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1

Using Children's Mathematical Knowledge.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A new approach to teaching and curriculum takes seriously the knowledge children have when they enter school. Teachers use the knowledge each child has to make instructional decisions so that the child learns mathematics with understanding, how to solve problems, and the computational skills. Research concerning the problem-solving strategies…

Peterson, Penelope L.; And Others

2

Transfer of Mathematical Knowledge: Series  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study is to explain students' ability to transfer their knowledge about mathematical series to the problems that they encounter. The data of the study were obtained by using two different tests, namely "Problem Solving Test (PST)" and "Series Character Identification Test (SCT)" which were developed by the researchers. The study…

Akgun, Levent; Isik, Cemalettin; Tatar, Enver; Isleyen, Tevfik; Soylu, Yasin

2012-01-01

3

Reconceptualizing Knowledge at the Mathematical Horizon  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article extends the notion of "knowledge at the mathematical horizon" or "horizon knowledge" introduced by Ball and colleagues as a part of teachers' subject matter knowledge. Our focus is on teachers' mathematical knowledge beyond the school curriculum, that is, on mathematics learnt during undergraduate college or university studies. We…

Zazkis, Rina; Mamolo, Ami

2011-01-01

4

Mathematical Knowledge and the Problem of Proof.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents examples and reflections hinting at the role of formal thought in the process of knowledge growth. Discusses proof, language, and mathematics; knowledge as form versus development; the difference between concept and object; how mathematical texts can be improved; and geometry and the idea of diagrammatic reasoning. (Contains 36…

Otte, Michael

1994-01-01

5

Elementary Mathematics Teachers' Knowledge of Equity Pedagogy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Currently, mathematics instruction in U.S. classrooms is far from achieving equity for African American students. This qualitative study reports the results of eight successful elementary mathematics teachers' knowledge of equity pedagogy, specifically their knowledge of culturally relevant pedagogy, cultural competence, and critical…

Jackson, Christa

2013-01-01

6

Depth of Teachers' Knowledge: Frameworks for Teachers' Knowledge of Mathematics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes seven teacher knowledge frameworks and relates these frameworks to the teaching and assessment of elementary teacher's mathematics knowledge. The frameworks classify teachers' knowledge and provide a vocabulary and common language through which knowledge can be discussed and assessed. These frameworks are categorized into…

Holmes, Vicki-Lynn

2012-01-01

7

Connected Knowledge in Science and Mathematics Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

While the traditional meaning of connected knowledge is valuable in some school subjects, it does not address the main activities of knowledge acquisition in subjects such as physics and mathematics. The goal of this article is to analyze the relationships between the concepts ``learning for understanding'' and ``connected knowledge'', a central theme in feminist epistemology. In learning for understanding, the

Anat Zohar

2006-01-01

8

Considering Indigenous Knowledges and Mathematics Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Across Canada, significant program changes in school mathematics have been made that encourage teachers to consider Aboriginal perspectives. In this article, I investigate one Aboriginal teacher's approaches to integrating Indigenous knowledges and the mandated mathematics curriculum in a Blackfoot First Nation school. Using a framework that…

Sterenberg, Gladys

2013-01-01

9

Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching Fraction Multiplication  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study contrasts mathematical knowledge that two sixth-grade teachers apparently used when teaching fraction multiplication with the Connected Mathematics Project materials. The analysis concentrated on those tasks from the materials that use drawings to represent fractions as length or area quantities. Examining the two teachers'…

Izsak, Andrew

2008-01-01

10

Preservice Secondary Mathematics Teachers' Knowledge of Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this paper is to present the nature of preservice secondary mathematics teachers' knowledge of students as emerged from a study investigating the development of their pedagogical content knowledge in a methods course and its associated field experience. Six preservice teachers participated in the study and the data were collected in the…

Kilic, Hulya

2011-01-01

11

A History of Mathematics Course to Develop Prospective Secondary Mathematics Teachers' Knowledge for Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors describe ways in which a history of mathematics course can help prospective teachers of mathematics develop knowledge they will need for teaching. The types of knowledge include content knowledge of mathematics, knowledge of mathematics for teaching, and pedagogical knowledge.

Huntley, Mary Ann; Flores, Alfinio

2010-01-01

12

Identifying the borders of mathematical knowledge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on a divide and conquer approach, knowledge about nature has been organized into a set of interrelated facts, allowing a natural representation in terms of graphs: each 'chunk' of knowledge corresponds to a node, while relationships between such chunks are expressed as edges. This organization becomes particularly clear in the case of mathematical theorems, with their intense cross-implications and relationships. We have derived a web of mathematical theorems from Wikipedia and, thanks to the powerful concept of entropy, identified its more central and frontier elements. Our results also suggest that the central nodes are the oldest theorems, while the frontier nodes are those recently added to the network. The network communities have also been identified, allowing further insights about the organization of this network, such as its highly modular structure.

Nascimento Silva, Filipi; Travençolo, Bruno A. N.; Viana, Matheus P.; da Fontoura Costa, Luciano

2010-08-01

13

Views of Content and Pedagogical Knowledges for Teaching Mathematics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Multiple views have been presented on how mathematical content knowledge should be taught in order to ensure quality instruction in the classroom. However, the ability to teach mathematics content is influenced by general pedagogy, pedagogical content knowledge and mathematical content knowledge. Nevertheless, all pedagogical competencies and…

Piccolo, Diana

2008-01-01

14

Knowledge of Nontraditional Careers Increases.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1996, the effectiveness of New Jersey's Perkins Act-funded single parent/displaced homemaker and gender equity programs in increasing clients' knowledge of nontraditional careers was evaluated through a 60-question survey that was administered to all clients before each program began and 6 weeks after completion of those portions of the…

New Jersey Research Bulletin, 1996

1996-01-01

15

Measuring Teachers' Mathematical Knowledge. CSE Technical Report 696  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teachers' knowledge of mathematics is pivotal to their capacity to provide effective mathematics instruction and to their ability to assess student learning (Ball, Hill, & Bass, 2005; Ma, 1999; Schifter, 1999). The National Council for the Teaching of Mathematics (NCTM, 2000) makes it clear that teachers need knowledge of the whole domain as well…

Heritage, Margaret; Vendlinski, Terry

2006-01-01

16

Standards-Based Mathematics Training To Improve Teacher's Content Knowledge and Enhance Parental Support for Student Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this research is to provide elementary mathematics teachers strategies that will enhance their knowledge of standards-based mathematics content and pedagogy and to increase parents' and homework help-line employees' knowledge of standards-based mathematics concepts. Teacher participation in standards-based mathematics activities is…

Bailey, Lora B.

17

The Significance of Mathematical Knowledge in Teaching Elementary Methods Courses: Perspectives of Mathematics Teacher Educators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Our study investigates perspectives of mathematics teacher educators related to the usage of their mathematical knowledge in teaching "Methods of Teaching Elementary Mathematics" courses. Five mathematics teacher educators, all with experience in teaching methods courses for prospective elementary school teachers, participated in this study. In a…

Zazkis, Rina; Zazkis, Dov

2011-01-01

18

CONSTRUCTING PEDAGOGICAL CONTENT KNOWLEDGE FROM STUDENTS' WRITING IN SECONDARY MATHEMATICS  

Microsoft Academic Search

One field of knowledge important to effective teaching is pedagogical content knowledge. With experience, teachers become aware of how students comprehend or typically misconstrue mathematical concepts, skills, and generalizations. They become aware of common misconceptions and \\

L Diane Miller

1991-01-01

19

Constructing pedagogical content knowledge from students' writing in secondary mathematics  

Microsoft Academic Search

One field of knowledge important to effective teaching is pedagogical content knowledge. With experience, teachers become aware of how students comprehend or typically misconstrue mathematical concepts, skills, and generalizations. They become aware of common misconceptions and \\

L. Diane Miller

1991-01-01

20

Public knowledge about AIDS increasing.  

PubMed

In response to concern over the perceived limited effectiveness of Department of Health and Social Security (UK) advertising campaigns to inform the public of the basic facts of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS), a prospective questionnaire study was undertaken in Southampton, England to test the effectiveness of government education prior to a January, 1987 government television/leaflet advertising campaign. 300 questionnaires about AIDS were mailed in December of 1986 to a sample drawn from electoral rolls. The response rate was 61%. Most of the questions were drawn from material covered in the campaign. The results seemed to indicate a small overall increase in knowledge about AIDS. Some changes from a June survey were noted, e.g.: more people were aware that AIDS is a virus for which there is no cure and that it is not readily transmitted by sharing washing, eating or drinking utensils; more people believed that the statement that women are at greater risk for catching AIDS is false. Respondents were generally favorable to the government's continued use of television, even with explicit language, and to its use of the schools, for AIDS education. Many were not aware of the dangers to intravenous drug users or of the symptoms of AIDS. Other surveys have shown an increasing knowledge of AIDS dangers. It is possible that television coverage of the problem will continue to be necessary, in order that less literate populations be reached. Further AIDS health education in general is needed. PMID:3105789

Campbell, M J; Waters, W E

1987-04-01

21

Examining Mathematics Teacher Content Knowledge: Policy and Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines mathematics teacher content knowledge in terms of state and national policymaker recommendations, college coursework and the Mathematics Texas Examination of Educator Standards (TExES) score. Results indicate differences between state and national policy recommendations and college degrees in mathematics. A statistically…

Esprivalo Harrell, Pamela; Eddy, Colleen McLean

2012-01-01

22

Relationships between Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching and Teaching Practice: The Case of Proof  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teachers of mathematics orchestrate opportunities for interactions between learners and subject matter. Therefore, mathematics teachers need rich, multidimensional content knowledge for teaching mathematics, which incorporates knowledge of the subject matter, students, and teaching. Studying this mathematical knowledge for teaching (MKT)…

Steele, Michael D.; Cervello Rogers, Kimberly

2012-01-01

23

Mathematical Knowledge: Its Growth through Teaching. Mathematics Education Library, Volume 10.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book presents issues concerning relationships between mathematical knowledge and the teaching and learning processes, focusing especially on the genesis of mathematical knowledge in the classroom. The chapter titles are: (1) The Fragility of Knowledge (Guy Brousseau and Michael Otte); (2) The Double Bind as a Didactical Trap (Stieg…

Bishop, Alan J., Ed.; And Others

24

Preservice Elementary Teachers' Mathematics Content Knowledge and Teacher Efficacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between mathematics content knowledge and teacher efficacy during an elementary mathematics methods course. A positive moderate relationship between content knowledge and personal teaching efficacy was found, and this relationship was stable during the course. No relationship was found…

Newton, Kristie Jones; Leonard, Jacqueline; Evans, Brian R.; Eastburn, Julie A.

2012-01-01

25

Elementary Teachers' Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching Prerequisite Algebra Concepts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study investigated the effects of an undergraduate mathematics content course for pre-service elementary teachers. The participants' content knowledge was quantitatively measured using an instrument comprised of items from the Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching Measures (Hill, Schilling, & Ball, 2004). Using a one-group…

Welder, Rachael M.; Simonsen, Linda M.

2011-01-01

26

Building Mathematical Knowledge in an Authentic Mobile Phone Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although many researchers have examined knowledge building in traditional settings and distance learning, few have examined middle school students' building of mathematical knowledge using mobile phones. The present study uses two well-known models of knowledge building to carry out the examination: the interactive analysis model of knowledge

Daher, Wajeeh

2010-01-01

27

How Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching May Profit from the Study of History of Mathematics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this theoretical article, we aim at theorizing the old statement that mathematics teachers might profit from studying the history of mathematics. We do this by drawing upon the theoretical framework of mathematical knowledge for teaching (MKT). A selection of international studies on the history and pedagogy of mathematics is used as starting points for discussing how the different domains of teachers' MKT—to a larger or smaller degree—can profit from the history of mathematics.

Mosvold, Reidar; Jakobsen, Arne; Jankvist, Uffe Thomas

2013-07-01

28

Selecting and Sequencing Mathematics Tasks: Seeking Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, I present an initial analysis of an empirical study that was undertaken in an attempt to elicit what subject-matter knowledge, pedagogic content knowledge and curriculum knowledge teachers bring to bear on decisions for teaching. The analysis is based on interview data with 46 Grade 3 teachers, who were presented with two…

Galant, Jaamia

2013-01-01

29

An Investigation of Relationships between Students' Mathematical Problem-Posing Abilities and Their Mathematical Content Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The importance of students' problem-posing abilities in mathematics has been emphasized in the K-12 curricula in the USA and China. There are claims that problem-posing activities are helpful in developing creative approaches to mathematics. At the same time, there are also claims that students' mathematical content knowledge could be highly…

Van Harpen, Xianwei Y.; Presmeg, Norma C.

2013-01-01

30

A Case Study of the Mathematical Learning of Two Teachers Acquiring Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study offers an analysis of the learning of practicing teachers as they acquire a deeper knowledge of mathematics. While some professional developers have shifted part of their focus to helping practicing teachers acquire a deeper knowledge of mathematics (e.g., Stein & Silver, 1996), the results from studies often describe what translates…

Hartman, David R.

2010-01-01

31

Assessing Knowledge of Mathematical Equivalence: A Construct-Modeling Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Knowledge of mathematical equivalence, the principle that 2 sides of an equation represent the same value, is a foundational concept in algebra, and this knowledge develops throughout elementary and middle school. Using a construct-modeling approach, we developed an assessment of equivalence knowledge. Second through sixth graders (N = 175)…

Rittle-Johnson, Bethany; Matthews, Percival G.; Taylor, Roger S.; McEldoon, Katherine L.

2011-01-01

32

Expertise in Mathematics Instruction: Subject Matter Knowledge.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The organization and content of subject matter knowledge of arithmetic teachers was explored. Experienced and beginning fourth grade teachers were observed. They were evaluated on their lessons to teach fractions. Implications of their knowledge differences were discussed. (DWH)

Leinhardt, Gaea; Smith, Donald A.

1985-01-01

33

The mathematical knowledge of physics graduates: Primary data and conclusions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this study, researchers made systematic observations were made of the mathematical knowledge of physics students from the US and other countries during their first years of graduate study at Ohio University.

Breitenberger, Ernst

2006-05-23

34

Changes in School Mathematics Knowledge in Greece: A Bernsteinian Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this paper is to critically examine the changes that took place in school mathematics knowledge for pupils aged six and seven (first grade of Greek elementary school) and its pedagogical approach, which took shape following the reforms of the mathematics curricula in 1982 and 2003. Our analysis is based on Bernstein's theoretical…

Koustourakis, Gerasimos; Zacharos, Konstantinos

2011-01-01

35

Preservice Teachers' Subject Matter Knowledge of Mathematics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sixty four preservice teachers taking a mathematics methods class for middle schools were given 3 math problems: multiply a three digit number by a two digit number; divide a whole number by a fraction; and compare the volume of two cylinders made in different ways from the same rectangular sheet. They were to a) solve them, explaining their…

Menon, Ramakrishnan

2009-01-01

36

Preservice Teachers' Knowledge of Proof by Mathematical Induction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is a growing effort to make "proof" central to all students' mathematical experiences across all grades. Success in this goal depends highly on teachers' knowledge of proof, but limited research has examined this knowledge. This paper contributes to this domain of research by investigating preservice elementary and secondary school…

Stylianides, Gabriel J.; Stylianides, Andreas J.; Philippou, George N.

2007-01-01

37

Concepts for Cooperative Knowledge Spaces in Mathematics and Natural Sciences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cooperative knowledge spaces have a high potential to improve eLTR (eLearning, eTeaching and eResearch) at universities. Since there are few implementations deployed, notably in the fields of mathematics, natural sciences, and engineering, we propose a concept for field-specific knowledge spaces for those disciplines -\\

Sabine Cikic; Uwe Sinha; Sabina Jeschke

2006-01-01

38

Exploring Kindergarten Teachers' Pedagogical Content Knowledge of Mathematics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to assess 81 kindergarten teachers' pedagogical content knowledge of mathematics on six subcategory areas such as number sense, pattern, ordering, shapes, spatial sense, and comparison. The data showed participants possessed a higher level of pedagogical content knowledge of "number sense" (M = 89.12) compared to…

Lee, Joohi

2010-01-01

39

CONSTRUCTING PEDAGOGICAL KNOWLEDGE OF PROBLEM SOLVING: PRESERVICE MATHEMATICS TEACHERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper reports a study of the knowledge preservice secondary school mathematics teachers (PSSMT) hold of problem solving and the role of a reflective-inquiry approach in creating self-awareness of, and in enhancing, this knowledge. The approach included solving problems, narratives, flow charts and observations. The finding shows that the participants were able to construct a deeper understanding of problem solving.

Olive Chapman

40

Mathematical Knowledge and School Work. A Case Study of the Teaching of Developing Mathematical Processes (DMP).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the aspirations of the Developing Mathematical Processes (DMP) program and sought to ascertain the extent to which it has been implemented in observed classrooms. DMP was intended to reshape conceptions of mathematical knowledge and school work and to create a pedagogy in which children would be active in creating and testing…

Stephens, W. M.; Romberg, T. A.

41

Mathematical Knowledge and School Work: A Case Study of the Teaching of Developing Mathematical Processes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study considered the meaning that was given to knowing/doing mathematics in classrooms comprising the observational study conducted by the Wisconsin Center for Education Research during 1978-81. The study interprets the work of teachers and students, and considers what constitutes appropriate mathematical knowledge for children to learn. A…

Stephens, Walter Maxwell

42

The Cognitive Blending of Mathematics and Physics Knowledge  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Numbers, variables, and equations are used differently in a physics class than in a pure mathematics class. In physics, these symbols not only obey formal mathematical rules but also carry physical ideas and relations. This paper focuses on modeling how this combination of physical and mathematical knowledge is constructed. The cognitive blending framework highlights both the different ways this combination can occur and the emergence of new insights and meaning that follows such a combination. After an introduction to the blending framework itself, several examples from undergraduate physics students' work are analyzed.

Bing, Thomas J.; Redish, Edward F.

2007-11-25

43

Constructing Mathematical Knowledge: Epistemology and Mathematics Education. Studies in Mathematics Education Series: 4.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book illustrates the breadth of theoretical and philosophical perspectives that can be brought to bear on mathematics and education. Part 1, "Constructivism and the Learning of Mathematics," contains the following chapters: (1) "A Radical Constructivist View of Basic Mathematical Concepts" (E. von Glasersfeld); (2) "Interaction and Children's…

Ernest, Paul, Ed.

44

Constructing pedagogical content knowledge from students’ writing in secondary mathematics  

Microsoft Academic Search

One field of knowledge important to effective teaching is pedagogical content knowledge. With experience, teachers become\\u000a aware of how students comprehend or typically misconstrue mathematical concepts, skills, and generalizations. They become\\u000a aware of common misconceptions and “buggy algorithms” constructed by students and of the stages of understanding that students\\u000a are likely to pass through in moving from a state of

L. Diane Miller

1991-01-01

45

Facilitating Peer Interactions in Learning Mathematics: Teachers' Practical Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on teachers? practical knowledge [PK] about peer interactions [PI] in learning mathematics. The focus is on high school teachers who consistently engaged students PI in their teaching. Data consisted of interviews and classroom observations. Findings indicate that these teachers have PK of students? roles in PI and learning…

Chapman, Olive

2004-01-01

46

Spontaneous Use of Conceptual Mathematical Knowledge in Elementary School Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Why children under 10 years do not use their mathematics knowledge to build a shortcut strategy to solve inversion problems was studied with 88 elementary school students in Munich (Germany). Most could use the shortcut but did so only when it did not compete with a more familiar strategy. (SLD)

Stern, Elsbeth

1992-01-01

47

Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching and Task Unfolding: An Exploratory Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although teachers' knowledge is thought to contribute to the selection and implementation of mathematical tasks, empirical evidence supporting this claim is scarce. To investigate this relationship and understand its nature, this exploratory study examines the unfolding of tasks in a series of lessons led by 2 elementary school teachers who…

Charalambous, Charalambos Y.

2010-01-01

48

Measuring Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching Fractions with Drawn Quantities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Researchers have recently used traditional item response theory (IRT) models to measure mathematical knowledge for teaching (MKT). Some studies (e.g., Hill, 2007; Izsak, Orrill, Cohen, & Brown, 2010), however, have reported subgroups when measuring middle-grades teachers' MKT, and such groups violate a key assumption of IRT models. This study…

Izsak, Andrew; Jacobson, Erik; de Araujo, Zandra; Orrill, Chandra Hawley

2012-01-01

49

A "Knowledge Quartet" Used to Identify a Second-Year Pre-Service Teacher's Primary Mathematical Content Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper draws on observation of a primary mathematics lesson prepared and taught by a second-year pre-service teacher who lacked mathematical content knowledge. A "knowledge quartet" (Rowland, Turner, Thwaites, & Huckstep, 2009) was used to investigate when and how a pre-service teacher drew on their knowledge of mathematics during primary…

Livy, Sharyn

2010-01-01

50

Processes and Pathways: How Do Mathematics and Science Partnerships Measure and Promote Growth in Teacher Content Knowledge?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intense focus on student achievement results in mathematics and science has brought about claims that K-12 teachers should be better prepared to teach basic concepts in these disciplines. The focus on teachers' mathematics and science content knowledge has been met by efforts to increase teacher knowledge through funded national initiatives…

Moyer-Packenham, Patricia S.; Westenskow, Arla

2012-01-01

51

The Development of Diploma in Education Student Teachers' Mathematics Pedagogical Content Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mathematics pedagogical content knowledge (MPCK) of teachers cannot be easily defined but is a complex concept integrating generic pedagogical knowledge, mathematics teaching methodology as well as knowledge of the discipline of mathematics. It is the objective of mathematics methodology courses in teacher preparation programmes to begin the…

Lim-Teo, Suat Khoh; Chua, Kwee Gek; Cheang, Wai Kwong; Yeo, Joseph K.

2007-01-01

52

Teachers' Mathematics Knowledge for Teaching and School Context : A Study of California Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the relationship between the mathematical knowledge of 438 K-8 California teachers and the demographics of the schools in which they work. To measure mathematical knowledge, we used a series of multiple-choice problems meant to represent both the content teachers teach and the specialized knowledge of mathematics that…

Hill, Heather C.; Lubienski, Sarah Theule

2007-01-01

53

The mathematical knowledge of physics graduates: Primary data and conclusions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Systematic observations were made of the mathematical knowledge of physics students from the U.S. and other countries during their first years of graduate study at Ohio University. It was found that all were deficient in general and in ``modern'' mathematical concepts, and in problem-solving skills. Sizable fractions of them did not even possess adequate concepts of ``derivative,'' ``integration,'' and ``truth.'' Nearly all were limited to some familiarity with rather elementary calculus, and with equally elementary differential and linear equations, but they showed some ability and a pronounced willingness to perform manipulations. Roughly, they regarded mathematics as mechanical method, not as constructive thinking. In view of the significantly higher levels of mathematical fluency demanded by contemporary advances in physics and in computer usage, none of these students was adequately prepared for future-oriented study, or for research and employment in physics and related areas at the close of the 20th century. It is intended to discuss the likely causes of this state of affairs elsewhere with a view toward remedial actions.

Breitenberger, Ernst

1992-04-01

54

Elementary school quality, the mathematics curriculum and the role of local knowledge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article uses data from several elementary school classrooms in Chicago on how students learn to calculate, and reviews similar data from a number of developing countries to examine the strengths and limitations of using the mathematical knowledge which students develop on their own outside of formal schooling to increase the amount, range and power of mathematical knowledge which is acquired through formal schooling. In so doing it attempts to reconcile the views of those who believe that the key to improving elementary school quality lies in improving the technology of instruction and those who believe that it lies in a deeper understanding of the mental life of children. It concludes by arguing that the quality of elementary schooling can be improved through skilled management of the environmentally acquired knowledge which students bring to instruction, if this knowledge is transformed through pedagogic and curricular interventions into a set of portable intellectual skills.

Balfanz, Robert

1990-03-01

55

Promoting Equity in Mathematics Teacher Preparation: A Framework for Advancing Teacher Learning of Children's Multiple Mathematics Knowledge Bases  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research repeatedly documents that teachers are underprepared to teach mathematics effectively in diverse classrooms. A critical aspect of learning to be an effective mathematics teacher for diverse learners is developing knowledge, dispositions, and practices that support building on children's mathematical thinking, as well as their cultural,…

Turner, Erin E.; Drake, Corey; McDuffie, Amy Roth; Aguirre, Julia; Bartell, Tonya Gau; Foote, Mary Q.

2012-01-01

56

The Development of Logico-Mathematical Knowledge in a Block-Building Activity at Ages 1-4  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To study the developmental interrelationships among various aspects of logico-mathematical knowledge, 80 one- to 4-year-olds were individually asked to build "something tall" with 20 blocks. Percentages of new and significant behaviors increased with age and were analyzed in terms of the development of logico-mathematical relationships. It was…

Kamii, Constance; Miyakawa, Yoko; Kato, Yasuhiko

2004-01-01

57

Pre-Service Students' Responses to Being Tested on Their Primary School Mathematical Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The limited mathematical knowledge of pre-service primary teachers is an international concern. The areas of mathematical difficulties have been well documented, which has led to many universities instituting testing regimes to ensure that their pre-service teachers have appropriate knowledge of primary school mathematics. In this study, the…

Meaney, Tamsin; Lange, Troels

2010-01-01

58

Examining Mathematics Teacher Content Knowledge Using Policy, State Certification Tests and Transcripts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined mathematics teacher content knowledge in terms of policy maker recommendations, college coursework and teacher certification mathematics test scores. Transcript analysis indicated poor alignment of national policy maker recommendations for mathematics teachers and college degrees in mathematics. Teacher certification test…

Harrell, Pamela Esprivalo; Eddy, Colleen McLean

2011-01-01

59

Generative Adolescent Mathematical Learners: The Fabrication of Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation is embedded in a deconstruction of the field of Mathematics Education in order to reconstitute the mathematics student as a generative mathematical learner. The purpose of the dissertation is to understand how generative adolescent mathematical learners (GAMLs) maneuver through their mathematics courses while maintaining such a…

Lawler, Brian R.

2008-01-01

60

Characterizing the Development of Specialized Mathematical Content Knowledge for Teaching in Algebraic Reasoning and Number Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article characterizes the development of a deep and connected body of mathematical knowledge categorized by Ball and Bass' (2003b) model of Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching (MKT), as Specialized Content Knowledge for Teaching (SCK) in algebraic reasoning and number sense. The research employed multiple cases across three years from two…

Bair, Sherry L.; Rich, Beverly S.

2011-01-01

61

Profound Understanding of Emergent Mathematics: Broadening the Construct of Teachers' Disciplinary Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We discuss the teachers' disciplinary knowledge of mathematics in this article, arguing two main points as we report on a 2-year study involving 22 practicing teachers. First we argue that teachers' knowledge of mathematics might be productively construed as a complex evolving form, a significant dimension of which is tacit knowledge. Second,…

Davis, Brent; Renert, Moshe

2013-01-01

62

Indonesian Primary Teachers' Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching Geometry: Implications for Educational Policy and Teacher Preparation Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines Indonesian primary teachers' mathematical knowledge for teaching geometry and what factors contribute to this knowledge. A translated and adapted version of the Learning Mathematics for Teaching measures and the Indonesian Educational Survey were used to gather information on teachers' knowledge for teaching geometry and their…

Ng, Dicky

2011-01-01

63

Integrating Mathematical, Technological, and Pedagogical Knowledge in Teacher Preparation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Department of Mathematics and Statistics at Utah State University offers two courses for preservice secondary school mathematics teachers that complement each other in working toward a vision for school mathematics in which "all students have access to high-quality, engaging mathematics instruction." Through these courses, students engage in…

Schneiter, Kady; Kohler, Brynja R.; Watts, Brandon J.

2011-01-01

64

Dissociations in mathematical knowledge: case studies in Down's syndrome and Williams syndrome.  

PubMed

A study is reported of mathematical vocabulary and factual mathematical knowledge in PQ, a 22 year old with Down's syndrome (DS) who has a verbal mental age (MA) of 9 years 2 months and ST, a 15 year old with Williams syndrome (WS) who has a verbal MA of 9 years 6 months, matched to typically developing controls. The number of mathematical words contained within PQ's lexical stores was significantly reduced as reflected by performance on lexical decision. PQ was also impaired at both naming from descriptions and describing mathematical words. These results contrast with normal lexical decision and item descriptions for concrete words reported recently for PQ (Robinson and Temple, 2010). PQ's recall of mathematical facts was also impaired, whilst his recall of general knowledge facts was normal. This performance in DS indicates a deficit in both lexical representation and semantic knowledge for mathematical words and mathematical facts. In contrast, ST, the teenager with WS had good accuracy on lexical decision, naming and generating definitions for mathematical words. This contrasted with the atypical performance with concrete words recently reported for ST (Robinson and Temple, 2009). Knowledge of addition facts and general knowledge facts was also unimpaired for ST, though knowledge of multiplication facts was weak. Together the cases form a double dissociation and provide support for the distinct representation of mathematical and concrete items within the lexical-semantic system during development. The dissociations between mathematical and general factual knowledge also indicate that different types of factual knowledge may be selectively impaired during development. There is further support for a modular structure within which mathematical vocabulary and mathematical knowledge have distinct representations. This supports the case for the independent representation of factual and language-based knowledge within the semantic system during development. PMID:22208902

Robinson, Sally J; Temple, Christine M

2013-02-01

65

Infusing Mathematics Content into a Methods Course: Impacting Content Knowledge for Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compared content knowledge for teaching mathematics differences between elementary pre-service teachers in a traditional versus an experimental mathematics methods course. The experimental course replaced 20 minutes of traditional methods, each class, with an intervention of elementary mathematics content. The difference between groups…

Burton, Megan; Daane, C. J.; Giesen, Judy

2008-01-01

66

Measuring Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching: A Longitudinal Study Using Two Measures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This longitudinal study examines growth in teacher knowledge as measured by two popular assessments--Learning Mathematics for Teaching (LMT) and Diagnostic Teacher Assessments in Mathematics and Science (DTAMS). Using data collected from 24 teachers, we compare the extent to which each assessment captured teacher learning during a K-8 mathematics

Copur-Gencturk, Yasemin; Lubienski, Sarah T.

2013-01-01

67

Orienteering in Knowledge Spaces: The Hyperbolic Geometry of Wikipedia Mathematics  

PubMed Central

In this paper we show how the coupling of the notion of a network with directions with the adaptation of the four-point probe from materials testing gives rise to a natural geometry on such networks. This four-point probe geometry shares many of the properties of hyperbolic geometry wherein the network directions take the place of the sphere at infinity, enabling a navigation of the network in terms of pairs of directions: the geodesic through a pair of points is oriented from one direction to another direction, the pair of which are uniquely determined. We illustrate this in the interesting example of the pages of Wikipedia devoted to Mathematics, or “The MathWiki.” The applicability of these ideas extends beyond Wikipedia to provide a natural framework for visual search and to prescribe a natural mode of navigation for any kind of “knowledge space” in which higher order concepts aggregate various instances of information. Other examples would include genre or author organization of cultural objects such as books, movies, documents or even merchandise in an online store.

Leibon, Gregory; Rockmore, Daniel N.

2013-01-01

68

Orienteering in knowledge spaces: the hyperbolic geometry of Wikipedia Mathematics.  

PubMed

In this paper we show how the coupling of the notion of a network with directions with the adaptation of the four-point probe from materials testing gives rise to a natural geometry on such networks. This four-point probe geometry shares many of the properties of hyperbolic geometry wherein the network directions take the place of the sphere at infinity, enabling a navigation of the network in terms of pairs of directions: the geodesic through a pair of points is oriented from one direction to another direction, the pair of which are uniquely determined. We illustrate this in the interesting example of the pages of Wikipedia devoted to Mathematics, or "The MathWiki." The applicability of these ideas extends beyond Wikipedia to provide a natural framework for visual search and to prescribe a natural mode of navigation for any kind of "knowledge space" in which higher order concepts aggregate various instances of information. Other examples would include genre or author organization of cultural objects such as books, movies, documents or even merchandise in an online store. PMID:23844017

Leibon, Gregory; Rockmore, Daniel N

2013-01-01

69

First Year Pre-Service Teachers' Mathematical Content Knowledge: Methods of Solution for a Ratio Question  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, pre-service teachers' mathematics content knowledge is explored through the analysis of two items about ratio from a Mathematical Competency, Skills and Knowledge Test. Pre-service teachers' thinking strategies, common errors and misconceptions in their responses are presented and discussed. Of particular interest was the range…

Livy, Sharyn; Vale, Colleen

2011-01-01

70

Understanding the Influence of Two Mathematics Textbooks on Prospective Secondary Teachers' Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the influence of reading and planning from two differently organized mathematics textbooks on prospective high school mathematics teachers' pedagogical content knowledge and content knowledge of exponential functions. The teachers completed a pretest and two posttests. On the pretest, the teachers possessed an incomplete…

Davis, Jon D.

2009-01-01

71

The effect of knowledge of mathematics on gambling behaviours and erroneous perceptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluates the effect of knowledge of mathematics as a protective factor against excessive gambling behaviours and erroneous beliefs. Two groups with different levels of knowledge of mathematics were compared as to their perceptions and behaviours before and during a gambling session. A total of 60 participants (30 men, 30 women) completed a questionnaire evaluating how they perceive the

Robert Ladouceur

2007-01-01

72

Construction of Mathematical Knowledge Using Graphic Calculators (CAS) in the Mathematics Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mathematics education researchers are asking themselves about why technology has impacted heavily on the social environment and not in the mathematics classroom. The use of technology in the mathematics classroom has not had the expected impact, as it has been its use in everyday life (i.e. cell phone). What about teachers' opinions? Mathematics

Hitt, Fernando

2011-01-01

73

Construction of teacher knowledge in context: Preparing elementary teachers to teach mathematics and science  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purposes of this study were to further the understanding of how preservice teacher construct teacher knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge of elementary mathematics and science and to determine the extent of that knowledge in a school-based setting. Preservice teachers, university instructors, inservice teachers, and other school personnel were involved in this context-specific study. Evidence of the preservice teachers' knowledge

Maye Norene Vail Lowery

1998-01-01

74

Using Manipulative Materials to Increase Student Achievement in Mathematics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is an action research project to test a null hypothesis, which states that the use of manipulative materials within the context of mathematics instruction will not yield a significant increase in student achievement. Based on the research, using manipulative materials should have a positive impact on student achievement. Allowing students to…

Lett, Steven W.

2007-01-01

75

Vicissitudes of Children's Mathematical Knowledge: Implications of Developmental Research for Early Childhood Mathematics Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hachey's (2013) article celebrates a revolution that is taking place in early childhood mathematics education, fueled in part by developmental research demonstrating the mathematical capabilities of young children. At the same time, Hachey notes that the mathematics revolution she describes is not yet complete. In this commentary, the author…

Sophian, Catherine

2013-01-01

76

Diagnostic Assessment of Pre-Service Teachers' Mathematical Content Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Establishing the mathematical content knowledge of pre-service teachers is a requirement in New Zealand. However, this knowledge is not clearly defined and is a challenge for initial teacher education providers to assess. We develop the concept of foundation content knowledge and suggest how it can be assessed using two forms of diagnostic…

Linsell , Chris; Anakin, Megan

2012-01-01

77

Measuring Knowledge of Mathematical Functions: Validity of Scores and Profiles of Participants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Knowledge of mathematical functions is expected of university students. This knowledge was measured in this dissertation using two previously untested instruments. The aim of this dissertation was to validate the scores from these measures. The first instrument measured function knowledge in its declarative, procedural, or conditional form. The…

Higley, Kelli

2009-01-01

78

Mathematics Funds of Knowledge: "Sotmaute" and "Sermaute" Fish in a Torres Strait Islander Community  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this article is to describe a project with one Torres Strait Islander Community. It provides some insights into parents' funds of knowledge that are mathematical in nature, such as sorting shells and giving fish. The idea of funds of knowledge is based on the premise that people are competent and have knowledge that has been…

Ewing, Bronwyn

2012-01-01

79

Cognitive Theories, Prior Knowledge, and Anchored Instruction on Mathematical Problem Solving and Transfer.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tested the effects of prior knowledge and two instructional models--structured problem solving and guided generation (GG)--on mathematical problem solving and transfer to an analogous task. Data on students with high and low prior knowledge highlighted significant main effects for prior knowledge, significant differences on transfer to analogous…

Serafino, Kathleen; Cicchelli, Terry

2003-01-01

80

Measuring the Effects of Professional Development on Teacher Knowledge: The Case of Developing Mathematical Ideas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the impact of a nationally disseminated professional development program, Developing Mathematical Ideas (DMI), on teachers' specialized knowledge for teaching mathematics and illustrates how such research could be conducted. Participants completing 2 DMI modules were compared with similar colleagues who had not taken DMI.…

Bell, Courtney A.; Wilson, Suzanne M.; Higgins, Traci; McCoach, D. Betsy

2010-01-01

81

Children's Construction of Mathematical Knowledge in Solving Novel Isomorphic Problems in Concrete and Written Form.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The focus of this report is children's construction and analogical transfer of mathematical knowledge during novel problem solving, as reflected in their strategies for dealing with isomorphic combinatorial problems presented in "hands-on" and written form. Case studies of 9-year-olds, one low and one high achieving in school mathematics, serve to…

English, Lyn D.

82

Toward Developmental Trajectories: A Commentary on "Assessing Measures of Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Operating from multiple literature bases in cognitive psychology, mathematics education, and theoretical and applied psychometrics, Schilling, Hill and their colleagues provide a systemic approach to studying the validity of scores of mathematical knowledge for teaching. This system encompasses an array of task formats and methodologies. The…

Kulikowich, Jonna M.

2007-01-01

83

Investigating Level of Mathematics Knowledge for Students Attending Vocational Schools in Turkey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students attend mathematics courses in Turkey for totally 11 years, throughout education life ranging from primary school to university, including eight years in primary education and three years in secondary education (four years based on new arrangement); however, level of mathematic knowledge of students is upsetting when they reach university…

Colakoglu, Nurdan

2013-01-01

84

The Mathematical Content Knowledge and Attitudes of New Zealand Pre-Service Primary Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents data on the mathematical content knowledge and attitudes of pre-service primary teacher education students. The assessment consisted of nine tasks, including 2-digit computations and proportional reasoning. Students rated their liking for mathematics at three time points: primary, secondary, .and when assessed. Fewer than half…

Young-Loveridge, Jenny; Bicknell, Brenda; Mills, Judith

2012-01-01

85

Long-Term Retention of Basic Mathematical Knowledge and Skills with Engineering Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study focuses on the long-term retention of basic mathematical techniques in a first-year calculus course, involving a sample group of engineering students at the University of Pretoria. The study investigates which and how much of the basic mathematical knowledge and rote skills acquired in the first year of study is retained after a further…

Engelbrecht, J.; Harding, A.; Preez, J. Du

2007-01-01

86

Improving Geometric and Trigonometric Knowledge and Skill for High School Mathematics Teachers: A Professional Development Partnership  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the summer of 2009, a professional development partnership was established between the Peoria Public School District (PPSD), a local education agency (LEA), and Illinois State University (ISU) to improve geometric and trigonometric knowledge and skill for high school mathematics teachers as part of the Illinois Mathematics and Science…

Merrill, Chris; Devine, Kevin L.; Brown, Joshua W.; Brown, Ryan A.

2010-01-01

87

Online Asynchronous Collaboration in Mathematics Teacher Education and the Development of Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article the authors describe their efforts to support teachers' development of deep, connected understandings of school mathematics and to find ways to make use of the teachers' learning as a context for subsequent mathematical and pedagogical development. The authors detail the evolution of their model for Online Asynchronous…

Silverman, Jason; Clay, Ellen L.

2010-01-01

88

Developing Knowledge of Teaching Mathematics through Cooperation and Inquiry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the use of microteaching lesson study as an approach to promoting collaboration and learning among teachers, particularly those in prospective-teacher education programs, through a repeated cyclic process of developing, implementing, analyzing, and revising mathematics lessons and reporting their experience. (Contains 3…

Fernandez, Maria Lorelei

2008-01-01

89

Assessing Pre-Service Teachers' Mathematics Subject Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We report the development of an assessment instrument that provides a profile of the attainment and the errors of pre-service primary teachers across the mathematics curriculum. We describe test development, analyses and test validation involving a sample of 426 pre-service teachers in the first year of their training in primary education courses…

Ryan, Julie; McCrae, Barry

2006-01-01

90

Community Elders, Traditional Knowledge, and a Mathematics Curriculum Framework.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Nunavut, where most residents are Inuit, Inuit elders are helping develop a new mathematics curriculum based on Inuit philosophy. Students will be involved in cultural, experiential activities during on-the-land trips. Such trips involve other community members, and the resulting interactions and informal teaching by individuals other than…

Yamamura, Brian; Netser, Saimanaaq; Qanatsiaq, Nunia

2003-01-01

91

Licensure tests for special education teachers: how well they assess knowledge of reading instruction and mathematics.  

PubMed

To determine the extent to which knowledge of evidence-based reading instruction and mathematics is assessed on licensure tests for prospective special education teachers, this study drew on information provided by Educational Testing Service (ETS), the American Board for Certification of Teacher Excellence, and National Evaluation Systems (now Evaluation Systems group of Pearson). It estimated the percentage of test items on phonemic awareness, phonics, and vocabulary knowledge and on mathematics content. It also analyzed descriptions of ETS's tests of "principles of teaching and learning." Findings imply that prospective special education teachers should be required to take both a dedicated test of evidence-based reading instructional knowledge, as in California, Massachusetts, and Virginia, and a test of mathematical knowledge, as in Massachusetts. States must design their own tests of teaching principles to assess knowledge of evidence-based educational theories. PMID:19561166

Stotsky, Sandra

2009-01-01

92

Measuring Usable Knowledge: Teachers' Analyses of Mathematics Classroom Videos Predict Teaching Quality and Student Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores the relationships between teacher knowledge, teaching practice, and student learning in mathematics. It extends previous work that developed and evaluated an innovative approach to assessing teacher knowledge based on teachers' analyses of classroom video clips. Teachers watched and commented on 13 fraction clips. These written…

Kersting, Nicole B.; Givvin, Karen B.; Thompson, Belinda J.; Santagata, Rossella; Stigler, James W.

2012-01-01

93

Secondary Pre-Service Teachers' Content Knowledge for State Assessments: Implications for Mathematics Education Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Seventy secondary mathematics pre-service teachers from two universities were assessed on their content knowledge, vocabulary knowledge, and their perceived confidence in teaching the content addressed on the eleventh grade state assessment. The results indicate the pre-service teachers had significant content weakness in data analysis, algebra,…

Wilburne, Jane M.; Long, Michael

2010-01-01

94

Pedagogical Content Knowledge for Preschool Mathematics: Construct Validity of a New Teacher Interview  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the construct validity of a new teacher interview designed to assess teachers' pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) for preschool mathematics. PCK describes the subject matter knowledge a teacher needs for effective teaching. Data from 22 teachers and 113 Head Start children in a large midwestern city in the United States were…

McCray, Jennifer S.; Chen, Jie-Qi

2012-01-01

95

The Nature and Development of Middle School Mathematics Teachers' Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, we report on the use of a teacher profiling instrument with 62 middle school teachers at the start of a 3-year professional learning programme. The instrument was designed to assess the aspects of teachers' knowledge identified by Shulman ("1987") refined by Ball et al. ("2008") and extended to include teachers' confidence to use…

Beswick, Kim; Callingham, Rosemary; Watson, Jane

2012-01-01

96

Developing Robust Forms of Pre-Service Teachers' Pedagogical Content Knowledge through Culturally Responsive Mathematics Teaching Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study documents and describes efforts to develop robust forms of pre-service teachers' pedagogical content knowledge through a culturally responsive mathematics teaching approach. Embedded in a university K-8 mathematics methods course emphasising the connections among mathematics, children's mathematical thinking, and…

Aguirre, Julia M.; Zavala, Maria del Rosario; Katanyoutanant, Tiffany

2012-01-01

97

Making Connections in Practice: How Prospective Elementary Teachers Connect to Children's Mathematical Thinking and Community Funds of Knowledge in Mathematics Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the ways prospective elementary teachers (PSTs) made connections to children's mathematical thinking and children's community funds of knowledge in mathematics lesson plans. We analyzed the work of 70 PSTs from across three university sites associated with an instructional module for elementary mathematics methods courses that…

Aguirre, Julia M.; Turner, Erin E.; Bartell, Tonya Gau; Kalinec-Craig, Crystal; Foote, Mary Q.; Roth McDuffie, Amy; Drake, Corey

2013-01-01

98

Mathematical Connections and Their Relationship to Mathematics Knowledge for Teaching Geometry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Effective competition in a rapidly growing global economy places demands on a society to produce individuals capable of higher-order critical thinking, creative problem solving, connection making, and innovation. We must look to our teacher education programs to help prospective middle grades teachers build the mathematical habits of mind that…

Eli, Jennifer A.; Mohr-Schroeder, Margaret J.; Lee, Carl W.

2013-01-01

99

TEDS-M 2008 User Guide for the International Database. Supplement 4: TEDS-M Released Mathematics and Mathematics Pedagogy Knowledge Assessment Items  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal for selecting the released set of test items was to have approximately 25% of each of the full item sets for mathematics content knowledge (MCK) and mathematics pedagogical content knowledge (MPCK) that would represent the full range of difficulty, content, and item format used in the TEDS-M study. The initial step in the selection was to…

Brese, Falk, Ed.

2012-01-01

100

Elementary Teachers' Perspectives on the Impact that Lesson Study Participation Had on Their Mathematical Content and Pedagogical-Content Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine elementary teachers perspectives on the impact that Lesson study participation had on their knowledge and teaching of mathematics. The study explored teachers perspectives of how Lesson study participation affected their mathematical content knowledge and pedagogical-content knowledge. Lesson study is a…

Yamnitzky, Gail Siragusa

2010-01-01

101

Increasing the Diversity of Teachers in Mathematics and Science Partnerships  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines teacher diversity in a federally-funded mathematics and science partnership program. Each of the partnerships in the program provided preservice and/or inservice education for teachers in mathematics, science, or both. Researchers used qualitative and quantitative methods to examine the effect of strategies implemented by the…

Moyer-Packenham, Patricia S.; Parker, Jana L.; Kitsantas, Anastasia; Bolyard, Johnna J.; Huie, Faye

2009-01-01

102

Building a Knowledge Base: Understanding Prospective Elementary Teachers' Mathematical Content Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This survey of the literature summarizes and reflects on research findings regarding elementary preservice teachers' (PSTs') mathematics conceptions and the development thereof. Despite the current focus on teacher education, peer-reviewed journals offer a surprisingly sparse insight in these areas. The limited research that exists…

Thanheiser, Eva; Browning, Christine; Edson, Alden J.; Kastberg, Signe; Lo, Jane-Jane

2013-01-01

103

International Perspectives on the Nature of Mathematical Knowledge for Secondary Teaching: Progress and Dilemmas. Research Forum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research forum addresses the question: what is the nature of the mathematical knowledge that is needed for secondary teaching? Six international contributors: (1) Australia (Kaye Stacey); (2) Brazil (Marcelo Borba); (3) Israel (Ruhama Even); (4) Norway (Bodil Kleve and Barbara Jaworski); (5) Taiwan (Fou-Lai Lin); and (6) USA (Helen Doerr)…

Doerr, Helen M.; Wood, Terry

2004-01-01

104

Family Child Care Learning Environments: Caregiver Knowledge and Practices Related to Early Literacy and Mathematics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents findings from a stratified-random survey of family child care providers' backgrounds, caregiving environments, practices, attitudes, and knowledge related to language, literacy, and mathematics development for preschool children. Descriptive results are consistent with prior studies suggesting that home-based providers are…

Phillips, Beth M.; Morse, Erika E.

2011-01-01

105

Preservice Mathematics Teachers' Knowledge of Students about the Algebraic Concepts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to evaluate preservice primary mathematics teachers' ability to discuss and investigate students' thinking process about the concepts of variable, equality and equation, to analyse their ability to predict student difficulties and misconceptions and, in this respect, to present their subject-matter knowledge and…

Tanisli, Dilek; Kose, Nilufer Yavuzsoy

2013-01-01

106

Microteaching Lesson Study: Mentor Interaction Structure and its Relation to Elementary Preservice Mathematics Teacher Knowledge Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated Microteaching Lesson Study (MLS) and three possible MLS mentor interaction structures during the debriefing sessions in relation to elementary preservice teacher development of knowledge for teaching. One hundred three elementary preservice teachers enrolled in five different sections of a mathematics methods course at a southern urban university were part of the study. This included 72 participants who

Roxanne Molina

2012-01-01

107

Developing Mathematics Teacher Knowledge: The Paradidactic Infrastructure of "Open Lesson" in Japan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, we first present a theoretical approach to study mathematics teacher knowledge and the conditions for developing it, which is firmly rooted in a systemic approach to didactic phenomena at large, namely the anthropological theory of the didactic. Then, a case of open lesson is presented and analysed, using this theoretical approach,…

Miyakawa, Takeshi; Winslow, Carl

2013-01-01

108

Microteaching Lesson Study: Mentor interaction structure and its relation to elementary preservice mathematics teacher knowledge development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated Microteaching Lesson Study (MLS) and three possible MLS mentor interaction structures during the debriefing sessions in relation to elementary preservice teacher development of knowledge for teaching. One hundred three elementary preservice teachers enrolled in five different sections of a mathematics methods course at a southern urban university were part of the study. This included 72 participants who

Roxanne V Molina

2012-01-01

109

Does Strategy Knowledge Influence Working Memory in Children with Mathematical Disabilities?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study investigated the relationship between working memory (WM), declarative strategy knowledge, and math achievement in 111 children with and without mathematical disabilities (MD). Results found verbal and visual-spatial WM, stable verbal strategy choices, and expert strategy choices related to visual-spatial processing all contributed…

Keeler, Marsha L.; Swanson, H. Lee

2001-01-01

110

Preservice Mathematics Teachers' Views on Distance Education and Their Web Pedagogical Content Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research aims to investigate primary preservice mathematics teachers' views on distance education and web pedagogical content knowledge in terms of the subscales of general web, communicative web, pedagogical web, web pedagogical content and attitude towards web based instruction. The research was conducted with 46 senior students in the…

Cagirgan Gulten, Dilek

2013-01-01

111

Mathematical Learning Models that Depend on Prior Knowledge and Instructional Strategies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We present mathematical learning models--predictions of student's knowledge vs amount of instruction--that are based on assumptions motivated by various theories of learning: tabula rasa, constructivist, and tutoring. These models predict the improvement (on the post-test) as a function of the pretest score due to intervening instruction and also…

Pritchard, David E.; Lee, Young-Jin; Bao, Lei

2008-01-01

112

High School Teachers' Problem Solving Activities to Review and Extend Their Mathematical and Didactical Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study documents the extent to which high school teachers reflect on their need to revise and extend their mathematical and practicing knowledge. In this context, teachers worked on a set of tasks as a part of an inquiring community that promoted the use of different computational tools in problem solving approaches. Results indicated that the…

Santos-Trigo, Manuel; Barrera-Mora, Fernando

2011-01-01

113

Re-Conceptualizing Validity within the Context of a New Measure of Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this journal issue, the authors of the focus articles have provided a suite of very stimulating and thoughtful articles. The overarching purpose of this research is to explore the application of principles derived from the view of validity proposed by Kane (2004) to their research on issues related to the measurement of mathematical knowledge

Engelhard, George, Jr.; Sullivan, Rubye K.

2007-01-01

114

Utilising Year Three NAPLAN Results to Improve Queensland Teachers' Mathematical Pedagogical Content Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Poor results in Queensland Year Three NAPLAN Numeracy tests have provided a focus to critically review the classroom practices of lower primary mathematics teachers. This paper outlines how pedagogical content knowledge can be strengthened by emphasising conceptual understanding, by utilising dynamic classroom discourse, by an awareness of…

van Klinken, Eduarda

2010-01-01

115

Active learning increases student performance in science, engineering, and mathematics.  

PubMed

To test the hypothesis that lecturing maximizes learning and course performance, we metaanalyzed 225 studies that reported data on examination scores or failure rates when comparing student performance in undergraduate science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) courses under traditional lecturing versus active learning. The effect sizes indicate that on average, student performance on examinations and concept inventories increased by 0.47 SDs under active learning (n = 158 studies), and that the odds ratio for failing was 1.95 under traditional lecturing (n = 67 studies). These results indicate that average examination scores improved by about 6% in active learning sections, and that students in classes with traditional lecturing were 1.5 times more likely to fail than were students in classes with active learning. Heterogeneity analyses indicated that both results hold across the STEM disciplines, that active learning increases scores on concept inventories more than on course examinations, and that active learning appears effective across all class sizes-although the greatest effects are in small (n ? 50) classes. Trim and fill analyses and fail-safe n calculations suggest that the results are not due to publication bias. The results also appear robust to variation in the methodological rigor of the included studies, based on the quality of controls over student quality and instructor identity. This is the largest and most comprehensive metaanalysis of undergraduate STEM education published to date. The results raise questions about the continued use of traditional lecturing as a control in research studies, and support active learning as the preferred, empirically validated teaching practice in regular classrooms. PMID:24821756

Freeman, Scott; Eddy, Sarah L; McDonough, Miles; Smith, Michelle K; Okoroafor, Nnadozie; Jordt, Hannah; Wenderoth, Mary Pat

2014-06-10

116

Active learning increases student performance in science, engineering, and mathematics  

PubMed Central

To test the hypothesis that lecturing maximizes learning and course performance, we metaanalyzed 225 studies that reported data on examination scores or failure rates when comparing student performance in undergraduate science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) courses under traditional lecturing versus active learning. The effect sizes indicate that on average, student performance on examinations and concept inventories increased by 0.47 SDs under active learning (n = 158 studies), and that the odds ratio for failing was 1.95 under traditional lecturing (n = 67 studies). These results indicate that average examination scores improved by about 6% in active learning sections, and that students in classes with traditional lecturing were 1.5 times more likely to fail than were students in classes with active learning. Heterogeneity analyses indicated that both results hold across the STEM disciplines, that active learning increases scores on concept inventories more than on course examinations, and that active learning appears effective across all class sizes—although the greatest effects are in small (n ? 50) classes. Trim and fill analyses and fail-safe n calculations suggest that the results are not due to publication bias. The results also appear robust to variation in the methodological rigor of the included studies, based on the quality of controls over student quality and instructor identity. This is the largest and most comprehensive metaanalysis of undergraduate STEM education published to date. The results raise questions about the continued use of traditional lecturing as a control in research studies, and support active learning as the preferred, empirically validated teaching practice in regular classrooms.

Freeman, Scott; Eddy, Sarah L.; McDonough, Miles; Smith, Michelle K.; Okoroafor, Nnadozie; Jordt, Hannah; Wenderoth, Mary Pat

2014-01-01

117

Secondary School Advanced Mathematics, Chapter 1, Organizing Geometric Knowledge, Chapter 2, Concepts and Skills in Algebra. Student's Text.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This text is the first of five in the Secondary School Advanced Mathematics (SSAM) series which was designed to meet the needs of students who have completed the Secondary School Mathematics (SSM) program, and wish to continue their study of mathematics. The first chapter, devoted to organizing geometric knowledge, deals with the distinction…

Stanford Univ., CA. School Mathematics Study Group.

118

Increasing military social work knowledge: an evaluation of learning outcomes.  

PubMed

Service members and veterans face a myriad of health, mental health, and social challenges stemming from the combat and operational stressors experienced during deployment and the challenges ofreintegration to civilian life. To intervene effectively with this population, social workers must be knowledgeable about these issues and the cultural context within which they occur. Although schools of social work across the country are developing course work in military social work, little is known about the learning outcomes of these courses. This article describes a military social work course that was developed to increase student preparedness to work with a military or veteran population and the learning outcomes achieved. Using a quasi-experimental pre-post design, this study compared the learning outcomes of students enrolled in the course with a group of students who had not taken the course. To measure this knowledge, the authors developed a 50-item Military Social Work Knowledge Scale for the study. Significant differences between pre- and posttest scores were found for the social work students enrolled in the course. Specific areas of knowledge that increased for the class participants included knowledge about cultural sensitivity to military populations and knowledge about service and advocacy frameworks. PMID:24693599

Forgey, Mary Ann; Young, Sharon L

2014-02-01

119

WIDENING AND INCREASING POST16 MATHEMATICS PARTICIPATION: PATHWAYS, PEDAGOGIES AND POLITICS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the potential impact of a national pilot initiative in England aimed at increasing and widening participation\\u000a in advanced mathematical study through the creation of a new qualification for 16- to 18-year-olds. This proposed qualification\\u000a pathway—Use of Mathematics—sits in parallel with long-established, traditional advanced level qualifications, what we call ‘traditional Mathematics’ herein. Traditional Mathematics is typically required for

Andrew Noyes; Geoff Wake; Pat Drake

2011-01-01

120

Iterating between Lessons on Concepts and Procedures Can Improve Mathematics Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Knowledge of concepts and procedures seems to develop in an iterative fashion, with increases in one type of knowledge leading to increases in the other type of knowledge. This suggests that iterating between lessons on concepts and procedures may improve learning. Aims: The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the…

Rittle-Johnson, Bethany; Koedinger, Kenneth

2009-01-01

121

Knowledge Building and Mathematics: Shifting the Responsibility for Knowledge Advancement and Engagement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three classrooms of Grade 4 students from different schools and diverse backgrounds collaborated in early algebra research to solve a series of linear and quadratic generalizing problems. Results revealed that high- and low-achieving students were able to solve problems of recognized difficulty. We discuss Knowledge Building principles and…

Moss, Joan; Beatty, Ruth

2010-01-01

122

The Increasing Dominance of Teams in Production of Knowledge  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article explores published literature to demonstrate the dominance of teams over solo authors in the production of knowledge.Teams of two or more people are increasingly producing more of the research, and the research they generate is more highly cited, in a wide variety of endeavors from science to the arts.

Wuchty, Stefan

2009-01-26

123

Hands-On Mathematics: Two Cases from Ancient Chinese Mathematics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In modern mathematical teaching, it has become increasingly emphasized that mathematical knowledge should be taught by problem-solving, hands-on activities, and interactive learning experiences. Comparing the ideas of modern mathematical education with the development of ancient Chinese mathematics, we find that the history of mathematics in…

Wang, Youjun

2009-01-01

124

Limited knowledge of fraction representations differentiates middle school students with mathematics learning disability (dyscalculia) versus low mathematics achievement.  

PubMed

Fractions pose significant challenges for many children, but for some children those challenges persist into high school. Here we administered a fractions magnitude comparison test to 122 children, from Grades 4 to 8, to test whether their knowledge of fractions typically learned early in the sequence of formal math instruction (e.g., fractions equivalent to one-half, fraction pairs with common denominators) differentiates those with mathematics learning disability (MLD) versus low achievement (LA) or typical achievement (TA) in mathematics and whether long-term learning trajectories of this knowledge also differentiate these groups. We confirmed that although fourth graders with TA (n=93) were more accurate in evaluating "one-half" fractions than in evaluating "non-half" fractions (until they reached ceiling performance levels on both types of fractions), children with MLD (n=11) did not show a one-half advantage until Grade 7 and did not reach ceiling performance even by Grade 8. Both the MLD and LA groups had early difficulties with fractions, but by Grade 5 the LA group approached performance levels of the TA group and deviated from the MLD group. All groups showed a visual model advantage over Arabic number representation of fractions, but this advantage was short-lived for the TA group (because ceiling level was achieved across formats), whereas it was slightly more persistent for the LA group and persisted through Grade 8 for children with MLD. Thus, difficulties with fractions persist through Grade 8 for many students, but the nature and trajectories of those difficulties vary across children with math difficulties (MLD or LA). PMID:23587941

Mazzocco, Michèle M M; Myers, Gwen F; Lewis, Katherine E; Hanich, Laurie B; Murphy, Melissa M

2013-06-01

125

Investigating the Development of Prospective Mathematics Teachers' Pedagogical Content Knowledge of Generalising Number Patterns through School Practicum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to investigate the development of three prospective elementary mathematics teachers' pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) of number patterns with its two components: (1) knowledge of students' understanding and difficulties and (2) knowledge of topic-specific strategies and representations. For our investigation, we use…

Yesildere Imre, Sibel; Akkoc, Hatice

2012-01-01

126

Primary teachers' representations of division: assessing mathematical knowledge that has pedagogical potential  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article reports on a study that was conducted with 378 primary teachers from Catholic schools in Victoria who participated in the first year of a 2-year research and professional learning program in mathematics. One aim of the program was to enhance teacher knowledge in mathematics in its many forms. As part of the larger study, the teachers were assessed at the beginning and the end of school year (February and October, respectively) on their Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching (MKT), through the use of a questionnaire involving teachers' responses to hypothetical teaching, planning, or assessment scenarios. We report here the results from one item that assessed teachers' MKT in relation to representations of division. Results indicated that teachers were more familiar with partitive than quotitive division, and found connecting appropriate story problems with a given form of division difficult. Teachers' relating their understanding of the forms of division to the context of division by a decimal number was also challenging. There were interesting variations in the data across primary grade levels, particularly in relation to change over time. Professional learning on these topics and other support within the project appeared to improve teachers' MKT in this area.

Roche, Anne; Clarke, Doug M.

2013-06-01

127

Exploring the Relationship between Teachers Prominence in Online Collaboration and the Development of Mathematical Content Knowledge for Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We report on our efforts to support teachers' development of mathematical knowledge for teaching through online professional development focusing on authentic engagement in collaborative mathematical problem solving. In particular, this paper seeks to explore and understand the relationship between teachers' participation in professional…

Silverman, Jason

2012-01-01

128

School Knowledge, Cross-Curricularity and Teamwork Teaching in the Greek Primary School: Mathematics Education as Discursive Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Through analysis of exercises offered in mathematics textbooks, this article investigates the discursive practice of cross-curricularity and group work teaching that was advocated in the 2007 reform of mathematics education in Greek primary schools. The conclusion of the research is that the organisation of school knowledge is vertical, and strong…

Nikolakaki, Maria; Dossa, Katerina; Moraiti, Tzeni

2012-01-01

129

Investigating Teachers' Perspectives on the Impact of the Lesson Study Process on Their Mathematical Content Knowledge, Pedagogical Knowledge, and the Potential for Student Achievement  

Microsoft Academic Search

This mixed methods case study investigated mathematics teachers‘ perspectives of the effects of the Lesson Study Process on their content knowledge, pedagogical knowledge, and the potential for students‘ achievement. The population was 55 teachers from elementary, middle, and secondary schools in a metropolitan area. The three research questions guiding this study were: (1) What are the perspectives of teachers on

Wright Thomas David Jr

2009-01-01

130

How do students learn to apply their mathematical knowledge to interpret graphs in physics?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a laboratory-based program in physics designed to help students build effective links between the mathematical equations used to solve problems in mechanics and the real world of moving objects. Through the analysis of straight line graphs derived from their own data students have been able to achieve a considerable development towards a concept of slope, or gradient, and how it relates to the concept of proportionality, but they continue to demonstrate a great resistance to applying their mathematical knowledge to physics. A model designed to help us apply current research ideas to this problem is described. The work described in this paper was carried out at Dickson College, a government senior secondary college (Years 11 and 12) in the Australian Capital Territory, where the author taught physics and biology.

Woolnough, Jim

2000-09-01

131

Increasing Student Learning in Mathematics with the Use of Collaborative Teaching Strategies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three teacher researchers conducted this action research project to increase their 54 high school students' achievements in mathematics. The teacher researchers had noticed a trend of low scores on teacher-made chapter tests and non-completion of daily homework. Standardized tests showed that most students scored below average on the mathematics

Di Fatta, Jenna; Garcia, Sarah; Gorman, Stephanie

2009-01-01

132

Widening and Increasing Post-16 Mathematics Participation: Pathways, Pedagogies and Politics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores the potential impact of a national pilot initiative in England aimed at increasing and widening participation in advanced mathematical study through the creation of a new qualification for 16- to 18-year-olds. This proposed qualification pathway--"Use of Mathematics"--sits in parallel with long-established, traditional advanced…

Noyes, Andrew; Wake, Geoff; Drake, Pat

2011-01-01

133

Mathematical learning models that depend on prior knowledge and instructional strategies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We present mathematical learning modelsâpredictions of studentâs knowledge vs amount of instructionâthat are based on assumptions motivated by various theories of learning: tabula rasa, constructivist, and tutoring. These models predict the improvement (on the post-test) as a function of the pretest score due to intervening instruction and also depend on the type of instruction. We introduce a connectedness model whose connectedness parameter measures the degree to which the rate of learning is proportional to prior knowledge. Over a wide range of pretest scores on standard tests of introductory physics concepts, it fits high-quality data nearly within error. We suggest that data from MIT have low connectedness (indicating memory-based learning) because the test used the same context and representation as the instruction and that more connected data from the University of Minnesota resulted from instruction in a different representation from the test.

Pritchard, David E.; Lee, Young-Jin; Bao, Lei

2008-09-24

134

Mathematics/Arithmetic Knowledge-Based Way of Thinking and Its Maintenance Needed for Engineers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Examining curriculum among universities revealed that no significant difference in math class or related subjects can be seen. However, amount and depth of those studies, in general, differed depending on content of curriculum and the level of achievement at entrance to individual university. Universalization of higher education shows that students have many problems in learning higher level of traditional math and that the memory of math they learned quickly fades away after passing in exam. It means that further development of higher math knowledgebased engineer after graduation from universities. Under these circumstances, the present author, as one of fun of math, propose how to maintain way of thinking generated by math knowledge. What necessary for engineer is to pay attention to common books, dealing with elementary mathematics or arithmetic- related matters. This surely leads engineer to nourish math/arithmetic knowledge-based way of thinking.

Harada, Shoji

135

Teachers' Analyses of Classroom Video Predict Student Learning of Mathematics: Further Explorations of a Novel Measure of Teacher Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores the relationship between teacher knowledge and student learning in the area of mathematics by developing and evaluating an innovative approach to assessing teacher knowledge. This approach is based on teachers' analyses of classroom video clips. Teachers watched 13 video clips of classroom instruction and then provided written…

Kersting, Nicole B.; Givvin, Karen B.; Sotelo, Francisco L.; Stigler, James W.

2010-01-01

136

Relations between Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching, Mathematics Instructional Quality, and Student Achievement in the Context of the "Responsive Classroom (RC)" Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite over thirty years of theoretically based research investigating "how" teacher mathematical knowledge and instructional practice relate to student learning, it is still largely unclear how these constructs are related, and policy makers and practitioners are still situated in a context with insufficient data to make decisions. Thus, there…

Ottmar, Erin R.; Rimm-Kaufman, Sara E.; Larsen, Ross; Merritt, Eileen G.

2011-01-01

137

The need for a programme of research on educative curriculum materials as a mechanism for the diffusion\\/development of mathematical knowledge in\\/for teaching  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper argues that current political and profes sional thinking about mathematical knowledge in teaching reflects too restricted a con ceptualisation of the issue: one which locates mathematical expertise within teachers alon e, in isolation from the didactical tools in classroom use. Rather, this paper will sug gest that the quality of mathematical knowledge and thinking achieved in everyday classroom

Kenneth Ruthven

138

Culture and Mathematics in School: Boundaries between "Cultural" and "Domain" Knowledge in the Mathematics Classroom and beyond  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This chapter is about culture and mathematics teaching and learning. The authors' goal is to offer a thoughtful treatment of the role of culture in the teaching and learning of mathematics and to synthesize literature that is relevant to this concern from multiple subdisciplines in education, including math education, educational anthropology,…

Nasir, Na'ilah Suad; Hand, Victoria; Taylor, Edd V.

2008-01-01

139

The Introduction of Native Knowledge in Mathematic-Teaching in Ethnic Elementary and Secondary Schools--Based on the Theory of "Cultural Discontinuities"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ethnic students will face the problem of "cultural discontinuities" when they learn school mathematics. "Cultural discontinuity" is the main obstacle when they learn school mathematics. Teachers should put up the bridge for introducing ethnic mathematical knowledge into school mathematics teaching. The concrete tactics are: widening ethnic…

Zhao, Yan-jun

2011-01-01

140

Connecting Changes in Secondary Mathematics Teachers' Knowledge to Their Experiences in a Professional Development Workshop  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This investigation describes secondary mathematics teachers' learning and instructional change following their participation in a professional development workshop, the Enhancing Secondary Mathematics Teacher Preparation Project (ESP) (2004-2005), specifically focused on the selection and implementation of cognitively challenging mathematical

Boston, Melissa D.

2013-01-01

141

Types of Changes That Occur as Declarative Knowledge Increases  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Declarative knowledge involves being able to state and explain characteristics, terminologies, properties, phenomena, concepts, principles, and techniques. Chi and Ohlsson (2005) characterize it as the dominant form of knowledge, maintaining that it does not involve isolated units but rather is organized as semantic networks, theories, schemas, or…

Oosterhof, Albert

2012-01-01

142

The relationship between beginning college chemistry achievement and prior knowledge, number of college mathematics courses completed, GPA of college mathematics courses completed, levels of Piagetian intellectual development, mathematics ACT score, science ACT score, and composite ACT score  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study was designed to investigate the relationship between achievement in Chem 33 (a third semester general chemistry course) and the following predictor variables: prior knowledge (Chem 32 grade), level of Piagetian intellectual development, number of college mathematics courses previously completed, grades received in prior college mathematics courses, science ACT scores, mathematics ACT scores, and composite ACT scores. During the winter semester of the 1994--1995 school year, the students who were enrolled in two sections of Chem 33, taught by the same professor, were given the TOLT test. In addition, their student records were examined in order to determine the grade they received in Chem 32, the number of mathematics courses Completed in college, the GPA for the mathematics courses completed in college, the science ACT score, mathematics ACT score, and the composite ACT score. A Pearson Correlation was performed on these variables to determine to what extent they were able to predict the student's achievement, measured by the grade in Chem 33. What was found in respect to achievement in Chem 33 was: prior knowledge was r = 0.67, GPA of mathematics courses completed in college was r = 0.58, mathematics ACT was r = 0.50, composite ACT was r = 0.40, and TOLT was r = 0.33. A stepwise multiple regression was also performed to see what interactions could be found between the variables themselves. There was no single predictor variable that adequately serves as a dominant predictor variable for success in Chem 33. It can be concluded that the Chem 32 grade (prior knowledge) coupled with the GPA of the college mathematics courses completed in college as well as the mathematics ACT score are the best predictors for achievement in Chem 33.

Barthel, Margaret Gorjanc

143

Diabetes: increasing the knowledge base of mental health nurses.  

PubMed

Physical health assessment for people with a serious mental illness (SMI) has been a neglected issue, with all the evidence showing that mental health nurses (MHNs) and associated practitioners need to develop such skills. The University of Huddersfield and South West Yorkshire Partnership Foundation Trust collaborated in a Physical Skills Project with the aim of facilitating knowledge and skills for MHNs. The development of the education and training workshop is presented. The results of a pre- and post-test evaluation of diabetes, evaluation of the workshop and, finally, implications for practice with regard to transferable knowledge and skill, are discussed. PMID:24067307

Hemingway, Steve; Trotter, Fiona; Stephenson, John; Holdich, Phillip

144

Kindergarten children's growth trajectories in reading and mathematics: who falls increasingly behind?  

PubMed

The authors used a large sample of children (N ? 7,400) participating in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study--Kindergarten Cohort (ECLS-K) to estimate kindergarten children's academic achievement growth trajectories in reading and mathematics. The authors were particularly interested in whether the growth trajectories of children with learning disabilities (LD) or speech language impairments (SLI)--as well as those of other groups of children--were consistent with a cumulative or compensatory developmental cycle. Both LD and SLI children displayed significantly lower levels of kindergarten reading achievement than nondisabled children. However, and over the subsequent 5 years of elementary school, only children with SLI lagged increasingly behind nondisabled peers in their reading skills growth. The authors observed a different pattern for mathematics achievement. Children with LD, but not SLI, lagged increasingly behind nondisabled children in their mathematics skills growth. The authors also observed some consistency in "poor-get-poorer" effects across reading and mathematic achievement for additional population subgroups. Those kindergarten children who were from lower socioeconomic status families, who were African American, and who more frequently displayed learning-related behavior problems initially had lower levels of reading and mathematics achievement and also lagged increasingly behind in their acquisition of these skills over time. Some groups of children, including those with SLI, experience a cumulative rather than a compensatory cycle of achievement growth. PMID:21856991

Morgan, Paul L; Farkas, George; Wu, Qiong

2011-01-01

145

Does Knowledge Diffusion between University and Industry Increase Innovativeness?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper rigorously explores the impact of firm’s collaboration with universities on innovation. Specifically, using a representative dataset of manufacturing and service firms we have applied recent matching techniques to examine the hypotheses that whether academic knowledge has a positive impact on innovative sales and the propensity to apply for patents. Econometrically, the paper illustrates the differences that emerge from

Hans Lööf?; Anders Broström

2004-01-01

146

Hands-on mathematics: two cases from ancient Chinese mathematics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In modern mathematical teaching, it has become increasingly emphasized that mathematical knowledge should be taught by problem-solving, hands-on activities, and interactive learning experiences. Comparing the ideas of modern mathematical education with the development of ancient Chinese mathematics, we find that the history of mathematics in ancient China is an abundant resource for materials to demonstrate mathematics by hands-on manipulation. In this article I shall present two cases that embody this idea of a hands-on approach in ancient Chinese mathematics, at the same time offering an opportunity to show how to utilize materials from the history of Chinese math in modern mathematical education.

Wang, Youjun

2009-05-01

147

Development of a Performance Assessment Task and Rubric to Measure Prospective Secondary School Mathematics Teachers' Pedagogical Content Knowledge and Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this paper is to share a performance assessment task and rubric designed to assess secondary school mathematics preservice teachers' pedagogical content knowledge and skills. The assessment task and rubric were developed in collaboration with five education faculty, four arts and sciences faculty, and four high school teachers over…

Koirala, Hari P.; Davis, Marsha; Johnson, Peter

2008-01-01

148

Mathematical modeling and optimization strategies (genetic algorithm and knowledge base) applied to the continuous casting of steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The control of quality in continuous casting products cannot be achieved without a knowledge base which incorporates parameters and variables of influence such as: equipment characteristics, steel, each component of the system and operational conditions. This work presents the development of a computational algorithm (software) applied to maximize the quality of steel billets produced by continuous casting. A mathematical model

C. A. Santos; J. A. Spim; A. Garcia

2003-01-01

149

Knowledge Dissemination and use in Science and mathematics education- A Literature Review  

NSF Publications Database

... and mathematics education: A Literature Review Type : Report NSF Org: EHR / RED Date : May 1, 1993 ... AND MATHEMATICS EDUCATION: A LITERATURE REVIEW Janet Hutchinson Michael Huberman Prepared for the ...

150

Prediction Assessments: Using Video-Based Predictions to Assess Prospective Teachers' Knowledge of Students' Mathematical Thinking  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to evaluate the effectiveness of an experimental elementary mathematics field experience course, we have designed a new assessment instrument. These video-based prediction assessments engage prospective teachers in a video analysis of a child solving mathematical tasks. The prospective teachers build a model of that child's mathematics

Norton, Anderson; McCloskey, Andrea; Hudson, Rick A.

2011-01-01

151

The Relationship between Teachers' Knowledge and Beliefs and the Teaching of Elementary Mathematics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was conducted to explore the relationship between elementary school teachers' professed teaching practice and their beliefs about and understanding of elementary mathematics. The Curriculum and Evaluation Standards for School Mathematics, published by the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (1989) was used as the criterion for…

Schwartz, J. E.; Riedesel, C. Alan

152

Limited Knowledge of Fraction Representations Differentiates Middle School Students with Mathematics Learning Disability (Dyscalculia) versus Low Mathematics Achievement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fractions pose significant challenges for many children, but for some children those challenges persist into high school. Here we administered a fractions magnitude comparison test to 122 children, from Grades 4 to 8, to test whether their knowledge of fractions typically learned early in the sequence of formal math instruction (e.g., fractions…

Mazzocco, Michele M. M.; Myers, Gwen F.; Lewis, Katherine E.; Hanich, Laurie B.; Murphy, Melissa M.

2013-01-01

153

Multimedia Education Increases Elder Knowledge of Emergency Department Care  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Elders who utilize the emergency department (ED) may have little prospective knowledge of appropriate expectations during an ED encounter. Improving elder orientation to ED expectations is important for satisfaction and health education. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a multi-media education intervention as a method for informing independently living elders about ED care. The program delivered messages categorically as, the number of tests, providers, decisions and disposition decision making. Methods: Interventional trial of representative elders over 59 years of age comparing pre and post multimedia program exposure. A brief (0.3 hour) video that chronicled the key events after a hypothetical 911 call for chest pain was shown. The video used a clinical narrator, 15 ED health care providers, and 2 professional actors for the patient and spouse. Pre- and post-video tests results were obtained with audience response technology (ART) assessed learning using a 4 point Likert scale. Results: Valid data from 142 participants were analyzed pre to post rankings (Wilcoxon signed-rank tests). The following four learning objectives showed significant improvements: number of tests expected [median differences on a 4-point Likert scale with 95% confidence intervals: 0.50 (0.00, 1.00)]; number of providers expected 1.0 (1.00, 1.50); communications 1.0 (1.00, 1.50); and pre-hospital medical treatment 0.50 (0.00, 1.00). Elders (96%) judged the intervention as improving their ability to cope with an ED encounter. Conclusion: A short video with graphic side-bar information is an effective educational strategy to improve elder understanding of expectations during a hypothetical ED encounter following calling 911.

Terndrup, Thomas E.; Ali, Sameer; Hulse, Steve; Shaffer, Michele; Lloyd, Tom

2013-01-01

154

A survey on the effectiveness of using GeoGebra software towards lecturers' conceptual knowledge and procedural mathematics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of technology in the teaching of mathematics at the university level has long been introduced; but many among the lecturers, especially those that have taught for many years, still opt for a traditional teaching method, that is, by lecture talk. One reason is that lecturers themselves were not exposed to the technologies available and how it can assist in the teaching and learning procedures (T&L) in mathematics. GeoGebra is a mathematical software which is open and free and has just recently been introduced in Malaysia. Compared with the software Cabri Geometry and Geometer's Sketchpad (GSP), which only focus on geometry, GeoGebra is able to connect geometry, algebra and numerical representation. Realizing this, the researchers have conducted a study to expose the university lecturers on the use of GeoGebra in T&L. The researchers chose to do the research on mathematics lecturers at the Department of Computer Science and Mathematics (JSKM), Universiti Teknologi Mara (UiTM), Penang. The objective of this study is to determine whether an exposure to GeoGebra software can affect the conceptual knowledge and procedural teaching of mathematics at the university level. This study is a combination of descriptive and qualitative. One session was conducted in an open workshop for all the 45 lecturers. From that total, four people were selected as a sample. The sample was selected by using a simple random sampling method. This study used materials in the form of modules during the workshop. In terms of conceptual knowledge, the results showed that the GeoGebra software is appropriate, relevant and highly effective for in-depth understanding of the selected topics. While the procedural aspects of teaching, it can be one of the teaching aids and considerably facilitate the lecturers.

Wan Salleh, Masturah; Sulaiman, Hajar

2013-04-01

155

How Important Is Where You Start? Early Mathematics Knowledge and Later School Success  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Children's early skills are essential for their later success in school. Recent evidence highlights the importance of early mathematics, relative to reading and socioemotional skills, for elementary school achievement. Key advocacy groups for both early childhood and mathematics education have issued position statements on the…

Claessens, Amy; Engel, Mimi

2013-01-01

156

Developing Mathematics Content Knowledge along New Paths: Shifting from Student to Teacher  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Today's classrooms pose many challenges for new mathematics teachers joining the teaching force. As they enter the teaching field, they bring a wide range of mathematical experiences that are often focused on calculations and memorization of concepts rather than problem solving and representation of ideas. Such experiences generally minimize what…

Enderson, Mary C.; Klerlein, Jacob T.; Johnson, Jason D.

2010-01-01

157

Leadership for School Numeracy: How School Leaders' Knowledge and Attitudes Impact Student Mathematics Achievement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although most high schools espouse school-wide literacy initiatives, few schools place equal emphasis on numeracy, or quantitative literacy. This lack of attention to quantitative skills is ironic in light of documented deficiencies in student mathematics achievement. While significant research exists regarding best practices for mathematics

Walker-Glenn, Michelle Lynn

2010-01-01

158

Mathematical Knowledge of Technology and Design Student Teachers: Diagnosis and Remediation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research examines how e-assessment and e-resources were used to assess and support the mathematics of Technology and Design students undertaking a B.Ed. (post-primary) teacher education course. The students participated in two similar tests in order to ascertain if their mathematical difficulties were in the underlying concepts of the…

Bell, Irene Teresa; Gibson, Ken

2009-01-01

159

Secondary-Level Student Teachers' Conceptions of Mathematical Proof  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent reforms in mathematics education have led to an increased emphasis on proof and reasoning in mathematics curricula. The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics highlights the important role that teachers' knowledge and beliefs play in shaping students' understanding of mathematics, their confidence in and outlook on mathematics

Varghese, Thomas

2009-01-01

160

Mathematics, Anyone?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In their dual roles as mathematics teachers and tennis coaches, the authors have worked with tennis players who have never thought about how a knowledge of mathematics might help them become "better" tennis players. They have also worked with many mathematics students who have never considered how much mathematics is associated with tennis. This…

Reys, Robert; Reys, Rustin

2011-01-01

161

Increasing Academic Compliance with Mathematics Tasks Using the High-Preference Strategy with a Student with Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors investigated the effectiveness of using high-preference (high-p) mathematics tasks for increasing task initiation of low-preference (low-p) mathematics tasks with a 13-year-old middle school student with autism. They used an ABAB design to determine the effectiveness of high-p tasks with to comply with low-p tasks. Results indicated…

Banda, Devender R.; Kubina, Richard M., Jr.

2009-01-01

162

Mathematics Achievement Gaps between Suburban Students and Their Rural and Urban Peers Increase over Time. Issue Brief No. 52  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this brief, authors Suzanne Graham and Lauren Provost examine whether attending a school in a rural, urban, or suburban community is related to children's mathematics achievement in kindergarten, and whether increases in mathematics achievement between kindergarten and eighth grade differ for children in rural, urban, and suburban schools. They…

Graham, Suzanne E.; Provost, Lauren E.

2012-01-01

163

"Everything Is Math in the Whole World": Integrating Critical and Community Knowledge in Authentic Mathematical Investigations with Elementary Latina/o Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This critical ethnographic study of an after-school mathematics club for elementary-aged Latina/o youth focuses on connecting critical, community, and mathematical knowledge in the context of authentic, community-based investigations. We present cases of two extended projects to highlight tensions and dilemmas that emerged, particularly tensions…

Turner, Erin E.; Gutierrez, Maura Varley; Simic-Muller, Ksenija; Diez-Palomar, Javier

2009-01-01

164

An analysis of the changes in ability and knowledge of students taking A-level physics and mathematics over a 35 year period  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New undergraduate students arriving to study physics at the University of Bristol from 1975 onwards have all taken the same test of their knowledge and understanding of physics and mathematics. Many of the questions test knowledge of material that has been in the A-level syllabus for maths or physics throughout this period. The ability of incoming students to answer these questions declined significantly in the 1990s with average scores falling from around 75% up to 1990 to below 50% after 2000 against a background of increasing A-level grades of the entrants to the programme. It is suggested that changes in teaching and examination methods have caused students to be less able to carry out multi-stage calculations and that the introduction of modular examinations may have encouraged a culture where students tend to forget material learnt in previous modules.

Barham, Peter J.

2012-03-01

165

Higher Education in Sint Maarten: Fostering Growth of Teacher Knowledge in Mathematics and Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A needs analysis conducted as part of the foundation-based education (FBE) innovation on the island territory of Sint Maarten indicated the need for additional training of early primary teachers (PK-2) in mathematics and science education. Seven in-service workshops, designed around the Joyce-Showers' Training Model, were implemented over the…

Sargeant, Marcel A.; Burton, Larry D.; Bailey, Andel

2010-01-01

166

Knowledge Growth of Mathematics Teachers during Professional Activity Based on the Task of Lesson Explaining  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Lesson explaining" has been developed in China from an evaluative resource to an effective form of teacher professional development with the value of emphasizing teacher reflective practice. This paper begins with a general description of lesson explaining. Then an example of "explaining" a mathematics lesson for teaching probability is…

Peng, Aihui

2007-01-01

167

Developing Mathematics Knowledge Keepers--Issues at the Intersection of Communities of Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses some issues that arose in the context of a three-year research project on Indigenous mathematics teacher education in the Northern Territory of Australia. The project was based on the premise that Indigenous student numeracy outcomes are more likely to be improved where students can work on key number ideas and strategies in…

Siemon, Dianne E.

2009-01-01

168

Knowledge of Mathematical Equivalence in Children with Specific Language Impairment: Insights from Gesture and Speech  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This study investigated understanding of mathematical equivalence in children with and without specific language impairment (SLI). Method: A total of 34 children (ages 8;1 [years;months] to 11;7), including 9 with expressive SLI (E-SLI), 8 with expressive and receptive SLI (ER-SLI), and 17 age-matched typically developing (TD) children…

Mainela-Arnold, Elina; Alibali, Martha W.; Ryan, Kristin; Evans, Julia L.

2011-01-01

169

What Is First-Year Mathematics Students' Actual Knowledge about Improper Integrals?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper analyses the answers of a group of first-year university Mathematics students to a questionnaire, with the aim of determining the difficulties they have when carrying out non-routine tasks related to improper integrals. The questionnaire consisted of nine questions including not only calculus tasks and determining the convergence of…

Gonzalez-Martin, Alejandro S.; Camacho, Matias

2004-01-01

170

Conceptual Visibility and Virtual Dynamics in Technology-Scaffolded Learning Environments for Conceptual Knowledge of Mathematics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article adds to the growing body of research surrounding the use of virtual manipulatives for mathematics learning. The study reported herein used five different virtual manipulatives from four different websites, all within a sixth grade unit on proportional thinking. While many studies have reported on student achievement when using virtual…

McLeod, Julie; Vasinda, Sheri; Dondlinger, Mary Jo

2012-01-01

171

Engendering Proof Attitudes: Can the Genesis of Mathematical Knowledge Teach Us Anything?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests that there is continued poverty in student understanding of proof. Reports on how proof attitudes could be inculcated in students by offering them a course design that is somewhat faithful to the historical genesis of modern mathematics. Contends that such a design can enable students to discover a sense of proof for themselves. (Contains…

Almeida, Dennis

2003-01-01

172

How to build a course in mathematical-biological modeling: content and processes for knowledge and skill.  

PubMed

Biological problems in the twenty-first century are complex and require mathematical insight, often resulting in mathematical models of biological systems. Building mathematical-biological models requires cooperation among biologists and mathematicians, and mastery of building models. A new course in mathematical modeling presented the opportunity to build both content and process learning of mathematical models, the modeling process, and the cooperative process. There was little guidance from the literature on how to build such a course. Here, I describe the iterative process of developing such a course, beginning with objectives and choosing content and process competencies to fulfill the objectives. I include some inductive heuristics for instructors seeking guidance in planning and developing their own courses, and I illustrate with a description of one instructional model cycle. Students completing this class reported gains in learning of modeling content, the modeling process, and cooperative skills. Student content and process mastery increased, as assessed on several objective-driven metrics in many types of assessments. PMID:20810966

Hoskinson, Anne-Marie

2010-01-01

173

How to Build a Course in Mathematical-Biological Modeling: Content and Processes for Knowledge and Skill  

PubMed Central

Biological problems in the twenty-first century are complex and require mathematical insight, often resulting in mathematical models of biological systems. Building mathematical–biological models requires cooperation among biologists and mathematicians, and mastery of building models. A new course in mathematical modeling presented the opportunity to build both content and process learning of mathematical models, the modeling process, and the cooperative process. There was little guidance from the literature on how to build such a course. Here, I describe the iterative process of developing such a course, beginning with objectives and choosing content and process competencies to fulfill the objectives. I include some inductive heuristics for instructors seeking guidance in planning and developing their own courses, and I illustrate with a description of one instructional model cycle. Students completing this class reported gains in learning of modeling content, the modeling process, and cooperative skills. Student content and process mastery increased, as assessed on several objective-driven metrics in many types of assessments.

2010-01-01

174

How Do Students Learn to Apply their Mathematical Knowledge to Interpret Graphs in Physics?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article describes a laboratory-based program in physics designed to help students build effective links between the mathematical equations used to solve problems in mechanics and the real world of moving objects. The program is based on a study conducted among senior college students, which illustrated out the value of laboratory work in science education for development of thinking skills and positive attitudes (Contains 14 references).

Woolnough, Jim

2006-09-14

175

Measuring Computer Science Knowledge Level of Hungarian Students Specialized in Informatics with Romanian Students Attending a Science Course or a Mathematics-Informatics Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An analysis of Information Technology knowledge of Hungarian and Romanian students was made with the help of a self developed web based Informatics Test. The goal of this research is an analysis of the Computer Science knowledge level of Hungarian and Romanian students attending a Science course or a Mathematics-Informatics course. Analysed was…

Kiss, Gabor

2012-01-01

176

Mathematical Resilience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The term "mathematical resilience" is used to describe a learner's stance towards mathematics that enables pupils to continue learning despite finding setbacks and challenges in their mathematical learning journey. There are ways of working in mathematics that increase mathematical resilience and conversely there are ways of working that decrease…

Johnston-Wilder, Sue; Lee, Clare

2010-01-01

177

The Impact of Sequencing and Prior Knowledge on Learning Mathematics through Spreadsheet Applications  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

According to cognitive load theory, instruction needs to be designed in a manner that facilitates the acquisition of knowledge in long-term memory while reducing unnecessary demands on working memory. When technology is used to deliver instruction, the sequence in which students learn to use the technology and learn the relevant subject matter may…

Clarke, Tracey; Ayres, Paul; Sweller, John

2005-01-01

178

Learning a Mathematical Concept from Comparing Examples: The Importance of Variation and Prior Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In experiment 1, novice fourth-grade students (N = 92) who compared multiple examples that separately varied each critical aspect and then simultaneously varied all critical aspects developed better conceptual knowledge about the "altitude of a triangle" than students who compared multiple examples that did not separately vary each critical aspect…

Guo, Jian-peng; Pang, Ming Fai

2011-01-01

179

The Role of Mathematical Homework and Prior Knowledge on the Relationship between Students' Mathematical Performance, Cognitive Style and Working Memory Capacity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: The main objective of this study is (a) to investigate whether cognitive styles and working memory capacity could predict mathematical performance and which variable is relatively most important in predicting mathematical performance and b) to explore whether cognitive styles and working memory capacity could predict mathematical

Mousavi, Shima; Radmehr, Farzad; Alamolhodaei, Hasan

2012-01-01

180

Teacher leadership in mathematics and science: Subject content knowledge and the improvement of instruction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study explores the role of teacher leader subject content knowledge in the promotion of professional development and instructional reform. Consistent with a distributed leadership perspective, many have asserted that the promotion of school effectiveness can be enhanced through the application of teacher leadership (Frost & Durrant, 2003; Harris, 2002a; Sherrill, 1999; Silva, Gimbert, & Nolan, 2000; York-Barr & Duke, 2004). There has been much discussion in the research about the significance of teachers' subject content knowledge in teaching and learning which has generally asserted a positive relationship with instructional practice and student achievement (Darling-Hammond, 2000; Newton & Newton, 2001; Parker & Heywood, 2000). The role of content knowledge in teacher leader work has been less researched. This study focused on deepening understanding of perceptions regarding teacher leaders' roles in improving instructional practice. Based on a framework of common teacher leader tasks, qualitative methods were used to investigate the relationship between teacher leader subject content knowledge and perceptions of effectiveness in promoting professional development and instructional reform. The study indicates that content experts behave differently than their non-expert counterparts. Content experts recognize deficiencies in colleagues' content knowledge as a primary problem in the implementation of math or science reform. Content experts view their work as advocacy for improved curriculum and instruction for all children, and work within a small set of task categories to promote discussions about teaching, learning, and content. Content experts develop trust and rapport with colleagues by demonstrating expertise, and are respected for their deep knowledge and efforts to help teachers learn the content. They also differ from non-content experts in the professional growth experiences in which they engage. The consideration of content expertise as an influence to teacher leader work helps to refine our conception of teacher leadership. A task-focused model of content expert teacher leadership is presented, and provides guidance for recruitment, selection, and development of future teacher leaders. Content expertise is presented as a form of human capital that promotes task-focused distributed leadership. Practical recommendations for future teacher leadership initiatives and suggestions for future research are presented.

Manno, Christopher M.

181

Effectiveness of continuing medical education in increasing colorectal cancer screening knowledge among Vietnamese American physicians.  

PubMed

Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening rates are lower in Vietnamese Americans than in non-Hispanic Whites. Most Vietnamese Americans have ethnically concordant physicians and are willing to have CRC screening if their physicians recommend it. We conducted two continuing medical education (CME) seminars with participants recruited from the Vietnamese Physician Association of Northern California to increase their CRC screening knowledge. We used pre- and post-CME surveys to evaluate the CMEs and per-item McNemar's tests to assess changes in knowledge. Correct responses increased significantly from pre- to post-CME for all five items on CRC burden and four of 11 items on screening guidelines and practices at the first CME and for five of seven items on screening guidelines and practices at the second CME. Continuing medical education seminars were effective in increasing CRC screening knowledge among Vietnamese American physicians. This increase may lead to physicians' recommending and their patients' completing CRC screening tests. PMID:20453357

Nguyen, Bang H; Pham, Jane T; Chew, Rilene A; McPhee, Stephen J; Stewart, Susan L; Doan, Hiep T

2010-05-01

182

Effectiveness of Continuing Medical Education in Increasing Colorectal Cancer Screening Knowledge among Vietnamese American Physicians  

PubMed Central

Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening rates are lower in Vietnamese Americans than in non-Hispanic Whites. Most Vietnamese Americans have ethnically concordant physicians and are willing to have CRC screening if their physicians recommend it. We conducted two continuing medical education (CME) seminars with participants recruited from the Vietnamese Physician Association of Northern California to increase their CRC screening knowledge. We used pre- and post-CME surveys to evaluate the CMEs and per-item McNemar’s tests to assess changes in knowledge. Correct responses increased significantly from pre- to post-CME for all 5 items on CRC burden and 4 of 11 items on screening guidelines and practices at the first CME and for 5 of 7 items on screening guidelines and practices at the second CME. CME seminars were effective in increasing CRC screening knowledge among Vietnamese American physicians. This increase may lead to physicians’ recommending and their patients’ completing CRC screening tests.

Nguyen, Bang H.; Pham, Jane T.; Chew, Rilene A.; McPhee, Stephen J.; Stewart, Susan L.; Doan, Hiep T.

2011-01-01

183

AUTHORITY AND ESTEEM EFFECTS OF ENHANCING REMOTE INDIGENOUS TEACHER-ASSISTANTS' MATHEMATICS-EDUCATION KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interaction between Australia's Eurocentric education and the complex culture of remote Indigenous communities often results in Indigenous disempowerment and educational underperformance. This paper reports on a mathematics-education research project in a remote community to support Indigenous teacher assistants (ITAs) in mathematics and mathematics tutoring in an attempt to reverse Indigenous mathematics underperformance. It discusses teachers' and ITAs' power and

Annette R Baturo; Tom J Cooper; Katherine Doyle

2008-01-01

184

How to Build a Course in Mathematical-Biological Modeling: Content and Processes for Knowledge and Skill  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Biological problems in the twenty-first century are complex and require mathematical insight, often resulting in mathematical models of biological systems. Building mathematical-biological models requires cooperation among biologists and mathematicians, and mastery of building models. A new course in mathematical modeling presented the opportunity…

Hoskinson, Anne-Marie

2010-01-01

185

Levels of line graph question interpretation with intermediate elementary students of varying scientific and mathematical knowledge and ability: A think aloud study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examined how intermediate elementary students' mathematics and science background knowledge affected their interpretation of line graphs and how their interpretations were affected by graph question levels. A purposive sample of 14 6th-grade students engaged in think aloud interviews (Ericsson & Simon, 1993) while completing an excerpted Test of Graphing in Science (TOGS) (McKenzie & Padilla, 1986). Hand gestures were video recorded. Student performance on the TOGS was assessed using an assessment rubric created from previously cited factors affecting students' graphing ability. Factors were categorized using Bertin's (1983) three graph question levels. The assessment rubric was validated by Padilla and a veteran mathematics and science teacher. Observational notes were also collected. Data were analyzed using Roth and Bowen's semiotic process of reading graphs (2001). Key findings from this analysis included differences in the use of heuristics, self-generated questions, science knowledge, and self-motivation. Students with higher prior achievement used a greater number and variety of heuristics and more often chose appropriate heuristics. They also monitored their understanding of the question and the adequacy of their strategy and answer by asking themselves questions. Most used their science knowledge spontaneously to check their understanding of the question and the adequacy of their answers. Students with lower and moderate prior achievement favored one heuristic even when it was not useful for answering the question and rarely asked their own questions. In some cases, if students with lower prior achievement had thought about their answers in the context of their science knowledge, they would have been able to recognize their errors. One student with lower prior achievement motivated herself when she thought the questions were too difficult. In addition, students answered the TOGS in one of three ways: as if they were mathematics word problems, science data to be analyzed, or they were confused and had to guess. A second set of findings corroborated how science background knowledge affected graph interpretation: correct science knowledge supported students' reasoning, but it was not necessary to answer any question correctly; correct science knowledge could not compensate for incomplete mathematics knowledge; and incorrect science knowledge often distracted students when they tried to use it while answering a question. Finally, using Roth and Bowen's (2001) two-stage semiotic model of reading graphs, representative vignettes showed emerging patterns from the study. This study added to our understanding of the role of science content knowledge during line graph interpretation, highlighted the importance of heuristics and mathematics procedural knowledge, and documented the importance of perception attentions, motivation, and students' self-generated questions. Recommendations were made for future research in line graph interpretation in mathematics and science education and for improving instruction in this area.

Keller, Stacy Kathryn

186

A Simple and Effective Program to Increase Faculty Knowledge of and Referrals to Counseling Centers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors describe a simple, cost-effective, and empirically supported program to increase faculty referrals of students to counseling centers (CCs). Incoming faculty members at 3 universities received a mailing and personal telephone call from a CC staff member. Faculty assigned to the outreach program had greater knowledge of and rates of…

Nolan, Susan A.; Pace, Kristi A.; Iannelli, Richard J.; Palma, Thomas V.; Pakalns, Gail P.

2006-01-01

187

Student Content Knowledge Increases after Participation in a Hands-on Biotechnology Intervention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Implementing biotechnology education through hands-on teaching methods should be considered by secondary biology teachers. This study is an experimental research design to examine increased student content knowledge in biotechnology after a hands-on biotechnology intervention. The teachers from both school groups participated in, Project Crawfish,…

Bigler, Amber M.; Hanegan, Nikki L.

2011-01-01

188

A Descriptive Study of Single Adults in Homeless Shelters: Increasing Counselors' Knowledge and Social Action  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article is intended to help counselors increase their knowledge and social action for single adults who are homeless. Findings from a period-prevalence study of 71 single adults in a homeless shelter over 2 years reveal demographics, mental health needs, and sociopolitical issues of this population. Implications including social justice…

Baggerly, Jennifer; Zalaquett, Carlos P.

2006-01-01

189

Prior Study of Mathematics as a Predictor of Pre-Service Teachers' Success on Tests of Mathematics and Pedagogical Content Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There remains a lack of empirical evidence about the relationship between the level of mathematics studied at high school and within tertiary degrees and primary school pre-service teachers' success in curriculum subjects. Further, there is little evidence to inform the structure and delivery of mathematics teacher preparation. In this study, the…

Norton, Stephen

2012-01-01

190

A Comparison of Secondary Principals' Use of Data Systems to Increase Student Achievement in Mathematics as Measured by Standardized Assessments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The pressure to meet the demands of "No Child Left Behind" (NCLB) Act coupled with poor results by secondary students on national assessments in mathematics have forced school principals to develop skill sets in the use of data in efforts to increase student performance on standardized assessments. The effective use of data by school principals…

Williams, Joshua

2011-01-01

191

A Critique Analysis of NCLB, Increase Testing, and Past Maryland Mathematics and Science HSA Exams: What Are Maryland Practitioners' Perspectives?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

States are establishing high stakes assessments to serve as a measurement tool of students' academic abilities. This study essentially explored and sought to understand some of Maryland's mathematics and science practitioners' perspectives on increase testing, and the No Child left Behind (NCLB) Act. Basically, the study sought to understand and…

Pinder, Patrice Juliet

2008-01-01

192

Development of Children's Strategic and Metastrategic Knowledge in a Novel Mathematical Domain.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the independent strategy development of 7- to 12-year-old children from the suburbs of Brisbane, Australia in solving a series of novel, two- and three-dimensional combinatorial problems. For each of the problem types, a sequence of five, increasingly complex, strategies was identified from the children's actions and…

English, Lyn

193

Mathematics Achievement in Young Children Is Increased with a Cognitively Oriented Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to determine which kind of mathematics program would produce the best results for kindergarten children, three programs from different theoretical perspectives were developed. The first program, behavioristic in focus, made use of texts, worksheets, and seatwork. The second, cognitive-developmental in outlook, stressed conceptualization…

Rawl, Ruth K.; O'Tuel, Frances S.

194

A Collaborative Project to Increase the Participation of Women and Minorities in Higher Level Mathematics Courses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the authors describe a program developed to encourage women and minorities to continue their study of mathematics in high schools until graduation. The 3-year program was a collaborative effort by professors and students from Bryant University, local businesses, and local high schools. During the 3 years, the program evolved from…

Kennedy, Kristin; Schumacher, Phyllis

2005-01-01

195

Secondary School Advanced Mathematics, Chapter 1, Organizing Geometric Knowledge, Chapter 2, Concepts and Skills in Algebra. Teacher's Commentary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual was designed for use with the first of five texts in the Secondary School Advanced Mathematics (SSAM) series. Developed for students who have completed the Secondary School Mathematics (SSM) program and wish to continue their studies in mathematics, this series is designed to review, strengthen, and fill gaps in the material covered in…

Stanford Univ., CA. School Mathematics Study Group.

196

Examining the Effects of Math Teachers' Circles on Aspects of Teachers' Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Math Teachers' Circles have been spreading since their emergence in 2006. These professional development programs, aimed primarily at middle-level mathematics teachers (grades 5-9), focus on developing teachers' mathematical problem solving skills, in line with the Common Core State Standards-Standards of Mathematical Practice. Yet, to…

White, Diana; Donaldson, Brianna; Hodge, Angie; Ruff, Adam

2013-01-01

197

[A simple strategy increases mother's knowledge of breastfeeding and improves the breastfeeding rates  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE: To assess mother's knowledge of breastfeeding before and after guidance supplied during the postpartum period and its relationship to the prevalence of breastfeeding.METHODS: A clinical trial was performed with 405 mothers of normal children born at Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre from July to December 1994. The intervention consisted of guidance given by means of a video film discussing basic topics on breastfeeding, an explanatory leaflet and open discussion after the video. The first 208 mothers constituted the Control Group and the remaining 197 the Experimental Group. All mothers answered a question form for identification purposes and a test on previous knowledge regarding breastfeeding in the maternity ward. The mothers in both groups were followed by means of home visits at the end of the first, second, fourth and sixth months, or until they stopped breastfeeding. At the end of the first month the mothers were submitted to the same test given right after delivery. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between the mother? knowledge of breastfeeding and the prevalence of breastfeeding.RESULTS: The mothers who received the intervention (Experimental Group) had a significantly higher score in the tests on knowledge of breastfeeding at the end of the first month as compared with the mothers in the Control Group (17.0 versus 14.7). The intervention increased by 1.7 mothers chances of achieving a score above the average. The mothers whose scores were above the average had a 8.2 higher chance of being breastfeeding exclusively at the end of the third month and twice as high of still being breastfeeding at the end of the sixth month.CONCLUSION: Simple strategies to increase mother's knowledge regarding breastfeeding can have a positive impact on breastfeeding rates. PMID:14685597

Susin, L R; Giugliani, E R; Kummer, S C; Maciel, M; Benjamin, A C; Machado, D B; Barcaro, M; Draghetti, V

1998-01-01

198

Exploring the Increase of Receptive Vocabulary Knowledge in the Foreign Language: A Longitudinal Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper tracks the increase in the overall word reception knowledge of 224 young pupils in their 4th, 5th and 6th grades of primary education and in their 1st year of secondary education (7th grade), who learn EFL in a formal context. The 2,000 word frequency band of The Vocabulary Levels Test (Schmitt, Schmitt and Clapham, 2001, version 2) is…

Gallego, Melania Terrazas; Llach, Maria del Pilar Agustin

2009-01-01

199

Remedial Mathematics for Quantum Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Proper mathematical skills are important for every science course and mathematics-intensive chemistry courses rely on a sound mathematical pre-knowledge. In the first-year quantum chemistry course at this university, it was noticed that many students lack basic mathematical knowledge. To tackle the mathematics problem, a remedial mathematics

Koopman, Lodewijk; Brouwer, Natasa; Heck, Andre; Buma, Wybren Jan

2008-01-01

200

A community effort towards a knowledge-base and mathematical model of the human pathogen Salmonella Typhimurium LT2  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Metabolic reconstructions (MRs) are common denominators in systems biology and represent biochemical, genetic, and genomic (BiGG) knowledge-bases for target organisms by capturing currently available information in a consistent, structured manner. Salmonella enterica subspecies I serovar Typhimurium is a human pathogen, causes various diseases and its increasing antibiotic resistance poses a public health problem. RESULTS: Here, we describe a community-driven

Ines Thiele; Daniel R. Hyduke; Benjamin Steeb; Guy Fankam; Douglas K. Allen; Susanna Bazzani; Pep Charusanti; Feng-Chi Chen; Ronan MT Fleming; Chao A. Hsiung; Sigrid CJ De Keersmaecker; Yu-Chieh Liao; Kathleen Marchal; Monica L. Mo; Emre Özdemir; Anu Raghunathan; Jennifer L. Reed; Sook-Il Shin; Sara Sigurbjörnsdóttir; Jonas Steinmann; Suresh Sudarsan; Neil Swainston; Inge M. Thijs; Karsten Zengler; Bernhard O. Palsson; Joshua N. Adkins; Dirk Bumann

2011-01-01

201

Public Awareness of Colorectal Cancer Screening: Knowledge, Attitudes, and Interventions for Increasing Screening Uptake  

PubMed Central

Colorectal cancer ranks as one of the most incidental and death malignancies worldwide. Colorectal cancer screening has proven its benefit in terms of incidence and mortality reduction in randomized controlled trials. In fact, it has been recommended by medical organizations either in average-risk or family-risk populations. Success of a screening campaign highly depends on how compliant the target population is. Several factors influence colorectal cancer screening uptake including sociodemographics, provider and healthcare system factors, and psychosocial factors. Awareness of the target population of colorectal cancer and screening is crucial in order to increase screening participation rates. Knowledge about this disease and its prevention has been used across studies as a measurement of public awareness. Some studies found a positive relationship between knowledge about colorectal cancer, risk perception, and attitudes (perceived benefits and barriers against screening) and willingness to participate in a colorectal cancer screening campaign. The mentioned factors are modifiable and therefore susceptible of intervention. In fact, interventional studies focused on average-risk population have tried to increase colorectal cancer screening uptake by improving public knowledge and modifying attitudes. In the present paper, we reviewed the factors impacting adherence to colorectal cancer screening and interventions targeting participants for increasing screening uptake.

Gimeno Garcia, Antonio Z.; Hernandez Alvarez Buylla, Noemi; Nicolas-Perez, David; Quintero, Enrique

2014-01-01

202

Multi-Media Educational Tool Increases Knowledge of Clinical Trials in Uganda  

PubMed Central

Background Informed consent is premised on the participants’ understanding the scope of the research and the associated risks and benefits. The objective was to evaluate the improvement in knowledge in a population unfamiliar with clinical trial concepts about “what it means to be part of a clinical trial” using an innovative educational tool called the ‘Speaking Book’. Methods This was a randomized controlled trial conducted at a research site in Uganda. 201 participants were randomized to: 1) clinical trials information session control arm, or 2) clinical trials information session followed by instruction in the use of the Speaking Book with a take-home copy (intervention arm). After the session, participants of both groups completed a 22-item multiple-choice test on the rights and responsibilities of participants. Participants returned after one week to complete the same test to assess knowledge retention. The mean pre- and post-test score difference was assessed according to trial arm using an unpaired t-test of proportions. Results Ninety-one (90%) participants completed both the initial and follow-up tests in the control arm and 100 (100%) in the intervention arm. The average age of participants was 38 years, 53% were female and 67% were employed; 20% had previously been invited to participate in a clinical trial; of these, 19% had participated. The mean difference in proportion of correct responses from test 1 to test 2 was 2.7% (95%CI 0.3%–5.0%) for the control arm and 11.6% (95%CI 9.3%–13.7%) for the intervention arm (t-score= ?5.3, p-value<0.0001). Conclusion Participants who had instruction in the use of the Speaking Book had a larger increase in knowledge than those who had no access to this tool. To better engage patients unfamiliar with clinical trial concepts, innovative educational techniques can assist to increase knowledge to make an informed decision about participation in a clinical trial.

Castelnuovo, Barbara; Newell, Kevin; Manabe, Yukari C.; Robertson, Gavin

2014-01-01

203

Students as Mathematics Consultants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

If students are going to develop reasoning and thinking skills, use their mathematical knowledge, and recognize the relevance of mathematics in their lives, they need to experience mathematics in meaningful ways. Only then will their mathematical skills be transferrable to all other parts of their lives. To promote such flexible mathematical

Jensen, Jennifer L.

2013-01-01

204

The Impact of Problem-Based Learning Curricula and Teachers' Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching on the Mathematical Development of Second Grade Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The results from the 2007 Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) revealed that the scores of fourth grade students in the 90th percentile showed no measurable change from the results of the first TIMSS assessment in 1995. Contrarily, the scores of the lowest performing fourth graders showed statistically significant…

Trinter, Christine P.

2011-01-01

205

Increase in medical knowledge during the final year of undergraduate medical education in Germany  

PubMed Central

Aims: In Germany, the final year of undergraduate medical education (‘practice year’) consists of three 16-week clinical attachments, two of which are internal medicine and surgery. Students can choose a specific specialty for their third 16-week attachment. Practice year students do not receive specific teaching to prepare them for the National Licensing Examination. It is unknown whether knowledge levels increase during this year. This study aimed at assessing knowledge at the beginning and the end of the final year of medical school. Methods: Three hundred pre-selected United States Medical Licensing Examination type items from ten medical disciplines were reviewed by ten recent medical graduates from the Netherlands and Germany. The resulting test included 150 items and was taken by 77 and 79 final year medical students from Göttingen and Hamburg at the beginning and the end of their practice year, respectively. Results: Cronbach’s ? of the pre- and post-test was 0.75 and 0.68, respectively. Mean percent scores in the pre- and post-test were 63.9±6.9 and 69.4±5.7, respectively (p<0.001; effect size calculated as Cohen’s d: 0.87). In individual students, post-test scores were particularly high for items related to their specific chosen specialty. Conclusion: The knowledge test used in this study provides a suitable external tool to assess progress of undergraduate medical students in their knowledge during the practice year. The pre-test may be used to guide individual learning behaviour during this final year of undergraduate education.

Raupach, Tobias; Vogel, Daniela; Schiekirka, Sarah; Keijsers, Carolina; Ten Cate, Olle; Harendza, Sigrid

2013-01-01

206

Teaching Students What They Already Know? The Misalignment between Mathematics Instructional Content and Student Knowledge in Kindergarten  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study describes children's early math skills and the kindergarten mathematics content to which they are exposed. The authors focus specifically on teacher survey responses to items about content coverage that align most closely with the content covered on the ECLS-K kindergarten mathematics achievement test. They examine the influence…

Engel, Mimi; Claessens, Amy; Finch, Maida

2011-01-01

207

Teaching Students What They Already Know? The (Mis)Alignment between Mathematics Instructional Content and Student Knowledge in Kindergarten  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Kindergarten mathematics skills are important for subsequent achievement, yet mathematics is underemphasized in kindergarten classrooms. Using nationally representative data, this study explored the relationship between students' school-entry math skills, classroom content coverage, and end-of-kindergarten math achievement. Although the vast…

Engel, Mimi; Claessens, Amy; Finch, Maida A.

2013-01-01

208

SITUATION-SPECIFIC AND GENERALIZED COMPONENTS OF PROFESSIONAL KNOWLEDGE OF MATHEMATICS TEACHERS: RESEARCH ON A VIDEO-BASED IN-SERVICE TEACHER LEARNING PROGRAM 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on first results of a study with mathematics teachers from Germany and Switzerland who took part in a video-based in-service teacher education program. We wanted to find out whether the interpretation of videotaped classroom situations was influenced by the teachers' professional knowledge and instruction-related beliefs. The findings indicate that cognitive constructivist or direct-transmission views of teaching and learning

Sebastian Kuntze; Kristina Reiss

209

A community effort towards a knowledge-­base and mathematical model of the human pathogen Salmonella Typhimurium LT2  

SciTech Connect

BACKGROUND: Metabolic reconstructions (MRs) are common denominators in systems biology and represent biochemical, genetic, and genomic (BiGG) knowledge-­?bases for target organisms by capturing currently available information in a consistent, structured manner. Salmonella enterica subspecies I serovar Typhimurium is a human pathogen, causes various diseases and its increasing antibiotic resistance poses a public health problem. RESULTS: Here, we describe a community-­?driven effort, in which more than 20 experts in S. Typhimurium biology and systems biology collaborated to reconcile and expand the S. Typhimurium BiGG knowledge-­?base. The consensus MR was obtained starting from two independently developed MRs for S. Typhimurium. Key results of this reconstruction jamboree include i) development and implementation of a community-­?based workflow for MR annotation and reconciliation; ii) incorporation of thermodynamic information; and iii) use of the consensus MR to identify potential multi-­?target drug therapy approaches. CONCLUSION: Taken together, with the growing number of parallel MRs a structured, community-­?driven approach will be necessary to maximize quality while increasing adoption of MRs in experimental design and interpretation.

Thiele, Ines; Hyduke, Daniel R.; Steeb, Benjamin; Fankam, Guy; Allen, Douglas K.; Bazzani, Susanna; Charusanti, Pep; Chen, Feng-Chi; Fleming, Ronan M.; Hsiung, Chao A.; De Keersmaecker, Sigrid C.; Liao, Yu-Chieh; Marchal, Kathleen; Mo, Monica L.; Ozdemir, Emre; Raghunathan, Anu; Reed, Jennifer L.; Shin, Sook Il; Sigurbjornsdottir, Sara; Steinmann, Jonas; Sudarsan, Suresh; Swainston, Neil; Thijs, Inge M.; Zengler, Karsten; Palsson, Bernhard O.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Bumann, Dirk

2011-01-18

210

Home-based family intervention increases knowledge, communication and living donation rates: a randomized controlled trial.  

PubMed

Our aim was to develop and test an educational program to support well-informed decision making among patients and their social network regarding living donor kidney transplantation (LDKT). One hundred sixty-three patients who were unable to find a living donor were randomized to standard care or standard care plus home-based education. In the education condition, patients and members of their social network participated in home-based educational meetings and discussed renal replacement therapy options. Patients and invitees completed pre-post self-report questionnaires measuring knowledge, risk perception, communication, self-efficacy and subjective norm. LDKT activities were observed for 6 months postintervention. Patients in the experimental group showed significantly more improvements in knowledge (p?increases in knowledge (p?

Ismail, S Y; Luchtenburg, A E; Timman, R; Zuidema, W C; Boonstra, C; Weimar, W; Busschbach, J J V; Massey, E K

2014-08-01

211

Knowledge Growth in Teaching Mathematics/Science with Spreadsheets: Moving PCK to TPACK through Online Professional Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Inservice teachers need ways to gain an integrated knowledge of content, pedagogy, and technologies that reflects new ways of teaching and learning in the 21st century. This interpretive study examined inservice K-8 teachers' growth in their pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) toward technology, pedagogy, and content knowledge (TPACK) in an online…

Niess, Margaret L.; van Zee, Emily H.; Gillow-Wiles, Henry

2011-01-01

212

Learning Sequences in the Acquisition of Mathematical Knowledge: Using Cognitive Developmental Theory to Inform Curriculum Design for Pre-K-6 Mathematics Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using Central Conceptual Structure theory as an heuristic, learning sequences in the acquisition of number knowledge are described in three forms that bridge theory and practice: as a four-stage theoretical progression, as items on a developmental test created to test the theoretical progression, and as learning objectives in a curriculum designed…

Griffin, Sharon

2009-01-01

213

From Preschool Teachers' Professional Development to Children's Knowledge: Comparing Sets  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recently, there have been increased calls for enhancing preschool children's mathematics knowledge along with increasing calls for preparing preschool teachers to meet the demands of new preschool mathematics curricula. This article describes the professional development program Starting Right: Mathematics in Preschools. Focusing on four episodes…

Tirosh, Dina; Tsamir, Pessia; Levenson, Esther; Tabach, Michal

2011-01-01

214

Perception of stroke and knowledge of potential risk factors among Omani patients at increased risk for stroke  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have demonstrated poor knowledge of stroke among patients with established risk factors. This study aims to assess the baseline knowledge, among patients with increased risk for stroke in Oman, of warning symptoms of stroke, impending risk factors, treatment, and sources of information. METHODS: In April 2005, trained family practice residents at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital Clinics (cardiology,

Mohammed A Al Shafaee; Shyam S Ganguly; Abdullah R Al Asmi

2006-01-01

215

Online research article discussion board to increase knowledge translation during emergency medicine residency  

PubMed Central

Background Many clinicians have difficulties reading current best practice journal articles on a regular basis. Discussion boards are one method of online asynchronous learning that facilitates active learning and participation. We hypothesized that an online repository of best practice articles with a discussion board would increase journal article reading by emergency medicine residents. Methods Participants answered three questions weekly on a discussion board: What question does this study address? What does this study add to our knowledge? How might this change clinical practice? A survey regarding perceived barriers to participating was then distributed. Results Most participants completed an article summary once or twice in total (23/32, 71.9%). Only three were involved most weeks (3/32, 9.4%) whereas 5/32 (15.6%) participated monthly. The most common barriers were lack of time (20/32, 62.5%), difficulty logging on (7/32, 21.9%), and forgetting (6/32, 18.8%). Conclusion Although subjects were provided weekly with an article link, email, and feedback, journal article reading frequency did not increase.

Stoneking, Lisa R; Grall, Kristi H; Min, Alice A; Panchal, Ashish R

2013-01-01

216

Exploring Teachers' Knowledge and Perceptions across Mathematics and Science through Content-Rich Learning Experiences in a Professional Development Setting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines upper elementary and middle school teachers' learning of mathematics and science content, how their perceptions of their disciplines and learning of that discipline developed through content-rich learning experiences, and the differences and commonalities of the teachers' learning experiences relative to content domain. This…

Zwiep, Susan Gomez; Benken, Babette M.

2013-01-01

217

How Do They Measure Up? Primary Pre-Service Teachers' Mathematical Knowledge of Area and Perimeter  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on the results of three different investigations into pre-service teachers' understanding of the mathematical concepts of area and perimeter. Different test instruments were used with three cohorts from two universities in order to identify pre-service teachers' understandings and common misconceptions. The results…

Livy, Sharyn; Muir, Tracey; Maher, Nicole

2012-01-01

218

Exploring the Reasons for Using Electric Books and Technologic Pedagogical and Content Knowledge of Taiwanese Elementary Mathematics and Science Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study highlights trends and features of E-books and their versatility of this tool in elementary educational settings. There has been little quantitative research employed to examine teachers' reasons for using or not using E-books. The purpose of this study was to examine elementary school mathematics and science teachers' reasons…

Chen, Ho-Yuan; Jang, Syh-Jong

2013-01-01

219

Teacher-Student Interaction in Joint Word Problem Solving. The Role of Situational and Mathematical Knowledge in Mainstream Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Word problem solving involves the construction of two different mental representations, namely, mathematical and situational. Although educational research in word problem solving has documented different kinds of instruction at these levels, less is known about how both representational levels are evoked during word problem solving in day-to-day…

Rosales, Javier; Vicente, Santiago; Chamoso, Jose M.; Munez, David; Orrantia, Josetxu

2012-01-01

220

Does Prior Mathematics Knowledge Really Lead to Variation in Elementary Statistics Performance?: Evidence from a Developing Country  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A model incorporating prerequisite mathematics performance and other variables deemed to be associated with learning elementary statistics (ES) is developed. The relationship between ES performance and the explanatory variables is well represented by the logistics form. Aptitude, effort and motivation are the only significant explanatory variables…

Woodward, George; Galagedera, Don

2006-01-01

221

Can an Online Osteoporosis Lecture Increase Physician Knowledge and Improve Patient Care?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Internet-based lectures are a popular means of disseminating medical knowledge, but the impact of osteoporosis lectures on physician knowledge and patient care is unknown. We designed an Internet-based lecture discussing the prevalence of, screening guidelines for, risk factors for, and physical signs of osteoporosis. Immediately before and after viewing the lecture, 6 physician participants completed questionnaires to gauge change in

Karen E. Hansen; Elaine R. Rosenblatt; Craig L. Gjerde; Matthew E. Crowe

2007-01-01

222

Relationship between Teacher Knowledge of Concepts and Connections, Teaching Practice, and Student Achievement in Middle Grades Mathematics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The mixed method sequential nested study examines whether and how the cognitive type of teachers' content knowledge is associated with student achievement, and correlated with teaching practice. In the context of this study, the "cognitive type" refers to the kind of teacher content knowledge and thinking processes required to accomplish a task…

Tchoshanov, Mourat A.

2011-01-01

223

Mathematical Analysis of Space Radiator Segmenting for Increased Reliability and Reduced Mass  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spacecraft for long duration deep space missions will need to be designed to survive micrometeoroid bombardment of their surfaces some of which may actually be punctured. To avoid loss of the entire mission the damage due to such punctures must be limited to small, localized areas. This is especially true for power system radiators, which necessarily feature large surface areas to reject heat at relatively low temperature to the space environment by thermal radiation. It may be intuitively obvious that if a space radiator is composed of a large number of independently operating segments, such as heat pipes, a random micrometeoroid puncture will result only in the loss of the punctured segment, and not the entire radiator. Due to the redundancy achieved by independently operating segments, the wall thickness and consequently the weight of such segments can be drastically reduced. Probability theory is used to estimate the magnitude of such weight reductions as the number of segments is increased. An analysis of relevant parameter values required for minimum mass segmented radiators is also included.

Juhasz, Albert J.

2001-01-01

224

Understanding Mathematics and Science Matters. Studies in Mathematical Thinking and Learning Series  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The research reported in this book provides reliable evidence on and knowledge about mathematics and science instruction that emphasizes student understanding--instruction consistent with the needs of students who will be citizens in an increasingly demanding technological world. The National Center for Improving Student Learning in Mathematics

Romberg, Thomas A., Ed.; Carpenter, Thomas P., Ed.; Dremock, Fae, Ed.

2005-01-01

225

Teachers' Subject Matter Knowledge as a Teacher Qualification: A Synthesis of the Quantitative Literature on Students' Mathematics Achievement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this paper is to examine a variety of features of research that might account for mixed findings of the relationship between teachers' subject matter knowledge and student achievement based on meta-analytic technique. Of several variables that might contribute to inconsistencies and variations in study findings, three features of…

Ahn, Soyeon; Choi, Jinyoung

2004-01-01

226

A Study on Prospective Science Teachers' Knowledge and Achievement Levels in Mathematical Logic in Electricity-Related Subjects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this case study is to reveal prospective science teachers' knowledge and achievement levels in electricity-related subjects. The data for the study were collected from 44 prospective teachers using three measurement tools. The data were then analyzed using software developed for the Probability and Possibility Calculation Statistics…

Yilmaz, Ismail

2012-01-01

227

What Do They Know? A Comparison of Pre-Service Teachers' and Inservice Teachers' Decimal Mathematical Content Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The main aim of this paper is to report on an investigation into primary pre-service and inservice teachers' content knowledge of decimals. The participants were asked to complete four decimal tasks including the ordering of decimals, operating with decimals and converting a fraction to a decimal. The results from both sets of participants are…

Muir, Tracey; Livy, Sharyn

2012-01-01

228

Sentences with core knowledge violations increase the size of N400 among paranormal believers.  

PubMed

A major problem in research on paranormal beliefs is that the concept of "paranormality" remains to be adequately defined. The aim of this study was to empirically justify the following definition: paranormal beliefs are beliefs in physical, biological, or psychological phenomena that contain core ontological attributes of one of the other two categories [e.g., a stone (physical) having thoughts (psychological)]. We hypothesized that individuals who believe in paranormal phenomena are slower in understanding whether sentences with core knowledge violations are literally true than skeptics, and that this difference would be reflected by a more negative N400. Ten believers and 10 skeptics (six men, age range 23-49) participated in the study. Event-related potentials (N400) were recorded as the participants read 210 three-word Finnish sentences, of which 70 were normal ("The house has a history"), 70 were anomalies ("The house writes its history") and 70 included violations of core knowledge ("The house knows its history"). The participants were presented with a question that contextualized the sentences: "Is this sentence literally true?" While the N400 effects were similar for normal and anomalous sentences among the believers and the skeptics, a more negative N400 effect was found among the believers than among the skeptics for sentences with core knowledge violations. The results support the new definition of "paranormality", because participants who believed in paranormal phenomena appeared to find it more difficult to construct a reasonable interpretation of the sentences with core knowledge violations than the skeptics did as indicated by the N400. PMID:18640667

Lindeman, Marjaana; Cederström, Sebastian; Simola, Petteri; Simula, Anni; Ollikainen, Sara; Riekki, Tapani

2008-01-01

229

Use of a web site to increase knowledge and awareness of hunger-related issues.  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to determine the current level of knowledge and awareness of hunger-related issues among a convenience sample of Delawareans. We also assessed whether raising knowledge and awareness of the hunger problem through the FBD's newly designed web site would encourage participation in antihunger activities. Via e-mail, 1,719 individuals were invited to participate in a three-phase, online survey, and 392 agreed. Phase-I questions were answered prior to viewing the web site, phase II (n=217) immediately afterward, and phase III (n=61) six weeks later. Responses indicated a high level of awareness about general hunger issues but specific knowledge proved to be at a lower level. No statistically significant differences were noted when data were collapsed across gender, age, educational level, or work setting. In a six-week post-survey, 41% of subjects were motivated by the web site to engage in an antihunger activity; 34% had told others about the web site and indicated it may be a useful tool in antihunger outreach efforts for the FBD.

Jennings, Sharla; Cotugna, Nancy; Vickery, Connie E.

2003-01-01

230

Creating knowledge structures in the pharmaceutical industry: the increasing significance of virtual organisation.  

PubMed

This paper explores the specific trend and challenges facing the pharmaceutical industry regarding the exploitation of Internet e-commerce technology and virtual organisation to develop and maintain competitive advantage. There are two important facets of the current trend. One is the rapid development of a complex network of alliances between the established pharmaceutical companies and the specialised biotechnology company start-ups. The other is the rapid growth of internet e-commerce companies dedicated to developing specialised technological platforms for acquiring and selling genetic and biochemical knowledge. The underlying challenge is how big pharmaceutical companies can emulate some of the innovation processes of smaller biotechnology company start-ups, and how they can appropriate and applied new technological knowledge on the development of new drugs. Pharmaceutical companies in order to retain competitive advantage need to continuously monitor all aspects of knowledge management with regard to the R&D and manufacturing process (as well as customer management and marketing). Technological change and organisational restructuring should be aimed at boosting the capacity of large firms to innovate rapidly. PMID:11214458

Salazar, A; Howells, J

2000-01-01

231

Increasing Parent Involvement Knowledge and Strategies at the Preservice Level: The Power in Using a Systematic Professional Development Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study describes various strategies used by a university educator to integrate parent involvement curriculum into pre-existing teacher preparation courses. This curriculum infusion was not only effective in increasing preservice teacher knowledge but also in raising course instructors' level of awareness about the importance and necessity of…

Ferrara, Margaret M.

2009-01-01

232

Translations toward Connected Mathematics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The translation principle allows students to solve problems in different branches of mathematics and thus to develop connectedness in their mathematical knowledge. Successful application of the translation principle depends on the classroom mathematical norms for the development of discussions and the comparison of different solutions to one…

Applebaum, Mark; Leikin, Roza

2010-01-01

233

Taiwanese and American Preschool Children's Everyday Mathematics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Noting that little is known about young children's informal mathematical knowledge and that such knowledge may contribute to national differences in mathematics achievement, this study examined Taiwanese and American preschool children's informal mathematical knowledge and the type of mathematical activities they encounter in everyday life. Data…

Lin, Chia-ling; Ness, Daniel

234

Fruit and vegetable intake and knowledge increased following a community-based intervention in older adults in Georgia senior centers.  

PubMed

Our purpose was to evaluate a community-based fruit and vegetable intervention conducted in rural and urban areas of Georgia. Participants were a convenience sample from Georgia senior centers that completed a pre-test, the intervention, and a post-test (N = 558, mean age = 75, 83% female, 47% white, 53% black). The 4-month intervention had eight sessions focused on practical ways to increase intake of fruits and vegetables at meals and snacks and included physical activity. Pre- and post-tests examined self-reported intakes of fruits and vegetables at breakfast, lunch, the evening meal, and snacks, knowledge of recommended intakes, and barriers to intake. Following the intervention, the number of participants reporting consumption of at least 7 servings of fruits and vegetables daily increased by 21-percentage points (P < or = 0.001), knowledge that 7 to 10 servings of fruits and vegetables are recommended daily (for 1,600 to 2,200 calories) increased from 7% to 57% (P < or = 0.001), and three barriers to fruit and vegetable intake decreased (P < or = 0.05): "difficulties with digestion," "too many are recommended," and "too much trouble." Regression analyses indicated that increased intake following the intervention was independently associated with living in more urban rather than rural areas, improved knowledge of intake recommendations, decrease in perception of cost as a barrier, and increase in digestive problems as a barrier (P < or = 0.05). These results provide an evidence base for the effectiveness of this community intervention for improving knowledge and intake and decreasing barriers to fruit and vegetable intake in older adults. PMID:18928195

Hendrix, Sara J; Fischer, Joan G; Reddy, R D Sudha; Lommel, Tiffany Sellers; Speer, Elizabeth M; Stephens, Heather; Park, Sohyun; Johnson, Mary Ann

2008-01-01

235

Increased knowledge of Francisella genus diversity highlights the benefits of optimised DNA-based assays  

PubMed Central

Background Recent advances in sequencing technologies offer promising tools for generating large numbers of genomes, larger typing databases and improved mapping of environmental bacterial diversity. However, DNA-based methods for the detection of Francisella were developed with limited knowledge about genetic diversity. This, together with the high sequence identity between several Francisella species, means there is a high risk of false identification and detection of the highly virulent pathogen Francisella tularensis. Moreover, phylogenetic reconstructions using single or limited numbers of marker sequences often result in incorrect tree topologies and inferred evolutionary distances. The recent growth in publicly accessible whole-genome sequences now allows evaluation of published genetic markers to determine optimal combinations of markers that minimise both time and laboratory costs. Results In the present study, we evaluated 38 previously published DNA markers and the corresponding PCR primers against 42 genomes representing the currently known diversity of the genus Francisella. The results highlight that PCR assays for Francisella tularensis are often complicated by low specificity, resulting in a high probability of false positives. A method to select a set of one to seven markers for obtaining optimal phylogenetic resolution or diagnostic accuracy is presented. Conclusions Current multiple-locus sequence-typing systems and detection assays of Francisella, could be improved by redesigning some of the primers and reselecting typing markers. The use of only a few optimally selected sequence-typing markers allows construction of phylogenetic topologies with almost the same accuracy as topologies based on whole-genome sequences.

2012-01-01

236

Code RED (Remediation and Enrichment Days): The Complex Journey of a School and University Partnership's Process to Increase Mathematics Achievement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined a focused remediation and enrichment effort among school and university faculty to affect the mathematics achievement of a group of third-grade students in a Title I elementary school. A total of 87 students participated in the Code RED (Remediation and Enrichment Days) Project. During the Code RED Project, student assessment…

Moyer, Patricia S.; Dockery, Kim; Jamieson, Spencer; Ross, Julie

2007-01-01

237

Meeting the Demands of the Knowledge Based Economy: Strengthening Undergraduate Science, Mathematics and Engineering Education. Hearing Before the Subcommittee on Research, Committee on Science, House of Representatives, 107th Congress, First Session (March 7, 2002).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This hearing was held to examine the current state of mathematics, science, and engineering education at the undergraduate level by focusing on the demands of a knowledge-based economy. Contents include opening statements by Representative Nick Smith, Chairman, Subcommittee on Research, Committee in Science, U.S. House of Representatives;…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House.

238

Celebrating Mathematics All Year 'Round  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Celebrating mathematics should be a yearlong event in which students in mathematics classes of all levels engage in mathematics activities and competitions that will encourage growth in mathematical knowledge, enthusiasm for the subject, and collaboration among students of different abilities and backgrounds. Pi Day and Pi Week festivities--a good…

Daire, Sandra Arguelles

2010-01-01

239

Assessment of herbal medicinal products: Challenges, and opportunities to increase the knowledge base for safety assessment  

SciTech Connect

Although herbal medicinal products (HMP) have been perceived by the public as relatively low risk, there has been more recognition of the potential risks associated with this type of product as the use of HMPs increases. Potential harm can occur via inherent toxicity of herbs, as well as from contamination, adulteration, plant misidentification, and interactions with other herbal products or pharmaceutical drugs. Regulatory safety assessment for HMPs relies on both the assessment of cases of adverse reactions and the review of published toxicity information. However, the conduct of such an integrated investigation has many challenges in terms of the quantity and quality of information. Adverse reactions are under-reported, product quality may be less than ideal, herbs have a complex composition and there is lack of information on the toxicity of medicinal herbs or their constituents. Nevertheless, opportunities exist to capitalise on newer information to increase the current body of scientific evidence. Novel sources of information are reviewed, such as the use of poison control data to augment adverse reaction information from national pharmacovigilance databases, and the use of more recent toxicological assessment techniques such as predictive toxicology and omics. The integration of all available information can reduce the uncertainty in decision making with respect to herbal medicinal products. The example of Aristolochia and aristolochic acids is used to highlight the challenges related to safety assessment, and the opportunities that exist to more accurately elucidate the toxicity of herbal medicines.

Jordan, Scott A., E-mail: scott.jordan@hc-sc.gc.c [Marketed Biologicals, Biotechnology and Natural Health Products Bureau, Marketed Health Products Directorate, Health Canada, 200 Tunney's Pasture Driveway, Postal Locator 0701 A, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0K9 (Canada); Cunningham, David G. [Marketed Biologicals, Biotechnology and Natural Health Products Bureau, Marketed Health Products Directorate, Health Canada, 200 Tunney's Pasture Driveway, Postal Locator 0701 A, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0K9 (Canada); Marles, Robin J. [Bureau of Clinical Trials and Health Sciences, Natural Health Products Directorate, Health Canada (Canada)

2010-03-01

240

Meyerhoff Scholars Program: a strengths-based, institution-wide approach to increasing diversity in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics.  

PubMed

The Meyerhoff Scholars Program at the University of Maryland, Baltimore County is widely viewed as a national model of a program that enhances the number of underrepresented minority students who pursue science, technology, engineering, and mathematics PhDs. The current article provides an overview of the program and the institution-wide change process that led to its development, as well as a summary of key outcome and process evaluation research findings. African American Meyerhoff students are 5× more likely than comparison students to pursue a science, technology, engineering, and mathematics PhD. Program components viewed by the students as most beneficial include financial scholarship, being a part of the Meyerhoff Program community, the Summer Bridge program, study groups, and summer research. Qualitative findings from interviews and focus groups demonstrate the importance of the Meyerhoff Program in creating a sense of belonging and a shared identity, encouraging professional development, and emphasizing the importance of academic skills. Among Meyerhoff students, several precollege and college factors have emerged as predictors of successful entrance into a PhD program in the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics fields, including precollege research excitement, precollege intrinsic math/science motivation, number of summer research experiences during college, and college grade point average. Limitations of the research to date are noted, and directions for future research are proposed. PMID:22976367

Maton, Kenneth I; Pollard, Shauna A; McDougall Weise, Tatiana V; Hrabowski, Freeman A

2012-01-01

241

A synthesis of our current knowledge of philometrid nematodes, a group of increasingly important fish parasites.  

PubMed

Members of the Philometridae represent the most important group of dracunculoid nematodes parasitizing fishes. In his monograph treating the Dracunculoidea, Moravec (2006) reported a total of 11 genera and 105 species of philometrids parasitizing freshwater, brackish-water and marine fishes. However, during the last six years (2007-2012), an additional 42 new species of Philometridae have been described, representing a 40% increase of the number of nominal species. Most of these species (30) belong to Philometra Costa, 1845, mainly represented by parasites of marine fishes, a few others (8) to Philometroides Yamaguti, 1935, and a single one to each of the following genera: Caranginema Moravec, Montoya-Mendoza et Salgado-Maldonado, 2008, Dentiphilometra Moravec et Wang, 2002, Dentirumai Quiazon et Moravec, 2013* and Spirophilometra Parukhin, 1971. Moreover, three new genera, Afrophilometra Moravec, Charo-Karisa et Jirk?, 2009, Caranginema and Dentirumai, were erected. Representatives of seven genera, Afrophilometra, Buckleyella Rasheed, 1963, Caranginema, Dentiphilometra, Dentirumai, Paraphilometroides Moravec et Shaharom-Harrison, 1989 and Rumai Travassos, 1960, were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for the first time. Thirteen known but poorly described philometrid species were redescribed and, in some species of Caranginema and Philometra, previously unknown conspecific males were discovered and described. The male surface ultrastructure studied by SEM provided new taxonomically important features for species distinction. Gene sequencing was used in several recent studies and advanced our understanding of phylogenetic interrelationships among representatives of seven genera (Afrophilometra, Alinema Rasheed, 1963, Caranginema, Nilonema Khalil, 1960, Philometra, Philometroides and Rumai) and of the extent of the biodiversity of philometrids. New data were obtained on the biology and pathogenicity of several species of Nilonema, Philometra, Philometroides and Rumai. The need to carry out surveys in order to find males and to use SEM and gene sequencing to identify philometrids is emphasized. Appropriate quantitative methods to determine the impact of philometrids in ovarian tissue on host fecundity are recommended. Further detailed studies on philometrids would be significant not only from the theoretical viewpoint, but also because of their practical implications. A list of philometrid nematode species by continents is provided. PMID:23724728

Moravec, Frantisek; de Buron, Isaure

2013-05-01

242

Foundational Mathematics: A Neglected Opportunity  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The importance of preschool-level mathematics education has not been adequately understood or emphasized by either the early\\u000a childhood or mathematics education communities. While early childhood educators are held back by a lack of mathematical knowledge\\u000a and confidence, mathematics educators tend to miss the importance of the mathematical learning that takes place prior to the\\u000a use of symbols. This chapter describes

Jennifer S. McCray; Jie-Qi Chen

243

The NIST Digital Library of Mathematical Functions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Not updated since its 1964 publication, the Handbook of Mathematical Functions (Handbook of Mathematical Functions with Formulas, Graphs, and Mathematical Tables), ed. M. Abramowitz and I. A. Stegun, National Bureau of Standards Applied Mathematics Series v. 55 (U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington DC, 1964) presents the state of applied mathematics 40 years ago, in a form suited for computation in an age of numerical tables and mechanical calculators. Yet it remains a workhorse reference of AMO physics and of other scientific fields, having been cited in archival literature over 26,000 times since 1974 (at a still-increasing rate). To incorporate subsequent advances in basic mathematical knowledge, in computational power and technique, and in dissemination of information, the National Institute of Standards and Technology has begun a project to provide a modern source of evaluated mathematical reference data: the NIST Digital Library of Mathematical Functions. The Digital Library is designed to serve the needs of users of applied mathematics via the World Wide Web. We shall demonstrate the operation of a prototype, and hope to elicit expressed needs of the AMO community.

Clark, Charles W.

1998-05-01

244

An Increase in Medical Student Knowledge of Radiation Oncology: A Pre-Post Examination Analysis of the Oncology Education Initiative  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The Oncology Education Initiative was created to advance oncology and radiation oncology education by integrating structured didactics into the existing core radiology clerkship. We set out to determine whether the addition of structured didactics could lead to a significant increase in overall medical student knowledge about radiation oncology. Methods and Materials: We conducted a pre- and posttest examining concepts in general radiation oncology, breast cancer, and prostate cancer. The 15-question, multiple-choice exam was administered before and after a 1.5-hour didactic lecture by an attending physician in radiation oncology. Individual question changes, overall student changes, and overall categorical changes were analyzed. All hypothesis tests were two-tailed (significance level 0.05). Results: Of the 153 fourth-year students, 137 (90%) took the pre- and posttest and were present for the didactic lecture. The average test grade improved from 59% to 70% (p = 0.011). Improvement was seen in all questions except clinical vignettes involving correct identification of TNM staging. Statistically significant improvement (p {<=} 0.03) was seen in the questions regarding acute and late side effects of radiation, brachytherapy for prostate cancer, delivery of radiation treatment, and management of early-stage breast cancer. Conclusions: Addition of didactics in radiation oncology significantly improves medical students' knowledge of the topic. Despite perceived difficulty in teaching radiation oncology and the assumption that it is beyond the scope of reasonable knowledge for medical students, we have shown that even with one dedicated lecture, students can learn and absorb general principles regarding radiation oncology.

Hirsch, Ariel E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Boston University Medical Center, Boston, MA (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)], E-mail: Ariel.hirsch@bmc.org; Mulleady Bishop, Pauline [Department of Radiology, Boston University Medical Center, and Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States); Dad, Luqman [Department of Radiation Oncology, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY (United States); Singh, Deeptej [Department of Medicine, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States); Slanetz, Priscilla J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Department of Radiology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA (Israel)

2009-03-15

245

The Impact of a Statewide Training To Increase Child Care Providers' Knowledge of Nutrition and Physical Activity Rules in Delaware  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background Childhood obesity has been recognized as a national problem of epidemic proportions. Child care represents an ideal venue in which to address this problem, as many young children spend a significant amount of time and consume the majority of their meals in this setting. Recognizing this opportunity, Delaware recently enacted reforms to statewide licensing regulations designed to improve the quality of the nutrition-, physical activity-, and screen viewing–related environments in child care settings. Methods To facilitate the translation of these regulations into practices, a series of broad-scale trainings was held throughout the state. Attendance was required for all Child & Adult Care Food Program (CACFP)-participating facilities, although child care providers from non-CACFP facilities also attended. Pre- and posttraining surveys were used to assess changes in providers' knowledge of the regulations and satisfaction with the training. Results In total 1094 presurveys and 1076 postsurveys were received. Participants were highly satisfied with the training format and content, including the instructors, materials, and schedule. Data analysis demonstrates improved knowledge of all 26 regulation components from presurvey to postsurvey. Family child care providers, providers with more years of experience, CACFP-participating facilities, and facilities with food service personnel scored significantly higher than their center staff, less experienced and non-CACFP counterparts, as well as those without food service personnel. Conclusions Broad-scale, in-person training can effectively increase child care providers' knowledge of the regulations and is well received by this audience. Other states and jurisdictions seeking to improve nutrition, physical activity, and screen-viewing practices in child care settings should consider this model of quality improvement.

Van Stan, Stefanie; Dupont Phillips, Kate

2013-01-01

246

SMB: Society for Mathematical Biology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Society for Mathematical Biology (SMB) is an international society devoted to increasing communication between the mathematical and biological communities through holding conferences and publishing journals.

247

Using expert knowledge to increase realism in environmental system models can dramatically reduce the need for calibration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conceptual environmental systems models, such as rainfall runoff models, generally rely on calibration for parameter identification. Increasing complexity of this type of model for better representation of hydrological process heterogeneity typically makes parameter identification more difficult. Although various, potentially valuable, strategies for better parameter identification were developed in the past, strategies to impose general conceptual understanding regarding how a catchment works into the process of parameterizing a conceptual model has still not been fully explored. In this study we assess the effect of imposing semi-quantitative, relational expert knowledge into the model development and parameter selection, efficiently exploiting the complexity of a semi-distributed model formulation. Making use of a topography driven rainfall-runoff modeling (FLEX-TOPO) approach, a catchment was delineated into three functional units, i.e. wetland, hillslope and plateau. Ranging from simplicity to complexity, three model set-ups, FLEXA, FLEXB and FLEXC have been developed based on these functional units. While FLEXA is a lumped representation of the study catchment, the semi-distributed formulations FLEXB and FLEXC introduce increasingly more complexity by distinguishing 2 and 3 functional units, respectively. In spite of increased complexity, FLEXB and FLEXC allow modelers to compare parameters as well as states and fluxes of their different functional units to each other. Based on these comparisons, expert knowledge based, semi-quantitative relational constraints have been imposed on three models structures. More complexity of models allows more imposed constraints. It was shown that a constrained but uncalibrated semi-distributed model, FLEXC, can predict runoff with similar performance than a calibrated lumped model, FLEXA. In addition, when constrained and calibrated, the semi-distributed model FLEXC exhibits not only higher performance but also reduced uncertainty for prediction, compared to the calibrated, lumped FLEXA model.

Gharari, S.; Hrachowitz, M.; Fenicia, F.; Gao, H.; Savenije, H. H. G.

2013-12-01

248

Developing Mathematical Proficiency  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It has long been recognised that successful mathematical learning comprises much more than just knowledge of skills and procedures. For example, Skemp (1976) identified the advantages of teaching mathematics for what he referred to as "relational" rather than "instrumental" understanding. More recently, Kilpatrick, Swafford and Findell (2001)…

Groves, Susie

2012-01-01

249

Mathematics: Content and Pedagogy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The debate has gone on for some time in terms of which is more salient for the teacher to be well versed in, mathematical content versus methods and approaches in teaching. Both are salient. They cannot be separated from each other. The mathematics teacher must indeed have broad, in-depth knowledge of subject matter as well as in teaching and…

Ediger, Marlow

2009-01-01

250

Comparing Discourse in Face-to-Face and Synchronous Online Mathematics Teacher Education: Effects on Prospective Teachers' Development of Knowledge for Teaching Statistics with Technology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This comparative study examined discourse and opportunities for interaction in two mathematics education methods classes, one face-to-face and one synchronous, online. Due to the content taught in the course, this study also sought to determine prospective mathematics teachers' understanding of variability and the role of discourse in each…

Starling, Tina T.

2011-01-01

251

Two Dilemmas in Communicating Mathematics in Adult Basic Courses: "How To Support Pre-Knowledge of Adult Learners" and "How To Support Democratic Classroom Decisions."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores how adults' perspectives, intentions, blockages, resistance, and fascinations are reconstructed during a mathematics course in adult basic education. These aspects are discussed as important building blocks for developing theory in adult educational research. Adult mathematics education was compared in different institutional…

Lindenskov, Lena; Hansen, Eigil Peter

252

Supporting Novice Elementary Mathematics Teachers' Induction in Professional Communities and Providing Innovative Forms of Pedagogical Content Knowledge Development through Information and Communication Technology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on the needs identified as important to 27 novice elementary mathematics teachers and examines how Connect-ME, an online mathematics community, provides these supports. Qualitative data were collected using two focus groups and 16 telephone interviews. Findings validate the need for alternative teacher professional development…

Dalgarno, Nancy; Colgan, Lynda

2007-01-01

253

Summer Teacher Enhancement Institute for Science, Mathematics, and Technology Using the Problem-Based Learning Model.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objectives of the Institute were: (a) increase participants' content knowledge about aeronautics, science, mathematics, and technology, (b) model and promote the use of scientific inquiry through problem-based learning, (c) investigate the use of inst...

R. H. Petersen

1997-01-01

254

A Mathematical Diet Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Emphasis on problem solving and mathematical modeling has gained considerable attention in the last few years. Connecting mathematics to other subjects and to the real world outside the classroom has received increased attention in mathematics programs. This article describes an application of simple differential equations in the field of…

Toumasis, Charalampos

2004-01-01

255

Mathematics in the Early Years.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Noting that young children are capable of surprisingly complex forms of mathematical thinking and learning, this book presents a collection of articles depicting children discovering mathematical ideas, teachers fostering students' informal mathematical knowledge, adults asking questions and listening to answers, and researchers examining…

Copley, Juanita V., Ed.

256

Assessment and Learning of Mathematics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book addresses the link between student learning of mathematics, the teaching method adopted in the mathematics classroom, and the assessment procedures used to determine and measure student knowledge. Fifteen chapters address issues that include a review of different models of mathematics learning and assessment practices, three contrasting…

Leder, Gilah C., Ed.

257

Knowledge Construction and Collective Practice: At the Intersection of Learning, Talk, and Social Configurations in a Computer-Mediated Mathematics Classroom  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study I investigated how students' mathematical activities, and thereby their mathematical understandings, change as a function of their participation in different social configurations. I examined how the interplay between 2 social configura- tions—local investigations at a computer simulation and whole-class discus- sions—contributes to how 7th-grade students learn probabilistic reasoning. I used 2 case studies to investigate (a) how

Noel Enyedy

2003-01-01

258

Evidence-based discussion increases childhood vaccination uptake: a randomised cluster controlled trial of knowledge translation in Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background Childhood vaccination rates are low in Lasbela, one of the poorest districts in Pakistan's Balochistan province. This randomised cluster controlled trial tested the effect on uptake of informed discussion of vaccination costs and benefits, without relying on improved health services. Methods Following a baseline survey of randomly selected representative census enumeration areas, a computer generated random number sequence assigned 18 intervention and 14 control clusters. The intervention comprised three structured discussions separately with male and female groups in each cluster. The first discussion shared findings about vaccine uptake from the baseline study; the second focussed on the costs and benefits of childhood vaccination; the third focussed on local action plans. Field teams encouraged the group participants to spread the dialogue to households in their communities. Both intervention and control clusters received a district-wide health promotion programme emphasizing household hygiene. Interviewers in the household surveys were blind of intervention status of different clusters. A follow-up survey after one year measured impact of the intervention on uptake of measles and full DPT vaccinations of children aged 12-23 months, as reported by the mother or caregiver. Results In the follow-up survey, measles and DPT vaccination uptake among children aged 12-23 months (536 in intervention clusters, 422 in control clusters) was significantly higher in intervention than in control clusters, where uptake fell over the intervention period. Adjusting for baseline differences between intervention and control clusters with generalized estimating equations, the intervention doubled the odds of measles vaccination in the intervention communities (OR 2.20, 95% CI 1.24-3.88). It trebled the odds of full DPT vaccination (OR 3.36, 95% CI 2.03-5.56). Conclusion The relatively low cost knowledge translation intervention significantly increased vaccine uptake, without relying on improved services, in a poor district with limited access to services. This could have wide relevance in increasing coverage in developing countries. Trial registration ISRCTN12421731.

2009-01-01

259

Mathematics disorder  

MedlinePLUS

Mathematics disorder is a condition in which a child's math ability is far below normal for their ... Children who have mathematics disorder may have trouble performing ... adding. Mathematical disorder may appear with: Developmental ...

260

A Review of Selected Microcomputer Software Packages with Lessons for Teaching Mathematics Grades 8-12. Volume 3. A Curriculum Development Project of the Project To Increase Mastery of Mathematics and Science (PIMMS).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this project is to help teachers of mathematics use the computer to aid the teaching and learning of many mathematical concepts in a meaningful way. To this end, commercially available software packages are described which are versatile, cost effective, and easy to use. A review and several lessons, each including homework…

Cetorelli, Nancy; And Others

261

Short-term data collection projects: A means to increase teacher content knowledge and bring authentic research experiences into the classroom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Short-term field research projects were embedded into a two-week, Mathematics and Science Partnership-funded, teacher institute devoted to increasing content knowledge about the physical basis of climate change. Teams of four teachers were encouraged to ask any research question related to weather or climate, and create a data collection method that they thought might help answer their question. They were provided with a range of measurement devices, from simple immersible thermometers to light sensors, probeware, and carbon dioxide concentration sensors. Teams were expected to design data collection sites in a middle-school setting, present site designs to their peers, collect data, present initial results, and participate in peer-review about site design and data collected. Teachers were encouraged to generate research questions that could be replicated with their students at their schools. Design complexity ranged widely with some teachers deliberately choosing to model sites their students might design and others making full use of more sophisticated technology. On the third day of the institute, each group presented their research question and setup for data collection in poster format. Large gaps in understanding about testable questions and effective data collection methods were apparent. Instead of addressing errors as groups presented, facilitators encouraged participants to explore each groups’ presentation and make comments using post-it notes. Participants were then encouraged to respond to the comments and consider modifying their questions, site designs, or data collection methods. Teams gathered data up to three times daily and were fully responsible for choosing means of data organization; by the second week most were using and becoming familiar with Microsoft Excel. Final presentations were in Microsoft PowerPoint. Teams were expected to graphically report data, present possible interpretations, and discuss any problems related to their initial questions or methods. All teams reported problems with their work and identified improvements for future research. Teachers reported that the field component was very helpful to their understanding of the process of science and to deepening their content knowledge about climate change research. Additionally they reported that they were much more likely to include short-term research projects in their own classrooms as a result of this experience. Short-term data collection experiences such as these can serve to: - Encourage teachers to provide students with the opportunity to develop their own questions, and design methods to answer those questions; - Expose teachers to common pitfalls in data collection methods so that teachers can later guide students as students encounter similar problems; - Familiarize teachers with widely available technology used to record and present data; - Refine teacher understanding of research and improve likelihood of success on longer research projects; - Enable teachers to look at data sets more critically and in more depth; - Better understand how to construct, read, and interpret data tables and graphs; and - Increase depth of understanding of science content.

Gaboardi, M.; Parker, W.; Rodriguez, D.

2010-12-01

262

Practical Use of ICT in Science and Mathematics Teachers' Training at Dar es Salaam University College of Education: An Analysis of Prospective Teachers' Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the ways through which pre-service science and mathematics teachers at Dar es Salaam University College of Education (DUCE) can acquire competencies for integrating technology pedagogy and content in teaching. Specifically the study investigated the preservice teachers' ICT integration competencies; practices that can be…

Kafyulilo, Ayoub C.

2010-01-01

263

Using the Attribute Hierarchy Method to Make Diagnostic Inferences about Examinees' Knowledge and Skills in Mathematics: An Operational Implementation of Cognitive Diagnostic Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to apply the attribute hierarchy method in an operational diagnostic mathematics program at Grades 3 and 6 to promote cognitive inferences about students' problem-solving skills. The attribute hierarchy method is a psychometric procedure for classifying examinees' test item responses into a set of structured attribute…

Gierl, Mark J.; Alves, Cecilia; Majeau, Renate Taylor

2010-01-01

264

Policy efforts used to develop awareness aimed at increased students' scientific literacy and career choices in mathematics, science and engineering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The lack of an adequate supply of human resources in science and engineering has been well documented. Efforts from a number of agencies, such as the National Science Foundation, have been implemented to alleviate this national problem. However, it is unclear what concerted efforts state agencies are taking to increase the number of African American students' scientific literacy, and career choices in science and engineering. The purpose of this study was to select a talent pool of African American students who are academically able to pursue a career in a math-based major. The selection of this talent pool lead to the recommendation of an encouragement process model to be used by the Tennessee Board of Regents (TBR) system to encourage the selectees of this talent pool to enter math-based programs at TBR universities. An integrated literature review was conducted. This review includes perspectives on national, state, and local educational policy decisions which affect educational purposes, institutional governance and secondary-postsecondary linkages. Existing TBR system data were analyzed and tabulated. This tabulated data along with the recommended model will be offered to the TBR system for possible adoption. The results of these data support the methodological notion that there are an appreciable number of potential TBR system African American students academically able to enter math related majors who, however, may be reluctant to choose a career direction in a math-based career field. Implications of this study and suggestions for further research are discussed. On an applied level, the study might suggest to other states ways in which to deal with similar problems.

Whitfield, Frank Albert

265

Cognitive Correlates of Performance in Advanced Mathematics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Much research has been devoted to understanding cognitive correlates of elementary mathematics performance, but little such research has been done for advanced mathematics (e.g., modern algebra, statistics, and mathematical logic).Aims: To promote mathematical knowledge among college students, it is necessary to understand what factors…

Wei, Wei; Yuan, Hongbo; Chen, Chuansheng; Zhou, Xinlin

2012-01-01

266

Developmental Mathematics Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Developmental Mathematics Collection (DMC) contains resources for the community college educator who teaches basic arithmetic through intermediate algebra. Educators will find student activities, topic teaching plans, innovative curricula and course sequences, as well as research syntheses on pedagogy and learning. The site hopes to create a Knowledge Exchange Network for Developmental Mathematics by creating linkages and collaborations across colleges within California's large urban regions.

2011-02-17

267

Increasing the Predictive Validity of Personality Tests: Private Self-Consciousness and Priming of Trait-Relevant Knowledge.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses two techniques for improving the predictive validity of personality measures: (1) measuring dispositional levels of private self-consciousness, that is, one's tendency to habitually reflect on covert aspects of the self such as thoughts, feelings, perceptions, and motives; and (2) priming trait-relevant knowledge (temporarily…

Hobden, Karen L.

268

Preserving Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Every year, teachers leave the profession and take valuable experience and knowledge with them. An increasing retirement rate makes schools vulnerable to a significant loss of knowledge. This article describes how implementing a knowledge management process will ensure that valuable assets are captured and shared. (Contains 3 online resources.)

Taintor, Spence

2008-01-01

269

Is a Little Knowledge a Good Thing? College Students Gain Knowledge, but Knowledge Increase Does not Equal Attitude Change Regarding Same-Sex Sexual Orientation and Gender Reassignment Surgery in Sexuality Courses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gains in knowledge and changes of attitudes of students in undergraduate sexuality courses in two different academic disciplines were compared to those of their peers without college sexuality education in a variety of other psychology courses. All students had similar scores on tests of sexual anatomy, behavior, and health at the start of the semester, but the students enrolled

Ramona M. Noland; Martha A. Bass; Rosanne S. Keathley; Rowland Miller

2009-01-01

270

Men who have sex with men sensitivity training reduces homoprejudice and increases knowledge among Kenyan healthcare providers in coastal Kenya  

PubMed Central

Introduction Healthcare workers (HCWs) in Africa typically receive little or no training in the healthcare needs of men who have sex with men (MSM), limiting the effectiveness and reach of population-based HIV control measures among this group. We assessed the effect of a web-based, self-directed sensitivity training on MSM for HCWs (www.marps-africa.org), combined with facilitated group discussions on knowledge and homophobic attitudes among HCWs in four districts of coastal Kenya. Methods We trained four district “AIDS coordinators” to provide a two-day training to local HCWs working at antiretroviral therapy-providing facilities in coastal Kenya. Self-directed learning supported by group discussions focused on MSM sexual risk practices, HIV prevention and healthcare needs. Knowledge was assessed prior to training, immediately after training and three months after training. The Homophobia Scale assessed homophobic attitudes and was measured before and three months after training. Results Seventy-four HCWs (68% female; 74% clinical officers or nurses; 84% working in government facilities) from 49 health facilities were trained, of whom 71 (96%) completed all measures. At baseline, few HCWs reported any prior training on MSM anal sexual practices, and most HCWs had limited knowledge of MSM sexual health needs. Homophobic attitudes were most pronounced among HCWs who were male, under 30 years of age, and working in clinical roles or government facilities. Three months after training, more HCWs had adequate knowledge compared to baseline (49% vs. 13%, McNemar's test p<0.001); this was most pronounced in those with clinical or administrative roles and in those from governmental health providers. Compared to baseline, homophobic attitudes had decreased significantly three months after training, particularly among HCWs with high homophobia scores at baseline, and there was some evidence of correlation between improvements in knowledge and reduction in homophobic sentiment. Conclusions Scaling up MSM sensitivity training for African HCWs is likely to be a timely, effective and practical means to improve relevant sexual health knowledge and reduce personal homophobic sentiment among HCWs involved in HIV prevention, testing and care in sub-Saharan Africa.

van der Elst, Elise M; Smith, Adrian D; Gichuru, Evanson; Wahome, Elizabeth; Musyoki, Helgar; Muraguri, Nicolas; Fegan, Greg; Duby, Zoe; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Bender, Bonnie; Graham, Susan M; Operario, Don; Sanders, Eduard J

2013-01-01

271

Mario Bunge's Philosophy of Mathematics: An Appraisal  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, I present and discuss critically the main elements of Mario Bunge's philosophy of mathematics. In particular, I explore how mathematical knowledge is accounted for in Bunge's systemic emergent materialism.

Marquis, Jean-Pierre

2012-01-01

272

Sisters in Science: Confronting Equity in Science and Mathematics Education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Sisters in Science (SIS) program seeks to increase elementary school girls' interest and achievement in science and mathematics, create a more positive learning climate for minority school girls and their families on academic and community/social levels, and increase the knowledge base and understanding of parents with respect to their influence in promoting girls' interest and achievement in science and mathematics. This article reports on how 577 fourth grade girls changed their interest and achievement in science and mathematics during their involvement in year 1 of the program. Findings show that the girls started the program with positive attitudes and perceptions of science and about science career possibilities. The girls significantly (p < 0.001) increased their science and mathematics skill levels after having participated in the program. It could be stated that the girls' achievement scores on the skills test increased significantly because the girls' attitudes and perceptions were positive before program implementation.

Hammrich, Penny L.; Richardson, Greer M.; Livingston, Beverly D.

273

XP Practices: A Successful Tool for Increasing and Transferring Practical Knowledge in Short-Life Software Development Projects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Gemplus and Axalto’s horizontal merge in 2006, brought several challenges, resulting in a period of general instability\\u000a in the newly created company. As a result, the Gemplus Personalization Team for Latin America put in place five of the twelve\\u000a Extreme Programming Practices as a tool for incrementing and transferring knowledge between the two companies and among the\\u000a existing\\/new members

Gabriel Tellez-morales

2009-01-01

274

A comparison of the effectiveness of a game informed online learning activity and face to face teaching in increasing knowledge about managing aggression in health settings.  

PubMed

The present study compared the impact of face to face teaching with a short online game informed learning activity on health participants' knowledge about, and confidence in, managing aggressive situations. Both forms of teaching resulted in a significant increase in participants' knowledge and confidence. Face to face training led to significantly greater increases in knowledge but was equivalent in terms of confidence. Both forms of teaching were rated positively, but face to face teaching received significantly higher ratings than the online activity. The study suggests that short online game informed learning activities may offer an effective alternative for health professional training where face to face training is not possible. Further research is needed on the longer term impact of both types of training on practice. PMID:23184436

McKenzie, Karen

2013-12-01

275

Mathematics Survey Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Mathematics Survey Project, initiated by Professor Jim Pitman of the Departments of Mathematics and Statistics at the University of California, Berkeley, aims to construct new ways to organize, communicate and archive mathematical knowledge online. The project is "a bold proposal which attempts to solve the problems of fragmentation and compartmentalization, and indirectly to reduce the cost of commercial journals, by promoting the value of openly accessible content." The proposal, which is described on this website, includes the formation of a large collection of open access journals in mathematics to be indexed by subject. Starting with a survey of the field of probability and stochastic processes, project supporters hope to develop a model for a system of surveys to cover every major branch of mathematics. Anyone who supports this project in principle is invited to add their name to the List of Supporters posted online. Also available from this website are links to Some Free Electronic Mathematics Journals, The Electronic Library of Mathematics, as well as Free and Gated Electronic Mathematics Journals. Links to related materials in support of the proposal are also available. Note that the links to the Committee on Electronic Information Communication (CEIC) were not working at the time of this report, but the link to its article on Best Practices from 2002 was working.

276

Does Increasing Biology Teacher Knowledge of Evolution and the Nature of Science Lead to Greater Preference for the Teaching of Evolution in Schools?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated whether or not an increase in secondary science teacher knowledge about evolution and the nature of science gained from completing a graduate-level evolution course was associated with greater preference for the teaching of evolution in schools. Forty-four precertified secondary biology teachers participated in a 14-week…

Nehm, Ross H.; Schonfeld, Irvin Sam

2007-01-01

277

A statewide model detection and prevention program for geriatric alcoholism and alcohol abuse: increased knowledge among service providers.  

PubMed

To facilitate the professional development of service providers, the Virginia project on geriatric alcohol abuse and alcoholism developed and used an informational booklet, brochure, and video in a "train the trainer" model. A core group received extensive training, and then trained colleagues in their local communities. Knowledge gains were documented among both trainers and trainees. Follow-up interviews with agency personnel revealed substantial impact on a broad spectrum of service systems and improvements in interagency coordination. Results are discussed in terms of the educational needs of professional service providers regarding the unique aspects of alcoholism and alcohol abuse in the older population. PMID:10800863

Coogle, C L; Osgood, N J; Parham, I A

2000-04-01

278

Does Increasing Biology Teacher Knowledge of Evolution and the Nature of Science Lead to Greater Preference for the Teaching of Evolution in Schools?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigated whether or not an increase in secondary science teacher knowledge about evolution and the nature of science gained from completing a graduate-level evolution course was associated with greater preference for the teaching of evolution in schools. Forty-four precertified secondary biology teachers participated in a 14-week intervention designed to address documented misconceptions identified by a precourse instrument. The course produced statistically significant gains in teacher knowledge of evolution and the nature of science and a significant decrease in misconceptions about evolution and natural selection. Nevertheless, teachers’ postcourse preference positions remained unchanged; the majority of science teachers still preferred that antievolutionary ideas be taught in school.

Nehm, Ross H.; Schonfeld, Irvin Sam

2007-10-01

279

Tools for Interactive Mathematical Activity. TIMA: BARS--A Tool Designed To Help Teachers Help Children Construct Their Own Knowledge of Whole Numbers and Fractions. [Diskette.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This computer software is a tool designed to help teachers help children in grades 1 through 7 construct their own knowledge of whole numbers and fractions. This software is the first in a series of new, dynamic computer microworlds that allow teachers to interact with students and students to interact with each other as they engage in…

Olive, John; Steffe, Leslie P.

280

What Community College Developmental Mathematics Students Understand about Mathematics, Part 2: The Interviews  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a prior issue of "MathAMATYC Educator," we reported on our efforts to find out what community college developmental mathematics students understand about mathematics (Stigler, Givvin, & Thompson, 2010). Our work painted a distressing picture of students' mathematical knowledge. No matter what kind of mathematical question we asked, students…

Givvin, Karen B.; Stigler, James W.; Thompson, Belinda J.

2011-01-01

281

Do Remedial Mathematics Programmes Improve Students' Mathematical Ability?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effectiveness of the Mathematical Skills Foundation Programme at Memorial University of Newfoundland (Canada), a program that evaluates the mathematical knowledge of each student to individualize instruction, was studied with data from 304 students. Results suggest that the remedial program did not have a positive measurable effect on students…

O'Connor, Wendy E.; Morrison, Todd G.

1997-01-01

282

Rethinking Mathematics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Poses solutions for our failure to show students how well mathematics interlocks with the physical structures of the Universe. Some examples are provided to illustrate the natural integration of mathematics and science. (ZWH)

Abad, Ernesto A.

1994-01-01

283

INCREASING ACHIEVEMENT AND HIGHER-EDUCATION REPRESENTATION OF UNDER-REPRESENTED GROUPS IN SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, ENGINEERING, AND MATHEMATICS FIELDS: A REVIEW OF CURRENT K-12 INTERVENTION PROGRAMS  

PubMed Central

The under-representation of women and ethnic minorities in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) education and professions has resulted in a loss of human capital for the US scientific workforce and spurred the development of myriad STEM educational intervention programs. Increased allocation of resources to such programs begs for a critical, prescriptive, evidence-based review that will enable researchers to develop optimal interventions and administrators to maximize investments. We begin by providing a theoretical backdrop for K-12 STEM programs by reviewing current data on under-representation and developmental research describing individual-level social factors undergirding these data. Next, we review prototypical designs of these programs, highlighting specific programs in the literature as examples of program structures and components currently in use. We then evaluate these interventions in terms of overall effectiveness, as a function of how well they address age-, ethnicity-, or gender-specific factors, suggesting improvements in program design based on these critiques. Finally, program evaluation methods are briefly reviewed and discussed in terms of how their empirical soundness can either enable or limit our ability to delineate effective program components. “Now more than ever, the nation’s changing demographics demand that we include all of our citizens in science and engineering education and careers. For the U.S. to benefit from the diverse talents of all its citizens, we must grow the pipeline of qualified, underrepresented minority engineers and scientists to fill positions in industry and academia.”—Irving P. McPhail..

Valla, Jeffrey M.; Williams, Wendy M.

2012-01-01

284

Negatively-marked MCQ assessments that reward partial knowledge do not introduce gender bias yet increase student performance and satisfaction and reduce anxiety.  

PubMed

Multiple-choice question (MCQ) examinations are increasingly used as the assessment method of theoretical knowledge in large class-size modules in many life science degrees. MCQ-tests can be used to objectively measure factual knowledge, ability and high-level learning outcomes, but may also introduce gender bias in performance dependent on topic, instruction, scoring and difficulty. The 'Single Answer' (SA) test is often used in which students choose one correct answer, in which they are unable to demonstrate partial knowledge. Negatively marking eliminates the chance element of guessing but may be considered unfair. Elimination testing (ET) is an alternative form of MCQ, which discriminates between all levels of knowledge, while rewarding demonstration of partial knowledge. Comparisons of performance and gender bias in negatively marked SA and ET tests have not yet been performed in the life sciences. Our results show that life science students were significantly advantaged by answering the MCQ test in elimination format compared to single answer format under negative marking conditions by rewarding partial knowledge of topics. Importantly, we found no significant difference in performance between genders in either cohort for either MCQ test under negative marking conditions. Surveys showed that students generally preferred ET-style MCQ testing over SA-style testing. Students reported feeling more relaxed taking ET MCQ and more stressed when sitting SA tests, while disagreeing with being distracted by thinking about best tactics for scoring high. Students agreed ET testing improved their critical thinking skills. We conclude that appropriately-designed MCQ tests do not systematically discriminate between genders. We recommend careful consideration in choosing the type of MCQ test, and propose to apply negative scoring conditions to each test type to avoid the introduction of gender bias. The student experience could be improved through the incorporation of the elimination answering methods in MCQ tests via rewarding partial and full knowledge. PMID:23437081

Bond, A Elizabeth; Bodger, Owen; Skibinski, David O F; Jones, D Hugh; Restall, Colin J; Dudley, Edward; van Keulen, Geertje

2013-01-01

285

Negatively-Marked MCQ Assessments That Reward Partial Knowledge Do Not Introduce Gender Bias Yet Increase Student Performance and Satisfaction and Reduce Anxiety  

PubMed Central

Multiple-choice question (MCQ) examinations are increasingly used as the assessment method of theoretical knowledge in large class-size modules in many life science degrees. MCQ-tests can be used to objectively measure factual knowledge, ability and high-level learning outcomes, but may also introduce gender bias in performance dependent on topic, instruction, scoring and difficulty. The ‘Single Answer’ (SA) test is often used in which students choose one correct answer, in which they are unable to demonstrate partial knowledge. Negatively marking eliminates the chance element of guessing but may be considered unfair. Elimination testing (ET) is an alternative form of MCQ, which discriminates between all levels of knowledge, while rewarding demonstration of partial knowledge. Comparisons of performance and gender bias in negatively marked SA and ET tests have not yet been performed in the life sciences. Our results show that life science students were significantly advantaged by answering the MCQ test in elimination format compared to single answer format under negative marking conditions by rewarding partial knowledge of topics. Importantly, we found no significant difference in performance between genders in either cohort for either MCQ test under negative marking conditions. Surveys showed that students generally preferred ET-style MCQ testing over SA-style testing. Students reported feeling more relaxed taking ET MCQ and more stressed when sitting SA tests, while disagreeing with being distracted by thinking about best tactics for scoring high. Students agreed ET testing improved their critical thinking skills. We conclude that appropriately-designed MCQ tests do not systematically discriminate between genders. We recommend careful consideration in choosing the type of MCQ test, and propose to apply negative scoring conditions to each test type to avoid the introduction of gender bias. The student experience could be improved through the incorporation of the elimination answering methods in MCQ tests via rewarding partial and full knowledge.

Bond, A. Elizabeth; Bodger, Owen; Skibinski, David O. F.; Jones, D. Hugh; Restall, Colin J.; Dudley, Edward; van Keulen, Geertje

2013-01-01

286

Using an ACTIVE teaching format versus a standard lecture format for increasing resident interaction and knowledge achievement during noon conference: a prospective, controlled study  

PubMed Central

Background The traditional lecture is used by many residency programs to fulfill the mandate for regular didactic sessions, despite limited evidence to demonstrate its effectiveness. Active teaching strategies have shown promise in improving medical knowledge but have been challenging to implement within the constraints of residency training. We developed and evaluated an innovative structured format for interactive teaching within the residency noon conference. Methods We developed an ACTIVE teaching format structured around the following steps: assemble (A) into groups, convey (C) learning objectives, teach (T) background information, inquire (I) through cases and questions, verify (V) understanding, and explain (E) answer choices and educate on the learning points. We conducted a prospective, controlled study of the ACTIVE teaching format versus the standard lecture format, comparing resident satisfaction, immediate knowledge achievement and long-term knowledge retention. We qualitatively assessed participating faculty members’ perspectives on the faculty development efforts and the feasibility of teaching using the ACTIVE format. Results Sixty-nine internal medicine residents participated in the study. Overall, there was an improvement in perceived engagement using the ACTIVE teaching format (4.78 vs. 3.80, P?increase in stress or decrement in break time. There was an improvement in initial knowledge achievement with the ACTIVE teaching format (overall absolute score increase of 11%, P?=?0.04) and a trend toward improvement in long-term knowledge retention. Faculty members felt adequately prepared to use the ACTIVE teaching format, and enjoyed teaching with the ACTIVE teaching format more than the standard lecture. Conclusions A structured ACTIVE teaching format improved resident engagement and initial knowledge, and required minimal resources. The ACTIVE teaching format offers an exciting alternative to the standard lecture for resident noon conference and is easy to implement.

2014-01-01

287

Academic Continuity through Online Collaboration: Mathematics Teachers Support the Learning of Pupils with Chronic Illness during School Absence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent applications of technology to mathematics education have been designed with cognitive and constructivist theoretical perspectives in mind, viewing mathematical learning as the acquisition of knowledge through the construction of meanings and connections between concepts. With the advent of increasingly flexible communication technologies,…

Wilkie, Karina J.

2011-01-01

288

Mathematics in the Middle.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book contains articles that help to further the process of reform in the middle grades, recognizing that the knowledge acquired during these years greatly affects how well the secondary school curriculum will attain its goals. Critical issues facing middle grade classes in particular and all mathematics classrooms in general are discussed.…

Leutzinger, Larry, Ed.

289

Elementary School Mathematics Priorities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article first describes some of the basic skills and knowledge that a solid elementary school mathematics foundation requires. It then elaborates on several points germane to these practices. These are then followed with a discussion and conclude with final comments and suggestions for future research. The article sets out the five…

Wilson, W. Stephen

2009-01-01

290

Increasing coverage of insecticide-treated nets in rural Nigeria: implications of consumer knowledge, preferences and expenditures for malaria prevention  

PubMed Central

Background The coverage of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) remains low despite existing distribution strategies, hence, it was important to assess consumers' preferences for distribution of ITNs, as well as their perceptions and expenditures for malaria prevention and to examine the implications for scaling-up ITNs in rural Nigeria. Methods Nine focus group discussions (FGDs) and questionnaires to 798 respondents from three malaria hyper-endemic villages from Enugu state, south-east Nigeria were the study tools. Results There was a broad spectrum of malaria preventive tools being used by people. The average monthly expenditure on malaria prevention per household was 55.55 Naira ($0.4). More than 80% of the respondent had never purchased any form of untreated mosquito net. People mostly preferred centralized community-based sales of the ITNS, with instalment payments. Conclusion People were knowledgeable about malaria and the beneficial effects of using nets to protect themselves from the disease. The mostly preferred community-based distribution of ITNs implies that the strategy is a potential untapped additional channel for scaling-up ITNs in Nigeria and possibly other parts of sub-Saharan Africa.

Onwujekwe, Obinna; Uzochukwu, Benjamin; Ezumah, Nkoli; Shu, Elvis

2005-01-01

291

[Mathematics - astronomy - astrology special library].  

PubMed

About 1560 Elector August of Saxony created an unusual library--one distinguished within its period by both its specialization and location. Situated within the Kunstkammer this library was mostly dedicated to the mathematical sciences and related disciplines. It contained works by the most important authors on mathematics, astronomy, and astrology from the classical, medieval, and early modern periods. This essay traces the formation and composition of August's library, and examines its function: What kind of relationship existed between the library and the Kunstkammer? In what way did the library mirror the interests of the Elector, and to what extend does it permit inferences regarding the Elector's knowledge of mathematics? From the analysis August emerges not as a specialist with a deep understanding of mathematics, but as a particular aficionado of mathematical applications. As a practitioner and general follower of the mathematical arts he took part in a far-reaching intellectual network the center of which lay in the University of Wittenberg. Here, Melanchthon had effectively strengthened the importance of the mathematical disciplines within the university curriculum. He regarded mathematics as the foremost science, arguing that before all other disciplines its method enabled man to recognize the harmonic order of the world, and to discern divine providence. Thus, mathematics offered consoling stability and support in an often seemingly chaotic world torn by religious controversies. This kind of esteem for the mathematical sciences did not presuppose expert knowledge. Hence, the fact that August does not appear to have read the mathematical books he collected does not come as a contradiction. On the contrary, for August it sufficed to recognize the potential of the mathematical sciences, which he brought into life through the creation of a specialized library that developed a rhetoric of its own. The collection of his Kunstkammer library spoke of a harmonically ordered world while at the same time memorializing August as a lover of mathematics and an important figure within the group of mathematical experts and enthusiasts. PMID:21898978

Gluch, Sibylle

2011-01-01

292

Advanced techniques for the storage and use of very large, heterogeneous spatial databases. The representation of geographic knowledge: Toward a universal framework. [relations (mathematics)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new approach to building geographic data models that is based on the fundamental characteristics of the data is presented. An overall theoretical framework for representing geographic data is proposed. An example of utilizing this framework in a Geographic Information System (GIS) context by combining artificial intelligence techniques with recent developments in spatial data processing techniques is given. Elements of data representation discussed include hierarchical structure, separation of locational and conceptual views, and the ability to store knowledge at variable levels of completeness and precision.

Peuquet, Donna J.

1987-01-01

293

Does Increasing Biology Teacher Knowledge of Evolution and the Nature of Science Lead to Greater Preference for the Teaching of Evolution in Schools?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated whether or not an increase in secondary science teacher knowledge about evolution and the nature of science gained from completing a graduate-level evolution course was associated with greater preference for the teaching of evolution in schools. Forty-four precertified secondary biology teachers participated in a 14-week intervention designed to address documented misconceptions identified by a precourse instrument. The

Ross H. Nehm; Irvin Sam Schonfeld

2007-01-01

294

Does Increasing Biology Teacher Knowledge of Evolution and the Nature of Science Lead to Greater Preference for the Teaching of Evolution in Schools?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated whether or not an increase in secondary science teacher knowledge about evolution and the nature of\\u000a science gained from completing a graduate-level evolution course was associated with greater preference for the teaching of\\u000a evolution in schools. Forty-four precertified secondary biology teachers participated in a 14-week intervention designed to\\u000a address documented misconceptions identified by a precourse instrument. The

Ross H. Nehm; Irvin Sam Schonfeld

2007-01-01

295

Student-Directed Transition Planning: Increasing Student Knowledge and Self-Efficacy in the Transition Planning Process  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the effectiveness of a new school to adult life transition planning lesson package titled "Student-Directed Transition Planning". The "Student-Directed Transition Planning" lessons teach transition terms and concepts to provide a means to increase self-determination skills and student participation in transition IEP…

Woods, Lee L.; Sylvester, Lorraine; Martin, James E.

2010-01-01

296

Review: Powdery Scab of Potato—Increased Knowledge of Pathogen Biology and Disease Epidemiology for Effective Disease Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of the potato tuber disease powdery scab, caused by the zoosporic pathogen Spongospora subterranea f. sp. subterranea, has increased worldwide, and the disease is one of the most important problems facing potato production in some regions.\\u000a This soilborne pathogen produces many resting spores which can remain dormant for long periods, are highly resistant to environmental\\u000a stresses and can

U. Merz; R. E. Falloon

2009-01-01

297

The Predominance of Procedural Knowledge in Fractions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teachers play a crucial role in the mathematical learning outcomes of their students. The quality of teachers' mathematical knowledge has been of interest to key stakeholders and several lines of inquiry have been running in an effort to better understand the kinds of knowledge that mathematics teachers need to acquire and use to drive their…

Forrester, Tricia; Chinnappan, Mohan

2010-01-01

298

Resisting Reductionism in Mathematics Pedagogy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although breaking down a mathematical problem into smaller parts can often be an effective solution strategy, when the same reductionist approach is applied to mathematics pedagogy the effects are far from beneficial for students. Mathematics pedagogy in UK schools is gaining an increasingly reductionist flavour, as seen in an excessive focus on…

Foster, Colin

2013-01-01

299

Structure and Ideology in the Mathematics Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the concept of ideology; analyzes the construction of meaning in music; discusses similarities and differences relative to mathematics, focusing on mathematical proof; and provides a framework to make sense of the mathematics curriculum and the way in which knowledge is constructed within it. (Contains 39 references.) (MKR)

Noss, Richard

1994-01-01

300

Mathematical Moments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Mathematical Moments is a program that encourages "appreciation and understanding of the role mathematics plays in science, nature, technology, and human culture." Created by the American Mathematical Society, it does not have a specific target audience, but rather is intended for anyone wanting to learn about the importance of math in practical applications. The program's Web site contains nearly 30 one-page brochures that demonstrate how math is used in areas such as aircraft design, Internet security, and iris recognition.

301

Mathematical Imagery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web site, presented by the American Mathematical Society, is devoted to the visualization of mathematics--origami, computer-generated landscapes, tesselations, fractals, anamorphic art, and more. It presents changing galleries of work by mathematicians and artists working in all media, as well as links to online galleries, articles, and other resources on the relationship between mathematics and the visual arts. The site enables viewers to send e-postcards of featured work.

302

Using Incremental Rehearsal to Increase Fluency of Single-Digit Multiplication Facts with Children Identified as Learning Disabled in Mathematics Computation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous research suggested that Incremental Rehearsal (IR; Tucker, 1989) led to better retention than other drill practices models. However, little research exists in the literature regarding drill models for mathematics and no studies were found that used IR to practice multiplication facts. Therefore, the current study used IR as an…

Burns, Matthew K.

2005-01-01

303

Teachers' Assessments of Students' Learning of Mathematics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports a study of the classroom assessment practices of 12 sixth form college mathematics teachers in Malta. It explores the extent to which these teachers are knowledgeable about their students' learning of mathematics and the implications that this has for their classroom practices. It reveals that these teachers' knowledge of their…

Buhagiar, Michael A.; Murphy, Roger

2008-01-01

304

Mathematical Modelling and New Theories of Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Demonstrates the importance of expanding notions of learning beyond knowledge to the practices in mathematics classrooms. Considers a three-year study of students who learned through mathematical modeling. Shows that a modeling approach encouraged the development of a range of important practices in addition to knowledge that were useful in real…

Boaler, Jo

2001-01-01

305

Mathematics Scrapbook  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One section of this "scrapbook" section describes Pythagoras' belief in the connections between music and mathematics -- that everything in the universe was a series of harmonies and regulated by music. Another section explains why Phythagoras felt it important for women to be encouraged to learn mathematics. At least 28 women were involved in his…

Prochazka, Helen

2004-01-01

306

Illustrative Mathematics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Illustrative Mathematics provides guidance to states, assessment consortia, testing companies, and curriculum developers by illustrating the range and types of mathematical work that students experience in a faithful implementation of the Common Core State Standards, and by publishing other tools that support implementation of the standards.

2013-01-04

307

Mathematics Chapter.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggestions are offered for more effective implementation and creativity in developing new mathematics programs. The new mathematics materials and projects have not significantly altered the educational experiences of students because of (1) difficulty in identifying distinctive features of the various projects, (2) widespread assumptions that the…

Davis, Robert B.

308

Technical Mathematics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manuscript provides information and problems for teaching mathematics to vocational education students. Problems reflect applications of mathematical concepts to specific technical areas. The materials are organized into six chapters. Chapter 1 covers basic arithmetic, including fractions, decimals, ratio and proportions, percentages, and…

Flannery, Carol A.

309

Knowing and Learning Mathematics for Teaching: Proceedings of a Workshop (March 19-21, 1999).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Mathematics Teacher Preparation Content Workshop, held March 19-21, 1999, focused on two questions: (1) What is the mathematical knowledge teachers need to know in order to teach well? and (2) How can teachers develop the mathematical knowledge they need to teach well? Chapters include: (1) "Knowledge of Fundamental Mathematics for Teaching"…

National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Mathematical Sciences Education Board.

310

Impact of an Educational Intervention on Increasing the Knowledge and Changing the Attitude and Beliefs towards Organ Donation among Medical Students  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Organ transplantation saves thousands of lives worldwide. Organ transplantation is a boon to the medical profession, as it helps in saving the lives of many diseased people. Globally, the prevalence of knowledge on organ donation was found to range from 60% to 85%, on using different knowledge variables. Knowledge, attitude and actions are interrelated and previous studies have shown that culture and religion were important external influences which affected the decision making process. So, students require further information on the organ donation process and they need opportunities to examine their own beliefs and attitudes, which can be addressed through educational interventions. Objective: Purpose of the study was to investigate the knowledge, attitude and belief on/towards organ donation and the impact of an educational intervention on them. Methods: An educational interventional study with pre structured questions being administered to study subjects. Results: In the present study, a total of 70 students consented to participate and all the 70 attended the pre-test and post-test after the classroom teaching. Among the 70 participants, 35(50%) were males and 35(50%) were females. A majority of the subjects were Hindus 64(91.4%) and only 3(4.30%) were Muslims. Sixty seven (95.7%) of the students had heard of the term, ‘organ donation’. Most common reason given by the participants for organ donation was that it was done to save someone’s life [61 (87.11%)]. Among the 70 study subjects, only 19(27.10%) knew about the organs that could be donated, whose number increased to 56(80%) after providing the educational intervention. The difference which was observed in their knowledge before and after providing the educational intervention was found to be statistically significant (t= 39.315, p< 0.0000). The awareness of the legislation regarding organ donation was poor. Thiry one(444.3%) subjects were unaware about the existence of laws which were related to organ donation and its process. Conclusion: The study emphasizes the need of an intervention which incorporates the knowledge, motivational messages, facts and figures, to bring necessary changes in the perceptions and intentions of the students regarding organ donations.

Gupta, Akash

2014-01-01

311

Design, implementation, and evaluation of a knowledge translation intervention to increase organ donation after cardiocirculatory death in Canada: a study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background A shortage of transplantable organs is a global problem. There are two types of organ donation: living and deceased. Deceased organ donation can occur following neurological determination of death (NDD) or cardiocirculatory death. Donation after cardiocirculatory death (DCD) accounts for the largest increments in deceased organ donation worldwide. Variations in the use of DCD exist, however, within Canada and worldwide. Reasons for these discrepancies are largely unknown. The purpose of this study is to develop, implement, and evaluate a theory-based knowledge translation intervention to provide practical guidance about how to increase the numbers of DCD organ donors without reducing the numbers of standard NDD donors. Methods We will use a mixed method three-step approach. In step one, we will conduct semi-structured interviews, informed by the Theoretical Domains Framework, to identify and describe stakeholders’ beliefs and attitudes about DCD and their perceptions of the multi-level factors that influence DCD. We will identify: determinants of the evidence-practice gap; specific behavioural changes and/or process changes needed to increase DCD; specific group(s) of clinicians or organizations (e.g., provincial donor organizations) in need of behaviour change; and specific targets for interventions. In step two, using the principles of intervention mapping, we will develop a theory-based knowledge translation intervention that encompasses behavior change techniques to overcome the identified barriers and enhance the enablers to DCD. In step three, we will roll out the intervention in hospitals across the 10 Canadian provinces and evaluate its effectiveness using a multiple interrupted time series design. Discussion We will adopt a behavioural approach to define and test novel, theory-based, and ethically-acceptable knowledge translation strategies to increase the numbers of available DCD organ donors in Canada. If successful, this study will ultimately lead to more transplantations, reducing patient morbidity and mortality at a population-level.

2014-01-01

312

Maximizing Student Mathematical Learning in the Early Years  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This 8-page monograph (pdf), based on current research in early mathematics education, discusses the importance of early mathematics and addresses how educators can build on the mathematical knowledge and experience that children bring to early primary classrooms. It emphasizes the importance of understanding the development and characteristics of the early mathematics learner, and of having a solid understanding of mathematics for teaching. The article offers tips for creating a mathematics-rich environment and includes an extensive list of references.

2011-09-01

313

All Knowledge is Carnal Knowledge: A Correspondence  

Microsoft Academic Search

What follows is a reconstruction of an e-mail correspondence that took place between November 1999 and February 2000 between a Canadian professor of education and an American philosopher and ecologist. This conversation glances through schools and mathematics and suggests, in the end, that even this seemingly most abstract of human disciplines just might be a (carnal) body of knowledge. Résumé

David Abram; David Jardine

314

Supporting the Collaboration of Special Educators and General Educators to Teach Students Who Struggle with Mathematics: An Overview of the Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Special education and mathematics teachers are under pressure to respond to the needs of an increasingly diverse range of students in mathematics. One way for them to meet the instructional needs of struggling learners is through collaboration where, ideally, the knowledge one teacher brings can address the gaps of the other. However, the…

van Garderen, Delinda; Scheuermann, Amy; Jackson, Christa; Hampton, David

2009-01-01

315

Learning Mathematics Within Contexts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this 1-hr webcast Dr. Cathy Fosnot and a group of math educators discuss the significance of problem contexts for students' mathematics learning. They solve a problem involving fractions and proportional reasoning, share multiple solution strategies, and discuss the importance of solving problems before assigning them to children in order to anticipate the range of knowledge and skills that students might demonstrate. Video clips of a classroom foster a discussion of strategies for designing lesson problems and managing a congress.

2007-10-30

316

The Mathematics Education Portfolio Brief  

NSF Publications Database

Abstracts were selected if they contained the following mathematics words or phrases: algebra, calculus, geometry, probability, proportion, ratio, statistics, pre-calculus, NCTM, estimation, mathematics teaching, mathematics tasks, mathematics framework, mathematics standards, mathematics curriculum, mathematics courses, mathematical thinking, discrete mathematics, mathematical understanding, mathematical problem solving, mathematical concept, mathematics assessment, and mathematical ...

317

Assessing Understanding through Reading and Writing in Mathematics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The mathematics education community recognizes the integrality of reading and writing in learning and communicating mathematics knowledge. Unfortunately, many students have yet to significantly experience this integrality in their mathematics classrooms despite the power these tools offer teachers for assessing student knowledge. This paper…

Adu-Gyamfi, Kwaku; Bosse, Michael J.; Faulconer, Johna

2010-01-01

318

Competence with Fractions Predicts Gains in Mathematics Achievement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Competence with fractions predicts later mathematics achievement, but the codevelopmental pattern between fractions knowledge and mathematics achievement is not well understood. We assessed this codevelopment through examination of the cross-lagged relation between a measure of conceptual knowledge of fractions and mathematics achievement in sixth…

Bailey, Drew H.; Hoard, Mary K.; Nugent, Lara; Geary, David C.

2012-01-01

319

Mathematics Animated  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Professor Talman of the Metropolitan State College of Denver offers this site as a reference for both students and teachers of mathematics. It is an assortment of animations that demonstrate many mathematical concepts, which are often difficult to visualize. The only downside of the animations is the lack of explanation associated with them. Some have short descriptions, others are somewhat self explanatory, but the rest can initially be quite confusing.

Talman, Louis.

320

Mathematics, Education, and Philosophy: An International Perspective. Studies in Mathematics Education Series: 3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book illustrates the breadth of theoretical and philosophical perspectives that can be brought to bear on mathematics and education. Part 1, "Reconceptualizing the Philosophy of Mathematics," contains the following chapters: (1) "Fresh Breezes in the Philosophy of Mathematics" (R. Hersh); (2) What Can the Sociologist of Knowledge Say About 2…

Ernest, Paul, Ed.

321

Conceptions of First-Year Secondary Mathematics Intern Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Beginning mathematics teachers enter their classrooms with a network of conceptions about mathematics and how they will go about teaching it. These conceptions are based on a set of beliefs and body of mathematical knowledge. They are robust and deeply ingrained, and they influence how teachers approach the teaching and learning of mathematics.…

Tennison, Alan D.

2010-01-01

322

A Snapshot of Ten Pre-Service Secondary Mathematics Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reform in secondary mathematics education has created changes regarding how to educate teachers. It is time to check the result of such changes. This study provides a snapshot look at the commonalities of ten pre-service teachers in regards to their mathematics knowledge and their attitudes about mathematics and mathematics education. Four themes…

Latterell, Carmen M.

2008-01-01

323

Mathematics for Teaching: An Anthropological Approach and Its Use in Teaching Training  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper analyses how the mathematical knowledge needed by a teacher has been described by several mathematics educators, all based on Shulman's notions of Subject Matter Knowledge and Pedagogical Content Knowledge. In particular, it looks at the notion of Mathematics Knowledge for Teaching, as elaborated by Ball and her research group. It then…

Huillet, Danielle

2009-01-01

324

An Examination of the Discourse in a Graduate Mathematics Methods Course  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mathematics reform efforts advocate the use of discourse as a method toward mathematical learning. Research also suggests that attention be placed on prospective teachers’ development of content knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge. One way to develop teacher knowledge and discourse skills of prospective teachers is to engage them in purposeful discourse that focuses on mathematical knowledge for teaching. The purpose

Rako Morrissey

2011-01-01

325

Mathematical wit and mathematical cognition.  

PubMed

The published works of scientists often conceal the cognitive processes that led to their results. Scholars of mathematical practice must therefore seek out less obvious sources. This article analyzes a widely circulated mathematical joke, comprising a list of spurious proof types. An account is proposed in terms of argumentation schemes: stereotypical patterns of reasoning, which may be accompanied by critical questions itemizing possible lines of defeat. It is argued that humor is associated with risky forms of inference, which are essential to creative mathematics. The components of the joke are explicated by argumentation schemes devised for application to topic-neutral reasoning. These in turn are classified under seven headings: retroduction, citation, intuition, meta-argument, closure, generalization, and definition. Finally, the wider significance of this account for the cognitive science of mathematics is discussed. PMID:23512504

Aberdein, Andrew

2013-04-01

326

Mathematics Demos  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For students in mathematics, it is often very difficult to visualize abstract concepts. One of the most obvious examples is the analysis of three dimensional objects, or a 3D coordinate system. This small collection of mathematics demos illustrates some of these concepts by using multi-color animations. Items such as contours, Fourier transforms, and convolution, which cannot be effectively drawn on a chalkboard, are shown in great detail here. The site also demonstrates the dimensions of the spherical coordinate system, as well as several other items.

327

Mathematical Snippets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site, created by the Mathematics Department at Bellevue Community College in Bellevue, Washington, contains descriptions of six mathematical concepts: the Pythagorean Theorem, Archimedes' Tombstone, the Mobius Strip, the Koch Snowflake Curve, Plateau's Problem, and Counting to Infinity. Each snippet contains a very brief history and an explanation of the concept. Illustrations are used to convey the physical meaning and consequences of each concept. Plateau's Problem and Counting to Infinity contain links to web sites that provide additional information about persons or concepts mentioned in the snippet.

1997-01-01

328

Learning how to focus on language while teaching mathematics to English language learners: a case study of Courtney  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Research in mathematics education increasingly recognizes the role of language in the education of English language learners. However, research examining the professional growth of mathematics teachers as they learn to teach English language learners is sparse. This case study addresses this issue by examining one third grade teacher as she learned how to focus on language as she designed and taught mathematics lessons to facilitate the participation of English language learners. Data sources consist of audio recordings of interviews, lesson planning sessions, and lesson debrief sessions as well as video recordings of mathematics lessons. The results from this study demonstrate the importance of professional development that emphasizes language in the teaching of mathematics. As the teacher began to learn about the components of the intervention, she developed specialized knowledge and competencies so that she was able to address language planning and development that was necessary to successfully teach mathematics to English language learners.

Chval, Kathryn B.; Pinnow, Rachel J.; Thomas, Amanda

2014-01-01

329

Laboratory Mathematics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Computers were invented to help mathematicians perform long and complicated calculations more efficiently. By the time that a computing area became a familiar space in primary and secondary schools, the initial motivation for computer use had been submerged in the many other functions that modern computers now accomplish. Not only the mathematics

de Mestre, Neville

2004-01-01

330

Mathematics Curriculum Guide. Mathematics IV.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

GRADES OR AGES: Grade 12. SUBJECT MATTER: Mathematics. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The subject matter is presented in four columns: major areas, significant outcomes, observations and suggestions, and films and references. The topics include: sets-relations-functions, circular functions, graphs of circular functions, inverses of circular…

Gary City Public School System, IN.

331

Increase of Farmers' Knowledge through Farmer Seed Production Schools in Vietnam as Assessed on the Basis of Ex-Ante and Ex-Post Tests  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study was designed to assess changes in farmers' knowledge of farmer seed production through schools (FSPSs) in Vietnam. A set of 25 questions covering five technical areas of the seed production process was used for pre and post knowledge testing at 12 FSPSs in the provinces Binh Dinh, Nam Dinh, Nghe An and Dong Thap. The main findings show…

Tin, Huynh Q.; Struik, Paul C.; Price, Lisa L.; Tuyen, Nguyen P.; Hoan, Nguyen P.; Bos, Heleen

2010-01-01

332

Increased Alpha (8-12 Hz) Activity during Slow Wave Sleep as a Marker for the Transition from Implicit Knowledge to Explicit Insight  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The number reduction task (NRT) allows us to study the transition from implicit knowledge of hidden task regularities to explicit insight into these regularities. To identify sleep-associated neurophysiological indicators of this restructuring of knowledge representations, we measured frequency-specific power of EEG while participants slept during…

Yordanova, Juliana; Kolev, Vasil; Wagner, Ullrich; Born, Jan; Verleger, Rolf

2012-01-01

333

Information technology and mathematical modelling, the software crisis, risk and educational consequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Destructive use, real and potential, of mathematics based new technology at the borders of our knowledge, its military and civilian impact is the object of growing concern. The risk involved in increasing dependence upon computer supported systems calls for a responsive profound, democratic education with emphasis on critical competence in creation, use and evaluation of formal models.A central issue is

Bernhelm Booss-Bavnbek; Glen Pate

1989-01-01

334

Increasing Knowledge of Cardiovascular Risk Factors Among African Americans by Use of Community Health Workers: The ABCD Community Intervention Pilot Project  

PubMed Central

African Americans have higher rates of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and poorer outcomes compared to others. The American Diabetes Association and the National Diabetes Education Program have promoted use of the ABC approach (glycated hemoglobin A1c, blood pressure, cholesterol) for identifying and controlling the leading indicators of CVD risk. In the present study, researchers added a D factor, for depression, because this disorder is common and also predictive of CVD risk and of control of diabetes. Particularly among low-income African Americans, depression is frequently not targeted or treated. The current study tests the effectiveness of recruiting African Americans in churches and training community health workers (CHWs) to educate their peers about CVD and risk reduction. For the intervention group, CHWs participated in a 16-hour training session and delivered a 6-week tailored educational program with counseling sessions and demonstrations. The control group received a weekly lecture by clinical experts. The CHW active-learning intervention was more effective than lectures by clinical experts in increasing the knowledge of CVD risk. The only significant difference in clinical measures reflected a worsening of HbA1c levels in the control group; the CHW intervention group showed a slight improvement. Participants also learned self-management skills, such as taking blood pressure, measuring glucose, and reading labels. Nevertheless, more longitudinal research and a larger sample size are needed to confirm the impact of CHWs in community settings to change factors associated with CVD risk.

Daniels, Elvan C.; Powe, Barbara D.; Metoyer, Toye; McCray, Gail; Baltrus, Peter; Rust, George S.

2014-01-01

335

Numeracy in Secondary School Mathematics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a project that focuses on numeracy in secondary school mathematics. During the course of the project a teacher had the chance to develop and trial new tasks and styles of teaching and learning numeracy. She became increasingly comfortable with using more extended tasks for learning mathematics. However, she believes that it…

Gibbs, Melissa; Goos, Merrilyn; Geiger, Vince; Dole, Shelley

2012-01-01

336

Women, Mathematics, and Career Choices.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Failure of a significant number of females to participate in mathematics is now recognized as a concern of society, particularly by professionals. Encouragement, positive reinforcement, and access to special programs to motivate the math achiever are all necessary to increase the number of women entering mathematical studies. (JMK)

Urbanek, Mary M.

1983-01-01

337

PALOS Mathematics: Education by Videodisc.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Purdue Academic Learning Opportunity Systems (PALOS), a state-wide program based at Purdue University, was established to provide an administrative structure to enhance the education of Indiana adult residents. The PALOS Mathematics program was designed to increase mathematics achievement levels for selected Indiana populations. The initial…

Sorge, Dennis H.

338

Mathematical prediction in infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is now increasingly common for infectious disease epidemics to be analysed with mathematical models. Modelling is possible because epidemics involve relatively simple processes occurring within large populations of individuals. Modelling aims to explain and predict trends in disease incidence, prevalence, morbidity or mortality. Models give important insight into the development of epidemics. Following disease establishment, epidemic growth is approximately

Neil M Ferguson

2005-01-01

339

Mathematical prediction in infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is now increasingly common for infectious disease epidemics to be analysed with mathematical models. Modelling is possible because epidemics involve relatively simple processes occurring within large populations of individuals. Modelling aims to explain and predict trends in disease incidence, prevalence, morbidity or mortality.Epidemic models give important insight into the development of an epidemic. Following disease establishment, epidemic growth is

Neil M. Ferguson

2009-01-01

340

100 Years of Mathematics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 20th century was a period of extraordinary expansion and progress in mathematics. Concentrates on a few key themes that can be discerned such as local to global, increase in dimension, commutative to non-commutative, linear to non-linear, and homology theory, although it is impossible to list all the main achievements. (ASK)

Atiyah, Michael

2000-01-01

341

Mathematical Student Motivation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The research project will be conducted with a target focus group of six students who have been identified as struggling students in 3rd grade mathematics. The research project will study the effect of using different teaching strategies and methods to increase motivation and focus among these students. The research project will be conducted at…

Bacon, Alison

2012-01-01

342

Teaching the Conceptual Structure of Mathematics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many students graduate from K-12 mathematics programs without flexible, conceptual mathematics knowledge. This article reviews psychological and educational research to propose that refining K-12 classroom instruction such that students draw connections through relational comparisons may enhance their long-term ability to transfer and engage with…

Richland, Lindsey E.; Stigler, James W.; Holyoak, Keith J.

2012-01-01

343

Improving mathematical problem solving: A computerized approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mathematics teachers often experience difficulties in teaching students to become skilled problem solvers. This paper evaluates the effectiveness of two interactive computer programs for high school mathematics problem solving. Both programs present students with problems accompanied by instruction on domain-specific knowledge required in different episodes of problem solving. The first program is based on a direct instructional approach to learning,

Egbert G. Harskamp; Cor J. M. Suhre

2006-01-01

344

On Culture, Geometrical Thinking and Mathematics Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Confronts a widespread prejudice about mathematical knowledge, that mathematics is "culture-free," by demonstrating alternative constructions of Euclidean geometrical ideas developed from the culture of Mozambique. As well as establishing the educational power of these constructions, the article illustrates the methodology of "culture…

Gerdes, Paulus

1988-01-01

345

Conceptual Structures in Mathematical Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The processes by which conceptual knowledge is constructed during mathematical problem solving were studied, focusing on the cognitive activity of learners (i.e., the ways they elaborate, reorganize, and reconceptualize their solution activity). Underlying this research is the view that learners' mathematical conceptions evolve from their activity…

Cifarelli, Victor

346

NIST Handbook of Mathematical Functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern developments in theoretical and applied science depend on knowledge of the properties of mathematical functions, from elementary trigonometric functions to the multitude of special functions. These functions appear whenever natural phenomena are studied, engineering problems are formulated, and numerical simulations are per- formed. They also crop up in statistics, financial models, and economic analysis. Using them effectively requires practitioners

Frank W. J. Olver; Daniel W. Lozier; Ronald F. Boisvert

2010-01-01

347

An Ontology for Engineering Mathematics  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe an ontology for mathematical modeling in engineering. The ontology includes conceptual foundations for scalar, vector, and tensor quantities, physical dimensions, units of measure, functions of quantities, and dimensionless quantities. The conceptualization builds on abstract algebra and measurement theory, but is designed explicitly for knowledge sharing purposes. The ontology is being used as a communication language among cooperating engineering

Thomas R. Gruber; Gregory R. Olsen

1994-01-01

348

Family Composition and Mathematics Achievement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Significant differences were found in the mathematics test scores and word knowledge scores of Swedish junior high school students from one-parent versus two-parent families. Similar lower achievement patterns for students from one-parent families emerged with high school seniors. Results are discussed in terms of family configuration theories.…

McNab, Christine; Murray, Asa

1985-01-01

349

Mathematical Statistics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by Richard Dudley of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, this lesson, Mathematical Statistics, is a graduate-level course featuring book chapters and sections presented as lecture notes, problem sets, exams, and a description for an optional term-paper. The course covers: decision theory, estimation, confidence intervals, hypothesis testing, asymptotic efficiency of estimates, exponential families, sequential analysis, and large sample theory. This is a comprehensive overview of this upper level statistics course.

Dudley, Richard

2009-01-29

350

Spreadsheets as a Transparent Resource for Learning the Mathematics of Annuities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The ability of mathematics teachers to decompress mathematics and to move between representations are two key features of mathematical knowledge that is usable for teaching. This article reports on four pre-service secondary mathematics teachers learning the mathematics of annuities. In working with spreadsheets students began to make sense of…

Pournara, Craig

2009-01-01

351

Middle School Immigrant Students Developing Mathematical Reasoning in Spanish and English  

Microsoft Academic Search

Language is the means through which mathematics is learned and mathematical reasoning is developed and expressed. Students' development of mathematical knowledge is dependent upon their codevelopment of language competencies. This study sought to understand the intersection of language acquisition and mathematical reasoning in a multigrade, dual-language mathematics classroom. The focal research question was: In what ways do immigrant middle-school students

Rebecca McGraw; Eliane Rubinstein-Ávila

2009-01-01

352

Common Mathematical Errors of Pre-Service Elementary School Teachers in an Undergraduate Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A steady stream of research has shown that many elementary school teachers have weak mathematical knowledge in some areas, including place value and fractions. Since a teacher's mathematical knowledge affects their students' performance, improving elementary school teachers' knowledge is critical. A better understanding of the mathematical

Matthews, Michael; Ding, Meixia

2011-01-01

353

Replacing Clinic-Based Tests With Home-Use Tests May Increase HIV Prevalence Among Seattle Men Who Have Sex With Men: Evidence From a Mathematical Model  

PubMed Central

Background Home-use tests have potential to increase HIV testing but may increase the rate of false-negative tests and decrease linkage to HIV care. We sought to estimate the impact of replacing clinic-based testing with home-use tests on HIV prevalence among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Seattle, Washington. Methods We adapted a deterministic, continuous-time model of HIV transmission dynamics parameterized using a 2003 random digit dial study of Seattle MSM. Test performance was based on the OraQuick In-Home HIV Test (OraSure Technologies, Inc, Bethlehem, PA) for home-use tests and, on an average, of antigen-antibody combination assays and nucleic acid amplification tests for clinic-based testing. Results Based on observed levels of clinic-based testing, our baseline model predicted an equilibrium HIV prevalence of 18.6%. If all men replaced clinic-based testing with home-use tests, prevalence increased to 27.5% if home-use testing did not impact testing frequency and to 22.4% if home-use testing increased testing frequency 3-fold. Regardless of how much home-use testing increased testing frequency, any replacement of clinic-based testing with home-use testing increased prevalence. These increases in HIV prevalence were mostly caused by the relatively long window period of the currently approved test. If the window period of a home-use test were 2 months instead of 3 months, prevalence would decrease if all MSM replaced clinic-based testing with home-use tests and tested more than 2.6 times more frequently. Conclusions Our model suggests that if home-use HIV tests replace supplement clinic-based testing, HIV prevalence may increase among Seattle MSM, even if home-use tests result in increased testing.

Katz, David A.; Cassels, Susan L.; Stekler, Joanne D.

2014-01-01

354

Mathematical Modeling Using MATLAB.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Mathematical modeling forms a bridge between the study of mathematics and the application of mathematics with the intent of explaining or predicting real world behavior. In their book A First Course in Mathematical Modeling, Frank R. Giordano, Maurice D. ...

D. D. Phillips

1998-01-01

355

Dilemma in Teaching Mathematics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The challenge in mathematics education is finding the best way to teach mathematics. When students learn the reasoning and proving in mathematics, they will be proficient in mathematics. Students must know mathematics before they can apply it. Symbolism and logic is the key to both the learning of mathematics and its effective application to…

Md Kamaruddin, Nafisah Kamariah; Md Amin, Zulkarnain

2012-01-01

356

Increased Alpha (8–12 Hz) Activity during Slow Wave Sleep as a Marker for the Transition from Implicit Knowledge to Explicit Insight  

Microsoft Academic Search

The number reduction task (NRT) allows us to study the transition from implicit knowledge of hidden task regularities to explicit insight into these regularities. To identify sleep-associated neurophysiological indicators of this restructuring of knowledge representations, we measured frequency-specific power of EEG while participants slept during the night between two sessions of the NRT. Alpha (8–12 Hz) EEG power during slow

Juliana Yordanova; Vasil Kolev; Ullrich Wagner; Jan Born; Rolf Verleger

2012-01-01

357

Increased Alpha (8–12 Hz) Activity during Slow Wave Sleep as a Marker for the Transition from Implicit Knowledge to Explicit Insight  

Microsoft Academic Search

The number reduction task (NRT) allows us to study the transition from implicit knowledge of hidden task regularities to explicit insight into these regularities. To identify sleep-associated neurophysiological indicators of this restructuring of knowledge representations, we measured frequency-specific power of EEG while participants slept during the night between two sessions of the NRT. Alpha (8–12 Hz) EEG power during slow

Juliana Yordanova; Vasil Kolev; Ullrich Wagner; Jan Born; Rolf Verleger

2011-01-01

358

Knowledge Convergence and Collaborative Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper operationalized the notion of knowledge convergence and assessed quantitatively how much knowledge convergence occurred during collaborative learning. Knowledge convergence was defined as an increase in common knowledge where common knowledge referred to the knowledge that all collaborating partners had. Twenty pairs of college students…

Jeong, Heisawn; Chi, Michelene T. H.

2007-01-01

359

Mathematizing Darwin.  

PubMed

Ernst Mayr called the first part of the evolutionary synthesis the 'Fisherian synthesis' on account of the dominant role played by R.A. Fisher in forging a mathematical theory of natural selection together with J.B.S. Haldane and Sewall Wright in the decade 1922-1932. It is here argued that Fisher's contribution relied on a close reading of Darwin's work to a much greater extent than did the contributions of Haldane and Wright, that it was synthetic in contrast to their analytic approach and that it was greatly influenced by his friendship with the Darwin family, particularly with Charles's son Leonard. PMID:21423339

Edwards, A W F

2011-03-01

360

Mathematical modelling of dynamic cooling and pre-heating, used to increase the depth of selective damage to blood vessels in laser treatment of port wine stains.  

PubMed

Based on the assumption that the maximum irradiance allowed during laser treatment of port wine stains is limited by the temperature rise at the dermoepidermal junction, we theoretically investigated how much the irradiance could be increased by dynamically cooling the skin surface. The heat condution equation was solved numerically in cylindrical coordinates using a skin model composed of four layers. The laser-light absorption was calculated using Monte Carlo simulations. The transient thermal behaviour of the skin was modelled when cooling with water at a temperature of 0 degrees C and with liquid nitrogen at a temperature of -196 degrees C. With cooling, an increase in the maximum irradiance by a factor of 2.3-3.6 was theoretically permitted depending on the irradiation time, wavelength and mode of cooling. The corresponding increase in vessel selective damage depth was predicted to be 0.4-0.5 mm. A new concept for increasing the depth of vessel selective damage is introduced where the initial temperature profile of the skin is reshaped by using not only surface cooling but also laser irradiation. By pre-irradiating the skin with near-infrared light without selective absorption by the tissue chromophores in conjunction with surface cooling, a maximum temperature at a depth of 1 mm from the dermoepidermal junction was theoretically achieved. A subsequent 0.1 s pulse from a frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser is theoretically shown to selectively destroy vessels up to a depth of 0.8 mm from the dermoepidermal junction. By pre-heating at 1064 nm and treating at 532 nm in conjunction with surface cooling, the theoretical results indicate that the Nd:YAG laser can compete in effectiveness with the flashlamp-pumped dye laser in the treatment of port wine stains. PMID:8778823

Sturesson, C; Andersson-Engels, S

1996-03-01

361

The variation in the orientations and moment arms of the knee extensor and flexor muscle tendons with increasing muscle force: a mathematical analysis.  

PubMed

The orientations and moment arms of the knee extensor and flexor muscle tendons are evaluated with increasing values of muscle force during simulated isometric exercises. A four-bar linkage model of the knee in the sagittal plane was used to define the motion of the joint in the unloaded state during 0-120 degrees flexion. The cruciate and collateral ligaments were represented by arrays of elastic fibres, which were recruited sequentially under load or remained buckled when slack. A bi-articular model of the patello-femoral joint was used. Simple straight-line representation was used for the lines of action of the forces transmitted by the model muscle tendons. The effects of tissue deformation with increasing muscle force were considered. During quadriceps contraction resisted by an external flexing load, the maximum change in moment arm of the patellar tendon was found to be 2 per cent at 0 degree flexion when the quadriceps force was increased tenfold, from 250 to 2500 N. The corresponding maximum change in orientation of the tendon was 3 degrees at 120 degrees flexion. During hamstrings contraction resisted by an external extending load, the maximum change in moment arm of the hamstrings tendon was 8 per cent at 60 degrees flexion when the hamstrings force was increased tenfold, from 100 to 1000 N. During gastrocnemious contraction, the corresponding maximum change for the gastrocnemious tendon was 3 per cent at 0 degree. The orientations of the flexor muscle tendons in this range of force either remained constant or changed by 1 degree or less at any flexion angle. The general trend at any flexion angle was that, as the muscle force was increased, the moment arms and the orientations approached nearly constant values, showing asymptotic behaviour. It is concluded that experimental simulations of knee muscle action with low values of the externally applied load, of the order of 50 N, can provide reliable estimates of the relationships between muscle forces and external loads during activity. PMID:10902442

Imran, A; Huss, R A; Holstein, H; O'Connor, J J

2000-01-01

362

Early mathematics development and later achievement: Further evidence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is a growing international recognition of the importance of the early years of schooling as well as an interest being shown in the relationship of early education to later achievement. This article focuses on a cohort of English pupils who have been tracked through primary school during the first five years of the new National Numeracy Strategy. It reports a limited longitudinal study of young children's early mathematical development, initially within three testing cycles: at the mid-point and towards the end of their reception year (at five years-of-age) and again at the mid-point of Year 1 (at six years-ofage). These cycles were located within the broader context of progress through to the end of Key Stage 1 (at seven years) and Key Stage 2 (at eleven years) on the basis of national standardised assessment tests (SATs). Results showed that children who bring into school early mathematical knowledge do appear to be advantaged in terms of their mathematical progress through primary school. Numerical attainment increases in importance across the primary years and practical problem solving remains an important element of this. This finding is significant given the current emphasis on numerical calculation in the English curriculum. It is concluded that without active intervention, it is likely that children with little mathematical knowledge at the beginning of formal schooling will remain low achievers throughout their primary years and, probably, beyond.

Aubrey, Carol; Godfrey, Ray; Dahl, Sarah

2006-05-01

363

Overcoming knowledge stickiness in scientific knowledge transfer.  

PubMed

This paper explores the transfer and dissemination of knowledge between scientists, the volunteers who collect the knowledge and the communities which learn from it in order to implement change. The role of knowledge "stickiness" in the reduction of knowledge transfer is outlined. The characteristics of the knowledge and the situation combine to develop a range of factors, "stickiness predictors," which can deter knowledge transfer. These stickiness predictors are used to analyse data gathered from three qualitative cases, which were developed from both participant observation and semi-structured interviews studying the interactions between the scientists, volunteers and organisations. A reconsideration of the way that knowledge and knowledge transfer are being conceptualised by scientists is proposed, in order to enable "stickiness" factors to be recognised and managed, thereby increasing the potential for scientific literacy. A move towards a more broadly constituted community of practice is proposed. PMID:23823166

Blackman, Deborah; Benson, Angela M

2012-07-01

364

Turning Origami into the Language of Mathematics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (1989) proposes using everyday objects, such as paper, to enable students to explore geometric relationships and vocabulary. Paper-folding and other types of hands-on activities have been found to increase students' ability to communicate mathematically and foster their understanding of mathematical

Cipoletti, Beth; Wilson, Nancy

2004-01-01

365

What Children's Play Tells Us about Teaching Mathematics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the mathematics learning related to NCTM standards that emerges as children engage in play in early childhood and kindergarten settings and offers suggestions for the effective use of play in teaching young children mathematics. Focuses on the use of blocks and manipulatives. Discusses how teachers' assumptions and mathematics knowledge

Seo, Kyoung-Hye

2003-01-01

366

Marina's Fish Shop: A Mathematically- and Technologically-Rich Lesson  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In early 2008 researchers from the University of Melbourne's "New Technologies for Teaching Mathematics" project created a lesson for the Year 10 students at their Victorian research schools. Two important goals of secondary school mathematics education are to build students' conceptual knowledge and to teach students to think mathematically.…

Wander, Roger; Pierce, Robyn

2009-01-01

367

Critical Challenges in Researching Cultural Issues in Mathematics Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper focuses on the cultural aspects of research in mathematics learning. The shift to a more socio-cultural emphasis in mathematics education research is valid. The paper explores this point by examining challenges to the former research paradigm. These challenges include culturally-based mathematical knowledge and hidden values in…

Bishop, Alan J.

368

Specialized Mathematics Courses, Secondary Level: Learning Objectives, Scope and Sequence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this document, detailed objectives for the following courses are listed: Algebra I, Algebra II, Geometry, Trigonometry, Analytic Geometry, Advanced Mathematics, Personal Business Mathematics, and Business Mathematics. Each objective is keyed to an expected level of achievement: awareness, knowledge, application, mastery, reinforcement, and…

Lehigh County Community Coll., Schnecksville, PA.

369

Mathematical Optimization  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Some of the most fundamental problems in engineering, science, and mathematics would take the most powerful computer in the world several lifetimes to find an optimal solution. However, near-optimal solutions to many of these problems have been discovered thanks to various methods of mathematical optimization. This Topic in Depth looks at some optimization techniques and the areas to which they have been applied.Argonne National Laboratory hosts an online guide (1) to some of the most well known optimization problems and algorithms. People who are new to the subject can find a wealth of introductory material in the Optimization Tree section, and several applications are illustrated with interactive demonstrations in the Case Studies section. Optimization has roots in operations research, and this tutorial (2) covers many topics within OR. A fun applet requires the user to place as many queens on a chess board as possible without any two being in direct line-of-sight, and an accompanying discussion shows how linear programming can be used to solve this problem; this is one of many resources contained within the tutorial. Two chemical engineering professors at Carnegie Mellon University are the authors of Retrospective on Optimization (3), a fairly comprehensive paper chronicling the history of optimization problems and the development of solution methods. The 51-page document is divided into two main parts; the first outlines some of the most significant advances in the field, and the second looks ahead toward key areas of research needed to evolve optimization further. Highway planning and development is the focus of this paper (4), which proposes using, among other things, genetic algorithms to optimize highway alignment. The authors state that this technique could be used to avoid delays and added costs due to changing plans later in the construction process. Another use of genetic algorithms in optimization is highlighted in this document from the German Aerospace Center (5). The document describes how a novel method for robot design, which involves formulating mathematical representations of robotic constraints and kinematics. These figures can then be used as parameters in a genetic algorithm that would optimize component placement while maintaining the desired functionality. A joint effort between architecture and mechanical engineering researchers at the University of Michigan (6) applied geometrical and topological optimization techniques to building floorplan layout. In the course of their research, they developed an optimization tool that is briefly described and can be downloaded from a Web site given in the paper. The Mathematical Programming Glossary (7) contains short discussions of hundreds of terms related to optimization theory. Each entry includes a clear definition and hyperlinks to other terms, and some of the entries are accompanied by a more in-depth supplement. One of the best sources for current research papers and reports is Optimization Online (8). This repository receives numerous submissions each month, and papers can be browsed by data added or category.

Leske, Cavin.

370

School Gardens: An Experiential Learning Approach for a Nutrition Education Program to Increase Fruit and Vegetable Knowledge, Preference, and Consumption among Second-Grade Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To examine the effects of a school garden on children's fruit and vegetable knowledge, preference, and consumption. Design: Self-report questionnaires, interview-style taste and rate items, lunchroom observations. Setting: An elementary school. Participants: Second-grade students (n = 115). Intervention: Participants were assigned to…

Parmer, Sondra M.; Salisbury-Glennon, Jill; Shannon, David; Struempler, Barbara

2009-01-01

371

Impact of TI MathForward on Mathematics Achievement for General Mathematics and Algebra I Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At Richardson Independent School District (RISD), 7th and 8th grade students who used TI MathForward achieved higher scores on the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) Mathematics than similar 7th and 8th grade students who used other mathematics programs during previous years. This study found evidence that the strongest application of…

Empirical Education Inc., 2009

2009-01-01

372

Mathematical Modelling: A Path to Political Reflection in the Mathematics Class  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes the construction of pedagogical environments in mathematics classes, centred on mathematical modelling and denominated "investigative scenarios", which stimulate students to investigation, to formulation of problems and to political reflection, as well as the sharing of acquired knowledge with other persons in the community.…

Jacobini, Otavio Roberto; Wodewotzki, Maria Lucia L.

2006-01-01

373

The Effects of Modern Mathematics Computer Games on Mathematics Achievement and Class Motivation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the effects of a computer game on students' mathematics achievement and motivation, and the role of prior mathematics knowledge, computer skill, and English language skill on their achievement and motivation as they played the game. A total of 193 students and 10 teachers participated in this study. The teachers were randomly…

Kebritchi, Mansureh; Hirumi, Atsusi; Bai, Haiyan

2010-01-01

374

The Distribution of Pedagogical Content Knowledge in Cambodia: Gaps and Thresholds in Math Achievement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Increasing teacher quality is a major objective of recent Cambodian education policy. In mathematics education literature, pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) has emerged as a critical component of teacher quality that is strongly linked to student achievement. In this study I use data from a large survey of Cambodian schools to investigate the…

Ngo, Federick J.

2013-01-01

375

CO-CONSTRUCTING ARTEFACTS AND KNOWLEDGE IN NET BASED TEAMS: IMPLICATIONS FOR THE DESIGN OF COLLABORATIVE LEARNING ENVIRONMENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computer-based learning environments for science and mathematics education support predominantly individual learning; from first generation drill and practice programs to today's advanced, knowledge-based tutorial systems, one learner interacting with one computer has been the typical setting. Mathematics educators, however, increasingly appreciate the value of collaborative learning and include team-learning activities in their lessons. In this presentation, drawing on our research

Peter Reimann

376

Mathematical Modeling Using Maple.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The area of higher mathematics begins with successive courses in calculus; however, rarely does the calculus student recognize the applications or impetus for the mathematical skills that are taught. Giordano and Weir produced A First Course in Mathematic...

R. E. Beauchamp

1996-01-01

377

Knowledge Discovery Using Genetic Programming.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Dramatic growth in database technology has outpaced the ability to analyze the information stored in databases for new knowledge and has created an increasing potential for the loss of undiscovered knowledge. The potential gains for such knowledge discove...

M. A. Al-Mahmood S. L. Smith

1993-01-01

378

Mathematical Language and Advanced Mathematics Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is concerned with the role of language in mathematics learning at college level. Its main aim is to provide a perspective on mathematical language appropriate to effectively interpret students' linguistic behaviors in mathematics and to suggest new teaching ideas. Examples are given to show that the explanation of students' behaviors…

Ferrari, Pier Luigi

2004-01-01

379

MathNEXUS: Mathematics Portal  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection of mathematics resources and project activities, produced by a partnership between Western Washington University, Skagit Valley College, Whatcom Community College, and adjacent school districts, spans K-14 education levels and showcases innovative ideas in math pegadogy as well as a range of learning material for students. The partnership is dedicated to increasing mathematics achievement levels for all students and narrowing differences between diverse student populations.

2006-09-24

380

Knowledge Management.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The first of the four papers in this symposium, "Knowledge Management and Knowledge Dissemination" (Wim J. Nijhof), presents two case studies exploring the strategies companies use in sharing and disseminating knowledge and expertise among employees. "A Theory of Knowledge Management" (Richard J. Torraco), develops a conceptual framework for…

1999

381

Unequal Knowledge.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses how the persistence of knowledge inequalities influences higher education. Explores how the control of and access to knowledge affects human well being (i.e., control over production of knowledge, control over its distribution, and access to knowledge by people whose well being it will or could affect). (EV)

Tilly, Charles

2003-01-01

382

The Mathematical Competencies of Toddlers Expressed in Their Play and Daily Life Activities in Norwegian Kindergartens  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research on toddlers' mathematical knowledge is sparse. Studies on children's mathematical competencies before school age have mostly focused on older children. Few of the previous studies have included large groups of toddlers, few have been conducted in natural settings, and few have been directed at a broad field of mathematical knowledge. The…

Reikeras, Elin; Loge, Inger Kristine; Knivsberg, Ann-Mari

2012-01-01

383

Early Mathematics Assessment: Validation of the Short Form of a Prekindergarten and Kindergarten Mathematics Measure  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In recent years, there has been increased interest in improving early mathematics curricula and instruction. Subsequently, there has also been a rise in demand for better early mathematics assessments, as most current measures are limited in their content and/or their sensitivity to detect differences in early mathematics development among young…

Weiland, Christina; Wolfe, Christopher B.; Hurwitz, Michael D.; Clements, Douglas H.; Sarama, Julie H.; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu

2012-01-01

384

Supporting English Language Learners' Development of Mathematical Literacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an increasingly technological economy, in order to participate, individuals have to be mathematically literate, which means they must have opportunities to learn mathematics. However, access to mathematics has not always been universal. Traditionally, mathematics classrooms have been places where only a small, select group of individuals, who…

Roberts, Sarah A.

2009-01-01

385

Research on computer technology for undergraduates in mathematics education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent developments in computer technology are providing support for undergraduates mathematics teaching with a new learning environment. This paper presents an approach on teaching mathematics in computer environments. The role of computers in mathematics teaching has increased due to the importance of visualization in mathematics teaching. These developments make the accessing of structured information sources much easier. The wide range

Dong Chen; Wenjing Jia; Haiju Wang

2009-01-01

386

The Impact of Storybooks on Kindergarten Children's Mathematical Achievement and Approaches to Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents a mixed methods study that explored how storybooks influence kindergarten children's mathematical achievement and approaches to mathematics learning. Teachers' observations and research stating primary grade children's lack of mathematical knowledge and negative attitudes towards mathematics served as the impetus for the study.…

Keat, Jane B.; Wilburne, Jane M.

2009-01-01

387

An Algebra Content Upgrading Course for In-Service Mathematics Teacher: A Singapore Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes a content upgrading course on Secondary School Algebra which was planned and conducted for in-service mathematics teachers who are trained to teach mathematics at lower secondary level (ages 13 to 14). In order to be an effective mathematics teacher, one needs to know a great deal of mathematical knowledge on top of good…

Toh, Tin-Lam

2007-01-01

388

A Study of Mathematics Infusion in Middle School Technology Education Classes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study examined the impact of introducing a mathematics infused engineering/technology education (ETE) curriculum on students' mathematics content knowledge and attitudes toward mathematics. The purpose of the present study was to: (a) compare the effects of a mathematics infused ETE curriculum and a control curriculum on student…

Burghardt, M. David; Hecht, Deborah; Russo, Maria; Lauckhardt, James; Hacker, Michael

2010-01-01

389

Interest in mathematics and science among students having high mathematics aptitude  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study investigates why men and women differ in their interest in mathematics and science and in the pursuit of careers in mathematics and science. The most persistent gender differential in educational standard testing is the scores in mathematics achievement. The mean Scholastic Aptitude Test (Mathematics) scores for women are consistently below that of men by about 40 points. One result of this gender differential in mathematics is that few women entertain a career requiring a robust knowledge of higher mathematics (i.e. engineering, computing, or the physical sciences). A large body of literature has been written attempting to explain why this is happening. Biological, cultural, structural and psychological explanations have been suggested and empirically examined. Controlling for mathematical ability is one method of sorting out these explanations. Eliminating mathematical ability as a factor, this dissertation reports the results of a study of men and women college students who all had high mathematics ability. Thus, any differences we found among them would have to be a result of other variables. Using a Mathematics Placement Exam and the SAT-M, forty-two students (12 males and 30 females) with high scores in both were interviewed. Student were asked about their experiences in high school and college mathematics, their career choices, and their attitudes toward mathematics. The findings, that there were no gender differences in the course selection, attitudes towards mathematics, and career choice, differed from my initial expectations. This negative finding suggests that women with high ability in mathematics are just as likely as men to pursue interests in mathematics and related courses in college and in selecting careers.

Ely, Jane Alice

390

Protocol of a cluster randomized trial of an educational intervention to increase knowledge of living donor kidney transplant among potential transplant candidates  

PubMed Central

Background The best treatment option for end-stage renal disease is usually a transplant, preferably a live donor kidney transplant (LDKT). The most effective ways to educate kidney transplant candidates about the risks, benefits, and process of LDKT remain unknown. Methods/design We report the protocol of the Enhancing Living Donor Kidney Transplant Education (ELITE) Study, a cluster randomized trial of an educational intervention to be implemented during initial transplant evaluation at a large, suburban U.S. transplant center. Five hundred potential transplant candidates are cluster randomized (by date of visit) to receive either: (1) standard-of-care (“usual”) transplant education, or (2) intensive education that is based upon the Explore Transplant series of educational materials. Intensive transplant education includes viewing an educational video about LDKT, receiving print education, and meeting with a transplant educator. The primary outcome consists of knowledge of the benefits, risks, and process of LDKT, assessed one week after the transplant evaluation. As a secondary outcome, knowledge and understanding of LDKT are assessed 3 months after the evaluation. Additional secondary outcomes, assessed one week and 3 months after the evaluation, include readiness, self-efficacy, and decisional balance regarding transplant and LDKT, with differences assessed by race. Although the unit of randomization is the date of the transplant evaluation visit, the unit of analysis will be the individual potential transplant candidate. Discussion The ELITE Study will help to determine how education in a transplant center can best be designed to help Black and non-Black patients learn about the option of LDKT. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov number NCT01261910

2013-01-01

391

Twenty Questions about Mathematical Reasoning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper poses and answers 20 questions about mathematical reasoning. Questions include: (1) Is mathematical reasoning mathematical? (2) Is mathematical reasoning useful? (3) Is mathematical reasoning an appropriate goal of school mathematics? (4) Can teachers teach mathematical reasoning? (5) Can mathematical reasoning be taught? (6) Do skills…

Steen, Lynn Arthur

392

Computer Mathematics: An Introduction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document describes a mathematics course that uses the computer to solve mathematics problems. It was developed to be used with students who have completed at least one year of general mathematics or are not achieving success in the traditional mathematics program. The course is intended to review, reinforce, and extend concepts included in…

New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Div. of Curriculum and Instruction.

393

Functioning Mathematically: 1  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents the first part of the closing address given by the author to the 2007 Association of Teachers of Mathematics (ATM) Easter conference at Loughborough. In his closing address, the author focuses on functioning mathematically as opposed to functional mathematics. His view of functional mathematics is that the focus is on someone…

Cain, David

2007-01-01

394

Transforming Primary Mathematics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What is good mathematics teaching? What is mathematics teaching good for? Who is mathematics teaching for? These are just some of the questions addressed in "Transforming Primary Mathematics", a highly timely new resource for teachers which accessibly sets out the key theories and latest research in primary maths today. Under-pinned by findings…

Askew, Mike

2011-01-01

395

Schools, Mathematics and Work.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book illustrates the wide range of issues that should affect any consideration of the relationship between mathematics education and the use of mathematics for practical and work purposes. The concept of ethnomathematics is discussed, and biases, including those of gender, in the content of mathematics and mathematics education are exposed.…

Harris, Mary, Ed.

396

Mathematics "Is" Motivating  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mathematics is motivating; at least, it should be. I argue that mathematical activity is an inherently attractive enterprise for human beings because as intellectual organisms, we are naturally enticed by the intellectual stimulation of mathematizing, and, as social beings, we are drawn to the socializing aspects of mathematical activity. These…

Ricks, Thomas E.

2010-01-01

397

Teaching Undergraduate Mathematics on the Internet  

Microsoft Academic Search

The world wide web is becoming wider at an increasing rate. It is virtually impossible to take any kind of accurate snapshot of the state of its development. Undergraduate mathematics courses presented on the internet are relative newcomers to the race but nevertheless seem to be increasing in numbers also at a phenomenal rate. Internet education in mathematics is developing

Johann Engelbrecht; Ansie Harding

2005-01-01

398

Nation's Report Card: Mathematics, 2007. National Assessment of Educational Progress at Grades 4 and 8.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 2007 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) evaluated students understanding of mathematics concepts and their ability to apply mathematics to everyday situations. Students demonstrated their knowledge of these critical skills by respondin...

2007-01-01

399

Young Children Use Graphs to Build Mathematical Reasoning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mathematical, scientific, and technological knowledge is critical for people in a 21st Century world that is dependent upon a global interconnectedness and a knowledge-based economy. This is the kind of knowledge that will power innovations and drive decision making in the years ahead. Schools are therefore being called upon to devise a…

Larson, Mark J.; Whitin, David J.

2010-01-01

400

Theory and Practice: Implications for Mathematics Teacher Education Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reviews current trends in the training of teachers, particularly in the areas of content knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge, pedagogical reasoning, training, and beliefs. Content knowledge consists of the key facts, concepts, principles, and explanatory framework in the discipline, in this case mathematics. Pedagogical content…

Manouchehri, Azita

401

Knowledge Acquisition, Knowledge Programming, and Knowledge Refinement.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the principal findings and recommendations of a 2-year Rand research project on machine-aided knowledge acquisition and discusses the transfer of expertise from humans to machines, as well as the functions of planning, debugging, kno...

F. Hayes-Roth

1980-01-01

402

Significant Increase in Factual Knowledge with Web-Assisted Problem-Based Learning as Part of an Undergraduate Cardio-Respiratory Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In recent years, increasing attention has been paid to web-based learning although the advantages of computer-aided instruction over traditional teaching formats still need to be confirmed. This study examined whether participation in an online module on the differential diagnosis of dyspnoea impacts on student performance in a multiple choice…

Raupach, T.; Munscher, C.; Pukrop, T.; Anders, S.; Harendza, S.

2010-01-01

403

Knowledge Management  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The emergence of rapidly expanding technologies for distribution and dissemination of information and knowledge has brought to focus the opportunities for development of knowledge-based networks, knowledge dissemination and knowledge management technologies and their potential applications for enhancing productivity of knowledge work. The challenging and complex problems of the future can be best addressed by developing the knowledge management as a new discipline based on an integrative synthesis of hard and soft sciences. A knowledge management professional society can provide a framework for catalyzing the development of proposed synthesis as well as serve as a focal point for coordination of professional activities in the strategic areas of education, research and technology development. Preliminary concepts for the development of the knowledge management discipline and the professional society are explored. Within this context of knowledge management discipline and the professional society, potential opportunities for application of information technologies for more effectively delivering or transferring information and knowledge (i.e., resulting from the NASA's Mission to Planet Earth) for the development of policy options in critical areas of national and global importance (i.e., policy decisions in economic and environmental areas) can be explored, particularly for those policy areas where a global collaborative knowledge network is likely to be critical to the acceptance of the policies.

Shariq, Syed Z.; Kutler, Paul (Technical Monitor)

1997-01-01

404

Patterns of Strengths and Weaknesses in Children's Knowledge about Fractions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to explore individual patterns of strengths and weaknesses in children's mathematical knowledge about common fractions. Tasks that primarily measure either conceptual or procedural aspects of mathematical knowledge were assessed with the same children in their fourth- and fifth-grade years (N = 181, 56% female and 44%…

Hecht, Steven A.; Vagi, Kevin J.

2012-01-01

405

Mathematical learning disability in girls with Turner syndrome: a challenge to defining MLD and its subtypes.  

PubMed

Turner syndrome is a common disorder with a prevalence of 1:2,500 live female births. Although not associated with mental retardation, there is an increased risk of learning difficulties in this population. In particular, mathematical learning difficulties among girls with Turner syndrome are prevalent, significant, and persistent. As such, the study of mathematical performance in girls with Turner syndrome presents opportunities to advance our knowledge of mathematics ability, disability, and disability subtypes. Moreover, the Turner syndrome phenotype illustrates the challenges faced when defining mathematical learning disability (MLD) and characterizing MLD subtypes because the cognitive phenotype is aligned with several proposed MLD subtypes. There is some evidence linking MLD in Turner syndrome with spatial deficits, with executive dysfunction, and with deficient numerosity skills. Yet there is also conflicting evidence as to whether any of these explanations underlies MLD in Turner syndrome. Most mathematical difficulties in girls with Turner syndrome, as a group, occur on timed tests or on complex problems. On untimed tests, achievement test scores may be age appropriate. Therefore, the inclusion of MLD in the Turner syndrome cognitive phenotype reminds us that we cannot rule out MLD solely on the basis of performance on an untimed calculations subtest, and it poses a challenge to the widespread practice in which many researchers engage, that is, defining MLD on the basis of broad mathematics achievement test outcomes. PMID:19213015

Mazzocco, Michèle M M

2009-01-01

406

Report: Mathematics and Science  

NSF Publications Database

Donald J. Lewis Director (1995-1999) Division of Mathematical Science National Science Foundation Mathematics and Science Contents...............................................................2 Overview...............................................................3 Themes.................................................................3 Modeling...............................................................3 Complexity and Size....................................................4 ...

407

Applied Mathematics and Statistics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author considers the possibility of developing a more general applied mathematics which would be based on the ways in which all sciences use mathematics for measuring and describing natural and social phenomena. (Author/MN)

Conway, Freda

1978-01-01

408

Mathematical and statistical analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goal of the mathematical and statistical analysis component of RICIS is to research, develop, and evaluate mathematical and statistical techniques for aerospace technology applications. Specific research areas of interest include modeling, simulation, experiment design, reliability assessment, and numerical analysis.

Houston, A. Glen

1988-01-01

409

Encouraging Thinking in Mathematics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Too many approaches to mathematics instruction at the elementary level focus only on the production of correct answers rather than on the development of mathematical thinking skills. Author urges encouragement of children's own thought processes. (Author/PGD)

Kamii, Constance

1982-01-01

410

A staff intervention targeting resident-to-resident elder mistreatment (R-REM) in long-term care increased staff knowledge, recognition and reporting: Results from a cluster randomized trial  

PubMed Central

Background Elder abuse in long term care has received considerable attention; however, resident-to-resident elder mistreatment (R-REM) has not been well researched. Preliminary findings from studies of R-REM suggest that it is sufficiently widespread to merit concern, and is likely to have serious detrimental outcomes for residents. However, no evidence-based training, intervention and implementation strategies exist that address this issue. Objectives The objective was to evaluate the impact of a newly developed R-REM training intervention for nursing staff on knowledge, recognition and reporting of R-REM. Design The design was a prospective cluster randomized trial with randomization at the unit level. Methods A sample of 1405 residents (685 in the control and 720 in the intervention group) from 47 New York City nursing home units (23 experimental and 24 control) in 5 nursing homes was assessed. Data were collected at three waves: baseline, 6 and 12 months. Staff on the experimental units received the training and implementation protocols, while those on the comparison units did not. Evaluation of outcomes was conducted on an intent-to-treat basis using mixed (random and fixed effects) models for continuous knowledge variables and Poisson regressions for longitudinal count data measuring recognition and reporting. Results There was a significant increase in knowledge post-training, controlling for pre-training levels for the intervention group (p<0.001), significantly increased recognition of R-REM (p<0.001), and longitudinal reporting in the intervention as contrasted with the control group (p=0.0058). Conclusions A longitudinal evaluation demonstrated that the training intervention was effective in enhancing knowledge, recognition and reporting of R-REM. It is recommended that this training program be implemented in long term care facilities.

Teresi, Jeanne A.; Ramirez, Mildred; Ellis, Julie; Silver, Stephanie; Boratgis, Gabriel; Kong, Jian; Eimicke, Joseph P.; Pillemer, Karl A.; Lachs, Mark S.

2013-01-01

411

Mathematics Gateways and Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Mathematics Gateways and Resources collection is comprised of mathematics-related web portals, web sites, and individual digital resources in many areas of the discipline, including algebra, applied math, arithmetic, calculus, functions, geometry, measurement, number sense, probability and statistics, and others. Here may be found materials for mathematics educators and learners (early childhood through graduate school), resources intended for the general public, and materials aimed at mathematics research communities.

2008-03-14

412

Awareness of Pattern and Structure in Early Mathematical Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent educational research has turned increasing attention to the structural development of young students' mathematical thinking. Early algebra, multiplicative reasoning, and spatial structuring are three areas central to this research. There is increasing evidence that an awareness of mathematical structure is crucial to mathematical competence…

Mulligan, Joanne; Mitchelmore, Michael

2009-01-01

413

Some techniques for building mathematical intelligent tutoring systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some techniques that are useful in building intelligent tutoring systems for mathematics are described. These techniques have been implemented in Integration-Kid, an intelligent tutoring system for integral calculus. Its production system is a language which helps the problem-solver to interact with students. For the mathematical problem-solver, we have adopted term-rewriting rules which represent basic mathematical knowledge. The situation map is

Tak-Wai Chan

1991-01-01

414

The Classical Structure of Blood Biochemistry-a Mathematical Model.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The mathematical simulation of human blood biochemistry includes the results of detailed chemical analysis of human blood under a variety of chemical stresses. Mathematical simulations of increasing degrees of complexity are developed. A rudimentary blood...

E. C. DeLand

1966-01-01

415

Mathematics in Geography: Conceptual Revolution or New Tool?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses the increasing use and importance of mathematics in geography. The need for geographers to acquire a greater facility with mathematics is stressed. For address of journal see SO 504 028. (Author/RM)

Gould, Peter

1975-01-01

416

Making Mathematics Culturally Relevant.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines three strands of elementary mathematics--numerals and counting, recording and calculating, and mathematics exploration and play--and provides ways to integrate culture and mathematics experiences in each area. Specific topics include Egyptian methods for multiplication, the abacus, and the words for the numbers 1-10 in seven different…

Moyer, Patricia

2001-01-01

417

Mathematical Creativity in Schoolchildren.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A mixed-ability sample of 280 11- and 12-year-olds was used to investigate mathematical creativity and identify characteristics typical of pupils with mathematical creativity. Hypotheses concerned with overcoming fixations and divergent production were clearly supported only for the highest attaining group. Mathematically creative students…

Haylock, Derek W.

1987-01-01

418

Rural Mathematics Educator, 2002.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains the two issues of "Rural Mathematics Educator" published in 2002. This newsletter of the Appalachian Collaborative Center for Learning, Assessment, and Instruction in Mathematics (ACCLAIM) includes articles on rural mathematics education, as well as information and descriptions of professional development opportunities for…

Rural Mathematics Educator, 2002

2002-01-01

419

Students' Attitude Towards Mathematics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students' success in mathematics depends upon attitude towards mathematics. It also influences the participation rate of learners. This study was based on a survey of high school students about their attitudes towards mathematics. Students of both the gender constitute the population of this study. Sample of the study was 685 students (male = 379…

Farooq, Muhammad Shahid; Shah, Syed Zia Ullah

2008-01-01

420

A "Mathematics Background Check"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Early in my career someone else reported that the best indicator of success in calculus-based physics (CBP) at our school was whether students had taken mathematics in a certain region of New Brunswick. I sat down with a very longtime mathematics teacher and asked him what he thought students should know in mathematics after high school to succeed…

Hubisz, John

2009-01-01

421

Making Mathematics Phenomenal  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mathematics is often portrayed as an "abstract" cerebral subject, beyond the reach of many. In response, research with digital technology has led to innovative design in which mathematics can be experienced much like everyday phenomena. This lecture examines how careful design can "phenomenalise" mathematics and support not only engagement but…

Pratt, Dave

2012-01-01

422

Teaching for Learning Mathematics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book explores the factors that influence young people's learning of mathematics. It uses a holistic, socio-culturally informed approach to show how all young people can be encouraged to engage with and learn mathematics. Rich examples from classroom practice are used to connect theory and practice. The role of mathematical tools, including…

Sutherland, Ros

2006-01-01

423

Applying Mathematical Processes (AMP)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article provides insights into the "Applying Mathematical Processes" resources, developed by the Nuffield Foundation. It features Nuffield AMP activities--and related ones from Bowland Maths--that were designed to support the teaching and assessment of key processes in mathematics--representing a situation mathematically, analysing,…

Kathotia, Vinay

2011-01-01

424

Equity and mathematics education  

Microsoft Academic Search

This special edition arose from two mathematics education forums working with ideas of equity, inclusion, and diversity—the Social Justice Special Interest Group at MERGA and the Equity Topic Group at ICME. Both forums recognise the important role that mathematics plays in school and life beyond school but in so doing, also saw important to the work of mathematics educators, that

Robyn Zevenbergen; Luis Ortiz-Franco

2002-01-01

425

Eleventh Year Mathematics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This outline for Eleventh Year Mathematics in New York adheres closely to the recommendations of The Commission of Mathematics of the College Entrance Examination Board and thus presents a unified development of certain aspects of algebra, trigonometry, and analytic geometry. Its aim is both as a terminal course in mathematics and as a solid…

Buchman, Aaron; Zimmerman, Robert

426

Revisiting Mathematics Manipulative Materials  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is over 12 years since "APMC" published Bob Perry and Peter Howard's research on the use of mathematics manipulative materials in primary mathematics classrooms. Since then the availability of virtual manipulatives and associated access to computers and interactive whiteboards have caused educators to rethink the use of mathematics manipulative…

Swan, Paul; Marshall, Linda

2010-01-01

427

Mathematics and Comprehensive Ideals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article revisits methods and debates about teaching mathematics that were common in the 1980s and early 1990s, and then moves up to date with the findings from three mathematics departments that set out to make a difference for their lowest attaining students. The methods they used were distinctly focused on core mathematical ideas, and how…

Watson, Anne

2011-01-01

428

Mathematics and Sports  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Mathematics and Sports", edited by Joseph A. Gallian, gathers 25 articles that illuminate the power and role of mathematics in the worlds of professional and recreational play. Divided into sections by the kind of sports, the book offers source materials for classroom use and student projects. Readers will encounter mathematical ideas from an…

Gallian, Joseph A., Ed.

2010-01-01

429

Teaching Mathematics for Delight  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mathematics teachers so often fail to delight pupils and neglect to introduce their pupils to the universality of the subject. Furthermore, the aspect of applied mathematics is ignored. Most important, possibly, is the aspect of creative exploration which so seldom enters into classroom mathematics. The writer suggests that reading maths books, engaging in dialogue about problems and extending teachers' expertise

Keith Selkirk

1987-01-01

430

Mathematics Through Problem Solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article describes what it means to teach mathematics using a problem solving approach and goes on to explain why teaching via problem solving is important in the development of a studentâs mathematical thinking. Problem solving is presented as a way to be able to address three of the values of mathematics: functional, logical and aesthetic.

Taplin, Margaret

2011-01-01

431

American Mathematical Society Journals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A list of mathematics journals with articles on the Web and a list of Web sites for printed journals, with tables of contents of issues, abstracts of papers, actual papers, information about submissions and subscriptions, etc. See also the Annual Listing of New Journals in Mathematics file, which notes newly established journals devoted to papers in mathematics, organized by year.

2008-06-04

432

Mathematics and history  

Microsoft Academic Search

I begin with a caricature---indeed, a travesty--of the typical history of mathematics textbook. This caricature will draw attention to some of the philosophical presuppositions which often underlie these books. I shall then discuss alternatives to these presuppositions. Mathematics epitomises Reason. It began in Egypt and Mesopotamia. However, it really began in Greece, because that is where pure mathematics began, and

W. S. Anglin

1992-01-01

433

Applied mathematical problem solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

A case is presented for the importance of focusing on (1) average ability students, (2) substantive mathematical content, (3) real problems, and (4) realistic settings and solution procedures for research in problem solving. It is suggested that effective instructional techniques for teaching applied mathematical problem solving resembles “mathematical laboratory” activities, done in small group problem solving settings.

Richard Lesh

1981-01-01

434

Writing in mathematics education  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are at least two roles that writing plays in mathematics education: writing about mathematics and writing to learn mathematics. We present our undergraduate classroom experiences in teaching students how to write and how to use writing as a learning tool.

Minja K. Paik; Eugene M. Norris

1984-01-01

435

Designing Online Mathematical Investigation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper we focus on interactive visualizations that support mathematical investigation. In the context of analyzing and redesigning an interactive visualization from the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics's (NCTM's) Illuminations Web site, we consider two interrelated issues: (1) how the pedagogy of mathematical investigation may be…

Gadanidis, George; Sedig, Kamran; Liang, Hai-Ning

2004-01-01

436

Mathenger Hunt: Mathematics Matters.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented is an activity which shows how mathematics is used in real life and helps to establish a need for mathematics in students' futures. Adapted from a scavenger-hunt idea, this activity helps students to discover that almost every career makes use of mathematics. (KR)

Falba, Christy J.; Weiss, Maria J.

1991-01-01

437

Reading, Mathematics, and Thought.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mathematics has its own unique vocabulary as well as words which cut across all academic disciplines. It also has abstract symbols which belong to mathematics solely. Words and symbols need to be read meaningfully by students. Along with reading, mathematics teaching stresses the use of a variety of learning opportunities to guide students to…

Ediger, Marlow

438

Could it be asthma? Using social marketing strategies to increase parent and caregiver knowledge of asthma symptoms in children in a rural community.  

PubMed

Many parents and caregivers do not recognize the symptoms of asthma in children, and consequently children may not receive the appropriate diagnosis and treatment for this potentially fatal disease. This article describes how Steps to a HealthierNY used social marketing strategies to design a media campaign called "Could It Be Asthma?" to educate parents and caregivers about the symptoms of asthma. The campaign used television advertising, brochures, and posters to educate parents and caregivers in rural Jefferson County, New York, about asthma symptoms. The campaign ran in March and April 2005. A follow-up survey was conducted among 756 parents and caregivers in collaboration with four local pediatricians' offices. Results showed that approximately 60% of participants were familiar with "Could It Be Asthma?" Of those participants, approximately 68% indicated that the ads had a positive impact and 46% indicated that they had learned the symptoms of asthma. The campaign and survey were repeated in the fall of 2005. Results were consistent, with a significant increase in the percentage of people who were familiar with the campaign. This social marketing campaign was successful in reaching parents in a rural community with important educational messages; similar strategies should be considered in educating the public about asthma and other health issues. PMID:19864498

Briones, Kristi; Lustik, Faith; LaLone, Joel

2010-11-01

439

Mathematics Support: Real, Virtual and Mobile  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As a response to the "Mathematics Problem" many universities introduced mathematics support provision. These additional learning opportunities were invariably in a specific physical location and available at certain times. In order to increase the number and types of students who could access support e-learning resources were made available using…

Lawson, Duncan A.; Carpenter, Sarah L.; Croft, Anthony C.

2008-01-01

440

Assessing Students' Conceptions of Reform Mathematics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As the use of National Science Foundation (NSF)-sponsored, reform- oriented mathematics curricula has become more prevalent across the U.S., an increasing number of researchers are attempting to study the "impact" of reform. In particular, mathematics educators are interested in determining whether reforms are having the desired effects on…

Star, Jon R.; Hoffmann, Amanda J.

441

Mathematical Theory of Peer-Instruction Dynamics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A mathematical theory of peer instruction describing the increase of the normalized number of correct answers due to peer discussion is presented. A simple analytic expression is derived which agrees with class data. It is shown that our theory is connected to the mathematical learning models proposed by Pritchard et al. It is also shown that…

Nitta, Hideo

2010-01-01

442

Transition Mathematics. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Transition Mathematics" aims to increase 7th- through 12th-grade students' skills in applied arithmetic, pre-algebra, and pre-geometry. This one-year curriculum also addresses general application to different wordings of problems, types of numbers, and contexts for problems and aims to promote mathematical reading skills. The curriculum uses the…

What Works Clearinghouse, 2007

2007-01-01

443

Mathematical Thinking: Studying the Notion of "Transfer".  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These analyses form part of a three-year project looking at mathematical thinking as a socially organized activity. We revisit data from a University Calculus class using tools from two theoretical perspectives, used increasingly in mathematics education research: (1) semiotic mediation; and (2) discursive practices. We highlight how different…

Carreira, Susana; Evans, Jeff; Lerman, Steve; Morgan, Candia

444

Response to Intervention in Mathematics: Critical Elements  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While implementation efforts using a Response to Intervention (RtI) model to increase reading instruction are becoming widely used, more administrators and teachers are looking to learn effective RtI practices to support learning in mathematics. This article explores some of the key elements of RtI practices in mathematics, including screening for…

Lembke, Erica S.; Hampton, David; Beyers, Sarah J.

2012-01-01

445

Connecting Reading and Mathematical Strategies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent years have witnessed a growing interest in interdisciplinary teaching and learning in the elementary grades. Teachers are increasingly looking for ways to help their students integrate literacy instruction with content area learning. This article highlights some of the similarities between reading comprehension and mathematical

Halladay, Juliet L.; Neumann, Maureen D.

2012-01-01

446

Reflective Field Experiences for Success in Teaching Elementary Mathematics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, the author discusses the major components of a junior level pedagogy course for elementary education majors learning to teach mathematics. The course reviews content and knowledge of the teacher candidates and introduces methods and materials for teaching elementary mathematics using the Standards or benchmarks from the National…

Robards, Shirley N.

2009-01-01

447

Visual Modeling as a Motivation for Studying Mathematics and Art  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper deals with the possibility of enriching the curriculum in mathematics, informatics and art by means of visual modeling of abstract paintings. The authors share their belief that in building a computer model of a construct, one gains deeper insight into the construct, and is motivated to elaborate one's knowledge in mathematics and…

Sendova, Evgenia; Grkovska, Slavica

2005-01-01

448

Extending Students' Mathematical Thinking during Whole-Group Discussions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studies show that extending students' mathematical thinking during whole-group discussions is a challenging undertaking. To better understand what extending student thinking looks like and how teachers' mathematical knowledge for teaching (MKT) supports teachers in their efforts to extend student thinking, the teaching of six experienced…

Cengiz, Nesrin; Kline, Kate; Grant, Theresa J.

2011-01-01

449

The Technological Mediation of Mathematics and Its Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the extent to which mathematical knowledge, and its related pedagogy, is inextricably linked to the tools--physical, virtual, cultural--in which it is expressed. Our goal is to focus on a few exemplars of computational tools, and to describe with some illustrative examples, how mathematical meanings are shaped by their use. We…

Hoyles, Celia; Noss, Richard

2009-01-01

450

Assessing the Potential of Mathematics Textbooks to Promote Deep Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Curriculum documents for mathematics emphasise the importance of promoting depth of knowledge rather than shallow coverage of the curriculum. In this paper, we report on a study that explored the analysis of junior secondary mathematics textbooks to assess their potential to assist in teaching and learning aimed at building and applying deep…

Shield, Malcolm; Dole, Shelley

2013-01-01

451

Professional Vision: Elementary School Principals' Perceptions of Mathematics Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explored 78 elementary school principals' perceptions of classroom mathematics instruction in an effort to build understanding of the professional vision (Goodwin, 1994) of elementary school principals as it relates to mathematics instruction. This study also tested the theory of Leadership Content Knowledge (Stein & Nelson, 2003) which…

Schoen, Robert C.

2010-01-01

452

Using Manipulatives in Mathematical Problem Solving: A Performance Based Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores problem solving in elementary classrooms while focusing on how children use (perform tasks) manipulatives and\\/or tools in problem solving while working on mathematical tasks. Ways for teachers to assess children's learning through performance-based tool (manipulative) use will also be examined and suggested. Current research reveals that teachers need to teach and assess children's mathematical knowledge in ways

Catherine A. Kelly

2006-01-01

453

The Roles of the Aesthetic in Mathematical Inquiry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mathematicians have long claimed that the aesthetic plays a fundamental role in the development and appreciation of mathematical knowledge. To date, however, it has been unclear how the aesthetic might contribute to the teaching and learning of school mathematics. This is due in part to the fact that mathematicians' aesthetic claims have been…

Sinclair, Nathalie

2004-01-01

454

Mathematical and Scientific Literacy around the World  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

PISA, the OECD's international program of assessment of reading, scientific and mathematical literacy, aims to assess the knowledge and skills that students have acquired at school and their ability to use them in everyday tasks and challenges. It also uses questionnaires to gather data on students' attitudes to learning and the conditions of…

Stacey, Kaye

2010-01-01

455

Analyzing Mathematical Tasks: A Catalyst for Change?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study we investigate a strategy for engaging high school mathematics teachers in an "initial" examination of their teaching in a way that is nonthreatening and at the same time effectively supports the development of teachers' pedagogical content knowledge [Shulman (1986). "Educational Researcher," 15(2), 4-14]. Based on the work…

Arbaugh, Fran; Brown, Catherine A.

2005-01-01

456

Handbook of International Research in Mathematics Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This handbook brings together important mathematics education research that makes a difference in both theory and practice, research that anticipates problems and necessary knowledge before they become impediments to progress, interprets future-oriented problems into researchable issues, presents the implications of research and theory development…

English, Lyn D., Ed.

457

Understanding the Problems of Learning Mathematics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A model is being developed to categorize problems in teaching and learning mathematics. Categories include problems due to language difficulties, lack of prerequisite knowledge, and those related to the affective domain. This paper calls on individuals to share teaching and learning episodes; those submitted will then be compiled and categorized.…

Semilla-Dube, Lilia

1983-01-01

458

Policy Issues in the Teaching and Learning of the Mathematical Sciences at University Level.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mathematics education at every level is increasingly influenced by powerful bureaucrats rather than by the profession. Suggests that mathematical scientists should try to understand the political forces affecting mathematics education for the International Commission on Mathematical Instruction (ICMI) study on teaching and learning mathematics at…

Thomas, Jan

2000-01-01

459

Knowledge Alive  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The strategies that expose learners to the large volume of knowledge, enables them for creative thinking, self-management and deep reading. The different ways of creating knowledge with the help of creativity, communication, organization, problem solving and decision-making are discussed.

Perkins, David

2004-01-01

460

Mathematics Prerequisites for Introductory Geoscience Courses: Using Technology to Help Solve the Problem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The quantitative components of introductory geoscience courses can pose significant barriers to students. Many academic departments respond by stripping courses of their quantitative components or by attaching prerequisite mathematics courses [PMC]. PMCs cause students to incur additional costs and credits and may deter enrollment in introductory courses; yet, stripping quantitative content from geoscience courses masks the data-rich, quantitative nature of geoscience. Furthermore, the diversity of math skills required in geoscience and students' difficulty with transferring mathematical knowledge across domains suggest that PMCs may be ineffective. Instead, this study explores an alternative strategy -- to remediate students' mathematical skills using online modules that provide students with opportunities to build contextual quantitative reasoning skills. The Math You Need, When You Need It [TMYN] is a set of modular online student resources that address mathematical concepts in the context of the geosciences. TMYN modules are online resources that employ a "just-in-time" approach - giving students access to skills and then immediately providing opportunities to apply them. Each module places the mathematical concept in multiple geoscience contexts. Such an approach illustrates the immediate application of a principle and provides repeated exposure to a mathematical skill, enhancing long-term retention. At the same time, placing mathematics directly in several geoscience contexts better promotes transfer of learning by using similar discourse (words, tools, representations) and context that students will encounter when applying mathematics in the future. This study uses quantitative and qualitative data to explore the effectiveness of TMYN modules in remediating students' mathematical skills. Quantitative data derive from ten geoscience courses that used TMYN modules during the fall 2010 and spring 2011 semesters; none of the courses had a PMC. In all courses, students completed a pretest, the assigned modules, and a posttest. Success in remediation was measured using normalized gain scores, which measures the change in score divided by the maximum possible increase: (posttest-pretest)/(1-pretest). To compare across courses, normalized gain scores were standardized. Additional analysis included disaggregating normalized gain scores by quartiles based on pretest scores. The results were supplemented by qualitative data from faculty interviews and information provided by faculty on a web form upon completion of the course. Results suggest TMYN modules remediate mathematical skills effectively, and that normalized gains tend to be higher for students in the lower quartiles on the pretest. Students indicate finding the modules helpful, though sometimes difficult. Faculty interview data triangulate these findings and provide further evidence that online, modularized remediation is an effective alternative to assigning prerequisite mathematical courses to remediate mathematical skills.

Burn, H. E.; Wenner, J. M.; Baer, E. M.

2011-12-01

461

Mathematics, Mathematics Education and Economic Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter looks at the rhetoric which surrounds the relationship of mathematics to the economic assumptions in modern societies.\\u000a It is concerned on the one hand with the economic language which has invaded educational principles and on the other its converse,\\u000a in which the language of mathematics is used to justify and authenticate political and economic arguments. Economic conditions\\u000a are

Derek Woodrow

462

Perspectives: Science and Mathematics--A Natural Connection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Nowhere in our daily lives do we separate tasks into specific subjects before we take action. Yet in schools we continue to teach the various disciplines as separate areas of knowledge. What if school, like the real world, could be more connected? Connections between science and mathematics seem natural. Student learning should benefit when teachers make the connections between science and mathematics explicit, because science provides concrete examples of abstract mathematical ideas, and mathematics helps students achieve deep understanding of science concepts (McBride and Silverman 1991).

Volkmann, Mark J.; Rogers, Meredith A.; Abell, Sandra K.

2007-10-01

463

Mathematics in Action: Two New Zealand Case Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mathematics is playing an increasingly important role in business and industry. In this paper we present two case studies to illustrate the power and impact of mathematics in two important practical applications in New Zealand. The first case study describes the development of a mathematical optimization model to maximize the value of aluminum…

Ryan, David M.

464

Mathematical Models and the Experimental Analysis of Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of mathematical models in the experimental analysis of behavior has increased over the years, and they offer several advantages. Mathematical models require theorists to be precise and unambiguous, often allowing comparisons of competing theories that sound similar when stated in words. Sometimes different mathematical models may make…

Mazur, James E.

2006-01-01

465

"I Finally Get It!": Developing Mathematical Understanding during Teacher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A deep conceptual understanding of elementary mathematics as appropriate for teaching is increasingly thought to be an important aspect of elementary teacher capacity. This study explores preservice teachers' initial mathematical understandings and how these understandings developed during a mathematics methods course for upper elementary…

Holm, Jennifer; Kajander, Ann

2012-01-01

466

Advanced Mathematics Course-Taking: A Focus on Gender Equifinality  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

High school mathematics achievement predicts future success. Potentially different factors that lead to success for boys versus girls, termed equifinality, are not well understood. Such factors are needed to inform interventions to increase numbers of students taking advanced mathematics courses and going on into science and mathematics careers.…

You, Sukkyung; Sharkey, Jill D.

2012-01-01

467

Interdependence Revisited: Mathematics Achievement in an Intensified French Immersion Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the effect of teaching mathematics in French on mathematics achievement evaluated in English. Analyzes the effect of increased intensity of bilingual education on mathematics achievement and the effects of language of testing in the context of French immersion at the intermediate level. (Author/VWL)

Bournot-Trites, Monique; Reeder, Kenneth

2001-01-01

468

The Evolution of Mathematical Reasoning: Everyday versus Idealized Understandings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Developmental psychology lacks a theory of mathematical reasoning that accounts for how learners appropriate conventional symbol systems into their thinking. In this essay we attempt to consider how students' mathematical thinking evolves not only as a result of their actions and everyday experiences but also from their increasing reliance on introduced mathematical principles and representations. First we contrast how certain

Analucia D. Schliemann; David W. Carraher

2002-01-01

469

Knowledge construction in high school physics: A study of student/teacher interaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study is a description and analysis of student learning when required to use vector mathematics to represent two dimensional situations in the solution of grade 12 physics problems. Coupled with this exploration, the role of a teacher as a facilitator in creating effective conditions and interactions to facilitate student knowledge construction was critically analyzed. Nine grade 12 physics students volunteered to participate in a process of articulating their reasoning and problem solving strategies over a sixteen week period in a regular secondary school classroom setting. The participants were taught the normal content of the Saskatchewan grade 12 physics curriculum by the researcher who is an accredited, experienced physics teacher. Data were collected by video recording of classroom sessions, interviews, student assignments, and field notes maintained by the researcher. Student learning is described through a combination of excerpts of student discourse and data collected from other sources during the study. Interpretation of student-teacher interaction is informed by a constructivist perspective of student knowledge construction and conceptual development in science education, and the personal teaching experience of the researcher. Student learning during increasingly complex use of vector mathematics is described. The sequence of topics begins with vector addition and subtraction, and problems requiring those functions for solution. Vector components are then developed using a combination of classroom activities and interactive discussion. The final topic developed is momentum. Students were found to have well developed experiential knowledge which interfered with their construction of conceptual knowledge. Concrete examples did not guarantee that students would develop conceptual understanding of a given phenomenon. Students used algorithms indiscriminately and often did not know if their answers were reasonable. When momentum was introduced, the students showed a variety of attempts at constructing the concept. They did not appear to understand the complex process of mathematical representation during the study even when they were instructed about the process. Students confused the meanings of equal and balanced which led to mistakes in writing vector equations representing relationships between forces. They did not seem to understand why vector mathematics had to be used in solving problems even when they correctly employed them in calculations. Transfer of knowledge from mathematics classes to physics classes was almost non-existent. In the final chapter recommendations for changes to physics curriculum and instructional strategies are presented. Student difficulty in applying vector mathematics to physics problem is explained in terms of student difficulty in understanding direction as a characteristic of some physics concepts and in representing physics concepts using mathematical models. Suggestions for future research include development of instruction to facilitate student understanding of mathematical representation and metacognitive skill development by students.

Wessel, Warren Edward

470

Using Concept Cartoons to Access Student Beliefs about Preferred Approaches to Mathematics Learning and Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Curriculum reforms in the teaching of mathematics have encouraged a move away from sole memorisation of facts to the construction of deeper levels of understanding. With this reform, teachers of mathematics are called to act as facilitators of the construction of mathematical knowledge. However, some research suggests that students believe that…

Sexton, Matthew

2010-01-01

471

Mathematics of a Relay--Problem Solving in the Real World.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains an application of mathematical modeling within a school setting as well as progressive use of graphing calculators in mathematical modeling. Analyzes students' performances in the process of problem-solving using the problem of baton-passing in relay races. Discusses students' use of their mathematical knowledge and ideas when they used…

Osawa, Hironori

2002-01-01

472

Plotting intersections along the political axis: The interior voice of dissenting mathematics teachers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The supposed apolitical nature of mathematics is an institutional frame that functions to sustain specific power structures within schools. This paper disrupts the common assumption that mathematics (as a body of knowledge constructed in situated historical moments)is free from entrenched ideological motives. Using narrative inquiry, the paper examines the ways in which novice mathematics teachers negotiate the intersection of curriculum

Elizabeth de Freitas

2004-01-01

473

Developing Prospective Mathematics Teachers in Mexico: A Lesson on the Relationship between Integration and Differentiation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mexican authorities and universities are actively working to improve mathematics teaching and learning across the education system. Thus, efforts are underway to raise the historically low performance in mathematics, which include theoretically grounded pedagogy and curriculum development to raise mathematical knowledge in teacher education…

Ponce-Campuzano, Juan Carlos

2013-01-01

474

Effects of a Pre-Kindergarten Mathematics Intervention: A Randomized Experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research indicates that a socioeconomic status-related gap in mathematical knowledge appears early and widens during early childhood. Young children from economically disadvantaged families receive less support for mathematical development both at home and in preschool. Consequently, children from different socioeconomic backgrounds enter elementary school at different levels of readiness to learn a standards-based mathematics curriculum. One approach to closing this

Alice Klein; Prentice Starkey; Douglas Clements; Julie Sarama; Roopa Iyer

2008-01-01

475

Adolescent Mathematical Problem Solving: The Role of Metacognition, Strategies and Beliefs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mathematical problem solving has been the focus of much concern. This study investigated the relationship of various cognitive factors, attributions, and gender to the solution of mathematics problems by 100 high school seniors. The independent variables examined in this study included: (1) mathematics knowledge as measured by a score on the…

Fitzpatrick, Corine

476

At the Precipice: The Story of Mathematics Education in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to a variety of metrics (NAEP, PISA, TIMMS, college completion, etc.), the mathematics knowledge of U.S. students can be described, at best, as mediocre. In light of the growing importance of mathematics for both individual and national economic competitiveness, this weak performance has rightfully alarmed policymakers and the public. The results of decades of research on improving mathematics curricula,

William H. Schmidt

2012-01-01

477

National Mathematics Advisory Panel Reports of the Task Groups and Subcommittees  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For students to compete in the 21st-century global economy, knowledge of and proficiency in mathematics are critical. Whether headed to college or to the workforce, today's high school graduates need solid mathematics skill. The National Mathematics Advisory Panel was created in 2006 and charged with reviewing the best available scientific…

US Department of Education, 2008

2008-01-01

478

Foundations for Success: The Final Report of the National Mathematics Advisory Panel  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

On March 13, 2008, the National Mathematics Advisory Panel submitted its Final Report to the President of the United States and the Secretary of Education, and it was officially released to the public on that date, as well. The Panel agrees that the delivery system in mathematics education--the system that translates mathematical knowledge into…

US Department of Education, 2008

2008-01-01

479

No Common Denominator: The Preparation of Elementary Teachers in Mathematics by America's Education Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this second study of education schools, the National Council on Teacher Quality (NCTQ) examines the mathematics preparation of America's elementary teachers. The impetus is the mediocre performance of American students in mathematics compared with their counterparts around the world. Mathematics relies heavily on cumulative knowledge. The link…

Greenberg, Julie; Walsh, Kate

2008-01-01

480

Development of Mathematical Norms in an Eighth-Grade Japanese Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mathematical norms are important cultural knowledge of mathematical activities. This paper reports an analysis of mathematical norms in ten consecutive lessons taught by an eighth-grade Japanese teacher. The lessons were located in the unit of simultaneous linear equations. The videotapes of the lessons, their transcripts, and the interview data…

Sekiguchi, Yasuhiro

2005-01-01

481

An Evolutionary Approach to Mathematics Education: Enhancing Learning through Contextual Modification  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contemporary mathematics education is at a crossroads. It has become exposed to forces, both static and dynamic, that pose a challenge to its traditional place in academia. Mathematics has a long-established status as perhaps the most critical foundation for analytical knowledge. But the manner in which mathematics instructors choose to respond to…

Abate, Charles J.; Cantone, Kathleen A.

2005-01-01

482

The Mathematical Preparation of Prospective Elementary Teachers: Reflections from Solving an "Interesting Problem"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Problem solving tasks offer valuable opportunities to strengthen prospective elementary teachers' knowledge of and disposition toward mathematics, providing them with new experiences doing mathematics. Mathematics educators can influence future instruction by modeling effective pedagogical strategies that engage students in making sense of…

Ellis, Mark W.; Contreras, Jose; Martinez-Cruz, Armando M.

2009-01-01

483

Scaling Up an Effective Pre-K Mathematics Intervention: Mediators and Child Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Due to the socioeconomic status-related gap in early mathematical knowledge and the need to improve low-income children's readiness for school mathematics, the authors developed an intervention, "Pre-K Mathematics", and rigorously evaluated it over several studies. This math intervention has been found to be highly effective at improving pre-k…

Klein, Alice; Starkey, Prentice; Deflorio, Lydia; Brown, Elizabeth Todd

2011-01-01

484

Instructional Strategies: Teaching Mathematics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This webpage contains the links to 5 short articles on strategies for teaching students with dyscalculia. The articles that are included are: Components of Effective Mathematics Instruction, 10 tips for Software Selection in Mathematics Instruction, Number Sense: Rethinking Arithmetic Instruction for Students with Mathematics Disabilities, Students with Nonverbal Learning Disabilities, and Technology Supported Math Instruction for Students with Disabilities: Two Decades of Research and Development.

Babbitt, Beatrice C.; Spear-Swerling, Louise; Gersten, Russell; Chard, David J.; Foss, Jean M.; Hasselbring, Ted S.

2012-01-01

485

Logic for Mathematical Writing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract In the School of Mathematical,Sciences at Queen Mary in the University of London we have been running,a module that teaches the students to write good mathematical,English. The module,is for second-year undergraduates,and has been running for three years. It is based on logic, but the logic—though mathematically precise—is informal and doesn’t use logical symbols. Some theory of definitions is taught

Edmund Harriss; Wilfrid Hodges

2007-01-01

486

Mathematics reflecting sensorimotor organization  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  ?This review combines short presentations of several mathematical approaches that conceptualize issues in sensorimotor neuroscience\\u000a from different perspectives and levels of analysis. The intricate organization of neural structures and sensorimotor performance\\u000a calls for characterization using a variety of mathematical approaches. This review points out the prospects for mathematical\\u000a neuroscience: in addition to computational approaches, there is a wide variety of

Gin Mccollum

2003-01-01

487

Funds of Knowledge of Sorting and Patterning: Networks of Exchange in a Torres Strait Island Community  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article focuses on the funds of knowledge that are mathematical in nature and how they might be used to support parents and children with their learning of mathematics that is taught and learned in the early years of school. Funds of knowledges are those that have been historically and culturally accumulated into a body of knowledge and…

Ewing, Bronwyn

2012-01-01

488

Journey Through a World of Mathematics!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Mathematics can be a wonderful experience when related to students. Through these games, students will forget they are learning math, but will be engaged in meaning mathematical play! Test your algebra knowledge using square roots! Who wants to earn a Million? Test your knowedge of the order of operations Order of Operations Game! Determine the coordinates, catch the fly! Catch the Fly! Find the coordinates, fool the silly mole! Graph Mole! Its a rhombus, its a square, its geometry! Interactive Quarilaterals! Test your memory skills with these funny shapes! Polygon Matching Games! Add and subtract money with this money game! The Piggybank Game! Go money madness with this ...

West, Ms.

2010-11-12

489

Mathematics and academic diversity in Japan.  

PubMed

Japanese education has been the subject of considerable research and educational commentary in the United States over the last 20 years. Since the early 1990s, there has been increased interest in Japanese methods for teaching mathematics, and the Third International Mathematics and Science Study has accelerated American interest in Japanese methods. Observational studies, teacher and student surveys, and analyses of classroom videotapes have provided a rich picture of how the Japanese teach the whole class. However, little has been written about how academically low-achieving math students fare in Japanese schools. This article briefly summarizes Japanese methods for teaching mathematics and describes how the educational system addresses academic diversity. It concludes with a description of a method for teaching mathematics that some Japanese mathematics educators feel has promise for students with learning disabilities. PMID:15493469

Woodward, John; Ono, Yumiko

2004-01-01

490

A Capstone Mathematics Course for Prospective Secondary Mathematics Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes an innovative capstone mathematics course that links college mathematics with school mathematics and pedagogy. It describes how college juniors in a secondary mathematics teacher preparation program engage in leadership experiences that enable them to learn mathematics for teaching while developing student-centered…

Artzt, Alice F.; Sultan, Alan; Curcio, Frances R.; Gurl, Theresa

2012-01-01

491

Mathematics for Teaching: A Form of Applied Mathematics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article we elaborate a conceptualisation of "mathematics for teaching" as a form of applied mathematics (using Bass's idea of characterising mathematics education as a form of applied mathematics) and we examine implications of this conceptualisation for the mathematical preparation of teachers. Specifically, we focus on issues of design…

Stylianides, Gabriel J.; Stylianides, Andreas J.

2010-01-01

492

Primary Trait Analysis to Assess a Learner-Centered, Upper-Level Mathematics Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study presents a primary trait analysis of a learner-centered, discrete mathematics course based on student-to-student instruction. The authors developed a scoring rubric for the primary traits: conceptual knowledge, procedural knowledge, application of understanding, and mathematical communication skills. Eleven students took an exam…

Alsardary, Salar; Pontiggia, Laura; Hamid, Mohammed; Blumberg, Phyllis

2011-01-01

493

Careers in the Mathematical Sciences: The Role of the School Counselor. ERIC Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The revised approach to teaching and learning math in the United States emphasizes the mental processes involved in doing math and focuses partly on children's prior knowledge, out-of-school experiences, and informal mathematics knowledge. This engaging approach can function to encourage children to select one of the mathematical sciences as an…

Shoffner, Marie F.; Vacc, Nancy N.

494

Implementation of do-talk-record strategy in lower secondary mathematics classroom in government school  

Microsoft Academic Search

Teaching and learning mathematics is considered a boring and difficult task by the teachers as well as students where teachers have to take whole responsibility of transferring mathematics knowledge to students and students fearfully receive this knowledge as passive recipients. My experiences a learner and later as a teacher in the same situation has stimulated my thinking about a better

Samina Naz

1998-01-01

495

Is There a Role for Executive Functions in the Development of Mathematics Ability?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the role of working memory, attention shifting, and inhibitory control executive cognitive functions in the development of mathematics knowledge and ability in children. It suggests that an examination of the executive cognitive demand of mathematical thinking can complement procedural and conceptual knowledge-based…

Blair, Clancy; Knipe, Hilary; Gamson, David

2008-01-01

496

MATHEMATICS CLUSTERS IN SELECTED AREAS OF VOCATIONAL EDUCATION, REPORT NUMBER 8.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

IDENTIFICATIONS WERE MADE OF THE MATHEMATICAL KNOWLEDGES COMMONLY USED IN OCCUPATIONS MOST READILY SUITABLE FOR NONCOLLEGE-BOUND YOUTH. TASK ITEMS FROM QUESTIONNAIRES USED IN OFFICE OCCUPATIONS, GENERAL MERCHANDISING, BUILDING TRADES, ELECTRONICS, FOOD SERVICE, CHILD CARE, AND AGRICULTURE STUDIES WERE EXAMINED FOR MATHEMATICAL KNOWLEDGE CONTENT.…

RAHMLOW, HAROLD F.; WINCHELL, LEONARD

497

Enhancing Thinking Skills in the Sciences and Mathematics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The need to provide an improved science and mathematics curriculum is imperative. Over recent years cognitive psychologists and educators have responded to this need by designing instructional programs that are more compatible with our knowledge of how people acquire, use, and retain knowledge. This book contains many of the guiding principles…

Halpern, Diane F., Ed.

498

Getting Political and Unraveling Layers of Gendered Mathematical Identifications  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper draws attention to the politics of knowledge. My strategy for enacting the politicization of knowledge is through an experimental form of research reporting. Couching the provocational format within post-structural theories of meaning making and subjectivity, I present an interview, taken from a data set of research on mathematical

Walshaw, Margaret

2005-01-01

499

Getting political and unraveling layers of gendered mathematical identifications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper draws attention to the politics of knowledge. My strategy for enacting the politicization of knowledge is through an experimental form of research reporting. Couching the provocational format within post?structural theories of meaning making and subjectivity, I present an interview, taken from a data set of research on mathematical identities, with my analysis of that interview. Multilayered with the

Margaret Walshaw

2005-01-01

500

Diagrammatic Reasoning Skills of Pre-Service Mathematics Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study attempted to explore a possible relationship between diagrammatic reasoning and geometric knowledge of pre-service mathematics teachers. Diagrammatic reasoning skills, as a sequence of steps from visualization, to interpretation, to formalisms, are at the core of teachers' content knowledge for teaching. However, there is no course…

Karrass, Margaret

2012-01-01