of the Space Station, there are many uses for knowledge about the device or part. The same piece of knowledge might serve several uses. Given the quantity and complexity of the knowledge that must be stored, it is critical to maintain the knowledge in one repository, in one form. At the same time, because of quantity and complexity of knowledge that must be used in life cycle applications such as cost estimation, re-design, and diagnosis, it is critical to automate such knowledge uses. For each specific use, a knowledge base must be available and must be in a from that promotes the efficient performance of that knowledge base. However, without a single source knowledge repository, the cost of maintaining consistent knowledge between multiple knowledge bases increases dramatically; as facts and descriptions change, they must be updated in each individual knowledge base. A use-neutral representation of a hydraulic system for the F-111 aircraft was developed. The ability to derive portions of four different knowledge bases is demonstrated from this use-neutral representation: one knowledge base is for re-design of the device using a model-based reasoning problem solver; two knowledge bases, at different levels of abstraction, are for diagnosis using a model-based reasoning solver; and one knowledge base is for diagnosis using an associational reasoning problem solver. It was shown how updates issued against the single source use-neutral knowledge repository can be propagated to the underlying knowledge bases.
Kimble, Chris
. Most literature on KM classifies knowledge into two main categories: explicit knowledge and tacit knowledge. Explicit knowledge can be defined as things that are clearly stated or defined, while tacit-9540488-6-5, pp. 15-25. mathematical formulae or they can exist as diagrams. Tacit knowledge on the other hand
Johannes Kepler University Linz Institute of Analysis and Computational Mathematics A principle for constructing parallel AMG and its realization Gundolf Haase, Michael Kuhn Johannes Kepler University Linz. Wolfgang, Upper Austria #12; Johannes Kepler University Linz Institute of Analysis and Computational
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gardner, Martin
1978-01-01
Describes the life and work of Charles Peirce, U.S. mathematician and philosopher. His accomplishments include contributions to logic, the foundations of mathematics and scientific method, and decision theory and probability theory. (MA)
Governing Equality: Mathematics for All?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Diaz, Jennifer D.
2013-01-01
With the notion of governmentality, this article considers how the equal sign (=) in the U.S. math curriculum organizes knowledge of equality and inscribes cultural rules for thinking, acting, and seeing in the world. Situating the discussion within contemporary math reforms aimed at teaching mathematics for all, I draw attention to how the…
Science Mathematics Engineering
Hamlet, Richard
. Philosophy of Software Engineering II. Mathematics, Science, Engineering III. And for Software EngineeringScience Mathematics Engineering . p.1 #12;Science Mathematics Engineering Science, Computer `Science', . p.1 #12;Science Mathematics Engineering Science, Computer `Science', Mathematics, . p.1
Numeracy in Secondary School Mathematics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gibbs, Melissa; Goos, Merrilyn; Geiger, Vince; Dole, Shelley
2012-01-01
This article describes a project that focuses on numeracy in secondary school mathematics. During the course of the project a teacher had the chance to develop and trial new tasks and styles of teaching and learning numeracy. She became increasingly comfortable with using more extended tasks for learning mathematics. However, she believes that it…
Kepler's mathematization of Cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Field, Judith V.
The paper concerns with mathematical knowledge of Johannes Kepler. A part of the paper describes the mathematical education of Kepler which includes the Euclidean geometry and texts by Ptolemy. The first He knew from the Proclus' Commentary which was published in 1533. The author is pointing out that Kepler's epistemology was close to Plato's. The "polyhedral archetype" is discussed in detail. The greatest error was in the case of Mercury (~20%) Kepler's reaction was otherwise absolutely what one would exopect of a theoretician in the twentieth century: he suggested that better observations would imoprouve matter. The author make an analogy with modern discussions on metal abundances in the outer layers of old stars. The author is mentioning also that the Kepler's version of Copernicus' system is noticeably different from Copernicus' original one, including important improvements.
Mathematical Student Motivation
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bacon, Alison
2012-01-01
The research project will be conducted with a target focus group of six students who have been identified as struggling students in 3rd grade mathematics. The research project will study the effect of using different teaching strategies and methods to increase motivation and focus among these students. The research project will be conducted at…
The Transformation of Mathematics in On-Line Courses
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Borba, Marcelo C.
2005-01-01
This paper presents some research findings regarding the changes in the mathematics produced by mathematics teachers in on-line distance courses. Predicated on the belief that knowledge is generated by collectives of humans-with-media, and that different technologies modify the nature of the knowledge generated, we have sought to understand how…
A Study of Mathematics Anxiety in Pre-Service Teachers
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gresham, Gina
2007-01-01
The study investigated the changes in levels of mathematics anxiety among pre-service teachers in six different sections of a mathematics method courses for early childhood/elementary education pre-service teachers. The changes were a function of using Bruner's framework of developing conceptual knowledge before procedural knowledge and using…
Glimm, J.
2009-10-14
Progress for the past decade or so has been extraordinary. The solution of Fermat's Last Theorem [11] and of the Poincare Conjecture [1] have resolved two of the most outstanding challenges to mathematics. For both cases, deep and advanced theories and whole subfields of mathematics came into play and were developed further as part of the solutions. And still the future is wide open. Six of the original seven problems from the Clay Foundation challenge remain open, the 23 DARPA challenge problems are open. Entire new branches of mathematics have been developed, including financial mathematics and the connection between geometry and string theory, proposed to solve the problems of quantized gravity. New solutions of the Einstein equations, inspired by shock wave theory, suggest a cosmology model which fits accelerating expansion of the universe possibly eliminating assumptions of 'dark matter'. Intellectual challenges and opportunities for mathematics are greater than ever. The role of mathematics in society continues to grow; with this growth comes new opportunities and some growing pains; each will be analyzed here. We see a broadening of the intellectual and professional opportunities and responsibilities for mathematicians. These trends are also occuring across all of science. The response can be at the level of the professional societies, which can work to deepen their interactions, not only within the mathematical sciences, but also with other scientific societies. At a deeper level, the choices to be made will come from individual mathematicians. Here, of course, the individual choices will be varied, and we argue for respect and support for this diversity of responses. In such a manner, we hope to preserve the best of the present while welcoming the best of the new.
Provide population estimates for variables that represent knowledge about certain cancer risk factors, screening tests, and resources. The data are sourced from the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS). The HINTS data collection program was created to monitor changes in the rapidly evolving field of health communication. Survey researchers are using the data to understand how adults 18 years and older use different communication channels, including the Internet, to obtain vital health information for themselves and their loved ones.
Specialized Mathematics Courses, Secondary Level: Learning Objectives, Scope and Sequence.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lehigh County Community Coll., Schnecksville, PA.
In this document, detailed objectives for the following courses are listed: Algebra I, Algebra II, Geometry, Trigonometry, Analytic Geometry, Advanced Mathematics, Personal Business Mathematics, and Business Mathematics. Each objective is keyed to an expected level of achievement: awareness, knowledge, application, mastery, reinforcement, and…
The Social Outcomes of Learning Mathematics: Standard, Unintended or Visionary?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ernest, Paul
2015-01-01
Mathematics is a fundamental part of human knowledge and one of the central planks of the modern technological revolution. But in our enthusiasm to promote its benefits too rarely do we stop to question our intended aims of teaching mathematics and the outcomes of learning mathematics in school. In this paper the standard aims of school…
Investigating Engineering Practice Is Valuable for Mathematics Learning
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Goold, Eileen
2015-01-01
While engineering mathematics curricula often prescribe a fixed body of mathematical knowledge, this study takes a different approach; second-year engineering students are additionally required to investigate and document an aspect of mathematics used in engineering practice. A qualitative approach is used to evaluate the impact that students'…
Defining, Developing, and Measuring "Proclivities for Teaching Mathematics"
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lewis, Jennifer M.; Fischman, Davida; Riggs, Matt
2015-01-01
This article presents a form of teacher reasoning that we call "proclivities for teaching mathematics." We define proclivities for teaching mathematics as the beliefs, knowledge, and dispositions that are actionable in the flow of instruction, and we argue that growth in this area contributes to positive change in mathematics…
Exploring Wind Power: Improving Mathematical Thinking through Digital Fabrication
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tillman, Daniel A.; An, Song A.; Cohen, Jonathan D.; Kjellstrom, William; Boren, Rachel L.
2014-01-01
This mixed methods study examined the impacts of digital fabrication activities that were integrated into contextualized mathematics education. The study investigated the students' mathematics content knowledge and attitudes. Data analysis yielded two key findings regarding our intervention combined with the other mathematics activities…
Marina's Fish Shop: A Mathematically- and Technologically-Rich Lesson
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wander, Roger; Pierce, Robyn
2009-01-01
In early 2008 researchers from the University of Melbourne's "New Technologies for Teaching Mathematics" project created a lesson for the Year 10 students at their Victorian research schools. Two important goals of secondary school mathematics education are to build students' conceptual knowledge and to teach students to think mathematically.…
The Effects of a Mathematics Infusion Curriculum on Middle School Student Mathematics Achievement
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Burghardt, M. David; Lauckhardt, James; Kennedy, Maria; Hecht, Deborah; McHugh, Luisa
2015-01-01
Increasing mathematical competencies of American students has been a focus for educators, researchers, and policy makers alike. One purported approach to increase student learning is through connecting mathematics and science curricula. Yet there is a lack of research examining the impact of making these connections. The Mathematics Infusion into…
Relational Knowledge and Successful Problem Solving in Algebra
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chinnappan, Mohan
2004-01-01
The quality of knowledge underlying students' algebraic thinking is a major concern of K-12 mathematics teaching and reform-driven curriculum documents. In this paper the author examines this issue by characterizing a group of high school students' algebraic knowledge and patterns of use of that knowledge during the solution of selected problems.…
Quotable Quotes in Mathematics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lo, Bruce W. N.
1983-01-01
As a way to dispel negative feelings toward mathematics, a variety of quotations are given. They are categorized by: what mathematics is, mathematicians, mathematics and other disciplines, different areas of mathematics, mathematics and humor, applications of mathematics, and pure versus applied mathematics. (MNS)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ewing, Bronwyn
2012-01-01
This article focuses on the funds of knowledge that are mathematical in nature and how they might be used to support parents and children with their learning of mathematics that is taught and learned in the early years of school. Funds of knowledges are those that have been historically and culturally accumulated into a body of knowledge and…
Professional Noticing: Developing Responsive Mathematics Teaching
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Thomas, Jonathan N.; Eisenhardt, Sara; Fisher, Molly H.; Schack, Edna O.; Tassell, Janet; Yoder, Margaret
2014-01-01
Thoughtful implementation of the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM) (CCSSI 2010) presents an opportunity for increased emphasis on the development of mathematical understanding among students. Granted, ascertaining the mathematical understanding of an individual student is highly complex work and often exceedingly difficult.…
Commonality analysis as a knowledge acquisition problem
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yeager, Dorian P.
1987-01-01
Commonality analysis is a systematic attempt to reduce costs in a large scale engineering project by discontinuing development of certain components during the design phase. Each discontinued component is replaced by another component that has sufficient functionality to be considered an appropriate substitute. The replacement strategy is driven by economic considerations. The System Commonality Analysis Tool (SCAT) is based on an oversimplified model of the problem and incorporates no knowledge acquisition component. In fact, the process of arriving at a compromise between functionality and economy is quite complex, with many opportunities for the application of expert knowledge. Such knowledge is of two types: general knowledge expressible as heuristics or mathematical laws potentially applicable to any set of components, and specific knowledge about the way in which elements of a given set of components interrelate. Examples of both types of knowledge are presented, and a framework is proposed for integrating the knowledge into a more general and useable tool.
The Effects of Modern Mathematics Computer Games on Mathematics Achievement and Class Motivation
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kebritchi, Mansureh; Hirumi, Atsusi; Bai, Haiyan
2010-01-01
This study examined the effects of a computer game on students' mathematics achievement and motivation, and the role of prior mathematics knowledge, computer skill, and English language skill on their achievement and motivation as they played the game. A total of 193 students and 10 teachers participated in this study. The teachers were randomly…
Mathematics Stories: Preservice Teachers' Images and Experiences as Learners of Mathematics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Guillaume, Andrea M.; Kirtman, Lisa
2010-01-01
This study seeks to determine whether national trends in subject matter knowledge and in curricular experiences hold true for prospective teachers who attended K-12 schooling during the reform period. It further seeks to determine other influences on teachers' visions of mathematics and goals for themselves as mathematics teachers. Teachers' past…
Learning Mathematics or Losing Money--Betting as a Topic for Mathematical Education
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Siller, Hans-Stefan; MaaB, Jurgen
2012-01-01
No risk, no fun--betting on sports events costs the gamblers a lot of money and brings excellent profits to those who offer the bets. Among the people who bet on a regular basis, the proportion of young adults is frighteningly high. We now suggest a concept (as part of a basic mathematics course) for acquiring the necessary mathematical knowledge…
First-Year Students' Beliefs about Context Problems in Mathematics in University Science Programmes
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Drobnic Vidic, Andreja
2015-01-01
Mathematics-related beliefs play an important role in the willingness to engage in academic activities in mathematics education. Such beliefs might not be consistent with the beliefs students hold about context problems that require sufficient mathematical knowledge and the application of such knowledge to various real-life situations. This study…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Henkin, Leon; Kessner, Arthur
Reports on the development of a course in modern mathematics for elementary school teachers. The subject matter for the course is concentrated on whole numbers, integers, and rational numbers. Ideas of logic and set theory are brought into the discussion incidently as needed for developing the number systems. Part 1 of the course is a brief essay…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hadlock, Charles R
2013-01-01
The movement of groundwater in underground aquifers is an ideal physical example of many important themes in mathematical modeling, ranging from general principles (like Occam's Razor) to specific techniques (such as geometry, linear equations, and the calculus). This article gives a self-contained introduction to groundwater modeling with…
Selinger, Peter
creates a unifying formal framework in which to view and analyze existing quantum algorithm. 2.1 VirtualA Brief Survey Of Quantum Programming Languages Peter Selinger Department of Mathematics is a brief and subjective survey of quantum pro gramming language research. 1 Quantum Computation Quantum
Lange, Tanja
Elliptic Curve Cryptography Tanja Lange Department of Mathematics and Computer Science Technische Universiteit Eindhoven tanja@hyperelliptic.org 20.03.2009 Tanja Lange Elliptic Curve Cryptography -- p. 1 #12 for digital information. Tanja Lange Elliptic Curve Cryptography -- p. 2 #12; Different methods for encryption
Lewandowsky, Stephan; Ballard, Timothy; Pancost, Richard D.
2015-01-01
This issue of Philosophical Transactions examines the relationship between scientific uncertainty about climate change and knowledge. Uncertainty is an inherent feature of the climate system. Considerable effort has therefore been devoted to understanding how to effectively respond to a changing, yet uncertain climate. Politicians and the public often appeal to uncertainty as an argument to delay mitigative action. We argue that the appropriate response to uncertainty is exactly the opposite: uncertainty provides an impetus to be concerned about climate change, because greater uncertainty increases the risks associated with climate change. We therefore suggest that uncertainty can be a source of actionable knowledge. We survey the papers in this issue, which address the relationship between uncertainty and knowledge from physical, economic and social perspectives. We also summarize the pervasive psychological effects of uncertainty, some of which may militate against a meaningful response to climate change, and we provide pointers to how those difficulties may be ameliorated. PMID:26460108
Lewandowsky, Stephan; Ballard, Timothy; Pancost, Richard D
2015-11-28
This issue of Philosophical Transactions examines the relationship between scientific uncertainty about climate change and knowledge. Uncertainty is an inherent feature of the climate system. Considerable effort has therefore been devoted to understanding how to effectively respond to a changing, yet uncertain climate. Politicians and the public often appeal to uncertainty as an argument to delay mitigative action. We argue that the appropriate response to uncertainty is exactly the opposite: uncertainty provides an impetus to be concerned about climate change, because greater uncertainty increases the risks associated with climate change. We therefore suggest that uncertainty can be a source of actionable knowledge. We survey the papers in this issue, which address the relationship between uncertainty and knowledge from physical, economic and social perspectives. We also summarize the pervasive psychological effects of uncertainty, some of which may militate against a meaningful response to climate change, and we provide pointers to how those difficulties may be ameliorated. PMID:26460108
Teachers' Knowledge of Education Law
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Littleton, Mark
2008-01-01
The knowledge base of education-related law is growing at a rapid pace. The increase in federal and state statutes is rising commensurate with litigation that directs teachers on curricular, professional, and social matters. At the same time, numerous studies provide significant evidence that teachers lack an adequate level of knowledge of…
Mathematics and Engineering Mathematics & Engineering Orientation Evening
Wehlau, David
dynamics, plasma fusion reactors, control engineering, ... · Computing and Communications (M9), preparingMathematics and Engineering Mathematics & Engineering Orientation Evening Thursday, January 29, 2015 WELCOME! #12;Mathematics & Engineering Orientation Program Thursday, January 29, 2015 1. Program
Brierley, Andrew
) Mathematics and one of: Ancient History Arabic Art History Biblical Studies Classical Studies Economics Modern History Philosophy Psychology RussianW Scottish History SpanishW Theological Studies Mathematics132 Mathematics & Statistics Degree options MMath (Single Honours Degrees) Mathematics Applied
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chen, Shuang-Ye
2012-01-01
As China has appeared only recently as an important knowledge producer with growing global economic significance, little is known internationally about how these processes develop and are managed within China. The rapidly expanding Chinese higher education system is playing an increasingly important role in China's knowledge economy and therefore…
[Bachelard and the mathematical pulsation].
Guitart, René
2015-01-01
The working mathematician knows a specific gesture named « mathematical pulsation », a necessary creative moving in diagrams of thoughts and interpretations of mathematical writings. In this perspective the fact of being an object is definitely undecided, and related to the game of relations. The purpose of this paper today is to construct this pulsation, starting from the epistemology of Bachelard, concerning mathematics as well as mathematical physics. On the way, we recover links between ideas of Bachelard and more recent specific propositions by Gilles Ch-let, Charles Alunni, or René Guitart. Also are used authors like Jacques Lacan, Arthur Koestler, Alfred N. Whitehead, Charles S. Peirce. We conclude that the mathematical work consists with pulsative moving in the space of diagrams; we claim that this view is well compatible with the Bachelard's analysis of scientific knowledge: the intellectual or formal mathematical data preceeds the empirical objects, and in some sense these objects result from the pulsative gestures of the thinkers. So we finish with a categorical scheme of the pulsation. PMID:26223414
Lyuu, Yuh-Dauh
Discrete Mathematics Lecture Notes Yuh-Dauh Lyuu Dept. Computer Science & Information Engineering and Combination #15; n! = n #1; (n 1) #1; #1; #1; 1. #15; (Stirling's formula) n! #25; p 2#25;n (n=e) n and n of Approximation to n! 200 400 600 800 1.0002 1.0004 1.0006 1.0008 n! over approximation 7 #12; Proof of Stirling
A Study of Mathematics Infusion in Middle School Technology Education Classes
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Burghardt, M. David; Hecht, Deborah; Russo, Maria; Lauckhardt, James; Hacker, Michael
2010-01-01
The present study examined the impact of introducing a mathematics infused engineering/technology education (ETE) curriculum on students' mathematics content knowledge and attitudes toward mathematics. The purpose of the present study was to: (a) compare the effects of a mathematics infused ETE curriculum and a control curriculum on student…
Why Singaporean 8th Grade Students Gain Highest Mathematics Ranking in TIMSS (1999-2011)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lessani, Abdolreza; Yunus, Aida Suraya Md; Tarmiz, Rohani Ahmad; Mahmud, Rosnaini
2014-01-01
The international comparison of students' mathematics knowledge and competencies is an effective method of evaluating students' mathematics performance and developing policies to improve their achievements in mathematics. Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) are among the most well-recognized international comparisons that…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ngware, Moses W.; Ciera, James; Musyoka, Peter K.; Oketch, Moses
2015-01-01
This paper examines the contribution of quality mathematics teaching to student achievement gains. Quality of mathematics teaching is assessed through teacher demonstration of the five strands of mathematical proficiency, the level of cognitive task demands, and teacher mathematical knowledge. Data is based on 1907 grade 6 students who sat for the…
MATH 304A History of Mathematics Fall 2012 Professor: George Ashline
Ashline, George
MATH 304A History of Mathematics Fall 2012 Professor: George Ashline Office: 261 Jeanmarie Hall knowledge of mathematics and its rich history B. To describe some important developments in mathematics C reference. The second is the Project Mathematics! videotape and program guide/workbook Early History
Dilemma in Teaching Mathematics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Md Kamaruddin, Nafisah Kamariah; Md Amin, Zulkarnain
2012-01-01
The challenge in mathematics education is finding the best way to teach mathematics. When students learn the reasoning and proving in mathematics, they will be proficient in mathematics. Students must know mathematics before they can apply it. Symbolism and logic is the key to both the learning of mathematics and its effective application to…
GEK 1506 HEAVENLY MATHEMATICS 66 HEAVENLY MATHEMATICS
Aslaksen, Helmer
GEK 1506 HEAVENLY MATHEMATICS 66 GRP &Aki SP 66 GRP &Aki SP HEAVENLY MATHEMATICS GEK 1506 Sun Ghim Hui U024718X Lim ShuEn Adele U024757W Lim Wee Kee U024699E #12;GEK 1506 HEAVENLY MATHEMATICS 66 Heliodons 5.4 Usefulness 5.5 Theory and Application of Our Model #12;GEK 1506 HEAVENLY MATHEMATICS 66 GRP
Supporting English Language Learners' Development of Mathematical Literacy
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Roberts, Sarah A.
2009-01-01
In an increasingly technological economy, in order to participate, individuals have to be mathematically literate, which means they must have opportunities to learn mathematics. However, access to mathematics has not always been universal. Traditionally, mathematics classrooms have been places where only a small, select group of individuals, who…
Pre-service Teachers' Knowledge of Algebra Teaching for Equity
Anderson, Latoya
2013-12-09
This study examined validity and reliability of an instrument used to measure the cultural awareness beliefs and problem-solving strategies of pre-service mathematics teachers created by the Knowledge for Teaching Algebra ...
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bajah, S. T.
This report is a case study of the shortage of science and mathematics teachers in Nigeria. The paper begins with a discussion of the Nigerian educational system, including the place of science and mathematics in the school system, and the shortage of science and mathematics teachers. Programs undertaken to increase the number of science and…
Mathematical Models for Doppler Measurements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lear, William M.
1987-01-01
Error analysis increases precision of navigation. Report presents improved mathematical models of analysis of Doppler measurements and measurement errors of spacecraft navigation. To take advantage of potential navigational accuracy of Doppler measurements, precise equations relate measured cycle count to position and velocity. Drifts and random variations in transmitter and receiver oscillator frequencies taken into account. Mathematical models also adapted to aircraft navigation, radar, sonar, lidar, and interferometry.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pitroda, Sam
2007-04-01
India's National Knowledge Commission (NKC) established by the prime minister is focused on building institutions and infrastructure in Education, Science and Technology, Innovation etc. to meet the challenges of the knowledge economy in the 21st century and increase India's competitive advantage in the global market. India today stands poised to reap the benefits of a rapidly growing economy and a major demographic advantage, with 550 million young people below the age of 25 years, the largest in the world. The NKC is focused on five critical areas of knowledge related to access, concepts, creation, applications and services. This includes a variety of subject areas such as language, translations, libraries, networks, portals, affirmative action, distance learning, intellectual property, Entrepreneurship, application in Agriculture, health, small and medium scale industries, e-governance etc. One of the keys to this effort is to build a national broadband gigabit of networks of 500 nodes to connect universities, Libraries, Laboratories, Hospitals, Agriculture institutions etc. to share resources and collaborate on multidisciplinary activities. This presentation will introduce the NKC, discuss methodology, subject areas, specific recommendation and outline a plan to build knowledge networks and specifics on network architecture, applications, and utilities.
Hare, Mary; Jones, Michael; Thomson, Caroline; Kelly, Sarah; McRae, Ken
2009-01-01
An increasing number of results in sentence and discourse processing demonstrate that comprehension relies on rich pragmatic knowledge about real-world events, and that incoming words incrementally activate such knowledge. If so, then even outside of any larger context, nouns should activate knowledge of the generalized events that they denote or typically play a role in. We used short stimulus onset asynchrony priming to demonstrate that (1) event nouns prime people (sale-shopper) and objects (trip-luggage) commonly found at those events; (2) location nouns prime people/animals (hospital-doctor) and objects (barn-hay) commonly found at those locations; and (3) instrument nouns prime things on which those instruments are commonly used (key-door), but not the types of people who tend to use them (hose-gardener). The priming effects are not due to normative word association. On our account, facilitation results from event knowledge relating primes and targets. This has much in common with computational models like LSA or BEAGLE in which one word primes another if they frequently occur in similar contexts. LSA predicts priming for all six experiments, whereas BEAGLE correctly predicted that priming should not occur for the instrument-people relation but should occur for the other five. We conclude that event-based relations are encoded in semantic memory and computed as part of word meaning, and have a strong influence on language comprehension. PMID:19298961
Edwards, A W F
2011-03-01
Ernst Mayr called the first part of the evolutionary synthesis the 'Fisherian synthesis' on account of the dominant role played by R.A. Fisher in forging a mathematical theory of natural selection together with J.B.S. Haldane and Sewall Wright in the decade 1922-1932. It is here argued that Fisher's contribution relied on a close reading of Darwin's work to a much greater extent than did the contributions of Haldane and Wright, that it was synthetic in contrast to their analytic approach and that it was greatly influenced by his friendship with the Darwin family, particularly with Charles's son Leonard. PMID:21423339
Aslaksen, Helmer
____________________________________________________For Heavenly Mathematics: Astrobox ~ Contents 1 #12;____________________________________________________For Heavenly Mathematics: Astrobox ~ Contents 1 #12;____________________________________________________For Heavenly Mathematics: Astrobox
The representation of knowledge within model-based control systems
Weygand, D.P.; Koul, R.
1987-01-01
Representation of knowledge in artificially intelligent systems is discussed. Types of knowledge that might need to be represented in AI systems are listed, and include knowledge about objects, events, knowledge about how to do things, and knowledge about what human beings know (meta-knowledge). The use of knowledge in AI systems is discussed in terms of acquiring and retrieving knowledge and reasoning about known facts. Different kinds of reasonings or representations are ghen described with some examples given. These include formal reasoning or logical representation, which is related to mathematical logic, production systems, which are based on the idea of condition-action pairs (production), procedural reasoning, which uses pre-formed plans to solve problems, frames, which provide a structure for representing knowledge in an organized manner, direct analogical representations, which represent knowledge in such a manner that permits some observation without deduction. (LEW)
KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT FOR TERMINOLOGY-INTENSIVE APPLICATIONS: NEEDS AND TOOLS
KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT FOR TERMINOLOGY-INTENSIVE APPLICATIONS: NEEDS AND TOOLS lngrid Meyer required for producing high-quality terminology. This problem will become increasingly significant as term banks evolve into knowledge bases. Knowledge management for terminology-intensive activities
Preservice Primary School Teachers' Elementary Geometry Knowledge
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Marchis, Iuliana
2012-01-01
Geometrical notions and properties occur in real-world problems, thus Geometry has an important place in school Mathematics curricula. Primary school curricula lays the foundation of Geometry knowledge, pupils learn Geometry notions and properties by exploring their environment. Thus it is very important that primary school teachers have a good…
Prospective Elementary Teachers' Knowledge of Fraction Division
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lo, Jane-Jane; Luo, Fenqjen
2012-01-01
Prospective elementary teachers must understand fraction division deeply in order to meaningfully teach this topic to their future students. This paper explores the nature of the subject content knowledge of fraction division possessed by a group of Taiwanese prospective elementary teachers at the beginning of their mathematics methods course. The…
Bird Boxes Build Content Area Knowledge
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cianca, Sherri Ann
2013-01-01
This article describes a preservice teacher training in line with meeting the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM) using geometric reasoning, spatial sense, measurement, representation, communication, and problem solving. The author infers that when preservice teachers lack pedagogical content knowledge they cannot successfully…
Human Infants' Preference for Left-to-Right Oriented Increasing Numerical Sequences
de Hevia, Maria Dolores; Girelli, Luisa; Addabbo, Margaret; Macchi Cassia, Viola
2014-01-01
While associations between number and space, in the form of a spatially oriented numerical representation, have been extensively reported in human adults, the origins of this phenomenon are still poorly understood. The commonly accepted view is that this number-space association is a product of human invention, with accounts proposing that culture, symbolic knowledge, and mathematics education are at the roots of this phenomenon. Here we show that preverbal infants aged 7 months, who lack symbolic knowledge and mathematics education, show a preference for increasing magnitude displayed in a left-to-right spatial orientation. Infants habituated to left-to-right oriented increasing or decreasing numerical sequences showed an overall higher looking time to new left-to-right oriented increasing numerical sequences at test (Experiment 1). This pattern did not hold when infants were presented with the same ordinal numerical information displayed from right to left (Experiment 2). The different pattern of results was congruent with the presence of a malleable, context-dependent baseline preference for increasing, left-to-right oriented, numerosities (Experiment 3). These findings are suggestive of an early predisposition in humans to link numerical order with a left-to-right spatial orientation, which precedes the acquisition of symbolic abilities, mathematics education, and the acquisition of reading and writing skills. PMID:24802083
Mathematics, the Computer, and the Impact on Mathematics Education.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tooke, D. James
2001-01-01
Discusses the connection between mathematics and the computer; mathematics curriculum; mathematics instruction, including teachers learning to use computers; and the impact of the computer on learning mathematics. (LRW)
Interest in mathematics and science among students having high mathematics aptitude
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ely, Jane Alice
The study investigates why men and women differ in their interest in mathematics and science and in the pursuit of careers in mathematics and science. The most persistent gender differential in educational standard testing is the scores in mathematics achievement. The mean Scholastic Aptitude Test (Mathematics) scores for women are consistently below that of men by about 40 points. One result of this gender differential in mathematics is that few women entertain a career requiring a robust knowledge of higher mathematics (i.e. engineering, computing, or the physical sciences). A large body of literature has been written attempting to explain why this is happening. Biological, cultural, structural and psychological explanations have been suggested and empirically examined. Controlling for mathematical ability is one method of sorting out these explanations. Eliminating mathematical ability as a factor, this dissertation reports the results of a study of men and women college students who all had high mathematics ability. Thus, any differences we found among them would have to be a result of other variables. Using a Mathematics Placement Exam and the SAT-M, forty-two students (12 males and 30 females) with high scores in both were interviewed. Student were asked about their experiences in high school and college mathematics, their career choices, and their attitudes toward mathematics. The findings, that there were no gender differences in the course selection, attitudes towards mathematics, and career choice, differed from my initial expectations. This negative finding suggests that women with high ability in mathematics are just as likely as men to pursue interests in mathematics and related courses in college and in selecting careers.
Mathematical leadership vision.
Hamburger, Y A
2000-11-01
This article is an analysis of a new type of leadership vision, the kind of vision that is becoming increasingly pervasive among leaders in the modern world. This vision appears to offer a new horizon, whereas, in fact it delivers to its target audience a finely tuned version of the already existing ambitions and aspirations of the target audience. The leader, with advisors, has examined the target audience and has used the results of extensive research and statistical methods concerning the group to form a picture of its members' lifestyles and values. On the basis of this information, the leader has built a "vision." The vision is intended to create an impression of a charismatic and transformational leader when, in fact, it is merely a response. The systemic, arithmetic, and statistical methods employed in this operation have led to the coining of the terms mathematical leader and mathematical vision. PMID:11092414
Brierley, Andrew
ItalianW Latin Mediaeval History Mathematics& Statistics Psychology www.st-andrews.ac.uk/maths Mathematics with SpanishW School of Mathematics & Statistics Physics Psychology Philosophy* Psychology Modern History122 Mathematics & Statistics Degree options MMath (Single Honours Degrees) Mathematics Applied
Knowledge translation of research findings
2012-01-01
Background One of the most consistent findings from clinical and health services research is the failure to translate research into practice and policy. As a result of these evidence-practice and policy gaps, patients fail to benefit optimally from advances in healthcare and are exposed to unnecessary risks of iatrogenic harms, and healthcare systems are exposed to unnecessary expenditure resulting in significant opportunity costs. Over the last decade, there has been increasing international policy and research attention on how to reduce the evidence-practice and policy gap. In this paper, we summarise the current concepts and evidence to guide knowledge translation activities, defined as T2 research (the translation of new clinical knowledge into improved health). We structure the article around five key questions: what should be transferred; to whom should research knowledge be transferred; by whom should research knowledge be transferred; how should research knowledge be transferred; and, with what effect should research knowledge be transferred? Discussion We suggest that the basic unit of knowledge translation should usually be up-to-date systematic reviews or other syntheses of research findings. Knowledge translators need to identify the key messages for different target audiences and to fashion these in language and knowledge translation products that are easily assimilated by different audiences. The relative importance of knowledge translation to different target audiences will vary by the type of research and appropriate endpoints of knowledge translation may vary across different stakeholder groups. There are a large number of planned knowledge translation models, derived from different disciplinary, contextual (i.e., setting), and target audience viewpoints. Most of these suggest that planned knowledge translation for healthcare professionals and consumers is more likely to be successful if the choice of knowledge translation strategy is informed by an assessment of the likely barriers and facilitators. Although our evidence on the likely effectiveness of different strategies to overcome specific barriers remains incomplete, there is a range of informative systematic reviews of interventions aimed at healthcare professionals and consumers (i.e., patients, family members, and informal carers) and of factors important to research use by policy makers. Summary There is a substantial (if incomplete) evidence base to guide choice of knowledge translation activities targeting healthcare professionals and consumers. The evidence base on the effects of different knowledge translation approaches targeting healthcare policy makers and senior managers is much weaker but there are a profusion of innovative approaches that warrant further evaluation. PMID:22651257
Applied Mathematics Calculus and Analysis
Quirion, Guy
Geometry History and Terminology Number Theory Probability and Statistics Recreational Mathematics TopologyAlgebra Applied Mathematics Calculus and Analysis Discrete Mathematics Foundations of Mathematics
Symposium on Mathematical Cognition AISB2010 If learning maths requires a
Sloman, Aaron
on Synthetic A priori Knowledge (e.g. mathematical knowledge). Immanuel Kant wrote: "There can be no doubt, thinking, thinking about thinking...) AISB2010 MathCog Slide 4 Last revised: May 6, 2010 #12;Kant
CLIMATE CHANGE: STATE OF KNOWLEDGE
This State of Knowledge document presents an introduction to human effects that during the past 100 years have led to increased atmospheric levels of greenhouse gases and corresponding increases in global temperatures. The world's leading climate scientists have concluded that Ea...
On the Limitations of Biological Knowledge
Dougherty, Edward R; Shmulevich, Ilya
2012-01-01
Scientific knowledge is grounded in a particular epistemology and, owing to the requirements of that epistemology, possesses limitations. Some limitations are intrinsic, in the sense that they depend inherently on the nature of scientific knowledge; others are contingent, depending on the present state of knowledge, including technology. Understanding limitations facilitates scientific research because one can then recognize when one is confronted by a limitation, as opposed to simply being unable to solve a problem within the existing bounds of possibility. In the hope that the role of limiting factors can be brought more clearly into focus and discussed, we consider several sources of limitation as they apply to biological knowledge: mathematical complexity, experimental constraints, validation, knowledge discovery, and human intellectual capacity. PMID:23633917
Wissensverarbeitung Knowledge Representation-Knowledge Representation -
in the introductory slides). Uncertain relations Uncertain relations if I drink tap water in Ghana I might get- #12;Types of KnowledgeTypes of Knowledge Generalized relationships:p Rules, for example, all fishes
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wiggins, Noelle
2010-01-01
Popular education is a mode of teaching and learning which seeks to bring about more equitable social conditions by creating settings in which people can identify and solve their own problems. While the public health literature offers evidence to suggest that popular education is an effective strategy for increasing empowerment and improving…
Design knowledge capture for the space station
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Crouse, K. R.; Wechsler, D. B.
1987-01-01
The benefits of design knowledge availability are identifiable and pervasive. The implementation of design knowledge capture and storage using current technology increases the probability for success, while providing for a degree of access compatibility with future applications. The space station design definition should be expanded to include design knowledge. Design knowledge should be captured. A critical timing relationship exists between the space station development program, and the implementation of this project.
Maini, Philip K.
Mathematical Modelling of Zombies Robert Smith? University of Ottawa Press #12;Robert Smith? Mathematical Modelling of Zombies University of Ottawa Press|2014 #12;The University of Ottawa Press. Library and Archives Canada Cataloguing in Publication Mathematical modelling of zombies / edited
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kasturirangan, Rajesh
2014-07-01
Mathematics is a human pursuit. Whether the truths of mathematics lie outside the human mind or emerge out of it, the actual practice of mathematics is conducted by human beings. In other words, human mathematics is the only kind of mathematics that we can pursue and human mathematics has to be built on top of cognitive capacities that are possessed by all human beings. Another way of stating the same claim is that mathematics is experienced by human beings using their cognitive capacities. This paper argues that exploring the experience of mathematics is a useful way to make headway on the foundations of mathematics. Focusing on the experience of mathematics is an empirical approach to the study of mathematics that sidesteps some of the thorniest debates from an earlier era about Platonism and Formalism in the foundations of mathematics.
Wehlau, David
Mathematics and Engineering Applied Mechanics Computing and Communications Systems and Robotics #12;Mathematics and Engineering Integrated Learning Centre Modern communications, control, electrical, mechanical, and mechatronic systems require sophisticated mathematical models and analysis. This unique engineering program
A Graph Theoretic Mathematical Model for Alzheimer's disease
Baras, John S.
A Graph Theoretic Mathematical Model for Alzheimer's disease Using a systems biology approach Engineering University of Maryland College Park, MD, US baras@umd.edu Abstract-- Alzheimer's disease array of knowledge about individual molecules and genetics involved with the disease
Awareness of Pattern and Structure in Early Mathematical Development
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mulligan, Joanne; Mitchelmore, Michael
2009-01-01
Recent educational research has turned increasing attention to the structural development of young students' mathematical thinking. Early algebra, multiplicative reasoning, and spatial structuring are three areas central to this research. There is increasing evidence that an awareness of mathematical structure is crucial to mathematical competence…
Doctoring the Knowledge Worker
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tennant, Mark
2004-01-01
In this paper I examine the impact of the new 'knowledge economy' on contemporary doctoral education. I argue that the knowledge economy promotes a view of knowledge and knowledge workers that fundamentally challenges the idea of a university as a community of autonomous scholars transmitting and adding to society's 'stock of knowledge'. The paper…